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Sample records for rural southern tanzania

  1. Enhancing the routine health information system in rural southern Tanzania: successes, challenges and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maokola, W; Willey, B A; Shirima, K; Chemba, M; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Mshinda, H; Alonso, P; Tanner, M; Schellenberg, D

    2011-06-01

    To describe and evaluate the use of handheld computers for the management of Health Management Information System data. Electronic data capture took place in 11 sentinel health centres in rural southern Tanzania. Information from children attending the outpatient department (OPD) and the Expanded Program on Immunization vaccination clinic was captured by trained local school-leavers, supported by monthly supervision visits. Clinical data included malaria blood slides and haemoglobin colour scale results. Quality of captured data was assessed using double data entry. Malaria blood slide results from health centre laboratories were compared to those from the study's quality control laboratory. The system took 5 months to implement, and few staffings or logistical problems were encountered. Over the following 12 months (April 2006-March 2007), 7056 attendances were recorded in 9880 infants aged 2-11 months, 50% with clinical malaria. Monthly supervision visits highlighted incomplete recording of information between OPD and laboratory records, where on average 40% of laboratory visits were missing the record of their corresponding OPD visit. Quality of microscopy from health facility laboratories was lower overall than that from the quality assurance laboratory. Electronic capture of HMIS data was rapidly and successfully implemented in this resource-poor setting. Electronic capture alone did not resolve issues of data completeness, accuracy and reliability, which are essential for management, monitoring and evaluation; suggestions to monitor and improve data quality are made. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Verbal Autopsies in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...

  3. Clean home-delivery in rural Southern Tanzania: barriers, influencers, and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamba, Donat D; Schellenberg, Joanna; Penfold, Suzanne C; Mashasi, Irene; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Manzi, Fatuma; Marchant, Tanya; Tanner, Marcel; Mshinda, Hassan; Schellenberg, David; Hill, Zelee

    2013-03-01

    The study explored the childbirth-related hygiene and newborn care practices in home-deliveries in Southern Tanzania and barriers to and facilitators of behaviour change. Eleven home-birth narratives and six focus group discussions were conducted with recently-delivering women; two focus group discussions were conducted with birth attendants. The use of clean cloth for delivery was reported as common in the birth narratives; however, respondents did not link its use to newborn's health. Handwashing and wearing of gloves by birth attendants varied and were not discussed in terms of being important for newborn's health, with few women giving reasons for this behaviour. The lack of handwashing and wearing of gloves was most commonly linked to the lack of water, gloves, and awareness. A common practice was the insertion of any family member's hands into the vagina of delivering woman to check labour progress before calling the birth attendant. The use of a new razor blade to cut the cord was near-universal; however, the cord was usually tied with a used thread due to the lack of knowledge and the low availability of clean thread. Applying something to the cord was near-universal and was considered essential for newborn's health. Three hygiene practices were identified as needing improvement: family members inserting a hand into the vagina of delivering woman before calling the birth attendant, the use of unclean thread, and putting substances on the cord. Little is known about families conducting internal checks of women in labour, and more research is needed before this behaviour is targeted in interventions. The use of clean thread as cord-tie appears acceptable and can be addressed, using the same channels and methods that were used for successfully encouraging the use of new razor blade.

  4. Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania. T Marchant, AK Mushi, R Nathan, O Mukasa, S Abdulla, C Lengeler, JRM Armstrong Schellenberg. Abstract. A fertility survey using qualitative and quantitative techniques described a high fertility setting (TFR 5.8) in southern Tanzania where family planning use ...

  5. Smallholder Information Sources and Communication Pathways for Cashew Production and Marketing in Tanzania: An Ex-Post Study in Tandahimba and Lindi Rural Districts, Southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…

  6. Effectiveness of a Home-Based Counselling Strategy on Neonatal Care and Survival: A Cluster-Randomised Trial in Six Districts of Rural Southern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hanson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a cluster-randomised trial of a home-based counselling strategy, designed for large-scale implementation, in a population of 1.2 million people in rural southern Tanzania. We hypothesised that the strategy would improve neonatal survival by around 15%.In 2010 we trained 824 female volunteers to make three home visits to women and their families during pregnancy and two visits to them in the first few days of the infant's life in 65 wards, selected randomly from all 132 wards in six districts in Mtwara and Lindi regions, constituting typical rural areas in Southern Tanzania. The remaining wards were comparison areas. Participants were not blinded to the intervention. The primary analysis was an intention-to-treat analysis comparing the neonatal mortality (day 0-27 per 1,000 live births in intervention and comparison wards based on a representative survey in 185,000 households in 2013 with a response rate of 90%. We included 24,381 and 23,307 live births between July 2010 and June 2013 and 7,823 and 7,555 live births in the last year in intervention and comparison wards, respectively. We also compared changes in neonatal mortality and newborn care practices in intervention and comparison wards using baseline census data from 2007 including 225,000 households and 22,243 births in five of the six intervention districts. Amongst the 7,823 women with a live birth in the year prior to survey in intervention wards, 59% and 41% received at least one volunteer visit during pregnancy and postpartum, respectively. Neonatal mortality reduced from 35.0 to 30.5 deaths per 1,000 live births between 2007 and 2013 in the five districts, respectively. There was no evidence of an impact of the intervention on neonatal survival (odds ratio [OR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.2, p = 0.339. Newborn care practices reported by mothers were better in intervention than in comparison wards, including immediate breastfeeding (42% of 7,287 versus 35% of 7

  7. Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic Status and Women Empowerment in Rural Tanzania: A Case of Onion ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Therefore the government, nongovernmental organisations and development programmes espousing to ...

  8. Cost of microbial larviciding for malaria control in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rifat; Lesser, Adriane; Mboera, Leonard; Kramer, Randall

    2016-11-01

    Microbial larviciding may be a potential supplement to conventional malaria vector control measures, but scant information on its relative implementation costs and effectiveness, especially in rural areas, is an impediment to expanding its uptake. We perform a costing analysis of a seasonal microbial larviciding programme in rural Tanzania. We evaluated the financial and economic costs from the perspective of the public provider of a 3-month, community-based larviciding intervention implemented in twelve villages in the Mvomero District of Tanzania in 2012-2013. Cost data were collected from financial reports and invoices and through discussion with programme administrators. Sensitivity analysis explored the robustness of our results to varying key parameters. Over the 2-year study period, approximately 6873 breeding sites were treated with larvicide. The average annual economic costs of the larviciding intervention in rural Tanzania are estimated at 2014 US$ 1.44 per person protected per year (pppy), US$ 6.18 per household and US$ 4481.88 per village, with the larvicide and staffing accounting for 14% and 58% of total costs, respectively. We found the costs pppy of implementing a seasonal larviciding programme in rural Tanzania to be comparable to the costs of other larviciding programmes in urban Tanzania and rural Kenya. Further research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of larviciding relative to, and in combination with, other vector control strategies in rural settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

  10. Users' perspectives on decentralized rural water services in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.; Niehof, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of decentralization reforms on improving access to domestic water supply in the rural districts of Kondoa and Kongwa, Tanzania, using a users' and a gender perspective. The article addresses the question whether and to what extent the delivery of gender-sensitive

  11. Pesticides in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) : a scoping study of current and future use, associated risks and identification of actions for risk mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, Joost; Buij, Ralph; Katagira, Franciska; Valk, van der Harold

    2016-01-01

    SAGCOT, the ‘Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania’, is a coordinated initiative to boost agricultural output in southern Tanzania through public and private investment, to improve food security, reduce rural poverty and sustain the environment. The ‘Sustainability and Inclusion Strategy

  12. Scaling up postabortion contraceptive service--results from a study conducted among women having unwanted pregnancies in urban and rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Kipingili, Rose

    2005-01-01

    Tanzania and 42% in rural Tanzania stated that their pregnancy was unwanted. Contraceptive acceptance among women with unwanted pregnancies was high; 93% in urban Tanzania and 71% in rural Tanzania left with a contraceptive method. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of women with unwanted pregnancies in urban...... and rural Tanzania underlines the need of scaling up postabortion contraceptive service....

  13. Rural Transformation and the Emergence of Urban Centres in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazaro, Evelyne; Agergaard, Jytte; Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted

    as market places for sale of a dominant crop. In all four cases, new employment opportunities have been created in the value chain sequence of economic activities and the influx of migrant works have increased significantly. 3) How do migration and investments contribute to the consolidation of EUCs...... that have been stimulated by Tanzanian market liberalizations and its long term effects on private enterprise. The paper is based on a study of four EUCs in Tanzania (Ilula, Igowole, Madizini and Kibaigwa) and seeks to answer three major research questions: 1) What economic and spatial trends, including......Urbanization and rural transformation in the Global South can be conceptualized and explored as integrated processes. Recent academic debates have discussed how rural places are changing in close relation to economic and social processes where the distinction between rural and urban livelihoods...

  14. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on, in and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account, by decision makers, when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository

  15. Feeding and management strategies for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goromela, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Central Tanzania, rural poultry, scavengeable feed resources, nutrient composition, crop
    contents, season, farming system, chemical composition, supplementary feeding, weaning, egg production,
    growth rate, survival rate, laying management, indigenous chickens

    The

  16. Dissatisfaction with traditional birth attendants in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaruku, Godfrey; Msambichaka, Beverly; Galea, Sandro; Rockers, Peter C; Kruk, Margaret E

    2009-10-01

    To assess women's satisfaction with traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in rural Tanzania. A population-representative sample of households in Kasulu district was used to collect data on demographics, childbirth history, and perception of TBAs and doctors/nurses from women who had recently had a child and from their partners. Two-thirds of women who gave birth in a health facility reported being very satisfied with the experience, compared with 21.2% of women who delivered at home with TBAs. A sizeable proportion of women felt that TBAs had poor medical skills (23.1%), while only 0.3% of women felt the same about doctors' and nurses' skills. Of women who delivered with a TBA, 16.0% reported that TBAs had poor medical skills whereas 0.5% stated the same for doctors and nurses. Although many women delivered at home in this rural study district, women and their partners reported higher confidence in doctors and nurses than in TBAs. Policymakers and program managers should not assume that women prefer TBAs to trained professionals for delivery but should consider system barriers to facility delivery in interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality.

  17. How Can Childbirth Care for the Rural Poor Be Improved? A Contribution from Spatial Modelling in Rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Fogliati

    Full Text Available Maternal and perinatal mortality remain a challenge in resource-limited countries, particularly among the rural poor. To save lives at birth health facility delivery is recommended. However, increasing coverage of institutional deliveries may not translate into mortality reduction if shortage of qualified staff and lack of enabling working conditions affect quality of services. In Tanzania childbirth care is available in all facilities; yet maternal and newborn mortality are high. The study aimed to assess in a high facility density rural context whether a health system organization with fewer delivery sites is feasible in terms of population access.Data on health facilities' location, staffing and delivery caseload were examined in Ludewa and Iringa Districts, Southern Tanzania. Geospatial raster and network analysis were performed to estimate access to obstetric services in walking time. The present geographical accessibility was compared to a theoretical scenario with a 40% reduction of delivery sites.About half of first-line health facilities had insufficient staff to offer full-time obstetric services (45.7% in Iringa and 78.8% in Ludewa District. Yearly delivery caseload at first-line health facilities was low, with less than 100 deliveries in 48/70 and 43/52 facilities in Iringa and Ludewa District respectively. Wide geographical overlaps of facility catchment areas were observed. In Iringa 54% of the population was within 1-hour walking distance from the nearest facility and 87.8% within 2 hours, in Ludewa, the percentages were 39.9% and 82.3%. With a 40% reduction of delivery sites, approximately 80% of population will still be within 2 hours' walking time.Our findings from spatial modelling in a high facility density context indicate that reducing delivery sites by 40% will decrease population access within 2 hours by 7%. Focused efforts on fewer delivery sites might assist strengthening delivery services in resource-limited settings.

  18. Markets, voucher subsidies and free nets combine to achieve high bed net coverage in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrets Rene PM

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania has a well-developed network of commercial ITN retailers. In 2004, the government introduced a voucher subsidy for pregnant women and, in mid 2005, helped distribute free nets to under-fives in small number of districts, including Rufiji on the southern coast, during a child health campaign. Contributions of these multiple insecticide-treated net delivery strategies existing at the same time and place to coverage in a poor rural community were assessed. Methods Cross-sectional household survey in 6,331 members of randomly selected 1,752 households of 31 rural villages of Demographic Surveillance System in Rufiji district, Southern Tanzania was conducted in 2006. A questionnaire was administered to every consenting respondent about net use, treatment status and delivery mechanism. Findings Net use was 62.7% overall, 87.2% amongst infants (0 to1 year, 81.8% amongst young children (>1 to 5 years, 54.5% amongst older children (6 to 15 years and 59.6% amongst adults (>15 years. 30.2% of all nets had been treated six months prior to interview. The biggest source of nets used by infants was purchase from the private sector with a voucher subsidy (41.8%. Half of nets used by young children (50.0% and over a third of those used by older children (37.2% were obtained free of charge through the vaccination campaign. The largest source of nets amongst the population overall was commercial purchase (45.1% use and was the primary means for protecting adults (60.2% use. All delivery mechanisms, especially sale of nets at full market price, under-served the poorest but no difference in equity was observed between voucher-subsidized and freely distributed nets. Conclusion All three delivery strategies enabled a poor rural community to achieve net coverage high enough to yield both personal and community level protection for the entire population. Each of them reached their relevant target group and free nets only temporarily

  19. Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Background notes on Tanzania present a profile of nationality, population count of 26 million, growth rate of 3.5%, ethnic groups (130), religions (33% Muslim, 33% animist, 33% Christian), languages, education (86% primary), literacy (79%), health (infant mortality of 106/1000), and work force (90% agriculture). Geographic data are given for the area, cities, terrain, and climate. The Tanzanian government is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There is 1 political party and everyone 18 years is eligible to vote. 4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) ($5.9 billion) is devoted to defense. Economic growth is 4.3%/year and person income is $240/capita. Natural resources, agriculture, industry, and trade are identified. $400 million has been received between 1970-92 in US economic aid. The 1992 official exchange rate is 300 Tanzanian shillings to the US dollar. Descriptive text is given for the population, the history of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the government, principal government officials (President, 1st Vice President [VP], 2nd VP and President of Zanzibar, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, Ambassador to the US, Ambassador to the UN, and US embassy address and phone number), political conditions, the economy, the defense, foreign relations, and US-Tanzanian relations. Principal US officials are identified for the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, USAID Director, and Public Affairs Officer; the US embassy address is given also. The population is 80% rural with a density of 1/sq km in arid areas, 51/sq km on the mainland, and 134/sq km on Zanzibar. The new capital will be Dodoma in central Tanzania. Most residents are of Bantu stock; nomadic groups are the Masai and the Luo. 1% are non-Africans. Government has a strong central executive. The current President is Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The Revolutionary Party is in the primary policymaking body and provides all government leaders. The government seeks to foster the

  20. Determinants of early child development in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Ingeborg G; Svensen, Erling; Lyngmo, Britt A; Mduma, Estomih; Hinderaker, Sven G

    2018-01-01

    It has been estimated that more than 200 million children under the age of five do not reach their full potential in cognitive development. Much of what we know about brain development is based on research from high-income countries. There is limited evidence on the determinants of early child development in low-income countries, especially rural sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to identify the determinants of cognitive development in children living in villages surrounding Haydom, a rural area in north-central Tanzania. This cohort study is part of the MAL-ED (The Interactions of Malnutrition & Enteric Infections: Consequences for Child Health and Development) multi-country consortium studying risk factors for ill health and poor development in children. Descriptive analysis and linear regression analyses were performed. Associations between nutritional status, socio-economic status, and home environment at 6 months of age and cognitive outcomes at 15 months of age were studied. The third edition of the Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development was used to assess cognitive, language and motor development. There were 262 children enrolled into the study, and this present analysis included the 137 children with data for 15-month Bayley scores. Univariate regression analysis, weight-for-age and weight-for-length z-scores at 6 months were significantly associated with 15-month Bayley gross motor score, but not with other 15-month Bayley scores. Length-for-age z-scores at 6 months were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. The socio-economic status, measured by a set of assets and monthly income was significantly associated with 15-month Bayley cognitive score, but not with language, motor, nor total 15-month Bayley scores. Other socio-economic variables were not significantly associated with 15-month Bayley scores. No significant associations were found between the home environment and 15-month Bayley scores. In multivariate

  1. Wood fuel use in Tanzania rural-based industries. Brick kiln studies in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwele, P.M.; Mbise, H.A.; Mwihava, N.C.X.; Svenningsson, P.J.

    1999-07-01

    About 90% of the annual total energy consumed in Tanzania is biomass-based, mainly in the form of wood fuel. Small-scale brick-making is one of the major consumers of wood fuel, with Arusha, Iringa and Mbeya being the main areas where brick-making activities take place. In 1993, the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in collaboration with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) proposed a project to undertake studies on fuelwood in small rural industries of Tanzania, particularly brick-making. The study on wood fuel utilisation involved field measurements and analyses with the aim of establishing major sources of energy losses and to recommend measures regarding fuel switching, kiln thermal efficiency improvements, and the yield and quality of bricks. The positive feedback would mean reduced demand for fuelwood and hence reduced deforestation rate and therefore environmental protection. The implementation of the project, which commenced in 1994, involved field measurements in order to establish kiln performances as well as laboratory tests to determine the qualities of the fired bricks. At a later stage of implementation, efforts were made to consider other potential fuels (sawdust and coal) for firing the kilns. The main indicators of kiln performance include thermal efficiency, specific energy consumption (SEC), which is sometimes referred to as specific fuel consumption (SFC; yield; and quality. The average SEC for Mbeya region was found to vary from 1.11 to 1.54 while for Iringa region the range was from 1.21 to 1.84 MJ/kg fired brick. The data for Arusha was in the range of 0.76 to 3.3 MJ/kg of fired brick. The low SEC may not necessarily give a reasonable indication of the kiln performance because kiln operators in Mbeya mould larger size bricks which are unloaded from incomplete firing conditions. The fired bricks at Babati (Arusha), though of work-size, are of low quality and consume very little wood fuel. Findings obtained under the SADC project four

  2. Local management of rural power supply. A new approach in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica; Katyega, Maneno; Kjellstroem, Bjoern

    1999-07-01

    The rural electrification program in Tanzania has been on going since independence in 1961, with the national utility, Tanzania Electric Supply Company Ltd. (TANESCO) being responsible for its implementation. By 1992, 14 townships and 37 villages had been electrified as a result of this program. This covers only a small fraction of rural Tanzania. It is estimated that in 1998, less than 1% of the rural households in Tanzania had access to electricity. Electricity constitutes only 1% of Tanzania's final energy consumption. Except for the few latest years, electricity generation and distribution in Tanzania has been the full responsibility of TANESCO. The national electricity grid is mainly supplied by large-scale hydro power plants (391 MW), and thermal power plants (148 MW). Rural areas are supplied either by a transmission line from the national grid or by diesel generator sets. The isolated branches run by TANESCO have an installed capacity amounting to a total of 23 MW. Electric lighting is the dominating use of electricity in rural areas. Industrial use in these areas is marginal. Very few rural households use electricity for cooking. Cooking is made with fuelwood and to some extent charcoal and kerosene. Where electricity is not available, kerosene in simple wick lamps is used for lighting. As part of the research co-operation between TANESCO and the Stockholm Environment Institute, SEI, an extensive evaluation of the experiences from the rural electrification program in Tanzania was carried out in 1989 - 1991. The four main conclusions from this evaluation were in summary: The rural people appreciate electrification. Rural electrification is a large financial burden on TANESCO. The quality of the service, in particular the supply reliability, is low in rural areas. Many of the perceived benefits of rural electrification, like the creation of small scale industries or reduced use of fuel wood for cooking, have not materialised to a significant degree. As

  3. Private Capital, Public Goods: Forest Plantations' Investment in Local Infrastructure and Social Services in Rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degnet, M.B.; Werf, van der E.; Ingram, V.J.; Wesseler, Justus

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of private forest plantations worldwide, their impacts on local development are under scrutiny by NGOs and researchers alike. This study investigates the impacts of private forest plantations on local infrastructure and social services in rural Tanzania. We take a

  4. Identification, characterisation and composition of scavengeable feed resources for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goromela, E.H.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Katule, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    A participatory study was carried out in four villages of central Tanzania to appraise existing and potential scavengeable feed resources available for rural poultry. In addition, proximate analysis of selected scavengeable feed resources including chicken crop and gizzards contents was carried out

  5. Impacts of Electricity Access to Rural Enterprises in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Annemarije; Clancy, Joy S.

    2010-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence to underpin strategies of poverty reduction through income generation in small scale rural enterprises through supplying energy. This paper reports on research findings from a three country study in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam which aimed to provide insights into

  6. Unpacking Global Service-Learning in Developing Contexts: A Case Study from Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhauser, Ann M.; Daniels, Rita

    2017-01-01

    This article examines intercultural aspects of global service learning (GSL) focused on gender and sustainable development in rural Tanzania. The discussion draws from critical development and postcolonial feminist approaches to examine how GSL addresses globalization, social histories, and political economies of development. The empirical…

  7. Potential use of birthweight indicators in rural Tanzania for monitoring malaria control in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddenfeldt Wort, Ulrika; Warsame, Marian; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Birthweight outcomes in rural Tanzania were determined in relation to place of delivery (hospital, dispensary or home), parity and maternal age (adolescent or non-adolescent) in order to evaluate the usefulness of birthweight data for monitoring malaria control in pregnancy. Study design:

  8. What policy says and practice does : gender, household and community in rural water provision in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandara, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    Since 1945 to date the governance of the rural water sector in Tanzania has passed through multiple phases, from the colonial era to the times characterized by liberalization, decentralisation and privatization.

  9. Cooperation and trust in the context of decentralization reforms in rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.; Niehof, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of decentralization reforms on cooperation and trust at the village level in Tanzania, using a gender perspective. The paper draws on survey and qualitative data from ten villages in two rural districts. The findings show that the reforms have revitalized 'formal’

  10. The Southern Black Tit Melaniparus niger in Tanzania with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by Friedrich Fülleborn at Undis south of Tunduru near the Tanzania – Mozambique border (11°17'S ... and was not included in any reference books or field guides. None of these ... was clearly a dark-eyed leucomelas rather than a pale-eyed.

  11. Standardized small diesel power plants for rural electrification in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, A.; Soerman, J.; Gullberg, M.; Kjellstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on small townships where the forecasted power demand stays below 500 kW during the ten first years. Case study calculations were made where two hypothetical load centres form the base. Each load centre is assumed to be supplied by two alternative standardized diesel power plants. One option is a power plant consisting of two medium speed (750 rpm) generator sets, one always on stand-by. Alternatively, a power plant consisting of three high speed (1500 rpm) generator sets is evaluated for each hypothetical load centre. The calculations clearly show that the high speed, three unit option comes out cheaper than the two unit, medium speed option in all the considered cases. The fuel costs per kWh generated are almost the same in all the cases studied, i.e. between 6 and 7 US cents. The medium speed engine tends to consume more fuel per kWh generated than the high speed, as it runs more often on part load. Consequently, the fuel costs will be slightly higher for this option. It is also of interest to compare the plant failure rate of the two options. In this study no proper probability evaluation has been made, but some general reflections can be worth considering. The availability of spare parts in Tanzania is doubtful. Many small diesel power plants presently operating have to wait indefinitely, when a failure appears that requires spare parts. As long as the individual sets have the same, or nearly the same failure rate, a three unit plant has lower probability for total loss of generating capacity than a two unit plant. The main conclusion of this evaluation is that for electricity generation in rural Tanzanian villages, power plants with three small, high speed generator sets are preferable to plants with two, medium speed generator sets. A power plant made out of small sets requires less capital, consumes less fuel and is not as likely to loose its generating capacity totally. 16 refs, 10 figs, 21 tabs

  12. Alcohol consumption in the rural population of Misungwi subdistrict in Mwanza Region, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, T; Velema, JP; Dijkstra, R

    Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption in four villages on the southern shores of Lake Victoria, Tanzania. Method: Study participants were 148 men and 162 women selected by cluster sampling from the population (N = 9,243) of four

  13. Gender, cooperative organisation and participatory intervention in rural Tanzania : a case study of different types of cooperatives and Moshi University College’s support to rural women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Msonganzila, M.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis examines cooperation and participation as modes of institutional action to address women’ social and economic problems and needs in the context of rural Tanzania. It does so against the background of the history of cooperatives in Tanzania and development cooperation. The thesis takes

  14. Disclosure of HIV Status in Rural Tanzania: Practices, Facilitators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania, HIV counselling and testing practices are now widely accepted as the cornerstone of HIV prevention programmes. Within HIV testing and counselling, emphasis is placed on the importance of individuals to disclose their HIV status. Despite increasing focus on disclosure of HIV status, relatively little is known ...

  15. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution of risk ... A need for intervention regarding the identification and treatment of DM in these rural areas has been identified.

  16. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A S; Masao, H P; Sawe, E N; Shechambo, F C [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1999-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  17. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  18. Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunde, Mourice Victor Nyangabo; Innocent, Ester; Mabiki, Faith; Andersson, Pher G

    2017-01-01

    Some of the antifungal drugs used in the current treatments regime are responding to antimicrobial resistance. In rural areas of Southern Tanzania, indigenous people use antifungal drugs alone or together with medicinal plants to curb the effects of antibiotic resistance. This study documented ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for managing fungal infections in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania and further assess their safety. Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Makete and Mufindi districts between July 2014 and December 2015 using semi-structured questionnaires followed by two focus group discussions to verify respondents' information. Cytotoxicity study was conducted on extracts of collected plants using brine shrimp lethality test and analyzed by MS Excel 2013 program. During this survey about 46 plant species belonging to 28 families of angiosperms were reported to be traditionally useful in managing fungal and other health conditions. Among these, Terminalia sericea , Aloe nutii , Aloe lateritia , Zanthoxylum chalybeum , Zanthoxylum deremense , and Kigelia africana were frequently mentioned to be used for managing fungal infections. The preparation of these herbals was mostly by boiling plant parts especially the leaves and roots. Cytotoxicity study revealed that most of the plants tested were nontoxic with LC 50 > 100 which implies that most compounds from these plants are safe for therapeutic use. The dichloromethane extract of Croton macrostachyus recorded the highest with LC 50 value 12.94 µg/ml. The ethnobotanical survey correlated well with documented literature from elsewhere about the bioactivity of most plants. The ethnobotanical survey has revealed that traditional healers are rich of knowledge to build on for therapeutic studies. Most of the plants are safe for use; and thus can be considered for further studies on drug discovery.

  19. Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourice Victor Nyangabo Mbunde

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Some of the antifungal drugs used in current treatments regime are responding to antimicrobial resistance. In rural areas of Southern Tanzania, indigenous people use antifungal drugs alone or together with medicinal plants to curb the effects of antibiotic resistance. This study documented ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for managing fungal infections in the Southern highlands of Tanzania and further assess their safety. Methods: Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Makete and Mufindi districts between July 2014 and December 2015 using semi-structured questionnaires followed by two focus group discussions to verify respondents’ information. Cytotoxicity study was conducted on extracts of collected plants using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test and analyzed by MS Excel 2013 programme. Results: During this survey about 46 plant species belonging to 28 families of angiosperms were reported to be traditionally useful in managing fungal and other health conditions. Among these, Terminalia sericea, Aloe nutii, Aloe lateritia, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Zanthoxym deremense and Kigelia africana were frequently mentioned to be used for managing fungal infections. The preparation of these herbals was mostly by boiling plant parts especially the leaves and roots. Cytotoxicity study revealed that most of the plants tested were non-toxic with LC¬50¬ >100 which implies that most compounds from these plants are safe for therapeutic use. The dichloromethane extract of Croton macrostachys recorded the highest with LC50 value 12.94 μg/ml. The ethnobotanical survey correlated well with documented literature from elsewhere about the bioactivity of most plants. Conclusions: The ethnobotanical survey has revealed that traditional healers are rich of knowledge to build on for therapeutic studies. Most of the plants are safe for use; and thus can be considered for further studies on drug discovery. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(1.000: 84-96

  20. Access and utilisation of healthcare services in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Senkoro, Kesheni P.; Momburi, Romanus

    2016-01-01

    was also found in the provider–client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5–5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used......This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents...

  1. Public and private maternal health service capacity and patient flows in Southern Tanzania: using a geographic information system to link hospital and national census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Patrik; Henke, Stefanie; Sušac, Katharina; Kisanga, Oberlin M E; Baumgarten, Inge; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Ramroth, Heribert; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to improve maternal health in low-income countries are increasingly embracing partnership approaches between public and private stakeholders in health. In Tanzania, such partnerships are a declared policy goal. However, implementation remains challenging as unfamiliarity between partners and insufficient recognition of private health providers prevail. This hinders cooperation and reflects the need to improve the evidence base of private sector contribution. To map and analyse the capacities of public and private hospitals to provide maternal health care in southern Tanzania and the population reached with these services. A hospital questionnaire was applied in all 16 hospitals (public n=10; private faith-based n=6) in 12 districts of southern Tanzania. Areas of inquiry included selected maternal health service indicators (human resources, maternity/delivery beds), provider-fees for obstetric services and patient turnover (antenatal care, births). Spatial information was linked to the 2002 Population Census dataset and a geographic information system to map patient flows and socio-geographic characteristics of service recipients. The contribution of faith-based organizations (FBOs) to hospital maternal health services is substantial. FBO hospitals are primarily located in rural areas and their patient composition places a higher emphasis on rural populations. Also, maternal health service capacity was more favourable in FBO hospitals. We approximated that 19.9% of deliveries in the study area were performed in hospitals and that the proportion of c-sections was 2.7%. Mapping of patient flows demonstrated that women often travelled far to seek hospital care and where catchment areas of public and FBO hospitals overlap. We conclude that the important contribution of FBOs to maternal health services and capacity as well as their emphasis on serving rural populations makes them promising partners in health programming. Inclusive partnerships could increase

  2. Rural and Micro-Enterprise Financing in Tanzania: Lessons from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence shows that little progress has so far been made in financing rural and micro-enterprise activities despite the inception of financial sector reforms in 1991. This little progress could be attributed to, among other things, the failure by the reforms to include comprehensive and complementing policies on rural and ...

  3. Panic disorder in rural Tanzania: an explorative study | Nordgreen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... patients as especially useful. Conclusion: A manual for brief interventions for PD may be adapted to a rural Tanzanian setting, also taking into consideration the limited financial and human resources in a rural low-income country setting. Keywords: Panic disorder; Culture; Cognitive behaviour therapy; Low-income country ...

  4. Teachers? Attitudes towards and Comfort about Teaching School-Based Sexuality Education in Urban and Rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mkumbo, Kitila Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Teachers? attitudes towards sexuality education are among the important predictors of their willingness to teach sexuality education programmes in schools. While there is a plethora of studies on teachers? attitudes towards sexuality in developed countries, there is a paucity of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Tanzania in particular. This study examined teachers? attitudes towards and comfort in teaching sexuality education in rural and urban Tanzania. The results show that ...

  5. Risk distribution across multiple health insurance funds in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares Gamba; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    cross-subsidisation across the funds. This paper analyses whether the risk distribution varies across the Community Health Fund (CHF) and National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in two districts in Tanzania. Specifically we aim to 1) identify risk factors associated with increased utilisation of health...... services and 2) compare the distribution of identified risk factors among the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. METHODS: Data was collected from a survey of 695 households. A multivariate logisitic regression model was used to identify risk factors for increased health care utilisation. Chi-square tests...... were performed to test whether the distribution of identified risk factors varied across the CHF, NHIF and non-member households. RESULTS: There was a higher concentration of identified risk factors among CHF households compared to those of the NHIF. Non-member households have a similar wealth status...

  6. Panic disorder in rural Tanzania: an explorative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research from low-income countries on the relevance of diagnoses ... study examines cultural based interpretations of the PD diagnose ... for PD may be adapted to a rural Tanzanian setting, also taking into consideration the limited financial ...

  7. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kunda; Fitzpatrick, Julie; French, Nigel; Kazwala, Rudovick; Kambarage, Dominic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; MacMillan, Alastair; Cleaveland, Sarah

    2010-04-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania. This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick. Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from livestock to humans. These can be achieved

  8. Quantifying risk factors for human brucellosis in rural northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunda John

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission of brucellosis to humans in Tanzania.This was a matched case-control study. Any patient with a positive result by a competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test for brucellosis, and presenting to selected hospitals with at least two clinical features suggestive of brucellosis such as headache, recurrent or continuous fever, sweating, joint pain, joint swelling, general body malaise or backache, was defined as a case. For every case in a district, a corresponding control was traced and matched by sex using multistage cluster sampling. Other criteria for inclusion as a control included a negative c-ELISA test result and that the matched individual would present to hospital if falls sick.Multivariable analysis showed that brucellosis was associated with assisted parturition during abortion in cattle, sheep or goat. It was shown that individuals living in close proximity to other households had a higher risk of brucellosis. People who were of Christian religion were found to have a higher risk of brucellosis compared to other religions. The study concludes that assisting an aborting animal, proximity to neighborhoods, and Christianity were associated with brucellosis infection. There was no association between human brucellosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV serostatus. Protecting humans against contact with fluids and tissues during assisted parturition of livestock may be an important means of reducing the risk of transferring brucellosis from livestock to humans. These can be

  9. Rural energy finance in Tanzania: Thinking outside the box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Therese Hindman; Anderson, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Conventional financing approaches have proven inadequate in the drive to provide rural communities with modern energy. A recent study by ECON found a critical need for initiatives aimed at improving consumer's access to financing. In addition, demonstration projects are needed to prove the financial viability of investments in rural energy. ECON's recommendations are focused on strengthening the demand side of the financial supply chain and, in particular, consumers' access to credit

  10. Gender, cooperative organisation and participatory intervention in rural Tanzania : a case study of different types of cooperatives and Moshi University College’s support to rural women

    OpenAIRE

    Msonganzila, M.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis examines cooperation and participation as modes of institutional action to address women’ social and economic problems and needs in the context of rural Tanzania. It does so against the background of the history of cooperatives in Tanzania and development cooperation. The thesis takes cooperation in a broad sense as the act or process of people working together; cooperative groups and cooperatives thereby become synonyms in this study. In contrast to literature that only recognise...

  11. A large cross-sectional community-based study of newborn care practices in southern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Penfold

    Full Text Available Despite recent improvements in child survival in sub-Saharan Africa, neonatal mortality rates remain largely unchanged. This study aimed to determine the frequency of delivery and newborn-care practices in southern Tanzania, where neonatal mortality is higher than the national average. All households in five districts of Southern Tanzania were approached to participate. Of 213,220 female residents aged 13-49 years, 92% participated. Cross-sectional, retrospective data on childbirth and newborn care practices were collected from 22,243 female respondents who had delivered a live baby in the preceding year. Health facility deliveries accounted for 41% of births, with nearly all non-facility deliveries occurring at home (57% of deliveries. Skilled attendants assisted 40% of births. Over half of women reported drying the baby and over a third reported wrapping the baby within 5 minutes of delivery. The majority of mothers delivering at home reported that they had made preparations for delivery, including buying soap (84% and preparing a cloth for drying the child (85%. Although 95% of these women reported that the cord was cut with a clean razor blade, only half reported that it was tied with a clean thread. Furthermore, out of all respondents 10% reported that their baby was dipped in cold water immediately after delivery, around two-thirds reported bathing their babies within 6 hours of delivery, and 28% reported putting something on the cord to help it dry. Skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby after delivery was rarely practiced. Although 83% of women breastfed within 24 hours of delivery, only 18% did so within an hour. Fewer than half of women exclusively breastfed in the three days after delivery. The findings suggest a need to promote and facilitate health facility deliveries, hygienic delivery practices for home births, delayed bathing and immediate and exclusive breastfeeding in Southern Tanzania to improve newborn health.

  12. The role of credit facilities and Investment practices in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Small urban settlements or small towns in rural areas represent the fastest urban growth in most of the African continent. Along with a renewed political interest in African agriculture, the role of urban settlements has gained a prominent position in poverty reduction in rural areas...... and as an alternative to out-migration. Based on data collected between 2010 and 2012 covering more than 60 business operators in two emerging urban centres (EUCs) and their rural hinterlands, the article explores development trajectories in two EUCs in Tanzania, both of which have experienced rapid population growth...... and attracted new investments in business by both migrants and the indigenous population in an effort to exploit new opportunities in the centres. The initial urbanization has not been driven by the state or by new institutional interventions such as microfinance but rather by ‘the market’. This paper argues...

  13. The Pindiro Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania): Definition, palaeoenvironment, and stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. E.; Nicholas, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper defines the Pindiro Group of the Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania based on studies conducted between 2006 and 2009 with the objective of understanding the evolution of this basin. This work draws upon field data, hydrocarbon exploration data, unconventional literature, and the scant published materials available. The paper focuses on the evolution, depositional environments, and definition of the lowermost sedimentary package, which overlies unconformably the metamorphic basement of Precambrian age. The package is described here as the Pindiro Group and it forms the basal group of the Mandawa Basin stratigraphy.

  14. Panic disorder in rural Tanzania: an explorative study | Nordgreen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines cultural based interpretations of the diagnosis of panic disorder (PD) in a rural Tanzanian hospital setting through clinical work. It also examines how to adapt and apply brief cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) interventions to this setting. Method: A qualitative analysis of clinical data from ten participants ...

  15. Community management and sustainability of rural water facilities in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandara, C.G.; Butijn, C.A.A.; Niehof, Anke

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether community management in water service delivery affects the sustainability of rural water facilities (RWFs) at village level, in terms of their technical and managerial aspects, and what role capacity building of users and providers plays in this process.

  16. Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008. Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001. Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85% were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67% had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18% had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%. The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities.

  17. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeid, Muzdalifat; Muganyizi, Projestine; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth; Axemo, Pia

    2014-08-18

    Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.

  18. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in a rural community in northwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nnko, Soori; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Geissler, Wenzel

    2012-01-01

    in Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional...... attendances. In terms of mortality, malaria is known to be responsible for more than one third of deaths among children of age below 5 years and also contributes for up to one fifth of deaths among pregnant women. This paper is based on a study conducted in a rural community along the shores of Lake Victoria...

  19. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  20. A telemedicine network to support paediatric care in small hospitals in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Carsten; Niemi, Mauri

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed our experience with the Tanzanian Telemedicine Network in supporting paediatric care at 40 small, rural hospitals in the country. The network began operating in 2008. Store and forward telemedicine was provided via the open source software iPath. The 33 volunteer consultants were based in several countries, although most of them had practical experience in Tanzania. During the first three years of network operation there were 533 referrals. There were 159 paediatric cases (median age five years). Three paediatric specialists provided most consultations (64%), but other specialists provided recommendations when required. The response time was usually less than two days (median 6 h; inter-quartile range 2-24 h). A precise recommendation was not always provided, but since all consultants had an intimate knowledge of the state of health services in Tanzania, their advice was usually well adapted to the local circumstances of the hospitals. Referral to a higher level of care was recommended in 26 cases (16%). A simple web-based telemedicine system combined with email alerts is feasible in remote locations in Tanzania, even where fast Internet connections are not available. Copyright © 2012 by the Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd

  1. Chronic Diseases in North-West Tanzania and Southern Uganda. Public Perceptions of Terminologies, Aetiologies, Symptoms and Preferred Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soori Nnko

    Full Text Available Research has shown that health system utilization is low for chronic diseases (CDs other than HIV. We describe the knowledge and perceptions of CDs identified from rural and urban communities in north-west Tanzania and southern Uganda.Data were collected through a quantitative population survey, a quantitative health facility survey and focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs in subgroups of population survey participants. The main focus of this paper is the findings from the FGDs and IDIs.We conducted 24 FGDs, involving approximately 180 adult participants and IDIs with 116 participants (≥18 years. CDs studied included: asthma/chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiac failure and HIV- related disease. The understanding of most chronic conditions involved a combination of biomedical information, gleaned from health facility visits, local people who had suffered from a complaint or knew others who had and beliefs drawn from information shared in the community. The biomedical contribution shows some understanding of the aetiology of a condition and the management of that condition. However, local beliefs for certain conditions (such as epilepsy suggest that biomedical treatment may be futile and therefore work counter to biomedical prescriptions for management.Current perceptions of selected CDs may represent a barrier that prevents people from adopting efficacious health and treatment seeking behaviours. Interventions to improve this situation must include efforts to improve the quality of existing health services, so that people can access relevant, reliable and trustworthy services.

  2. Strategies to reduce exposure of fumonisins from complementary foods in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimanya, Martin E; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Van Camp, John; Baert, Katleen; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Feeding infants with maize can expose them to fumonisin mycotoxins. We assessed fumonisin exposure from complementary foods in rural Tanzania and determined strategies to reduce the exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study in four villages of Tarakea division, Northern Tanzania. We used a repeat 24-hour dietary recall to collect data of maize consumption as complementary food for 254 infants aged 6-8 months. Fumonisin concentrations in the maize were also estimated. Fumonisin exposure was assessed using @risk analysis software. With the software, several maximum fumonisin contamination and maize consumption patterns were combined in order to determine effective strategies for minimizing fumonisin exposure. Of the infants, 89% consumed maize at amounts up to 158g/person/day (mean; 43g/person/day±28). The maize was contaminated with fumonisins at levels up to 3201µgkg(-1) . Risk of fumonisin intake above the provisional maximum tolerable daily limit of 2µgkg(-1) body weight was 15% (95% confidence interval; 10-19). The risk was minimized when the maximum contamination was set at 150µgkg(-1) . The risk was also minimized when the maximum consumption was set at 20g/child/day while keeping the maximum contamination at the European Union (EU) maximum tolerated limit (MTL) of 1000µgkg(-1) . Considering the economical and technological limitations of adopting good agricultural practices in rural Tanzania, it is practically difficult to reduce contamination in maize to 150µgkg(-1) . We suggest adoption of the EU MTL of 1000µgkg(-1) for fumonisins in maize and reduction, by replacement with another cereal, of the maize component in complementary foods to a maximum intake of 20g/child/day. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A. Mwanyangala

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasingly, human populations throughout the world are living longer and this trend is developing in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing African countries such as Tanzania, this demographic phenomenon is taking place against a background of poverty and poor health conditions. There has been limited research on how this process of ageing impacts upon the health of older people within such low-income settings. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the impacts of ageing on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older people in a rural population of Tanzania. Design: A short version of the WHO Survey on Adult Health and Global Ageing questionnaire was used to collect information on the health status, quality of life and well-being of older adults living in Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Tanzania, during early 2007. Questionnaires were administered through this framework to 8,206 people aged 50 and over. Results: Among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old. Functional ability assessment was associated with age, with people reporting more difficulty in performing routine activities as age increased, particularly among women. Reports of good quality of life and well-being decreased with increasing age. Women were significantly more likely to report poor quality of life (odds ratio 1.31; p<0.001, 95% CI 1.15–1.50. Conclusions: Older people within this rural Tanzanian setting reported that the ageing process had significant impacts on their health status, quality of life and physical ability. Poor quality of life and well-being, and poor health status in older people were significantly associated with marital status, sex, age and level of education. The process of ageing in this setting is challenging and raises public health concerns.

  4. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

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    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  5. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania ¿ the use of traditional medicine from a patient and a provider perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants...

  6. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural southeastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mtenga, S.; Shamba, D.; Wamoyi, J.; Kakoko, D.; Haafkens, J.; Mongi, A.; Kapiga, S.; Geubbels, E.

    2015-01-01

    To explore ideas of truck drivers and villagers from rural Tanzania about heterosexual anal sex (HAS) and the associated health risks. Qualitative study using 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with truck drivers and 16 IDIs and 4 FGDs with villagers from the Morogoro

  7. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural southeastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mtenga, S.; Shamba, D.; Wamoyi, J.; Kakoko, D.; Haafkens, J.; Mongi, A.; Kapiga, S.; Geubbels, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore ideas of truck drivers and villagers from rural Tanzania about heterosexual anal sex (HAS) and the associated health risks. Methods: Qualitative study using 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with truck drivers and 16 IDIs and 4 FGDs with

  8. Why do health workers in rural Tanzania prefer public sector employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Moland, Karen Marie; Massay, Deodatus Amadeus; Blystad, Astrid

    2012-04-05

    Severe shortages of qualified health workers and geographical imbalances in the workforce in many low-income countries require the national health sector management to closely monitor and address issues related to the distribution of health workers across various types of health facilities. This article discusses health workers' preferences for workplace and their perceptions and experiences of the differences in working conditions in the public health sector versus the church-run health facilities in Tanzania. The broader aim is to generate knowledge that can add to debates on health sector management in low-income contexts. The study has a qualitative study design to elicit in-depth information on health workers' preferences for workplace. The data comprise ten focus group discussions (FGDs) and 29 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with auxiliary staff, nursing staff, clinicians and administrators in the public health sector and in a large church-run hospital in a rural district in Tanzania. The study has an ethnographic backdrop based on earlier long-term fieldwork in Tanzania. The study found a clear preference for public sector employment. This was associated with health worker rights and access to various benefits offered to health workers in government service, particularly the favourable pension schemes providing economic security in old age. Health workers acknowledged that church-run hospitals generally were better equipped and provided better quality patient care, but these concerns tended to be outweighed by the financial assets of public sector employment. In addition to the sector specific differences, family concerns emerged as important in decisions on workplace. The preference for public sector employment among health workers shown in this study seems to be associated primarily with the favourable pension scheme. The overall shortage of health workers and the distribution between health facilities is a challenge in a resource constrained health system

  9. Gendered Access and Control Over Land and Water Resources in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania

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    Anna N. Sikira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed the gendered access and control over land and water, using the Ihemi cluster of the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT as a study area. Specifically, the paper answered the question on how decisions are made between men and women over land and water in the SAGCOT area, as well as how access and control over land and water is conducted. Data for this paper was drawn from the baseline study which was conducted for the project known as Laying Foundation for Effective Landscape-level Planning for Sustainable Development (LiFELand. A cross-sectional research design was used, whereby a questionnaire was administered to 167 women and 440 men. In addition, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also conducted to complement and allow triangulation of data. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively; while, qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. In general, the results show that female headed households accounted for more than a quarter of the surveyed households; the number was slightly higher in the Njombe region. Results further show that women had no control over land and water as important productive resources in rural areas. The results also show that a larger proportion of both men and women had no right of occupancy over the land they owned hence their inability to use it as collateral in accessing loans from formal financial institutions. The paper therefore recommends efforts be made to empower women, hence enabling them to actively participate in decision-making, particularly regarding land and water. Equitable decision-making power can immensely enhance ecosystem conservation and sustainable utilization over land and water as women are the major actors in agriculture. To achieve gender equality there is a need for awareness creation for both men and women using gender sensitive programs that will allow not only equality in use but a sustainable utilization of Land

  10. Contrasting rainfall declines in northern and southern Tanzania: Potential differential impacts of west Pacific warming and east Pacific cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Pedreros, D. H.; Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Here, we present analysis of a new 1900-2014 rainfall record for the Greater Horn of Africa with high station density (CenTrends), and evaluate potential climate change "hot spots" in Tanzania. We identify recent (1981-2014) downward trends in Tanzanian rainfall, use CenTrends to place these in a longer historical context, and relate rainfall in these regions to decadal changes in global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). To identify areas of concern, we consider the potential food security impacts of the recent rainfall declines and also rapid population growth. Looking forward, we consider what the links to SSTs might mean for rainfall in the next several decades based on SST projections. In addition to CenTrends, we use a variety of geographic data sets, including 1981-2014 rainfall from the Climate Hazards group InfraRed Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPSv2.0), simulated crop stress from the USGS Geospatial Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (GeoWRSI) model, NOAA Extended Reconstructed SSTs (ERSST v4), SST projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), and land cover and population maps from SERVIR, WorldPOP, and CIESIN's Gridded Population of the World. The long-term CenTrends record allows us to suggest an interesting dichotomy in decadal rainfall forcing. During the March to June season, SSTs in the west Pacific appear to be driving post-1980 rainfall reductions in northern Tanzania. In the 2000s, northern Tanzania's densely populated Pangani River, Internal Drainage, and Lake Victoria basins experienced the driest period in more than a century. During summer, negative trends in southern Tanzania appear linked to a negative SST trend in the Nino3.4 region. Since the SST trend in the west (east) Pacific appears strongly influenced by global warming (natural decadal variability), we suggest that water resources in northern Tanzania may face increasing challenges, but that this will be less the case in southern Tanzania.

  11. Is Sustainable Intensification Pro-Poor? Evidence from Small-Scale Farmers in Rural Tanzania

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    Kathleen Brüssow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition of farming systems to higher levels of productivity without overusing natural resources is of rising interest especially in African countries, where population growth has often been larger than past productivity increases. This paper aims to contribute to the debate on whether environmentally friendly agricultural practices are compatible with economic interests. In the context of small-scale farm households in Tanzania, the analysis focuses on Conservation Agriculture (CA at different levels of agricultural output, as CA is a promising toolbox for sustainable intensification. The results are based on a household survey conducted in 2014 with 900 randomly selected small-scale farmers in rural Tanzania, i.e., in semi-arid Dodoma and in semi-humid Morogoro region. We find that mulching is most frequently applied, followed by crop rotation, fallowing, intercropping and tree planting. Logit regressions show that CA adoption is influenced by socio-economic factors, farm characteristics and the regional context. Quantile regressions explain different levels of agricultural output through variables related to the extent of using CA. They indicate that marginalized farmers have the strongest crop income effect from an increased use of mulching. With increasing levels of agricultural output, the use of mulching remains beneficial for farmers, but the effect appears less pronounced.

  12. 'We call it the shaking illness': perceptions and experiences of Parkinson's disease in rural northern Tanzania

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    Dotchin Catherine L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson disease (PD causes physical disability that negatively affects the quality of life of the sufferer's and their families. There are no Parkinson's disease (PD social science studies published from Africa. This paper presents findings from a qualitative research study on how PD is perceived and treated in a population of approximately 161,000 within a demographic surveillance site in rural Tanzania. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 28 PD sufferers, 28 carers, 4 health workers and 2 traditional healers. In addition, 6 focus group discussions were conducted in 3 villages to investigate wider community views of PD. Results PD sufferers expressed frustration with the physical, psychological, social and economic consequences of the illness. Feelings of a diminished quality of life characterised by dependency, stigma and social isolation were common. Additionally, a handful of male sufferers related their sexual incompetence to the illness. Carers complained of lost income opportunities and social isolation resulting from caring for sufferers. Misconceptions about the cause, symptoms and appropriated PD treatment were widespread. Only 2 PD sufferers had commenced western type treatment through outsourcing drugs from other parts of the country and outside of Tanzania. Conclusions This study highlights the urgent need for PD awareness and treatment interventions in such settings. Such interventions need to address the concerns and needs of sufferers, their carers and the wider community, including the health care system.

  13. Effectiveness of an integrated intervention in the control of endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mbeya rural and Mbozi districts, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabululu, Mwemezi Lutakyawa; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effectiveness of an integrated management intervention in the control of endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mbeya Rural and Mbozi districts of southern highlands of Tanzania. A repeated cross-sectional group randomization design...... and ectoparasites, but no effect on sero-prevalence of PC. The reported ineffectiveness of the intervention against PC is probably an underestimation because serology is not able to provide quantitative data. It may also be a result of reduced compliance as this was a field study. Nevertheless, further studies...... was used to measure intervention effect by comparing changes from baseline values of prevalence and faecal egg counts between the two groups. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two groups, in changes from baseline of sero-prevalence of PC. The intervention significantly reduced...

  14. Economic burden of malaria in rural Tanzania: variations by socioeconomic status and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somi, Masha F; Butler, James R G; Vahid, Farshid; Njau, Joseph D; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2007-10-01

    To determine the economic burden of malaria in a rural Tanzanian setting and identify any differences by socioeconomic status and season. Interviews of 557 households in south eastern Tanzania between May and December 2004, on consumption and malaria-related costs. Malaria-related expenses were significantly higher in the dry, non-malarious season than in the rainy season. Households sought treatment more frequently and from more expensive service providers in the dry season, when they have more money. Malaria expenses did not vary significantly across socioeconomic status quintiles, but poorer households spent a higher proportion of their consumption in both seasons. Poorer households bear a greater economic burden from malaria relative to their consumption than better-off households. Households are particularly vulnerable to malaria in the rainy season, when malaria prevalence is highest but liquidity is lower. Alternative strategies to assist households to cope with seasonal liquidity issues, including insurance, should be investigated.

  15. COOPERATION AND TRUST IN THE CONTEXT OF DECENTRALIZATION REFORMS IN RURAL TANZANIA

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    Zacharia S. Masanyiwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of decentralization reforms on cooperation andtrust at the village level in Tanzania, using a gender perspective. The paper drawson survey and qualitative data from ten villages intwo rural districts. The findingsshow that the reforms have revitalized 'formal’ cooperative efforts and socialnetworks and groups aimed at improving public services and poverty reduction.Citizen’s participation in decision-making processes and users’ satisfaction withpublic services are significantly related to socialand political trust, in whichgender plays a role as well. There is a two-way interface between trust and decent-ralization reforms. ‘Good’ decentralization outcomes generate trust while ‘bad’outcomes decrease trust.

  16. Road traffic injury on rural roads in Tanzania: measuring the effectiveness of a road safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Karen; Jinadasa, Deepani; Maegga, Bertha; Guerrero, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. There is limited data on RTIs in low-volume, rural African settings. This study attempted to survey all individuals living in households within 200 m of two low-volume rural roads in Tanzania and to collect data on RTIs. Local communities and users of the Bago to Talawanda road (intervention site) and Kikaro to Mihuga road (control site) were targeted and received an intensive program of road safety measures tailored using the crash characteristics of the baseline sample. Demographic data on all household members were collected, and those individuals who suffered an RTI in the previous 3 months had comprehensive information collected about the crash characteristics and the socioeconomic impact. The follow-up data collection occurred nine months after the baseline data were collected. The majority of crashes that caused an RTI involved a motorcycle (71%) and the majority of victims were male (82%) with an average age of 27. Injuries to the legs (55%) were most common and the average length of time away from normal activity was 27 (±33) days. RTI incidence at the intervention site increased during the course of the study (incidence before vs. incidence after) and was unchanged in the community control (incidence before vs. incidence after). The incidence of RTIs in the low-volume rural setting is unacceptably high and most commonly associated with motorcycles. The change in incidence is unreliable due to logistic restraints of the project and more research is needed to quantify the impact of various RTI prevention strategies in this setting. This study provides insight into road traffic injuries on low-volume rural roads, areas where very little research has been captured. Additionally, it provides a replicable study design for those interested in collecting similar data on low-volume rural roads.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of canine vaccination to prevent human rabies in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Meagan C; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mzimbiri, Imam; Lankester, Felix; Lembo, Tiziana; Meyers, Lauren A; Paltiel, A David; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-01-21

    The annual mortality rate of human rabies in rural Africa is 3.6 deaths per 100 000 persons. Rabies can be prevented with prompt postexposure prophylaxis, but this is costly and often inaccessible in rural Africa. Because 99% of human exposures occur through rabid dogs, canine vaccination also prevents transmission of rabies to humans. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies control through annual canine vaccination campaigns in rural sub-Saharan Africa. We model transmission dynamics in dogs and wildlife and assess empirical uncertainty in the biological variables to make probability-based evaluations of cost-effectiveness. Epidemiologic variables from a contact-tracing study and literature and cost data from ongoing vaccination campaigns. Two districts of rural Tanzania: Ngorongoro and Serengeti. 10 years. Health policymaker. Vaccination coverage ranging from 0% to 95% in increments of 5%. Life-years for health outcomes and 2010 U.S. dollars for economic outcomes. Annual canine vaccination campaigns were very cost-effective in both districts compared with no canine vaccination. In Serengeti, annual campaigns with as much as 70% coverage were cost-saving. Across a wide range of variable assumptions and levels of societal willingness to pay for life-years, the optimal vaccination coverage for Serengeti was 70%. In Ngorongoro, although optimal coverage depended on willingness to pay, vaccination campaigns were always cost-effective and lifesaving and therefore preferred. Canine vaccination was very cost-effective in both districts, but there was greater uncertainty about the optimal coverage in Ngorongoro. Annual canine rabies vaccination campaigns conferred extraordinary value and dramatically reduced the health burden of rabies. National Institutes of Health.

  18. Rural to urban migration and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a prospective cohort study

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    Tamin Bushiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of rural to urban migration are a feature of most African countries. Our aim was to investigate changes, and their determinants, in cardiovascular risk factors on rural to urban migration in Tanzania. Methods Men and women (15 to 59 years intending to migrate from Morogoro rural region to Dar es Salaam for at least 6 months were identified. Measurements were made at least one week but no more than one month prior to migration, and 1 to 3 monthly after migration. Outcome measures included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and self reported physical activity and diet. Results One hundred and three men, 106 women, mean age 29 years, were recruited and 132 (63.2% followed to 12 months. All the figures presented here refer to the difference between baseline and 12 months in these 132 individuals. Vigorous physical activity declined (79.4% to 26.5% in men, 37.8% to 15.6% in women, p -1 respectively, p -1, p = 0.01, and triglycerides fell (0.31 mmoll-1, p = 0.034. Blood pressure appeared to fall in both men and women. For example, in men systolic blood pressure fell by 5.4 mmHg, p = 0.007, and in women by 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.001. Conclusion The lower level of physical activity and increasing weight will increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, changes in diet were mixed, and may have contributed to mixed changes in lipid profiles and a lack of rise in blood pressure. A better understanding of the changes occurring on rural to urban migration is needed to guide preventive measures.

  19. Wild mushroom--an underutilized healthy food resource and income generator: experience from Tanzania rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuhwa, Donatha D

    2013-07-10

    This study documents the use of a wild edible mushroom (WEM) in Tanzania rural areas and assesses its significance as a source of healthy food and income for the disadvantaged rural dwellers. The data was gathered through local market surveys in order to conventionally identify different common WEM taxa using a semi-structured interview and it involved 160 people comprised of WEM hunters, traders and consumers. The collected data covered the information on where, how, when and who was the principal transmitter of the mycological knowledge learned and the general information on their market and values. Results show that mushroom gathering is gender oriented, dominated by women (76.25%) whereas men account for 23.75%. Women possess vast knowledge of mushroom folk taxonomy, biology and ecology and are therefore the principal knowledge transmitters. It was also found that learning about WEM began at an early age and is family tradition based. The knowledge is acquired and imparted by practices and is mostly transmitted vertically through family dissemination. The results also revealed that 75 WEM species belong to 14 families sold in fresh or dry form. The common sold species belonged to the family Cantharellaceae (19) followed by Rusullaceae (16) and Lyophyllaceae (13), respectively. Collectors residing near miombo woodland may harvest 20-30 buckets (capacity 20 liters) and the business may earn a person about $400-900 annually. This finding envisages the purposeful strengthening of WEM exploitation, which would contribute significantly in boosting the rural income/economy and reduce conflicts between community and forest conservers. The activity would also provide alternative employment, improve food security to rural disadvantaged groups especially women and old people hence improve their livelihood.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of the "helping babies breathe" program in a missionary hospital in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossius, Corinna; Lotto, Editha; Lyanga, Sara; Mduma, Estomih; Msemo, Georgina; Perlman, Jeffrey; Ersdal, Hege L

    2014-01-01

    The Helping Babies Breathe" (HBB) program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH) in rural Tanzania. Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health. Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY) averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide) 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated. The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness.

  1. Concentration and drug prices in the retail market for malaria treatment in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Catherine; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim; Bloland, Peter; Mills, Anne

    2009-06-01

    The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition.The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care-seekers obtaining appropriate treatment.Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Supply and Demand for Improved Sanitation: Results from Randomized Pricing Experiments in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Ysenburg, Dorothea; Haji, Salim; Khush, Ranjiv; Dupas, Pascaline

    2017-06-20

    Improving access to sanitation is a global public health priority. Sufficient consumer demand is required for sanitation coverage to expand through private provision. To measure consumer demand for hygienic latrine platform products in rural Tanzania, we conducted a randomized, voucher-based real-money sales trial with 1638 households with unimproved latrines. We also evaluated multiple supply chain options to determine the costs of supplying latrine platform products to rural households. For concrete latrine SanPlats, 60% of households were willing to pay US$0.48 and 10% of households were willing to pay US$4.05, yet the average cost of supplying the SanPlat to households was US$7.51. Similarly, for plastic sanitary platforms, willingness-to-pay (WTP) dropped from almost 60% at a price of US$1.43 to 5% at a price of US$12.29, compared to an average supply cost of US$23.28. WTP was not significantly different between villages that had participated in the National Sanitation Campaign and those that had not. Randomized informational interventions, including hygiene data-sharing and peer-based exposure to latrine platform products, had minimal effects on WTP. In conclusion, current household demand for latrine platform products is too low to achieve national goals for improved sanitation coverage through fully commercial distribution.

  3. Helium and carbon isotope systematics of Rungwe geothermal gases and fluids; southern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    P. H. BARRY1*, D. R. HILTON1, T. P. FISCHER2, J. M. DE MOOR2, F. MANGASINI3 C. RAMIREZ4 1 Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, USA (*Correspondence: pbarry@ucsd.edu) 2 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, MSC 03 2040, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA. 3 Department of Mining and Mineral Processing Engineering, University of Dar Es Salaam, PO Box 35131, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. 4 Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Geologicas, Escuela Centroamericana de Geologia, Universidad de Costa Rica. The East African Rift (EAR) is the largest modern example of continental rifting, extending from the Afar depression in the north to the Rungwe region in southern Tanzania. EAR volcanism is attributed to the presence of one or more mantle plumes [1]. Late Miocene to recent volcanism and geothermal activity mark the Rungwe region [2], with mafic eruptions as recently as 200 years ago. Our aim is to delineate the southern geographical extent of plume influence on the propagating EAR by investigating the He-CO2 characteristics of geothermal fluids in the Rungwe region. We report new helium (He) and carbon (C) isotopes (3He/4He, δ13C) and relative abundance (CO2/3He) characteristics for a suite of 20 geothermal gas and fluid samples from 11 different localities in the Rungwe region. He-isotopes are in good agreement with previous reports [3], and range from ~1 RA to ~7 RA (MORB-like values), indicating admixture between upper mantle He and variable proportions of radiogenic He. C-isotopes ranges from -2.8 to -6.5 ‰ (vs. PDB) with all falling in the MORB range (~4.5 ± 2‰). CO2/3He ratios vary over 5 orders of magnitude from ~3 x 10^9 (MORB-like) to higher values (up to ~3 x 10^13) normally associated with crustal lithologies. Taken together, the He-CO2 data can be explained by 2-component mixing of a deep-seated mantle source with crustal component(s). There are no

  4. Women's perceptions of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum services in rural Tanzania

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    Gladys Reuben Mahiti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal health care provision remains a major challenge in developing countries. There is agreement that the provision of quality clinical services is essential if high rates of maternal death are to be reduced. However, despite efforts to improve access to these services, a high number of women in Tanzania do not access them. The aim of this study is to explore women's views about the maternal health services (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period that they received at health facilities in order to identify gaps in service provision that may lead to low-quality maternal care and increased risks associated with maternal morbidity and mortality in rural Tanzania. Design: We gathered qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions with women attending a health facility after child birth and transcribed it verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. Results: ‘Three categories emerged that reflected women's perceptions of maternal health care services: “mothers perceive that maternal health services are beneficial,” “barriers to accessing maternal health services” such as availability and use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs and the long distances between some villages, and “ambivalence regarding the quality of maternal health services” reflecting that women had both positive and negative perceptions in relation to quality of health care services offered’. Conclusions: Mothers perceived that maternal health care services are beneficial during pregnancy and delivery, but their awareness of postpartum complications and the role of medical services during that stage were poor. The study revealed an ambivalence regarding the perceived quality of health care services offered, partly due to shortages of material resources. Barriers to accessing maternal health care services, such as the cost of transport and the use of TBAs, were also shown. These findings call for improvement on the services

  5. Willingness and ability to pay for artemisinin-based combination therapy in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulo, Eleonor C; Forsberg, Birger C; Premji, Zul; Montgomery, Scott M; Björkman, Anders

    2008-10-31

    The aim of this study was to analyse willingness to pay (WTP) and ability to pay (ATP) for ACT for children below five years of age in a rural setting in Tanzania before the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Socio-economic factors associated with WTP and expectations on anti-malaria drugs, including ACT, were also explored. Structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with mothers, household heads, health-care workers and village leaders in Ishozi, Gera and Ishunju wards in north-west Tanzania in 2004. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used with "take-it-or-leave-it" as the eliciting method, expressed as WTP for a full course of ACT for a child and households' opportunity cost of ACT was used to assess ATP. The study included descriptive analyses with multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among 265 mothers and household heads, 244 (92%, CI = 88%-95%) were willing to pay Tanzanian Shillings (TSh) 500 (US$ 0.46) for a child's dose of ACT, but only 55% (49%-61%) were willing to pay more than TSh 500. Mothers were more often willing to pay than male household heads (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, CI = 1.2-3.6). Socio-economic status had no significant effect on WTP. The median annual non-subsidized ACT cost for clinical malaria episodes in an average household was calculated as US$ 6.0, which would represent 0.9% of the average total consumption expenditures as estimated from official data in 2001. The cost of non-subsidized ACT represented 7.0% of reported total annual expenditure on food and 33.0% of total annual expenditure on health care."Rapid effect," "no adverse effect" and "inexpensive" were the most desired features of an anti-malarial drug. WTP for ACT in this study was less than its real cost and a subsidy is, therefore, needed to enable its equitable affordability. The decision taken in Tanzania to subsidize Coartem fully at governmental health

  6. Willingness and ability to pay for artemisinin-based combination therapy in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Scott M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyse willingness to pay (WTP and ability to pay (ATP for ACT for children below five years of age in a rural setting in Tanzania before the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Socio-economic factors associated with WTP and expectations on anti-malaria drugs, including ACT, were also explored. Methods Structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with mothers, household heads, health-care workers and village leaders in Ishozi, Gera and Ishunju wards in north-west Tanzania in 2004. Contingent valuation method (CVM was used with "take-it-or-leave-it" as the eliciting method, expressed as WTP for a full course of ACT for a child and households' opportunity cost of ACT was used to assess ATP. The study included descriptive analyses with multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results Among 265 mothers and household heads, 244 (92%, CI = 88%–95% were willing to pay Tanzanian Shillings (TSh 500 (US$ 0.46 for a child's dose of ACT, but only 55% (49%–61% were willing to pay more than TSh 500. Mothers were more often willing to pay than male household heads (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, CI = 1.2–3.6. Socio-economic status had no significant effect on WTP. The median annual non-subsidized ACT cost for clinical malaria episodes in an average household was calculated as US$ 6.0, which would represent 0.9% of the average total consumption expenditures as estimated from official data in 2001. The cost of non-subsidized ACT represented 7.0% of reported total annual expenditure on food and 33.0% of total annual expenditure on health care. "Rapid effect," "no adverse effect" and "inexpensive" were the most desired features of an anti-malarial drug. Conclusion WTP for ACT in this study was less than its real cost and a subsidy is, therefore, needed to enable its equitable affordability. The decision

  7. 'If you have children, you have responsibilities': motherhood, sex work and HIV in southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Sarah W; Shembilu, Catherine R; Winch, Peter J; Beyrer, Chris; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2015-01-01

    Many female sex workers begin sex work as mothers, or because they are mothers, and others seek childbearing. Motherhood may influence women's livelihoods as sex workers and their subsequent HIV risks. We used qualitative research methods (30 in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions) and employed Connell's theory of Gender and Power to explore the intersections between motherhood, sex work, and HIV-related risk. Participants were adult women who self-reported exchanging sex for money within the past month and worked in entertainment venues in southern Tanzania. Participants had two children on average, and two-thirds had children at home. Women situated their socially stigmatised work within their respectable identities as mothers caring for their children. Being mothers affected sex workers' negotiating power in complex manners, which led to both reported increases in HIV-related risk behaviours (accepting more clients, accepting more money for no condom, anal sex), and decreases in risk behaviours (using condoms, demanding condom use, testing for HIV). Sex workers/mothers were aware of risks at work, but with children to support, their choices were constrained. Future policies and programming should consider sex workers' financial and practical needs as mothers, including those related to their children such as school fees and childcare.

  8. How to make rural jobs more attractive to health workers. Findings from a discrete choice experiment in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstad, Julie Riise

    2011-02-01

    The geographical imbalance of the health workforce in Tanzania represents a serious problem when it comes to delivering crucial health services to a large share of the population. This study provides new quantitative information about how to make jobs in rural areas more attractive to newly educated clinical officers (COs). A unique data set stemming from a discrete choice experiment with CO finalists in Tanzania is applied. The results show that offering continuing education after a certain period of service is one of the most powerful recruitment instruments the authorities have available. Increased salaries and hardship allowances will also substantially increase recruitment in rural areas. Offers of decent housing and good infrastructure, including the provision of equipment, will increase recruitment to rural remote areas but not as much as higher wages and offers of education. Women are less responsive to pecuniary incentives and are more concerned with factors that directly allow them to do a good job, while those with parents living in a remote rural area are generally less responsive to the proposed policies. When the willingness to help other people is a strong motivating force, policies that improve the conditions for helping people appear particularly effective.

  9. Contradictory sexual norms and expectations for young people in rural Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Daniel; Plummer, Mary L; Mshana, Gerry; Wamoyi, Joyce; Shigongo, Zachayo S; Ross, David A

    2006-02-01

    There has been a long-running debate as to whether sexual cultures in sub-Saharan Africa are permissive or characterised by restrictive rules, rituals and self-restraint. This paper, based on participant observation data, outlines the main features of sexual culture in rural northern Tanzania and highlights both permissive and restrictive norms and expectations for young people. It also illustrates how sexual beliefs are socially constructed and subject to social change. Sexual activity is constrained by clear norms of school pupil abstinence, female sexual respectability and taboos around the discussion of sex. However, these norms are incompatible with several widely held expectations: that sexual activity is inevitable unless prevented, sex is a female resource to be exploited, restrictions on sexual activity are relaxed at festivals, and masculine esteem is boosted through sexual experience. Differential commitment to these norms and expectations reflects conflicts between generations and genders. Young people appear to manage the contradictions in these norms by concealing their sexual relationships. This almost certainly contributes to their short duration and the high levels of partner change, since relationships are not reinforced through social recognition and there is little scope to develop intimacy through non-sexual contacts.

  10. Challenges Addressing Unmet Need for Contraception: Voices of Family Planning Service Providers in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Jitihada; Rusibamayila, Asinath; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Baynes, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Provider perspectives have been overlooked in efforts to address the challenges of unmet need for family planning (FP). This qualitative study was undertaken in Tanzania, using 22 key informant interviews and 4 focus group discussions. The research documents perceptions of healthcare managers and providers in a rural district on the barriers to meeting latent demand for contraception. Social-ecological theory is used to interpret the findings, illustrating how service capability is determined by the social, structural and organizational environment. Providers' efforts to address unmet need for FP services are constrained by unstable reproductive preferences, low educational attainment, and misconceptions about contraceptive side effects. Societal and organizational factors--such as gender dynamics, economic conditions, religious and cultural norms, and supply chain bottlenecks, respectively--also contribute to an adverse environment for meeting needs for care. Challenges that healthcare providers face interact and produce an effect which hinders efforts to address unmet need. Interventions to address this are not sufficient unless the supply of services is combined with systems strengthening and social engagement strategies in a way that reflects the multi-layered, social institutional problems.

  11. User preferences and willingness to pay for safe drinking water: Experimental evidence from rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Zachary; Njee, Robert M; Mbatia, Yolanda; Msimbe, Veritas; Brown, Joe; Clasen, Thomas F; Malebo, Hamisi M; Ray, Isha

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of all deaths from drinking microbiologically unsafe water occur in Sub-Saharan Africa. Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, when consistently used, can provide safer drinking water and improve health. Social marketing to increase adoption and use of HWTS depends both on the prices of and preferences for these systems. This study included 556 households from rural Tanzania across two low-income districts with low-quality water sources. Over 9 months in 2012 and 2013, we experimentally evaluated consumer preferences for six "low-cost" HWTS options, including boiling, through an ordinal ranking protocol. We estimated consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for these options, using a modified auction. We allowed respondents to pay for the durable HWTS systems with cash, chickens or mobile money; a significant minority chose chickens as payment. Overall, our participants favored boiling, the ceramic pot filter and, where water was turbid, PuR™ (a combined flocculant-disinfectant). The revealed WTP for all products was far below retail prices, indicating that significant scale-up may need significant subsidies. Our work will inform programs and policies aimed at scaling up HWTS to improve the health of resource-constrained communities that must rely on poor-quality, and sometimes turbid, drinking water sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and Evolution of Renal Impairment in People Living With HIV in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapesi, Herry; Kalinjuma, Aneth V; Ngerecha, Alphonce; Franzeck, Fabian; Hatz, Christoph; Tanner, Marcel; Mayr, Michael; Furrer, Hansjakob; Battegay, Manuel; Letang, Emilio; Weisser, Maja; Glass, Tracy R

    2018-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of renal impairment among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in rural Tanzania. In a cohort of PLWHIV aged ≥15 years enrolled from January 2013 to June 2016, we assessed the association between renal impairment (estimated glomerural filtration rate impairment at enrollment. Of 921 patients with normal renal function at baseline, 117 (12.7%) developed renal impairment during a median follow-up (interquartile range) of 6.2 (0.4-14.7) months. The incidence of renal impairment was 110 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 92-132). At enrollment, logistic regression identified older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.79; 95% CI, 1.52-2.11), hypertension (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.08-3.15), CD4 count impairment. Cox regression model confirmed older age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.56-2.20) and CD4 count impairment. Our study found a low prevalence of renal impairment among PLWHIV despite high usage of tenofovir and its association with age, hypertension, low CD4 count, and advanced WHO stage. These important and reassuring safety data stress the significance of noncommunicable disease surveillance in aging HIV populations in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Criteria-based audit of caesarean section in a referral hospital in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemelaar, S; Nelissen, E; Mdoe, P; Kidanto, H; van Roosmalen, J; Stekelenburg, J

    2016-04-01

    WHO uses the Caesarean section (CS) rate to monitor implementation of emergency obstetric care (EmOC). Although CS rates are rising in sub-Saharan Africa, maternal outcome has not improved. We audited indications for CS and related complications among women with severe maternal morbidity and mortality in a referral hospital in rural Tanzania. Cross-sectional study was from November 2009 to November 2011. Women with severe maternal morbidity and mortality were identified and those with CS were included in this audit. Audit criteria were developed based on the literature review and (inter)national guidelines. Tanzanian and Dutch doctors reviewed hospital notes. The main outcome measured was prevalence of substandard quality of care leading to unnecessary CS and delay in performing interventions to prevent CS. A total of 216 maternal near misses and 32 pregnancy-related deaths were identified, of which 82 (33.1%) had a CS. Indication for CS was in accordance with audit criteria for 36 of 82 (44.0%) cases without delay. In 20 of 82 (24.4%) cases, the indication was correct; however, there was significant delay in providing standard obstetric care. In 16 of 82 (19.5%) cases, the indication for CS was not in accordance with audit criteria. During office hours, CS was more often correctly indicated than outside office hours (60.0% vs. 36.0%, P audit. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of the "helping babies breathe" program in a missionary hospital in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Vossius

    Full Text Available The Helping Babies Breathe" (HBB program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH in rural Tanzania.Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW, the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health.Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated.The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness.

  15. The influence of perceived behaviour control, attitude and empowerment on reported condom use and intention to use condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalolo, Albino; Kibusi, Stephen Matthew

    2015-11-13

    Despite the declining trends of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), unsafe sexual behaviours among adolescents still represent a public health challenge. It is important to understand factors acting at different levels to influence sexual behaviour among adolescents. This study examined the influence of perceived behaviour control, subjective norms, attitudes and empowerment on intention to use condoms and reported use of condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania. We used a questionnaire to collect data from 403 adolescents aged 14 through 19 years from nine randomly selected secondary schools in the Newala district located in the Southern part of Tanzania. The self-administered questionnaire collected information on sexual practices and factors such as attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control and empowerment. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with intention to use and reported use of condoms. Sexually active adolescents constituted 40.6 % of the sample, among them 49.7 % did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse and 49.8 % had multiple sex partners. Many (85 %) of sexually active respondents had their sexual debut between the ages of 14 to 17 years. Girls became sexually active earlier than boys. Perceived behaviour control predicted intentions to use condoms (AOR = 3.059, 95 % CI 1.324-7.065), thus demonstrating its importance in the decision to use a condom. Empowerment (odds ratio = 3.694, 95 % CI 1.295-10.535) and a positive attitude (AOR = 3.484, 95 % CI 1.132-10.72) predicted reported condom use, thus turning the decision to actions. Subjective norms had only indirect effects on intention and reported use of condoms. The findings suggest that unsafe sex practices are prevalent among school adolescents in rural areas of Tanzania. Perceived behaviour control and positive attitudes predict intensions to use condoms whereas empowerment

  16. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and associated risk factors in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, southern highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komba, Erick V. G.; Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2013-01-01

    in smallholder pig production systems in Mbeya region, the major pig rearing region of Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey employing a random sample of 300 pig keepers from 30 villages of Mbozi and Mbeya Rural districts, Mbeya region were used to evaluate pig production systems and practices. Concurrently, 600...... of water from rivers (OR=3.1; 95% CI=1.6-6.3; p... of important risk factors in smallholder pig management that may be addressed (e.g. confinement, quality of pens and water sources) in future interventions and educational campaigns for control of T. solium....

  17. Malaria treatment in the retail sector: Knowledge and practices of drug sellers in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makemba Ahmed M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Africa, the private retail sector has been recognised as an important source of antimalarial treatment, complementing formal health services. However, the quality of advice and treatment at private outlets is a widespread concern, especially with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs. As a result, ACTs are often deployed exclusively through public health facilities, potentially leading to poorer access among parts of the population. This research aimed at assessing the performance of the retail sector in rural Tanzania. Such information is urgently required to improve and broaden delivery channels for life-saving drugs. Methods During a comprehensive shop census in the districts of Kilombero and Ulanga, Tanzania, we interviewed 489 shopkeepers about their knowledge of malaria and malaria treatment. A complementary mystery shoppers study was conducted in 118 retail outlets in order to assess the vendors' drug selling practices. Both studies included drug stores as well as general shops. Results Shopkeepers in drug stores were able to name more malaria symptoms and were more knowledgeable about malaria treatment than their peers in general shops. In drug stores, 52% mentioned the correct child-dosage of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP compared to only 3% in general shops. In drug stores, mystery shoppers were more likely to receive an appropriate treatment (OR = 9.6, but at an approximately seven times higher price. Overall, adults were more often sold an antimalarial than children (OR = 11.3. On the other hand, general shopkeepers were often ready to refer especially children to a higher level if they felt unable to manage the case. Conclusion The quality of malaria case-management in the retail sector is not satisfactory. Drug stores should be supported and empowered to provide correct malaria-treatment with drugs they are allowed to dispense. At the same time, the role of general shops

  18. Exposure to Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in Children at Risk for Growth Impairment in Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Stunted growth is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. We examined dietary exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin and their potential roles in growth impairment in children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Methods. Plasma samples collected at 24 months of age ...

  19. Using contraceptives to delay first birth: a qualitative study of individual, community and health provider perceptions in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovitha Sedekia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young adolescents and unmarried women in low and middle income countries face challenges in accessing family planning services. One factor likely to limit contraceptive use is the attitude and opinion of local stakeholders such as community leaders and health workers. Much of the existing evidence on this topic focuses on women who have already started childbearing. Using primary qualitative data, we explored individual, community and health provider’s perceptions about using modern contraceptives to delay the first birth in a high fertility setting. Methods A descriptive qualitative study was conducted in Tandahimba district in southern Tanzania between December 2014 and March 2015. We conducted 8 focus group discussions with men and women and 25 in-depth interviews (18 with women, 4 with family planning service providers and 3 with district-level staff. Participants were purposively sampled. Data transcripts were managed and coded using Nvivo 11 software and we employed a thematic framework analysis. Results Three main themes emerged about using modern contraceptives to delay first birth: (1 the social and biological status of the woman (2 the type of contraceptive and (3 non-alignment among national policies for adolescents. Use of modern contraceptives to delay first birth was widely acceptable for women who were students, young, unmarried and women in unstable marriage. But long-acting reversible methods such as implants and intrauterine devices were perceived as inappropriate methods for delaying first birth, partly because of fears around delayed return to fecundity, discontinuation once woman’s marital status changes and permanently limiting future fertility. The support for use of modern contraceptives to delay a first pregnancy was not unanimous. A small number of participants from both rural and urban areas did not approve the use of contraceptive methods before the birth of a first baby at all, not even for

  20. Distinct clinical characteristics and helminth co-infections in adult tuberculosis patients from urban compared to rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikalengo, George; Hella, Jerry; Mhimbira, Francis; Rutaihwa, Liliana K; Bani, Farida; Ndege, Robert; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Kamwela, Lujeko; Said, Khadija; Mhalu, Grace; Mlacha, Yeromin; Hatz, Christoph; Knopp, Stefanie; Gagneux, Sébastien; Reither, Klaus; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Letang, Emilio; Weisser, Maja; Fenner, Lukas

    2018-03-24

    Differences in rural and urban settings could account for distinct characteristics in the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). We comparatively studied epidemiological features of TB and helminth co-infections in adult patients from rural and urban settings of Tanzania. Adult patients (≥ 18 years) with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary TB were consecutively enrolled into two cohorts in Dar es Salaam, with ~ 4.4 million inhabitants (urban), and Ifakara in the sparsely populated Kilombero District with ~ 400 000 inhabitants (rural). Clinical data were obtained at recruitment. Stool and urine samples were subjected to diagnose helminthiases using Kato-Katz, Baermann, urine filtration, and circulating cathodic antigen tests. Differences between groups were assessed by χ 2 , Fisher's exact, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations. Between August 2015 and February 2017, 668 patients were enrolled, 460 (68.9%) at the urban and 208 (31.1%) at the rural site. Median patient age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 27-41.5 years), and 454 (68%) were males. Patients from the rural setting were older (median age 37 years vs. 34 years, P = 0.003), had a lower median body mass index (17.5 kg/m 2 vs. 18.5 kg/m 2 , P urban Tanzania. There was no significant difference in frequencies of HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, and haemoglobin concentration levels between the two settings. The overall prevalence of helminth co-infections was 22.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.4-27.0%). The significantly higher prevalence of helminth infections at the urban site (25.7% vs. 17.3%, P = 0.018) was predominantly driven by Strongyloides stercoralis (17.0% vs. 4.8%, P rural setting (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.97, 95% CI: 1.16-13.67) and increasing age (aOR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10). Clinical characteristics and helminth co-infections pattern differ in TB patients in urban and rural Tanzania. The

  1. Access to and Usage of Information among Rural Communities: a Case Study of Kilosa District Morogoro Region in Tanzania

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    Wulystan Pius Mtega

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated how rural communities in Kilosa District of Morogoro region in Tanzania accessed and used information. Specifically the study identified the information needs of rural people; determined the factors influencing the choice of information sources; and the appropriateness of the information sources basing on usefulness and preference. Three divisions were involved in the study area, choice of the study area was based on the availability of multiple information sources/channels information seekers could consulted. Simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting villages to be investigated and respondents to be interviewed. Findings showed that almost all people needed information of all types. Most of the information needed related to day to day problems. Information was accessed mainly through radio, television sets, newspapers and magazines, and also through cell phones and face to face communication. Choice of information sources was influenced by the respondents’ level of education, income, sex, age, occupation and distance from the information seeker’s residence to the information sources. Findings showed further that people accessed and used information for solving day to day problems and for leisure purposes. The study recommends that it is important to have frequent rural information needs assessments before providing information services to rural areas. Information providers should repackage information in appropriate forms suitable for rural communities. Moreover, radio and television stations should have enough rural related programmes which should be broadcasted during appropriate time.

  2. Desirability for a typhoid fever vaccine among rural residents, Pemba Island, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M; Pach, Alfred; Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Jiddawi, Mohamed; Puri, Mahesh; Ochiai, Leon; Wierzba, Thomas; Clemens, John; Ali, Said M

    2013-06-24

    Surveillance data indicate that Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. With limited anticipated short-term improvements in sanitation and water infrastructure, targeted vaccination campaigns may be an important prevention tool for typhoid fever. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 435 randomly selected households in four rural villages on Pemba Island, Tanzania. A dichotomous 'readiness to pay' variable was created to assess vaccine desirability. Data analyses included univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. Bivariate outcomes (ANOVA, t-tests, and chi-square) and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals are reported. A total of 66% respondents stated that they would pay for a typhoid fever vaccine in the future. Readiness to pay was not significantly associated with household expenditures. Readiness to pay was associated with use of local Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) compared to use of cottage or district hospitals (OR 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2-2.7]: p=.007) and with knowledge of someone being sick from typhoid fever (OR 2.2 [95% CI, 1.0-4.5]: p=.039). Respondents perceiving prevention measures as more effective (OR 1.0 [95% CI, 1.0-1.2]: p=.009) were also more likely ready to pay. Preferred methods of communication of information about a typhoid fever vaccine included broadcasting via microphone ('miking'), radio, and door-to-door visits. With rapid increase in numbers of licensed and promising vaccines, policy makers and health administrators are faced with decisions regarding allocation of scarce health resources for competing interventions. Community residents need to be informed about diseases which may not be readily recognized, diagnosed, and treated. Perceived vulnerability to the disease may increase likelihood of vaccine desirability. A better local understanding of typhoid fever is needed for general prevention measures, increasing treatment

  3. Birth preparedness and complication readiness – a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania

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    Furaha August

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR strategies are aimed at reducing delays in seeking, reaching, and receiving care. Counselling on birth preparedness is provided during antenatal care visits. However, it is not clear why birth preparedness messages do not translate to utilisation of facility delivery. This study explores the perceptions, experiences, and challenges the community faces on BP/CR. Design: A qualitative study design using Focused Group Discussions was conducted. Twelve focus group discussions were held with four separate groups: young men and women and older men and women in a rural community in Tanzania. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: The community members expressed a perceived need to prepare for childbirth. They were aware of the importance to attend the antenatal clinics, relied on family support for practical and financial preparations such as saving money for costs related to delivery, moving closer to the nearest hospital, and also to use traditional herbs, in favour of a positive outcome. Community recognised that pregnancy and childbirth complications are preferably treated at hospital. Facility delivery was preferred; however, certain factors including stigma on unmarried women and transportation were identified as hindering birth preparedness and hence utilisation of skilled care. Challenges were related to the consequences of poverty, though the maternal health care should be free, they perceived difficulties due to informal user fees. Conclusions: This study revealed community perceptions that were in favour of using skilled care in BP/CR. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realisation of the intention to use skilled care. It is important to innovate how the community reinforces BP/CR, such as using insurance schemes, using community health funds, and providing information on other birth preparedness messages via

  4. Birth preparedness and complication readiness – a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B.; Kayombo, Edmund; Mbekenga, Columba; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) strategies are aimed at reducing delays in seeking, reaching, and receiving care. Counselling on birth preparedness is provided during antenatal care visits. However, it is not clear why birth preparedness messages do not translate to utilisation of facility delivery. This study explores the perceptions, experiences, and challenges the community faces on BP/CR. Design A qualitative study design using Focused Group Discussions was conducted. Twelve focus group discussions were held with four separate groups: young men and women and older men and women in a rural community in Tanzania. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results The community members expressed a perceived need to prepare for childbirth. They were aware of the importance to attend the antenatal clinics, relied on family support for practical and financial preparations such as saving money for costs related to delivery, moving closer to the nearest hospital, and also to use traditional herbs, in favour of a positive outcome. Community recognised that pregnancy and childbirth complications are preferably treated at hospital. Facility delivery was preferred; however, certain factors including stigma on unmarried women and transportation were identified as hindering birth preparedness and hence utilisation of skilled care. Challenges were related to the consequences of poverty, though the maternal health care should be free, they perceived difficulties due to informal user fees. Conclusions This study revealed community perceptions that were in favour of using skilled care in BP/CR. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realisation of the intention to use skilled care. It is important to innovate how the community reinforces BP/CR, such as using insurance schemes, using community health funds, and providing information on other birth preparedness messages via community health workers

  5. Using classification tree modelling to investigate drug prescription practices at health facilities in rural Tanzania

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    Kajungu Dan K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug prescription practices depend on several factors related to the patient, health worker and health facilities. A better understanding of the factors influencing prescription patterns is essential to develop strategies to mitigate the negative consequences associated with poor practices in both the public and private sectors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural Tanzania among patients attending health facilities, and health workers. Patients, health workers and health facilities-related factors with the potential to influence drug prescription patterns were used to build a model of key predictors. Standard data mining methodology of classification tree analysis was used to define the importance of the different factors on prescription patterns. Results This analysis included 1,470 patients and 71 health workers practicing in 30 health facilities. Patients were mostly treated in dispensaries. Twenty two variables were used to construct two classification tree models: one for polypharmacy (prescription of ≥3 drugs on a single clinic visit and one for co-prescription of artemether-lumefantrine (AL with antibiotics. The most important predictor of polypharmacy was the diagnosis of several illnesses. Polypharmacy was also associated with little or no supervision of the health workers, administration of AL and private facilities. Co-prescription of AL with antibiotics was more frequent in children under five years of age and the other important predictors were transmission season, mode of diagnosis and the location of the health facility. Conclusion Standard data mining methodology is an easy-to-implement analytical approach that can be useful for decision-making. Polypharmacy is mainly due to the diagnosis of multiple illnesses.

  6. Birth preparedness and complication readiness - a qualitative study among community members in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B; Kayombo, Edmund; Mbekenga, Columba; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) strategies are aimed at reducing delays in seeking, reaching, and receiving care. Counselling on birth preparedness is provided during antenatal care visits. However, it is not clear why birth preparedness messages do not translate to utilisation of facility delivery. This study explores the perceptions, experiences, and challenges the community faces on BP/CR. A qualitative study design using Focused Group Discussions was conducted. Twelve focus group discussions were held with four separate groups: young men and women and older men and women in a rural community in Tanzania. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The community members expressed a perceived need to prepare for childbirth. They were aware of the importance to attend the antenatal clinics, relied on family support for practical and financial preparations such as saving money for costs related to delivery, moving closer to the nearest hospital, and also to use traditional herbs, in favour of a positive outcome. Community recognised that pregnancy and childbirth complications are preferably treated at hospital. Facility delivery was preferred; however, certain factors including stigma on unmarried women and transportation were identified as hindering birth preparedness and hence utilisation of skilled care. Challenges were related to the consequences of poverty, though the maternal health care should be free, they perceived difficulties due to informal user fees. This study revealed community perceptions that were in favour of using skilled care in BP/CR. However, issues related to inability to prepare in advance hinder the realisation of the intention to use skilled care. It is important to innovate how the community reinforces BP/CR, such as using insurance schemes, using community health funds, and providing information on other birth preparedness messages via community health workers.

  7. Understanding the strategies employed to cope with increased numbers of AIDS-orphaned children in families in rural settings: a case of Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauk, Nelsensius Klau; Mwakinyali, Silivano Edson; Putra, Sukma; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them. This study employed a qualitative method for data collection (one-on-one in-depth interviews). The respondents included 12 male and 8 female heads of families that provide essential care for AIDS-orphaned children in Mbeya Rural District in Tanzania. The framework approach was used to analyse the data that were collected from 15 July to 15 August 2010. The study findings revealed that adoptive families faced several challenges including financial constraints due to increased needs for basic essentials such as health care expenses, school fees and food. Further impacts on adoptive families included shortage of work opportunities and limited time to address these challenges. To mitigate these challenges, adoptive families employed a range of coping strategies including selling family assets and renting out parts of cultivable land for extra cash. Task reallocation which involved the AIDS-orphaned children entering the labour force was also employed as a strategy to mitigate challenges and involved de-enrolling of children from schools so they could take part in income-generating activities in order to earn supplementary family income. The creation of additional income-generating activities such as poultry farming were other coping mechanisms employed, and these received support from both non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governmental organisations, including the Isangati Agricultural Development Organization (local

  8. The impact on orchid species abundance of gathering their edible tubers by HIV/AIDS orphans : a case of three villages in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Challe, J.F.X.; Struik, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the gathering of wild orchids and its effect on orchid species diversity and abundance in rural communities with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and high numbers of orphans. The study was conducted in three villages in the Makete District of Tanzania. The study used a triangulation

  9. Community perceptions on outdoor malaria transmission in Kilombero Valley, Southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Irene R; Ngowo, Halfan; Dillip, Angel; Msellemu, Daniel; Madumla, Edith P; Okumu, Fredros O; Coetzee, Maureen; Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Manderson, Lenore

    2017-07-04

    The extensive use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Africa has contributed to a significant reduction in malaria transmission. Even so, residual malaria transmission persists in many regions, partly driven by mosquitoes that bite people outdoors. In areas where Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a dominant vector, most interventions target the reduction of indoor transmission. The increased use of ITNs/LLINs and IRS has led to the decline of this species. As a result, less dominant vectors such as Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis, both also originally indoor vectors but are increasingly biting outdoors, contribute more to residual malaria transmission. The study reports the investigated community perceptions on malaria and their implications of this for ongoing outdoor malaria transmission and malaria control efforts. This was a qualitative study conducted in two rural villages and two peri-urban areas located in Kilombero Valley in south-eastern Tanzania. 40 semi-structured in-depth interviews and 8 focus group discussions were conducted with men and women who had children under the age of five. The Interviews and discussions focused on (1) community knowledge of malaria transmission, and (2) the role of such knowledge on outdoor malaria transmission as a contributing factor to residual malaria transmission. The use of bed nets for malaria prevention has been stressed in a number of campaigns and malaria prevention programmes. Most people interviewed believe that there is outdoor malaria transmission since they use interventions while indoors, but they are unaware of changing mosquito host-seeking behaviour. Participants pointed out that they were frequently bitten by mosquitoes during the evening when outdoors, compared to when they were indoors. Most participants stay outdoors in the early evening to undertake domestic tasks that cannot be conducted indoors. House structure, poor ventilation and warm weather conditions

  10. Compliance with focused antenatal care services: do health workers in rural Burkina Faso, Uganda and Tanzania perform all ANC procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Paul; Schmid, Gerhrd; Tientrebeogo, Justin; Moses, Arinaitwe; Kirenga, Silvia; Neuhann, Florian; Müller, Olaf; Sarker, Malabika

    2012-03-01

    To assess health workers' compliance with the procedures set in the focused antenatal care (ANC) guidelines in rural Uganda, Tanzania and Burkina Faso; to compare the compliance within and among the three study sites; and to appraise the logistic and supply of the respective health facilities (HF). The cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural HF in three African countries. This descriptive observational study took place in HF in Nouna, Burkina Faso (5), Iganga, Uganda (6) and Rufiji, Tanzania (7). In total, 788 ANC sessions and service provisions were observed, the duration of each ANC service provision was calculated, and the infrastructures of the respective HF were assessed. Health workers in all HF performed most of the procedures but also omitted certain practices stipulated in the focused ANC guidelines. There was a substantial variation in provision of ANC services among HF within and among the country sites. The findings also revealed that the duration of first visits was ANC guidelines were often out of stock in most facilities. Health workers in all three country sites failed to perform all procedures stipulated in the focused ANC guideline; this could not be always explained by the lack of supplies. It is crucial to point out the necessity of the core procedures of ANC repeatedly. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Associations of land, cattle and food security with infant feeding practices among a rural population living in Manyara, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Bailey; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Caulfield, Laura E; Patil, Crystal L

    2018-01-19

    Livelihoods strategies and food security experiences can positively and negatively affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. This study contributes to this literature by exploring how variation in household economics among rural farmers in Tanzania relates to IYCF patterns over the first 8 months of an infant's life. These data were produced from a longitudinal study in which a cohort of mother-infant dyads was followed from birth to 24 months. In addition to baseline maternal, infant, and household characteristics, mothers were queried twice weekly and monthly about infant feeding practices and diet. Weekly and monthly datasets were merged and analyzed to assess infant feeding patterns through the first 8 months. Standard statistical methods including survival and logistic regression analyses were used. Aside from breastfeeding initiation, all other IYCF practices were suboptimal in this cohort. Land and cattle ownership were associated with the early introduction of non-breastmilk food items. Food insecurity also played a role in patterning and inadequate complementary feeding was commonplace. Health promotion programs are needed to delay the introduction of animal milks and grain-based porridge, and to achieve a minimum acceptable diet after 6 months of age among smallholder farmers in rural Tanzania. Results highlight that livelihoods-based health promotion interventions, built from a flexible and integrated design, may be an important strategy to address community-level variation in infant feeding practices and promote optimal IYCF practices.

  12. Affordable house designs to improve health in rural Africa: a field study from northeastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ikonomidis, Konstantin; Mshamu, Salum; Nkya, Theresia E; Mukaka, Mavuto; Pell, Christopher; Lindsay, Steven W; Deen, Jacqueline L; Kisinza, William N; Knudsen, Jakob B

    2017-08-01

    The population of sub-Saharan Africa is currently estimated to be 1245 million and is expected to quadruple by the end of the century, necessitating the building of millions of homes. Malaria remains a substantial problem in this region and efforts to minimise transmission should be considered in future house planning. We studied how building elements, which have been successfully employed in southeast Asia to prevent mosquitos from entering and cooling the house, could be integrated in a more sustainable house design in rural northeastern Tanzania, Africa, to decrease mosquito density and regulate indoor climate. In this field study, six prototype houses of southeast Asian design were built in in the village of Magoda in Muheza District, Tanga Region, Tanzania, and compared with modified and unmodified, traditional, sub-Saharan African houses. Prototype houses were built with walls made of lightweight permeable materials (bamboo, shade net, or timber) with bedrooms elevated from the ground and with screened windows. Modified and unmodified traditional African houses, wattle-daub or mud-block constructions, built on the ground with poor ventilation served as controls. In the modified houses, major structural problems such as leaking roofs were repaired, windows screened, open eaves blocked with bricks and mortar, cement floors repaired or constructed, and rain gutters and a tank for water storage added. Prototype houses were randomly allocated to village households through a free, fair, and transparent lottery. The lottery tickets were deposited in a bucket made of transparent plastic. Each participant could draw one ticket. Hourly measurements of indoor temperature and humidity were recorded in all study houses with data loggers and mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors using Furvela tent traps and were identified with standard taxonomic keys. Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex were identified to species using PCR. Attitudes towards the new house

  13. Performance and self-perceived competencies of enrolled nurse/midwives: a mixed methods study from rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, Edith A M; Moyo, Gustav; Masenga, Happy; Magesa, Paul; Mzava, Dafroza

    2018-04-11

    Tanzania is experiencing a severe shortage of human resources for health, which poses a serious threat to the quality of health care services particularly in rural areas. Task shifting has been considered a way to address this problem. However, since a large percentage of health care providers in rural setting is comprised of Enrolled Nurse/Midwives (ENMs), most of the health care tasks are shifted to them. This article analyzes the performance and self-perceived competencies of ENMs at the dispensary level; the lowest health facility in Tanzania. Performance refers to routine duties performed by ENMs, and self-perceived competence means self-perceived proficiency in performing nursing/midwifery and medical duties. This was a mixed methods study conducted in rural Tanzania. A purposeful sample of twelve (12) informants (six ENMs; two Community Leaders [CLs] and four Dispensary In-charges [DIs]) was recruited for semi-structured interviews. The interviews were supplemented with quantitative data from 59 ENMs. Both thematic and descriptive analysis approaches were used. Three themes emerged: (1) 'Approval of the performances of ENMs in meeting community health needs' underscores important services the community members got from ENMs at dispensaries. (2) 'Experienced difficulties of meeting community health needs' indicate the problems ENMs encountered while providing services to the community. In striving to serve a large number of demanding clients without adequate medical equipment and supplies, sometimes the ENMs ended up with prescription errors (3) 'Appreciating the performances and competencies of ENMs' shows the acknowledgement of community members towards ENMs' performance and competencies within and beyond their scope of practice. The community members as well as ENMs and their supervisors knew that ENMs must sometimes provide care that is outside their scope of training and competency. Overall, the performance among ENMs above 38 years of age (P

  14. Caesarean section audit to improve quality of care in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Luuk; Houtzager, Tessa; Kilume, Omary; Horogo, John; van Roosmalen, Jos; Nyamtema, Angelo Sadock

    2018-05-15

    Caesarean section (CS) is often a life-saving procedure, but can also lead to serious complications, even more so in low-resource settings. Therefore unnecessary CS should be avoided and optimal circumstances for vaginal delivery should be created. In this study, we aim to audit indications for Caesarean sections and improve decision-making and obstetric management. Audit of all cases of CS performed from January to August 2013 was performed in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. The study period was divided in three audit blocks; retrospective (before auditing), prospective 1 and prospective 2. A local audit panel (LP) and an external auditor (EA) judged if obstetric management was adequate and indications were appropriate or if CS could have been prevented and yet retain good pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, changes in modes of deliveries, overall pregnancy outcome and decision-to-delivery interval were monitored. During the study period there were 1868 deliveries. Of these, 403 (21.6%) were Caesarean sections. The proportions of unjustified CS prior to introduction of audit were as high as 34 and 75%, according to the respective judgments of LP and EA. Following introduction of audit, the proportions of unjustified CS decreased to 23% (p = 0.29) and 52% (p = 0.01) according to LP and EA respectively. However, CS rate did not change (20.2 to 21.7%), assisted vacuum delivery rate did not increase (3.9 to 1.8%) and median decision-to-delivery interval was 83 min (range 10 - 390 min). Although this is a single center study, these findings suggest that unnecessary Caesarean sections exist at an alarming rate even in referral hospitals and suggest that a vast number can be averted by introducing a focused CS audit system. Our findings indicate that CS audit is a useful tool and, if well implemented, can enhance rational use of resources, improve decision-making and harmonise practice among care providers.

  15. Decision making under the tree: gender perspectives on decentralization reforms in service delivery in rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving people’s participation and public services delivery. In 1996, the government of Tanzania embarked on major local government reforms reflecting the

  16. Gender perspectives on decentralisation and service users’ participation in rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.; Niehof, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing participation in decision-making processes by service users is one of the objectives of decentralisation reforms in Tanzania. The argument is that decentralisation enhances participation by all sections of the community, and by women in particular, and results in decisions that better

  17. Unsafe abortion in urban and rural Tanzania: method, provider and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Kipingili, Rose

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe unsafe abortion methods and associated health consequences in Tanzania, where induced abortion is restricted by law but common and known to account for a disproportionate share of hospital admissions. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of women admitted with alleged miscarriage...

  18. Managing the double burden: Effects of pregnancy on labor-intensive time use in rural China, Mexico and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Ng, Shu Wen; Palermo, Tia; Lee, I-Heng Emma

    2014-01-01

    Labor-intensive work is often a way of life for women in rural areas of developing countries. However, physical exertion may result in poor health outcomes for mother and infant if continued through pregnancy. Using longitudinal data from China, Mexico and Tanzania, we examine the relationship between pregnancy and four time use outcomes, measured as hours spent in the last week on: 1) housework, 2) care giving, 3) agricultural work, and 4) self-employed or non-agricultural work outside the home. An individual fixed effects approach is adopted to overcome potential time invariant woman-level endogeneity of pregnancy status. With a few exceptions, we do not find significantly different time use patterns between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The assumption that women decrease labor intensive work in developing countries during pregnancy needs revisiting, and may have implications for both women’s livelihood programming and assistance during childbearing periods. PMID:24323660

  19. Managing the double burden: pregnancy and labor-intensive time use in rural China, Mexico, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Amber; Ng, Shu Wen; Palermo, Tia; Lee, I-Heng Emma

    2013-12-01

    Labor-intensive work is often a way of life for women living in rural areas of developing countries. The physical exertion involved in such work may result in poor health outcomes for mothers and infants when continued through pregnancy. Using longitudinal data from China, Mexico, and Tanzania, we examine the relationship between pregnancy and four time-use outcomes, measured as hours spent in the past week on: (1) housework, (2) caregiving, (3) agricultural work, and (4) self-employment or nonagricultural work outside the home. An individual fixed-effects approach is adopted to overcome the potential time-invariant woman-level endogeneity of pregnancy status. With few exceptions, we do not find significantly different time-use patterns between pregnant and nonpregnant women. The assumption that women decrease labor-intensive work in developing countries during pregnancy needs revisiting and may have implications for both women's livelihood programming and assistance during childbearing periods. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  20. Scepticism towards insecticide treated mosquito nets for malaria control in rural community in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnko, Soori E; Whyte, Susan R; Geissler, Wenzel P; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2012-04-01

    Despite existence of effective tools for malaria control, malaria continues to be one of the leading killer diseases especially among under-five year children and pregnant women in poor rural populations of Sub Saharan Africa. In Tanzania Mainland the disease contributes to 39.4% of the total OPD attendances. In terms of mortality, malaria is known to be responsible for more than one third of deaths among children of age below 5 years and also contributes for up to one fifth of deaths among pregnant women. This paper is based on a study conducted in a rural community along the shores of Lake Victoria in Mwanza region, North-Western Tanzania. The study explores reasons for scepticism and low uptake of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) that were promoted through social marketing strategy for malaria control prior to the introduction of long lasting nets (LLN). The paper breaks from traditional approach that tend to study low uptake of health interventions in terms of structural practical constraints--cost, accessibility, everyday priorities--or in terms of cognition--insufficient knowledge of benefits e.g. ignorance of public health messages. This paper has shown that, the majority of people who could afford the prices of ITNs and who knew where to obtain the insecticides did not necessarily buy them. This suggests that, although people tend to report cost-related factors as a barrier against the use of ITNs, there are other critical concerns at work. Without underestimating the practical factors, our study have recommended to consider critical examinations of those other concerns that hinder optimal utilization of ITN for malaria control, and the basis for those concerns.

  1. Determining and addressing obstacles to the effective use of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benziger Peter W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this project was to achieve high, sustainable levels of net coverage in a village in rural Tanzania by combining free distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs with community-tailored education. In Tanzania, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although malaria bed nets have a well-established role in reducing disease burden, few rural households have access to nets, and effective use depends on personal practices and attitudes. Methods Five practices and attitudes inconsistent with effective LLIN use were identified from household interviews (n = 10. A randomized survey of villagers (n = 132 verified local prevalence of these practices and attitudes. Community leaders held an educational session for two members of every household addressing these practice and attitudes, demonstrating proper LLIN use, and emphasizing behaviour modification. Attendees received one or two LLINs per household. Surveys distributed three weeks (n = 104 and 15 months (n = 104 post-intervention assessed corrected practices and attitudes. Project efficacy was defined by correction of baseline practices and attitudes as well as high rates of reported daily net use, with statistical significance determined by chi-square test. Results Baseline interviews and surveys revealed incorrect practices and attitudes regarding 1 use of nets in dry season, 2 need to retreat LLINs, 3 children napping under nets, 4 need to repair nets, and 5 net procurement as a priority, with 53- 88.6% incorrect responses (11.4-47% correct responses. A three-week follow-up demonstrated 83-95% correct responses. Fifteen-month follow-up showed statistically significant (p Conclusions Results suggest that addressing community-specific practices and attitudes prior to LLIN distribution promotes consistent and correct use, and helps change attitudes towards bed nets as a preventative health measure. Future LLIN distributions

  2. Simulation of a hot air engine for a generation of electricity using biogas for Tanzania rural application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkiramweni, L.L.N.; Msaki, P.; Mshoro, I.B.

    2007-01-01

    At the moment, about 80% of the rural population in Tanzania lacks grid electricity. As a result, up to 90% of energy requirements in rural areas are met by firewood and hence causing deforestation. In the present paper, the authors are advocating the application of biogas to generate electricity in rural areas to minimise deforestation. Preliminary study conducted has shown that the power required in rural areas is about 10kW for household and small economic activities. As such, the authors have investigated the possibility of applying a hot air engine using biogas as a source of energy to generate electricity. The study involved simulation of hot air engine using a Stirling Numerical Analysis Program (SNAP) with use modifiable code. In the exercise, the performance of the simulated engine was assessed with helium, hydrogen and air as working media. Reheat loss and pressure losses were also assessed for varies range of engine power and efficiency. It has been observed that with helium and hydrogen as working gas, the power output could easily reach 10kW, which is sufficient for rural household application. However, with air the engine could realise only 4kW under similar conditions. It has further been observed that air has bigger and more viscous molecular with lower thermal conductivity and heat capacity, which results in higher losses. This implies that a relatively bigger engine need be employed for running with air. However, high initial cost will be offset by the reduction in operating cost, since air is freely available. For proper operation of the engine heater temperature should be maintained above 630(deg)C, which is realizable with biogas having a flame temperature of about 870(deg)C. (author)

  3. Genetic distinction between contiguous urban and rural multimammate mice in Tanzania despite gene flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryseels, S.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Makundi, R.; Vanmechelen, K.; Broeckhove, J.; Mazoch, V.; Šumbera, R.; Zima Jr., Jan; Leirs, H.; Baird, Stuart J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 10 (2016), s. 1952-1967 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070; GA ČR GAP506/10/0983; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mastomys natalensis * urbanisation * synanthropy * population genetics * IMa2 * spatial genetics * Tanzania Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2016

  4. Morphostructural evidence for Recent/active extension in Central Tanzania beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, B.; Rolet, J.; Gernigon, L.; Ebinger, C.; Gloaguen, R.

    2003-04-01

    The southern tip zone of the Kenya Rift on the eastern branch of the East African System is usually thought to occur in the so-called North Tanzanian Divergence. In this region, the narrow (50 km-wide) axial graben of southern Kenya splays southwards, via a major EW-trending volcanic lineament, into a 200 km-wide broad rifted zone with three separate arms of normal faulting and tilted fault blocks (Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani arms from W to E). Remote sensing analysis from Central Tanzania demonstrates that rift morphology exists over an area lying 400 km beyond the southern termination of the Kenya Rift. The most prominent rift structures are observed in the Kilombero region and consist of a 100 km-wide range of uplifted basement blocks fringed to the west by an E-facing half-graben inferred to reach depths of 6-8 km from aeromagnetic dataset. Physiographic features (fault scarps), and river drainage anomalies suggest that the present-day rift pattern in the Kilombero extensional province principally results from Recent/Neogene deformation. That assumption is also supported by the seismogenic character of a number of faults. The Kilombero half-graben is superimposed upon an earlier rift system, Karoo in age, which is totally overprinted and is only evidenced from its sedimentary infill. On the other hand, the nature and thickness of the inferred Neogene synrift section is still unknown. The Kilombero rifted zone is assumed to connect northwards into the central rift arm (Manyara) of the South Kenya Rift via a seismically active transverse fault zone that follows ductile fabrics within the Mozambican crystalline basement. The proposed rift model implies that incipient rifting propagates hroughout the cold and strong crust/lithosphere of Central Tanzania along Proterozoic (N140=B0E) basement weakness zones and earlier Karoo (NS)rift structures. A second belt of Recent-active linked fault/basins also extends further East from the Pangani rift arm to the offshore

  5. Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, Erin; Eggers, Matthijs; Wamoyi, Joyce; Hatfield, Jennifer; Manyama, Mange; Kutz, Susan; Bastien, Sheri

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education) is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Methods Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged...

  6. Women and Land Ownership Rights in Kilimanjaro: A Tension between Women Land Ownership Rights and Culture: A case of Moshi Rural District Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Asantemungu, Raphael Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts and strategies geared towards women in realizing property rights in terms of empowerment, participation and decision making in the global context today many African societies are still characterized by social economic and political inequalities between men and women. This situation is worse in Tanzania rural areas where women land rights are violated as result of culture being regarded as a daily routine that provide the basis and ways in which land is owned and distribute...

  7. Where do the rural poor deliver when high coverage of health facility delivery is achieved? Findings from a community and hospital survey in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Straneo

    Full Text Available As part of maternal mortality reducing strategies, coverage of delivery care among sub-Saharan African rural poor will improve, with a range of facilities providing services. Whether high coverage will benefit all socio-economic groups is unknown. Iringa rural District, Southern Tanzania, with high facility delivery coverage, offers a paradigm to address this question. Delivery services are available in first-line facilities (dispensaries, health centres and one hospital. We assessed whether all socio-economic groups access the only comprehensive emergency obstetric care facility equally, and surveyed existing delivery services.District population characteristics were obtained from a household community survey (n = 463. A Hospital survey collected data on women who delivered in this facility (n = 1072. Principal component analysis on household assets was used to assess socio-economic status. Hospital population socio-demographic characteristics were compared to District population using multivariable logistic regression. Deliveries' distribution in District facilities and staffing were analysed using routine data.Women from the hospital compared to the District population were more likely to be wealthier. Adjusted odds ratio of hospital delivery increased progressively across socio-economic groups, from 1.73 for the poorer (p = 0.0031 to 4.53 (p<0.0001 for the richest. Remarkable dispersion of deliveries and poor staffing were found. In 2012, 5505/7645 (72% institutional deliveries took place in 68 first-line facilities, the remaining in the hospital. 56/68 (67.6% first-line facilities reported ≤100 deliveries/year, attending 33% of deliveries. Insufficient numbers of skilled birth attendants were found in 42.9% of facilities.Poorer women remain disadvantaged in high coverage, as they access lower level facilities and are under-represented where life-saving transfusions and caesarean sections are available. Tackling the challenges

  8. Viral hepatitis and rapid diagnostic test based screening for HBsAg in HIV-infected patients in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian C Franzeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is highly prevalent in people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Screening for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg before initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART is recommended. However, it is not part of diagnostic routines in HIV programs in many resource-limited countries although patients could benefit from optimized antiretroviral therapy covering both infections. Screening could be facilitated by rapid diagnostic tests for HBsAg. Operating experience with these point of care devices in HIV-positive patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely lacking. We determined the prevalence of HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid test device Determine HBsAg in an HIV cohort in rural Tanzania. METHODS: Prospectively collected blood samples from adult, HIV-1 positive and antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients in the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort (KIULARCO in rural Tanzania were analyzed at the point of care with Determine HBsAg, a reference HBsAg EIA and an anti-HCV EIA. RESULTS: Samples of 272 patients were included. Median age was 38 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-47, 169/272 (63% subjects were females and median CD4+ count was 250 cells/µL (IQR 97-439. HBsAg was detected in 25/272 (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-13.0% subjects. Of these, 7/25 (28% were positive for HBeAg. Sensitivity of Determine HBsAg was rated at 96% (95% CI 82.8-99.6% and specificity at 100% (95% CI, 98.9-100%. Antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV were found in 10/272 (3.7%, 95% CI 2.0-6.4% of patients. CONCLUSION: This study reports a high prevalence of HBV in HIV-positive patients in a rural Tanzanian setting. The rapid diagnostic test Determine HBsAg is an accurate assay for screening for HBsAg in HIV-1 infected patients at the point of care and may further help to guide cART in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Sociodemographic drivers of multiple sexual partnerships among women in three rural districts of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exavery A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amon Exavery,1 Almamy Malick Kanté,1–3 Kassimu Tani,1 Ahmed Hingora,1 James F Phillips2 1Ifakara Health Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: This study examines prevalence and correlates of multiple sexual partnerships (MSP among women aged 15+ years in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania. Materials and methods: Data were collected in a cross-sectional household survey in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts in Tanzania in 2011. From the survey, a total of 2,643 sexually active women ages 15+ years were selected for this analysis. While the chi-square test was used for testing association between MSP and each of the independent variables, logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Number of sexual partners reported ranged from 1 to 7, with 7.8% of the women reporting multiple sexual partners (2+ in the past year. MSP was more likely among both ever married women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–10.49 and single women (AOR =6.13, 95% CI 2.45–15.34 than currently married women. There was an interaction between marital status and education, whereby MSP was 85% less likely among single women with secondary or higher education compared to married women with no education (AOR =0.15, 95% CI 0.03–0.61. Furthermore, women aged 40+ years were 56% less likely compared to the youngest women (<20 years to report MSP (AOR =0.44, 95% CI 0.24–0.80. The odds of MSP among Muslim women was 1.56 times as high as that for Christians women (AOR =1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.21. Ndengereko women were 67% less likely to report MSP compared to Pogoro women (AOR =0.33, 95% CI 0.18–0.59. Conclusion: Eight percent of the women aged 15+ in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga

  10. Annual Progress Report, 1976. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Covering the 1976 activities of the Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC), this third annual report describes SRDC's: history; organization; regional workshops; functional networks; network bibliographies and other publications; Title V reports; grant received for training in rural development; orientation visits; consultants; information…

  11. Has the HIV epidemic in rural Mwanza, Tanzania reached a plateau?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    migration of HIV positive people out of the communities or when ... rural Mwanza may be responsible for changes in risky sexual behaviour and have successfully impeded the spread ... 20 clusters and cluster sampling was used to select 7-9.

  12. Improving Newborn Survival in Southern Tanzania (INSIST) trial; community-based maternal and newborn care economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Fatuma; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Schellenberg, Joanna; Lawn, Joy E; John, Theopista; Msemo, Georgina; Owen, Helen; Barger, Diana; Hanson, Claudia; Borghi, Josephine

    2017-10-01

    Despite health systems improvements in Tanzania, gaps in the continuum of care for maternal, newborn and child health persist. Recent improvements have largely benefited those over one month of age, leading to a greater proportion of under-five mortality in newborns. Community health workers providing home-based counselling have been championed as uniquely qualified to reach the poorest. We provide financial and economic costs of a volunteer home-based counselling programme in southern Tanzania. Financial costs of the programme were extracted from project accounts. Ministry of Health and Social Welfare costs associated with programme implementation were collected based on staff and project monthly activity plans. Household costs associated with facility-based delivery were also estimated based on exit interviews with post-natal women. Time spent on the programme by implementers was assessed by interviews conducted with volunteers and health staff. The programme involved substantial design and set-up costs. The main drivers of set-up costs were activities related to volunteer training. Total annualized costs (design, set-up and implementation) amounted to nearly US$300 000 for financial costs and just over US$400 000 for economic costs. Volunteers (n = 842) spent just under 14 hours per month on programme-related activities. When volunteer time was valued under economic costs, this input amounted to just under half of the costs of implementation. The economic consequences of increased service use to households were estimated at US$36 985. The intervention cost per mother-newborn pair visited was between US$12.60 and US$19.50, and the incremental cost per additional facility-based delivery ranged from US$85.50 to US$137.20 for financial and economic costs (with household costs). Three scale-up scenarios were considered, with the financial cost per home visit respectively varying from $1.44 to $3.21 across scenarios. Cost-effectiveness compares well with supply

  13. How much time is available for antenatal care consultations? Assessment of the quality of care in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousens Simon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Sub-Saharan African countries do not receive key recommended interventions during routine antenatal care (ANC including information on pregnancy, related complications, and importance of skilled delivery attendance. We undertook a process evaluation of a successful cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of birth plans in increasing utilization of skilled delivery and postnatal care in Ngorongoro district, rural Tanzania, to document the time spent by health care providers on providing the recommended components of ANC. Methods The study was conducted in 16 health units (eight units in each arm of the trial. We observed, timed, and audio-recorded ANC consultations to assess the total time providers spent with each woman and the time spent for the delivery of each component of care. T-test statistics were used to compare the total time and time spent for the various components of ANC in the two arms of the trial. We also identified the topics discussed during the counselling and health education sessions, and examined the quality of the provider-woman interaction. Results The mean total duration for initial ANC consultations was 40.1 minutes (range 33-47 in the intervention arm versus 19.9 (range 12-32 in the control arm p Conclusion Although the implementation of birth plans in the intervention health units improved provider-women dialogue on skilled delivery attendance, most recommended topics critical to improving maternal and newborn survival were rarely covered.

  14. SMS for Life: a pilot project to improve anti-malarial drug supply management in rural Tanzania using standard technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwafongo Winfred

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining adequate supplies of anti-malarial medicines at the health facility level in rural sub-Saharan Africa is a major barrier to effective management of the disease. Lack of visibility of anti-malarial stock levels at the health facility level is an important contributor to this problem. Methods A 21-week pilot study, 'SMS for Life', was undertaken during 2009-2010 in three districts of rural Tanzania, involving 129 health facilities. Undertaken through a collaborative partnership of public and private institutions, SMS for Life used mobile telephones, SMS messages and electronic mapping technology to facilitate provision of comprehensive and accurate stock counts from all health facilities to each district management team on a weekly basis. The system covered stocks of the four different dosage packs of artemether-lumefantrine (AL and quinine injectable. Results Stock count data was provided in 95% of cases, on average. A high response rate (≥ 93% was maintained throughout the pilot. The error rate for composition of SMS responses averaged 7.5% throughout the study; almost all errors were corrected and messages re-sent. Data accuracy, based on surveillance visits to health facilities, was 94%. District stock reports were accessed on average once a day. The proportion of health facilities with no stock of one or more anti-malarial medicine (i.e. any of the four dosages of AL or quinine injectable fell from 78% at week 1 to 26% at week 21. In Lindi Rural district, stock-outs were eliminated by week 8 with virtually no stock-outs thereafter. During the study, AL stocks increased by 64% and quinine stock increased 36% across the three districts. Conclusions The SMS for Life pilot provided visibility of anti-malarial stock levels to support more efficient stock management using simple and widely available SMS technology, via a public-private partnership model that worked highly effectively. The SMS for Life system has

  15. SMS for Life: a pilot project to improve anti-malarial drug supply management in rural Tanzania using standard technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Maintaining adequate supplies of anti-malarial medicines at the health facility level in rural sub-Saharan Africa is a major barrier to effective management of the disease. Lack of visibility of anti-malarial stock levels at the health facility level is an important contributor to this problem. Methods A 21-week pilot study, 'SMS for Life', was undertaken during 2009-2010 in three districts of rural Tanzania, involving 129 health facilities. Undertaken through a collaborative partnership of public and private institutions, SMS for Life used mobile telephones, SMS messages and electronic mapping technology to facilitate provision of comprehensive and accurate stock counts from all health facilities to each district management team on a weekly basis. The system covered stocks of the four different dosage packs of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and quinine injectable. Results Stock count data was provided in 95% of cases, on average. A high response rate (≥ 93%) was maintained throughout the pilot. The error rate for composition of SMS responses averaged 7.5% throughout the study; almost all errors were corrected and messages re-sent. Data accuracy, based on surveillance visits to health facilities, was 94%. District stock reports were accessed on average once a day. The proportion of health facilities with no stock of one or more anti-malarial medicine (i.e. any of the four dosages of AL or quinine injectable) fell from 78% at week 1 to 26% at week 21. In Lindi Rural district, stock-outs were eliminated by week 8 with virtually no stock-outs thereafter. During the study, AL stocks increased by 64% and quinine stock increased 36% across the three districts. Conclusions The SMS for Life pilot provided visibility of anti-malarial stock levels to support more efficient stock management using simple and widely available SMS technology, via a public-private partnership model that worked highly effectively. The SMS for Life system has the potential to alleviate

  16. Gender and willingness to pay for insecticides treated bed nets in a poor rural area in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujinja, P G M; Makwaya, C K; Sauerborn, R

    2004-12-01

    To examine socio-economic and malaria related differences between males and females that may cause gender differences in willingness to pay (WTP) for insecticide treated bed nets in a poor rural area. A two-week-interval (test re-test) cross-sectional study. Kisarawe District in coastal Tanzania. Two hundred and fifty one males and two hundred dollars females were interviewed. Females had about 50% of the males' income. The monthly average income was about US dollars 10.50 for females and US dollars 20.20 for males. The proportion of respondents willing to pay for an ITN, for both males and females, declined as the ITN prices increased (Pdifference between men and women, between both rounds were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Male respondents reported a higher mean number of own underfives living in the household compared to women, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.8). Willingness to pay for ITN was found to be independent of having an under five child with recent history of malaria. Among both males and females, there was an association between a recent experience with malaria episode and WTP, p=0.05 and p=0.02 respectively. Among females, the proportion of those willing to pay for another person, at the lowest ITN price, was significantly higher in those with under five children in their households than in those with no underfives. This was not the case among the male respondents as the association was not statistically significant. Contrary to expectations were was no statistically significant difference in WTP for an ITN between females and males. Further studies that link willingness and ability to pay are required in rural poor population, such studies may be valuable inputs to government policy on and planning of ITN interventions in the public and private sector.

  17. Ecology and Demography of Free-Roaming Domestic Dogs in Rural Villages near Serengeti National Park in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryna, Anna M; Brown, Joel S; Bigambo, Machunde A; Whelan, Christopher J; Mehta, Supriya D; Santymire, Rachel M; Lankester, Felix J; Faust, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign. We examined the effects of body condition, sex, age and village on survivorship and reproduction. Furthermore, we compared sources of mortality among villages. We found that adult dogs (>12mos) had higher survival than puppies in all villages. We observed a male-biased sex ratio across all age classes. Overall survival in one non-vaccination village was lower than in the other three villages, all of which had similar survival probabilities. In all villages, dogs in poor body condition had lower survival than dogs in ideal body condition. Sickness and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) predation were the two main causes of dog death. Within vaccination villages, vaccinated dogs had higher survivorship than unvaccinated dogs. Dog population growth, however, was similar in all the villages suggesting village characteristics and ownership practices likely have a greater impact on overall dog population dynamics than vaccination. Free-roaming domestic dogs in rural communities exist in the context of their human owners as well as the surrounding wildlife. Our results did not reveal a clear effect of vaccination programs on domestic dog population dynamics. An investigation of the role of dogs and their care within these communities could provide additional insight for planning and implementing rabies control measures such as mass dog vaccination.

  18. A cross-sectional study of quality of life in incident stroke survivors in rural northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Suzanne C; Jones, Matthew P; Jusabani, Ahmed; Gray, William K; Aris, Eric; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Swai, Mark; Walker, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes to, and predictors of, quality of life (QOL) in a community-based cohort of stroke survivors from an earlier stroke incidence study in rural northern Tanzania. Patients were assessed 1-5 years after their incident stroke. The study cohort was compared with an age- and sex-matched control group from the same rural district within a cross-sectional design. Patients and controls were asked a series of questions relating to their QOL [World Health Organization quality of life, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF)], levels of anxiety and depression [hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale], cognitive function [community screening instrument for dementia (CSI-D) screening tool], socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics (e.g. age, sex, education and abode). Patients were further assessed for functional outcome and disability (Barthel index, modified Rankin scale), post-stroke care and psychosocial functioning. Patients (n = 58) were found to have significantly lower QOL than controls (n = 58) in all six domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Gender, socioeconomic status, cognitive function and time elapsed since stroke were not associated with QOL. Older patients and those with more impaired motor function and disability (Barthel index, modified Rankin score) had significantly poorer physical health-related QOL. Greater anxiety and depression, reduced muscle power and less involvement in social events were significantly correlated with lower physical and psychological health-related QOL. To our knowledge, this is the first long-term study of QOL in survivors of incident stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Poorer QOL was associated with greater levels of physical disability, anxiety and depression and reduced social interaction. Demographic factors appear to be much less significant. Modifying these QOL predictors could be important in planning effective post-stroke care within a stretched healthcare system.

  19. Quantifying behavioural interactions between humans and mosquitoes: Evaluating the protective efficacy of insecticidal nets against malaria transmission in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathenge Evan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African malaria vectors bite predominantly indoors at night so sleeping under an Insecticide-Treated Net (ITN can greatly reduce malaria risk. Behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes to increasing ITN coverage could allow vector mosquitoes to bite outside of peak sleeping hours and undermine efficacy of this key malaria prevention measure. Methods High coverage with largely untreated nets has been achieved in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania through social marketing programmes. Direct surveys of nightly biting activity by An. gambiae Giles were conducted in the area before (1997 and after (2004 implementation of ITN promotion. A novel analytical model was applied to estimate the effective protection provided by an ITN, based on published experimental hut trials combined with questionnaire surveys of human sleeping behaviour and recorded mosquito biting patterns. Results An. gambiae was predominantly endophagic and nocturnal in both surveys: Approximately 90% and 80% of exposure occurred indoors and during peak sleeping hours, respectively. ITNs consistently conferred >70% protection against exposure to malaria transmission for users relative to non-users. Conclusion As ITN coverage increases, behavioural adaptation by mosquitoes remains a future possibility. The approach described allows comparison of mosquito biting patterns and ITN efficacy at multiple study sites and times. Initial results indicate ITNs remain highly effective and should remain a top-priority intervention. Combined with recently developed transmission models, this approach allows rapid, informative and cost-effective preliminary comparison of diverse control strategies in terms of protection against exposure before more costly and intensive clinical trials.

  20. Rural transformations in the context of changing rural-urban connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Ørtenblad, Sinne Borby; Msese, Lukelo

    , the infrastructure, including road systems and means of communication, has in general increased and improved. This development has among a number of other things caused changing patterns of mobility. These changes are highly interrelated and connected to changing rural-urban linkages, which include flows of people......, capital, resources, agricultural commodities, goods, services, technology and information, between rural and urban locations. We emphasize that the rural-urban connections go beyond the spatial dichotomy and that the linkages often occur in a dynamic rural-urban continuum. Influenced by these changes......, this paper sets out to elucidate patterns and dynamics of rural transformation in Tanzania in the context of changing rural-urban linkages by presenting data from a particularly dynamic region; namely Njombe Region in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Based on fieldwork conducted during 2014 and 2015...

  1. Microbiological effectiveness of household water treatment technologies under field use conditions in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hussein; Clasen, Thomas; Njee, Robert Mussa; Malebo, Hamisi M; Mbuligwe, Stephen; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    To assess the microbiological effectiveness of several household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) options in situ in Tanzania, before consideration for national scale-up of HWTS. Participating households received supplies and instructions for practicing six HWTS methods on a rotating 5-week basis. We analysed 1202 paired samples (source and treated) of drinking water from 390 households, across all technologies. Samples were analysed for thermotolerant (TTC) coliforms, an indicator of faecal contamination, to measure effectiveness of treatment in situ. All HWTS methods improved microbial water quality, with reductions in TTC of 99.3% for boiling, 99.4% for Waterguard ™ brand sodium hypochlorite solution, 99.5% for a ceramic pot filter, 99.5% for Aquatab ® sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets, 99.6% for P&G Purifier of Water ™ flocculent/disinfectant sachets, and 99.7% for a ceramic siphon filter. Microbiological performance was relatively high compared with other field studies and differences in microbial reductions between technologies were not statistically significant. Given that microbiological performance across technologies was comparable, decisions regarding scale-up should be based on other factors, including uptake in the target population and correct, consistent, and sustained use over time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Nutrient status of crop contents of rural scavenging local chickens in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwalusanya, N A; Katule, A M; Mutayoba, S K; Minga, U M; Mtambo, M M A; Olsen, J E

    2002-03-01

    1. A total of 144 chickens purchased from peasants in Morogoro, Tanzania were slaughtered, their crops dissected and the contents analysed. The birds consisted of 48 chickens from each of three climatic zones (warm and wet, warm and dry, cool and wet). Seventy-two chickens were slaughtered in each season, that is short rainy and long rainy season. 2. Cereal grains, bran, green forages, insects/worms and kitchen food wastes were the main crop contents and their composition varied significantly with season and climate. 3. The overall mean chemical compositions (g/kg) of the crop contents were: 430.8 +/- 107.78 dry matter (DM), 104.4 +/- 43.47 crude protein (CP), 61.2 +/- 36.48 ether extract (EE), 58.2 +/- 26.29 crude fibre (CF), 125.4 +/- 58-27 ash, 6.3 +/- 5.19 calcium (Ca) and 3.6 +/- 2.41 phosphorus (P). 4. CP, EE, ash and P contents varied significantly (Pnutritional requirements and varied with season, climate and age of birds.

  3. Maternal and newborn healthcare providers in rural Tanzania: in-depth interviews exploring influences on motivation, performance and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytherch, H; Kakoko, D C V; Leshabari, M T; Sauerborn, R; Marx, M

    2012-01-01

    Major improvements in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) remain elusive in Tanzania. The causes are closely related to the health system and overall human resource policy. Just 35% of the required workforce is actually in place and 43% of available staff consists of lower-level cadres such as auxiliaries. Staff motivation is also a challenge. In rural areas the problems of recruiting and retaining health staff are most pronounced. Yet, it is here that the majority of the population continues to reside. A detailed understanding of the influences on the motivation, performance and job satisfaction of providers at rural, primary level facilities was sought to inform a research project in its early stages. The providers approached were those found to be delivering MNH care on the ground, and thus include auxiliary staff. Much of the previous work on motivation has focused on defined professional groups such as physicians and nurses. While attention has recently broadened to also include mid-level providers, the views of auxiliary health workers have seldom been explored. In-depth interviews were the methodology of choice. An interview guideline was prepared with the involvement of Tanzanian psychologists, sociologists and health professionals to ensure the instrument was rooted in the socio-cultural setting of its application. Interviews were conducted with 25 MNH providers, 8 facility and district managers, and 2 policy-makers. Key sources of encouragement for all the types of respondents included community appreciation, perceived government and development partner support for MNH, and on-the-job learning. Discouragements were overwhelmingly financial in nature, but also included facility understaffing and the resulting workload, malfunction of the promotion system as well as health and safety, and security issues. Low-level cadres were found to be particularly discouraged. Difficulties and weaknesses in the management of rural facilities were revealed. Basic steps

  4. Isotopic age determineations on granitic and gneissic rocks from the Ubendian-Usagaran System in southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priem, H.N.A.; Boelrijk, N.A.I.M.; Hebeda, E.H.; Verdurmen, E.A.Th.; Verschure, R.H.; Oen, I.S.; Westra, L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic age measurements on granites and gneisses are reported from the Ubendian-Usagaran System in southern Tanzania. For the Lukumburu-Wino Granites a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron (9 points) of 1771 +- 145 Ma with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of 0.704 +- 0.003 was obtained (γ 87 Rb = 1.42 10 -11 a -1 ; errors 95% confidence level). Two samples from neighbouring granites and three gneisses from the contact zone of the Lukumburu-Wino Granites also fit to this isochron; inclusion into the isochron calculation yields an age of 1747 +- 85 Ma with the same initial Sr composition. Five parts of a banded Usagaran gneiss sample produce an isochron of 589 +- 70 Ma with initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of 0.7194 +- 0.0005. This internal isochron is interpreted as reflecting Sr isotopic equilibration through the sample during the main phase (or one of the main phases) of the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages of 17 micas show a general resetting by the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. The Rb-Sr ages of the muscovites and the biotites average 528 Ma and 463 Ma, respectively, and are interpreted as reflecting subsequent stages in the cooling history after the termination of the event. Biotites have K-Ar ages persistently higher than the corresponding Rb-Sr ages, possibly reflecting a high partial 40 Ar pressure through the crust during the resetting of the biotite K-Ar systems. (Auth.)

  5. Inpatient child mortality by travel time to hospital in a rural area of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manongi, Rachel; Mtei, Frank; Mtove, George; Nadjm, Behzad; Muro, Florida; Alegana, Victor; Noor, Abdisalan M; Todd, Jim; Reyburn, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the association, if any, between child mortality and distance to the nearest hospital. The study was based on data from a 1-year study of the cause of illness in febrile paediatric admissions to a district hospital in north-east Tanzania. All villages in the catchment population were geolocated, and travel times were estimated from availability of local transport. Using bands of travel time to hospital, we compared admission rates, inpatient case fatality rates and child mortality rates in the catchment population using inpatient deaths as the numerator. Three thousand hundred and eleven children under the age of 5 years were included of whom 4.6% died; 2307 were admitted from time between admission and death. Assuming uniform mortality in the catchment population, the predicted number of deaths not benefiting from hospital admission prior to death increased by 21.4% per hour of travel time to hospital. If the same admission and death rates that were found at <3 h from the hospital applied to the whole catchment population and if hospital care conferred a 30% survival benefit compared to home care, then 10.3% of childhood deaths due to febrile illness in the catchment population would have been averted. The mortality impact of poor access to hospital care in areas of high paediatric mortality is likely to be substantial although uncertainty over the mortality benefit of inpatient care is the largest constraint in making an accurate estimate. © 2014 The Authors Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Using art and story to explore how primary school students in rural Tanzania understand planetary health: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth VanWormer, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global planetary health community increasingly recognises the need to prepare students to investigate and address connections between environmental change and human health. As we strive to support education on planetary health themes for students of all ages, understanding students' concepts of linkages between the health of people and animals, and their shared environments might advance educational approaches. Children living in villages bordering Ruaha National Park in Iringa Region, Tanzania, have direct experience of these connections as they share a water-stressed but biodiverse environment with domestic animals and wildlife. Livelihoods in these villages depend predominantly on crop and livestock production, including extensive pastoralist livestock keeping. Through qualitative research, we aim to explore and describe Tanzanian primary school students' understanding of connections between human health and the environment. Methods: Working with 26 village primary schools in Iringa Rural District, Tanzania, we adapted an art and story outreach activity to explore student perceptions of planetary health concepts. Following a standardised training session, a lead teacher at each primary school helped students aged 12–15 years form small teams to independently develop and illustrate a story centred on themes of how human health depends on water sources, wildlife, livestock, climate, and forest or grassland resources. Students were encouraged to discuss these themes with their teachers, peers, and families while developing their stories to gain broader as well as historical perspectives. The students generated stories that incorporated solutions to challenges within these themes. Written materials and illustrations were collected from each school along with data on sex and tribe of the group members. We translated all stories from Swahili to English for analysis. The primary outcomes of interest in analysing the students

  7. Attitudes towards African traditional medicine and Christian spiritual healing regarding treatment of epilepsy in a rural community of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Mayer, Michael; Ombay, Michael; Mathias, Bartholomayo; Schmutzhard, Erich; Jilek-Aall, Louise

    2009-12-30

    Most people with epilepsy (PWE) live in developing countries with limited access to health care facilities. In sub-Saharan Africa with approximately 12 million PWE, 90% do not receive adequate medical treatment. In this context, traditional medicine, being easily accessible, plays an important role. However, in sub- Saharan Africa, studies on the attitude of people (both affected and not affected by epilepsy) towards traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy are scarce. In this study, 167 people (59 PWE, 62 relatives, 46 villagers) were interviewed at the hospital and in the community with a semi-structured validated questionnaire regarding the prevailing attitude towards traditional medicine for treatment of epilepsy in a rural area of northern Tanzania. Various traditional healing methods (THM) could be ascertained, i.e. traditional herbal medicine, spiritual healing, scarifications and spitting. 44.3% (n=74/167) of the interviewed people were convinced that epilepsy could be treated successfully with THM. Interestingly, 34.1% (n=57/167) thought that Christian prayers could cure the cause and/or treat symptoms of epilepsy. Significantly more PWE and their relatives were in favour of THM compared to villagers not knowing about epilepsy or not being immediately affected by epilepsy (χ(2)-test, p=0.004). Further factors influencing people's attitudes towards THM were gender, tribe, religion and urbanity of people's dwellings. Our study demonstrates that not only THM but also prayers in the Christian sense seem to play an important role in people's beliefs regarding successful treatment of epilepsy. Factors influencing this belief system have been identified and are discussed.

  8. How much time is available for antenatal care consultations? Assessment of the quality of care in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoma, Moke; Requejo, Jennifer; Merialdi, Mario; Campbell, Oona M R; Cousens, Simon; Filippi, Veronique

    2011-09-24

    Many women in Sub-Saharan African countries do not receive key recommended interventions during routine antenatal care (ANC) including information on pregnancy, related complications, and importance of skilled delivery attendance. We undertook a process evaluation of a successful cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of birth plans in increasing utilization of skilled delivery and postnatal care in Ngorongoro district, rural Tanzania, to document the time spent by health care providers on providing the recommended components of ANC. The study was conducted in 16 health units (eight units in each arm of the trial). We observed, timed, and audio-recorded ANC consultations to assess the total time providers spent with each woman and the time spent for the delivery of each component of care. T-test statistics were used to compare the total time and time spent for the various components of ANC in the two arms of the trial. We also identified the topics discussed during the counselling and health education sessions, and examined the quality of the provider-woman interaction. The mean total duration for initial ANC consultations was 40.1 minutes (range 33-47) in the intervention arm versus 19.9 (range 12-32) in the control arm p < 0.0001. Except for drug administration, which was the same in both arms of the trial, the time spent on each component of care was also greater in the intervention health units. Similar trends were observed for subsequent ANC consultations. Birth plans were always discussed in the intervention health units. Counselling on HIV/AIDS was also prioritized, especially in the control health units. Most other recommended topics (e.g. danger signs during pregnancy) were rarely discussed. Although the implementation of birth plans in the intervention health units improved provider-women dialogue on skilled delivery attendance, most recommended topics critical to improving maternal and newborn survival were rarely covered.

  9. Who is left behind on the road to universal facility delivery? A cross-sectional multilevel analysis in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E; Hermosilla, Sabrina; Larson, Elysia; Vail, Daniel; Chen, Qixuan; Mazuguni, Festo; Byalugaba, Beatrice; Mbaruku, Godfrey

    2015-08-01

    To examine factors associated with home delivery among women in Pwani Region, Tanzania, which has experienced a rapid rise in facility delivery coverage. Cross-sectional data from a population-based survey of women residing in rural areas of Pwani Region were linked to health facility locations. We fitted multilevel logistic models to examine individual and community factors associated with home delivery. A total of 752 (27.95%) of the 2691 women who completed the survey delivered their last child at home. Women were less likely to deliver at home if they had any primary education [odds ratio (OR) 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.79], were primiparous (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.73), had more exposure to media (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.96) or had received more (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.96) or better quality antenatal care (ANC) services (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.67). Increased wealth was strongly associated with lower odds of home delivery (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.39), as was living in a village that grew cash crops (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.88). Farther distance to hospital, but not to lower level facilities, was associated with higher likelihood of home delivery (OR 2.49; 95% CI: 1.60, 3.88). Poverty, multiparity, weak ANC and distance to hospital were associated with persistence of home delivery in a region with high coverage of facility delivery. A pro-poor path to universal coverage of safe delivery requires a greater focus on quality of care and more intensive outreach to poor and multiparous women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Scaling up stigma? The effects of antiretroviral roll-out on stigma and HIV testing. Early evidence from rural Tanzania

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    Roura, M; Urassa, M; Busza, J; Mbata, D; Wringe, A; Zaba, B

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interplay between antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up, different types of stigma and Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) uptake 2 years after the introduction of free ART in a rural ward of Tanzania. Methods: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and group activities with a purposive sample of 91 community leaders, 77 ART clients and 16 health providers. Data were analysed for recurrent themes using NVIVO-7 software. Results: The complex interplay between ART, stigma and VCT in this setting is characterised by two powerful but opposing dynamics. The availability of effective treatment has transformed HIV into a manageable condition which is contributing to a reduction in self-stigma and is stimulating VCT uptake. However, this is counterbalanced by the persistence of blaming attitudes and emergence of new sources of stigma associated with ART provision. The general perception among community leaders was that as ART users regained health, they increasingly engaged in sexual relations and “spread the disease.” Fears were exacerbated because they were perceived to be very mobile and difficult to identify physically. Some leaders suggested giving ART recipients drugs “for impotence,” marking them “with a sign” and putting them “in isolation camps.” In this context, traditional beliefs about disease aetiology provided a less stigmatised explanation for HIV symptoms contributing to a situation of collective denial. Conclusion: Where anticipated stigma prevails, provision of antiretroviral drugs alone is unlikely to have sufficient impact on VCT uptake. Achieving widespread public health benefits of ART roll-out requires community-level interventions to ensure local acceptability of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:19036776

  11. A longitudinal cohort study of malaria exposure and changing serostatus in a malaria endemic area of rural Tanzania.

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    Simmons, Ryan A; Mboera, Leonard; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Morris, Alison; Stresman, Gillian; Turner, Elizabeth L; Kramer, Randall; Drakeley, Chris; O'Meara, Wendy P

    2017-08-02

    Measurements of anti-malarial antibodies are increasingly used as a proxy of transmission intensity. Most serological surveys are based on the use of cross-sectional data that, when age-stratified, approximates historical patterns of transmission within a population. Comparatively few studies leverage longitudinal data to explicitly relate individual infection events with subsequent antibody responses. The occurrence of seroconversion and seroreversion events for two Plasmodium falciparum asexual stage antigens (MSP-1 and AMA-1) was examined using three annual measurements of 691 individuals from a cohort of individuals in a malaria-endemic area of rural east-central Tanzania. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were employed to determine factors associated with changes in serostatus over time. While the expected population-level relationship between seroprevalence and disease incidence was observed, on an individual level the relationship between individual infections and the antibody response was complex. MSP-1 antibody responses were more dynamic in response to the occurrence and resolution of infection events than AMA-1, while the latter was more correlated with consecutive infections. The MSP-1 antibody response to an observed infection seemed to decay faster over time than the corresponding AMA-1 response. Surprisingly, there was no evidence of an age effect on the occurrence of a conversion or reversion event. While the population-level results concur with previously published sero-epidemiological surveys, the individual-level results highlight the more complex relationship between detected infections and antibody dynamics than can be analysed using cross-sectional data. The longitudinal analysis of serological data may provide a powerful tool for teasing apart the complex relationship between infection events and the corresponding immune response, thereby improving the ability to rapidly assess the success or failure of malaria control programmes.

  12. Factors influencing drug uptake during mass drug administration for control of lymphatic filariasis in rural and urban Tanzania.

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    William J Kisoka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, control of lymphatic filariasis (LF is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole. Treatment coverages are however often suboptimal for programmes to reach the goal of transmission interruption within reasonable time. The present study aimed to identify predictors and barriers to individual drug uptake during MDA implementation by the National LF Elimination Programme in Tanzania. METHODS: A questionnaire based cross sectional household survey was carried out in two rural and two urban districts in Lindi and Morogoro regions shortly after the 2011 MDA. 3279 adults (≥15 years were interviewed about personal characteristics, socio-economic status, MDA drug uptake among themselves and their children, reasons for taking/not taking drugs, and participation in previous MDA activities for LF control. FINDINGS: The overall drug uptake rate was 55.1% (range of 44.5-75.6% between districts. There was no overall major difference between children (54.8% and adults (55.2% or between females (54.9% and males (55.8%, but the role of these and other predictors varied to some extent between study sites. Major overall predictors of drug uptake among the interviewed adults were increasing age and history of previous drug uptake. Being absent from home during drug distribution was the main reason for not taking the drugs (50.2% followed by clinical contraindications to treatment (10.8%, missing household visits of drug distributors (10.6%, and households not being informed about the distribution (9.0%. CONCLUSION: Drug uptake relied more on easily modifiable provider-related factors than on individual perceptions and practices in the target population. Limited investments in appropriate timing, dissemination of accurate timing information to recipients and motivation of drug distributors to visit all households (repeatedly when residents are absent are likely

  13. Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania

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    Azizi Salum

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS represent the front-line tools for malaria vector control globally, but are optimally effective where the majority of baseline transmission occurs indoors. In the surveyed area of rural southern Tanzania, bed net use steadily increased over the last decade, reducing malaria transmission intensity by 94%. Methods Starting before bed nets were introduced (1997, and then after two milestones of net use had been reached-75% community-wide use of untreated nets (2004 and then 47% use of ITNs (2009-hourly biting rates of malaria vectors from the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus group were surveyed. Results In 1997, An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes exhibited a tendency to bite humans inside houses late at night. For An. gambiae s.l., by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0018. At this time, the sibling species composition of the complex had shifted from predominantly An. gambiae s.s. to predominantly An. arabiensis. For An. funestus, by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0054 as well as the proportion biting indoors (p An. funestus s.s. remained the predominant species within this group. As a consequence of these altered feeding patterns, the proportion (mean ± standard error of human contact with mosquitoes (bites per person per night occurring indoors dropped from 0.99 ± 0.002 in 1997 to 0.82 ± 0.008 in 2009 for the An. gambiae complex (p = 0.0143 and from 1.00 ± An. funestus complex (p = 0.0004 over the same time period. Conclusions High usage of ITNs can dramatically alter African vector populations so that intense, predominantly indoor transmission is replaced by greatly lowered residual transmission, a greater proportion of which occurs outdoors. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the residual, self-sustaining transmission will respond poorly to further insecticidal measures within houses. Additional vector control

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV-1 infection in rural Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania: Implications for prevention and treatment

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    Leyna Germana H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in stages of the HIV-1 epidemic and hence HIV-1 prevalence exists in different areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of HIV-1 infection and identify HIV-1 risk factors that may help to develop preventive strategies in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May of 2005 involving all individuals aged between 15–44 years having an address in Oria Village. All eligible individuals were registered and invited to participate. Participants were interviewed regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and medical history. Following a pre-test counseling, participants were offered an HIV test. Results Of the 2 093 eligible individuals, 1 528 (73.0% participated. The overall age and sex adjusted HIV-1 prevalence was 5.6%. Women had 2.5 times higher prevalence (8.0% vs. 3.2% as compared to men. The age group 25–44 years, marriage, separation and low education were associated with higher risk of HIV-1 infection for both sexes. HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with >2 sexual partners in the past 12 months (women: Adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.5 (95%CI: 1.3–4.7, and past 5 years, [(men: AOR, 2.2 (95%CI:1.2–5.6; women: AOR, 2.5 (95%CI: 1.4–4.0], unprotected casual sex (men: AOR,1.8 95%CI: 1.2–5.8, bottled alcohol (Men: AOR, 5.9 (95%CI:1.7–20.1 and local brew (men: AOR, 3.7 (95%CI: 1.5–9.2. Other factors included treatment for genital ulcers and genital discharge in the past 1 month. Health-related complaints were more common among HIV-1 seropositive as compared to seronegative participants and predicted the presence of HIV-1 infection. Conclusion HIV-1 infection was highly prevalent in this population. As compared to our previous findings, a shift of the epidemic from a younger to an older age group and from educated to uneducated individuals was observed. Women and married or

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV-1 infection in rural Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania: implications for prevention and treatment.

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    Mmbaga, Elia J; Hussain, Akhtar; Leyna, Germana H; Mnyika, Kagoma S; Sam, Noel E; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2007-04-19

    Variability in stages of the HIV-1 epidemic and hence HIV-1 prevalence exists in different areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of HIV-1 infection and identify HIV-1 risk factors that may help to develop preventive strategies in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May of 2005 involving all individuals aged between 15-44 years having an address in Oria Village. All eligible individuals were registered and invited to participate. Participants were interviewed regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and medical history. Following a pre-test counseling, participants were offered an HIV test. Of the 2 093 eligible individuals, 1 528 (73.0%) participated. The overall age and sex adjusted HIV-1 prevalence was 5.6%. Women had 2.5 times higher prevalence (8.0% vs. 3.2%) as compared to men. The age group 25-44 years, marriage, separation and low education were associated with higher risk of HIV-1 infection for both sexes. HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with >2 sexual partners in the past 12 months (women: Adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.5 (95%CI: 1.3-4.7), and past 5 years, [(men: AOR, 2.2 (95%CI:1.2-5.6); women: AOR, 2.5 (95%CI: 1.4-4.0)], unprotected casual sex (men: AOR,1.8 95%CI: 1.2-5.8), bottled alcohol (Men: AOR, 5.9 (95%CI:1.7-20.1) and local brew (men: AOR, 3.7 (95%CI: 1.5-9.2). Other factors included treatment for genital ulcers and genital discharge in the past 1 month. Health-related complaints were more common among HIV-1 seropositive as compared to seronegative participants and predicted the presence of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 infection was highly prevalent in this population. As compared to our previous findings, a shift of the epidemic from a younger to an older age group and from educated to uneducated individuals was observed. Women and married or separated individuals remained at higher risk of infection. To prevent further

  16. Coming home to die? The association between migration and mortality in rural Tanzania before and after ART scale-up.

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    Levira, Francis; Todd, Jim; Masanja, Honorati

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), demographic surveillance cohort studies showed higher mortality among migrants than residents in many rural areas. This study quantifies the overall and AIDS-specific mortality between migrants and residents prior to ART, during ART scale-up, and after widespread availability of ART in Rufiji district in Tanzania. In Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), the follow-up of individuals aged 15-59 years was categorized into three periods: before ART (1998-2003), during ART scale-up (2004-2007), and after widespread availability of ART (2008-2011). Residents were those who never migrated within and beyond HDSS, internal migrants were those who moved within the HDSS, and external migrants were those who moved into the HDSS from outside. Mortality rates were estimated from deaths and person-years of observations calculated in each time period. Hazard ratios were estimated to compare mortality between migrants and residents. AIDS deaths were identified from verbal autopsy, and the odds ratio of dying from AIDS between migrants and residents was estimated using the multivariate logistic regression model. Internal and external migrants experienced higher overall mortality than residents before the introduction of ART. After widespread availability of ART overall mortality were similar for internal and external migrants. These overall mortality experiences observed were similar for males and females. In the multivariate logistic regression model, adjusting for age, sex, education, and social economic status, internal migrants had similar likelihood of dying from AIDS as residents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-1.87) while external migrants were 70% more likely to die from AIDS compared to residents prior to the introduction of ART (AOR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.06-2.73). After widespread availability of ART with the same adjustment factors, the odds of dying from AIDS were similar

  17. HIV-1, HSV-2 and syphilis among pregnant women in a rural area of Tanzania: Prevalence and risk factors

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    Evjen-Olsen Bjørg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of new HIV infections in African countries are associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. Thus, the magnitude of HSV-2 infection in an area may suggest the expected course of the HIV epidemic. We determined prevalence of genital herpes, syphilis and associated factors among pregnant women from a remote rural Tanzanian community that has a low but increasing HIV prevalence. Methods We analysed 1296 sera and responses to a standard structured questionnaire collected from pregnant women aged between 15–49 years, attending six different antenatal clinics within rural Manyara and Singida regions in Tanzania. Linked anonymous testing (with informed consent of the serum for specific antibodies against HSV-2 was done using a non-commercial peptide- 55 ELISA. Antibodies against syphilis were screened by using rapid plasma reagin (RPR and reactive samples confirmed by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA. Results Previous analysis of the collected sera had shown the prevalence of HIV antibodies to be 2%. In the present study the prevalence of genital herpes and syphilis was 20.7% (95% CI: 18.53–23.00 and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.03–2.51, respectively. The presence of HSV-2 antibodies was associated with polygamy (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.62 – 3.01 and the use of contraceptives other than condoms (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.21 – 2.41. Syphilis was associated with reporting more than one lifetime sexual partner (OR 5.4, 95% CI: 1.88 – 15.76 and previous spontaneous abortion (OR 4.3, 95% CI: 1.52–12.02. Conclusion The low prevalence of HIV infection offers a unique opportunity for strengthening HIV prevention in a cost-effective manner. The identification and control of other prevalent curable STIs other than syphilis and specific intervention of HSV-2 in specific populations like pregnant women would be one among approaches towards preventing incident HIV infections.

  18. Unpredictability dictates quality of maternal and newborn care provision in rural Tanzania-A qualitative study of health workers' perspectives.

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    Baker, Ulrika; Hassan, Farida; Hanson, Claudia; Manzi, Fatuma; Marchant, Tanya; Swartling Peterson, Stefan; Hylander, Ingrid

    2017-02-06

    Health workers are the key to realising the potential of improved quality of care for mothers and newborns in the weak health systems of Sub Saharan Africa. Their perspectives are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of existing improvement programs and to identify ways to strengthen future initiatives. The objective of this study was therefore to examine health worker perspectives of the conditions for maternal and newborn care provision and their perceptions of what constitutes good quality of care in rural Tanzanian health facilities. In February 2014, we conducted 17 in-depth interviews with different cadres of health workers providing maternal and newborn care in 14 rural health facilities in Tandahimba district, south-eastern Tanzania. These facilities included one district hospital, three health centres and ten dispensaries. Interviews were conducted in Swahili, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. A grounded theory approach was used to guide the analysis, the output of which was one core category, four main categories and several sub-categories. 'It is like rain' was identified as the core category, delineating unpredictability as the common denominator for all aspects of maternal and newborn care provision. It implies that conditions such as mothers' access to and utilisation of health care are unreliable; that availability of resources is uncertain and that health workers have to help and try to balance the situation. Quality of care was perceived to vary as a consequence of these conditions. Health workers stressed the importance of predictability, of 'things going as intended', as a sign of good quality care. Unpredictability emerged as a fundamental condition for maternal and newborn care provision, an important determinant and characteristic of quality in this study. We believe that this finding is also relevant for other areas of care in the same setting and may be an important defining factor of a weak health system. Increasing

  19. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

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    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  20. Motivation of human resources for health: a case study at rural district level in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnen, Véronique; Paul, Elisabeth; Mwisongo, Aziza; Nyato, Daniel; Robert, Annie

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies explore the association between financial and non-financial incentives and the retention of health workers in developing countries. This study aims to contribute to empirical evidence on human resource for health motivation factors to assist policy makers in promoting effective and realistic interventions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural Tanzanian districts to explore staff stability and health workers' motivation. Data were collected using qualitative and quantitative techniques, covering all levels and types of health facilities. Stability of staff was found to be quite high. Public institutions remained very attractive with better job security, salary and retirement benefits. Satisfaction over working conditions was very low owing to inadequate working equipment, work overload, lack of services, difficult environment, favouritism and 'empty promotions'. Positive incentives mentioned were support for career development and supportive supervision. Attracting new staff in rural areas appeared to be more difficult than retaining staff in place. The study concluded that strategies to better motivate health personnel should focus on adequate remuneration, positive working and living environment and supportive management. However, by multiplying health facilities, the latest Tanzanian human resource for health plan could jeopardize current positive results. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A Novel Off-Grid Optimal Hybrid Energy System for Rural Electrification of Tanzania Using a Closed Loop Cooled Solar System

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    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the world’s populations live in developing countries. Rural areas in many of these countries are isolated geographically from grid connections and they have a very low rate of electrification. The uninterrupted power supply (UPS in these regions is a considerable challenge. The use of renewable energy resources (RER in an off-grid hybrid energy system can be a pathway to solving this problem. Tanzania has a very low electrification rate (rural 16.9%, urban 65.3%. This paper discussed, described, designed a novel uninterruptible, and environmental friendly solar-wind hybrid energy system (HES for remote area of Tanzania having closed loop cooled-solar system (CLC-SS. An optimized configuration for the proposed HES was obtained by Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER analysis software using local solar and wind resources. The designed CLC-SS improved the efficiency of the hybrid solar-wind systems by extracting more power from the solar modules. An evaluation of CLC-SS revealed a 10.23% increase in power output from conventional solar PV modules. The results validate that the optimized system’s energy cost (COE is 0.26 $/kWh and the net present cost (NPC of the system is $7110.53. The enhanced output solar wind hybrid system, designed in this paper is cost-effective and can be applied easily to other regions of the world with similar climate conditions.

  2. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

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    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  3. The Effects of Chess Instruction on the Mathematics Achievement of Southern, Rural, Black Secondary Students.

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    Smith, James P.; Cage. Bob N.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the effects of 120 hours of chess instruction on the mathematics achievement of southern, rural, black secondary students. Analysis of covariance results show the treatment group (11 females, 9 males) scored significantly higher than the control group (10 females, 10 males) in mathematics achievement. Discusses results in terms of altering…

  4. Annual Progress Report, 1975. Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State University. SRDC Series Publication No. 10.

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    Southern Rural Development Center, State College, MS.

    Included in this second annual report on the Southern Rural Development Center's (SRDC) 1974-75 plan of work are data re: orientation visits; regional workshops; technical consultants; liaison with regional agencies and organizations; information dissemination; annual evaluation; functional networks in the areas of land use issues, citizen…

  5. Impact of Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction and Postintroduction Etiology of Diarrhea Requiring Hospital Admission in Haydom, Tanzania, a Rural African Setting

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    Platts-Mills, James A.; Amour, Caroline; Gratz, Jean; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Mujaga, Buliga; Maro, Athanasia; McMurry, Timothy L; Liu, Jie; Mduma, Estomih; Houpt, Eric R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background No data are available on the etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Africa. The monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Tanzania on 1 January 2013. We performed a vaccine impact and effectiveness study as well as a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)–based etiology study at a rural Tanzanian hospital. Methods We obtained data on admissions among children <5 years to Haydom Lutheran Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2015 and estimated the impact of vaccine introduction on all-cause diarrhea admissions. We then performed a vaccine effectiveness study using the test-negative design. Finally, we tested diarrheal specimens during 2015 by qPCR for a broad range of enteropathogens and calculated pathogen-specific attributable fractions (AFs). Results Vaccine introduction was associated with a 44.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.6%–97.4%) reduction in diarrhea admissions in 2015, as well as delay of the rotavirus season. The effectiveness of 2 doses of vaccine was 74.8% (95% CI, –8.2% to 94.1%) using an enzyme immunoassay–based case definition and 85.1% (95% CI, 26.5%–97.0%) using a qPCR-based case definition. Among 146 children enrolled in 2015, rotavirus remained the leading etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization (AF, 25.8% [95% CI, 24.4%–26.7%]), followed by heat-stable enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (AF, 18.4% [95% CI, 12.9%–21.9%]), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (AF, 14.5% [95% CI, 10.2%–22.8%]), and Cryptosporidium (AF, 7.9% [95% CI, 6.2%–9.3%]). Conclusions Despite the clear impact of vaccine introduction in this setting, rotavirus remained the leading etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization. Further efforts to maximize vaccine coverage and improve vaccine performance in these settings are warranted. PMID:28575304

  6. Parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in rural Tanzania: Implications for young people's sexual health interventions.

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    Wamoyi, Joyce; Fenwick, Angela; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Stones, William

    2010-05-12

    Many programmes on young people and HIV/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) with their children. These approach has had limited success because of failure to factor in the young person's family context, and the influence of parents. This paper explores parent-child communication about SRH in families, content, timing and reasons for their communication with their children aged 14-24 years in rural Tanzania. This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved eight weeks of participant observation, 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents of young people in this age group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Parent-child communication about SRH happened in most families. The communication was mainly on same sex basis (mother-daughter and rarely father-son or father-daughter) and took the form of warnings, threats and physical discipline. Communication was triggered by seeing or hearing something a parent perceived negative and would not like their child to experience (such as a death attributable to HIV and unmarried young person's pregnancy). Although most young people were relaxed with their mothers than fathers, there is lack of trust as to what they can tell their parents for fear of punishment. Parents were limited as to what they could communicate about SRH because of lack of appropriate knowledge and cultural norms that restricted interactions between opposite sex. Due to the consequences of the HIV pandemic, parents are making attempts to communicate with their children about SRH. They are however, limited by cultural barriers, and lack of appropriate knowledge. With some skills training on

  7. Parent-child communication about sexual and reproductive health in rural Tanzania: Implications for young people's sexual health interventions

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    Urassa Mark

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many programmes on young people and HIV/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH with their children. These approach has had limited success because of failure to factor in the young person's family context, and the influence of parents. This paper explores parent-child communication about SRH in families, content, timing and reasons for their communication with their children aged 14-24 years in rural Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved eight weeks of participant observation, 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents of young people in this age group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parent-child communication about SRH happened in most families. The communication was mainly on same sex basis (mother-daughter and rarely father-son or father-daughter and took the form of warnings, threats and physical discipline. Communication was triggered by seeing or hearing something a parent perceived negative and would not like their child to experience (such as a death attributable to HIV and unmarried young person's pregnancy. Although most young people were relaxed with their mothers than fathers, there is lack of trust as to what they can tell their parents for fear of punishment. Parents were limited as to what they could communicate about SRH because of lack of appropriate knowledge and cultural norms that restricted interactions between opposite sex. Conclusions Due to the consequences of the HIV pandemic, parents are making attempts to communicate with their children about SRH. They are however, limited by cultural barriers

  8. Dietary patterns and household food insecurity in rural populations of Kilosa district, Tanzania.

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    Julius Edward Ntwenya

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community.Three hundred and seven (307 randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February-May and post harvest season (September-October in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score.Four food consumption patterns namely (I Meat and milk; (II Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III fish (and other sea foods, roots and tubers; (IV Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest-seasons, respectively (P = 0.01. Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity.Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at alleviating household food insecurity could

  9. Linking poverty levels to water resource use and conflicts in rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

    Water scarcity is an important environmental constraint to development. Water availability is closely linked to human welfare and health by affecting nutrition status and quantity of drinking water especially for the poor. It has impacts on household labour because of the time and energy spent in obtaining it. These problems are more keenly felt among the poor households and in the agricultural subsistence economy. In many areas, the demand for water has been increasing due to rapid population growth, economic development, and climatic change. Water scarcity also stimulates social conflicts between various water users: individuals, communities, industries, livestock, wildlife, agriculture etc. Consequently, local communities have evolved strategies for coping with water stress and drought. These strategies include use of various sources of water, inaction to strict bye-laws regarding the use of water, crop diversification, wage labour, and possibly seasonal migration. The available strategies are likely to vary from one area to another. Some of these actions have measurable longterm demographic consequences, particularly if water stress is severe or repetitive. Although most governments and donor organizations often put much emphasis on the provision of water for drinking purposes, there is clear evidence that the supply of water for other uses has equal importance especially among rural communities. This observation suggests that putting too much emphasis on drinking water needs, addresses a rather insignificant part of the problem of water resources and biases the range of solutions which are likely to be proposed for perceived shortages. The presence of other water uses necessitates the provision of multi-purpose water sources that can serve a number of contrasting functions. This demand-responsive approach can enable the local communities and the poor households to choose the type of services they require on the basis of perceived needs and their ability to

  10. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  11. A comparison of stigma among patients with leprosy in rural Tanzania and urban United States: a role for public health in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosta, Neda; Black, David S; Rea, Thomas H

    2013-04-01

      Leprosy is a chronic infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae, which causes peripheral insensitivity and disfigurements of the skin, limbs, and digits. Social stigma is a common consequence of leprosy and may differ according to level of physical disfigurement and geographic location. The objective of this study was to assess social stigma encountered by patients with leprosy in clinical settings located in rural Tanzania and urban USA and to compare the social stigma reported in these regions.   A total of 56 respondents were recruited from one leprosy inpatient facility in Shirati, Tanzania (n = 28), and one outpatient clinic in Los Angeles, USA (n = 28). Cross-sectional data were obtained from face-to-face interviews, which were conducted with respondents at each clinic location. Measures of perceived stigma were assessed in family relationship, vocational, social interaction, and interpersonal contexts.   Patients in Tanzania, as compared with those in the USA, reported significantly higher levels of stigma in family relationship and vocational contexts. Tanzanian patients also reported higher levels of stigma in social interaction and self-esteem contexts, but these differences were marginally significant and may reflect the small sample size.   Leprosy-related social stigma is a major problem in regions of both developed and developing countries; however, patients with leprosy in developing countries reported higher levels of stigma in four social contexts. A public health role in dermatology is discussed as an agent of early diagnosis, control, and education in order to reduce social stigma and promote social rehabilitation. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Biomass, energy and economic and natural resource differentiation in rural southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.; Giriappa, S.

    1995-01-01

    The rural economy in India is as yet only partially monetized and continues to retain its semi-subsistence character, while at the same time undergoing the process of becoming more monetized and market-orientated. A large field study was conducted in rural Karnataka, a state in southern India, which uncovers the relations between the energy situations of the rural social classes and their access to labour, land, cash and physical assets. Of equal significance are regional variations in ecology, rainfall and irrigation. The study's principal focus is the rural household, but it also includes some analysis of the energy dimensions in agricultural activities and small-scale rural services. Eight villages were covered by the survey, one in each district, carefully selected to reflect the geographic, climatic, biomass-resource and socio-economic features of Karnataka. In each village an average of 55 households were studied in depth, making up a total of 450 households. Clear and marked differentiations are uncovered between the rural social classes in various aspects of energy production, purchase, sale and consumption, as well as in labour and cash inputs into the energy flows. It is found that traditional forms of biomass are still the dominant type of energy for all rural strata, and that only the rural middle class can be said to have begun the transition towards modern fuels, although its consumption of modern fuels is still negligibly small in absolute terms. The study reveals that the rural middle class faces no energy crisis, while the 'intermediate' class of the small peasantry is just about managing to make ends meet in energy terms. In contrast to this, the rural wage labour class continues to remain in a state of energy crisis. (author)

  13. Promoting youth physical activity in rural southern communities: practitioner perceptions of environmental opportunities and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael B; Theriault, Daniel S; Shores, Kindal A; Melton, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    Research on youth physical activity has focused on urban areas. Rural adolescents are more likely to be physically inactive than urban youth, contributing to higher risk of obesity and chronic diseases. Study objectives were to: (1) identify perceived opportunities and barriers to youth physical activity within a rural area and (2) identify rural community characteristics that facilitate or inhibit efforts to promote youth physical activity. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with expert informants in 2 rural southern US counties. Interviewees were recruited from diverse positions across multiple sectors based on their expert knowledge of community policies and programs for youth physical activity. Informants saw ball fields, natural amenities, and school sports as primary resources for youth physical activity, but they were divided on whether opportunities were abundant or scarce. Physical distance, social isolation, lack of community offerings, and transportation were identified as key barriers. Local social networks facilitated political action and volunteer recruitment to support programs. However, communities often lacked human capital to sustain initiatives. Racial divisions influenced perceptions of opportunities. Despite divisions, there were also examples of pooling resources to create and sustain physical activity opportunities. Developing partnerships and leveraging local resources may be essential to overcoming barriers for physical activity promotion in rural areas. Involvement of church leaders, school officials, health care workers, and cooperative extension is likely needed to establish and sustain youth rural physical activity programs. Allocating resources to existing community personnel and volunteers for continuing education may be valuable. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  14. Dynamism of household carbon emissions (HCEs) from rural and urban regions of northern and southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Qu, Jiansheng; Yue, Bian; Zeng, Jingjing; Maroulis, Jerry

    2016-10-01

    China contributes 23 % of global carbon emissions, of which 26 % originate from the household sector. Due to vast variations in both climatic conditions and the affordability and accessibility of fuels, household carbon emissions (HCEs) differ significantly across China. This study compares HCEs (per person) from urban and rural regions in northern China with their counterparts in southern China. Annual macroeconomic data for the study period 2005 to 2012 were obtained from Chinese government sources, whereas the direct HCEs for different types of fossil fuels were obtained using the IPCC reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. Results suggest that HCEs from urban areas are higher than those from rural areas. Regardless of the regions, there is a similarity in per person HCEs in urban areas, but the rural areas of northern China had significantly higher HCEs than those from southern China. The reasons for the similarity between urban areas and differences between rural areas and the percentage share of direct and indirect HCEs from different sources are discussed. Similarly, the reasons and solutions to why decarbonising policies are working in urban areas but not in rural areas are discussed.

  15. Childhood psychological problems in school settings in rural Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Cortina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many children can be exposed to multiple adversities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs placing them at potential risk of psychological problems. However, there is a paucity of research using large representative cohorts examining the psychological adjustment of children in school settings in these countries. Children's psychological adjustment has been shown to affect educational progress which is critical for their future. This study, based in a rural, socio-economically disadvantaged area of South Africa, aimed to examine the prevalence of children's psychological problems as well as possible risk and protective factors. METHODS: Rates of psychological problems in 10-12 year olds were examined using teacher- and child-report questionnaires. Data on children from 10 rural primary schools, selected by stratified random sampling, were linked to individual and household data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system collected from households over 15 years. RESULTS: A total of 1,025 children were assessed. Teachers identified high levels of behavioural and emotional problems (41%. Children reported lower, but substantial rates of anxiety/depression (14%, and significant post-traumatic stress symptoms (24%; almost a quarter felt unsafe in school. Risk factors included being a second-generation former refugee and being from a large household. Protective factors highlight the importance of maternal factors, such as being more educated and in a stable partnership. CONCLUSION: The high levels of psychological problems identified by teachers are a serious public health concern, as they are likely to impact negatively on children's education, particularly given the large class sizes and limited resources in rural LMIC settings. Despite the high levels of risk, a proportion of children were managing well and research to understand resilience could inform interventions.

  16. Possible zircon U-Pb evidence for Pan-African granulite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, J.J.M.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Four zircon fractions of garnet-bearing two-pyroxene granulite, from the Furua granulite complex of southern Tanzania, plot very close to concordia. A discordia yields a lower intercept at 652 +- 10 Ma, an age slightly higher than the Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages reported from the surrounding amphibolite-facies rocks. The U-Pb systematics indicate the presence of a very small amount of older (2-3 Ga) radiogenic lead. The zircon data may be interpreted as indicating an event of granulite-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. This interpretation is at variance with current models postulating that the granulite complexes in the Mozambique belt are relicts of older, possibly Archaean events of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  17. Effectiveness of community based Safe Motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, Declare; Mpembeni, Rose; Jahn, Albrecht

    2010-04-01

    In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%), only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs). Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (rho utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.

  18. Leptospira Contamination in Household and Environmental Water in Rural Communities in Southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Mason, Meghan R.; Encina, Carolina; Astroza, Angel; Romero, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of global distribution that affects tropical and temperate areas. Under suitable conditions, Leptospira can survive in water and soil and contribute to human and animal infections. The objective of this study was to describe the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in peri-domestic water samples from rural households in southern Chile. Water samples, including puddles, containers, animal troughs, rivers, canals, and drinking water were collected from 236 households an...

  19. The number of killings in southern rural Norway, 1300–1569

    OpenAIRE

    Kadane, Joseph B.; Næshagen, Ferdinand L.

    2013-01-01

    Three dual systems estimates are employed to study the number of killings in southern rural Norway in a period of slightly over 250 years. The first system is a set of five letters sent to each killer as part of the legal process. The second system is the mention of killings from all other contemporary sources. The posterior distributions derived suggest fewer such killings than rough demographic estimates.

  20. Cost of installing and operating an electronic clinical decision support system for maternal health care: case of Tanzania rural primary health centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saronga, Happiness Pius; Dalaba, Maxwell Ayindenaba; Dong, Hengjin; Leshabari, Melkizedeck; Sauerborn, Rainer; Sukums, Felix; Blank, Antje; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Loukanova, Svetla

    2015-04-02

    Poor quality of care is among the causes of high maternal and newborn disease burden in Tanzania. Potential reason for poor quality of care is the existence of a "know-do gap" where by health workers do not perform to the best of their knowledge. An electronic clinical decision support system (CDSS) for maternal health care was piloted in six rural primary health centers of Tanzania to improve performance of health workers by facilitating adherence to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines and ultimately improve quality of maternal health care. This study aimed at assessing the cost of installing and operating the system in the health centers. This retrospective study was conducted in Lindi, Tanzania. Costs incurred by the project were analyzed using Ingredients approach. These costs broadly included vehicle, computers, furniture, facility, CDSS software, transport, personnel, training, supplies and communication. These were grouped into installation and operation cost; recurrent and capital cost; and fixed and variable cost. We assessed the CDSS in terms of its financial and economic cost implications. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis on the estimations. Total financial cost of CDSS intervention amounted to 185,927.78 USD. 77% of these costs were incurred in the installation phase and included all the activities in preparation for the actual operation of the system for client care. Generally, training made the largest share of costs (33% of total cost and more than half of the recurrent cost) followed by CDSS software- 32% of total cost. There was a difference of 31.4% between the economic and financial costs. 92.5% of economic costs were fixed costs consisting of inputs whose costs do not vary with the volume of activity within a given range. Economic cost per CDSS contact was 52.7 USD but sensitive to discount rate, asset useful life and input cost variations. Our study presents financial and economic cost estimates of installing and operating an

  1. Motivation and incentives of rural maternal and neonatal health care providers: a comparison of qualitative findings from Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytherch, Helen; Kagoné, Moubassira; Aninanya, Gifty A; Williams, John E; Kakoko, Deodatus C V; Leshabari, Melkidezek T; Yé, Maurice; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2013-04-25

    In Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania strong efforts are being made to improve the quality of maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. However, progress is impeded by challenges, especially in the area of human resources. All three countries are striving not only to scale up the number of available health staff, but also to improve performance by raising skill levels and enhancing provider motivation. In-depth interviews were used to explore MNH provider views about motivation and incentives at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. Interviews were held with 25 MNH providers, 8 facility and district managers, and 2 policy-makers in each country. Across the three countries some differences were found in the reasons why people became health workers. Commitment to remaining a health worker was generally high. The readiness to remain at a rural facility was far less, although in all settings there were some providers that were willing to stay. In Burkina Faso it appeared to be particularly difficult to recruit female MNH providers to rural areas. There were indications that MNH providers in all the settings sometimes failed to treat their patients well. This was shown to be interlinked with differences in how the term 'motivation' was understood, and in the views held about remuneration and the status of rural health work. Job satisfaction was shown to be quite high, and was particularly linked to community appreciation. With some important exceptions, there was a strong level of agreement regarding the financial and non-financial incentives that were suggested by these providers, but there were clear country preferences as to whether incentives should be for individuals or teams. Understandings of the terms and concepts pertaining to motivation differed between the three countries. The findings from Burkina Faso underline the importance of gender-sensitive health workforce planning. The training that all levels of MNH providers receive in

  2. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An evaluation of the role of rural primary school teachers in community development tasks in southern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ngalam, Jabi Jack

    1987-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of rural primary school teachers in community development activities within an integrated rural education centres project (IRECs) in southern Sudan. The study explores five areas of importance for an extended teacher's role in rural areas: (i) the school or community environment, (ii) community perception of the teacher's role and its expectations of the school, (iii) teachers' perception of their own role in the community, (iv) teachers' ...

  4. Tanzania | Page 22 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Quality Improvement for Maternal and Newborn Health in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English. Read more about Building an Enhanced Cadre of Community Health Workers to Improve Maternal and Newborn Health in Rural Tanzania (IMCHA). Language English.

  5. Comparison of the CDC Backpack aspirator and the Prokopack aspirator for sampling indoor- and outdoor-resting mosquitoes in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgando Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resting mosquitoes can easily be collected using an aspirating device. The most commonly used mechanical aspirator is the CDC Backpack aspirator. Recently, a simple, and low-cost aspirator called the Prokopack has been devised and proved to have comparable performance. The following study evaluates the Prokopack aspirator compared to the CDC backpack aspirator when sampling resting mosquitoes in rural Tanzania. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled in- and outdoors of 48 typical rural African households using both aspirators. The aspirators were rotated between collectors and households in a randomized, Latin Square design. Outdoor collections were performed using artificial resting places (large barrel and car tyre, underneath the outdoor kitchen (kibanda roof and from a drop-net. Data were analysed with generalized linear models. Results The number of mosquitoes collected using the CDC Backpack and the Prokopack aspirator were not significantly different both in- and outdoors (indoors p = 0.735; large barrel p = 0.867; car tyre p = 0.418; kibanda p = 0.519. The Prokopack was superior for sampling of drop-nets due to its smaller size. The number mosquitoes collected per technician was more consistent when using the Prokopack aspirator. The Prokopack was more user-friendly: technicians preferred using the it over the CDC backpack aspirator as it weighs considerably less, retains its charge for longer and is easier to manoeuvre. Conclusions The Prokopack proved in the field to be more advantageous than the CDC Backpack aspirator. It can be self assembled using simple, low-cost and easily attainable materials. This device is a useful tool for researchers or vector-control surveillance programs operating in rural Africa, as it is far simpler and quicker than traditional means of sampling resting mosquitoes. Further longitudinal evaluations of the Prokopack aspirator versus the gold standard pyrethrum spray catch for indoor resting

  6. Married women's decision making power on modern contraceptive use in urban and rural southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Tizta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women in developing countries are either under collective decision making with their partners or completely rely on the male partner's decision on issues that affect their reproductive live. Identifying the major barriers of married women's decision making power on contraceptive use has significant relevance for planning contextually appropriate family planning interventions. The objective of this study was to determine current modern contraceptive practices and decision making power among married women in Tercha Town and surrounding rural areas of Dawro zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based comparative cross-sectional design with both quantitative and Qualitative study has been employed in March and April 2010. The respondents were 699 married women of child bearing age from urban and rural parts of Dawro zone. After conducting census, we took the sample using simple random sampling technique. Results Current modern contraceptive use among married women in the urban was 293 (87.5% and 243 (72.8% in rural. Married women who reside in urban area were more likely to decide on the use of modern contraceptive method than rural women. Having better knowledge about modern contraceptive methods, gender equitable attitude, better involvement in decisions related to children, socio-cultural and family relations were statistically significant factors for decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the urban setting. Better knowledge, fear of partner's opposition or negligence, involvement in decisions about child and economic affairs were statistically significant factors for better decision making power of women on the use of modern contraceptive methods in the rural part. Conclusions High level of current modern contraceptive practice with reduced urban-rural difference was found as compared to regional and national figures. Urban women had better power to make decisions on modern

  7. Child maltreatment in rural southern counties: Another perspective on race, poverty and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D; Kay, Emma Sophia; Pressley, Tracy D

    2018-06-01

    Building on research that has identified community characteristics associated with child maltreatment, this study investigates the adequacy and equity of the child welfare response at the county level. The study focuses on states in the U.S. south with demographic characteristics that make it possible to disentangle county racial composition from county rurality. County-level child maltreatment data were merged with data from the U.S. Census and other publicly-available sources for the 354 counties in four southern states. Results from multiple regression models indicated that, despite a greater preponderance of risk factors typically associated with child maltreatment, rural, majority African-American counties had lower rates of reported and substantiated child maltreatment compared to other southern counties. Cross-sectional results were consistent across three years: 2012, 2013, and 2014. The findings suggest that children and families in rural, majority African-American counties in the South may not be receiving adequate or equitable responses from the formal child welfare system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Out-of-pocket costs and other determinants of access to healthcare for children with febrile illnesses: a case-control study in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Castellani

    Full Text Available To study private costs and other determinants of access to healthcare for childhood fevers in rural Tanzania.A case-control study was conducted in Tanzania to establish factors that determine access to a health facility in acute febrile illnesses in children less than 5 years of age. Carers of eligible children were interviewed in the community; cases were represented by patients who went to a facility and controls by those who did not. A Household Wealth Index was estimated using principal components analysis. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to understand the factors which influenced attendance of healthcare facility including severity of the illness and household wealth/socio-demographic indicators. To complement the data on costs from community interviews, a hospital-based study obtained details of private expenditures for hospitalised children under the age of 5.Severe febrile illness is strongly associated with health facility attendance (OR: 35.76, 95%CI: 3.68-347.43, p = 0.002 compared with less severe febrile illness. Overall, the private costs of an illness for patients who went to a hospital were six times larger than private costs of controls ($5.68 vs. $0.90, p<0.0001. Household wealth was not significantly correlated with total costs incurred. The separate hospital based cost study indicated that private costs were three times greater for admissions at the mission versus public hospital: $13.68 mission vs. $4.47 public hospital (difference $ 9.21 (95% CI: 7.89 -10.52, p<0.0001. In both locations, approximately 50% of the cost was determined by the duration of admission, with each day in hospital increasing private costs by about 12% (95% CI: 5% - 21%.The more severely ill a child, the higher the probability of attending hospital. We did not find association between household wealth and attending a health facility; nor was there an association between household wealth and private cost.

  9. Effectiveness of community based safe motherhood promoters in improving the utilization of obstetric care. The case of Mtwara Rural District in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Albrecht

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, maternal mortality ratio remains unacceptably high at 578/100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage of antenatal care (96%, only 44% of deliveries take place within the formal health services. Still, "Ensure skilled attendant at birth" is acknowledged as one of the most effective interventions to reduce maternal deaths. Exploring the potential of community-based interventions in increasing the utilization of obstetric care, the study aimed at developing, testing and assessing a community-based safe motherhood intervention in Mtwara rural District of Tanzania. Method This community-based intervention was designed as a pre-post comparison study, covering 4 villages with a total population of 8300. Intervention activities were implemented by 50 trained safe motherhood promoters (SMPs. Their tasks focused on promoting early and complete antenatal care visits and delivery with a skilled attendant. Data on all 512 deliveries taking place from October 2004 to November 2006 were collected by the SMPs and cross-checked with health service records. In addition 242 respondents were interviewed with respect to knowledge on safe motherhood issues and their perception of the SMP's performance. Skilled delivery attendance was our primary outcome; secondary outcomes included antenatal care attendance and knowledge on Safe Motherhood issues. Results Deliveries with skilled attendant significantly increased from 34.1% to 51.4% (ρ Conclusion The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of community-based safe motherhood intervention in promoting the utilization of obstetric care and a skilled attendant at delivery. This improvement is attributed to the SMPs' home visits and the close collaboration with existing community structures as well as health services.

  10. Endangered edible orchids and vulnerable gatherers in the context of HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Lisa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania is a wild orchid biodiversity hotspot and has a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The wild orchids in the study are endemic and protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. Every year, however, between 2.2 and 4.1 million orchid plants consumed in Zambia are estimated as originating from Tanzania. This research examines the differences between HIV/AIDS wild edible orchid gatherers and non-HIV/AIDS gatherers with regards to the frequency of gathering, salience in naming the various orchids, gathering knowledge acquisition and perceptions regarding the current state of abundance of the edible species. Methods Data was collected through interviews with 224 individuals in the Makete District of Tanzania close to the boarder of Zambia. Free-listings were conducted and Sutrup's Cultural Significance Index (CSI constructed. The independent t-test was used to compare the differences in gathering frequencies between affected and non-affected gatherers. A multiple comparison of the 4 subgroups (affected adults and children, and non-affected adults and children in gathering frequencies was done with a one way ANOVA test and its post hoc test. To examine the difference between affected and non-affected gatherers difference in source of gathering knowledge, a chi square test was run. Results Forty two vernacular names of gathered orchid species were mentioned corresponding to 7 botanical species belongs to genera Disa, Satyrium, Habenaria, Eulophia and Roeperocharis. Ninety-seven percent of HIV/AIDS affected households state that orchid gathering is their primary economic activity compared to non-HIV/AIDS affected households at 9.7 percent. The HIV/AIDS affected gathered significantly more often than the non-affected. AIDS orphans, however, gathered most frequently. Gatherers perceive a decreasing trend of abundance of 6 of the 7 species. Gathering activities were mainly performed in age based peer groups

  11. Toward Elimination of Dog-Mediated Human Rabies: Experiences from Implementing a Large-scale Demonstration Project in Southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpolya, Emmanuel Abraham; Lembo, Tiziana; Lushasi, Kennedy; Mancy, Rebecca; Mbunda, Eberhard M; Makungu, Selemani; Maziku, Matthew; Sikana, Lwitiko; Jaswant, Gurdeep; Townsend, Sunny; Meslin, François-Xavier; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Ngeleja, Chanasa; Changalucha, Joel; Mtema, Zacharia; Sambo, Maganga; Mchau, Geofrey; Rysava, Kristyna; Nanai, Alphoncina; Kazwala, Rudovick; Cleaveland, Sarah; Hampson, Katie

    2017-01-01

    A Rabies Elimination Demonstration Project was implemented in Tanzania from 2010 through to 2015, bringing together government ministries from the health and veterinary sectors, the World Health Organization, and national and international research institutions. Detailed data on mass dog vaccination campaigns, bite exposures, use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and human rabies deaths were collected throughout the project duration and project areas. Despite no previous experience in dog vaccination within the project areas, district veterinary officers were able to implement district-wide vaccination campaigns that, for most part, progressively increased the numbers of dogs vaccinated with each phase of the project. Bite exposures declined, particularly in the southernmost districts with the smallest dog populations, and health workers successfully transitioned from primarily intramuscular administration of PEP to intradermal administration, resulting in major cost savings. However, even with improved PEP provision, vaccine shortages still occurred in some districts. In laboratory diagnosis, there were several logistical challenges in sample handling and submission but compared to the situation before the project started, there was a moderate increase in the number of laboratory samples submitted and tested for rabies in the project areas with a decrease in the proportion of rabies-positive samples over time. The project had a major impact on public health policy and practice with the formation of a One Health Coordination Unit at the Prime Minister's Office and development of the Tanzania National Rabies Control Strategy, which lays a roadmap for elimination of rabies in Tanzania by 2030 by following the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE). Overall, the project generated many important lessons relevant to rabies prevention and control in particular and disease surveillance in general. Lessons include the need for (1) a specific unit in the

  12. Encountering local inhabitants' perspectives in terms of authenticity: The example of rural tourism in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Weidinger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of globalisation and various standardisation processes in everyday life are currently reflected through individuals’ quests for encountering authenticity. The paper interrogates in which particular ways local inhabitants evaluate rural localities with regard to authenticity by means of local architectural styles and filmic representations. Empirical findings from two qualitative studies carried out in rural Southern Germany are presented. The studies were comprised of qualitative interviews with local inhabitants and representatives in tourism, politics and heritage conservation together with a film analysis of a popular Heimat film shot in the Bavarian forest. Results reveal locals’ critique of modern architectural styles such as “Tuscan houses” as inauthentic, whereby a link between architecture and regional identity (“archidentity” cannot be established. However, the film analysis brings forth locals’ congruities between filmic representations and their lived spaces. In sum, locals’ perspectives on authentication processes can contribute to re-evaluate localities that are mainly shaped by idealised images for tourism purposes.

  13. The burden of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in rural communities in southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Okundia, Patrick Otamere

    2015-01-01

    The African region of the world is experiencing a double epidemic of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among adult residents of rural communities in southern Nigeria. A community based descriptive cross-sectional study. Adults aged 18 years and above residing in the rural communities who attended a free medical outreach programme were screened for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Of the 845 participants, 349 (41.3%) were aged 50-69 years, 263 (31.1%) were males, and 305 (36.1%) were farmers. Overweight and obesity were found in 184 (21.8%) and 90 (10.6%) of them respectively. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 37.6% (males 43.7%, females 35.1%, p = 0.018) while that of diabetes mellitus was 4.6% (males 1.9%, females 5.8%, p = 0.012). Predictors of hypertension were age ≥ 40 years (OR = 5.04, CI: 2.99 - 8.48), overweight/obesity (OR = 1.56, CI: 1.15 - 2.13) while females are less likely to develop hypertension (OR = 0.72, CI: 0.53 - 0.98). The significant predictor of diabetes mellitus was overweight/obesity (OR = 3.53, CI: 1.78 - 6.98). The rising prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus is assuming an epidemic level in rural communities in southern Nigeria. There is an urgent need for intensive health education and community surveillance programmes targeted at rural communities in order to achieve prevention and control of these non-communicable diseases in Nigeria.

  14. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  15. "Como Si Nada": Enduring Violence and Diabetes among Rural Women in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, Laura

    2018-04-01

    Rural women in Southern Mexico link their diabetes to distressful life experiences rooted in ordinary violence. While much has been written on the use that diabetes sufferers make of their morbid condition as an idiom of distress, I investigate the personal and social effects that such an idiom has on women. As I illustrate, diabetes reflects an ambivalence that helps women to speak about the unspeakable and, at the same time, reinforces their ideas of culpability, namely that they are to blame for both the gendered violence that they endure and the diabetes from which they suffer.

  16. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: three public policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, Frida S; Beran, Tanya N

    2012-01-10

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Less than one quarter (22.6%) of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03) and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10) were significantly associated with screening uptake. Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of the disease must include specific information on how to prevent it

  17. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  18. Potential use of mobile phones in improving animal health service delivery in underserved rural areas: experience from Kilosa and Gairo districts in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Massawe, Lucas B; Silayo, Richard S; Mgongo, Frederick O K; Kimbita, Elikira; Wambura, Raphael M

    2016-10-07

    Sub-optimal performance of the animal health delivery system in rural areas is common in developing countries including Tanzania. However, penetration of mobile phones and availability of good road network and public transport systems offer opportunities for improving the access of rural communities to diagnostic and advisory services from facilities and expertise located in urban areas. A questionnaire survey on possession and use of mobile phones by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Kilosa and Gairo districts was carried out between November and December 2015. A total number of 138 livestock keepers from three villages of Chakwale (54), Mvumi (41) and Parakuyo (43) participated in the study. An e-based system was designed and tested to link rural communities with urban diagnostic facilities. It was observed that the average number of phones possessed by individuals interviewed and household families was 1.1 ± 0.26 (1-2) and 3.5 ± 2.23 (1-10), respectively. It was further observed that out of 138 livestock keepers interviewed, 133 (96.4 %) had feature phones while 10 (7.2 %) of them possessed smartphones. Mobile phone is currently used to support livestock production by communicating on animal health in Parakuyo (18, 41.9 %), Mvumi (18, 43.9 %) and Chakwale (14, 25.9 %). Other contributions of mobile phones in livestock and crop agriculture observed in the study area include: exchange of livestock price information, crop price information, communicating on plant health/diseases, livestock extension and advisory services as well as crop farming extension and advisory services. We also designed and tested an e-based SUAVetDiag® system to support timely diagnosis of infectious disease conditions and prompt advice on case management in veterinary underserved areas. Availability of mobile phones in rural areas, in combination with supporting infrastructure and facilities in urban areas, has potential to stimulate local development and improving

  19. The costs of introducing artemisinin-based combination therapy: evidence from district-wide implementation in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, Joseph D; Goodman, Catherine A; Kachur, S Patrick; Mulligan, Jo; Munkondya, John S; McHomvu, Naiman; Abdulla, Salim; Bloland, Peter; Mills, Anne

    2008-01-07

    The development of antimalarial drug resistance has led to increasing calls for the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However, little evidence is available on the full costs associated with changing national malaria treatment policy. This paper presents findings on the actual drug and non-drug costs associated with deploying ACT in one district in Tanzania, and uses these data to estimate the nationwide costs of implementation in a setting where identification of malaria cases is primarily dependant on clinical diagnosis. Detailed data were collected over a three year period on the financial costs of providing ACT in Rufiji District as part of a large scale effectiveness evaluation, including costs of drugs, distribution, training, treatment guidelines and other information, education and communication (IEC) materials and publicity. The district-level costs were scaled up to estimate the costs of nationwide implementation, using four scenarios to extrapolate variable costs. The total district costs of implementing ACT over the three year period were slightly over one million USD, with drug purchases accounting for 72.8% of this total. The composite (best) estimate of nationwide costs for the first three years of ACT implementation was 48.3 million USD (1.29 USD per capita), which varied between 21 and 67.1 million USD in the sensitivity analysis (2003 USD). In all estimates drug costs constituted the majority of total costs. However, non-drug costs such as IEC materials, drug distribution, communication, and health worker training were also substantial, accounting for 31.4% of overall ACT implementation costs in the best estimate scenario. Annual implementation costs are equivalent to 9.5% of Tanzania's recurrent health sector budget, and 28.7% of annual expenditure on medical supplies, implying a 6-fold increase in the national budget for malaria treatment. The costs of implementing ACT are substantial. Although drug purchases

  20. The costs of introducing artemisinin-based combination therapy: evidence from district-wide implementation in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Salim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of antimalarial drug resistance has led to increasing calls for the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. However, little evidence is available on the full costs associated with changing national malaria treatment policy. This paper presents findings on the actual drug and non-drug costs associated with deploying ACT in one district in Tanzania, and uses these data to estimate the nationwide costs of implementation in a setting where identification of malaria cases is primarily dependant on clinical diagnosis. Methods Detailed data were collected over a three year period on the financial costs of providing ACT in Rufiji District as part of a large scale effectiveness evaluation, including costs of drugs, distribution, training, treatment guidelines and other information, education and communication (IEC materials and publicity. The district-level costs were scaled up to estimate the costs of nationwide implementation, using four scenarios to extrapolate variable costs. Results The total district costs of implementing ACT over the three year period were slightly over one million USD, with drug purchases accounting for 72.8% of this total. The composite (best estimate of nationwide costs for the first three years of ACT implementation was 48.3 million USD (1.29 USD per capita, which varied between 21 and 67.1 million USD in the sensitivity analysis (2003 USD. In all estimates drug costs constituted the majority of total costs. However, non-drug costs such as IEC materials, drug distribution, communication, and health worker training were also substantial, accounting for 31.4% of overall ACT implementation costs in the best estimate scenario. Annual implementation costs are equivalent to 9.5% of Tanzania's recurrent health sector budget, and 28.7% of annual expenditure on medical supplies, implying a 6-fold increase in the national budget for malaria treatment. Conclusion The costs of

  1. A new species of Chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae: Kinyongia highlights the biological affinities between the Southern Highlands and Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania

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    Michele Menegon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of chameleon is described from the Livingstone and Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania. The new species is morphologically most similar to Kinyongia vanheygeni. Furthermore, a single, short rostral appendage shows the species similarity to other Eastern Arc endemic Kinyongia species (e.g. K. uthmoelleri, K. oxyrhina, K. magomberae and K. tenuis. Females of all these species lack any rostral ornamentation and are all very similar morphologically. Males of the new species, on which the morphological diagnosis is based, can be distinguished from other Kinyongia by a shorter rostral appendage that bifurcates at the tip. They are easily distinguished from K. vanheygeni, otherwise the most similar species, by differences in head scalation and the length and shape of the rostral appendage. The new species is associated with montane rainforest and is known from only four forest fragments of which two are in the Udzungwa and two in the Livingstone Mountains. Phylogenetically, the new species is sister to K. tenuis and K. magomberae, which together, form a clade that also contains K. oxyrhina. The disjunct distribution of the new species, in the Livingstone and Udzungwa mountains, stretches across the ‘Makambako Gap’ which is a putative biogeographical barrier separating the distinct faunas of the Southern highlands and Eastern Arc Mountains. Evidence from this species however, points to potentially closer biological affinities between the Livingstone and Udzungwa mountains.

  2. The impact of livestock on the abundance, resting behaviour and sporozoite rate of malaria vectors in southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayagaya, Valeriana S; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Lyimo, Issa N; Kihonda, Japheti; Mtambala, Hassan; Ngonyani, Hassan; Russell, Tanya L; Ferguson, Heather M

    2015-01-21

    Increases in the coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have significantly reduced the abundance of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in several African settings, leaving its more zoophagic sibling species Anopheles arabiensis as the primary vector. This study investigated the impact of livestock ownership at the household level on the ecology and malaria infection rate of vectors in an area of Tanzania where An. arabiensis accounts for most malaria transmission. Mosquito vectors were collected resting inside houses, animal sheds and in outdoor resting boxes at households with and without livestock over three years in ten villages of the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Additionally, the abundance and sporozoite rate of vectors attempting to bite indoors at these households was assessed as an index of malaria exposure. The mean abundance of An. gambiae s.l. biting indoors was similar at houses with and without livestock. In all years but one, the relative proportion of An. arabiensis within the An. gambiae s.l. species complex was higher at households with livestock. Livestock presence had a significant impact on malaria vector feeding and resting behaviour. Anopheles arabiensis were generally found resting in cattle sheds where livestock were present, and inside houses when absent. Correspondingly, the human blood index of An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.l. was significant reduced at households with livestock, whereas that of An. gambiae s.s. was unaffected. Whilst there was some evidence that sporozoite rates within the indoor-biting An. gambiae s.l population was significantly reduced at households with livestock, the significance of this effect varied depending on how background spatial variation was accounted for. These results confirm that the presence of cattle at the household level can significantly alter the local species composition, feeding and resting behaviour of malaria vectors. However, the net impact of this livestock-associated variation in

  3. Estimating the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection among rural communities in Western Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakuza, Jared S.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Nkwengulila, Gamba

    2017-01-01

    with sex or age. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our data suggest a more widespread distribution of S. mansoni in this part of Tanzania than was previously thought. The apparent prevalence estimates substantially under-estimated the true prevalence as determined by the ZINB models, and the two types......) models with explanatory variables of site, sex, and age. The ZINB models indicated that a substantial proportion of the observed zero FWEC reflected a failure to detect eggs in truly infected individuals, meaning that the estimated true prevalence was much higher than the apparent prevalence...... of sampling strategies also resulted in differing conclusions regarding prevalence of infection. We therefore recommend that future surveillance programmes designed to assess risk factors should use active sampling whenever possible, in order to avoid the self-selection bias associated with passive sampling....

  4. Tracing Improving Livelihoods in Rural Africa Using Local Measures of Wealth: A Case Study from Central Tanzania, 1991–2016

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    Wilhelm Östberg

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied livelihood changes and poverty dynamics over a 25-year period in two villages in central Tanzania. The villages were, from the early 1990s and 2000s, strikingly poor with between 50% and 55% of families in the poorest wealth groups. 25 years later much has changed: people have become substantially wealthier, with 64% and 71% in the middle wealth groups. The new wealth had been generated locally, from farming, particularly of sunflowers as a cash crop. This goes against a conventional view of small-scale farming in Tanzania as being stagnant or unproductive. The area of land farmed per family has increased, almost doubling in one village. People have made money, which they invest in mechanised farming, improved housing, education of their children, livestock, and consumer goods. Improved infrastructure and local entrepreneurs have played key roles in the area’s transformation. Locally identified wealth rankings showed that most villagers, those in the middle wealth groups and above, can now support themselves from their land, which is a notable change to a time when 71% and 82% in each village respectively depended on casual labour for their survival. This change has come at a cost to the environment. By 2016, the village forests have largely gone and been replaced by farms. Farmers were concerned that the climate was turning drier because of deforestation. Studying the mundane—the material used in roofs, the size of farms, and so on made it possible to trace and understand the radical transition the area has experienced.

  5. Understanding the Challenges of Improving Sanitation and Hygiene Outcomes in a Community Based Intervention: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Joseph Kihika; Galukande, Moses; Maeda, Florence; Luboga, Sam; Renzaho, Andre M N

    2017-06-05

    Good sanitation and clean water are basic human rights yet they remain elusive to many rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We carried out a cross sectional study to examine the impact of a four-year intervention aimed at improving access to water and sanitation and reducing waterborne disease, especially diarrhea in children under five years old. The study was carried out in April and May 2015 in Busangi, Chela and Ntobo wards of Kahama District of Tanzania. The interventions included education campaigns and improved water supply, and sanitation. The percentage of households (HHs) with access to water within 30 min increased from 19.2 to 48.9 and 17.6 to 27.3 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The percentage of HHs with hand washing facilities at the latrine increased from 0% to 13.2%. However, the incidence of diarrhea among children under five years increased over the intervention period, RR 2.91 95% CI 2.71-3.11, p < 0.0001. Availability of water alone may not influence the incidence of waterborne diseases. Factors such as water storage and usage, safe excreta disposal and other hygiene practices are critical for interventions negating the spread of water borne diseases. A model that articulates the extent to which these factors are helpful for such interventions should be explored.

  6. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania

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    Helen Prytherch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective: To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design: Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion: This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions: It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not

  7. Understanding the uneven spread of HIV within Africa: comparative study of biologic, behavioral, and contextual factors in rural populations in Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, J Ties; Gregson, Simon; Nyamukapa, Constance; Urassa, Mark

    2003-10-01

    Large differences in the spread of HIV have been observed within sub-Saharan Africa. The goal was to identify factors that could explain differences in the spread of HIV within sub-Saharan African populations. Ecologic comparison of data from population-based surveys in high and relatively low HIV prevalence rural areas in Zimbabwe, Manicaland, and Tanzania, Kisesa. HIV prevalence in Manicaland and Kisesa was 15.4% and 5.3% in men aged 17-44 years and 21.1% and 8.0% in women aged 15-44 years (odds ratios, 3.3 and 3.1, respectively). Marriage is later, spatial mobility more common, cohabitation with marital partners less frequent, education levels are higher, and male circumcision is less common in Manicaland. However, adjustment for differences in these factors increased the odds ratios for HIV infection in Manicaland versus Kisesa to 6.9 and 4.8 for men and women, respectively. Sexually transmitted infection levels were similar, but syphilis was only common in Kisesa. Respondents in Kisesa started sex earlier and reported more sexual partners. Age differences between partners were similar in the 2 locations. Substantial differences exist between the contemporary sociodemographic profiles of rural Manicaland and Kisesa. However, these differences did not translate into measurable differences in the biologic or behavioral factors for which data were available and did not explain the much higher HIV prevalence found in Manicaland. These findings might reflect more extensive AIDS-selective mortality and behavior change or greater bias in reporting of sexual behavior in Zimbabwe.

  8. The challenges of developing an instrument to assess health provider motivation at primary care level in rural Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytherch, Helen; Leshabari, Melkidezek T.; Wiskow, Christiane; Aninanya, Gifty A.; Kakoko, Deodatus C.V.; Kagoné, Moubassira; Burghardt, Juliane; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Marx, Michael; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality of health care depends on the competence and motivation of the health workers that provide it. In the West, several tools exist to measure worker motivation, and some have been applied to the health sector. However, none have been validated for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity of such tools has also led to concerns about their application at primary care level. Objective To develop a common instrument to monitor any changes in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care provider motivation resulting from the introduction of pilot interventions in rural, primary level facilities in Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Tanzania. Design Initially, a conceptual framework was developed. Based upon this, a literature review and preliminary qualitative research, an English-language instrument was developed and validated in an iterative process with experts from the three countries involved. The instrument was then piloted in Ghana. Reliability testing and exploratory factor analysis were used to produce a final, parsimonious version. Results and discussion This paper describes the actual process of developing the instrument. Consequently, the concepts and items that did not perform well psychometrically at pre-test are first presented and discussed. The final version of the instrument, which comprises 42 items for self-assessment and eight for peer-assessment, is then shown. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings from first use of the instrument with MNH providers from 12 rural, primary level facilities in each of the three countries. Conclusions It is possible to undertake work of this nature at primary health care level, particularly if the instruments are kept as straightforward as possible and well introduced. However, their development requires very lengthy preparatory periods. The effort needed to adapt such instruments for use in different countries within the region of sub-Saharan Africa should not be underestimated. PMID

  9. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

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    Uffe Christian Braae

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. “Track-and-treat” of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤15 from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8% was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17–0.89, compared to baseline (4.1%. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8% had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32–0.76 in this district compared to baseline (13%, whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with ‘track-and-treat’ contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on

  10. Effect of National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy; Ndawi, Benedict; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-09-01

    Taenia solium is found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and co-endemic with schistosomiasis in many regions. Taenia solium leads to taeniosis and neurocysticercosis - the leading cause of preventable epilepsy globally. This study aimed to assess the effects of the National Schistosomiasis Control Programme on prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis over a four year period in Tanzania. School-based mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was carried out based on schistosomiasis endemicity. Four human and five porcine cross-sectional surveys were carried out from 2012 to 2015 in Mbozi and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood samples from pigs were collected to estimate cysticercosis prevalence by Ag-ELISA. "Track-and-treat" of taeniosis cases was carried out after each survey. In total 12082 stool samples and 4579 porcine serum samples were collected. Significantly fewer children (≤ 15) from Mbozi were infected throughout the study than children from Mbeya who showed a significant decrease in copro-Ag prevalence after the first treatment only. During the final survey in Mbozi the prevalence of taeniosis in adults (1.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.031, OR 0.40, CI: 0.17-0.89), compared to baseline (4.1%). The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis (8%) had also dropped significantly (p = 0.002, OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.76) in this district compared to baseline (13%), whereas no significant difference was seen in Mbeya compared to baseline. The study suggests that three rounds of MDA targeting schistosomiasis in school-aged children combined with 'track-and-treat' contributed to a reduction in prevalence of T. solium in this population, and also had a spillover effect on adults in treated

  11. The effectiveness of non-pyrethroid insecticide-treated durable wall lining to control malaria in rural Tanzania: study protocol for a two-armed cluster randomized trial

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    George Mtove

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite considerable reductions in malaria achieved by scaling-up long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, maintaining sustained community protection remains operationally challenging. Increasing insecticide resistance also threatens to jeopardize the future of both strategies. Non-pyrethroid insecticide­treated wall lining (ITWL may represent an alternate or complementary control method and a potential tool to manage insecticide resistance. To date no study has demonstrated whether ITWL can reduce malaria transmission nor provide additional protection beyond the current best practice of universal coverage (UC of LLINs and prompt case management. Methods/design A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial will be conducted in rural Tanzania to assess whether non-pyrethroid ITWL and UC of LLINs provide added protection against malaria infection in children, compared to UC of LLINs alone. Stratified randomization based on malaria prevalence will be used to select 22 village clusters per arm. All 44 clusters will receive LLINs and half will also have ITWL installed on interior house walls. Study children, aged 6 months to 11 years old, will be enrolled from each cluster and followed monthly to estimate cumulative incidence of malaria parasitaemia (primary endpoint, time to first malaria episode and prevalence of anaemia before and after intervention. Entomological inoculation rate will be estimated using indoor CDC light traps and outdoor tent traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species, sporozoite infection, insecticide resistance and blood meal source. ITWL bioefficacy and durability will be monitored using WHO cone bioassays and household surveys, respectively. Social and cultural factors influencing community and household ITWL acceptability will be explored through focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews. Cost-effectiveness, compared between study arms, will be

  12. Involving traditional birth attendants in emergency obstetric care in Tanzania: policy implications of a study of their knowledge and practices in Kigoma Rural District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyagusa, Dismas B; Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Masatu, Melchiory

    2013-10-14

    Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs' inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about their competence to deliver the recommended maternal

  13. A Randomized Longitudinal Factorial Design to Assess Malaria Vector Control and Disease Management Interventions in Rural Tanzania

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    Randall A. Kramer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of malaria control strategies is complicated by constraints posed by local health systems, infrastructure, limited resources, and the complex interactions between infection, disease, and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized factorial study designed to address this research gap. This project will evaluate two malaria control interventions in Mvomero District, Tanzania: (1 a disease management strategy involving early detection and treatment by community health workers using rapid diagnostic technology; and (2 vector control through community-supported larviciding. Six study villages were assigned to each of four groups (control, early detection and treatment, larviciding, and early detection and treatment plus larviciding. The primary endpoint of interest was change in malaria infection prevalence across the intervention groups measured during annual longitudinal cross-sectional surveys. Recurring entomological surveying, household surveying, and focus group discussions will provide additional valuable insights. At baseline, 962 households across all 24 villages participated in a household survey; 2,884 members from 720 of these households participated in subsequent malariometric surveying. The study design will allow us to estimate the effect sizes of different intervention mixtures. Careful documentation of our study protocol may also serve other researchers designing field-based intervention trials.

  14. A randomized longitudinal factorial design to assess malaria vector control and disease management interventions in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Randall A; Mboera, Leonard E G; Senkoro, Kesheni; Lesser, Adriane; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Paul, Christopher J; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-05-16

    The optimization of malaria control strategies is complicated by constraints posed by local health systems, infrastructure, limited resources, and the complex interactions between infection, disease, and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol of a randomized factorial study designed to address this research gap. This project will evaluate two malaria control interventions in Mvomero District, Tanzania: (1) a disease management strategy involving early detection and treatment by community health workers using rapid diagnostic technology; and (2) vector control through community-supported larviciding. Six study villages were assigned to each of four groups (control, early detection and treatment, larviciding, and early detection and treatment plus larviciding). The primary endpoint of interest was change in malaria infection prevalence across the intervention groups measured during annual longitudinal cross-sectional surveys. Recurring entomological surveying, household surveying, and focus group discussions will provide additional valuable insights. At baseline, 962 households across all 24 villages participated in a household survey; 2,884 members from 720 of these households participated in subsequent malariometric surveying. The study design will allow us to estimate the effect sizes of different intervention mixtures. Careful documentation of our study protocol may also serve other researchers designing field-based intervention trials.

  15. Electricity's effect on gender equality in rural Zanzibar, Tanzania : case study for Gender and Energy World Development Report Background Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winther, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    This anthropological case study on the introduction of electricity in rural Zanzibar around 1990 discusses to what extent and how women became empowered in the process. What factors contributed to increased gender equality during the uptake of electricity and related appliances – and what were the

  16. Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of peste des petits ruminants and contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia in goats and sheep in the Southern Zone of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbyuzi, Albano O; Komba, Erick V G; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Kambarage, Dominic M

    2014-09-01

    A retrospective Sero-prevalence analysis was conducted in 2012 in order to find out whether contagious caprine pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) had already been introduced in Mtwara and Lindi regions of Southern Tanzania by 2007 and 2009. A total of 477 randomly selected sera from a bank of 3500 small ruminant samples that were collected as part of Rift Valley Fever surveillance of 2007 in Mtwara and Lindi regions were used in this study. Seroconversion was also evaluated in the 504 sera that were collected in 2009 as part of disease outbreak investigations in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region. Seroconversions to CCPP and PPR were tested using competitive ELISA. In addition, information on different variables available in the existing surveillance forms gathered during sampling was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with seropositivity to the two diseases. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP for the sera of 2007 and 2009 in goats was 52.1% (n=447) and 35.5% (n=434) respectively; while in sheep the seroprevalence was 36.7% (n=30) and 22.9% (n=70) respectively. Seroconversion to PPR in goats and sheep was 28.7% (n=434) and 35.7% (n=70) respectively based on the sera of 2009. However, no antibodies were detected in the 2007 sera. Mixed infections were detected in 7.4% (n=434) of the goat and 12.9% (n=70) of sheep samples. Significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to CCPP in 2007 included introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=3.94; 95% CI 1.86-8.36; p<0.001) and raising animals in government farms (OR=4.92; 95% CI 1.57-15.76; p=0.02); whereas, seropositivity to CCPP in 2009 increased with introduction of new animals in flocks (OR=18.82; 95% CI 8.06-43.96; p<0.001), raising animals in government farms (OR=4.04; 95% CI 2.69-6.42; p<0.001) and raising animals in Newala district (OR=2.35; 95% CI 1.53-3.62; p<0.001). On the other hand, predictors for seropositivity to PPR in 2009 were introduction of

  17. Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Maize Production in the Southern and Western Highlands Sub-agro Ecological Zones of Tanzania

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    Philbert M. Luhunga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC fourth assessment report confirmed that climate change is unequivocal. It is coming to us faster with larger impacts and bigger risks than even most climate scientists expected as recently as a few years ago. One particular worry is the disastrous consequence to agriculture and food security sectors in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. Adaptation is the only option to reduce the impacts of climate change. However, before planning adaptation policies or strategies to climate change, it is important to assess the impacts of climate change at regional and local scale to have scientific evidence that would guide the formulation of such policies or strategies. In this study the impacts of climate change on rain-fed maize (Zea Mays production in the southern and western highlands sub-agro ecological zones of Tanzania are evaluated. High resolution climate simulations from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment_Regional Climate Models (CORDEX_RCMs were used as input into the Decision Support System for Agro-technological Transfer (DSSAT to simulate maize yield in the historical climate condition (1971–2000, present (2010–2039, mid (2040–2069, and end (2070–2099 centuries. Daily rainfall, solar radiations, minimum and maximum temperatures for the historical (1971–2000 climate condition and future climate projections (2010–2099 under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 were used to drive DSSAT. The impacts of climate change were assessed by comparing the average maize yields in historical climate condition against the average of simulated maize yields in the present, mid and end centuries under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Results of future maize yields estimates from DSSAT driven by individual RCMs under both RCP scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 differs from one RCM to another and from one scenario to another. This highlight

  18. Cluster-randomized study of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi in southern Tanzania: evaluation of impact on survival

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    Schellenberg Joanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria control in infants (IPTi consists of the administration of a treatment dose of an anti-malarial drug, usually sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, at scheduled intervals, regardless of the presence of Plasmodium falciparum infection. A pooled analysis of individually randomized trials reported that IPTi reduced clinical episodes by 30%. This study evaluated the effect of IPTi on child survival in the context of a five-district implementation project in southern Tanzania. [Trial registration: clinical trials.gov NCT00152204]. Methods After baseline household and health facility surveys in 2004, five districts comprising 24 divisions were randomly assigned either to receive IPTi (n = 12 or not (n = 12. Implementation started in March 2005, led by routine health services with support from the research team. In 2007, a large household survey was undertaken to assess the impact of IPTi on survival in infants aged two-11 months through birth history interviews with all women aged 13-49 years. The analysis is based on an "intention-to-treat" ecological design, with survival outcomes analysed according to the cluster in which the mothers lived. Results Survival in infants aged two-11 months was comparable in IPTi and comparison areas at baseline. In intervention areas in 2007, 48% of children aged 12-23 months had documented evidence of receiving three doses of IPTi, compared to 2% in comparison areas (P P = 0.31. Conclusion The lack of evidence of an effect of IPTi on survival could be a false negative result due to a lack of power or imbalance of unmeasured confounders. Alternatively, there could be no mortality impact of IPTi due to low coverage, late administration, drug resistance, decreased malaria transmission or improvements in vector control and case management. This study raises important questions for programme evaluation design.

  19. The internal migration between public and faith-based health providers: a cross-sectional, retrospective and multicentre study from southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabai, Patrik; Prytherch, Helen; Baumgarten, Inge; Kisanga, Oberlin M E; Schmidt-Ehry, Bergis; Marx, Michael

    2013-07-01

    To assess the magnitude, direction and underlying dynamics of internal health worker migration between public and faith-based health providers from a hospital perspective. Two complementary tools were implemented in 10 public and six faith-based hospitals in southern Tanzania. A hospital questionnaire assessed magnitude and direction of staff migration between January 2006 and June 2009. Interviews with 42 public and 20 faith-based maternity nurses evaluated differences in staff perspectives and motives for the observed migration patterns. The predominant direction of staff movement was from the faith-based to the public sector: 69.1% (n = 105/152) of hospital staff exits and 60.6% (n = 60/99) of hospital staff gains. Nurses were the largest group among the migrating health workforce. Faith-based hospitals lost 59.3% (n = 86/145) of nurses and 90.6% (n = 77/85) of registered nurses to the public sector, whereby public hospitals reported 13.5% (n = 59/436) of nurses and 24.4% (n = 41/168) of registered nurses being former faith-based employees. Interviews revealed significantly inferior staff perspectives among faith-based respondents than their public colleagues. Main differences were identified regarding career development and training, management support, employee engagement and workload. This study revealed considerable internal health worker migration from the faith-based to the public sector. Staff retention and motivation within faith-based hospitals are not restricted to financial considerations, and salary gaps can no longer uniquely explain this movement pattern. The consequences for the catchment area of faith-based hospitals are potentially severe and erode cooperation potential between the public and private health sector.

  20. Tanzania | Page 29 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corn, cassava and pulses are the main food sources in rural Tanzania. Meat is scarce for rural populations, and don't expect to find carrots, kale or squash at the local market! Animal products – particularly offal –, green vegetables and orange fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamin A. As a result, Tanzanians ...

  1. Placing value on the products and patrimony of rural lands in southern Brazil: contribution to sustainable land development.

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    Claire Cerdan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes an analysis of the way in which agents of rural development have elaborated and implemented mechanisms to place value on the local specificities within two states of Brazil’s southern region. Within this context, consideration of biological and cultural diversity from a perspective of sustainable development imposes itself, whether directly or indirectly. We base our argument on two case studies of experiences that promote these mechanisms through placing emphasis on origins: i beef produced in native pastures of Rio Grande do Sul and ii Goethe wine, made in the Urussanga region of Santa Catarina. Both cases are considered illustrative of the current phase of evolution of debates dealing with the interface of geographic origins, protection of national heritage and sustainable rural development. Keywords: rural development, sustainable development, cultural heritage, Southern Brazil.

  2. Old Age, Widows, and Rural Solitude in the Eighteenth Century Central-Southern Spain

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    Francisco GARCÍA GONZÁLEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current research about old age during the Ancient Regime in Spain is insufficient. And the same is the case with women, despite the large number of studies about gender and family history in the past decades. Taking, as a starting point, the analysis of widow women which became heads of households, this paper aims to know which specific characteristics had those households during their old age, composition, size, typology and the tendency to solitude; which activities and livelihood they had, paying attention to those differences as an expression of inequality; and which mechanisms and social reproduction strategies they followed to deal with the effects of aging. This paper is geografically focused in a wide rural area of central-southern Spain and aims to review the assumption that single and widow women in preindustrial age had subordinted lives. 

  3. Community perspectives on the determinants of maternal health in rural southern Mozambique: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Vidler, Marianne; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Boene, Helena; Chiaú, Rogério; Sevene, Esperança; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Munguambe, Khátia

    2016-09-30

    Mozambique has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The main influences on maternal health encompass social, economic, political, environmental and cultural determinants of health. To effectively address maternal mortality in the post-2015 agenda, interventions need to consider the determinants of health so that their delivery is not limited to the health sector. The objective of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify key community groups' perspectives on the perceived determinants of maternal health in rural areas of southern Mozambique. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted with women of reproductive age, pregnant women, matrons, male partners, community leaders and health workers. Participants were recruited using sampling techniques of convenience and snow balling. Focus groups had an average of nine participants each. The heads of 12 administrative posts were also interviewed to understand the local context. Data were coded and analysed thematically using NVivo software. A broad range of political, economic, socio-cultural and environmental determinants of maternal health were identified by community representatives. It was perceived that the civil war has resulted in local unemployment and poverty that had a number of downstream effects including lack of funds for accessing medical care and transport, and influence on socio-cultural determinants, particularly gender relations that disadvantaged women. Socio-cultural determinants included intimate partner violence toward women, and strained relationships with in-laws and co-spouses. Social relationships were complex as there were both negative and positive impacts on maternal health. Environmental determinants included natural disasters and poor access to roads and transport exacerbated by the wet season and subsequent flooding. In rural southern Mozambique, community perceptions of the determinants of maternal health included political, economic, socio

  4. Why do women not adhere to advice on maternal referral in rural Tanzania? Narratives of women and their family members

    OpenAIRE

    Pembe, Andrea B.; Mbekenga, Columba K.; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In most low-income countries, many women with high-risk pregnancies and complications do not reach the referral hospitals despite the provision of referral advice. Objective: To explore how antenatal maternal referral advice is understood and handled in a rural Tanzanian community. Methods: Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with six women who did not go to hospital and 13 people who were involved in the referral advice. Narrative analysis was used to describe ...

  5. Impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction and post-introduction etiology of diarrhea requiring hospital admission in Haydom, Tanzania, a rural African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A; Amour, Caroline; Gratz, Jean; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Mujaga, Buliga; Maro, Athanasia; McMurry, Timothy L; Liu, Jie; Mduma, Estomih; Houpt, Eric R

    2017-05-29

    No data are available on the etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Africa. The monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Tanzania on January 1, 2013. We performed a vaccine impact and effectiveness study as well as a qPCR-based etiology study at a rural Tanzanian hospital. We obtained data on admissions among children under 5 years to Haydom Lutheran Hospital between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015, and estimated the impact of vaccine introduction on all-cause diarrhea admissions. We then performed a vaccine effectiveness study using the test-negative design. Finally, we tested diarrheal specimens during 2015 by qPCR for a broad range of enteropathogens and calculated pathogen-specific attributable fractions. Vaccine introduction was associated with a 44.9% (95% CI 17.6 - 97.4) reduction in diarrhea admissions in 2015, as well as delay of the rotavirus season. The effectiveness of two doses of vaccine was 74.8% (-8.2 - 94.1) using an enzyme immunoassay-based case definition and 85.1% (26.5 - 97.0) using a qPCR-based case definition. Among 146 children enrolled in 2015, rotavirus remained the leading etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization (AF 25.8%, 95% CI: 24.4 - 26.7), followed by heat-stabile enterotoxin-producing E. coli (18.4%, 12.9 - 21.9), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (14.5%, 10.2 - 22.8), and Cryptosporidium (7.9%, 6.2 - 9.3). Despite the clear impact of vaccine introduction in this setting, rotavirus remained the leading etiology of diarrhea requiring hospitalization. Further efforts to maximize vaccine coverage and improve vaccine performance in these settings are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. "We have been working overnight without sleeping": traditional birth attendants' practices and perceptions of post-partum care services in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiti, Gladys R; Kiwara, Angwara D; Mbekenga, Columba K; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-02-03

    In many low-income countries, formal post-partum care utilization is much lower than that of skilled delivery and antenatal care. While Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) might play a role in post-partum care, research exploring their attitudes and practices during this period is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore TBAs' practices and perceptions in post-partum care in rural Tanzania. Qualitative in-depth interview data were collected from eight untrained and three trained TBAs. Additionally, five multiparous women who were clients of untrained TBAs were also interviewed. Interviews were conducted in February 2013. Data were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze data. Our study found that TBAs take care of women during post-partum with rituals appreciated by women. They report lacking formal post-partum care training, which makes them ill-equipped to detect and handle post-partum complications. Despite their lack of preparation, they try to provide care for some post-partum complications which could put the health of the woman at risk. TBAs perceive that utilization of hospital-based post-partum services among women was only important for the baby and for managing complications which they cannot handle. They are poorly linked with the health system. This study found that the TBAs conducted close follow-ups and some of their practices were appreciated by women. However, the fact that they were trying to manage certain post-partum complications can put women at risk. These findings point out the need to enhance the communication between TBAs and the formal health system and to increase the quality of the TBA services, especially in terms of prompt referral, through provision of training, mentoring, monitoring and supervision of the TBA services.

  7. The effectiveness of birth plans in increasing use of skilled care at delivery and postnatal care in rural Tanzania: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoma, Moke; Requejo, Jennifer; Campbell, Oona; Cousens, Simon; Merialdi, Mario; Filippi, Veronique

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness of birth plans in increasing use of skilled care at delivery and in the postnatal period among antenatal care (ANC) attendees in a rural district with low occupancy of health units for delivery but high antenatal care uptake in northern Tanzania. Cluster randomised trial in Ngorongoro district, Arusha region, involving 16 health units (8 per arm). Nine hundred and five pregnant women at 24 weeks of gestation and above (404 in the intervention arm) were recruited and followed up to at least 1 month postpartum. Skilled delivery care uptake was 16.8% higher in the intervention units than in the control [95% CI 2.6-31.0; P = 0.02]. Postnatal care utilisation in the first month of delivery was higher (difference in proportions: 30.0% [95% CI 1.3-47.7; P < 0.01]) and also initiated earlier (mean duration 6.6 ± 1.7 days vs. 20.9 ± 4.4 days, P < 0.01) in the intervention than in the control arm. Women's and providers' reports of care satisfaction (received or provided) did not differ greatly between the two arms of the study (difference in proportion: 12.1% [95% CI -6.3-30.5] P = 0.17 and 6.9% [95% CI -3.2-17.1] P = 0.15, respectively). Implementation of birth plans during ANC can increase the uptake of skilled delivery and post delivery care in the study district without negatively affecting women's and providers' satisfaction with available ANC services. Birth plans should be considered along with the range of other recommended interventions as a strategy to improve the uptake of maternal health services. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Experience of safety monitoring in the context of a prospective observational study of artemether-lumefantrine in rural Tanzania: lessons learned for pharmacovigilance reporting

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    Kabanywanyi Abdunoor M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To identify and implement strategies that help meet safety monitoring requirements in the context of an observational study for artemether-lumefantrine (AL administered as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in rural Tanzania. Methods Pharmacovigilance procedures were developed through collaboration between the investigating bodies, the relevant regulatory authority and the manufacturer of AL. Training and refresher sessions on the pharmacovigilance system were provided for healthcare workers from local health facilities and field recorders of the Ifakara Health Demographic Surveillance System (IHDSS. Three distinct channels for identification of adverse events (AEs and serious adverse events (SAEs were identified and implemented. Passive reporting took place through IHDSS and health care facilities, starting in October 2007. The third channel was through solicited reporting that was included in the context of a survey on AL as part of the ALIVE (Artemether-Lumefantrine In Vulnerable patients: Exploring health impact study (conducted only in March-April 2008. Results Training was provided for 40 healthcare providers (with refresher training 18 months later and for six field recorders. During the period 1st September 2007 to 31st March 2010, 67 AEs were reported including 52 under AL, five under sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, one under metakelfin, two after antibiotics; the remaining seven were due to anti-pyretic or anti-parasite medications. Twenty patients experienced SAEs; in 16 cases, a relation to AL was suspected. Six of the 20 cases were reported within 24 hours of occurrence. Discussion Safety monitoring and reporting is possible even in settings with weak health infrastructure. Reporting can be enhanced by regular and appropriate training of healthcare providers. SMS text alerts provide a practical solution to communication challenges. Conclusion Experience gained in this setting could help to improve

  9. Development of a Geographical Information System for the monitoring of the health infrastructure in rural areas in Tanzania

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    Jürgen Schweikart

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Setting up Geographical Information Systems (GIS on the existing health infrastructure and ongoing and planned interventions in public health in Tanzania is still in its infancy. While there are several activities on gathering information and attempts of documentation there does not exist an overall systematic approach of generally capturing all health related facts and bringing them together into a unique information system yet. In order to strengthen the information system in the health sector in general, and to assist Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW in better receiving an overview of health related infrastructure and intervention data for management purpose, a first-pilot GIS was built up in the Mbeya Region in cooperation with Tanzanian German Programme to Support Health (TGPSH/Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ.

    Methods: The Health-GIS contains information on all health facilities (HF in the region and their infrastructure. Therefore, personal interviews were conducted in selected HF based on a comprehensive questionnaire. The spatial coordinates of the HF were taken with a Global Positioning System (GPS. In a relational database, the newly coded HF are linked to the gathered information pertaining to them and in a second step are analysed and visualised with help of GIS. Results: First results show newly collected geometry and attribute data for a considerable number of HFs in Mbeya Region, which are then supplemented by information on the street network lately surveyed during the fieldtrip. With the help of a database management system (DBMS all information are stored and maintained within one health database. By their spatial relation, data may be analysed and mapped with a Health-GIS. Because of the targeted cooperation with people and institutions from the local health sector, the way for integrating the Health-GIS into the health

  10. The chicken or the egg? Exploring bi-directional associations between Newcastle disease vaccination and village chicken flock size in rural Tanzania.

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    Julia de Bruyn

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators". This article evaluates the uptake and outcomes of fee-for-service ND vaccination programs in eight rural villages in the semi-arid central zone of Tanzania. It represents part of an interdisciplinary program seeking to address chronic undernutrition in children through improvements to existing poultry and crop systems. Newcastle disease vaccination uptake was found to vary substantially across communities and seasons, with a significantly higher level of vaccination amongst households participating in a longitudinal study of children's growth compared with non-participating households (p = 0.009. Two multivariable model analyses were used to explore associations between vaccination and chicken numbers, allowing for clustered data and socioeconomic and cultural variation amongst the population. Results demonstrated that both (a households that undertook ND vaccination had a significantly larger chicken flock size in the period between that vaccination campaign and the next compared with those that did not vaccinate (p = 0.018; and (b households with larger chicken flocks at the time of vaccination were significantly more likely to participate in vaccination programs (p < 0.001. Additionally, households vaccinating in all three vaccination campaigns held over 12 months were identified to have significantly larger chicken flocks at the end of this period (p < 0.001. Opportunities to

  11. Seroprevalence of dengue among healthy adults in a rural community in Southern Malaysia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanoa, Amreeta; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Jahan, Nowrozy Kamar; Reidpath, Daniel D; Fatt, Quek Kia; Ahmad, Mohtar Pungut; Meng, Cheong Yuet; Ming, Lau Wee; Zain, Anuar Zaini; Phipps, Maude Elvira; Othman, Iekhsan; Rabu, Aman Bin; Sirajudeen, Rowther; Fatan, Ahmad Abdul Basitz Ahmad; Ghafar, Faidzal Adlee; Ahmad, Hamdan Bin; Allotey, Pascale

    2018-01-16

    The frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics continue to increase exponentially in Malaysia, with a shift in the age range predominance toward adults and an expansion to rural areas. Despite this, information pertaining to the extent of transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the rural community is lacking. This community-based pilot study was conducted to establish DENV seroprevalence amongst healthy adults in a rural district in Southern Malaysia, and to identify influencing factors. In this study undertaken between April and May 2015, a total of 277 adult participants were recruited from households across three localities in the Sungai Segamat subdistrict in Segamat district. Sera were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Panbio® Dengue Indirect IgG ELISA/high-titer capture) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) (Panbio®) antibodies. The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was conducted on random samples of IgG-positive sera for further confirmation. Medical history and a recall of previous history of dengue were collected through interviews, whereas sociodemographic information was obtained from an existing database. The overall seroprevalence for DENV infection was 86.6% (240/277) (95% CI: 83-91%). Serological evidence of recent infection (IgM/high-titer capture IgG) was noted in 11.2% (31/277) of participants, whereas there was evidence of past infection in 75.5% (209/277) of participants (indirect IgG minus recent infections). The PRNT assay showed that the detected antibodies were indeed specific to DENV. The multivariate analysis showed that the older age group was significantly associated with past DENV infections. Seropositivity increased with age; 48.5% in the age group of 45 years (P people. The majority of infections did not give rise to recognizable disease (either asymptomatic or nonspecific symptoms) as only 12.9% of participants (31/240) recalled having dengue in the past. The predominantly rural community under study had a very high previous

  12. All projects related to tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Tanzania, the maternal mortality rate of 454 deaths per 100,000 live births means that ... and employment options in poor rural communities in Rwanda and Tanzania. ... of fruit results in post-harvest losses of nearly 40% in tropical countries.

  13. Seasonality of stable isotope composition of atmospheric water input at the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Insa; Detsch, Florian; Gutlein, Adrian; Scholl, Martha A.; Kiese, Ralf; Appelhans, Tim; Nauss, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To understand the moisture regime at the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, we analysed the isotopic variability of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) of rainfall, throughfall, and fog from a total of 2,140 samples collected weekly over 2 years at 9 study sites along an elevation transect ranging from 950 to 3,880 m above sea level. Precipitation in the Kilimanjaro tropical rainforests consists of a combination of rainfall, throughfall, and fog. We defined local meteoric water lines for all 3 precipitation types individually and the overall precipitation, δDprec = 7.45 (±0.05) × δ18Oprec + 13.61 (±0.20), n = 2,140, R2 = .91, p research site. We found an altitude effect of δ18Orain = −0.11‰ × 100 m−1, which varied according to precipitation type and season. The relatively weak isotope or altitude gradient may reveal 2 different moisture sources in the research area: (a) local moisture recycling and (b) regional moisture sources. Generally, the seasonality of δ18Orain values follows the bimodal rainfall distribution under the influences of south- and north-easterly trade winds. These seasonal patterns of isotopic composition were linked to different regional moisture sources by analysing Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory backward trajectories. Seasonality of dexcess values revealed evidence of enhanced moisture recycling after the onset of the rainy seasons. This comprehensive dataset is essential for further research using stable isotopes as a hydrological tracer of sources of precipitation that contribute to water resources of the Kilimanjaro region.

  14. Carnivore distributions across chaparral habitats exposed to wildfire and rural housing in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, P.A.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Deutschman, D.H.; Tremor, S.; Spencer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in southern California support biologically diverse plant and animal communities. However, native plant and animal species within these shrubland systems are increasingly exposed to human-caused wildfires and an expansion of the human–wildland interface. Few data exist to evaluate the effects of fire and anthropogenic pressures on plant and animal communities found in these environments. This is particularly true for carnivore communities. To address this knowledge gap, we collected detection–non-detection data with motion-sensor cameras and track plots to measure carnivore occupancy patterns following a large, human-caused wildfire (1134 km2) in eastern San Diego County, California, USA, in 2003. Our focal species set included coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). We evaluated the influence on species occupancies of the burned environment (burn edge, burn interior and unburned areas), proximity of rural homes, distance to riparian area and elevation. Gray fox occupancies were the highest overall, followed by striped skunk, coyote and bobcat. The three species considered as habitat and foraging generalists (gray fox, coyote, striped skunk) were common in all conditions. Occupancy patterns were consistent through time for all species except coyote, whose occupancies increased through time. In addition, environmental and anthropogenic variables had weak effects on all four species, and these responses were species-specific. Our results helped to describe a carnivore community exposed to frequent fire and rural human residences, and provide baseline data to inform fire management policy and wildlife management strategies in similar fire-prone ecosystems.

  15. Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-10-17

    Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  16. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

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    Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  17. Why do women not adhere to advice on maternal referral in rural Tanzania? Narratives of women and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembe, Andrea B; Mbekenga, Columba K; Olsson, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In most low-income countries, many women with high-risk pregnancies and complications do not reach the referral hospitals despite the provision of referral advice. To explore how antenatal maternal referral advice is understood and handled in a rural Tanzanian community. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with six women who did not go to hospital and 13 people who were involved in the referral advice. Narrative analysis was used to describe and create meanings out of the decision-making process. In all interviews, not following the referral advice was greatly influenced by close family members. Three main traits of how referral advice was understood emerged: convinced referral is not necessary, accepting referral advice but delayed by others, and passive and moving with the wind. The main reasons given for declining the referral advice included discrediting midwives' advice, citing previous successful deliveries despite referral advice; being afraid of undergoing surgery; lack of support for care of siblings at home; and high costs incurred during referral. Declining maternal referral advice centred around the pregnant women's position and their dependence on the family members around them, with a decreased ability to show autonomy. If they were socially and economically empowered, women could positively influence decision making during maternal referrals.

  18. Understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in rural Tanzania: the ACCESS Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Iteba, Nelly; Makemba, Ahmed; Mshana, Christopher; Lengeler, Christian; Obrist, Brigit; Schulze, Alexander; Nathan, Rose; Dillip, Angel; Alba, Sandra; Mayumana, Iddy; Khatib, Rashid A; Njau, Joseph D; Mshinda, Hassan

    2007-06-29

    Prompt access to effective treatment is central in the fight against malaria. However, a variety of interlinked factors at household and health system level influence access to timely and appropriate treatment and care. Furthermore, access may be influenced by global and national health policies. As a consequence, many malaria episodes in highly endemic countries are not treated appropriately. The ACCESS Programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in a rural Tanzanian setting. The programme's strategy is based on a set of integrated interventions, including social marketing for improved care seeking at community level as well as strengthening of quality of care at health facilities. This is complemented by a project that aims to improve the performance of drug stores. The interventions are accompanied by a comprehensive set of monitoring and evaluation activities measuring the programme's performance and (health) impact. Baseline data demonstrated heterogeneity in the availability of malaria treatment, unavailability of medicines and treatment providers in certain areas as well as quality problems with regard to drugs and services. The ACCESS Programme is a combination of multiple complementary interventions with a strong evaluation component. With this approach, ACCESS aims to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive access framework and to inform and support public health professionals and policy-makers in the delivery of improved health services.

  19. Understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in rural Tanzania: the ACCESS Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt access to effective treatment is central in the fight against malaria. However, a variety of interlinked factors at household and health system level influence access to timely and appropriate treatment and care. Furthermore, access may be influenced by global and national health policies. As a consequence, many malaria episodes in highly endemic countries are not treated appropriately. Project The ACCESS Programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in a rural Tanzanian setting. The programme's strategy is based on a set of integrated interventions, including social marketing for improved care seeking at community level as well as strengthening of quality of care at health facilities. This is complemented by a project that aims to improve the performance of drug stores. The interventions are accompanied by a comprehensive set of monitoring and evaluation activities measuring the programme's performance and (health impact. Baseline data demonstrated heterogeneity in the availability of malaria treatment, unavailability of medicines and treatment providers in certain areas as well as quality problems with regard to drugs and services. Conclusion The ACCESS Programme is a combination of multiple complementary interventions with a strong evaluation component. With this approach, ACCESS aims to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive access framework and to inform and support public health professionals and policy-makers in the delivery of improved health services.

  20. Are schools a good setting for adolescent sexual health promotion in rural Africa? A qualitative assessment from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Mary L; Wight, D; Wamoyi, J; Nyalali, K; Ingall, T; Mshana, G; Shigongo, Z S; Obasi, A I N; Ross, D A

    2007-08-01

    African adolescents are at high risk of poor sexual health. School-based interventions could reach many adolescents in a sustainable and replicable way, if enrolment, funding and infrastructure are adequate. This study examined pupils', recent school leavers', parents' and teachers' views and experiences of rural Tanzanian primary schools, focusing on the implications for potential sexual health programmes. From 1999 to 2002, participant observation was conducted in nine villages for 158 person-weeks. Half of Year 7 pupils were 15-17 years old, and few went on to secondary school, suggesting that primary schools may be a good venue for such programmes. However, serious challenges include low enrolment and attendance rates, limited teacher training, little access to teaching resources and official and unofficial practices that may alienate pupils and their parents, e.g. corporal punishment, pupils being made to do unpaid work, forced pregnancy examinations, and some teachers' alcohol or sexual abuse. At a national level, improved teacher training and supervision are critical, as well as policies that better prevent, identify and correct undesired practices. At a programme level, intervention developers need to simplify the subject matter, introduce alternative teaching methods, help improve teacher-pupil and teacher-community relationships, and closely supervise and appropriately respond to undesired practices.

  1. Farmers’ market use is associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse southern rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While farmers’ markets are a potential strategy to increase access to fruits and vegetables in rural areas, more information is needed regarding use of farmers’ markets among rural residents. Thus, this study’s purpose was to examine (1) socio-demographic characteristics of participants; (2) barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping in southern rural communities; and (3) associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with a purposive sample of farmers’ market customers and a representative sample of primary household food shoppers in eastern North Carolina (NC) and the Appalachian region of Kentucky (KY). Customers were interviewed using an intercept survey instrument at farmers’ markets. Representative samples of primary food shoppers were identified via random digit dial (RDD) cellular phone and landline methods in counties that had at least one farmers’ market. All questionnaires assessed socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, barriers to and facilitators of farmers’ market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption and self-reported height and weight. The main outcome measures were fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI. Descriptive statistics were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, and barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI, controlling for age, race, education, and gender. Results Among farmers’ market customers, 44% and 55% (NC and KY customers, respectively) reported shopping at a farmers’ market at least weekly, compared to 16% and 18% of NC and KY RDD respondents. Frequently reported barriers to farmers’ market shopping were market days and hours, “only come when I need something”, extreme

  2. All projects related to tanzania | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in Rural Areas ... Region: India, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies, Canada ... growth rates in East Africa, the effects of growth on poverty reduction and ...

  3. Parental control and monitoring of young people's sexual behaviour in rural North-Western Tanzania: Implications for sexual and reproductive health interventions

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    Urassa Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e.g. little time spent with their children which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building

  4. Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania

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    Erin Hetherington

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Methods Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Using a train-the-trainer approach, key activities included teacher workshops, school-based lessons, extra-curricular activities, community events and a One Health sanitation science fair which showcased projects related to water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to human and animal health. The process and outcome of the study were evaluated through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with diverse project participants, as well as pre- and post- questionnaires completed by students on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning sanitation and hygiene. Results The questionnaire results at baseline and follow-up showed statistically significant improvements on key measures including a decrease in unhygienic behaviors, an increase in the perceived importance of handwashing and intention to use the toilet, and increased communication in the social network about the importance of clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene practices, however there were no significant changes in sanitation related knowledge. Qualitative data highlighted strong leadership emerging from youth and enthusiasm from teachers and students concerning the overall approach in the project, including the use of participatory methods. There was a high degree of community engagement with hundreds of

  5. Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Erin; Eggers, Matthijs; Wamoyi, Joyce; Hatfield, Jennifer; Manyama, Mange; Kutz, Susan; Bastien, Sheri

    2017-02-07

    Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education) is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Using a train-the-trainer approach, key activities included teacher workshops, school-based lessons, extra-curricular activities, community events and a One Health sanitation science fair which showcased projects related to water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to human and animal health. The process and outcome of the study were evaluated through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with diverse project participants, as well as pre- and post- questionnaires completed by students on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning sanitation and hygiene. The questionnaire results at baseline and follow-up showed statistically significant improvements on key measures including a decrease in unhygienic behaviors, an increase in the perceived importance of handwashing and intention to use the toilet, and increased communication in the social network about the importance of clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene practices, however there were no significant changes in sanitation related knowledge. Qualitative data highlighted strong leadership emerging from youth and enthusiasm from teachers and students concerning the overall approach in the project, including the use of participatory methods. There was a high degree of community engagement with hundreds of community members participating in school-based events

  6. The garden dying: Commoditization of agriculture and changes in practices of self-consumption among rural families of southern gaucho

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    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on qualitative research carried out in the southern extreme of the Rio Grande do Sul state and explores the transformations on the practices of self-consumption production in the context of familiar agriculture, essentially, under the impacts of the process of commoditization of agriculture and the rural life. The self-consumption practices present a cultural matrix among rural families, in spite of the symbolic value attributed to products generated within the very rural establishment, as compared to the ones which are acquired externally in usual commerce or from other units of production. The field-work was performed within thirty family agricultural establishments whose main commercial activity lies on the milk, peach and tobacco production. The authors discuss the impacts of the commoditization of agriculture on the practical of self-consumption production.

  7. A descriptive study of the canine population in a rural town in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, G H; Boomker, J; de Villiers, I L

    1991-12-01

    The health status of a population of dogs (n = 220) from a rural southern African town is described. A cross sectional survey was done to collect the necessary information. All animals examined were mongrels with a mean condition score of 1.93. The oldest dog found in the population was 8 years old. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the dominant tick species encountered on the dogs, Echidnophaga gallinacea the dominant flea species, while Cordylobia anthropophaga and Demodex canis also affected the health status of the population. Fourty five per cent of the population were found to have nematode eggs in the faeces. On clinical examination, 5% of the population were judged to be acutely ill and 27% to be chronically ill. Based on the clinical examination, bloodsmears and laboratory results, 51% of the population had one or more serious clinical conditions at the time of examination. The conditions with the highest point prevalence rate in the community were canine ehrlichiosis (17.2%), transmissible veneral tumour (6.8%), canine distemper (5%), Cordylobia infestation (5.5%), trauma (4.1%), and severe malnutrition (4.1%). It was concluded that a significant section of this population was in a chronic state of starvation and malnutrition. There was also a heavy infestation of internal and external parasites and the prevalence of serious diseases in this population was high.

  8. Prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases from a rural area in Kerala, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Krishnaveni; Rakesh, P S; Balakrishnan, Shibu; Shanavas, A; Dharman, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. A community based survey was undertaken with an objective to estimate the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases and to describe the profile of people with CRDs in the rural area Nilamel health block in Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. A household information sheet and a translated respiratory symptom questionnaire based on International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) bronchial symptoms questionnaire was administered to 12,556 people above 15 years, selected randomly from Nilamel health block. Prevalence of self reported asthma was 2.82% (95% CI 2.52-3.12) and that of chronic bronchitis was 6.19% (95% CI 5.76-6.62) while other CRDs which did not fit to either constitute 1.89%. Prevalence of asthma among males was 2.44% (95% CI 2.05-2.85) while that of females was 3.14% (95% CI 2.71-3.57). Chronic bronchitis prevalence was 6.73% and 5.67% among males and females respectively. Although India has devised a programme to combat cancer, diabetes, cardio vascular disease and stroke, none have been devised for chronic respiratory illness till date. Considering high prevalence and its contributions to morbidity and mortality, a comprehensive programme to tackle chronic respiratory diseases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leptospira Contamination in Household and Environmental Water in Rural Communities in Southern Chile

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    Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of global distribution that affects tropical and temperate areas. Under suitable conditions, Leptospira can survive in water and soil and contribute to human and animal infections. The objective of this study was to describe the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in peri-domestic water samples from rural households in southern Chile. Water samples, including puddles, containers, animal troughs, rivers, canals, and drinking water were collected from 236 households and tested for Leptospira using a PCR assay targeting the lipL32 gene. Evidence of Leptospira presence was detected in all sample types; overall, 13.5% (77/570 samples tested positive. A total of 10/22 (45.5% open containers, 12/83 (14.5% animal drinking sources, 9/47 (19.1% human drinking sources, and 36/306 (19.3% puddles tested positive. Lower income (OR = 4.35, p = 0.003, increased temperature (OR = 1.23, p < 0.001, and presence of dogs (OR = 15.9, p = 0.022 were positively associated with positive puddles. Increased number of rodent signs was associated with positive puddles in the household (OR = 3.22; however, only in the lower income households. There was no association between PCR positive rodents and puddles at the household level. Results revealed the ubiquity of Leptospira in the household environment and highlight the need to develop formal approaches for systematic monitoring.

  10. Self-esteem matters: racial & gender differences among rural southern adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C S; Tavakoli, A; Hendricks, D L; Harter, N R; Campbell, K P; L'Ecuyer, R I; Geddings, A A; Hackett, D; Byrd, L; Mathis, D

    2001-12-01

    Self-esteem does matter! It matters so much that Oprah dedicated an entire issue of "O" magazine to address the subject. "It's a woman's most treasured possession" (Winfrey, 2000a). Self-esteem has a profound influence on adolescent health promotion behaviors. This study contributes to understanding the role self-esteem plays in the behavior of adolescents. Utilizing a secondary data analysis, race and gender self-esteem differences among adolescents were investigated. The sample of 1,237 students (46% African-American and 52% White) from rural southern areas consisted of 744 females and 493 males. Self-esteem was assessed using the Miller Self-esteem Questionnaire (SEQ). The Hendricks Perceptual Health Promoting Determinants Model (HPHD) provided the theoretical framework for the study. The results of the study revealed a statistically significant difference in various aspects of self-esteem according to race and gender. African-Americans and males had a higher self-esteem which is consistent with many prior studies.

  11. Obstacles to prompt and effective malaria treatment lead to low community-coverage in two rural districts of Tanzania

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    Dillip Angel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is still a leading child killer in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, access to prompt and effective malaria treatment, a mainstay of any malaria control strategy, is sub-optimal in many settings. Little is known about obstacles to treatment and community-effectiveness of case-management strategies. This research quantified treatment seeking behaviour and access to treatment in a highly endemic rural Tanzanian community. The aim was to provide a better understanding of obstacles to treatment access in order to develop practical and cost-effective interventions. Methods We conducted community-based treatment-seeking surveys including 226 recent fever episodes in 2004 and 2005. The local Demographic Surveillance System provided additional household information. A census of drug retailers and health facilities provided data on availability and location of treatment sources. Results After intensive health education, the biomedical concept of malaria has largely been adopted by the community. 87.5% (78.2–93.8 of the fever cases in children and 80.7% (68.1–90.0 in adults were treated with one of the recommended antimalarials (at the time SP, amodiaquine or quinine. However, only 22.5% (13.9–33.2 of the children and 10.5% (4.0–21.5 of the adults received prompt and appropriate antimalarial treatment. Health facility attendance increased the odds of receiving an antimalarial (OR = 7.7 but did not have an influence on correct dosage. The exemption system for under-fives in public health facilities was not functioning and drug expenditures for children were as high in health facilities as with private retailers. Conclusion A clear preference for modern medicine was reflected in the frequent use of antimalarials. Yet, quality of case-management was far from satisfactory as was the functioning of the exemption mechanism for the main risk group. Private drug retailers played a central role by complementing existing formal health

  12. Mosquito abundance, bed net coverage and other factors associated with variations in sporozoite infectivity rates in four villages of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nkya, Watoky M M; Mahande, Aneth M

    2008-01-01

    . Sporozoite infectivity rates, mosquito host blood meal source, bed net coverage and mosquito abundance were assessed in this study. METHODOLOGY: A longitudinal survey was conducted in four villages in two regions of Tanzania. Malaria vectors were sampled using the CDC light trap and pyrethrum spray catch...... methods. In each village, ten paired houses were selected for mosquitoes sampling. Sampling was done in fortnight case and study was undertaken for six months in both Kilimanjaro (Northern Tanzania) and Dodoma (Central Tanzania) regions. RESULTS: A total of 6,883 mosquitoes were collected including: 5......,628 (81.8%) Anopheles arabiensis, 1,100 (15.9%) Culex quinquefasciatus, 89 (1.4%) Anopheles funestus, and 66 (0.9%) Anopheles gambiae s.s. Of the total mosquitoes collected 3,861 were captured by CDC light trap and 3,022 by the pyrethrum spray catch method. The overall light trap: spray catch ratio was 1...

  13. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Option B+ cascade in rural Tanzania: The One Stop Clinic model.

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    Anna Gamell

    Full Text Available Strategies to improve the uptake of Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT are needed. We integrated HIV and maternal, newborn and child health services in a One Stop Clinic to improve the PMTCT cascade in a rural Tanzanian setting.The One Stop Clinic of Ifakara offers integral care to HIV-infected pregnant women and their families at one single place and time. All pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants attended during the first year of Option B+ implementation (04/2014-03/2015 were included. PMTCT was assessed at the antenatal clinic (ANC, HIV care and labour ward, and compared with the pre-B+ period. We also characterised HIV-infected pregnant women and evaluated the MTCT rate.1,579 women attended the ANC. Seven (0.4% were known to be HIV-infected. Of the remainder, 98.5% (1,548/1,572 were offered an HIV test, 94% (1,456/1,548 accepted and 38 (2.6% tested HIV-positive. 51 were re-screened for HIV during late pregnancy and one had seroconverted. The HIV prevalence at the ANC was 3.1% (46/1,463. Of the 39 newly diagnosed women, 35 (90% were linked to care. HIV test was offered to >98% of ANC clients during both the pre- and post-B+ periods. During the post-B+ period, test acceptance (94% versus 90.5%, p<0.0001 and linkage to care (90% versus 26%, p<0.0001 increased. Ten additional women diagnosed outside the ANC were linked to care. 82% (37/45 of these newly-enrolled women started antiretroviral treatment (ART. After a median time of 17 months, 27% (12/45 were lost to follow-up. 79 women under HIV care became pregnant and all received ART. After a median follow-up time of 19 months, 6% (5/79 had been lost. 5,727 women delivered at the hospital, 20% (1,155/5,727 had unknown HIV serostatus. Of these, 30% (345/1,155 were tested for HIV, and 18/345 (5.2% were HIV-positive. Compared to the pre-B+ period more women were tested during labour (30% versus 2.4%, p<0.0001. During the study, the MTCT rate was 2.2%.The implementation of

  14. Effectiveness of a nutrition education package in improving feeding practices, dietary adequacy and growth of infants and young children in rural Tanzania: rationale, design and methods of a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwa, Kissa B M; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Bouckaert, Kimberley P; Mamiro, Peter S; Kolsteren, Patrick W; Lachat, Carl

    2014-10-16

    Strategies to improve infant and young child nutrition in low- and middle- income countries need to be implemented at scale. We contextualised and packaged successful strategies into a feasible intervention for implementation in rural Tanzania. Opportunities that can optimise delivery of the intervention and encourage behaviour change include mothers willingness to modifying practices; support of family members; seasonal availability and accessibility of foods; established set-up of village peers and functioning health system. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition education package in improving feeding practices, dietary adequacy and growth as compared to routine health education. A parallel cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted in rural central Tanzania in 9 intervention and 9 control villages. The control group will receive routine health education offered monthly by health staff at health facilities. The intervention group will receive a nutrition education package in addition to the routine health education. The education package is comprised of four components: 1) education and counselling of mothers, 2) training community-based nutrition counsellors and monthly home visits, 3) sensitisation meetings with health staff and family members, and 4) supervision of community-based nutrition counsellors. The duration of the intervention is 9 months and infants will be recruited at 6 months of age. Primary outcome (linear growth as length-for-age Z-scores) and secondary outcomes (changes in weight-for-length Z-scores; mean intake of energy, fat, iron and zinc from complementary foods; proportion of children consuming 4 or more food groups and recommended number of semi-solid/soft meals and snacks per day; maternal level of knowledge and performance of recommended practices) will be assessed at baseline and ages 9, 12 and 15 months. Process evaluation will document reach, dose and fidelity of the

  15. Spatial and temporal occurrence of bacterial pathogens in rural water supplies, Southern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, V.; Graham, T. A.; Read, S.; Ziebell, K.; Muckle, A.; Thomas, J.; Selinger, B.; Kienzle, S.; Lapp, S. L.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J.

    2002-12-01

    Southern Alberta has the highest rate of gastrointestinal illness in the province, and some of the highest infection rates in Canada. The region has extensive field crop irrigation system supporting a rapidly expanding animal agriculture industry. Recently, there has been much public concern about the safety and quality of water in this region, particularly with respect to drinking water supplies for farm residences and rural communities, where water treatment may be less than optimal. We have tested raw river and irrigation water in the Oldman River Basin in southern Alberta for the presence of bacterial pathogens (E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp ) as well as made counts of total and faecal coliforms over the last two years (2000-2001). E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. isolations and coliform counts peak in raw water from this system during the summer months. E. coli O157:H7 was only isolated from 27/1624 (1.7%) and Salmonella was isolated from 158/1624 (9.7%) of raw water samples over the two year period. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. Certain sites had multiple pathogen isolations and high indicator bacteria counts in the same year and from year to year. S. Rublislaw was the most common Salmonella serovar isolated in both years. While this serovar is rarely associated with human or animal disease in Alberta, other Salmonella serovars isolated, such as Typhimurium, are commonly disease-associated. This poster presents initial analyses of the spatial and temporal properties of pathogen occurrences in the Oldman Basin in 2000 and 2001. Seasonal variability in the occurrence of pathogens is particularly interesting and of concern. Early results demonstrate the pathogen occurrences peak during the height of the summer recreation season; posing a substantial infection risk for the public and tourism populations. Human consumption of inadequately treated water in this

  16. Effect of national schistosomiasis control programme on Taenia solium taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis in rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Harrison, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    and Mbeya district in Tanzania. Three rounds of school-based MDA of praziquantel were delivered in Mbozi and two in Mbeya. The prevalence of taeniosis and porcine cysticercosis was estimated annually. Stool samples were collected from humans and prevalence of taeniosis estimated by copro-Ag-ELISA. Blood...

  17. Determinants of use of health facility for childbirth in rural Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseffa, Netsanet Abera; Bukola, Fawole; Ayodele, Arowojolu

    2016-11-16

    Maternal mortality remains a major global public health concern despite many international efforts. Facility-based childbirth increases access to appropriate skilled attendance and emergency obstetric care services as the vast majority of obstetric complications occur during delivery. The purpose of the study was to determine the proportion of facility delivery and assess factors influencing utilization of health facility for childbirth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural districts of Hadiya zone, southern Ethiopia. Participants who delivered within three years of the survey were selected by stratified random sampling. Trained interviewers administered a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. We employed bivariate analysis and logistic regression to identify determinants of facility-based delivery. Data from 751 participants showed that 26.9% of deliveries were attended in health facilities. In bivariate analysis, maternal age, education, husband's level of education, possession of radio, antenatal care, place of recent ANC attended, planned pregnancy, wealth quintile, parity, birth preparedness and complication readiness, being a model family and distance from the nearest health facility were associated with facility delivery. On multiple logistic regression, age, educational status, antenatal care, distance from the nearest health facility, wealth quintile, being a model family, planned pregnancy and place of recent ANC attended were the determinants of facility-based childbirth. Efforts to improve institutional deliveries in the region must strengthen initiatives that promote female education, opportunities for wealth creation, female empowerment and increased uptake of family planning among others. Service related barriers and cultural influences on the use of health facility for childbirth require further evaluation.

  18. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Claire; Sicuri, Elisa; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhalungo, Delino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2009-06-15

    A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets. For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  19. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES. Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.

  20. Socio-demographic determinants of skilled birth attendant at delivery in rural southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyeh, Alfred Kwesi; Akpakli, David Etsey; Kukula, Vida; Ekey, Rosemond Akepene; Narh-Bana, Solomon; Adjei, Alexander; Gyapong, Margaret

    2017-07-11

    Maternal mortality is the subject of the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal, which is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters from 1990 to 2015. The giant strides made by western countries in dropping of their maternal mortality ratio were due to the recognition given to skilled attendants at delivery. In Ghana, nine in ten mothers receive antenatal care from a health professional whereas only 59 and 68% of deliveries are assisted by skilled personnel in 2008 and 2010 respectively. This study therefore examines the determinants of skilled birth attendant at delivery in rural southern Ghana. This study comprises of 1874 women of reproductive age who had given birth 2 years prior to the study whose information were extracted from the Dodowa Health and Demographic Surveillance System. The univariable and multivariable associations between exposure variables (risk factors) and skilled birth attendant at delivery were explored using logistic regression. Out of a total of 1874 study participants, 98.29% of them receive antenatal care services during pregnancy and only 68.89% were assisted by skilled person at their last delivery prior to the survey. The result shows a remarkable influence of maternal age, level of education, parity, socioeconomic status and antenatal care attendance on skilled attendants at delivery. Although 69% of women in the study had skilled birth attendants at delivery, women from poorest households, higher parity, uneducated, and not attending antenatal care and younger women were more likely to deliver without a skilled birth attendants at delivery. Future intervention in the study area to bridge the gap between the poor and least poor women, improve maternal health and promote the use of skilled birth at delivery is recommended.

  1. Tanzania | Page 19 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language English. Read more about Bourses de recherche pour la lutte antitabac en Afrique. Language French. Read more about Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa. Language English. Read more about Leveraging Indigenous Knowledge to Create Jobs for Women in Rural Areas of Tanzania and Rwanda.

  2. CHECKLIST OF THE MILLIPEDES (DIPLOPODA) OF TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, these many-legged animals are not insects (which have three .... Simon Stuart, who was carrying out studies on birds, contributed many specimens ... Diversity Project of November 1994 provided a series of millipede specimens. ... Tanzania records: Morogoro Region, Morogoro Rural Distr., Uluguru Mts, Lupanga.

  3. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...

  4. Verbal autopsy completion rate and factors associated with undetermined cause of death in a rural resource-poor setting of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliti Deodatus V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is a widely used tool to assign probable cause of death in areas with inadequate vital registration systems. Its uses in priority setting and health planning are well documented in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. However, there is a lack of data related to VA processing and completion rates in assigning causes of death in a community. There is also a lack of data on factors associated with undetermined causes of death documented in SSA. There is a need for such information for understanding the gaps in VA processing and better estimating disease burden. Objective The study's intent was to determine the completion rate of VA and factors associated with assigning undetermined causes of death in rural Tanzania. Methods A database of deaths reported from the Ifakara Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2002 to 2007 was used. Completion rates were determined at the following stages of processing: 1 death identified; 2 VA interviews conducted; 3 VA forms submitted to physicians; 4 coding and assigning of cause of death. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with deaths coded as "undetermined." Results The completion rate of VA after identification of death and the VA interview ranged from 83% in 2002 and 89% in 2007. Ninety-four percent of deaths submitted to physicians were assigned a specific cause, with 31% of the causes coded as undetermined. Neonates and child deaths that occurred outside health facilities were associated with a high rate of undetermined classification (33%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.05, 1.67, p = 0.016. Respondents reporting high education levels were less likely to be associated with deaths that were classified as undetermined (24%, OR = 0.76, 95% CI (0.60, -0.96, p = 0.023. Being a child of the deceased compared to a partner (husband or wife was more likely to be associated with undetermined cause of death classification

  5. Association between HIV status and depressive symptoms among children and adolescents in the Southern Highlands Zone, Tanzania: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwidiko, Abraham; Kibusi, Stephen Matthew; Nyundo, Azan; Mpondo, Bonaventura C T

    2018-01-01

    Children and adolescents continue to have HIV/AIDS in southern Saharan Africa. Scaling up of HIV services has significantly improved access to ARV and consequently improved on morbidity and mortality related to HIV/AIDS including opportunistic infection. Despite the above efforts, non-communicable conditions including mental disorders such as depression have been observed to contribute to the burden of disabilities about which little is documented. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the magnitude of depressive symptoms and the associated factors among HIV-infected children and adolescents. The study was a matched case-control design involving 300 cases of HIV-infected children matched by age and sex against 600 uninfected controls. Systematic sampling technique was used to select the cases while multistage sampling technique was employed to identify villages/ streets purposive and sampling technique was employed to obtain participants from households. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms among the cohort of 900 participants was found to be 12.9%, with 27% of HIV-infected and 5.8% of HIV-uninfected children and adolescents screened positive for depressive symptoms. Multiple logistic regression revealed that being HIV-infected (AOR 1.96(1.11-3.45)), residing in a rural setting (AOR 0.61(0.39-0.96)) and history of childhood deprivation (AOR 4.76 (2.79-8.13)) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. HIV infected adolescents are more affected by depression compared to non-infected counterparts. Childhood deprivation was significantly associated with presence of depressive symptoms. Integration of mental health evaluation and treatment into the HIV care provided for adolescents can be beneficial. More studies to delineate factors associated with depressed adolescents with HIV may add value to the body of knowledge and overall improvement of care.

  6. Changes in soil carbon sequestration in Pinus massoniana forests along an urban-to-rural gradient of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is accelerating globally, causing a variety of environmental changes such as increases in air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric CO2, and nitrogen (N deposition. However, the effects of these changes on forest soil carbon (C sequestration remain largely unclear. Here, we used urban-to-rural environmental gradients in Guangdong Province, southern China, to address the potential effects of these environmental changes on soil C sequestration in Pinus massoniana forests. In contrast to our expectations and earlier observations, soil C content in urban sites was significantly lower than that in suburban and rural sites. Lower soil C pools in urban sites were correlated with a significant decrease in fine root biomass and a potential increase in soil organic C decomposition. Variation of soil C pools was also a function of change in soil C fractions. Heavy fraction C content in urban sites was significantly lower than that in suburban and rural sites. By contrast, light fraction C content did not vary significantly along the urban-to-rural gradient. Our results suggest that urbanization-induced environmental changes may have a negative effect on forest soil C in the studied region.

  7. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elasy Tom A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.

  8. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  9. Tanzania | Page 36 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Kenyan sociologist and gender specialist at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has heard the stories first-hand from her work in hundreds of communities throughout Kenya, Tanzania, and southern Africa. Read more about Empowering African women and communities through agriculture. Language ...

  10. Accuracy of vision technicians in screening ocular pathology at rural vision centres of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suram, Vasantha; Addepalli, Uday Kumar; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Kovai, Vilas; Khanna, Rohit C

    2016-03-01

    There is paucity of data on the inter-observer agreement and diagnostic accuracy between a primary-care technician (vision technician) and an ophthalmologist. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess the accuracy of vision technicians, to screen potentially sight-threatening ocular conditions at rural vision centres of southern India and their agreement with an ophthalmologist. In July to August 2010, patients presenting to seven vision centres in Adilabad district (Andhra Pradesh) were selected and screened in a masked manner by seven vision technicians followed by an examination by a consultant ophthalmologist. Agreement was assessed between vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening of potential sight-threatening ocular conditions and decisions for referral. The ophthalmologist's findings were considered as the reference standard. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients were enrolled at seven vision centres with a mean age of 32.9 ± 21.8 years. Agreement for screening of ocular pathology was 0.82 (95 per cent CI, 0.8-0.83). There was excellent agreement for cataract (0.97; 95 per cent CI, 0.93-1), refractive error (0.98; 95 per cent CI, 0.96-1), corneal pathology (1.0; 95 per cent CI, 1.0-1.0) and other anterior segment pathology (0.95; 95 per cent CI, 0.9-1); the agreement was moderate to fair for detection of glaucoma suspects (0.43; 95 per cent CI, 0.28-0.60) and retinal pathology (0.39; 95 per cent CI, 0.14-0.63). Sensitivity for screening of anterior segment pathology was 94.6-100 per cent. There was a fair to moderate sensitivity for glaucoma suspect; 35.6 per cent (95 per cent CI, 21.9-51.2) and retinal pathology 26.3 per cent (95 per cent CI, 9.2-51.2). Specificity for screening of ocular pathology was 98.2 to 100 per cent. The kappa (κ) agreement for referral for any pathology was 0.82 (0.8-0.83) CONCLUSION: As there is good agreement between the vision technicians and the ophthalmologist for screening and referral of

  11. Rurality and Birth Outcomes: Findings from Southern Appalachia and the Potential Role of Pregnancy Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beth A.; Cole, Laura K. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Context: Rates of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) vary by region, with disparities particularly evident in the Appalachian region of the South. Community conditions related to rurality likely contribute to adverse birth outcomes in this region. Purpose: This study examined associations between rurality and related community…

  12. Southern Nevada residents' views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L.; Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P.

    1991-10-01

    Two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans' views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada

  13. Examining the specific effects of context on adaptive behavior and achievement in a rural African community: six case studies from rural areas of Southern province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-02-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn. AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, SD = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes.

  14. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  15. Alcohol use and depression: link with adherence and viral suppression in adult patients on antiretroviral therapy in rural Lesotho, Southern Africa: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti, Bernard; Broers, Barbara; Masetsibi, Motlomelo; Faturiyele, Olatunbosun; Toti-Mokoteli, Likabelo; Motlatsi, Mokete; Bader, Joelle; Klimkait, Thomas; Labhardt, Niklaus D

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression and alcohol use disorder have been shown to be associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies examining their association with viral suppression in rural Africa are, however, scarce. Methods This study reports prevalence of depressive symptoms and alcohol use disorder, and their potential association with adherence and viral suppression in adult patients on ART in ten clinics in rural Lesotho, Southern Africa. Results Among 1,388 adult p...

  16. Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV, with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%. A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3% and slums (1.5% compared with farms (0.5%. Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011, low education level (p = 0.006 and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student (p = 0.016. No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed.

  17. Exploring Foreign Tourists’ Image of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the economy of African continent and Tanzania in particular has witnessed a business boom of the tourism sector. While the sector has continued to grow and become a dependable source of direct and indirect employment to youths in urban and rural areas, the sector has been awash...... with challenges. These challenges include terrorism attacks, energy crises and poor infrastructure. However, the impact of these challenges on the image of Tanzania as a tourist destination has not received the deserved attention. This study explores the perception of visitors towards Tanzania as a tourist....... Front line employees, various tourist sites and access to services emerged to be strong tourist destination image factors. This implies that the efforts of marketing tourism destination should focus on promoting all the sites the country has....

  18. Southern Vermont College (SVC) and Wheelock College (WC): 2010 Urban and Rural Healthcare Academy Program (HAP) for College Progress and Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCiccio, Albert C.

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) This is a report about the Urban and Rural Healthcare Academy Pilot Program (HAP) that launched at Southern Vermont College (SVC) and Wheelock College (WC) in summer 2010. HAP enabled 18 vulnerable high school students to learn about how to progress to college, how to transition when they arrive on a college campus, and how to prepare…

  19. ‘It is just the way it was in the past before I went to test’: a qualitative study to explore responses to HIV prevention counselling in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe Cawley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT for HIV first evolved in Western settings, with one aim being to promote behaviours which lower the risk of onward transmission or acquisition of HIV. However, although quantitative studies have shown that the impact of VCT on sexual behaviour change has been limited in African settings, there is a lack of qualitative research exploring perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages, particularly among clients testing HIV-negative. We conducted a qualitative study to explore healthcare worker, community and both HIV-negative and HIV-positive clients’ perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages in rural Tanzania. Methods This study was carried out within the context of an ongoing community HIV cohort study in Kisesa, northwest Tanzania. Nine group sessions incorporating participatory learning and action (PLA activities were conducted in order to gain general community perspectives of HIV testing and counselling (HTC services. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs with HIV-negative and HIV-positive service users explored individual perceptions of HIV prevention counselling messages, while five IDIs were carried out with nurses or counsellors offering HTC in order to explore provider perspectives. Results Two key themes revolving around socio-cultural and contextual factors emerged in understanding responses to HIV prevention counselling messages. The first included constraints to client-counsellor interactions, which were impeded as a result of difficulties discussing private sexual behaviours during counselling sessions, a hierarchical relationship between healthcare providers and clients, insufficient levels of training and support for counsellors, and client concerns about confidentiality. The second theme related to imbalanced gender-power dynamics, which constrained the extent to which women felt able to control their HIV-related risk. Conclusion Within the broader social

  20. Sustainability Partnerships for the Governance of Coastal Resources in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katikiro, Robert; Kweka, Opportuna; Namkesa, Faraja

    The paper examines the experience of sustainability partnerships for the management of coastal resources in Tanzania. It identifies key actors and governance dynamics, with focus on decentralization processes, legitimacy-building and participation of local communities. The paper first provides a ...... of ongoing research under the New Partnerships for Sustainability project (NEPSUS), it provides guidance on research gaps in specific relation to the Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and selected BMUs in Mtwara region, Southern Tanzania....

  1. Agrobiodiversity, Rural Transformations and Household Experiences of Globalised Change: A Case Study from Southern Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Turner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines reconfigurations of household economies and agrobiodiversity through the experiences and responses of rural households to local manifestations of globalisation and environmental change in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, from the 1950s to the present. Research participant narratives from seven study communities document a widely experienced regional shift from rain-fed agriculture and pastured livestock production for household consumption to market-oriented production of regionally-specialised commodities. Particularly important to this reconfiguration are changing land access and use regimes, household responses to changing opportunities, discourses and social requirements related with ‘modernising lifestyles’, market integration and dependence, changing environmental and ecological conditions, and greater availability of consumer goods and technologies. We analyse how these processes have combined to reconfigure the range of livelihood possibilities available to rural households, or their ‘landscapes of possibility’, in ways that favour transition to specialised commodity production. Patterns of change in household agrobiodiversity use, however, are entwined with threads of persistence, underscoring the contingent nature of rural transitions and the role of local agency and creativity in responding to and sometimes shaping how globalisation unfolds. Examining rural transition through the experiences of households in particular contexts over time offers insights for development policy and practice to support producers’ ability to respond to globalisation and environmental change in ways they see as desirable and beneficial to their livelihoods and wellbeing.

  2. Using Mobile Phones to Promote Lifelong Learning among Rural Women in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, K.; Thamizoli, P.; Umar, Abdurrahman; Kanwar, Asha

    2010-01-01

    This article is an attempt to study the role of mobile phones in the non-formal and informal context among rural women from resource poor communities. In particular, it focuses on the women's control over the mobile phone as a learning tool through the domestication of technologies. The distance learning, gender dimensions, and use of technologies…

  3. Temperature Changes, Household Consumption and Internal Migration: Evidence from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalle Hirvonen

    2015-01-01

    Large rural-urban wage gaps observed in many developing countries are suggestive of barriers to migration that keep potential migrants in the rural areas. Using long panel data spanning nearly two decades, I study the extent to which migration rates are constrained by liquidity constraints in rural Tanzania. The analysis begins by quantifying the impact of weather variation on household welfare. The results show how household consumption co-moves with temperature rendering households vulnerab...

  4. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection is frequent in rural communities of the southern Andes of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Fanny; Mayer, Erick F; Verdonck, Kristien; Gonzalez, Elsa; Clark, Daniel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection in isolated rural communities in the southern Andes of Peru. We conducted a cross-sectional study in five communities located in three provinces in Ayacucho, Peru. The five communities are located at >3000 meters above sea level and are mainly rural, and more than 85% of the population speaks Quechua. Volunteers aged 12 years and older were included. Clinical and epidemiological data were collected, along with a blood sample for serological testing. We included 397 participants; their median age was 41 years (interquartile range 31-57 years) and 69% were women. According to our definitions, 98% were of Quechua origin. HTLV-1 was diagnosed in 11 people: 0/164 in Cangallo, 3/154 (2%) in Vilcashuaman, and 8/79 (10%) in Parinacochas. There were no cases of HTLV-2. All the HTLV-1-positive participants were born in Ayacucho and were of Quechua origin; they ranged in age from 29 to 87 years (median 56 years) and 10/11 were women. Ten were apparently healthy, and one woman was diagnosed with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Three out of 11 had a family member with a lower limb impairment compatible with HAM/TSP. The fact that HTLV-1 infection was present in two out of three provinces suggests that HTLV-1 could be highly endemic in the southern Andes in the Quechua population. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Asymptomatic Leishmania Infected Children: A Seroprevalence and Molecular Survey in a Rural Area of Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Layegh Gigloo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in asymptomatic healthy children in a rural area of Fars province, Southern Iran. Blood samples were taken from 617 asymptomatic healthy children and serum samples along with buffy coat were separated from the blood. The serum samples were assessed for antibodies against Leishmania infantum by an indirect ELISA and the buffy coats were tested for the presence of L. infantum DNA by molecular method. Of the 617 recruited children, 297 (48.1% were female and 317 (51.4% were male. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 17 (2.8% of the children. From those 17 seropositive cases, 5 (29.4% were male and 12 (70.6% cases were female. Children aged 5–8 years had the highest seroprevalence rate; however, no associations were found between seropositivity to Leishmania and gender or age of the children. Moreover, L. infantum DNA was detected in buffy coat of 8 (1.3% of 617 children. Three of the PCR-positive cases were seropositive whereas 14 of seropositive subjects (82.3% were PCR-negative. Findings of the current study revealed a considerable subclinical leishmanial infection in children in the studied rural area in the south of Iran. Results of the current study could be used for surveillance, prevention, and control of VL in the area.

  6. Abundance and prevalence of Aedes aegypti immatures and relationships with household water storage in rural areas in southern Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Le Anh P; Clements, Archie C A; Jeffery, Jason A L; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Nam, Vu Sinh; Vaughan, Gregory; Shinkfield, Ramon; Kutcher, Simon C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kay, Brian H; Ryan, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Since 2000, the Government of Viet Nam has committed to provide rural communities with increased access to safe water through a variety of household water supply schemes (wells, ferrocement tanks and jars) and piped water schemes. One possible, unintended consequence of these schemes is the concomitant increase in water containers that may serve as habitats for dengue mosquito immatures, principally Aedes aegypti. To assess these possible impacts we undertook detailed household surveys of Ae. aegypti immatures, water storage containers and various socioeconomic factors in three rural communes in southern Viet Nam. Positive relationships between the numbers of household water storage containers and the prevalence and abundance of Ae. aegypti immatures were found. Overall, water storage containers accounted for 92-97% and 93-96% of the standing crops of III/IV instars and pupae, respectively. Interestingly, households with higher socioeconomic levels had significantly higher numbers of water storage containers and therefore greater risk of Ae. aegypti infestation. Even after provision of piped water to houses, householders continued to store water in containers and there was no observed decrease in water storage container abundance in these houses, compared to those that relied entirely on stored water. These findings highlight the householders' concerns about the limited availability of water and their strong behavoural patterns associated with storage of water. We conclude that household water storage container availability is a major risk factor for infestation with Ae. aegypti immatures, and that recent investment in rural water supply infrastructure are unlikely to mitigate this risk, at least in the short term.

  7. Waiting for attention and care: birthing accounts of women in rural Tanzania who developed obstetric fistula as an outcome of labour

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    Mselle Lilian T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric fistula is a physically and socially disabling obstetric complication that affects about 3,000 women in Tanzania every year. The fistula, an opening that forms between the vagina and the bladder and/or the rectum, is most frequently caused by unattended prolonged labour, often associated with delays in seeking and receiving appropriate and adequate birth care. Using the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care (AAAQ concept and the three delays model, this article provides empirical knowledge on birth care experiences of women who developed fistula after prolonged labour. Methods We used a mixed methods approach to explore the birthing experiences of women affected by fistula and the barriers to access adequate care during labour and delivery. Sixteen women were interviewed for the qualitative study and 151 women were included in the quantitative survey. All women were interviewed at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania in Dar es Salaam and Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza. Results Women experienced delays both before and after arriving at a health facility. Decisions on where to seek care were most often taken by husbands and mothers-in-law (60%. Access to health facilities providing emergency obstetric care was inadequate and transport was a major obstacle. About 20% reported that they had walked or were carried to the health facility. More than 50% had reported to a health facility after two or more days of labour at home. After arrival at a health facility women experienced lack of supportive care, neglect, poor assessment of labour and lack of supervision. Their birth accounts suggest unskilled birth care and poor referral routines. Conclusions This study reveals major gaps in access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. It illustrates how poor quality of care at health facilities contributes to delays that lead to severe birth injuries, highlighting the need

  8. Waiting for attention and care: birthing accounts of women in rural Tanzania who developed obstetric fistula as an outcome of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W; Mvungi, Abu; Evjen-Olsen, Bjørg; Moland, Karen Marie

    2011-10-21

    Obstetric fistula is a physically and socially disabling obstetric complication that affects about 3,000 women in Tanzania every year. The fistula, an opening that forms between the vagina and the bladder and/or the rectum, is most frequently caused by unattended prolonged labour, often associated with delays in seeking and receiving appropriate and adequate birth care. Using the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care (AAAQ) concept and the three delays model, this article provides empirical knowledge on birth care experiences of women who developed fistula after prolonged labour. We used a mixed methods approach to explore the birthing experiences of women affected by fistula and the barriers to access adequate care during labour and delivery. Sixteen women were interviewed for the qualitative study and 151 women were included in the quantitative survey. All women were interviewed at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania in Dar es Salaam and Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza. Women experienced delays both before and after arriving at a health facility. Decisions on where to seek care were most often taken by husbands and mothers-in-law (60%). Access to health facilities providing emergency obstetric care was inadequate and transport was a major obstacle. About 20% reported that they had walked or were carried to the health facility. More than 50% had reported to a health facility after two or more days of labour at home. After arrival at a health facility women experienced lack of supportive care, neglect, poor assessment of labour and lack of supervision. Their birth accounts suggest unskilled birth care and poor referral routines. This study reveals major gaps in access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. It illustrates how poor quality of care at health facilities contributes to delays that lead to severe birth injuries, highlighting the need to ensure women's rights to accessible, acceptable and adequate

  9. Waiting for attention and care: birthing accounts of women in rural Tanzania who developed obstetric fistula as an outcome of labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Obstetric fistula is a physically and socially disabling obstetric complication that affects about 3,000 women in Tanzania every year. The fistula, an opening that forms between the vagina and the bladder and/or the rectum, is most frequently caused by unattended prolonged labour, often associated with delays in seeking and receiving appropriate and adequate birth care. Using the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care (AAAQ) concept and the three delays model, this article provides empirical knowledge on birth care experiences of women who developed fistula after prolonged labour. Methods We used a mixed methods approach to explore the birthing experiences of women affected by fistula and the barriers to access adequate care during labour and delivery. Sixteen women were interviewed for the qualitative study and 151 women were included in the quantitative survey. All women were interviewed at the Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation Tanzania in Dar es Salaam and Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza. Results Women experienced delays both before and after arriving at a health facility. Decisions on where to seek care were most often taken by husbands and mothers-in-law (60%). Access to health facilities providing emergency obstetric care was inadequate and transport was a major obstacle. About 20% reported that they had walked or were carried to the health facility. More than 50% had reported to a health facility after two or more days of labour at home. After arrival at a health facility women experienced lack of supportive care, neglect, poor assessment of labour and lack of supervision. Their birth accounts suggest unskilled birth care and poor referral routines. Conclusions This study reveals major gaps in access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. It illustrates how poor quality of care at health facilities contributes to delays that lead to severe birth injuries, highlighting the need to ensure women's rights to

  10. Gastrointestinal parasitic infection in diverse species of domestic ruminants inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, S L; Jaroli, V J

    2013-10-01

    A total of 415 adult domesticated ruminants, 130 cattle (Bos taurus), 108 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 94 goats (Capra hircus) and 83 sheep (Ovis aries) inhabiting tribal rural areas of southern Rajasthan, India were investigated for evidence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminthic infections. In southern Rajasthan humid ecosystem is predominant and has number of perennial freshwater bodies. Fresh faecal samples of these animals were examined microscopically by direct wet smear with saline and 1 % Lugol's iodine and formalin ether concentration. Of these 296 (71.32 %) were found to be infected with different species of gastrointestinal parasites. The highest (93.84 %) prevalence of these parasitic infections was found in cattle followed by goats (82.97 %), sheep (55.42 %) and buffaloes (46.29 %). Except cattle no other ruminants revealed protozoan infection. A total 8 species of gastrointestinal parasites were encountered. Among these parasites Fasciola hepatica was the commonest (15.18 %) followed by Haemonchus contortus (11.32 %), Ancylostoma duodenale (10.36 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.15 %), Amphistome species (7.95 %), Moniezia expansa (6.98 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.57 %) and Balantidium coli (3.37 %). The prevalence rate of these parasitic infections also varied seasonally. The highest prevalence rate was found in rainy season (84.21 %) followed by winter (73.9 %) and summer (52.8 %). The possible causes for variation in prevalence of parasitic infections are also discussed.

  11. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

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    Dale B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bjørg Dale, Ulrika SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayBackground: Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care.Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons' own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks.Results: The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care.Conclusion: Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health.Keywords: adapting, decision-making, knowledge, self-care talks

  12. Temporal trends (1977-2007 and ethnic inequity in child mortality in rural villages of southern Guinea Bissau

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    Boone Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guinea Bissau is one of the poorest countries in the world, with one of the highest under-5 mortality rate. Despite its importance for policy planning, data on child mortality are often not available or of poor quality in low-income countries like Guinea Bissau. Our aim in this study was to use the baseline survey to estimate child mortality in rural villages in southern Guinea Bissau for a 30 years period prior to a planned cluster randomised intervention. We aimed to investigate temporal trends with emphasis on historical events and the effect of ethnicity, polygyny and distance to the health centre on child mortality. Methods A baseline survey was conducted prior to a planned cluster randomised intervention to estimate child mortality in 241 rural villages in southern Guinea Bissau between 1977 and 2007. Crude child mortality rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method from birth history of 7854 women. Cox regression models were used to investigate the effects of birth periods with emphasis on historical events, ethnicity, polygyny and distance to the health centre on child mortality. Results High levels of child mortality were found at all ages under five with a significant reduction in child mortality over the time periods of birth except for 1997-2001. That period comprises the 1998/99 civil war interval, when child mortality was 1.5% higher than in the previous period. Children of Balanta ethnic group had higher hazard of dying under five years of age than children from other groups until 2001. Between 2002 and 2007, Fula children showed the highest mortality. Increasing walking distance to the nearest health centre increased the hazard, though not substantially, and polygyny had a negligible and statistically not significant effect on the hazard. Conclusion Child mortality is strongly associated with ethnicity and it should be considered in health policy planning. Child mortality, though considerably decreased during

  13. A spatial analysis of heat stress related emergency room visits in rural Southern Ontario during heat waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Kelton, David F

    2015-08-06

    In Southern Ontario, climate change may have given rise to an increasing occurrence of heat waves since the year 2000, which can cause heat stress to the general public, and potentially have detrimental health consequences. Heat waves are defined as three consecutive days with temperatures of 32 °C and above. Heat stress is the level of discomfort. A variety of heat stress indices have been proposed to measure heat stress (e.g., the heat stress index (HSI)), and has been shown to predict increases in morbidity and/or mortality rates in humans and other species. Maps visualizing the distribution of heat stress can provide information about related health risks and insight for control strategies. Information to inform heat wave preparedness models in Ontario was previously only available for major metropolitan areas. Hospitals in communities of fewer than 100,000 individuals were recruited for a pilot study by telephone. The number of people visiting the emergency room or 24-hour urgent care service was collected for a total of 27 days, covering three heat waves and six 3-day control periods from 2010-2012. The heat stress index was spatially predicted using data from 37 weather stations across Southern Ontario by geostatistical kriging. Poisson regression modeling was applied to determine the rate of increased number of emergency room visits in rural hospitals with respect to the HSI. During a heat wave, the average rate of emergency room visits was 1.11 times higher than during a control period (IRR = 1.11, CI95% (IRR) = (1.07,1.15), p ≤ 0.001). In a univariable model, HSI was not a significant predictor of emergency room visits, but when accounting for the confounding effect of a spatial trend polynomial in the hospital location coordinates, a one unit increase in HSI predicted an increase in daily emergency rooms visits by 0.4% (IRR = 1.004, CI95%(IRR) = (1.0005,1.007), p = 0.024) across the region. One high-risk cluster and no low risk

  14. The Land Use and Cover Change in Miombo Woodlands under Community Based Forest Management and Its Implication to Climate Change Mitigation: A Case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania

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    Z. J. Lupala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefore compromising climate change mitigation strategies. This study explored the dynamic of land use and covers change and biomass due to CBFM and established the implication to climate change mitigation. The study revealed increasing miombo woodland cover density with decreasing unsustainable utilization. The observed improvement in cover density and biomass provides potential for climate change mitigation strategies. CBFM also developed solidarity, cohesion, and social control of miombo woodlands illegal extraction. This further enhances permanence, reduces leakage, and increases accountability requirement for carbon credits. Collectively with these promising results, good land use plan at village level and introduction of alternative income generating activities can be among the best options to further reduce land use change and biomass loss in miombo woodlands.

  15. Epidemiological survey of swine cysticercosis using ante-mortem and post-mortem examination tests in the southern highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boa, M.E.; Mahundi, E.A.; Kassuku, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    ) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and p-values were calculated. Structured questionnaire interviews identified factors associated with the disease prevalence in both Chunya and Iringa Rural Districts were free-ranging of pigs, home slaughtering of pigs and pork not being inspected. While in Chunya...

  16. The complexity of rural contexts experienced by community disability workers in three southern African countries

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    Margaret Booyens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.

  17. Supply-related drivers of staff motivation for providing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: evidence from two rural districts

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    Mubyazi Godfrey M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its introduction in the national antenatal care (ANC system in Tanzania in 2001, little evidence is documented regarding the motivation and performance of health workers (HWs in the provision of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp services in the national ANC clinics and the implications such motivation and performance might have had on HWs and services' compliance with the recommended IPTp delivery guidelines. This paper describes the supply-related drivers of motivation and performance of HWs in administering IPTp doses among other ANC services delivered in public and private health facilities (HFs in Tanzania, using a case study of Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Methods Interviews were conducted with 78 HWs participating in the delivery of ANC services in private and public HFs and were supplemented by personal communications with the members of the district council health management team. The research instrument used in the data collection process contained a mixture of closed and open-ended questions. Some of the open-ended questions had to be coded in the form that allowed their analysis quantitatively. Results In both districts, respondents acknowledged IPTp as an essential intervention, but expressed dissatisfaction with their working environments constraining their performance, including health facility (HF unit understaffing; unsystematic and unfriendly supervision by CHMT members; limited opportunities for HW career development; and poor (HF infrastructure and staff houses. Data also suggest that poor working conditions negatively affect health workers' motivation to perform for ANC (including IPTp services. Similarities and differences were noted in terms of motivational factors for ANC service delivery between the HWs employed in private HFs and those in public HFs: those in private facilities were more comfortable with staff residential houses, HF buildings, equipment

  18. Supply-related drivers of staff motivation for providing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: evidence from two rural districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Since its introduction in the national antenatal care (ANC) system in Tanzania in 2001, little evidence is documented regarding the motivation and performance of health workers (HWs) in the provision of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) services in the national ANC clinics and the implications such motivation and performance might have had on HWs and services' compliance with the recommended IPTp delivery guidelines. This paper describes the supply-related drivers of motivation and performance of HWs in administering IPTp doses among other ANC services delivered in public and private health facilities (HFs) in Tanzania, using a case study of Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Methods Interviews were conducted with 78 HWs participating in the delivery of ANC services in private and public HFs and were supplemented by personal communications with the members of the district council health management team. The research instrument used in the data collection process contained a mixture of closed and open-ended questions. Some of the open-ended questions had to be coded in the form that allowed their analysis quantitatively. Results In both districts, respondents acknowledged IPTp as an essential intervention, but expressed dissatisfaction with their working environments constraining their performance, including health facility (HF) unit understaffing; unsystematic and unfriendly supervision by CHMT members; limited opportunities for HW career development; and poor (HF) infrastructure and staff houses. Data also suggest that poor working conditions negatively affect health workers' motivation to perform for ANC (including IPTp) services. Similarities and differences were noted in terms of motivational factors for ANC service delivery between the HWs employed in private HFs and those in public HFs: those in private facilities were more comfortable with staff residential houses, HF buildings, equipment, availability of water

  19. Supply-related drivers of staff motivation for providing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: evidence from two rural districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Bloch, Paul; Byskov, Jens; Magnussen, Pascal; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Hansen, Kristian S

    2012-02-18

    Since its introduction in the national antenatal care (ANC) system in Tanzania in 2001, little evidence is documented regarding the motivation and performance of health workers (HWs) in the provision of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) services in the national ANC clinics and the implications such motivation and performance might have had on HWs and services' compliance with the recommended IPTp delivery guidelines. This paper describes the supply-related drivers of motivation and performance of HWs in administering IPTp doses among other ANC services delivered in public and private health facilities (HFs) in Tanzania, using a case study of Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Interviews were conducted with 78 HWs participating in the delivery of ANC services in private and public HFs and were supplemented by personal communications with the members of the district council health management team. The research instrument used in the data collection process contained a mixture of closed and open-ended questions. Some of the open-ended questions had to be coded in the form that allowed their analysis quantitatively. In both districts, respondents acknowledged IPTp as an essential intervention, but expressed dissatisfaction with their working environments constraining their performance, including health facility (HF) unit understaffing; unsystematic and unfriendly supervision by CHMT members; limited opportunities for HW career development; and poor (HF) infrastructure and staff houses. Data also suggest that poor working conditions negatively affect health workers' motivation to perform for ANC (including IPTp) services. Similarities and differences were noted in terms of motivational factors for ANC service delivery between the HWs employed in private HFs and those in public HFs: those in private facilities were more comfortable with staff residential houses, HF buildings, equipment, availability of water, electricity and cups for

  20. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State.

  1. Cost/benefit analysis of biomass energy supply options for rural smallholders in the semi-arid eastern part of Shinyanga Region in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiskerke, W.T.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rubanza, C.D.K. [Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI)/National Forest Resource Management and Agroforestry Centre (NACRAF), P.O. Box 1257, Shinyanga (Tanzania); Malimbwi, R.E. [Faculty of Forestry and Natural Resources, Sokoine University, P.O. Box 3010, Morogoro (Tanzania)

    2010-01-15

    This study analyzes the economic feasibility of sustainable smallholder bio-energy production under semi-arid conditions. The eastern part of Shinyanga region in Tanzania was chosen as a case study area. Three different sustainable biomass energy supply systems were compared by means of cost/benefit analysis: a small-scale forestation project for carbon sequestration, a short rotation woodlot and a Jatropha plantation, thereby using the produced Jatropha oil as a substitute for fuelwood or diesel. Rotational woodlots are most profitable with a Net Present Value of up to US${sub 2007} 1165/ha, a return on labour of up to US${sub 2007} 6.69/man-day and a fuelwood production cost of US${sub 2007} 0.53/GJ, compared to a local market price of US${sub 2007} 1.95/GJ. With a production cost of US${sub 2007} 19.60/GJ, Jatropha oil is too expensive to be used as an alternative for fuelwood. Instead it can be utilized economically as a diesel substitute, at an observed diesel cost of US${sub 2007} 1.49/l. The mean annual biomass increment (MAI) in semi-arid East Shinyanga is too low to collect sufficient benefits from trading forestation carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to cover the costs of forestation and forest management. (author)

  2. Cognitive stimulation therapy as a low-resource intervention for dementia in sub-Saharan Africa (CST-SSA): Adaptation for rural Tanzania and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkenda, Sarah; Olakehinde, Olaide; Mbowe, Godfrey; Siwoku, Akeem; Kisoli, Aloyce; Paddick, Stella-Maria; Adediran, Babatunde; Gray, William K; Dotchin, Catherine L; Adebiyi, Akinpelumi; Walker, Richard W; Mushi, Declare; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2016-06-21

    Cognitive stimulation therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention for people with dementia. Its use has been associated with substantial improvements in cognition and quality of life in studies from high-income countries, equivalent to those achieved by pharmacological treatments. Cognitive stimulation therapy may be particularly suited to low resource settings, such as sub-Saharan Africa, because it requires little specialist equipment and can be delivered by non-specialist health workers. The aim of this study was to adapt cognitive stimulation therapy for use in sub-Saharan Africa taking into account socio-cultural differences and resource implications. Cognitive stimulation therapy is a structured programme, originally developed in the United Kingdom. Substantial adaptations were required for use in sub-Saharan Africa. The formative method for adapting psychotherapy was used as a framework for the adaption process. The feasibility of using the adapted cognitive stimulation therapy programme to manage dementia was assessed in Tanzania and Nigeria in November 2013. Further adaptations were made following critical appraisal of feasibility. The adapted cognitive stimulation therapy intervention appeared feasible and acceptable to participants and carers. Key adaptations included identification of suitable treatment settings, task adaptation to accommodate illiteracy and uncorrected sensory impairment, awareness of cultural differences and usage of locally available materials and equipment to ensure sustainability. Cognitive stimulation therapy was successfully adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. Future work will focus on a trial of cognitive stimulation therapy in each setting. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  4. Selenium in Paleozoic stone coal (carbonaceous shale) as a significant source of environmental contamination in rural southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H. E.; Luo, K.

    2012-04-01

    Selenium occurs in high concentrations (typically > 10 and up to 700 ppm) in organic-rich Paleozoic shales and cherts (called "stone coal" - shíméi), in southern China. Stone coals are black shales that formed in anoxic to euxinic environments and typically contain high concentrations of organic carbon, are enriched in various metals such as V, Mo, Pb, As, Cr, Ni, Se, etc., and are distinguished from "humic" coal in the Chinese literature. We have examined stone coal from Shaanxi, Hubei, and Guizhou Provinces, People's Republic of China and have focused our study on the mode of occurrence of Se and other elements (e.g. As, Pb, etc.) hazardous to human health. Scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive analysis and electron microprobe wave-length dispersive spectroscopy were used to identify and determine the composition of host phases observed in the stone coals. Native selenium, Se-bearing pyrite and other sulfides are the hosts for Se, although we cannot preclude an organic or clay-mineral association. Stone coals are an important source of fuel (reserves over 1 billion tonnes), both domestically and in small industry, in some rural parts of southern China and present significant environmental problems for the indigenous population. The stone coals create three main environmental problems related to Se pollution. First, the residual soils formed on stone coal are enriched in Se and other metals contained in the stone coals and, depending on the speciation and bioavailability of the metals, may enrich crops and vegetation grown on them. Second, weathering and leaching of the stone coal contaminates the local ground water and/or surface waters with Se and other metals. Third, the local population uses the stone coal as a source of fuel, which releases the more volatile elements (Se and As) into the atmosphere in the homes. The ash will be extremely enriched with the balance of the heavy metal suite. Disposal of the ash on agricultural lands or near water

  5. Training rural health staff for oral rehydration therapy in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetta, O M; Lundstrøm, K J

    1984-10-01

    From February 1980 to August 1982 a very definite change occurred in the treatment pattern for diarrhoea among the rural health staff in Torit and Kapoeta districts in Eastern Equatoria Province in Sudan. This paper describes a training and supervision programme for promoting use of ORT in diarrhoeal diseases and at the same time discouraging the use of sulphonamides in simple diarrhoea. In the training programme emphasis is put on increasing the knowledge of the health staff both about the medical facts and about communication with their communities. ORS as treatment for diarrhoea has been well accepted by the public, who consider the sugar/salt solution as "good medicine". The use of sulphonamides for diarrhoea has decreased from 75% to 22% of the diarrhoea cases, while use of ORS has increased from 7% to 72% of the diarrhoea cases.

  6. Religious chants and sermons in rural and urban areas: a glance from the Southern Andes

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    Andrés Eichmann Oehrli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The religious poetry of the Golden Age destined to sing is not usually understood from its own specificity. In the following pages my purpose is first, to show which is the peculiarity of the poetry of circumstances. When considering the complementary role of poetry with the sermon (both forming part of a broader framework intermedia it may cover all religious poetry in vernacular languages, and cluster the pieces of this universe by the three rhetorical genres. And second, to observe the difference in density of production genres in urban areas relative to rural, allowing us to venture some hypotheses about the interaction of those who have been involved in the communication process. All this primarily in Charcas, but also in other territories of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

  7. Biofuel investment in Tanzania: Omissions in implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib-Mintz, Nazia

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuels as a component of climate change mitigation, energy security, and a fossil fuel alternative attracts investors to developing countries like Tanzania. Ample unused land is critical for first generation biofuels production and an important feature to attract foreign direct investments that can contribute towards agricultural modernization and poverty reduction initiatives. Despite the economic justifications, the existing institutional and infrastructural capacities dictate the impacts of biofuels market penetrations. Furthermore, exogenous factors like global recessionary pressure depressed oil prices below the level at which biofuel production were profitable in 2007, making Tanzania's competitiveness and potential benefits questionable. This paper investigates the extent that first generation, jatropha-based biofuels industry development in Tanzania observed during fieldwork in Kisarawe and Bahi may fulfill policy objectives. This paper argues that without strong regulatory frameworks for land, investment management, and rural development, biofuel industrialization could further exacerbate poverty and food insecurity in Tanzania. The paper concludes with policy recommendations for first generation biofuel development while keeping in mind implications of second generation production. Since the topic is broad and multifaceted, a multidisciplinary approach is used that includes political, institutional, and agricultural economics to analyze and conceptualize biofuel industry development and food security.

  8. Changes in oral health related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours following school based oral health education and atraumatic restorative treatment in rural Tanzania

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    Anne Nordrehaug Åstrøm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The following questions were addressed; to what extent is sugar consumption, tooth brushing, and oral health related attitudes and knowledge subject to change following a combined atraumatic restorative treatment (ART /oral health education (OHE program? Are changes in intended sugar avoidance associated with changes in cognitions as specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB? Are changes in oral health related knowledge associated with changes in attitudes and oral health behaviour?Method: A total of 1306 (follow-up prevalence 73.8% primary school students in Kilwa, Tanzania completed interviews before and after a combined ART/OHE program. Post intervention at 6 months follow-up assessed changes in oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. Complete baseline and follow-up interviews were obtained from 221 and 1085 students who received ART/OHE and OHE only at schools, respectively.Results: Improvement was obtained with attitudes towards sugar avoidance, knowledge, and tooth brushing (effect sizes in the range 0.1-0.3. Within individual changes did not differ significantly between students receiving ART/ OHE and OHE only. Change scores of intended sugar avoidance associated in the expected direction with changes in sugar consumption. Attitudes and norms with respect to sugar avoidance deteriorated and improved among subjects who respectively decreased and increased intended sugar avoidance. Tooth brushing increased in students who improved oral knowledge.Conclusion: School based ART/OHE improved pupils’ tooth brushing, knowledge, and attitudes, but had no effect on sugar consumption. This study provided support for the validity of the TPB in predicting changes in intended sugar avoidance and reported sugar intake.

  9. Effectiveness of the Home Based Life Saving Skills training by community health workers on knowledge of danger signs, birth preparedness, complication readiness and facility delivery, among women in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Furaha; Pembe, Andrea B; Mpembeni, Rose; Axemo, Pia; Darj, Elisabeth

    2016-06-02

    In spite of government efforts, maternal mortality in Tanzania is currently at more than 400 per 100,000 live births. Community-based interventions that encourage safe motherhood and improved health-seeking behaviour through acquiring knowledge on the danger signs and improving birth preparedness, and, ultimately, reduce maternal mortality, have been initiated in different parts of low-income countries. Our aim was to evaluate if the Home Based Life Saving Skills education by community health workers would improve knowledge of danger signs, birth preparedness and complication readiness and facility-based deliveries in a rural community in Tanzania. A quasi-experimental study design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of Home Based Life Saving Skills education to pregnant women and their families through a community intervention. An intervention district received training with routine care. A comparison district continued to receive routine antenatal care. A structured household questionnaire was used in order to gather information from women who had delivered a child within the last two years before the intervention. This questionnaire was used in both the intervention and comparison districts before and after the intervention. The net intervention effect was estimated using the difference between the differences in the intervention and control districts at baseline and endline. A total of 1,584 and 1,486 women were interviewed at pre-intervention and post intervention, respectively. We observed significant improvement of knowledge of three or more danger signs during pregnancy (15.2 % vs. 48.1 %) with a net intervention effect of 29.0 % (95 % CI: 12.8-36.2; p effect on the knowledge of three or more danger signs during childbirth (15.3 % vs. 43.1 %) with a net intervention effect of 18.3 % (95 % CI: 11.4-25.2; p effect of 9.4 % (95 % CI: 6.4-15.7; p effect of 10.3 % (95 % CI: 10.3-20.3; p effect of 25.3 % (95 % CI: 16.9-33.2; p

  10. Submicrometer aerosol in rural and urban backgrounds in southern Poland: primary and secondary components of PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Klejnowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Diurnal samples of PM(1) (submicrometer particles, having aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm) were collected at an urban background site in Zabrze (from 01.08. to 31.12.2009) and a rural background site in Racibórz (from 01.08. to 31.12.2010). The samples were analyzed for carbon (organic and elemental), water soluble ions (Na(+), NH(4) (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)) and concentrations of 21 elements by using, respectively, a Sunset Laboratory carbon analyzer, a Herisau Metrohm AG ion chromatograph, a PANalitycal Epsilon 5 spectrometer. To perform the monthly mass closure calculations for PM(1), the chemical components were categorized into organic matter (OM), elemental carbon (EC), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA), crustal matter (CM), marine components (MC), other elements (OE) and unidentified matter (UM). The mass contributions of secondary (SOM) and primary (POM) organic matter to PM(1) were also estimated. In average, 50 % of PM(1) in Zabrze and 40 % in Racibórz were secondary aerosol coming from the transformations of its gaseous precursors. High concentrations and mass contributions of EC and OM to PM, and probable PM acidic nature in Zabrze, indicate particularly high hazard from the ambient submicrometer particles to the inhabitants of southern Poland.

  11. Predicted implications of using percentage weight gain as single discharge criterion in management of acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n = 631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Community-Based Wildlife Management In Tanzania: The Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based wildlife management (CWM) approach – known to others as community-based conservation – was first introduced in Tanzania in 1987/88. The approach intends to reconcile wildlife conservation and rural economic development. In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and ...

  13. Bureaucratic Blockages : Water, Civil Servants, and Community in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Juli

    2017-01-01

    How do civil servants in district water and sanitation departments address problems of water access in rural communities in Tanzania? What are the bureaucratic procedures they follow? How do the bureaucratic procedures around formulating budgets, managing money, and interacting with communities impede or enhance their ability to manage water projects? This report addresses these and related ...

  14. 'Mum never loved me.' How structural factors influence adolescent sexual and reproductive health through parent-child connectedness: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Research in high income countries shows parent-child connectedness to be protective against undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes among young people. Little has been done to understand the nature of parent-child connectedness, the structural factors that impact on connectedness and parents' understanding of how connectedness affects their children's sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa and Tanzania in particular. Ethnographic research involved 30 days of observation in 10 households, 9 focus group discussions and 60 in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVIVO qualitative data analysis software. The structural factors with greatest influence on connectedness were economic circumstances, gender, social status, state education, and globalisation. Economic circumstances impacted on parent-child connectedness through parents' ability to provide for their children's material needs, and the time their occupation allowed for them to spend with their children and monitor their activities. Appropriate parent-child interactions were shaped by gender norms and by social status in the form of respectability, adolescents' adherence to norms of respect/obedience shaping their parents' affection. State education affected parents' preferences between children but also undermined parental authority, as did broader globalisation. Connectedness was related to SRH in a bi-directional way: lack of connectedness was linked to young people's low self-esteem and risky sexual behaviour while unplanned pregnancies seriously undermined young women's connectedness with their parents. Since material provision was perceived to be a central element of parent-child connectedness, structural factors limiting provision made transactional sex more likely both through direct material pathways and emotional ones. Motives for transactional sex were said to be material needs and to feel loved and cared for. An important pathway by which structural factors shape

  15. A community-based intervention for improving health-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors: a controlled before and after design study in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzdalifat Abeid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite global recognition that sexual violence is a violation of human rights, evidence still shows it is a pervasive problem across all societies. Promising community intervention studies in the low- and middle-income countries are limited. Objective: This study assessed the impact of a community-based intervention, focusing on improving the community's knowledge and reducing social acceptability of violence against women norms with the goal to prevent and respond to sexual violence. Design: The strategies used to create awareness included radio programs, information, education communication materials, and advocacy meetings with local leaders. The intervention took place in Morogoro region in Tanzania. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design including cross-sectional surveys at baseline (2012 and endline (2014 with men and women aged 18–49 years. Main outcome measures were number of reported rape cases at health facilities and the community's knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence. Results: The number of reported rape events increased by more than 50% at health facilities during the intervention. Knowledge on sexual violence increased significantly in both areas over the study period (from 57.3 to 80.6% in the intervention area and from 55.5 to 71.9% in the comparison area; p<0.001, and the net effect of the intervention between the two areas was statistically significant (6.9, 95% CI 0.2–13.5, p=0.03. There was significant improvement in most of the attitude indicators in the intervention area, but not in the comparison area. However, the intervention had no significant effect on the overall scores of acceptance attitudes in the final assessment when comparing the two areas (−2.4, 95% CI: −8.4 to 3.6, p=0.42. Conclusions: The intervention had an effect on some indicators on knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence even after a short period of intervention. This finding informs the public health

  16. Bacteriological profile of neonatal sepsis in a secondary care hospital in rural Tamil Nadu, Southern India

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    Doniparthi Venkata Pavan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. The objective of the current study was to detect the common causative microorganisms of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rural secondary hospital in Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Neonates (0–28 days admitted to this newborn care unit from October 2013 to September 2015, with a diagnosis of probable sepsis were studied. All the enrolled babies had blood cultures taken and were followed up till final outcome, which was discharge or death, irrespective of culture result. Univariate analysis was performed for factors associated with culture positivity, generating odds ratios, and confidence intervals. Results: Among the 107 babies with a diagnosis of probable sepsis, 28 (26.2% had shown bacteria in culture. The majority (94.4% were of early-onset sepsis. The predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10/28 and Klebsiella (6/28. 100% of Gram-negative bacilli and 90% of Staphylococcus were resistant to Ampicillin. Gentamicin resistance among Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus was 52.9% and 20%, respectively, while third-generation cephalosporin resistance was 31.2% and 20%, respectively. Among the neonates diagnosed as probable sepsis, idiopathic prematurity (P = 0.007 was found to have a statistically significant association with culture-positive sepsis. Conclusion: The culture positivity rate among the neonates with probable sepsis in the current study was 26%. An alarmingly high degree of antibiotic resistance observed calls for robust infection control practices and an urgent evaluation and development of individual and national antibiotic policies for neonatal sepsis.

  17. Community care workers in rural southern Illinois: job satisfaction and implications for employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D N; Sarvela, P D

    1989-01-01

    This study examined factors related to community care worker job satisfaction, as a method of assessing problems related to employee turnover, based on data collected from 393 community care workers who worked with elderly clients from the 13 southernmost rural counties in Illinois in 1987. Results suggested that the majority of workers were satisfied with their job; however, there was a difference in the mean scores of those employed for more than one year and those employed for less than one year (those employed for longer than one year had significantly lower satisfaction scores than those employed for less than one year). Although only 19 individuals indicated they were intending to quit within the year, 88 respondents answered "no opinion." Reasons given why new employees quit were: low wages, no benefits, no raises or promotions, cannot cope with the elderly, do not like the elderly, or not well-suited for this type of work. Also, many of the workers responded that people quit because the job was not what they expected, they did not give it a chance, they did not receive the proper training, and that the job was too stressful or frustrating. Recommendations made on the basis of these study data include the development of a new job hierarchy (which will increase the probability of being promoted) and more detailed pre-service training program which covers in detail what new employees can expect from the job. Health education training programs are recommended as a major tool for reducing the problem of employee turnover by helping the worker manage the high levels of stress experienced on the job.

  18. Nutritional status and intellectual development in children: A community-based study from rural Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Amita; Thomas, Leah; Stephen, Kezia; Marconi, Sam; Noel, J; Jacob, K S; Prasad, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of recent data on the relationship between nutritional status and intellectual development among children in India. To determine whether such a relationship exists, we studied children in a rural area of Tamil Nadu. We stratified villages in Kaniyambadi block, Tamil Nadu, and recruited consecutive children who satisfied the study criteria. We assessed nutritional status by measuring height and weight and recording chronological age, and calculated indices weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-forheight and their Z scores. We assessed intellectual development using the Indian adaptation of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale. We used a case-control framework to determine the relationship and logistic regression to adjust for common confounders. We recruited 114 children between the ages of 12 and 72 months. Z score means (weight-for-age -1.36; height-for-age -1.42; weight-for-height -0.78) were much less than 0 and indicate undernutrition. Z score standard deviations (weight-for-age 1.04; height-for-age 1.18; weightfor- height 1.06) were within the WHO recommended range for good quality of nutrition data suggesting reduced measurement errors and incorrect reporting of age. The frequency distributions of population Z scores suggest high undernutrition, wasting and medium stunting. A tenth of the population (9.6%) had values to suggest borderline/below average intelligence (social quotient social quotient. These relationships remained statistically significant after adjusting for sex and socioeconomic status using logistic regression. Chronic undernutrition, wasting and stunting and their association with lower intellectual development demand an urgent re-assessment of national food policies and programmes.

  19. Bacteriological profile of neonatal sepsis in a secondary care hospital in rural Tamil Nadu, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, Doniparthi Venkata; Mohan, Jesinth; Rakesh, P S; Prasad, Jasmine; Joseph, Lenikumar

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the world. The objective of the current study was to detect the common causative microorganisms of neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a rural secondary hospital in Tamil Nadu, India. Neonates (0-28 days) admitted to this newborn care unit from October 2013 to September 2015, with a diagnosis of probable sepsis were studied. All the enrolled babies had blood cultures taken and were followed up till final outcome, which was discharge or death, irrespective of culture result. Univariate analysis was performed for factors associated with culture positivity, generating odds ratios, and confidence intervals. Among the 107 babies with a diagnosis of probable sepsis, 28 (26.2%) had shown bacteria in culture. The majority (94.4%) were of early-onset sepsis. The predominant organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10/28) and Klebsiella (6/28). 100% of Gram-negative bacilli and 90% of Staphylococcus were resistant to Ampicillin. Gentamicin resistance among Gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus was 52.9% and 20%, respectively, while third-generation cephalosporin resistance was 31.2% and 20%, respectively. Among the neonates diagnosed as probable sepsis, idiopathic prematurity ( P = 0.007) was found to have a statistically significant association with culture-positive sepsis. The culture positivity rate among the neonates with probable sepsis in the current study was 26%. An alarmingly high degree of antibiotic resistance observed calls for robust infection control practices and an urgent evaluation and development of individual and national antibiotic policies for neonatal sepsis.

  20. MARKET TOURS, PEDDLER RECEIPTS AND THE SHOPKEEPER GRAPE VINE: AN IMPORT WHOLESALER’S ATTEMPTS TO GAUGE RURAL, AFRICAN CONSUMER DEMAND IN EARLY COLONIAL NORTHWESTERN TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird Jones

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how early colonial, town-based wholesalers discerned rural African consumer tastes and measured demand for imported goods by focusing on the experience of the O’Swald Mwanza branch from 1906 through 1916. Like many metropolitan firms, O’Swald had extensive experience in the earlier caravan trade. Thus, several decades later, its representatives arrived in Mwanza expecting that import sales would still conform to the tastes of elite caravan era consumers. With the extension of steam transport into the interior and the onset of an early colonial “Cash Crop Revolution,” however, many more rural cultivators and herdspeople than ever before had the means to acquire imports, and these new consumers proved far more fickle with regard to brand, style and novelty than firms like O’Swald had anticipated. They no longer accepted some caravan era favorites, and desired others in increasing variety. Thus, in order to stay on top of what the firm only slowly came to understand as an emerging mass market, the O’Swald men spied on their competition, engaged in brand name advertising, interrogated shopkeepers and peddlers, and increasingly market-tested new products.

  1. Interdependence of domestic malaria prevention measures and mosquito-human interactions in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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    Mshinda Hassan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is afforded to residents by using an insecticide-treated net (ITN is estimated. Methods Mosquito biting activity over the course of the night was estimated by human landing catch in 216 houses and 1,064 residents were interviewed to determine usage of protection measures and the proportion of each hour of the night spent sleeping indoors, awake indoors, and outdoors. Results Hourly variations in biting activity by members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were consistent with classical reports but the proportion of these vectors caught outdoors in Dar es Salaam was almost double that of rural Tanzania. Overall, ITNs confer less protection against exophagic vectors in Dar es Salaam than in rural southern Tanzania (59% versus 70%. More alarmingly, a biting activity maximum that precedes 10 pm and much lower levels of ITN protection against exposure (38% were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, a vector of modest importance locally, but which predominates transmission in large parts of Africa. Conclusion In a situation of changing mosquito and human behaviour, ITNs may confer lower, but still useful, levels of personal protection which can be complemented by communal transmission suppression at high coverage. Mosquito-proofing houses appeared to be the intervention of choice amongst residents and further options for preventing outdoor transmission include larviciding and environmental management.

  2. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  3. Health and socio-demographic profile of women of reproductive age in rural communities of southern Mozambique.

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    Charfudin Sacoor

    Full Text Available Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP study, a cluster randomized controlled trial. This study represents a census of all women of reproductive age (12-49 years in twelve rural communities in Maputo and Gaza provinces of Mozambique. The data were collected through electronic forms implemented in Open Data Kit (ODK (an app for android based tablets and household and individual characteristics. Verbal autopsies were conducted on all reported maternal deaths to determine the underlying cause of death. Between March and October 2014, 50,493 households and 80,483 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9 years were surveyed. A total of 14,617 pregnancies were reported in the twelve months prior to the census, resulting in 9,029 completed pregnancies. Of completed pregnancies, 8,796 resulted in live births, 466 resulted in stillbirths and 288 resulted in miscarriages. The remaining pregnancies had not yet been completed during the time of the survey (5,588 pregnancies. The age specific fertility indicates that highest rate (188 live births per 1,000 women occurs in the age 20-24 years old. The estimated stillbirth rate was 50.3/1,000 live and stillbirths; neonatal mortality rate was 13.3/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio was 204.6/100,000 live births. The most common direct cause of maternal death was eclampsia and

  4. Health and socio-demographic profile of women of reproductive age in rural communities of southern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacoor, Charfudin; Payne, Beth; Augusto, Orvalho; Vilanculo, Faustino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Vidler, Marianne; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Munguambe, Khátia; Lee, Tang; Macete, Eusébio; von Dadelszen, Peter; Sevene, Esperança

    2018-01-01

    Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) study, a cluster randomized controlled trial. This study represents a census of all women of reproductive age (12–49 years) in twelve rural communities in Maputo and Gaza provinces of Mozambique. The data were collected through electronic forms implemented in Open Data Kit (ODK) (an app for android based tablets) and household and individual characteristics. Verbal autopsies were conducted on all reported maternal deaths to determine the underlying cause of death. Between March and October 2014, 50,493 households and 80,483 women of reproductive age (mean age 26.9 years) were surveyed. A total of 14,617 pregnancies were reported in the twelve months prior to the census, resulting in 9,029 completed pregnancies. Of completed pregnancies, 8,796 resulted in live births, 466 resulted in stillbirths and 288 resulted in miscarriages. The remaining pregnancies had not yet been completed during the time of the survey (5,588 pregnancies). The age specific fertility indicates that highest rate (188 live births per 1,000 women) occurs in the age 20–24 years old. The estimated stillbirth rate was 50.3/1,000 live and stillbirths; neonatal mortality rate was 13.3/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio was 204.6/100,000 live births. The most common direct cause of maternal death was eclampsia and

  5. Tanzania - Water Supply & Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  6. Tanzania Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes any contribution that advances medical science or ... these core objectives the journal publishes papers on original scientific research, short ... The Tanzania Medical Journal is an international Journal - ISSN: 0856-0719 ...

  7. Health care decision making autonomy of women from rural districts of Southern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu M

    2017-04-01

    decisions about their own health. Husbands play a major role in making health care decisions about their wives. A comprehensive strategy needs to be implemented in order to empower women, as well as to challenge the traditional male dominance. Special attention has to be given to women living in rural areas in order to reduce their dependency through education and income generating activities. Keywords: decision making, women’s autonomy, health care decision, women’s empowerment, Wolaita, Dawro, Southern Ethiopia

  8. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  9. Health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families: A qualitative study in Southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebayehu Tora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested investigation of health beliefs in children to be an important pre-condition for primary prevention of disease. However, little effort has been made to understand these in the context of podoconiosis. This study therefore aimed to explore the health beliefs of school-age rural children in podoconiosis-affected families.A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted in March 2016 in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs, with a total of one hundred seventeen 9 to15-year-old children recruited from podoconiosis affected families. The study revealed various misconceptions regarding risk factors for podoconiosis. Most children believed barefoot exposure to dew, worms, snake bite, frog urine, other forms of poison, and contact with affected people to be major causes of the disease. Their knowledge about the role of heredity and that of long term barefoot exposure to irritant mineral particles was also weak. Though most participants correctly appraised their susceptibility to podoconiosis in relation to regular use of footwear and foot hygiene, others based their risk perceptions on factors they think beyond their control. They described several barriers to preventive behaviour, including uncomfortable footwear, shortage and poor adaptability of footwear for farm activities and sports, and shortage of soap for washing. Children also perceived low self-efficacy to practice preventive behaviour in spite of the barriers.Health education interventions may enhance school-age children's health literacy and be translated to preventive action. Overcoming practical challenges such as shortage of footwear and other hygiene facilities requires other forms of interventions such as livelihood strengthening activities. Linking podoconiosis-affected families with local governmental or non-governmental organizations providing socio

  10. Establishing a faith-based organisation nursing school within a national primary health care programme in rural Tanzania: an auto-ethnographic case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bischoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, the Tanzanian government called for improvements in its primary health care services. Part of this initiative was to accelerate the training rate for nurses qualified to work in rural areas. The aim of this study was to reflect on the issues experienced whilst establishing and implementing a faith-based organisation (FBO nursing school and make recommendations for other similar initiatives. Design: This paper describes an auto-ethnographic case study design to identify the key difficulties involved with establishing and implementing a new nursing school, and which factors helped the project achieve its goals. Results: Six themes emerged from the experiences that shaped the course of the project: 1 Motivation can be sustained if the rationale of the project is in line with its aims. Indeed, the project's primary health care focus was to strengthen the nursing workforce and build a public–private partnership with an FBO. All these were strengths, which helped in the midst of all the uncertainties. 2 Communication was an important and often underrated factor for all types of development projects. 3 Managing the unknown and 4 managing expectations characterised the project inception. Almost all themes had to do with 5 handling conflicts. With so many participants having their own agendas, tensions were unavoidable. A final theme was 6 the need to adjust to ever-changing targets. Conclusions: This retrospective auto-ethnographic manuscript serves as a small-scale case study, to illustrate how issues that can be generalised to other settings can be deconstructed to demonstrate how they influence health development projects in developing countries. From this narrative of experiences, key recommendations include the following: 1 Find the right ratio of stakeholders, participants, and agendas, and do not overload the project; 2 Be alert and communicate as much as possible with staff and do not ignore issues hoping they will solve

  11. Establishing a faith-based organisation nursing school within a national primary health care programme in rural Tanzania: an auto-ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, the Tanzanian government called for improvements in its primary health care services. Part of this initiative was to accelerate the training rate for nurses qualified to work in rural areas. The aim of this study was to reflect on the issues experienced whilst establishing and implementing a faith-based organisation (FBO) nursing school and make recommendations for other similar initiatives. This paper describes an auto-ethnographic case study design to identify the key difficulties involved with establishing and implementing a new nursing school, and which factors helped the project achieve its goals. Six themes emerged from the experiences that shaped the course of the project: 1) Motivation can be sustained if the rationale of the project is in line with its aims. Indeed, the project's primary health care focus was to strengthen the nursing workforce and build a public-private partnership with an FBO. All these were strengths, which helped in the midst of all the uncertainties. 2) Communication was an important and often underrated factor for all types of development projects. 3) Managing the unknown and 4) managing expectations characterised the project inception. Almost all themes had to do with 5) handling conflicts. With so many participants having their own agendas, tensions were unavoidable. A final theme was 6) the need to adjust to ever-changing targets. This retrospective auto-ethnographic manuscript serves as a small-scale case study, to illustrate how issues that can be generalised to other settings can be deconstructed to demonstrate how they influence health development projects in developing countries. From this narrative of experiences, key recommendations include the following: 1) Find the right ratio of stakeholders, participants, and agendas, and do not overload the project; 2) Be alert and communicate as much as possible with staff and do not ignore issues hoping they will solve themselves; 3) Think flexibly and do not stubbornly

  12. "Once the government employs you, it forgets you": Health workers' and managers' perspectives on factors influencing working conditions for provision of maternal health care services in a rural district of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Mahiti, Gladys Reuben; Kiwara, Angwara; Mwangu, Mughwira; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-14

    In many developing countries, health workforce crisis is one of the predominant challenges affecting the health care systems' function of providing quality services, including maternal care. The challenge is related to how these countries establish conducive working conditions that attract and retain health workers into the health care sector and enable them to perform effectively and efficiently to improve health services particularly in rural settings. This study explored the perspectives of health workers and managers on factors influencing working conditions for providing maternal health care services in rural Tanzania. The researchers took a broad approach to understand the status of the current working conditions through a governance lens and brought into context the role of government and its decentralized organs in handling health workers in order to improve their performance and retention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 informants (15 health workers, 5 members of Council Health Management Team and 2 informants from the District Executive Director's office). An interview guide was used with questions pertaining to informants' perspective on provision of maternal health care service, working environment, living conditions, handling of staff's financial claims, avenue for sharing concerns, opportunities for training and career progression. Probing questions on how these issues affect the health workers' role of providing maternal health care were employed. Document reviews and observations of health facilities were conducted to supplement the data. The interviews were analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall, health workers felt abandoned and lost within an unsupportive system they serve. Difficult working and living environments that affect health workers' role of providing maternal health care services were dominant concerns raised from interviews with both health workers and managers. Existence of a bureaucratic and

  13. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  14. Alcohol use and depression: link with adherence and viral suppression in adult patients on antiretroviral therapy in rural Lesotho, Southern Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Bernard; Broers, Barbara; Masetsibi, Motlomelo; Faturiyele, Olatunbosun; Toti-Mokoteli, Likabelo; Motlatsi, Mokete; Bader, Joelle; Klimkait, Thomas; Labhardt, Niklaus D

    2016-09-08

    Depression and alcohol use disorder have been shown to be associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies examining their association with viral suppression in rural Africa are, however, scarce. This study reports prevalence of depressive symptoms and alcohol use disorder, and their potential association with adherence and viral suppression in adult patients on ART in ten clinics in rural Lesotho, Southern Africa. Among 1,388 adult patients (69 % women), 80.7 % were alcohol abstinent, 6.3 % were hazardous drinkers (men: 10.7 %, women: 4.4 %, p women 32.7 %, p suppression. Whereas the results of this study confirm previously reported association of alcohol use disorder with adherence to ART, there was no association with viral suppression. April 28th 2014; NCT02126696 .

  15. Socio-economic impacts of irrigated agriculture in Mbarali District of south west Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    Irrigation has been found to be central in curbing food scarcity not only in Tanzania but also in many other developing countries. It has been proved that continued reliability on rainfall in agriculture cannot sustain the increase in population. This study examines the impacts of smallholder irrigated agriculture in improving social and economic benefits in Igurusi Ward of Mbarali District which is located in the southern-western part of Tanzania. The study applies the Participatory Rural Appraisal Framework for data collection. The study was confined to five villages in Igurusi ward which are Majenje, Igurusi, Chamoto, Uhambule and Mahango. The study examined critically paddy production for smallholder farmers that practice irrigation and those who cultivates rain-fed paddy. The study examined both existing traditional and modern irrigation systems. It was found that, most of the respondents (79%) practice irrigated agriculture in paddy production while the remaining 21% practice rain-fed agriculture. Forty percent of households that practice irrigated agriculture harvest paddy two seasons per year. The return to labour in paddy production for smallholder farmers who irrigate their paddy fields is about US 2.5/manday which is above the poverty line of US 1.0/day. The smallest return to labour (US $ 0.85/manday) is obtained by an average smallholder farmer who cultivates rain-fed paddy using hand hoe and family labour. The potential implication of the current irrigation systems is that if irrigation is managed properly it may lead to sustainable increases in small farmer’s productivity and income, thus alleviating rural poverty.

  16. Crowdsourcing Vector Surveillance: Using Community Knowledge and Experiences to Predict Densities and Distribution of Outdoor-Biting Mosquitoes in Rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Peter Mwangungulu

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable techniques for large-scale monitoring of disease-transmitting mosquitoes is a major public health challenge, especially where advanced geo-information systems are not regularly applicable. We tested an innovative crowd-sourcing approach, which relies simply on knowledge and experiences of residents to rapidly predict areas where disease-transmitting mosquitoes are most abundant. Guided by community-based resource persons, we mapped boundaries and major physical features in three rural Tanzanian villages. We then selected 60 community members, taught them basic map-reading skills, and offered them gridded maps of their own villages (grid size: 200m×200m so they could identify locations where they believed mosquitoes were most abundant, by ranking the grids from one (highest density to five (lowest density. The ranks were interpolated in ArcGIS-10 (ESRI-USA using inverse distance weighting (IDW method, and re-classified to depict areas people believed had high, medium and low mosquito densities. Finally, we used odor-baited mosquito traps to compare and verify actual outdoor mosquito densities in the same areas. We repeated this process for 12 months, each time with a different group of 60 residents. All entomological surveys depicted similar geographical stratification of mosquito densities in areas classified by community members as having high, medium and low vector abundance. These similarities were observed when all mosquito species were combined, and also when only malaria vectors were considered. Of the 12,412 mosquitoes caught, 60.9% (7,555 were from areas considered by community members as having high mosquito densities, 28% (3,470 from medium density areas, and 11.2% (1,387 from low density areas. This study provides evidence that we can rely on community knowledge and experiences to identify areas where mosquitoes are most abundant or least abundant, even without entomological surveys. This crowd-sourcing method could

  17. Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources

  18. Health care decision making autonomy of women from rural districts of Southern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Mihiretu; Meskele, Mengistu

    2017-01-01

    Millions of women have little health care decision making autonomy in many cultures and tribes. African women are often perceived to have little participation in health care decisions. However, little has been investigated to identify factors contributing to decision making autonomy. Hence, it is important to obtain information on the contributing factors of decision making autonomy and disparities across different socio-cultural contexts. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita and Dawro zones, Southern Ethiopia from February to March 2015. A total of 967 women were selected through multistage sampling. A survey was administered face-to-face through an interview format. EpiData v1.4.4.0 and SPSS version 20 were used to enter and analyze data, respectively. Proportions and means were used to describe the study population. Variables with P -value autonomy, while 40.9% of study participants' health care decisions were made by their husbands. The husband's education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.91 [1.10, 3.32]), wealth index (AOR =0.62 [0.42, 0.92]), age (AOR =2.42 [1.35, 4.32] and AOR =7 [3.45, 14.22]), family size (AOR =0.53 [0.33, 0.85] and AOR =0.42 [0.23, 0.75]), and occupation (AOR =1.66 [1.14, 2.41]), were predictors of health care decision making autonomy. Even though every woman has the right to participate in her own health care decision making, more than two fifths of them have no role in making health care decisions about their own health. Husbands play a major role in making health care decisions about their wives. A comprehensive strategy needs to be implemented in order to empower women, as well as to challenge the traditional male dominance. Special attention has to be given to women living in rural areas in order to reduce their dependency through education and income generating activities.

  19. [Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in rural and urban adolescents of southern Spain, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and physical and sedentary activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana-María; Moral-García, José-Enrique; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is one of the healthier diet models. Mediterranean food patterns are suffering a deterioration that can especially affect children and adolescents. Determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescents of southern Spain and its relationship with the residence area, sex, age, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and habits of physical activity and sedentary activities. A total of 1973 adolescents (11-18 years) of southern Spain participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study. Cut-off value between rural and urban locations was 10000 inhabitants. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was calculated from the KIDMED questionnaire. Life satisfaction, physical activity, and sedentary activities also were measured through valid and reliable questionnaires. Body mass index and % body fat were measured using the TANITA BC-420-S body analyzer. 30.9% of the adolescents reported an optimal quality diet, percent higher in rural locations (P sedentary in front of a screen (P diet had a healthier lifestyle and they showed greater life satisfaction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. High prevalence and associated risk factors for impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in a rural adult population from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China. METHODS: Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined. RESULTS: Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1, reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%, and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%. Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1% of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.

  1. Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Pelican, Katherine; Cross, Paul C.; Eguren, Antonieta; Singer, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

  2. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  3. Epidemiologic Study of Opium Use in Pars Cohort Study: A Study of 9000 Adults in a Rural Southern Area of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Salehi, Alireza; Naghshvarian, Mojtaba; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Gandomkar, Abdullah; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Opium is one of the most common substances used worldwide with variable epidemiologic features in different regions. This study was performed in southern Iran, to find the epidemiology of opium use and its association with different factors and diseases. This cross-sectional study was performed on baseline data extracted from Pars Cohort Study performed in Valashahr, a rural area in southern Iran. For any subject, information was collected about demographic factors, some common diseases including heart disease, stroke and hypertension and the state of using opium, other substances and cigarettes. There were 4276 males and 4988 females, with a mean age of 52.6 ± 9.7 years of whom 8.4% reported opium use (17.3% of males and 0.7% of females). In men, the history of stroke and heart disease were significantly more common in opium users (12.6% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.001 and 2.8% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.01, respectively) while the history of hypertension was significantly more common in non-opium users (7.8% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.04). Younger age, male gender, being non-married and positive history of joint pain, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were the factors associated with opium use. Opium use is common in non-married men who have a positive history of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in the rural population of southern Iran. It is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke and decreased risk of hypertension in males. Global interventional and preventive measures are required to control this complicated social problem.

  4. Tanzania Dental Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Committee of Tanzania Dental. Association would like to Thank. [fUfNJfNJU[[j)~ for its magnanimity towards meeting the cost of this Journal ... ceps is token out of the dental kit and the tooth is removed out of its socket. The tooth is dropped into the waste bucket. The fareceps is placed in the water basin. The socket site is ...

  5. YOUTH EMPLOYMENTin Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some 17.5 millionTanzanians are between 15 and 34 years of age. This number is expected to almost double by 2035. For more information, please refer to Haji, Mahjabeen (2015) Tanzania: Skills and youth employment, a scoping paper commissioned by IDRC and the MasterCard Foundation. Young self-employed.

  6. IDRC in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    worth CA$60 million since 1973. By identifying the major causes of death and disease, IDRC-supported research has helped to significantly reduced child and adult mortality rates in ... mental conditions in communities in. Tanzania and Malawi. Researchers and com- munity members will use the survey results to design ...

  7. Tanzania Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Science (Tanz. J. Sci.) was established in 1975 as a forum for communication and co-ordination between and among scientists and allied professionals. It is also intended as a medium for dissemination of scientific knowledge among scientists and the public at large to promote the advancement of ...

  8. Tanzania Medical Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Medical Journal is a multi – disciplinary journal published two times a year in March - June and September – December. ... To achieve its objectives the journal invites papers on original scientific research, short communications, case reports and letters to the editor, in any branch of medical science. Original ...

  9. Lipid profile and dietary habits in an elderly rural population in the southern Spain: the Sierra de Huelva study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicario, Isabel M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We have assessed serum lipids, systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure in a healthy, free living population over 70 years old residing for more than 20 years in a rural area located in the southern Spain, the Sierra de Huelva. 401 elderly, 229 women (F and 179 men (M mean age 79.36 ± 6.9 were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Dietary habits were assessed by means of a Modification of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDDS, which comprised 11 components. A total score ranging from 0-44 was calculated. Mean concentration for lipids were: Total cholesterol (TC 193.8 ± 23.1, M 195.2 ± 25.7 and F 192.7 ± 20.8 (p = 0.29; HDLc 60.3 ± 7.6 mg/dl, M 60.0 ± 8.0 and F 60.5 ± 7.2 (p = 0.49; TC/HDLc 3.3 ± 1.1 mg/dl, M 3.4 ± 1.2 and F 3.3 ± 1.1 mg/dl (p Hemos evaluado los lípidos séricos, la presión sistólica (SBP y diastólica (DBP en un grupo de ancianos no institucionalizados de más de 70 años que residen en una zona rural localizada en el sur de España, la Sierra de Huelva. 401 ancianos, 229 mujeres (F and 179 hombres (M con una edad media de 79,36 ± 6,9 años, se incluyeron en este estudio observacional transversal. Los hábitos alimentarios fueron evaluados mediante una modificación del Mediterranean Diet Score MMDS que incluyó a 11 grupos de alimentos. Se obtuvo una puntuación total que oscilaba entre 0-44. La concentración media de lípidos fue: colesterol total (TC 193,8 ± 23,1, M 195,2 ± 25,7 y F 192,7 ± 20,8 (p = 0,29; HDLc 60,3 ± 7,6 mg/dl, M 58,0 ± 8,0 y F 60,5 ± 7,2 (p = 0,49; TC/HDLc 3,3 ± 1,1 mg/dl, M 3,4 ± 1,2 and F 3,3 ± 1,1 mg/dl (p < 0,35; LDLc 127,3 ± 30,1 mg/dl, M 129,0 ± 32.9 F 127,3 ± 30,1 mg/dl (p < 0,33; TG 137,7 ± 18,8, M 138,8 ± 19,4 y F 136,0 ± 17,4 (p < 0,30. La prevalencia total de hipercolesterolemia (TC 200 mg/dl fue de 8,7%, F 7,9% y M 9,9%; 10,7% de la población presentó niveles de LDLc≥160 mg/dl. La edad se correlacionó negativamente (p < 0,05 con TC, LDLc, TG

  10. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Model results revealed that household sizes and education levels of the decision makers residing ... Key words: Pulses consumption, urban and rural areas, Tanzania and double hurdle model ...... Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics.

  11. determination of the power law exponent for southern highlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    site located in the southern highland zone of Tanzania, was established using wind speeds measured at heights ... distribution, turbulence and wind gusts at the ... mathematical models, which normally .... other locations that have similar wind.

  12. mHealth and the management of chronic conditions in rural areas: a note of caution from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen; Kannuri, Nanda Kishore; Mikkilineni, Sitamma; Murthy, G V S; Phillimore, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This article examines challenges facing implementation of likely mHealth programmes in rural India. Based on fieldwork in Andhra Pradesh in 2014, and taking as exemplars two chronic medical 'conditions' - type 2 diabetes and depression - we look at ways in which people in one rural area currently access medical treatment; we also explore how adults there currently use mobile phones in daily life, to gauge the realistic likelihood of uptake for possible mHealth initiatives. We identify the very different pathways to care for these two medical conditions, and we highlight the importance to the rural population of healthcare outside the formal health system provided by those known as registered medical practitioners (RMP), who despite their title are neither registered nor trained. We also show how limited is the use currently made of very basic mobile phones by the majority of the older adult population in this rural context. Not only may this inhibit mHealth potential in the near future; just as importantly, our data suggest how difficult it may be to identify a clinical partner for patients or their carers for any mHealth application designed to assist the management of chronic ill-health in rural India. Finally, we examine how the promotion of patient 'self-management' may not be as readily translated to a country like India as proponents of mHealth might assume.

  13. Mobile Phone Use in Two Secondary Schools in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew; Galloway, David; Mollel, Andrew; Mgoma, Sylvester; Pima, Madeleke; Deogratias, Enos

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone technology in Tanzania has grown rapidly but there is insufficient data on its application in schools. This paper aims to show how students in the first and third year (F1 and F3) teachers in two rural secondary schools perceived its use. F1 and F3 students completed a questionnaire. Teachers and students in F1 and F3 discussed the…

  14. Women, donors and land administration: The Tanzania case

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk; Haule, Scholastica

    2013-01-01

    Tanzania's land reform from 1999 has been evaluated as among the most gender-sensitive of its kind in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is a gap between the legal framework and what is happening on the ground. This working paper analyses the challenges related to the protection of women's rights to land in rural areas. It provides detailed information on reform implementation experiences so far by analysing a number of government and NGO interventions. It furthermore discusses the ambiguous ...

  15. Wintertime pollution level, size distribution and personal daily exposure to particulate matters in the northern and southern rural Chinese homes and variation in different household fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Zhuo, Shaojie; Xu, Yang; Li, Xinyue; Pan, Xuelian; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated and compared wintertime air pollution and personal exposure in the rural northern and southern Chinese homes. Daily indoor and outdoor particle samples were simultaneously collected by using stationary samplers, and personal exposure was directly measured using portable carried samplers. The daily average concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 were 521 ± 234 and 365 ± 185 μg/m 3 in the northern village, that were about 2.3-2.7 times of 188 ± 104 and 150 ± 29 μg/m 3 in indoor and outdoor air in the southern villages. Particle size distribution was similar between indoor and outdoor air, and had relatively smaller difference between the two sites, relative to the particle mass concentration difference. PM 2.5 contributed to ∼80% of the TSP mass, and in PM 2.5 , near 90% were PM 1.0 . In homes using electricity in the southern villages, outdoor air pollution could explain 70-80% of the variation in indoor air pollution. The daily exposure to PM 2.5 measured using personal carried samplers were 451 ± 301 μg/m 3 in the northern villages with traditional solid fuels used for daily cooking and heating, and in the southern villages without heating, the exposure to PM 2.5 were 184 ± 83 and 166 ± 45 μg/m 3 , respectively, for the population using wood and electricity for daily cooking. Time-weighted daily average exposure estimated from area concentration and time spent indoor and outdoor was generally correlated the directly measured exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Evaluation of mental and communication functions in mapuche and non mapuche elderly subjects in rural communities in Southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella, Rebeca; Alvear, María; Carrillo, Berta; Caire, Victor

    2003-11-01

    The main predictors of functional impairment in the elderly are alterations in mental or communication functions. To study mental and communication functions in rural elderly subjects of Mapuche and non Mapuche origin. Elderly subjects coming from a rural Mapuche community and a non Mapuche community were studied. Subjects were interviewed at their homes. The communication and mental function assessments of the Functional Autonomy Measurement System were applied. Fifty one Mapuche and 49 non Mapuche subjects with a mean age of 71 +/- 7 and 74 +/- 8 years respectively, were studied. Fifty four percent were female and 31% were illiterate. Twenty six percent had impairment in mental functions. The item with the highest difficulty was memory. The visual function was the most severely impaired among communication items. Mapuche elderly subjects had significantly higher degrees of impairment in mental and communication functions. There is a higher degree of mental and communication impairment among rural Mapuche elderly subjects than in their non Mapuche counterparts.

  17. In the way of clean and safe drinking water : exploring limitations to improvement of the water supply in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bemspång, Josefina; Segerström, Rebecka

    2009-01-01

    Bagamoyo District, in the Pwani region in Tanzania, supplies a large part of Tanzania'sbiggest city, Dar es Salaam, with water. At the same time many people in rural villages in thedistrict do not have access to clean and safe water. This thesis aims to explore what limitationsthere are to improvement of the rural water supply in Bagamoyo District. Specific attention ispaid to the organizational structure of the water sector and how roles and responsibilities aredivided, defined and communica...

  18. Different profile of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections among patients with diarrhoea according to age attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jose M; Rodríguez-Valero, Natalia; Tisiano, Gabriel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Fruttero, Enza; Reyes, Francisco; Górgolas, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of intestinal parasitic diseases with age and gender in patients with diarrhea attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia in the period 2007-2012. A total of 32,191 stool examination was performed in patients who presented with diarrhea. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in the present study was 26.5%. Predominant parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (15.0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.0%). The median of age of diarrheal patients with Hymenolepis species, Schistosoma mansoni and G. lamblia was significantly lower (5 y., 10.5 y., and 18 y., respectively; pintestinal parasite and the profile of intestinal parasitic infections is influenced by age.

  19. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  20. Characterization of PM2.5 and the major chemical components during a 1-year campaign in rural Guangzhou, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Yan; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yingyi; Song, Tianli; Zheng, Junyu; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun-cheng; Zhong, Liuju

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year campaign was conducted in the rural area of Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, to collect fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from March 2012 to February 2013. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the major chemical components including 6 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 13 additional elements were measured. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 44.2 ± 25.8 μg/m3. Sulfate was the most dominant component, accounting for 28.6% of PM2.5, followed by organic matter (21.9%). Both sea salt and crustal material accounted for only a small fraction of PM2.5 (burning. Two high-PM2.5 case studies show that both local and long-range transport can play important roles in the PM2.5 elevation episode.

  1. Connecting rural-urban economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lazaro, Evelyn

    The interlinked relationships between urban settlements and their rural hinterlands in Sub-Saharan Africa are perceived crucial in enhancing possibilities for livelihood diversification and poverty reduction. Urban settlements provide opportunities for investment in more remunerative economic...... activities, job/employment opportunities that retain potential migrants in the area, and access to services for the rural hinterlands. This paper examines the role of emerging urban centres (EUCs) as ‘drivers’ of rural development based on a study of two EUCs and their rural hinterlands in Tanzania. Findings...... and poverty reduction....

  2. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  3. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  4. Measuring the efficiency of the Greek rural primary health care using a restricted DEA model; the case of southern and western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Nikolaos; Tountas, Yannis; Mariolis, Argiris; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Kyriopoulos, John

    2016-12-01

    This is a study to measure the efficiency of the rural Health Centres (HCs) and their Regional Surgeries (RSs) of the 6th Health Prefecture (HP) of Greece, which covers Southern and Western Greece. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied under Constant and Variable Returns to Scale, using a weight-restricted, output-oriented model, to calculate pure technical efficiency (PΤΕ), scale efficiency (SE) and total technical efficiency (TE). The selection of inputs, outputs and their relative weights in the model was based on two consecutive consensus panels of experts on Primary Health Care (PHC). Medical personnel, nursing personnel and technological equipment were chosen as inputs and were attributed appropriate weight restrictions. Acute, chronic and preventive consultations where chosen as outputs; each output was constructed by smaller subcategories of different relative importance. Data were collected through a questionnaire sent to all HCs of the covered area. From the 42 HCs which provided complete data, the study identified 9 as technical efficient, 5 as scale efficient and 2 as total efficient. The mean TE, PTE and SE scores of the HCs of the 6th Health Prefecture were 0.57, 0.67 and 0.87, respectively. The results demonstrate noteworthy variation in efficiency in the productive process of the HCs of Southern and Western Greece. The dominant form of inefficiency was technical inefficiency. The HCs of the 6th HP can theoretically produce 33 % more output on average, using their current production factors. These results indicated potential for considerable efficiency improvement in most rural health care units. Emphasis on prevention and chronic disease management, as well as wider structural and organisational reforms, are discussed from the viewpoint of how to increase efficiency.

  5. Iron deficiency was not the major cause of anemia in rural women of reproductive age in Sidama zone, southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreegziabher, Tafere; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2017-01-01

    Anemia, which has many etiologies, is a moderate/severe public health problem in young children and women of reproductive age in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of iron deficiency, anemia, and iron deficiency anemia using multiple biomarkers and to evaluate their association with food insecurity and food consumption patterns in non-pregnant women from a rural area of southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 202 rural women of reproductive age in southern Ethiopia. Anthropometrics and socio-demographic data were collected. A venipuncture blood sample was analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and for biomarkers of iron status. Biomarkers were skewed and were log transformed before analysis. Mean, median, Pearson's correlations and ordinary least-squares regressions were calculated. Median (IQR) Hb was 138 (127, 151) g/L. Based on an altitude-adjusted (1708 m) cutoff of 125 g/L for Hb, 21.3% were anemic. Plasma ferritin was 1.0 g/L; four women (2%) had > 5 mg/L of C-reactive protein (CRP). Of the 43 women who were anemic, 23.3% (10 women) had depleted iron stores based on plasma ferritin. Three of these had elevated soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR). Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was negatively correlated with sTfR (r = -0.24, p = 0.001), and positively correlated with ferritin (r = 0.17, p = 0.018), plasma iron (r = 0.15, p = 0.046), transferrin saturation (TfS) (r = 0.15, p = 0.04) and body iron (r = 0.14, p = 0.05). Overall prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was only 5%. Iron deficiency anemia was not prevalent in the study population, despite the fact that anemia would be classified as a moderate public health problem.

  6. Heat stress related dairy cow mortality during heat waves and control periods in rural Southern Ontario from 2010?2012

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E.; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L.; Hand, Karen; Kelton, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heat stress is a physiological response to extreme environmental heat such as heat waves. Heat stress can result in mortality in dairy cows when extreme heat is both rapidly changing and has a long duration. As a result of climate change, heat waves, which are defined as 3 days of temperatures of 32 ?C or above, are an increasingly frequent extreme weather phenomenon in Southern Ontario. Heat waves are increasing the risk for on-farm dairy cow mortality in Southern Ontario. Heat st...

  7. Alcohol use and depression: link with adherence and viral suppression in adult patients on antiretroviral therapy in rural Lesotho, Southern Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Cerutti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and alcohol use disorder have been shown to be associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Studies examining their association with viral suppression in rural Africa are, however, scarce. Methods This study reports prevalence of depressive symptoms and alcohol use disorder, and their potential association with adherence and viral suppression in adult patients on ART in ten clinics in rural Lesotho, Southern Africa. Results Among 1,388 adult patients (69 % women, 80.7 % were alcohol abstinent, 6.3 % were hazardous drinkers (men: 10.7 %, women: 4.4 %, p < 0.001. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 28.8 % (men 20.2 %, women 32.7 %, p < 0.001. Both alcohol consumption (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.09, 95 % CI: 1.58-2.77 and alcohol use disorder (2.73, 95 % CI: 1.68-4.42 were significantly associated with poor adherence. There was, however, no significant association with viral suppression. Conclusions Whereas the results of this study confirm previously reported association of alcohol use disorder with adherence to ART, there was no association with viral suppression. Trial registration April 28th 2014; NCT02126696 .

  8. Exploring links between water quality and E. coli O157:H7 survival potential in well waters from a rural area of southern Changchun City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meiyue; Li, Jiahang; Liu, Xiaodan; Li, Huiru; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Jincai

    2018-04-01

    Waterborne infectious disease outbreak associated with well water contamination is a worldwide public health issue, especially for rural areas in developing countries. In the current study, we characterized 20 well water samples collected from a rural area of southern Changchun city, China, and investigated the survival potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in those water samples. The results showed that nitrate and ammonia concentrations in some well water samples exceed the corresponding China drinking water standards, indicating potential contamination by local agricultural farms. Our results also revealed that the average survival time (ttd) of E. coli O157:H7 in all well water samples was 30.09 days, with shortest and longest ttd being 17.95 and 58.10 days, respectively. The ttds were significantly correlated with pH and the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus. In addition, it was found that the shape parameter (p) and first decimal reduction parameter (δ) were negatively (P well water, suggesting that this pathogen could constitute a great public health risk.

  9. Molecular approaches for blood meal analysis and species identification of mosquitoes (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae) in rural locations in southern England, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis Miguel; Brugman, Victor Albert; Prosser, Sean Williams John; Weland, Chris; Nikolova, Nadya; Thorne, Leigh; Marco, Mar Fernández DE; Fooks, Anthony Richard; Johnson, Nicholas

    2017-04-03

    Thirty-four species of Culicidae are present in the UK, of which 15 have been implicated as potential vectors of arthropod-borne viruses such as West Nile virus. Identification of mosquito feeding preferences is paramount to the understanding of vector-host-pathogen interactions which, in turn, would assist in the control of disease outbreaks. Results are presented on the application of DNA barcoding for vertebrate species identification in blood-fed female mosquitoes in rural locations. Blood-fed females (n = 134) were collected in southern England from rural sites and identified based on morphological criteria. Blood meals from 59 specimens (44%) were identified as feeding on eight hosts: European rabbit, cow, human, barn swallow, dog, great tit, magpie and blackbird. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mtDNA barcoding region and the internal transcribed spacer 2 rDNA region of the specimens morphologically identified as Anopheles maculipennis s.l. revealed the presence of An. atroparvus and An. messeae. A similar analysis of specimens morphologically identified as Culex pipiens/Cx. torrentium showed all specimens to be Cx. pipiens (typical form). This study demonstrates the importance of using molecular techniques to support species-level identification in blood-fed mosquitoes to maximize the information obtained in studies investigating host feeding patterns.

  10. Mixed-methods quantitative-qualitative study of 29 nonagenarians and centenarians in rural Southern Italy: focus on positive psychological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scelzo, Anna; Di Somma, Salvatore; Antonini, Paola; Montross, Lori P; Schork, Nicholas; Brenner, David; Jeste, Dilip V

    2018-01-01

    This was a study of positive psychological traits in a group of rural Italians aged 90 to 101 years, and their children or other family members. Mixed-methods quantitative (standardized rating scales) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) study. Study participants' homes in nine villages in the Cilento region of southern Italy. Twenty-nine nonagenarians and centenarians and 51 family members aged 51-75 years, selected by their general practitioners as a part of a larger study called CIAO (Cilento Initiative on Aging Outcomes). We used published rating scales of mental and physical well-being, resilience, optimism, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Qualitative interviews gathered personal narratives of the oldest-old individuals, including migrations, traumatic events, and beliefs. Family members described their impressions about the personality traits of their older relative. Participants age ≥90 years had worse physical health but better mental well-being than their younger family members. Mental well-being correlated negatively with levels of depression and anxiety in both the groups. The main themes that emerged from qualitative interviews included positivity (resilience and optimism), working hard, and bond with family and religion, as described in previously published studies of the oldest old, but also a need for control and love of the land, which appeared to be unique features of this rural population. Exceptional longevity was characterized by a balance between acceptance of and grit to overcome adversities along with a positive attitude and close ties to family, religion, and land, providing purpose in life.

  11. Corporal Punishment in Tanzania's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were…

  12. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Costa

    Full Text Available The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13 than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26 and in the control group (up to 1.10, which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  13. Heat stress related dairy cow mortality during heat waves and control periods in rural Southern Ontario from 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Hand, Karen; Kelton, David F

    2015-11-27

    Heat stress is a physiological response to extreme environmental heat such as heat waves. Heat stress can result in mortality in dairy cows when extreme heat is both rapidly changing and has a long duration. As a result of climate change, heat waves, which are defined as 3 days of temperatures of 32 °C or above, are an increasingly frequent extreme weather phenomenon in Southern Ontario. Heat waves are increasing the risk for on-farm dairy cow mortality in Southern Ontario. Heat stress indices (HSIs) are generally based on temperature and humidity and provide a relative measure of discomfort which can be used to predict increased risk of on-farm dairy cow mortality. In what follows, the heat stress distribution was described over space and presented with maps. Similarly, on-farm mortality was described and mapped. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that heat waves and related HSI increases during 2010-2012 were associated with increased on-farm dairy cow mortality in Southern Ontario. Mortality records and farm locations for all farms registered in the CanWest Dairy Herd Improvement Program in Southern Ontario were retrieved for 3 heat waves and 6 three-day control periods from 2010 to 2012. A random sample of controls (2:1) was taken from the data set to create a risk-based hybrid design. On-farm heat stress was estimated using data from 37 weather stations and subsequently interpolated across Southern Ontario by geostatistical kriging. A Poisson regression model was applied to assess the on-farm mortality in relation to varying levels of the HSI. For every one unit increase in HSI the on-farm mortality rate across Southern Ontario increases by 1.03 times (CI95% (IRR) = (1.025,1.035); p = ≤ 0.001). With a typical 8.6 unit increase in HSI from a control period to a heat wave, mortality rates are predicted to increase by 1.27 times. Southern Ontario was affected by heat waves, as demonstrated by high levels of heat stress and increased on-farm mortality

  14. Prevalence and associated factors for stunting among 6-12 years old school age children from rural community of Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Tesfahun Yonas; Bala, Elazar Tadesse; Tadesse, Minyahil; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2018-05-24

    Stunting is one of the most serious and challenging public health problems in Ethiopia, which constitute a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with stunting among 6-12 years old children in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 633 children 6-12 years old living in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia, from March to April, 2015. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select participants from households in eight Villages in the study area. Height was measured using standard methods and height for age Z-score was computed to assess stunting. EPI info version 3.5.4 was used for data entry, whereas Anthroplus software and SPSS version 20.0 were used for computation of height for age Z-scores and statistical analyses respectively. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with stunting in the study sample, using 95% confidence limits (statistical significance set at p < 0.050). Prevalence of stunting was 57%, about, 3.5% were severely stunted, 27.3% moderately stunted and 26.4% mildly stunted, and the mean (SD) was - 1.1 (±1.2). About 7 (1.1%) boys and 15 (2.4%) girls were severely stunted. Age groups 10-12 years had significantly higher rate of stunting than others. Age (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6), big family size (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.2-9.5) and field disposal of wastes (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-5.8) were factors significantly associated with stunting. This study exposed high rate of stunting among school age children. Stunting remains a noticeable attribute of rural school age children. Findings suggest the need to implement evidence-based school-aged rural children nutrition policy and strategies as well as need for intervention to improve domestic waste management system in the rural community.

  15. Diabetic self care practices in rural Mysuru, Southern Karnataka, India - A need for Diabetes Self Management Educational (DSME) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, K M; Basavegowda, Madhu; Tharuni, Nandarula Sai

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes and its complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Self care has emerged as a crucial element in the management of diabetes and a key factor associated with the quality of diabetic care. The purpose of the study was to assess the self care activities of patients with Type II diabetes mellitus in a rural area of Mysuru district. A community based cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 400 diabetic patients in rural Mysore. Self care Activities (Diet, exercise, self blood glucose monitoring, medication, foot care, smoking) were assessed using a pre designed and tested questionnaire. Relevant descriptive analysis like percentages is carried out using SPSS version 22.0. Most of the diabetic patients had good compliance for medication (92.5%), followed by 72% for diabetic diet. Only 27.75% of the diabetic patients participated in walking, 24.25% practised foot care, blood glucose monitoring by 24.75% and only 25.5% of them were current smokers. The rural diabetic patients are more adherent and compliant to medication and diabetic diet and less compliant to physical activity, foot care and self glucose monitoring. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Country Presentation Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIFANGA, L.D.; GYIMBI, H.; MLOWOLA, V.; KASONGWA, M.

    2010-01-01

    Discusses overview of incidents and developments involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in Tanzania.13 cases have been recorded between 1996 and 2008. All cases occurred in Dar Es Salam. Police, customs and security staff intercepted the sources and culprits arrested. The latest incident occurred in May 2008 and involved illegal possession of a capsule labelled nuclear material (U-238). A total of 14 sources were seized . Types of sources seized were u-238, Caesium-137, Strontium-90 and Radium-226.

  17. Trapped in decline : a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru Mountains Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donge, van J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made

  18. Human Visceral Leishmaniasis: a Serological Survey in Rural Areas of Dashti District of Bushehr Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gorgipoor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar is a parasitic disease caused by the species of Leishmania donovani complex. Mediterranean type of the disease is endemic in some parts of Iran and more than 95% of cases were reported in children up to 12 years of age. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of VL in the rural areas of the Dashti district from Bushehr province.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a randomized cluster sampling method was used for the collection of blood samples from children up to 12 years old from rural areas of Dashti district. Before sampling; a questionnaire was filled out for each case. All the collected blood samples were examined after the serum separating by Direct Agglutination Test (DAT for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The cutoff titers of ≥1: 3200 with specific clinical features were supposed to be considered as VL.Results: Altogether, 24 out of 1221 (1.96% blood samples showed titers between 1:800 and 1:1600 which considered as suspicious cases. None of the suspicious cases had a history of kala-azar. None of 1221 collected blood samples showed anti Leishmania infantum (L. infantum at titer ≥1:3200.Conclusion: This study confirms the circulation of L. infantum in Dashti district and highlights the sporadic pattern of VL in the studied areas which necessitates the surveillance system to be monitored by health authorities.

  19. Sleeping sickness situation in Tanzania | Kibona | Tanzania Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 2 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Increasing the availability and quality of caesarean section in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamtema, A; Mwakatundu, N; Dominico, S; Mohamed, H; Shayo, A; Rumanyika, R; Kairuki, C; Nzabuhakwa, C; Issa, O; Lyimo, C; Kasiga, I; van Roosmalen, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the results of increasing availability and quality of caesarean deliveries and anaesthesia in rural Tanzania. Before-after intervention study design. Rural Tanzania. Ten health centres located in rural areas were upgraded to provide comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) and the four related district hospitals were supported. Upgrading entailed constructing and equipping maternity blocks, operation rooms and laboratories; installing solar systems, backup generators and water supply systems. Associate clinicians were trained in anaesthesia and in CEmOC. Mentoring and audit of reasons for caesarean section (CS) and maternal deaths were carried out. Measures of interest were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests. Trends in CS rates, proportion of unjustified CS, use of spinal anaesthesia, and the risk of death from complications related to CS and anaesthesia. During the audit period (2012-2014), 5868 of 58 751 deliveries were by CS (10%). The proportion of CS considered to be unjustified decreased from 30 to 17% in health centres (P = 0.02) and from 37 to 20% in hospitals (P availability and quality of CS by improving infrastructure, training and audit of reasons for CS is feasible, acceptable and required in low resource settings. Increasing availability and quality of CS in rural Africa is feasible. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Lessons from a study in a rural community from southern Mexico: risk factors associated to transmission and reinfection of gastrointestinal parasites after albendazole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Pérez MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez1, Juan Antonio Pérez-Vega2, José Francisco Cen-Aguilar3, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul21Centro de Biotecnología Genómica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad Reynosa, Tamaulipas, 2Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN Unidad Mérida, Mérida Yucatán, 3Oficina de Investigación y validación, Centro de Bachillerato Tecnológico y Agropecuario (CBTA 13, Xmatkuil, Mérida, Yucatán, MexicoPurpose: To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and evaluate the effect of a single dose of treatment with albendazole in a sentinel group from a rural community in southern Mexico.Methods: Stool samples were collected from 1456 individuals aged ≥1 year during consecutive days, and examined for helminth infection using the modified Stoll dilution method. Additionally, 104 individuals were treated with a single dose of albendazole and evaluated over 21 weeks to assess reinfection. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography, and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for reinfection after albendazole administration were determined using multiple logistic regression analyses.Results: The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 73.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.56%–76.14%. Albendazole was 100% effective, but eggs began to be detected by 9–12 weeks posttreatment, increasing to 100% after 21 weeks. Logistic regression analysis revealed that all individuals from this study had a probability of reinfection of 1.65× each week after treatment. The prevalence of Trichuris trichiura was 57.2% (95% CI = 54.62%–59.77% and chemotherapy was 34.7% effective. The prevalence for other minor gastrointestinal parasites ranged from 0.2% to 29.7%.Conclusion: This was a comprehensive study on gastrointestinal parasites in a rural community from southern Mexico and, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first time that the effect

  2. Epidemiological survey on Leishmania infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and hunting dogs sharing the same rural area in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Di Muccio, Trentina; Manzillo, Valentina Foglia; Fiorentino, Eleonora; Scalone, Aldo; Neola, Benedetto; Di Prisco, Francesca; D'Alessio, Nicola; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Gramiccia, Marina

    2016-12-01

    Southern Italy, particularly Campania region, is an area where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) and zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are endemic. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been hypothesized to play a role in occurrence of CanL in Italy but specific studies are poor. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs and foxes living in the same rural area (Picentini hills). 123 sera from autochthonous fox-hunting dogs were examined by immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) using a cut-off of 1:160. The seroprevalence of dogs examined was 17.9%. Moreover, 48 foxes were examined after having been shooted by hunters or road accidents. Spleen, liver and lymph node samples were analyzed by specific Leishmania nested PCR (n-PCR). 10 foxes were found infected by L. infantum (20.8%) of which 4 animals in spleen, 2 in lymph nodes and 4 both in spleen and lymph nodes. The overall n-PCR positivity was 17.4% for spleen samples and 13.3% for lymph nodes; all liver samples resulted negative. In positive PCR foxes no signs clearly referable to leishmaniasis were recorded at necropsy. The results confirmed the presence of L. infantum infection in red foxes from Southern Italy, with a moderate level of exposure. Because large proportions of dogs with ascertained progressive leishmaniasis show a prolonged "subpatent condition" during which they are only positive to n-PCR before seroconversion, our results allow to assume that exposure risk in foxes is lower than hunting dogs living in the studied area.

  3. Women living with AIDS in rural Southern India: Perspectives on mental health and lay health care worker support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Nyamathi, Adeline M.; Sinha, Sanjeev; Carpenter, Catherine; Satyanarayana, Veena; Ramakrishna, Padma; Ekstrand, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this study, focus groups were conducted with 16 rural Women Living with AIDS (WLA) from Andhra Pradesh, India who had previously participated in a clinical trial wherein 68 WLA were randomized into either an Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) – Life (AL) intervention or a Usual Care program. Findings are discussed in terms of: a) mental health issues, b) perceived stressors, c) individual resources for coping with mental health issues, and d) role of Asha support in coping with mental health issues. These findings highlight the salience of mental health issues in the lives of WLA and the role played by Asha in addressing some of these issues. The discussion section makes a case for increased emphasis on mental health care in future community-based interventions for this population. PMID:29056879

  4. Tanzania Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research (TJHR) aims to facilitate the advance of health sciences by publishing high quality research and review articles that communicate new ideas and developments in biomedical and health research. TJHR is ...

  5. Tanzania's healthcare breakthrough | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-18

    Nov 18, 2010 ... A model for success. The effects have ... health systems. Globally, there is a growing acceptance of the TEHIP lessons. ... has ended." — Hassan Mshinda, Director General, Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology ...

  6. Severe malnutrition among children under the age of 5 years admitted to a rural district hospital in southern Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhampossa, Tacilta; Sigaúque, Betuel; Machevo, Sónia; Macete, Eusebio; Alonso, Pedro; Bassat, Quique; Menéndez, Clara; Fumadó, Victoria

    2013-09-01

    To describe the burden, clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of severe malnutrition in children under the age of 5 years. Retrospective study of hospital-based data systematically collected from January 2001 to December 2010. Rural Mozambican district hospital. All children aged malnutrition. During the 10-year long study surveillance, 274 813 children belonging to Manhiça’s Demographic Surveillance System were seen at out-patient clinics, almost half of whom (47 %) presented with some indication of malnutrition and 6% (17 188/274 813) with severe malnutrition. Of these, only 15% (2522/17 188) were eventually admitted. Case fatality rate of severe malnutrition was 7% (162/2274). Bacteraemia, hypoglycaemia, oral candidiasis, prostration, oedema, pallor and acute diarrhoea were independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality, while malaria parasitaemia and breast-feeding were independently associated with a lower risk of a poor outcome. Overall minimum communitybased incidence rate was 15 cases per 1000 child-years at risk and children aged 12–23 months had the highest incidence. Severe malnutrition among admitted children in this Mozambican setting was common but frequently went undetected, despite being associated with a high risk of death. Measures to improve its recognition by clinicians responsible for the first evaluation of patients at the out-patient level are urgently needed so as to improve their likelihood of survival. Together with this, the rapid management of complications such as hypoglycaemia and concomitant co-infections such as bacteraemia, acute diarrhoea, oral candidiasis and HIV/AIDS may contribute to reverse the intolerable toll that malnutrition poses in the health of children in rural African settings.

  7. Basic Education in Tanzania: A Slight Touch on the Views of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to visualize what basic education is. To provide a focus to the paper, from 1997-2003, 198 primary seven leavers from Nachingwea and Tandahimba districts in the southern regions of Tanzania were sampled. Six simple questions from six conventional primary school subjects (Kiswahili, ...

  8. Mapping rural community and dairy cow heat stress in Southern Ontario: A common geographic pattern from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Kelton, David F

    2016-07-03

    Climate change has increased the occurrence of heat waves, causing heat stress among humans and livestock, with potentially fatal consequences. Heat stress maps provide information about related health risks and insight for control strategies. Weather data were collected throughout Southern Ontario, and the heat stress index (HSI) was estimated for 2010-2012. Geostatistical kriging was applied to map heat stress, heat waves, and control periods. Average HSI for each period ranged from 55 to 78 during control periods, and from 65 to 84 during heat waves, surpassing levels where morbidity is known to increase substantially. Heat stress followed a temporally consistent geographic pattern. HSI maps indicate high-risk areas for heat-related illness and indicate areas where agriculture and human health may be at increased risk in future.

  9. Rabies awareness and dog ownership among rural northern and southern Chadian communities-Analysis of a community-based, cross-sectional household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbilo, Céline; Léchenne, Monique; Hattendorf, Jan; Madjadinan, Séraphin; Anyiam, Franziska; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-11-01

    Canine rabies represents a major - but preventable - public health threat in Chad. In preparation for a nation-wide canine parenteral mass vaccination campaign we conducted a community-based, cross-sectional multi-stage cluster survey in 40 villages in two southern and two northern regions of Chad. Our objective was to investigate rabies awareness and dog-ownership among the rural population. Almost half of the households (45%) owned dogs, with an overall dog:human ratio of 1:7.8. Southern households owned almost two thirds (701/918) of all dogs and the number of dogs per household was twice as high compared to the north (2.7 vs. 1.3, respectively). This translates into a dog:human ratio of 1:5.2 in the south and 1:16.4 in the north. Only 76% of the respondents had heard of rabies. Respondents who (1) were male, (2)>19 years, (3) had primary education or higher and (4) were of Muslim faith were more likely to have heard of rabies (prabies knowledge was positively associated with (1) southern residence, (2) any kind of education and (3) Christian or "other" religions. In contrast to rabies awareness, high level of knowledge was negatively associated with increasing age. 11% of respondents reported that at least one family member had been bitten by a dog in the past year and half of these bite victims were children. 31% of respondents knew someone who had died of rabies and twice as many (58%) reported having encountered a rabid animal. Most of the respondents could identify classical rabies symptoms (58-94%), however they lacked knowledge about rabies prevention and appropriate wound management. Only 2 out of 963 (0.5%) reported to have vaccinated their dog. A major proportion of our study population is at great risk of rabies (likely higher than 7 rabies death per million per year) due to lack of awareness of the disease, inappropriate post-bite treatment and insufficient knowledge about preventive measures. This reflects the urgent need for advocacy programs to

  10. How the expanded crowd-funding mechanism of some southern rural areas in China affects cooperative behaviors in threshold public goods game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiao; Chen, Tong; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of emotions on the public goods game can not be ignored. • Individuals’ emotions will be influenced by list and lobbyists’ words when making decisions. • Unless the synergy factor is larger than a certain value, it is necessary to encourage more people to act as lobbyists. • Whether and how to publish the list depend on the situation. - Abstract: The pursuit of high cooperation rates in public goods games has attracted many researchers. However, few researchers attach much weight to the influence of emotions on decision-making, especially on public goods games. From ancient to modern times, publishing the list of cooperators to stimulate cooperation has been a common phenomenon in some southern rural areas in China. Actually, the published list can influence individuals’ behaviors by affecting their emotions. Here we extend the method of publishing the list and optimize it by adding a lobbyist mechanism. Through numerical simulations, we find that the role of lobbyists can not be ignored unless the synergy factor is larger than a certain value. Additionally, we find that publishing the list certainly has a great effect on individual’s cooperative behavior. But whether to publish the list or not and how to publish the list depend on the situation.

  11. The Association Between Physical Activity, Mental Status, and Social and Family Support with Five Major Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Among Elderly People: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Rural Population in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Harry H X; Qiu, Yongjun; Lai, Xiujuan; Zhou, Zhiheng; Li, Fangjian; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Jiaji; Lei, Jimin

    2015-10-21

    Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) have become the top threat in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major NCDs among the elderly population in rural areas in southern China and explore its associated social determinants. A multistage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to select a total of 9245 rural elderly people from 3860 rural households in Guangdong Province. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to collect patient information. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with the presence of major NCDs. Over one-third (38.5%) of the study population suffered from five major NCDs. The grade of activities of daily living (ADL), mental status, and social relationship of elderly people without NCDs were better than those with NCDs. The major factors associated with the presence of NCDs among the elderly people included age (70-79 years group and 80-89 years group), education level (senior high/technical secondary school and junior college and above), mental status (concentration, enrichment and happy life and memory), relationship with neighbours, activities of daily living (ADL) (being able to climb three floors and bend over), physical activity, marital status (bereft), and living conditions (with offspring and family members). The study identified several social determinants associated with the presence of major NCDs. A higher level of family support and physical exercise might contribute to improved physical condition, mental status, and ADL among the elderly people in rural areas in southern China.

  12. MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2, HCHO and CHOCHO at a rural site in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Brauers, T.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Lu, K.; Li, Y. P.; Shao, M.; Wagner, T.; Wahner, A.

    2013-02-01

    We performed MAX-DOAS measurements during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign in the Pearl River Delta region (PRD), China, for 4 weeks in July 2006 at a site located 60 km north of Guangzhou. The vertical distributions of NO2, HCHO, and CHOCHO were independently retrieved by an automated iteration method. The NO2 mixing ratios measured by MAX-DOAS showed reasonable agreement with the simultaneous, ground based in-situ data. The tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) observed by OMI on board EOS-Aura satellite were higher than with those by MAX-DOAS. The 3-D chemical transport model CMAQ overestimated the NO2 VCDs as well as the surface concentrations by about 65%. From this observation, a reduction of NOx emission strength in CMAQ seems to be necessary in order to well reproduce the NO2 observations. The average mixing ratios of HCHO and CHOCHO were 7 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively, higher than in other rural or semirural environments. The high ratio of 0.062 between CHOCHO and HCHO corresponds to the high VOCs reactivity and high HOx turnover rate consistent with other observations during the campaign.

  13. Extramarital Sex Among Vietnamese Married Men: Results of a Survey in Urban and Rural Areas of Northern and Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Research on extramarital sex (EMS) is commonly conducted from a perspective that implicitly understands this behavior as a violation of the marital relationship. In contrast, Vietnamese cultural norms have, at some points in history, condoned if not outright encouraged EMS in the name of preserving family lineage. Yet little is known about the prevalence of EMS among contemporary Vietnamese men and its association with marriage quality. This is a notable gap, given the enormous sociocultural and ideological shifts the country has experienced over the past several decades. Drawing upon a sample of 126 married men (Mean age = 45.56; SD = 10.52) surveyed in urban (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City) and rural areas (Ha Tay and Can Tho) in Vietnam, we examined the relationship between EMS and geographic region, demographic characteristics, sexual values, quality of marriage, and sexual satisfaction within marriage. Our results show that geographic location had a strong impact on EMS, while most marital relationship quality variables did not impact the odds of EMS for married men in Vietnam.

  14. Between Sumak Kawsay and Institutional Good Living. The social discourses of Good Living in rural areas of Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos Chica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of building alternative measures of development have been established from a disconnected approach of very significant elements such as the legitimation or the dynamics of change of capitalism. In this research we study a particular case for a proposal of measuring development from the concept of Sumak Kawsay. This concept brings together very special properties which, although characterized by the same criteria as its alternatives (multidimensionality, segmentation, balance and subjectivity, resort to the novel use of a myth, that legitimizes communitary ways of living that are different to the most widespread lifestyles. This paper presents a discourse analysis of the conceptions about Good Living that can be extracted from the texts of interviews and other group dynamics carried out in the peasant communities of Nabón, a rural canton of the South of Ecuador. The analysis results a relational structure in which the limits and contents of an adaptive or hybrid discourse are defined, which is the product of the interaction between two opposing discourses: Sumak Kawsay (community and traditional and goverment’s Institutional Good Living (societal and modern. This interaction allows to expose and to explain the set of contradictions detected; and the emergence of new categories that establish the limits of this adaptive discourse on Good Living: bad living, good dying or quality of life. In this way, the positions of the internal fractures of the populations are explained, as well as their strategies for subsistence and negotiation with government authorities.

  15. Gender Differences in Rural Off-farm Employment Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates gender differences in spatial mobility with respect to participation in off-farm employment in rural Tanzania. The mobility issue arises because the recent increase in women participation in off-farm employment is likely to saturate the local labor market/off-farm opportunities and dampen the rural ...

  16. Effectiveness of Membrane Filtration to Improve Drinking Water: A Quasi-Experimental Study from Rural Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Mark Rohit; Sarkar, Rajiv; Roy, Sheela; Jaffar, Shabbar; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar

    2016-11-02

    Since point-of-use methods of water filtration have shown limited acceptance in Vellore, southern India, this study evaluated the effectiveness of decentralized membrane filtration 1) with safe storage, 2) without safe storage, versus 3) no intervention, consisting of central chlorination as per government guidelines, in improving the microbiological quality of drinking water and preventing childhood diarrhea. Periodic testing of water sources, pre-/postfiltration samples, and household water, and a biweekly follow up of children less than 2 years of age was done for 1 year. The membrane filters achieved a log reduction of 0.86 (0.69-1.06), 1.14 (0.99-1.30), and 0.79 (0.67-0.94) for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli, respectively, in field conditions. A 24% (incidence rate ratio, IRR [95% confidence interval, CI] = 0.76 [0.51-1.13]; P = 0.178) reduction in diarrheal incidence in the intervention village with safe storage and a 14% (IRR [95% CI] = 1.14 [0.75-1.77]; P = 0.530) increase in incidence for the intervention village without safe storage versus no intervention village was observed, although not statistically significant. Microbiologically, the membrane filters decreased fecal contamination; however, provision of decentralized membrane-filtered water with or without safe storage was not protective against childhood diarrhea. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Environmental degradation and intra-household welfare: the case of the Tanzanian rural South Pare Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimoso, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Environmental degradation, intrahousehold labour allocation, intrahousehold welfare.
    Rural south Pare highlands in Tanzania experience a deteriorating environmental situation. Of particular importance is the disappearance of forests and woodlands. The consequence are declining

  18. Urban agriculture in Tanzania : issues of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.

    2004-01-01

    This book, the result of a collaborative study carried out by researchers from Tanzania, Israel and the Netherlands, assesses the sustainability of urban agriculture in two medium-sized towns in Tanzania: Morogoro and Mbeya. It first gives an overview of urban agriculture in Tanzania and a

  19. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania (ATPS-Tanzania) was registered as a national nongovernmental organization in 2001. ... While resource flows to ATPS-Tanzania from ATPS headquarters in Nairobi were reliable, the organization produced a larger volume of research outputs than most other ATPS national ...

  20. Eliminating Rabies in Tanzania? Local Understandings and Responses to Mass Dog Vaccination in Kilombero and Ulanga Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin; Sambo, Maganga; Sikana, Lwitiko; Hampson, Katie; Welburn, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background With increased global attention to neglected diseases, there has been a resurgence of interest in eliminating rabies from developing countries through mass dog vaccination. Tanzania recently embarked on an ambitious programme to repeatedly vaccinate dogs in 28 districts. To understand community perceptions and responses to this programme, we conducted an anthropological study exploring the relationships between dogs, society, geography and project implementation in the districts of Kilombero and Ulanga, Southern Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings Over three months in 2012, we combined the use of focus groups, semi-structured interviews, a household questionnaire and a population-based survey. Willingness to participate in vaccination was mediated by fear of rabies, high medical treatment costs and the threat of dog culling, as well as broader notions of social responsibility. However, differences between town, rural and (agro-) pastoralist populations in livelihood patterns and dog ownership impacted coverage in ways that were not well incorporated into project planning. Coverage in six selected villages was estimated at 25%, well below official estimates. A variety of problems with campaign mobilisation, timing, the location of central points, equipment and staff, and project organisation created barriers to community compliance. Resource-limitations and institutional norms limited the ability for district staff to adapt implementation strategies. Conclusions and Significance In the shadows of resource and institutional limitations in the veterinary sector in Africa, top-down interventions for neglected zoonotic diseases likes rabies need to more explicitly engage with project organisation, capacity and community participation. Greater attention to navigating local realities in planning and implementation is essential to ensuring that rabies, and other neglected diseases, are controlled sustainably. PMID:24945697

  1. Employers' paradoxical views about temporary foreign migrant workers' health: a qualitative study in rural farms in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Miya; Sanchez, Ana Lourdes

    2014-09-10

    The province of Ontario hosts nearly a half of Canada's temporary foreign migrant farm workers (MFWs). Despite the essential role played by MFWs in the economic prosperity of the region, a growing body of research suggests that the workers' occupational safety and health are substandard, and often neglected by employers. This study thus explores farm owners' perceptions about MFWs occupational safety and general health, and their attitudes towards health promotion for their employees. Using modified grounded theory approach, we collected data through in-depth individual interviews with farm owners employing MFWs in southern Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed following three steps (open, axial, and selective coding) to identify thematic patterns and relationships. Nine employers or their representatives were interviewed. Four major overarching categories were identified: employers' dependence on MFWs; their fragmented view of occupational safety and health; their blurring of the boundaries between the work and personal lives of the MFWs on their farms; and their reluctance to implement health promotion programs. The interaction of these categories suggests the complex social processes through which employers come to hold these paradoxical attitudes towards workers' safety and health. There is a fundamental contradiction between what employers considered public versus personal. Despite employers' preference to separate MFWs' workplace safety from personal health issues, due to the fact that workers live within their employers' property, workers' private life becomes public making their personal health a business-related concern. Farmers' conflicting views, combined with a lack of support from governing bodies, hold back timely implementation of health promotion activities in the workplace. In order to address the needs of MFWs in a more integrated manner, an ecological view of health, which includes the social and psychological determinants of health, by employers

  2. Effectiveness of a grant program's efforts to promote synergy within its funded initiatives: perceptions of participants of the Southern Rural Access Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Bryan J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foundations and public agencies commonly fund focused initiatives for individual grantees. These discrete, stand-alone initiatives can risk failure by being carried out in isolation. Fostering synergy among grantees' initiatives is one strategy proposed for promoting the success and impact of grant programs. We evaluate an explicit strategy to build synergy within the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Southern Rural Access Program (SRAP, which awarded grants to collaboratives within eight southeastern U.S. states to strengthen basic health care services in targeted rural counties. Methods We interviewed 39 key participants of the SRAP, including the program director within each state and the principal subcontractors heading the program's funded initiatives that supported heath professionals' recruitment, retention and training, made loans to health care providers, and built networks among providers. Interews were recorded and transcribed. Two investigators independently coded the transcripts and a third investigator distilled the main points. Results Participants generally perceived that the SRAP yielded more synergies than other grant programs in which they had participated and that these synergies added to the program's impact. The synergies most often noted were achieved through relationship building among grantees and with outside agencies, sharing information and know-how, sharing resources, combining efforts to yield greater capacity, joining voices to advocate for common goals, and spotting gaps in services offered and then filling these gaps. The SRAP's strategies that participants felt fostered synergy included targeting funding to culturally and geographically similar states, supporting complementary types of initiatives, promoting opportunities to network through semi-annual meetings and regular conference calls, and the advocacy efforts of the program's leadership. Participants noted that synergies were sometimes

  3. Effectiveness of a grant program's efforts to promote synergy within its funded initiatives: perceptions of participants of the Southern Rural Access Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathman, Donald E; Chuang, Emmeline; Weiner, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Foundations and public agencies commonly fund focused initiatives for individual grantees. These discrete, stand-alone initiatives can risk failure by being carried out in isolation. Fostering synergy among grantees' initiatives is one strategy proposed for promoting the success and impact of grant programs. We evaluate an explicit strategy to build synergy within the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Southern Rural Access Program (SRAP), which awarded grants to collaboratives within eight southeastern U.S. states to strengthen basic health care services in targeted rural counties. Methods We interviewed 39 key participants of the SRAP, including the program director within each state and the principal subcontractors heading the program's funded initiatives that supported heath professionals' recruitment, retention and training, made loans to health care providers, and built networks among providers. Interews were recorded and transcribed. Two investigators independently coded the transcripts and a third investigator distilled the main points. Results Participants generally perceived that the SRAP yielded more synergies than other grant programs in which they had participated and that these synergies added to the program's impact. The synergies most often noted were achieved through relationship building among grantees and with outside agencies, sharing information and know-how, sharing resources, combining efforts to yield greater capacity, joining voices to advocate for common goals, and spotting gaps in services offered and then filling these gaps. The SRAP's strategies that participants felt fostered synergy included targeting funding to culturally and geographically similar states, supporting complementary types of initiatives, promoting opportunities to network through semi-annual meetings and regular conference calls, and the advocacy efforts of the program's leadership. Participants noted that synergies were sometimes hindered by turf issues and

  4. Preparing investigation of methods for surveying tree seed demands among farmers in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabæk, Anders

    Insufficient seed supplies is often a major constraint on tree planting activities in developing countries. A central problem is to assess the actual demands for tree seed. This report shall, as a part of a PhD-study, prepare an investigation of different methods for surveying tree seed demands...... and preferences among private farmers in Tanzania. A framework for investigating seed demand and supply is outlined. The role of a national tree seed project in a seed supply sector is discussed and data requirements for strategy on seed procurement and tree improvement are outlined. Earlier surveys on seed...... demand pattern in Tanzania, Uganda and Nicaragua are discussed and a choice of strategy for an extensive survey of seed demand and supply in Tanzania is made. Different data collection methods and tools, e.g. quantitative and qualitative surveys and rapid rural appraisals, are described in detail...

  5. Risk Factors Associated with Triatomines and Its Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in Rural Communities from the Southern Region of the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Imelda; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger I.; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi prevalence in triatomines and risk factors associated to the presence of the insect were studied in 990 rural houses in the southern region of the State of Mexico, Mexico. In each house, triatomines were collected, and information related to house construction material was obtained. T. cruzi infection was diagnosed in all triatomines. A primary screening was performed using 2 × 2 contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with P ≤ 0.20 were analyzed by logistic regression. Triatomines (N = 125) were collected from 822 houses and analyzed for T. cruzi infection. Triatoma pallidipennis (97.4%) and Triatoma dimidiata (2.6%) were identified in 52.1% of the localities and in 6.1% of the houses. Infection was found in 28.0% of triatomines, from which 28.9% were nymphs. Factors associated with triatomine infestation were flooring construction material (dirt floor: odds ratio [OR], 10.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.31–18.04; P = 0.0001), house rooms (at least three rooms: OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.07–3.86; P = 0.028), and ceiling construction material (cardboard lamina tile: OR, 6.84; 95% CI, 1.49–31.31; P = 0.013). This study shows T. cruzi circulation in triatomines in the area of study, and because triatomines are adapted for living and reproducing in the domestic environment, there is a potential risk of Chagas disease transmission to humans. Also, we can conclude that the construction materials and house inhabitants are risk factors of triatomines infestation. PMID:20064995

  6. Effect of repeated mass drug administration with praziquantel and track and treat of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis in Taenia solium endemic rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ndawi, Benedict

    received MDA with praziquantel in 2012 (both districts) and in 2013 (Mbozi only). Three cross-sectional population-based surveys were performed in 2012 (R0), 2013 (R1), and 2014 (R2). In each survey approximately 3,000 participants of all ages were tested using copro-antigen-ELISA. The prevalence......This study evaluated the effect of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel administered to school-aged children (SAC) combined with ‘track and treat’ of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis. The study was conducted in 14 villages in Mbozi and Mbeya district, Tanzania. SAC.......004, OR 0.12 CI: 0.02-0.41) and R2 (p=0.001, OR 0.24, CI: 0.09-0.53) when comparing to R0. In Mbeya infection decreased at R1 (p=0.013, OR 0.14, CI: 0.02-0.55), but no difference was found for R2 (p=0. 089), compared to R0 among SAC. This study showed that school-based MDA with praziquantel in combination...

  7. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  8. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction. Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground. Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center). The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses, and host rain

  9. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  10. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...

  11. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  12. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...

  13. Individual Local Farmers’ Perceptions of Environmental Change in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Röschel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climatic and environmental changes are expected to affect in particular those regions where the economy is primarily based on the agricultural sector and where the dependency on water availability is high. This study examines how smallholder farmers in rural Tanzania perceived climatic and environmental changes over the past 20 years and the resulting effects on water availability and food security. The study is based on a household survey of 899 farmers in a semi-arid and a sub-humid region in Tanzania. It was found that (a significant differences in perceptions of the environment by farmers can be attributed to agro-climatic location, while the distance to a water source has less impact on individual perception; (b differently perceived changes affect individual water availability and food security; and (c the farm level adaptation methods applied are linked to vulnerability to changes and the household dependence on the immediate environment. The authors conclude that the specific environmental surroundings paired with socio-economic factors can severely compound the negative effects of water scarcity on rural farmers.

  14. Health and self-reliance: the experience of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, E

    1978-01-01

    Since its independence, Tanzania has consistently followed a socialist policy with a strong emphasis on the development of the rural areas and on an equal distribution of goods and services. In the health field, this policy has taken the form of establishing a network of rural health centers, training auxiliaries, and involving the communities through mass mobilization campaigns. Community participation in health care services is hindered by 3 sets of problems related to lack of cohesion, lack of structure, and the autonomous and sometimes paternalist attitude of the health profession. In Tanzania much emphasis is placed on self-reliance. It is in the field of education that policies of self-reliance have been most successfully implemented. Traditional practitioners represent 1 of the health resources that can be tapped. The medical profession cannot claim credit for the major improvements in health, for at times it has even blocked health development. Health standards and quality are important in the 3rd world. Staff must be properly trained to function at a particular level, supplies must be provided regularly, and there must be constant supervision. A health care system that is appropriate to the 3rd world must also emphasize disease prevention. To increase health coverage there must be a program of health service that is within reach of the people, including the rural population. Health cannot be furthered by the health services as tradtionally conceived; an intersectoral approach is essential. It is important that a commitment to an integrated development of the rural areas, with health as a component, be made.

  15. A critical analysis of the long-term impact (1936-2015) of grazing management on Land Degradation in a marginal, rural community of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna; De Paola, Velia; Coluzzi, Rosa; Imbrenda, Vito; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2017-04-01

    Unsustainable grazing, one of the most diffused problem in land management at the global scale, is considered as a serious pressure on natural landscapes. Particularly in the Mediterranean agroforestry landscapes, unsustainable grazing is regarded as a key factor of degradation processes, mostly determined and exacerbated by evolving socioeconomic and environmental conditions at the local scale, revised agricultural policies and changing international market scenario. The Common Agricultural Policy set at the European level plays a powerful and twofold role in shaping the dynamics at local level. Measures adopted for Less Favoured Areas, for example, have stimulated grazing intensification based on financial supports whose effectiveness is shaped by the socioeconomic local context. At the same time, pasture-based livestock farming systems are considered priority habitats preserving traditional and high natural value farmlands in Mediterranean Europe. A sustainable management of pastures may also contribute to limit soil erosion and to mitigate land degradation. This paper critically analyses the drivers of change and the challenges facing a Mediterranean upland pastoralist systems in Southern Italy along a period of almost 80 years (1936-2015). The detailed case study highlights the linkages between the evolution of landscape, grazing management, locally adapted animal breeds and social capital. Historical forest maps, aerial imagery and satellite data at different spatial resolutions have been used to trace land use trajectories occurred during the investigated period within the study area. The integration in a GIS environment of the obtained results with diachronic detailed farm management surveys and semi-structured interviews, shows a strong link between land use changes and economic performances mainly connected to policy orientation. Along the time period considered, different adaptation strategies adopted by local actors are analysed leading to the present

  16. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  17. Off-farm employment and income poverty in favourable agro-climatic areas of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Msinde, John Victor; Urassa, Justin K.; Nathan, Iben

    2016-01-01

    Income poverty in Tanzania as elsewhere in developing countries is predominantly a rural phenomenon and affects largely households relying on subsistence farming. This is despite the fact that poverty reduction strategies have devoted increasing attention on the role farm employment in enhancing...... household income. This paper argues that, off-farm employment may have potential to contribute to reduction of rural households’ income poverty. Hence the main objective of the paper is set to examine effects of off-farm employment on income poverty. Data was collected from a random sample of 309 households...... in the first quarter of 2014 in five villages of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Income poverty was analysed using the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index and two stage least square (2SLS) regression. Households with off-farm employment income were found to be less poor...

  18. Petrology and geochemistry of Late Holocene felsic magmas from Rungwe volcano (Tanzania), with implications for trachytic Rungwe Pumice eruption dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontijn, K.; Elburg, M.A.; Nikogosian, I.K.; van Bergen, M.J.; Ernst, G.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Rungwe in southern Tanzania is an active volcanic centre in the East African Rift System, characterised by Plinian-style explosive eruptions of metaluminous to slightly peralkaline trachytic silica-undersaturated magmas during its late Holocene history. Variations in whole-rock major and trace

  19. The significance of gathering wild orchid tubers for orphan household livelihoods in a context of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Challe, J.F.X.; Niehof, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of gathering and selling the edible tubers of wild orchids by children orphaned by AIDS as one of their livelihood strategies, through a household survey administered to 152 households in three villages in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania during 2006 and 2007.

  20. Does the Spectrum model accurately predict trends in adult mortality? Evaluation of model estimates using empirical data from a rural HIV community cohort study in north-western Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denna Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spectrum epidemiological models are used by UNAIDS to provide global, regional and national HIV estimates and projections, which are then used for evidence-based health planning for HIV services. However, there are no validations of the Spectrum model against empirical serological and mortality data from populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Serologic, demographic and verbal autopsy data have been regularly collected among over 30,000 residents in north-western Tanzania since 1994. Five-year age-specific mortality rates (ASMRs per 1,000 person years and the probability of dying between 15 and 60 years of age (45Q15, were calculated and compared with the Spectrum model outputs. Mortality trends by HIV status are shown for periods before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (1994–1999, 2000–2005 and the first 5 years afterwards (2005–2009. Results: Among 30–34 year olds of both sexes, observed ASMRs per 1,000 person years were 13.33 (95% CI: 10.75–16.52 in the period 1994–1999, 11.03 (95% CI: 8.84–13.77 in 2000–2004, and 6.22 (95% CI; 4.75–8.15 in 2005–2009. Among the same age group, the ASMRs estimated by the Spectrum model were 10.55, 11.13 and 8.15 for the periods 1994–1999, 2000–2004 and 2005–2009, respectively. The cohort data, for both sexes combined, showed that the 45Q15 declined from 39% (95% CI: 27–55% in 1994 to 22% (95% CI: 17–29% in 2009, whereas the Spectrum model predicted a decline from 43% in 1994 to 37% in 2009. Conclusion: From 1994 to 2009, the observed decrease in ASMRs was steeper in younger age groups than that predicted by the Spectrum model, perhaps because the Spectrum model under-estimated the ASMRs in 30–34 year olds in 1994–99. However, the Spectrum model predicted a greater decrease in 45Q15 mortality than observed in the cohort, although the reasons for this over-estimate are unclear.

  1. Delivery Mechanisms for Rural Electrification. A report from a workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica; Ilskog, Elisabeth; Arvidson, Anders; Katyega, Maneno (eds.)

    2004-04-01

    The workshop was attended by 28 participants from Kenya, Mozambique South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe, representing energy service providers (private, public and cooperative), consumer groups, public energy authorities, researchers, consultants, NGOs and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. The topic of the workshop was how different types of electricity delivery mechanisms - i.e. the combination of an energy supply technology and the organisation managing it - can support rural development. Which energy services have high priority for rural development? What are the appropriate delivery mechanisms? How can the expansion of different delivery mechanisms be supported and made to work efficiently? These are some of the key questions that were discussed in the workshop. The objectives of the workshop were to share experiences and develop a better understanding of existing and potential energy delivery mechanisms that contribute to development in rural areas in Eastern and Southern Africa. The workshop was targeted at, amongst others, the authorities which are in the process of being formed, or have recently been formed, to take charge of rural electrification such as the Rural Electrification Agencies and Rural Electrification Funds. Four case studies were presented and discussed to provide an introduction to the topic, and concrete examples of different delivery mechanisms were given to inspire the workshop discussions. Focus group discussions were used to explore the participants perceptions and experience of: (i) what rural development is, (ii) what role energy plays in rural development, (iii) which energy services are important for rural development, (iv) which delivery mechanisms are used and appropriate for different situations of energy service delivery in rural areas, and (v) what the institutional framework requirements are for delivering different types of energy services and supporting different types of

  2. Winners and losers of IWRM in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Koppen,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the application of the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in Tanzania. It asks: how did IWRM affect the rural and fast-growing majority of smallholder farmersʼ access to water which contributes directly to poverty alleviation and employment creation in a country where poverty and joblessness are high? Around 1990, there were both a strong government-led infrastructure development agenda and IWRM ingredients in place, including cost-recovery of state services aligning with the Structural Adjustment Programmes, water management according to basin boundaries and the dormant colonial water rights (permits system. After the 1990s, the World Bank and other donors promoted IWRM with a strong focus on hydroelectric power development, River Basin Water Boards, transformation of the water right system into a taxation tool, and assessment of environmental flows. These practices became formalised in the National Water Policy (2002 and in the Water Resources Management Act (2009. Activities in the name of IWRM came to be closely associated with the post-2008 surge in large-scale land and water deals. Analysing 25 years of IWRM, the paper identifies the processes and identities of the losers (smallholders and – at least partially – the government and the winners (large-scale water users, including recent investors. We conclude that, overall, IWRM harmed smallholdersʼ access to water and rendered them more vulnerable to poverty and unemployment.

  3. A reassessment of the indicators of primary education quality in developing countries: Emerging evidence from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, Herme Joseph

    1988-03-01

    This article seeks to identify factors affecting the quality of primary education in five regions of Tanzania by extensively reviewing relevant literature and empirical data. Some of the shortcomings emphasised by the author are: frequent staff turnover, declining financial support for primary education, ineffective curricula, shortage of teachers' guides and textbooks, and unfavourable working conditions for teachers in rural areas. Beyond this, the need for freely available material, efficient school management and regular inspections is stressed by the author.

  4. Tanzania Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy : Volume 1. Key Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, only 17.3 percemt of adults in Tanzania had an account at a formal financial institution and 56 percemt did not have any access to financial services. Most of the population lives in rural areas with very low incomes and poor infrastructure, and women are especially disadvantaged. Such limited access to formal financial services also inhibits financial literacy – awareness of bene...

  5. Tanzania Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy : Volume 2. Comparison with Good Practices

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, only 17.3 percemt of adults in Tanzania had an account at a formal financial institution and 56 percemt did not have any access to financial services. Most of the population lives in rural areas with very low incomes and poor infrastructure, and women are especially disadvantaged. Such limited access to formal financial services also inhibits financial literacy – awareness of bene...

  6. Swift and sure-footed on the Savanna: A study of Hadzabe gaits and feet in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiba, Charles M; Tuttle, Russell H; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Webb, David M

    1997-01-01

    Data on footprints and gait of 54 Hadzabe, 6-70 years of age expand understanding of pedal morphology of unshod people and assist the development of ideas about the evolution of hominid bipedality and upright posture. Contrary to published data on gaits and pedal morphology of unshod populations, Hadzabe (also known as Hadza) from northern Tanzania exhibit values of stride length, relative stride length, and walking speeds that exceed those of rural and small-town populations. In all observable plantar features, including foot indices, an interdigital space between the hallux and second toe, fanning of the foot anteriorly, and foot angles (in-toeing and out-toeing), Hadzabe feet are comparable with those of never-shod Machiguengas in Perú. On average, Hadzabe hallucal gaps and ball widths are narrower than those of Machiguengas and other unshod short people. Hadzabe feet are also characterized by valgus halluces versus the varus halluces of never-shod Machiguengas and certain West Africans. Although characterized by a valgus toe, Hadzabe hallucal angles, which do not exceed 20°, are lower than those of Northern Hemispheric urbanites and shod rural populations of the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. Hadzabe also exhibit less medial and lateral rotation of the hip joint than Machiguengas do. The heel and the longitudinal arch impressions of the Hadzabe footprints closely resemble those of the Laetoli bipeds in the manner of weight distribution during locomotion. The striking similarity of footprint impressions, especially the heel and the longitudinal arch, between Hadzabe and Laetoli hominid footprints clearly imply that the pedal features of the Laetoli printmakers are remarkably humanoid. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 9:303-321, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  8. Not so great expectations: Gas revenue, corruption and willingness to pay tax in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Alexander Wright; Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Jahari, Cornel; Mmari, Donald; Sjursen, Ingrid Hoem; Tungodden, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    Huge reservoirs of natural gas have been discovered offshore the southern coast of Tanzania. There are high expectations that exploitation of natural resources will substantially increase Tanzania’s national income. This brief presents results from a recent survey experiment of 3000 respondents in Dar es Salaam, Mtwara gas revenue causally increase expectations about corruption, it has no effect on willingness to pay tax. We argue that successful handling of the gas discoveries should include...

  9. Tanzania | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    We have a rich history of supporting research in Tanzania, a politically stable democracy. ... importance of improving health and agriculture in order to reduce poverty. ... For more than a decade, we have provided grants that foster the capacity to ... fellowships and foster links between researchers and institutions in Tanzania ...

  10. Micro Level Perspectives on Growth (Tanzania) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poverty reduction through growth is the idea behind the market-oriented reforms that Tanzania has undertaken since the mid-1980s. However, poverty is still ... Outputs. Papers. Private sector development in Tanzania : opportunities, challenges and strategic interventions to enhance competitiveness; final report. 42201.

  11. Tanzania | Page 41 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alexander Soucy is correct to identify insecticide-treated bednets and inexpensive anti-malarial drugs as crucial to the global fight against malaria ('An easy way to save three million lives,' April 26). Read more about Tanzania ... Legislation on competition brings productivity and business investment to Tanzania. Increasing ...

  12. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at identifying research gaps and needs and recommendations for a research agenda on water resources management in Tanzania. We reviewed published literature on water resources management in Tanzania in order to highlight what is currently known, and to identify knowledge gaps, and suggest ...

  13. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA: EXPERIENCES FROM. NORTHERN ... affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. .... Serengeti Plains are shared by NCA and the SNP. Normally, in .... communication network) and social services .... motivation to conserve nature.

  14. Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrializing Secondary Schools in Tanzania through Scientific Innovations. ... Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania ... Through review of various innovations developed by universities including SUA, it was established that there are several innovations in different fields especially in crop cultivation, animal ...

  15. History and current status of peste des petits ruminants virus in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsson, Emeli; Kgotlele, Tebogo; Berg, Mikael; Mtui-Malamsha, Niwael; Swai, Emanuel S; Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Misinzo, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome. PPR was officially confirmed in domestic animals in the Ngorongoro district of Tanzania in 2008. It is now considered to be endemic in the domestic sheep and goat populations throughout Tanzania, but restricted to one or more areas in the small ruminant wildlife population. In this article, we review the history and the current status of PPR in Tanzania and neighboring countries. To control and eradicate PPR in the region, a joint effort between these countries needs to be undertaken. The effort must also secure genuine engagement from the animal holders to succeed.

  16. History and current status of peste des petits ruminants virus in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeli Torsson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80–100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome. PPR was officially confirmed in domestic animals in the Ngorongoro district of Tanzania in 2008. It is now considered to be endemic in the domestic sheep and goat populations throughout Tanzania, but restricted to one or more areas in the small ruminant wildlife population. In this article, we review the history and the current status of PPR in Tanzania and neighboring countries. To control and eradicate PPR in the region, a joint effort between these countries needs to be undertaken. The effort must also secure genuine engagement from the animal holders to succeed.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Climatic Variation in Coastal Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohli, R. V.; Ates, S.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Polito, M. J.; Midway, S. R.; Gold, A.; Castañeda-Moya, E.; Uchida, E.; Suwa, M.; Mangora, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic controls are particularly important to the natural and human systems in coastal Tanzania, where mangrove vegetation is a major component of world-renowned biodiversity. This research provides an improved understanding of the climatic features and forcing mechanisms that support the critical mangroves of Tanzania and the livelihoods of its populace, using updated and complete datasets. Updated data confirm that coastal Tanzania falls in the tropical wet-dry Köppen-Geiger climatic type, except for the extreme north, where tropical rain forest exists north of Pangani. The northeast monsoon, known as the kaskazi, largely corresponds to the rainy November-December and March-May months. The southeast monsoon - known as the kusi - overlaps with the drier June-September. Results suggest that El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) are key modulators of precipitation variability in the entire area. More specifically, September-November positive precipitation anomalies occur during positive IOD, especially when combined with El Niño, with slightly negative anomalies during negative IOD, especially when combined with La Niña. The rest of the year tends to show similar precipitation during both IOD phases (March-August) or less precipitation during the positive phase (December-February). Because the literature suggests likelihood of more frequent positive IOD mode and a strengthened relationship of these events to warm-ENSO events, changes to the hydrologic cycle in east Africa may be likely in the future, with a potential for an expanded secondary rainy season and a drier "saddle" between the secondary and primary rainy seasons (i.e., December-February). Therefore, future research should investigate in more detail the influence of the IOD and ENSO on various components of the climatic water balance. Results may be useful to earth, environmental, and social scientists as they seek further understanding of the drivers of ecological and

  18. Leptospirosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Holly M.; Bui, Duy M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Onyango, Jecinta J.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Crump, John A.

    2011-01-01

    We enrolled consecutive febrile admissions to two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as a ≥ 4-fold increase in microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titer; probable leptospirosis as reciprocal MAT titer ≥ 800; and exposure to pathogenic leptospires as titer ≥ 100. Among 870 patients enrolled in the study, 453 (52.1%) had paired sera available, and 40 (8.8%) of these met the definition for confirmed leptospirosis. Of 832 patients with ≥ 1 serum sample available, 30 (3.6%) had probable leptospirosis and an additional 277 (33.3%) had evidence of exposure to pathogenic leptospires. Among those with leptospirosis the most common clinical diagnoses were malaria in 31 (44.3%) and pneumonia in 18 (25.7%). Leptospirosis was associated with living in a rural area (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, P < 0.001). Among those with confirmed leptospirosis, the predominant reactive serogroups were Mini and Australis. Leptospirosis is a major yet underdiagnosed cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania, where it appears to be endemic. PMID:21813847

  19. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2013-12-01

    Sediments were collected from the upper, middle and lower reaches of both urban and rural rivers in a typical urbanization zone of the Pearl River delta. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and their spatial distribution, pollution levels, toxicity and ecological risk levels were evaluated to compare the characteristics of heavy metal pollution between the two rivers. Our results indicated that the total contents of the six metals in all samples exceeded the soil background value in Guangdong province. Based on the soil quality thresholds of the China SEPA, Cd levels at all sites exceeded class III criteria, and other metals exhibited pollution levels exceeding class II or III criteria at both river sites. According to the sediment quality guidelines of the US EPA, all samples were moderately to heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Compared to rural river sites, urban river sites exhibited heavier pollution. Almost all sediment samples from both rivers exhibited moderate to serious toxicity to the environment, with higher contributions from Cr and Ni. A "hot area" of heavy metal pollution being observed in the upper and middle reaches of the urban river area, whereas a "hot spot" was identified at a specific site in the middle reach of the rural river. Contrary metal distribution patterns were also observed along typical sediment profiles from urban and rural rivers. However, the potential ecological risk indices of rural river sediments in this study were equal to those of urban river sediments, implying that the ecological health issues of the rivers in the undeveloped rural area should also be addressed. Sediment organic matter and grain size might be important factors influencing the distribution profiles of these heavy metals.

  1. Distribution and abundance of the edible orchids of the southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... weeks in March 2002 in the Southern Regions of Tanzania (Iringa, Mbeya, Rukwa and Ruvuma) to study aspects of the extent of the distribution, diversity and density of edible orchids. Tools for identification included structured questionnaire, on-the-spot identification as well as using herbarium voucher samples and keys.

  2. Farmers' tree planting and access to germplasm in the southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most farmers in the southern highlands of Tanzania plant significant numbers of trees and tree planting is an integral part of farming systems. Main purposes of tree planting are fuelwood, timber in a broad sense, and fruit production. People want to plant well-known species, which in most cases are exotics, and many ...

  3. Simulating Coral Reef Connectivity in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yixin

    2018-01-01

    and northern Red Sea is more affected by the intensity of the eddies. Evidence also suggests that potential connectivity exists between the coastal southern Red Sea and the coasts of Oman, Socotra, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the north coast of the Madagascar.

  4. Cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in Moshi rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in Moshi rural district of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. KS Mnyika, E Klouman, K-I Klepp. Abstract. No Abstract. East African Journal of Public Health Vol. 3 (1) April 2006: 24-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  5. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) provides an important baseline for the determination of an individual's total energy requirement. The study sought to establish human energy expenditure of rural farmers in Magubike village in Tanzania, through determination of BMR, physical activity level (PAL) and total energy ...

  6. Southern Africa’s Transnational Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    private sectors lends evidence to sophisticated criminal activities.”5 As regional organizations contemplated on how to prevent and/or deter these crimes...distribution of Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is prevalent throughout Southern Africa. In most incidences, Cannabis profits dwarfs local income...had its source in Tanzania and Tanzanians have identified markets for their fake US dollars in South Africa. Cannabis South Africa, Lesotho

  7. Væksten i Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Haagen Larsen, Pernille; Schack Wiedenbeien, Emma; Nørreager Christensen, Martin; Høj Brunn, Christoffer; Ferklov, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In our group, it has been decided to write about the growth in Africa. We believe a conflict can be seen between the year of focus to effort an improvement in Africa’s growth and the lack of change. However it is to be seen that there is a noticeable change compared to the time minimal effort spent. As case we have chosen to look at the conditions of establishing further expanding, development and growth of one of the poorest countries in the world, Tanzania. We have chosen to look into the e...

  8. The impact of privatization on access in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J S

    2001-06-01

    In the late 1980s, many developing countries were forced to adopt structural adjustment policies as a condition for securing loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. One of the World Bank's recommended policies was to change the mix of private and public health facilities. This study, based on fieldwork done in Tanzania in 1993, examines the impact of this policy on health-care accessibility in two northern Tanzanian districts, one rural and one urban. Accessibility was measured in terms of equality and equity of coverage. The placement of the very few government clinics opened during the years 1985-1993 did much more to improve coverage than the haphazard location of many new private clinics. Equity was not improved as very few clinics were placed in demographically needy areas.

  9. Conservation biology: lion attacks on humans in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Craig; Ikanda, Dennis; Kissui, Bernard; Kushnir, Hadas

    2005-08-18

    Large carnivores inspire opposition to conservation efforts owing to their impact on livestock and human safety. Here we analyse the pattern of lion attacks over the past 15 years on humans in Tanzania, which has the largest population of lions in Africa, and find that they have killed more than 563 Tanzanians since 1990 and injured at least 308. Attacks have increased dramatically during this time: they peak at harvest time each year and are most frequent in areas with few prey apart from bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus), the most common nocturnal crop pest. Our findings provide an important starting point for devising strategies to reduce the risk to rural Tanzanians of lion attacks.

  10. Out-of-School and "At Risk?" Socio-Demographic Characteristics, AIDS Knowledge and Risk Perception among Young People in Northern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the reasons why young people in urban and rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania do not attend school, their socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 1007 young people between the ages of 13 and 18. Findings suggest that non-attendance is the product…

  11. Perceived green qualities were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity, and general health : Results from a cross-sectional study in suburban and rural Scania, southern Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Albin, Maria; Skarback, Erik; Grahn, Patrik; Bjork, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In this study using cross-sectional survey data from suburban and rural Scania, Sweden (N=24,847), we assessed how the recently validated index score of area-aggregated perceived green neighborhood qualities (Scania Green Score; SGS), and the five distinct qualities within this index were associated

  12. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  13. Determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: analysis of data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Massawe, Siriel; Jackson, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    To identify determinants of moderate-to-severe anaemia among women of reproductive age in Tanzania. We included participants from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey, which collected data on socio-demographic and maternal health and determined haemoglobin levels from blood samples. We performed logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for associations between socio-demographic, contextual, reproductive and lifestyle factors, and moderate-to-severe anaemia and investigated interactions between certain risk factors. Of 9477 women, 20.1% were anaemic. Pregnancy was significantly associated with anaemia (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.43-2.15), but the effect varied significantly by urban/rural residence, wealth and education. The effect of pregnancy was stronger in women without education and those who were in lower wealth groups, with significant interactions observed for each of these factors. Education was associated with a lower anaemia risk, particularly in the poorest group (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43-0.80), and in pregnant women. The risk of anaemia fell with rising iron supplementation coverage. Lack of toilet facilities increased anaemia risk (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.00-1.60), whereas using hormonal contraception reduced it. There was no association with age, urban/rural residence, wealth or type of cooking fuel in adjusted analysis. Pregnant women in Tanzania are particularly at risk of moderate-to-severe anaemia, with the effect modified by urban/rural residence, education and wealth. Prevention interventions should target women with lower education or without proper sanitation facilities, and women who are pregnant, particularly if they are uneducated or in lower wealth groups. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Managing nuclear information in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centres to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS centre is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centres and facilitating the establishment of INIS National centre. (author)

  15. Managing nuclear information in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawe, S.F.; Sungita, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear information management and the applications of nuclear technology in Tanzania are limited to medical, agriculture, research and some industrial applications. It is demanding that the National database for nuclear information be established to keep the track of the information on radiation facilities, manpower development, radiation sources and radioactive waste management. In this paper the current status of nuclear information management in Tanzania is presented. The development, setbacks and future plans for establishment of national database with consequent improvement of nuclear information management are discussed. The National Radiation Commission (NRC) which is an official government body responsible for atomic energy matters in collaboration with other institutions applying nuclear technology, keeps the records and inventory of facilities, manpower development and projects related to the nuclear field. The available information about nuclear application activities has been obtained through possessors' declaration, monitoring at entry/exit points, periodic reports from the licensees, radiation safety inspections, and the available link with the International Atomic Agency (IAEA). In order to facilitate the dissemination of information, five ICT centers to serve in the fields of research, nuclear instrumentation, human health and agriculture have been established. The inventory of radiation facilities/materials and human resource is being build up as an initial input to the National database. Establishment of INIS center is expected to improve the nuclear information management system in the country. The government and the IAEA are encouraged to support nuclear information management especially by strengthening ICT centers and facilitating the establishment of INIS National center. (author)

  16. The determinants of traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: a mixed-methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Stanifer

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines are an important part of healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa, and building successful disease treatment programs that are sensitive to traditional medicine practices will require an understanding of their current use and roles, including from a biomedical perspective. Therefore, we conducted a mixed-method study in Northern Tanzania in order to characterize the extent of and reasons for the use of traditional medicines among the general population so that we can better inform public health efforts in the region.Between December 2013 and June 2014 in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, we conducted 5 focus group discussions and 27 in-depth interviews of key informants. The data from these sessions were analyzed using an inductive framework method with cultural insider-outsider coding. From these results, we developed a structured survey designed to test different aspects of traditional medicine use and administered it to a random sample of 655 adults from the community. The results were triangulated to explore converging and diverging themes.Most structured survey participants (68% reported knowing someone who frequently used traditional medicines, and the majority (56% reported using them themselves in the previous year. The most common uses were for symptomatic ailments (42%, chronic diseases (15%, reproductive problems (11%, and malaria/febrile illnesses (11%. We identified five major determinants for traditional medicine use in Northern Tanzania: biomedical healthcare delivery, credibility of traditional practices, strong cultural identities, individual health status, and disease understanding.In order to better formulate effective local disease management programs that are sensitive to TM practices, we described the determinants of TM use. Additionally, we found TM use to be high in Northern Tanzania and that its use is not limited to lower-income areas or rural settings. After symptomatic ailments, chronic diseases were reported as

  17. Volume and aboveground biomass models for dry Miombo woodland in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwakalukwa, Ezekiel Edward; Meilby, Henrik; Treue, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Tools to accurately estimate tree volume and biomass are scarce for most forest types in East Africa, including Tanzania. Based on a sample of 142 trees and 57 shrubs from a 6,065 ha area of dry miombo woodland in Iringa rural district in Tanzania, regression models were developed for volume...... and biomass of three important species, Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. (n=40), Combretum molle G. Don (n=41), and Dalbergia arbutifolia Baker (n=37) separately, and for broader samples of trees (28 species, n=72), shrubs (16 species, n=31), and trees and shrubs combined (44 species, n=104). Applied...... of the predictions tended to increase from general to species-specific models. Except for a few volume and biomass models developed for shrubs, all models had R2 values of 96–99%. Thus, the models appear robust and should be applicable to forests with similar site conditions, species, and diameter ranges....

  18. Regional Dermatology Training Centre in Moshi, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    because, in many parts of the world, there ... Annual prizes are awarded for the student achieving the highest mark in the overall assessment ... 31 No. 7. Dermatology in Tanzania prize). A second training programme (MMed) provides 4-year.

  19. Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor cabanisi in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... in Tanzania: a breeding record in a traditional beehive ... Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the bottom of one of the bee- ... resident of open bushed and wooded habitats in lower rainfall areas east of Lake.

  20. Read full report, Youth employment in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But the quality of formal education in Tanzania is poor. Less than 12 percent ... NGOs offer a broad range of services and training for youth, including fostering ..... Service workers. 20.6 ..... customer/market validation training provided by profes-.

  1. Financial Institutions And Poverty Alleviation In Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financial institutions in Tanzania have operated under a competitive financial system ... to move away from the tenets of a centrally planned economy towards free-market orientation. ... They have also favored traders rather than producers.

  2. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    industry in Tanzania economy, it has been shown repeatedly ... What factors restrain faster growth of domestic .... needs (i.e. food, clothing and shelter) is no longer ... communication network) and social services ..... Advertising, Promotion and.

  3. Tanzania Journal of Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science (TJS), is professional, peer reviewed journal, published in ... Optics, Thin films, Zoography, Military sciences, Biological sciences, Biodiversity, ... animal and veterinary sciences, Geology, Agricultural Sciences, Cytology, ... available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.

  4. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by human-induced activities. Over the past ... Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review on water resources ..... requirements for biodiversity and human health. .... Global warming is altering regional climates.

  5. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    example, the contribution from vegetable products fell by 7%, and that from textiles .... 43 -‐ Furskins and artificial fur, manufactures thereof ... example, while Tanzania has comparative advantage in raw hides and skins (see Figure 6), it.

  6. african indigenous and traditional vegetables in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in four regions of Tanzania with a total of 160 sellers ... washing; and (iii) marketing: retail markup, price variation by season, year and region, ..... and endosulfan and metalaxyl/mencozeb mix as.

  7. Tanzania Monitoring and Evaluation Management Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MEMS II is a two-year project to enable USAID/Tanzania and a number of its partners to meet their multifold performance reporting responsibilities; upgrade,...

  8. Income differences in social control of eating behaviors and food choice priorities among southern rural women in the US: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaro, Melissa J; Barnett, Tracey E; Mathews, Anne; Pomeranz, Jamie; Curbow, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The role of social influences on rural women's food choice is not well understood. Rural adults experience high rates of obesity and poor diet quality prompting exploration of how social factors influence food choice in this population. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 women in rural North Central Florida. Women were purposively sampled and stratified by race and income. Lower income was defined as household income at or below 185% of the federal poverty level (FPL). Women at or below 185% poverty level (BPL) experienced direct social control of their eating behaviors, which occurred when social network members explicitly regulated or otherwise sanctioned eating behaviors or food choices. Women above 185% of the federal poverty level (APL) internalized social norms and self-regulated their eating behaviors to maintain healthy habits. APL women described choosing foods for health reasons whereas BPL women offered a variety of reasons including taste, convenience, family history, price, health, and routine. Findings suggest that women in different income groups have different social influences working to help them regulate eating behaviors as well as diverse priorities influencing their food choices. Future interventions to promote healthy eating may be more effective by incorporating social network members and framing intervention messages so they are consistent with priorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  10. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kazaura, Method R; Masatu, Melkiory C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A question...

  11. Processo de produção rural e saúde na serra gaúcha: um estudo descritivo The rural labor process and health in the Southern Brazilian mountains: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal entre trabalhadores rurais na região serrana do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi estudar o perfil sócio-demográfico da população, conhecer as características do trabalho rural e descrever a prevalência de algumas patologias na população referida. A amostra foi de 1.479 trabalhadores, em 495 estabelecimentos agrícolas. Nesta amostra, a idade média foi de 41 anos, 56% eram do sexo masculino, com escolaridade média de cinco anos, sendo 87% da família proprietária. Os estabelecimentos tinham área média de 37 ha, 50% tinham pelo menos um tipo de máquina agrícola e a principal produção era a fruticultura. Cerca 75% dos trabalhadores lidavam com agrotóxicos de vários tipos e 12% referiram intoxicação por estes produtos em algum momento da vida. A prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos menores foi de 36%, a freqüência anual de acidentes de trabalho foi 10%. Os dados revelam a diversidade de atividades e de riscos ocupacionais. As altas prevalências dos problemas de saúde avaliados alertam para a necessidade de se priorizar ações de proteção para a saúde do trabalhador rural.This cross-sectional study among rural workers in the mountainous region of the southernmost Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul was designed to identify the characteristics of work performed on family farms. The research focused on the socio-demographic profiles of rural workers, identifying the characteristics of rural labor and describing the prevalence of some disease entities in such populations. Some 1479 rural workers from 495 farms were interviewed. In this sample, 87% of the individuals were members of the farm-owning family, mean age was 41 years, 56% were males, and mean schooling was 5 years. Farms had a mean area of 37 hectares, 50% had at least one type of farm machinery, and fruits constituted the main crop. About 75% of workers handled several types of pesticides, while 12% reported at least one

  12. prediction of rainfall in the southern highlands of tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    distribution at different places in the world. A study to ... climate indices influence rainfall. It has been observed .... Table 4: Summary of Predictors entered MLR and PCR models for MAM and OND rainfalls. .... from the cumulus clouds; rainfall is.

  13. Smallholder Pig Marketing Systems in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimbi, Eliakunda C.; Mlangwa, James; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    A study using two cross-sectional and a longitudinal research designs was undertaken to assess smallholder pig marketing system to explore basic information for improving smallholder pig production and marketing systems. The first design involved a cross-sectional survey of 300 pig farmers randomly...... by informal marketing channels, hence, limit the effectiveness of pig production and marketing. Marketed pigs had smaller weights compared to their ages, therefore contributing to poor returns to pig farmers and sub-optimal pork market supply. The study recommends strategic development of pig value chain...... villages who had also participated in the first design. Results showed that, pig-marketing systems had various channels and segments moving mainly pigs and pork to farmers, traders and consumers. Major market participants in the pig market chain were the pig farmers who played a dual role as pig producers...

  14. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Across Africa, postharvest losses along the food chain from farm to fork jeopardize the food ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania ... Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania.

  15. Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017) ... factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and animal welfare in selected villages in Nyasa, Tanzania ... Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  19. Replicating the MamaToto Program in Rural Tanzania (IMCHA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project draws on the low-cost MamaToto (mother-baby) process implemented in Uganda, where substantial gains in maternal and child health were achieved. These gains took place through an approach that strengthened services at health facilities and within communities. This project will implement and evaluate a ...

  20. Causes and Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    , School of Public Health ... Keywords: Maternal death, maternal mortality, risk factors and developing country .... technique which encompasses use of educational ..... Farm. Workers. 0.70. 0.547. (0.213-2.267). Cannot work 2.67. 0.396. (0.277-.

  1. Qualitative study on maternal referrals in rural Tanzania: Decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process in deciding to seek referral care is envisaged within community perception of seriousness of the condition, difficulty to access and cost involved in transport, living expenses at the hospital, and perceived quality of care at facility level. The hospitals were seen as providing acceptable quality of care, whereas, the ...

  2. Qualitative study on maternal referrals in rural Tanzania: Decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    discussions (FGDs) with health workers and community members, stratified by age and ..... health facilities and not listening carefully ..... Projects. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1997(59). S259-S265. 22. Campbell O, Koblinsky M, Taylor P. Off to.

  3. Qualitative study on maternal referrals in rural Tanzania: Decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The process in deciding to seek referral care is envisaged within community .... The three phases of delays model in accessing .... as dangerous at home and immediate care is required, the ... referral or is unable to pay the costs of referral, the ...

  4. Gender and performance of community treatment assistants in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Alexander; Gracewello, Catherine; Mkocha, Harran; Roter, Debra; Munoz, Beatriz; West, Sheila

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of gender and demographics of community treatment assistants (CTAs) on their performance of assigned tasks and quantity of speech during mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma in rural Tanzania. Surveys of CTAs and audio recordings of interactions between CTAs and villagers during drug distribution. Mass drug administration program in rural Kongwa district. Fifty-seven randomly selected CTAs, and 3122 residents of villages receiving azithromycin as part of the Kongwa Trachoma Project. None. Speech quantity graded by Roter interaction analysis system, presence of culturally appropriate greeting and education on facial hygiene for trachoma prevention from coded analysis of audio-recorded interactions. At sites with all female CTAs, each CTA spent more time and spoke more in each interaction in comparison with CTAs at sites with only male CTAs and CTAs at 'mixed gender' sites (sites with both male and female CTAs). At 'mixed gender' sites, males spoke significantly more than females. Female CTAs mentioned trachoma prevention with facial cleanliness more than twice as often as male CTAs; however, both genders mentioned hygiene in genders had culturally appropriate greetings in Gender dynamics affect the amount of time that CTAs spend with villagers during drug distribution, and the relative amount of speech when both genders work together. Both genders are not meeting expectations for trachoma prevention education and greeting villagers, and novel training methods are necessary. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  5. Examining the Association between Intervention-Related Changes in Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight as Moderated by the Food and Physical Activity Environments among Rural, Southern Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Johnston, Larry F; Evenson, Kelly R; McGuirt, Jared T; Gizlice, Ziya; Whitt, Olivia R; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have been conducted in rural areas assessing the influence of community-level environmental factors on residents' success improving lifestyle behaviors. Our aim was to examine whether 6-month changes in diet, physical activity, and weight were moderated by the food and physical activity environment in a rural adult population receiving an intervention designed to improve diet and physical activity. We examined associations between self-reported and objectively measured changes in diet, physical activity, and weight, and perceived and objectively measured food and physical activity environments. Participants were followed for 6 months. Participants were enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, a lifestyle intervention study conducted in Lenoir County, located in rural southeastern North Carolina. Sample sizes ranged from 132 to 249, depending on the availability of the data. Participants received four counseling sessions that focused on healthy eating (adapted Mediterranean diet pattern) and increasing physical activity. Density of and distance to food and physical activity venues, modified food environment index, Walk Score, crime, and perceived nutrition and physical activity neighborhood barriers were the potential mediating factors. Diet quality, physical activity, and weight loss were the outcomes measured. Statistical analyses included correlation and linear regression and controlling for potential confounders (baseline values of the dependent variables, age, race, education, and sex). In adjusted analysis, there was an inverse association between weight change and the food environment, suggesting that participants who lived in a less-healthy food environment lost more weight during the 6-month intervention period (P=0.01). Also, there was a positive association between self-reported physical activity and distance to private gyms (P=0.04) and an inverse association between private gym density and pedometer-measured steps (P=0.03), indicating

  6. Tanzania.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variation (Seebeck, 1973: Mackinnon-e't ar: 1990): Majority of paststlidies"on' reproductive performance from' tropicar-are'as have been' largely limited to'the assessment of effects of>. ·no'n.,genetk factors and breed difference's : '(Galiila. and Arthur, 1989), Genetic parameter es-, timates and infonnation. on the'extent of ...

  7. Greenways for rural sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottomano Palmisano, Giovanni; Govindan, Kannan; Loisi, Rosa V.

    2016-01-01

    within the CAP because they help to protect and manage environmental heritage, promote economic activities and enhance the social assets of rural areas; furthermore, given their natural ability to simultaneously connect these resources, greenways promote Rural Sustainable Development (RSD......Policy makers have recently begun to agree on environmental, economic and social aspects of rural areas that are enhanced according to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and in particular in the national Rural Development Programmes (RDPs).Greenways are an acknowledged tool...... Aiding (MCDA) technique "Group Analytic Hierarchy Process" (GAHP). The validity of this MC-SDSS was tested on three rural municipalities of Apulia Region (Southern Italy). In particular, a GIS was used to detect the rural resources and existing linear elements, which were used to perform overlay mapping...

  8. Trapped in decline : a sociological analysis of economic life in Mgeta, Uluguru Mountains Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Donge, van, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The research for this thesis was carried out in Tanzania during the period 1985- 89 and focuses on the Mgeta division in the Uluguru mountains, Morogoro rural district. Research was also undertaken among migrants from the area living in Dar es Salaam where they traded in foodstuffs. I made a return visit to the area in November 1991 to look again at questions which arose during writing up. The research also reflects seven years' employment at the University of Dar es Salaam (1982-89)...

  9. A categorization of water system breakdowns: Evidence from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Tori; Cronk, Ryan; Shields, Katherine F; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    In rural sub-Saharan Africa, one in three handpumps are non-functional at any time. While there is some evidence describing factors associated with non-functional water systems, there is little evidence describing the categories of water system breakdowns that commonly occur. Insufficient water availability from broken down systems can force people to use unimproved water sources, which undermines the health benefits of an improved water source. We categorized common water system breakdowns using quantitative and qualitative monitoring data from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda (each N>3600 water systems) and examined how breakdown category varies by water system type and management characteristics. Specific broken parts were mentioned more frequently than all other reasons for breakdown; hardware parts frequently found at fault for breakdown were aprons (Liberia), pipes (Tanzania and Uganda), taps/spouts (Tanzania and Uganda), and lift mechanisms (Nigeria). Statistically significant differences in breakdown category were identified based on system type, age, management type, and fee collection type. Categorization can help to identify common reasons for water system breakdown. The analysis of these data can be used to develop improved monitoring instruments to inform actors of different breakdown types and provide reasons for system non-functionality. Improved monitoring instruments would enable actors to target appropriate resources to address specific breakdowns likely to arise based on system type and management characteristics in order to inform improved implementation of and post-construction support for water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. AN EXPLORATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF CITRUS INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM MUHEZA DISTRICT, TANGA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Makorere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding factors affecting development of citrus industry in Tanzania particularly in Muheza District, in Tanga region. Citrus fruit is one of the most important crops in Muheza District of Tanga region in Tanzania particularly in improving rural farmers’ income. The study employed institutional framework methodology. The study disclosed that the government of Tanzania has been implementing various agricultural development programmes in improving citrus fruit production as well as to enhance farmers’ income. However, yet the results reveal that the citrus farming practices in the surveyed area are not well developed. And these are because citruses are still grown under rain fed regime without any form of irrigation, citrus seedlings are produced by individual farmers locally in their backyard nurseries. There is no professional company responsible for seedling production. Also, citrus farmers’ skills in citrus husbandry practices are limited. Lastly, all citrus varieties used contain many seeds in the citrus fruits whereas the market demands seedless citrus fruits. It is therefore, recommended that the policy maker should focus on development of citrus industry in Tanzania using proper institutional framework support, which could increase growth and development of citrus production through the provision of subsides for inputs to reduce cost of production and enlightenment campaigns to improve farmer’s knowledge and technical skills on how to reach lucrative markets.

  11. Healthcare Provider Views on Transitioning From Task Shifting to Advanced Practice Nursing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboineki, Joanes Faustine; Zhang, Weihong

    The Tanzanian health sector suffers from shortages of healthcare workers as well as uneven distribution of healthcare workers in urban and rural areas. Task shifting-delegation of tasks from professionals to other healthcare team members with less training, such as medical attendants-is practiced, compromising quality of care. Advanced practice nursing is underutilized. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of nurses and physicians on current responses to shortages of healthcare workers and the potential for utilization of advanced practice nurses. A descriptive, qualitative design was used. Purposeful sampling was used to select 20 participants. An in-depth interview guide was used to obtain information. Interviews were conducted in Swahili or English. Content analysis was used to identify themes. Shortage of human resources in rural primary healthcare facilities was identified as a major rationale for implementation of the advanced practice nurse practitioner role because the current health providers in rural health facilities are less trained and doctors are not ready to work in these settings. Opposition from physicians is expected during the course of implementing the nurse practitioner role. Professional bodies and government should reach consensus before the implementation of this role in such a way that they should agree on scope and standards of practice of nurse practitioners in Tanzania. Shortage of human resources for health is greater in rural primary healthcare facilities. Task shifting in Tanzania is neither effective nor legally recognized. Transition to advanced practice nursing roles-particularly the nurse practitioner role-can facilitate provision of optimal care. Nurse practitioners should be prepared to work in rural primary healthcare facilities.

  12. Type 1 diabetes care updates: Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandi Catherine Muze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is located in east Africa with a population of 45 million. The country′s population is growing at 2.5% annually. The International Diabetes Federation Child Sponsorship Program was launched in Tanzania in 2005. The number of type 1 diabetes mellitus children enrolled in the changing diabetes in children program in Tanzania has augmented from almost below 50 in 2005 to over 1200 in 2014. The country had an overall trend of HbA1c value of 14% in 2005 while the same has reduced over the years to 10% in 2012-13. The program has been able to reduce the proportion of patients with HbA1c values of 11-14%; from 71.9% in 2008 to 49.8% in 2012-13. The challenges, which CDiC face