WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural south australia

  1. Mobile bone densitometry service in rural South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, K.N.; Schultz, C.G.; Chatterton, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Twenty per cent of South Australia's population live rurally, with limited access to modern medical services. The Mobile Bone Densitometry Unit was established to address this problem. The Unit began in 1994 with cooperation from private industry. In fostering the service, many issues were addressed, including choice of appropriate sites; selection of a liaison person at each site; towing of the Unit; transportation and accommodation of staff; education of local health professionals and community members; promotion of the service to the community: and timely reporting of results to referring doctors. The scanner is an Hologic ODR-1000+ densitometer, housed in a 5.9 1.8 metre, 2200 kg caravan. It is necessary to reduce vibration and motion during travel, control the internal environment, and have an electrically clean power supply. Addressing these parameters result in the critical value for quality control being 2500 patients, averaging 13 patients/working day. The mean age of the patients was 64 y (range 30-90 y), with 93 % of patients being >50 y. Results show a normally distributed Z score, suggesting that non-selected 'normal' population is being studied and the Hologic normal range matches that of the South Australian rural community. Local communities have utilised the service to full capacity resulting in future visits being extended. In conclusion, it is possible to provide a high quality, reliable bone densitometry service to rural communities

  2. Oiling a neglected wheel: an investigation of adolescent internalising problems in rural South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandrea, Kate; Winefield, Helen; Livingstone, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Despite a paucity of research, adolescents living in rural areas appear to have a heightened risk for developing a mental health problem compared with their urban counterparts. The main objectives of this study were to contribute to building an evidence base of prevalence rates and determinants of internalising problems of adolescents in rural South Australia. A multidimensional Process Model was used as theoretical framework to enable an investigation of the various determinants from individual, family and community domains; specifically, the contribution of self-esteem, parental acceptance and elements of social capital at an individual level (ie participation in the local community and proactivity in a social context represented structural social capital, and feelings of trust and safety, and neighbourhood connections represented cognitive social capital). In this cross-sectional prospective study, a total of 388 Year 9 (2nd year of secondary school) students (208 females, 180 males) aged 13-15 years (mean age = 14.2 years) participated from 11 high schools within the Country Health South Australian area. These adolescents completed a battery of self-reported measures online at school. The results demonstrated that the adolescents experienced a 'normal' level of self-esteem and a 'moderate' level of perceived parental acceptance. The level of social capital was considered 'low' and the adolescents experienced a 'moderate' level of internalising symptoms. Based on the mean score of the Revised Child Anxiety & Depression Scales (RCADS), 25% of the adolescents experienced internalising symptoms ranging in severity from mild to severe, with no significant differences between males and females. Approximately 13% were considered above the clinical threshold, with 4% reporting experiencing severe symptoms. Relationships between all measures were investigated using Pearson product-moment correlations coefficients and associations between self-esteem, parental acceptance

  3. Barriers to the use of Information and Communication Technology by occupational therapists working in a rural area of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedid, Rebecca Jean; Dew, Angela; Veitch, Craig

    2013-06-01

    This qualitative study formed part of a large-scale, multi-phase study into the delivery of therapy services to people with a disability, living in one rural area of New South Wales, Australia. The study's purpose was to identify the impact of Information and Communication Technology on the workforce practices of occupational therapists' working in a rural area of New South Wales. Individual semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 occupational therapists working in disability, health and private practice in a rural area of New South Wales. Participants were asked about access to, skills and limitations of using Information and Communication Technology. A modified grounded theory approach, based on thematic analysis and constant comparison, was used to analyse the interview transcripts. This study found widespread use of technology by rurally based occupational therapists working in the disability sector in New South Wales. However, Information and Communication Technology was primarily used for client contact, professional development and professional networking rather than therapy provision. The study identified individual, workplace and community barriers to greater uptake of Information and Communication Technology by this group. The individual barriers included: age cohort, knowledge and personal preferences. The workplace barriers included: support and training and availability of resources. The community barriers included: infrastructure and perceptions of clients' acceptance. The potential exists for Information and Communication Technology to supplement face-to-face therapy provision, enhance access to professional development and reduce professional isolation thereby addressing the rural challenges of large distances, travel times and geographic isolation. To overcome these challenges, individual, workplace and community Information and Communication Technology barriers should be addressed concurrently. © 2012 The Authors Australian

  4. Critical health infrastructure for refugee resettlement in rural Australia: case study of four rural towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypek, Scott; Clugston, Gregory; Phillips, Christine

    2008-12-01

    To explore the reported impact of regional resettlement of refugees on rural health services, and identify critical health infrastructure for refugee resettlement. Comparative case study, using interviews and situational analysis. Four rural communities in New South Wales, which had been the focus of regional resettlement of refugees since 1999. Refugees, general practitioners, practice managers and volunteer support workers in each town (n = 24). The capacity of health care workers to provide comprehensive care is threatened by low numbers of practitioners, and high levels of turnover of health care staff, which results in attrition of specialised knowledge among health care workers treating refugees. Critical health infrastructure includes general practices with interest and surge capacity, subsidised dental services, mental health support services; clinical support services for rural practitioners; care coordination in the early settlement period; and a supported volunteer network. The need for intensive medical support is greatest in the early resettlement period for 'catch-up' primary health care. The difficulties experienced by rural Australia in securing equitable access to health services are amplified for refugees. While there are economic arguments about resettlement of refugees in regional Australia, the fragility of health services in regional Australia should also be factored into considerations about which towns are best suited to regional resettlement.

  5. Teaching Primary Science in Rural and Regional Australia: Some Challenges Facing Practicing and Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Kristy-Rebecca; Taylor, Neil; Fletcher, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The teaching of science has long been viewed as problematic within primary classrooms across Australia. This study explores the teaching of primary science in an area of rural and regional Australia (the New England Region of New South Wales) where small populations, remote settings and isolation can make the teaching of science and other Key…

  6. A comparison of barriers to mental health support-seeking among farming and non-farming adults in rural South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Melissa J; Fennell, Kate M; Vallury, Kari; Jones, Martin; Dollman, James

    2017-12-01

    To assess the differences between farming and non-farming rural adults in perceived barriers to mental health service use. A cross-sectional survey, modified from the Barriers to Help-Seeking Scale (BHSS), was conducted using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Respondents (age 52.6 ± 11.6 years) were recruited from three rural regions of South Australia. Approximately, 78 non-farmers and 45 farmers were included in analyses. 78 retired and two unemployed participants were excluded from the analyses. Farmers and non-farmers were compared on domain scores and individual item responses from the adapted BHSS that represent 'agrarian' attitudes to support-seeking for mental health: stoicism, self-reliance, minimisation of the problem, stigma and distrust of health professionals. In the analysis of domain scores, 'Need for Control and Self-Reliance' was a stronger barrier for farmers than non-farmers (P = 0.009) with a trend (P = 0.07) towards stronger barriers among farmers in the 'Minimising Problem and Resignation' domain. In the analysis of item-level responses, there was a difference (P = 0.03) between farmers and non-farmers in responses to 'I find it difficult to understand my doctor/health professional', with 24.4% of the farmers agreeing that this is a barrier compared with 15.3% of the non-farmers. Long-held stereotypes of stoicism and self-reliance among farmers were somewhat supported, in the context of mental health. Mental health services and professionals in rural Australia might need to adapt their practices to successfully engage this population. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. Rural male suicide in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Referral to massage therapy in primary health care: a survey of medical general practitioners in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jon L; Sibbritt, David W; Adams, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Massage therapists are an important part of the health care setting in rural and regional Australia and are the largest complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) profession based on both practitioner numbers and use. The purpose of this study was to survey medical general practitioners (GPs) in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia, to identify their knowledge, attitudes, relationships, and patterns of referral to massage therapy in primary health care. A 27-item questionnaire was sent to all 1486 GPs currently practicing in rural and regional Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales, Australia. The survey had 5 general areas: the GP's personal use and knowledge of massage, the GP's professional relationships with massage practice and massage practitioners, the GP's specific opinions on massage, the GP's information-seeking behavior in relation to massage, and the GP's assumptions on massage use by patients in their local areas. A total of 585 questionnaires were returned completed, with 49 survey questionnaires returned as "no longer at this address" (response rate of 40.7%). More than three-quarters of GPs (76.6%) referred to massage therapy at least a few times per year, with 12.5% of GPs referring at least once per week. The GP being in a nonremote location (odds ratio [OR], 14.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-50.0), graduating from an Australian medical school (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.09-3.70), perceiving a lack of other treatment options (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.15-6.01), perceiving good patient access to a wide variety of medical specialists (OR, 11.1; 95% CI, 1.7-50.0), believing in the efficacy of massage therapy (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.58-4.78), experiencing positive results from patients using massage therapy previously (OR, 13.95; 95% CI, 5.96-32.64), or having prescribed any CAM previously (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.03-3.27) were all independently predictive of increased referral to massage therapy among the GPs in this study. There appears to

  9. Regional South Australia Health (RESONATE) survey: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Gillam, Marianne; May, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Access to quality healthcare services is considered a moral right. However, for people living in regional locations, timely access to the services that they need may not always be possible because of structural and attitudinal barriers. This suggests that people living in regional areas may have unmet healthcare needs. The aim of this research will be to examine the healthcare needs, expectations and experiences of regional South Australians. Methods and analysis The Regional South Australia Health (RESONATE) survey is a cross-sectional study of adult health consumers living in any private or non-private dwelling, in any regional, rural, remote or very remote area of South Australia and with an understanding of written English. Data will be collected using a 45-item, multidimensional, self-administered instrument, designed to measure healthcare need, barriers to healthcare access and health service utilisation, attitudes, experiences and satisfaction. The instrument has demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties, including good content validity and internal reliability, good test–retest reliability and a high level of acceptability. The survey will be administered online and in hard-copy, with at least 1832 survey participants to be recruited over a 12-month period, using a comprehensive, multimodal recruitment campaign. Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed and approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of South Australia. The results will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, social media, broadcast media, print media, the internet and various community/stakeholder engagement activities. PMID:29654014

  10. Issues in rural adolescent mental health in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Candice P; Aisbett, Damon L; Francis, Kristy; Kelly, Melinda; Newnham, Krystal; Newnham, Karyn

    2006-01-01

    The mental health of adolescents living in rural Australia has received little research attention. In this article, the extant literature on rural adolescent mental health in Australia is reviewed. Given the lack of literature on this topic, the review is centered on a vignette presented at the beginning of the article. The case represented by the vignette is that of a young Australian growing up in a rural area. The issues raised--including the nature of mental health issues for rural adolescents and barriers to seeking professional help--are then discussed in terms of the available literature. The article concludes with a future focus for research efforts in the area of rural adolescent mental health.

  11. Transforming rural health systems through clinical academic leadership: lessons from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J E; Couper, I D; Campbell, D; Walker, J

    2013-01-01

    Under-resourced and poorly managed rural health systems challenge the achievement of universal health coverage, and require innovative strategies worldwide to attract healthcare staff to rural areas. One such strategy is rural health training programs for health professionals. In addition, clinical leadership (for all categories of health professional) is a recognised prerequisite for substantial improvements in the quality of care in rural settings. Rural health training programs have been slow to develop in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and the impact of clinical leadership is under-researched in such settings. A 2012 conference in South Africa, with expert input from South Africa, Canada and Australia, discussed these issues and produced recommendations for change that will also be relevant in other LMICs. The two underpinning principles were that: rural clinical leadership (both academic and non-academic) is essential to developing and expanding rural training programs and improving care in LMICs; and leadership can be learned and should be taught. The three main sets of recommendations focused on supporting local rural clinical academic leaders; training health professionals for leadership roles in rural settings; and advancing the clinical academic leadership agenda through advocacy and research. By adopting the detailed recommendations, South Africa and other LMICs could energise management strategies, improve quality of care in rural settings and impact positively on rural health outcomes.

  12. Homeopathy in rural Australian primary health care: a survey of general practitioner referral and practice in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, J; Adams, J; Sibbritt, D

    2013-07-01

    Homeopathy has attracted considerable recent attention from the Australian conventional medical community. However, despite such increased attention there has been little exploration of the interface between homeopathy and Australian conventional medical practice. This article addresses this research gap by exploring homeopathic practice and referral by rural and regional Australian general practitioners (GPs). A 27-item questionnaire was sent to all 1486 GPs currently practising in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia (response rate 40.7%). Few GPs in this study utilised homeopathy in their personal practice, with only 0.5% of GPs prescribing homeopathy in the past 12 months, and 8.5% referring patients for homeopathic treatment at least a few times over the past 12 months. Nearly two-thirds of GPs (63.9%) reported that they would not refer for homeopathy under any circumstances. Being in a remote location, receiving patient requests for homeopathy, observing positive responses from homeopathy previously, using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners as information sources, higher levels of knowledge of homeopathy, and being interested in increasing CAM knowledge were all independently predictive of increased referral to homeopathy amongst GPs in this study. GPs in this study were less likely to refer to homeopathy if they used peer-reviewed literature as the major source of their information on CAM. Homeopathy is not integrated significantly in rural general practice either via GP utilisation or referral. There is significant opposition to homeopathy referral amongst rural and regional GPs, though some level of interaction with homeopathic providers exists. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Farmers' perceptions of health in the Riverland region of South Australia: 'If it's broke, fix it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawolle, Tessa A; Sadauskas, David; van Kessel, Gisela; Dollman, James

    2016-10-01

    To explore perceptions of health among South Australian farmers. Descriptive qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews. Two rural towns in the Riverland region of South Australia. Fifteen adults involved in farming within the Riverland region of South Australia, from a variety of farming industries; age range 23-70 years old; 53% male, 47% female. Perceptions and definitions of health. Participants described an ecological understanding of health across individual, farm, and community domains. Participants perceived health as being able to function and complete farm work. Participants reported that farm work helped to maintain fitness, but the multiple stress and hazards associated with farming had a significant influence on health. Participants described how health was influenced by community activities and social support from friends and families. Women were reported to take a lead role in health. Health providers can frame interventions to resonate with the perceptions of health held by people, shaped and formed by the context of farming. Further research is needed to explore farmers' perceptions of health in different locations, from different industries and from a range of age groups. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  14. Health concerns associated with unconventional gas mining in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haswell, Melissa R; Bethmont, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Many governments globally are investigating the benefits and risks associated with unconventional gas mining for shale, tight and coal seam gas (coalbed methane) to determine whether the industry should proceed in their jurisdiction. Most locations likely to be developed are in rural areas, with potential impact on farmers and small communities. Despite significant health concerns, public health knowledge and growing evidence are often overlooked in decision-making. It is difficult to gain a broad but accurate understanding of the health concerns for rural communities because the evidence has grown very recently and rapidly, is complex and largely based in the USA, where the industry is advanced. In 2016, a concerned South Australian beef and lamb farmer in an area targeted for potential unconventional gas development organised visits to homes in developed unconventional gas areas of Pennsylvania and forums with leading researchers and lawyers in Pennsylvania and New York. Guided by priorities identified during this trip, this communication concisely distils the research evidence on these key concerns, highlighting the Australian situation where evidence exists. It summarises key information of particular concern to rural regions, using Australia as an example, to assist rural health professionals to be better prepared to engage in decision-making and address the challenges associated with this new industry. Discussions with communities and experts, supported by the expanding research from the USA and Australia, revealed increasing health concerns in six key areas. These are absence of a safe solution to the toxic wastewater management problems, air pollution, land and water competition, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing risks, fugitive methane emissions and lack of proven regulatory regimes. Emerging epidemiological studies suggesting interference with foetal development and birth outcomes, and exacerbation of asthma conditions, are particularly concerning

  15. In-Place Training: Optimizing Rural Health Workforce Outcomes through Rural-Based Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jennifer; Brown, Leanne; Burrows, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The medical workforce shortfall in rural areas is a major issue influencing the nature of undergraduate medical education in Australia. Exposing undergraduates to rural life through rural clinical school (RCS) placements is seen as a key strategy to address workforce imbalances. We investigated the influence of an extended RCS placement and rural…

  16. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  17. Competitive Sport and Social Capital in Rural Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonts, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Sport is often regarded as an important part of life in rural Australia, contributing to community identity, sense of place, social interaction and good health. The involvement of rural citizens in sport also has the potential to contribute to social capital. Understood in simple terms as norms of reciprocity and associational life, social capital…

  18. Examining the Average Citation Index of "Education in Rural Australia" (Now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Aaron; Halsey, R. John

    2013-01-01

    The journal "Education in Rural Australia" (now the "Australian and International Journal of Rural Education") has been in existence since 1991. During the Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) period, the journal maintained a B ranking, indicating that it was a quality journal within a specialised field. With the abolishment…

  19. Coroners' records of rural and non-rural cases of youth suicide in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, M; Kelk, N; Florio, T; Waters, B; Howard, J; Taylor, D

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of certain putative risk factors for youth suicide in New South Wales (especially use of alcohol, social class, unemployment, and internal migration) in metropolitan and rural settings. A review of 137 files for 10-19-year-old subjects judged by the Coroner to have committed suicide in 1988-1990 was carried out. One hundred and fifteen males and 21 females were identified (one subjects sex was unavailable). The male-female ratio was higher in rural (13.0) areas than non-rural (4.9 chi 2 = 12.14, p Australia, most migrated in a rural direction, and most to rural shires. Unemployment was somewhat more common among rural (38.5%) than non-rural (28.9%) subjects (chi 2 = 0.75, p = 0.39). Eleven of 50 non-rural parents of the deceased, but none of the 11 rural parents, were ranked as being in social classes 2 or 3. Alcohol consumption appeared more common in rural shires (44%) than metropolitan areas (32.9%), but this was not statistically significant. Medical services were less utilised prior to death in rural (15%) than non-rural (25%) areas (chi 2 = 1.69, p = 0.19), and a psychiatric diagnosis was recorded more commonly in non-rural areas. Incomplete coronial file data and relatively small numbers limit this study's conclusions. Male suicides, principally by firearms, predominated in rural areas. Youth firearm access remains highly relevant to rural communities. Possible trends among rural subjects toward rural migration, higher unemployment, lower social class and lower medical attendance may point to resource deprivation among this group; these matters require further investigation.

  20. The oldest brachiopods from the lower cambrian of South Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Holmer, Lars E.; Skovsted, Christian B.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and organophosphatic shell structure of the paterinate brachiopod Askepasma is documented using new and previously collected specimens from the lower Cambrian of South Australia. Lack of adequately preserved material has seen the majority of paterinate specimens previously reported...... from South Australia referred to the genus Askepasma and treated under open nomenclature. Large collections of paterinates from the lower Cambrian Wilkawillina, Ajax, and Wirrapowie limestones in the Arrowie Basin, South Australia have prompted redescription of the type species Askepasma toddense...... and the erection of a new species, Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. Askepasma saproconcha sp. nov. currently represents the oldest known brachiopod from the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia with a FAD in pre-trilobitic (Terreneuvian, Cambrian Stage 2, lower Atdabanian) strata in the basal part...

  1. Regionalisation of general practice training--are we meeting the needs of rural Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David G; Greacen, Jane H; Giddings, Patrick H; Skinner, Lesley P

    2011-06-06

    The concept of "social accountability" has underpinned the development of many medical education programs over the past decade. Success of the regionalisation of the general practice training program in Australia will ultimately be measured by the ability of the program to deliver a sufficient rural general practice workforce to meet the health needs of rural communities. Regionalisation of general practice training in Australia arose from the 1998 recommendations of the Ministerial Review of General Practice Training. The resultant competitive structure adopted by government was not the preferred option of the Review Committee, and may be a negative influence on rural workforce, as the competitive corporate structure of regional training providers has created barriers to meaningful vertical integration. Available data suggest that the regionalised training program is not yet providing a sustainable general practice workforce to rural Australia. The current increase in medical student and general practice training places provides an opportunity to address some of these issues. In particular, it is recommended that changes be made to registrar selection processes, the rural pipeline and vertical integration of training, and training for procedural rural practice. To achieve these goals, perhaps it is time for another comprehensive ministerial review of general practice training in Australia.

  2. Rural and urban suicide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B C Ben; Lester, David

    2012-10-01

    Suicide rates in 2005 in South Korea were higher in rural areas than in urban areas. Those in rural areas more often used pesticides and chemicals as a method for suicide, and there was a greater proportion of men and the elderly, both groups at higher risk for suicide in South Korea. These three factors may account for the high rural suicide rate in South Korea.

  3. Globalisation, rural restructuring and health service delivery in Australia: policy failure and the role of social work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Margaret

    2007-05-01

    The impacts of globalisation and rural restructuring on health service delivery in rural Australia have been significant. In the present paper, it is argued that declining health service access represents a failure of policy. Rural communities across the world are in a state of flux, and Australia is no different: rural communities are ageing at faster rates than urban communities and young people are out-migrating in large numbers. During the past 5 years, rural Australia has also experienced a severe and widespread drought that has exacerbated rural poverty, and impacted on the health and well-being of rural Australians. Australian governments have responded to globalising forces by introducing neoliberal policy initiatives favouring market solutions and championing the need for self-reliance among citizens. The result for rural Australia has been a withdrawal of services at a time of increased need. This paper addresses the social work response to these changes.

  4. Australia's rural medical workforce: Supply from its medical schools against career stage, gender and rural-origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah J

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between career stage and rural medical workforce supply among Australian-trained medical graduates. Descriptive analysis using the national Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) longitudinal study. Australian-trained GPs and other specialists who participated in the MABEL study, 2008-2013. Proportions of GPs and specialists working in rural locations, according to career stage (establishing, early, mid and late), gender and childhood-origin type (rural versus metropolitan). Logistic regression models revealed that establishing- and early-career GPs had significantly higher likelihood (OR 1.67 and 1.38, respectively) of working rurally, but establishing and early-career doctors were significantly less likely (OR 0.34 and 0.43, respectively) to choose general practice, contributing proportionally fewer rural GPs overall (OR 0.77 and 0.75, respectively) compared to late-career doctors. For specialists, there were no significant associations between career cohorts and rural practice. Overall, there was a significantly lower likelihood (OR 0.83) of establishing-career doctors practising rurally. Women were similarly likely to be rural GPs but less likely to be rural specialists, while rural-origin was consistently associated with higher odds of rural practice. The supply of Australia's rural medical workforce from its medical schools continues to be challenging, with these data highlighting both their source and associations with doctors at different career stages. Despite large investments through rural medical training and rural workforce recruitment and retention policies, these data confirm continued reliance on internationally trained medical graduates for large proportions of rural supply is likely. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. Primary Maternity Units in rural and remote Australia: Results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue; Jenkinson, Bec; Pilcher, Jennifer; Robin, Sarah; Rolfe, Margaret; Kornelsen, Jude; Barclay, Lesley

    2016-09-01

    Primary Maternity Units (PMUs) offer less expensive and potentially more sustainable maternity care, with comparable or better perinatal outcomes for normal pregnancy and birth than higherlevel units. However, little is known about how these maternity services operate in rural and remote Australia, in regards to location, models of care, service structure, support mechanisms or sustainability. This study aimed to confirm and describe how they operate. a descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken, utilising a 35-item survey to explore current provision of maternity care in rural and remote PMUs across Australia. Data were subjected to simple descriptive statistics and thematic analysis for free text answers. Only 17 PMUs were identified in rural and remote areas of Australia. All 17 completed the survey. the PMUs were, on average, 56km or 49minutes from their referral service and provided care to an average of 59 birthing women per year. Periodic closures or downgrading of services was common. Low-risk eligibility criteria were universally used, but with some variability. Medically-led care was the most widely available model of care. In most PMUs midwives worked shift work involving both nursing and midwifery duties, with minimal uptake of recent midwifery workforce innovations. Perceived enablers of, and threats to, sustainability were reported. a small number of PMUs operate in rural Australia, and none in remote areas. Continuing overreliance on local medical support, and under-utilisation of the midwifery workforce constrain the restoration of maternity services to rural and remote Australia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing better casemix education for rural New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, J F; Mazevska, D; Haas, M

    2001-08-01

    Casemix is now an important mechanism for the planning, evaluation and funding of health services in Australia. In New South Wales (NSW) it was believed that while staff from most hospitals in metropolitan Sydney had become both literate and vocal about casemix, staff from rural areas were less familiar and much less likely to participate in casemix initiatives. In conjunction with the NSW Casemix Clinical Committee (NCCC), NSW Health considered a special program of casemix education for rural NSW. Before an education program was attempted, NSW Health inquired into the specific needs for casemix education in rural NSW. Qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis were used. Results of the quantitative analysis indicate that the understanding of casemix classifications is highest among managers. Of concern were the relatively low proportion of Allied Health staff who had more than a vague understanding of the Sub- and Non-Acute Patient (SNAP) classification; the lack of any knowledge of the Mental Health Costing And Service Classification (MH-CASC) by nursing staff; and the lack of any knowledge of the emergency department classification: Urgency, Disposition and Age-related Groups (UDAG), either by clinical or nursing staff. The results of the qualitative analysis show that casemix education for rural areas needs to differ from metropolitan education programs. The analysis also highlights the perception of casemix in rural areas and the special circumstances in rural hospitals that place limits on the ability to use casemix more fully.

  7. The price elasticity of electricity demand in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Shu; Hyndman, Rob J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the price elasticity of electricity demand, representing the sensitivity of customer demand to the price of electricity, has been estimated for South Australia. We first undertake a review of the scholarly literature regarding electricity price elasticity for different regions and systems. Then we perform an empirical evaluation of the historic South Australian price elasticity, focussing on the relationship between price and demand quantiles at each half-hour of the day. This work attempts to determine whether there is any variation in price sensitivity with the time of day or quantile, and to estimate the form of any relationships that might exist in South Australia. - Highlights: → We review the scholarly literature on electricity own-price elasticity for different regions and systems. → We use annual log-linear econometric models of the electricity demand to estimate the historic South Australian price elasticity. → We focus on the relationship between price and demand quantiles at each half-hour of the day. → The overall price elasticity in South Australia ranges from -0.363 to -0.428.

  8. Invisibility, safety and psycho-social distress among same-sex attracted women in rural South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Available work from North America indicates that same-sex attracted (SSA) individuals enjoy aspects of rural life but nonetheless report encountering homophobia and experiencing isolation from SSA networks. The experience of prejudice and social isolation are often associated with psycho-social distress among the general population of same-sex attracted individuals. Little is known of how SSA women experience life in rural areas of Australia and how this influences their psycho-social wellbeing. This was a small-scale qualitative study using guided interviews to explore the experience of SSA women living in rural areas of South Australia. Seven women identifying as same-sex attracted were interviewed. In addition, a woman who provides a counseling and support service for same-sex attracted women was also interviewed. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and were then analysed for emergent themes. Summaries of the interviews, based on the emergent themes, were sent to all interviewees so that they could verify or challenge the validity of the emergent themes, as well as to allow them to remove any information they felt might identify them. Most women had felt 'different' while growing up; almost unanimously describing themselves as having been 'tomboys'. However, the lack of visible SSA role models in rural areas, together with a lack of SSA social networks, did not allow some of the women to identify and name their same-sex attraction. For many of the women in this study, it was visits to the state capital, where they had the opportunity to meet other SSA women, which precipitated them identifying themselves as same-sex attracted. In light of this new knowledge, some women denied their same-sex attraction and entered into heterosexual relationships, often entailing marriage. Other women entered same-sex relationships but tried to keep them invisible within their communities. Rural communities are frequently close-knit environments, where

  9. Nature: a colour comparison between Northern South Africa and Northern Australia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1983 DSTO in Australia measured the reflectances of grass, trees and soil in northern Australia, using a custom-build spectroradiometer. During 2002 CSIR in South Africa performed similar measurements in northern South Africa, using a...

  10. Food provision among food relief agencies in rural Australia, and perceived barriers and enablers to provide healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolin, Natalia; Priestly, Jaqueline; Sangster, Janice

    2018-04-01

    Food insecurity affects 4-14% of Australians, and up to 82% of vulnerable groups. Food relief agencies commonly provide food parcels or food vouchers. Little research has been undertaken on food relief agencies within rural Australia. This study determined the type of food assistance provided by rural food relief agencies, and barriers and enablers to provide healthy food. Cross-sectional study, using telephone questionnaires with qualitative and quantitative aspects. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Rural New South Wales, Australia. Representatives of 10 food relief agencies. Types of food assistance and food provided, and the barriers and enablers to provide healthy food to clients. Most agencies provided food hampers and perishable and non-perishable food. Rural food relief agencies had a greater capacity to provide non-perishable compared to perishable food. Grains, breads and cereals, and canned fruit and vegetables were most popular. Nine key themes emerged including 'Ability to purchase and provide healthy food', 'Ability to regulate food purchased or chosen by clients', 'Financial constraints of the agency' and 'Lack of storage'. There are many variables to consider in order to understand the capacity of rural food relief agencies to provide healthy food. There are also opportunities for food relief agencies to appraise current practices and make changes. Initiatives to improve storage facilities and food availability are key and include networking with local businesses, community organisations and government. Rural food relief agency clients could benefit from accessing food literacy and health programs like FoodREDi, OzHarvest NEST and SecondBite Fresh NED. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  11. Australian doctors and the visual arts. Part 5. Doctor-artists in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D G

    1986-11-17

    The contributions of Australian doctors to the visual arts are being described in a series of six articles. Work from doctors in New South Wales and Victoria has been covered previously. Now activities in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Queensland and the Northern Territory are presented.

  12. Incidence of Achalasia in South Australia Based on Esophageal Manometry Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Jaime A; Hamer, Peter W; Heddle, Richard; Holloway, Richard H; Myers, Jennifer C; Thompson, Sarah K

    2017-03-01

    Achalasia is a disorder of esophageal motility with a reported incidence of 0.5 to 1.6 per 100,000 persons per year in Europe, Asia, Canada, and America. However, estimates of incidence values have been derived predominantly from retrospective searches of databases of hospital discharge codes and personal communications with gastroenterologists, and are likely to be incorrect. We performed a cohort study based on esophageal manometry findings to determine the incidence of achalasia in South Australia. We collected data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics on the South Australian population. Cases of achalasia diagnosed by esophageal manometry were identified from the 3 adult manometry laboratory databases in South Australia. Endoscopy reports and case notes were reviewed for correlations with diagnoses. The annual incidence of achalasia in the South Australian population was calculated for the decade 2004 to 2013. Findings were standardized to those of the European Standard Population based on age. The annual incidence of achalasia in South Australia ranged from 2.3 to 2.8 per 100,000 persons. The mean age at diagnosis was 62.1 ± 18.1 years. The incidence of achalasia increased with age (Spearman rho, 0.95; P achalasia in South Australia to be 2.3 to 2.8 per 100,000 persons and to increase with age. South Australia's relative geographic isolation and the population's access to manometry allowed for more accurate identification of cases than hospital code analyses, with a low probability of missed cases. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The development of a caseload midwifery service in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tara; Longman, Jo; Kornelsen, Jude; Barclay, Lesley

    2017-08-01

    The past two decades have seen progressive decline in the number of rural birthing services across Australia. Despite health system pressures on small birthing units to close there have been examples of resistance and survival. This descriptive study explored the evolution of a rural birthing service in a small town to offer insight into the process of transition which may be helpful to other small healthcare services in rural Australia. Quantitative data derived from birth registers on number and types of birth from 1993-2011 were analysed. Interviews were conducted between January and August 2012 with nine participants (GP obstetricians, midwives, a health service manager and a consumer representative). This rural maternity service developed gradually from a GP obstetrician-led service to a collaborative care team approach with midwifery leadership. This development was in response to a changing rural medical workforce, midwifery capacity and the needs and wants of women in the local community. Four major themes were developed from interview data: (1) development of the service (2) drivers of change (3) outcomes and (4) collaborative care and inter-professional practice. The success of this transition was reported to rest on strategic planning and implementation and respectful inter-professional practice and alignment of birth philosophy across the team. This team created a unified, progressive community-focused birthing service. The development of collaborative care models that embrace and build on established inter-professional relationships can maximise existing rural workforce potential and create a sustainable rural service into the future. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Delays in accessing electroconvulsive therapy: a comparison between two urban and two rural populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of the timing, rates and characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy use between urban and rural populations. The medical records of patients who received an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy at two rural and two urban psychiatric hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the time from symptom onset, diagnosis and admission to commencing electroconvulsive therapy. Rates of use of electroconvulsive therapy were also compared between rural and urban hospitals using NSW statewide data. There was a significant delay in the time it took for rural patients to receive electroconvulsive therapy compared with urban patients when measured both from the time of symptom onset and from when they received a diagnosis. There were corresponding delays in the time taken for rural patients to be admitted to hospital compared with urban patients. There was no difference in the time it took to commence electroconvulsive therapy once a patient was admitted to hospital. NSW statewide urban-rural comparisons showed rates of electroconvulsive therapy treatment were significantly higher in urban hospitals. Patients in rural areas receive electroconvulsive therapy later in their acute illness due to delays in being admitted to hospital. The rate of use of electroconvulsive therapy also differs geographically. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  15. Factors Associated with Dental Caries in Primary Dentition in a Non-Fluoridated Rural Community of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Manohar, Narendar; John, James Rufus

    2017-11-23

    Dental caries persists as one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among children worldwide. This study aims to determine factors that influence dental caries in primary dentition among primary school children residing in the rural non-fluoridated community of Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia. A total of 495 children aged 5-10 years old from all the six primary schools in Lithgow were approached to participate in a cross-sectional survey prior to implementation of water fluoridation in 2014. Following parental consent, children were clinically examined for caries in their primary teeth, and parents were requested to complete a questionnaire on previous fluoride exposure, diet and relevant socio-demographic characteristics that influence oral health. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the independent risk factors of primary dentition caries. Overall, 51 percent of children had dental caries in one or more teeth. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, child's age (Adjusted Odd's Ratio (AOR) = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.14-1.49) and mother's extraction history (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.40-3.00) were significantly associated with caries experience in the child's primary teeth. In addition, each serve of chocolate consumption was associated with 52 percent higher odds (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.19-1.93) of primary dentition caries.

  16. Cost and affordability of healthy food in rural South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P R; Coveney, J; Verity, F; Carter, P; Schilling, M

    2012-01-01

    As in many other countries, Australian consumers have recently had to accommodate increases in costs of basic food, and during the financial year 2007-2008 overall food prices rose by nearly 4%. Food costs are mediating factors in food choice, especially for low-income groups, where food security is often tenuous. There are reports that rural populations may have higher levels of food insecurity, although the evidence is often contradictory. To assess cost and affordability of food in rural areas this study used the Healthy Food Basket (HFB) methodology, which has been applied in a number of settings. The HFBs were costed at supermarkets and stores in different locations with different degrees of rurality. Compared with metropolitan areas, healthy food is more expensive in rural areas; costs are even higher in more remote areas. The overall affordability of HFB in rural areas was not significantly different from metro areas. The main difference concerned low socio-economic status (SES) groups, where the proportion of household income spent on the HFB was three times that of higher SES groups. The unaffordability of healthy food, or 'food stress' in low SES groups is a concern, especially when this group carries the greatest burden of diet-related disease. Findings suggest that there is a need to consider both rurality and SES when developing policy responses to decrease the cost and increase the affordability of healthy foods in rural and remote areas.

  17. South Australia, uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The Report sets out the salient data relating to the establishment of a uranium processing centre at Redcliff in South Australia. It is conceived as a major development project for the Commonwealth, the South Australian Government and Australian Industry comprising the refining and enrichment of uranium produced from Australian mines. Using the data currently available in respect of markets, demand, technology and possible financial return from overseas sales, the project could be initiated immediately with hexafluoride production, followed rapidly in stages by enrichment production using the centrifuge process. A conceptual development plan is presented, involving a growth pattern that would be closely synchronised with the mining and production of yellowcake. The proposed development is presented in the form of an eight-and-half-year programme. Costs in this Report are based on 1975 values, unless otherwise stated. (Author)

  18. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Internet use in rural and remote Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Gary G; Coble-Neal, Grant

    2003-01-01

    Australian telecommunications universal service policy has recently been extended to include the provision of basic data services within a contestable universal service framework. In view of this fundamental policy change,infor mation about the demand for telecommunication services is critical if competition is to deliver intended outcomes. This analysis examines the demand for Internet in rural and remote communities in Western Australia. Toward this end econometric Internet subscription ...

  20. Factors Associated with Dental Caries in Primary Dentition in a Non-Fluoridated Rural Community of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Arora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries persists as one of the most prevalent chronic diseases among children worldwide. This study aims to determine factors that influence dental caries in primary dentition among primary school children residing in the rural non-fluoridated community of Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia. A total of 495 children aged 5–10 years old from all the six primary schools in Lithgow were approached to participate in a cross-sectional survey prior to implementation of water fluoridation in 2014. Following parental consent, children were clinically examined for caries in their primary teeth, and parents were requested to complete a questionnaire on previous fluoride exposure, diet and relevant socio-demographic characteristics that influence oral health. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the independent risk factors of primary dentition caries. Overall, 51 percent of children had dental caries in one or more teeth. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, child’s age (Adjusted Odd’s Ratio (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.14–1.49 and mother’s extraction history (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.40–3.00 were significantly associated with caries experience in the child’s primary teeth. In addition, each serve of chocolate consumption was associated with 52 percent higher odds (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.19–1.93 of primary dentition caries.

  1. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  2. It's more than just luck: A qualitative exploration of breastfeeding in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Lois; Fleet, Julie; Dove, Shona

    2017-09-21

    It's more than just luck: A qualitative exploration of breastfeeding in rural Australia PROBLEM: Despite significant public health benefits, breastfeeding for six months continues to be challenging for women. In the Mid North of South Australia, healthcare professionals were concerned that breastfeeding rates were lower than the national average and that a collaborative approach was needed to promote breastfeeding. To explore the experiences of women and health professional in the Mid North, to inform interventions to improve breastfeeding longevity. Two focus groups were conducted to examine breastfeeding experience in the region. Focus group one included nine mothers who had breastfed more than six months and focus group two consisted of ten health professionals from the Mid North. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Two overarching themes were identified; 'breastfeeding: It's more than just luck' represented the voices of the mothers and 'breastfeeding: It's everybody's business' captured the discussion between the health professionals. Women described themselves as lucky while acknowledging that their own persistence, as well as positive support was vital. Health professionals identified education and support as key foci, and a need for a holistic approach to improve breastfeeding rates. Breastfeeding should be understood as a relationship, in which broadly applied solutions do not necessarily influence longevity, particularly in rural communities. Strategies should also reflect a realistic picture of breastfeeding and safeguard against idealistic expectation of the experience. A holistic approach to improve breastfeeding rates is imperative. One of the most promising antidotes to the breastfeeding dilemma is the provision of midwifery continuity of care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The opportunities for uranium development in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, N.

    1979-07-01

    The opportunities for uranium development in South Australia are discussed. The author outlines the likely development of three known uranium deposits, shows the world energy and uranium requirements and makes some observations on uranium enrichment

  4. Energy futures, state planning policies and coal mine contests in rural New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Linda H.

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations 2015 Climate Change Conference established a framework for keeping global temperature increase “well below” two degrees Celsius through commitments by the parties to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement has implications for the energy policies of all countries, not least major coal exporters like Australia. By contrast, the government's 2015 Energy White Paper lays out the vision for the country's future as a “global energy superpower” dominated by the export of fossil fuels for decades to come. Legislative frameworks around planning, land use, mining, heritage and environment have moved in synchrony with this agenda. Rural landowners in the big coal rich geological basins of Australia are directly impacted by current government policies on energy exports and on domestic supply. This article follows the coal value chain to rural communities in New South Wales where new mines are being built, and analyses the politics of land use, natural resources and energy from the vantage point of landowner engagement with government and corporations in the policy, legislative and regulatory domains. The need for more equitable, democratic and precautionary approaches to energy policy, heritage and environmental planning and agricultural land use is highlighted. - Highlights: • Australian energy policies prioritise coal and gas exports to emerging economies. • Rural landholders are marginalised in mining law, environmental protection legislation and planning regulations. • Disputes with companies centre on control of natural resources necessary for agriculture.

  5. Is Western Australia's rural surgical workforce going to sustain the future? A quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia. Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel. Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery. Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the

  6. Does the shortage of diabetes specialists in regional and rural Australia matter? Results from Diabetes MILES-Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy; Allen, Penny; Peach, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate differences in access to services and health outcomes between people living with Type 1 (T1DM) and Type 2 (T2DM) diabetes in rural/regional and metropolitan areas. Methods: Diabetes MILES-Australia was a national postal/online survey of persons registered with the National...

  7. Does the shortage of diabetes specialists in regional and rural Australia matter? : Results from Diabetes MILES-Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skinner, T.; Allen, P.; Peach, E.; Browne, J.L.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, J.; Dunbar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate differences in access to services and health outcomes between people living with Type 1 (T1DM) and Type 2 (T2DM) diabetes in rural/regional and metropolitan areas. Methods Diabetes MILES—Australia was a national postal/online survey of persons registered with the National Diabetes

  8. Fishery Development and Exploitation in South East Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Novaglio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the full extent of past ecological changes in human-influenced marine systems is needed to inform present management policies, but is often hampered by the scarcity of information about exploitation practices and population status over the entire history of fishing. The history of commercial fishing in South East Australia is relatively recent and thus easier to document. Our aim is to reconstruct such history and to use this information to understand general patterns and consequences of fishing exploitation. Intense exploitation of marine resources arrived in South East Australia with European colonization in the early 1800s, and unregulated sealing, whaling and oyster dredging resulted in the first documented significant impact on local marine populations. Exploitation extended to demersal resources in 1915 when the trawl fishery developed. Between the early 1800s and the 1980s, some of the exploited stocks collapsed, but fishing moved further offshore and in deeper waters as technology improved and new resources became available or were discovered. This phase of fisheries expansion masked the unsustainable nature of some fishing industries, such as trawling and whaling, and postponed the need for management regulations. From the 1990s onward, an increasing awareness of the depleted nature of some fisheries led to the establishment of management strategies aiming at a more sustainable exploitation of target stocks and, from the mid-2000s onwards, management strategies were revised and improved to better address the effect of fishing on multiple components of marine ecosystems. This led to the recovery of some depleted populations and to increased habitat protection. The relatively short history of fishing exploitation and the small scale of the fishing industry in South East Australia played a significant role in limiting the magnitude of fishing impacts on local populations and helped to achieve recoveries when fisheries

  9. What lies beneath: Rural landholder interpretation of the risks of aquifer exploitation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendham, Emily; Curtis, Allan

    2014-04-01

    Risks associated with the management of groundwater in farming landscapes are at the forefront of public discourse in Australia and North America. There has been very little social research examining rural landholder attitudes to groundwater use and management. This is an important gap given the critical role social acceptability plays in resource access decisions, the important role groundwater plays in sustaining livelihoods, and the vital role it plays in maintaining groundwater dependent ecosystems. This paper attempts to address that gap by exploring how rural landholders interpret risks associated with groundwater use for irrigated agriculture. We do that by using a case study from south eastern Australia where farmers' livelihoods are increasingly dependent on groundwater. We draw upon spatially referenced survey data to investigate the general extent and nature of concern about risk associated with pumping groundwater. We also explore the factors influencing risk interpretation, including occupational identity and proximity to the aquifer. Survey results suggest that while there is concern about pumping groundwater for irrigated agriculture in the Wimmera region, there is also considerable confidence that negative outcomes can be avoided. The dimension of risk of most concern to respondents was the possibility that the benefits of pumping groundwater would not be shared equitably. Those reporting lower concern about the risks of groundwater pumping were more likely to own properties located above the aquifer, to exhibit a strong business orientation including prioritising economic values compared to environmental values, and to express attitudes indicating they thought private property rights should be protected. A substantial proportion of survey respondents indicated they were 'Unsure' on all the risk items in the survey. It seems the future social acceptability of groundwater exploitation in the Wimmera region will depend on the extent that those 'Unsure

  10. Conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia pecorum in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Oliver; Johnson, Lynley; Woolford, Lucy; Boardman, Wayne; Polkinghorne, Adam; McLelland, David

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chlamydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR.

  11. The Gendered Dimensions of Bushfire in Changing Rural Landscapes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Christine; Gill, Nicholas; Head, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences in awareness, preparedness and attitudes towards bushfire amongst landholders in rural landscapes affected by amenity-led in-migration in southeast Australia. It considers the potential of conceptualising bushfire not as a gender-neutral natural phenomenon but as an important means by which traditional gender…

  12. Vertical integration of medical education: Riverland experience, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D R; Worley, P S; Mugford, B; Stagg, P

    2004-01-01

    Vertical integration of medical education is currently a prominent international topic, resulting from recent strategic initiatives to improve medical education and service delivery in areas of poorly met medical need. In this article, vertical integration of medical education is defined as 'a grouping of curricular content and delivery mechanisms, traversing the traditional boundaries of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, with the intent of enhancing the transfer of knowledge and skills between those involved in the learning-teaching process'. Educators closely involved with vertically integrated teaching in the Riverland of South Australia present an analytical description of the educational dynamics of this system. From this analysis, five elements are identified which underpin the process of successful vertical integration: (1) raised educational stakes; (2) local ownership; (3) broad university role; (4) longer attachments; and (5) shared workforce vision. Given the benefits to the Riverland medical education programs described in this paper, it is not surprising that vertical integration of medical education is a popular goal in many rural regions throughout the world. Although different contexts will result in different functional arrangements, it could be argued that the five principles outlined in this article can be applied in any region.

  13. Mental health academics in rural and remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, David; Little, Fiona; Bennett-Levy, James; Isaacs, Anton N; Bridgman, Heather; Lutkin, Sarah J; Carey, Timothy A; Schlicht, Kate G; McCabe-Gusta, Zita P; Martin, Elizabeth; Martinez, Lee A

    2016-01-01

    The significant impact of mental ill health in rural and remote Australia has been well documented. Included among innovative approaches undertaken to address this issue has been the Mental Health Academic (MHA) project, established in 2007. Funded by the Australian Government (Department of Health), this project was established as a component of the University Departments of Rural Health (UDRH) program. All 11 UDRHs appointed an MHA. Although widely geographically dispersed, the MHAs have collaborated in various ways. The MHA project encompasses a range of activities addressing four key performance indicators. These activities, undertaken in rural and remote Australia, aimed to increase access to mental health services, promote awareness of mental health issues, support students undertaking mental health training and improve health professionals' capacity to recognise and address mental health issues. MHAs were strategically placed within the UDRHs across the country, ensuring an established academic base for the MHAs' work was available immediately. Close association with each local rural community was recognised as important. For most MHAs this was facilitated by having an established clinical role in their local community and actively engaging with the community in which they worked. In common with other rural health initiatives, some difficulties were experienced in the recruitment of suitable MHAs, especially in more remote locations. The genesis of this article was a national meeting of the MHAs in 2014, to identify and map the different types of activities MHAs had undertaken in their regions. These activities were analysed and categorised by the MHAs. These categories have been used as a guiding framework for this article. The challenge to increase community access to mental health services was addressed by (i) initiatives to address specific access barriers, (ii) supporting recruitment and retention of rural mental health staff, (iii) developing the

  14. Issues affecting therapist workforce and service delivery in the disability sector in rural and remote New South Wales, Australia: perspectives of policy-makers, managers and senior therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Craig; Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Gallego, Gisselle; Griffiths, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The disability sector encompasses a broad range of conditions and needs, including children and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities, people with acquired disabilities, and irreversible physical injuries. Allied health professionals (therapists), in the disability sector, work within government and funded or charitable non-government agencies, schools, communities, and private practice. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study of therapist workforce and service delivery in the disability sector in rural and remote New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The aim was to investigate issues of importance to policy-makers, managers and therapists providing services to people with disabilities in rural and remote areas. The project gathered information via semi-structured interviews with individuals and small groups. Head office and regional office policy-makers, along with managers and senior therapists in western NSW were invited to participate. Participants included 12 policy-makers, 28 managers and 10 senior therapists from NSW government agencies and non-government organisations (NGOs) involved in providing services and support to people with disabilities in the region. Information was synthesised prior to using constant comparative analysis within and across data sets to identify issues. Five broad themes resonated across participants' roles, locations and service settings: (1) challenges to implementing policy in rural and remote NSW; (2) the impact of geographic distribution of workforce and clients; (3) workforce issues - recruitment, support, workloads, retention; (4) equity and access issues for rural clients; and (5) the important role of the NGO sector in rural service delivery and support. Although commitment to providing best practice services was universal, policy-related information transfer between organisations and employees was inconsistent. Participants raised some workforce and service delivery issues that are similar to

  15. The important role of springs in South Africa's rural water supply: The case study of two rural communities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkuna, Z

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available rural communities are geographically located in hard to reach areas due to their dispersed nature and bad terrain. In South Africa, these conditions have made it particularly expensive and difficult for water service providers to effect services to rural...

  16. The safety of a nuclear industry in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    On 19 March 2015, the South Australian Government established a Royal Commission to consider and analyse the potential of South Australia to further participate in the nuclear fuel cycle, whether through the expansion of the current level of exploration, extraction and milling of uranium (the only parts of the nuclear power industry that are currently allowed in Australia) or by undertaking the conversion and enrichment of materials for the nuclear fuel cycle, the generation of electricity from nuclear fuels and/or the management, storage and disposal of nuclear wastes. This provides a timely opportunity to review the performance of the nuclear industry throughout the world, particularly in the safety of electricity generation and waste management, showing that - despite misconceptions about radiological risks and the significance of the accidents that have occurred - the record of this industry is exceptionally good. The Federal and South Australian State governments both have the policy that uranium mining is acceptable providing it is properly regulated. The success of this policy suggests that it is exactly the policy that should be adopted for all other parts of the nuclear fuel cycle, including the generation of electricity.

  17. A review of characteristics and outcomes of Australia's undergraduate medical education rural immersion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda G; McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah; Chambers, Helen; Major, Laura

    2018-01-31

    A key strategy for increasing the supply of rural doctors is rurally located medical education. In 2000, Australia introduced a national policy to increase rural immersion for undergraduate medical students. This study aims to describe the characteristics and outcomes of the rural immersion programs that were implemented in Australian medical schools. Information about 19 immersion programs was sourced in 2016 via the grey and published literature. A scoping review of the published peer-reviewed studies via Ovid MEDLINE and Informit (2000-2016) and direct journal searching included studies that focused on outcomes of undergraduate rural immersion in Australian medical schools from 2000 to 2016. Programs varied widely by selection criteria and program design, offering between 1- and 6-year immersion. Based on 26 studies from 10 medical schools, rural immersion was positively associated with rural practice in the first postgraduate year (internship) and early career (first 10 years post-qualifying). Having a rural background increased the effects of rural immersion. Evidence suggested that longer duration of immersion also increases the uptake of rural work, including by metropolitan-background students, though overall there was limited evidence about the influence of different program designs. Most evidence was based on relatively weak, predominantly cross-sectional research designs and single-institution studies. Many had flaws including small sample sizes, studying internship outcomes only, inadequately controlling for confounding variables, not using metropolitan-trained controls and providing limited justification as to the postgraduate stage at which rural practice outcomes were measured. Australia's immersion programs are moderately associated with an increased rural supply of early career doctors although metropolitan-trained students contribute equal numbers to overall rural workforce capacity. More research is needed about the influence of student interest

  18. Screening mammography uptake within Australia and Scotland in rural and urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Macleod, Catriona; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Woods, Laura M; Henderson, Robert; Watson, Angus; Kyle, Richard G; Hubbard, Gill; Mullen, Russell; Atherton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that rural populations had lower uptake of screening mammography than urban populations in the Scottish and Australian setting. Scottish data are based upon information from the Scottish Breast Screening Programme Information System describing uptake among women residing within the NHS Highland Health Board area who were invited to attend for screening during the 2008 to 2010 round (N = 27,416). Australian data were drawn from the 2010 survey of the 1946-51 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (N = 9890 women). Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicated that women living in rural areas were not less likely to attend for screening mammography compared to women living in urban areas in both Scotland (OR for rural = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06-1.29) and Australia (OR for rural = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01-1.31). The absence of rural-urban differences in attendance at screening mammography demonstrates that rurality is not necessarily an insurmountable barrier to screening mammography.

  19. National viewpoints: Views on strengthened safeguards from Australia, Cuba and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, I.; Saburido, E.F.; Mxakato-Diseko, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents views of Australia, Cuba and South Africa concerned with strengthened safeguards regime. Australia has been involved with the IAEA safeguards system since the first plenary meeting of the Conference on the IAEA Statute in 1956, joined the NPT in 1973 and began concluding bilateral safeguards agreements in 1977. Australia has the greatest respect for the IAEA coordinated efforts started in 1998 to strengthen and integrate the safeguards system. Cuba has always attached special importance to nuclear safeguards activities, recognizing their high priority as well as the important role they have in respect to international disarmament and security. South Africa supports the efforts in strengthening the safeguards activities and remains hopeful that the international community will address the challenges posed by the Trilateral Initiative between Russian federation, USA and IAEA in a mature and cooperative way

  20. Bayesian Source Attribution of Salmonellosis in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, K; Fearnley, E; Hocking, H; Raupach, J; Veitch, M; Ford, L; Kirk, M D

    2016-03-01

    Salmonellosis is a significant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, and rates of illness have increased over recent years. We adopt a Bayesian source attribution model to estimate the contribution of different animal reservoirs to illness due to Salmonella spp. in South Australia between 2000 and 2010, together with 95% credible intervals (CrI). We excluded known travel associated cases and those of rare subtypes (fewer than 20 human cases or fewer than 10 isolates from included sources over the 11-year period), and the remaining 76% of cases were classified as sporadic or outbreak associated. Source-related parameters were included to allow for different handling and consumption practices. We attributed 35% (95% CrI: 20-49) of sporadic cases to chicken meat and 37% (95% CrI: 23-53) of sporadic cases to eggs. Of outbreak-related cases, 33% (95% CrI: 20-62) were attributed to chicken meat and 59% (95% CrI: 29-75) to eggs. A comparison of alternative model assumptions indicated that biases due to possible clustering of samples from sources had relatively minor effects on these estimates. Analysis of source-related parameters showed higher risk of illness from contaminated eggs than from contaminated chicken meat, suggesting that consumption and handling practices potentially play a bigger role in illness due to eggs, considering low Salmonella prevalence on eggs. Our results strengthen the evidence that eggs and chicken meat are important vehicles for salmonellosis in South Australia. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  2. Areas of rural reservation in Bolivar's South: a proposal of rural territorial reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Lopez, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The article describes by means of a methodological process and inside an analysis mark that picks up aspects tried from the perspective of agrarian economy and the human geography, the effects of the public politics of the rural reservations in Bolivar's south, as well as its advances and challenges in the territorial reorganization of the territory. In this context, the document evidences the process of the new territorial configurations, in Bolivar's south, result of a social construction exercised by its own rural communities. In a same way the document presents a brief analysis of the agrarian structure of the rural reservations, and it illustrates the new underlying classification, product of the territorial control that develop the illegal armed groups at the moment. The advances, difficulties and challenges of the rural reservations, are the central axis of the present text, since the figure is presents as an interesting project of public politics, not alone of colonization and of agrarian reformation, but of territorial rural ordination, stiller, when in the country it has not been possible to approve an organic law of territorial classification that involves in an integral way the territorial aspects with the agrarian ones, going outside of the conception of the agrarian things of the strictly agricultural thing

  3. A systematic review of published interventions for primary and secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease (IHD in rural populations of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura V. Alston

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians are known to experience a higher burden of ischaemic heart disease (IHD than their metropolitan counterparts and the reasons for this appear to be highly complex and not well understood. It is not clear what interventions and prevention efforts have occurred specifically in rural Australia in terms of IHD. A summary of this evidence could have implications for future action and research in improving the health of rural communities. The aim of this study was to review all published interventions conducted in rural Australia that were aimed at the primary and/or secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease (IHD in adults. Methods Systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature published between January 1990 and December 2015. Search terms were derived from four major topics: (1 rural; (2 ischaemic heart disease; (3 Australia and; (4 intervention/prevention. Terms were adapted for six databases and three independent researchers screened results. Studies were included if the published work described an intervention focussed on the prevention or reduction of IHD or risk factors, specifically in a rural population of Australia, with outcomes specific to participants including, but not limited to, changes in diet, exercise, cholesterol or blood pressure levels. Results Of 791 papers identified in the search, seven studies met the inclusion criteria, and one further study was retrieved from searching reference lists of screened abstracts. Typically, excluded studies focused on cardiovascular diseases without specific reference to IHD, or presented intervention results without stratification by rurality. Larger trials that included metropolitan residents without stratification were excluded due to differences in the specific needs, characteristics and health service access challenges of rural populations. Six interventions were primary prevention studies, one was secondary prevention only and one included both

  4. Problems with provision: barriers to drinking water quality and public health in rural Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Jessica J; Willis, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential to human life and wellbeing, and is a key public health issue. However, many communities in rural and regional parts of Australia are unable to access drinking water that meets national standards for protecting human health. The aim of this research was to identify the key issues in and barriers to the provision and management of safe drinking water in rural Tasmania, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key local government employees and public health officials responsible for management of drinking water in rural Tasmania. Participants were asked about their core public health duties, regulatory responsibilities, perceptions and management of risk, as well as the key barriers that may be affecting the provision of safe drinking water. This research highlights the effect of rural locality on management and safety of fresh water in protecting public health. The key issues contributing to problems with drinking water provision and quality identified by participants included: poor and inadequate water supply infrastructure; lack of resources and staffing; inadequate catchment monitoring; and the effect of competing land uses, such as forestry, on water supply quality. This research raises issues of inequity in the provision of safe drinking water in rural communities. It highlights not only the increasing need for greater funding by state and commonwealth government for basic services such as drinking water, but also the importance of an holistic and integrated approach to managing drinking water resources in rural Tasmania.

  5. Leading the Small Rural School in Iceland and Australia: Building Leadership Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Siguräardóttir, Sigríäur Margrét; Faulkner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on a set of Australian case studies exploring the impact of Place on the work of principals and of the importance of Place in the preparation and development of principals. The project compares the ways that principals in Iceland and Australia build leadership capacity in small rural schools. Leaders of small schools in both…

  6. Retinal photography screening programs to prevent vision loss from diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban Australia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Robyn J; Svoboda, Jean; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Jackson, A Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh R

    2015-02-01

    This review assessed the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening programs, using retinal photography in Australian urban and rural settings, and considered implications for public health strategy and policy. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase for studies published between 1 January 1996 and the 30 June 2013 was undertaken. Key search terms were "diabetic retinopathy," "screening," "retinal photography" and "Australia." Twelve peer-reviewed publications were identified. The 14 DR screening programs identified from the 12 publications were successfully undertaken in urban, rural and remote communities across Australia. Locations included a pathology collection center, and Indigenous primary health care and Aboriginal community controlled organizations. Each intervention using retinal photography was highly effective at increasing the number of people who underwent screening for DR. The review identified that prior to commencement of the screening programs a median of 48% (range 16-85%) of those screened had not undergone a retinal examination within the recommended time frame (every year for Indigenous people and every 2 years for non-Indigenous people in Australia). A median of 16% (range 0-45%) of study participants had evidence of DR. This review has shown there have been many pilot and demonstration projects in rural and urban Australia that confirm the effectiveness of retinal photography-based screening for DR.

  7. The glue that holds the community together? Sport and sustainability in rural Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the author's research in northwest Victoria, Australia, this essay examines the forms of capital that are created in and through rural sport as well as the processes of social inclusion and exclusion that structure access to social networks and to the resources these networks contain. In

  8. Evidence to service gap: cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention in rural and remote Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sandra; Mills, Belynda; McRae, Shelley; Thompson, Sandra

    2018-01-30

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, has similar incidence in metropolitan and rural areas but poorer cardiovascular outcomes for residents living in rural and remote Australia. Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) is an evidence-based intervention that helps reduce subsequent cardiovascular events and rehospitalisation. Unfortunately CR attendance rates are as low as 10-30% with rural/remote populations under-represented. This in-depth assessment investigated the provision of CR and secondary prevention services in Western Australia (WA) with a focus on rural and remote populations. CR and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services were identified through the Directory of Western Australian Cardiac Rehabilitation and Secondary Prevention Services 2012. Structured interviews with CR coordinators included questions specific to program delivery, content, referral and attendance. Of the 38 CR services identified, 23 (61%) were located in rural (n = 11, 29%) and remote (n = 12, 32%) regions. Interviews with coordinators from 34 CR services (10 rural, 12 remote, 12 metropolitan) found 77% of rural/remote services were hospital-based, with no service providing a comprehensive home-based or alternative method of program delivery. The majority of rural (60%) and remote (80%) services provided CR through chronic condition exercise programs compared with 17% of metropolitan services; only 27% of rural/remote programs provided education classes. Rural/remote coordinators were overwhelmingly physiotherapists, and only 50% of rural and 33% of remote programs had face-to-face access to multidisciplinary support. Patient referral and attendance rates differed greatly across WA and referrals to rural/remote services generally numbered less than 5 per month. Program evaluation was reported by 33% of rural/remote coordinators. Geography, population density and service availability limits patient access to CR services in rural/remote WA. Current

  9. Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy in South Australia: a case for 'centralized decentralization'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chen Gang; Khurana, Sanjeev; Couper, Richard; Ford, Andrew W D

    2015-11-01

    Recent follow-up studies have demonstrated significant improvement in overall survival as well as survival with native liver following geographic centralization of services to three centres in the UK. However, this model has not been replicated in countries with relatively low population density such as Australia and Canada. Retrospective evaluation of all patients born with biliary atresia (BA) in South Australia from 1989 to 2010 was performed. Thirty-one patients with BA were discovered. Two patients were excluded because the initial Kasai procedure (KP) was performed interstate. Outcome parameters measured were (i) clearance of jaundice (bilirubin of less than 20 μmol/L, by 6 months); (ii) survival with native liver; and (iii) overall survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted for both survival with native liver and overall survival. The incidence of BA in South Australia between 1989 and 2010 was 7.48 per 100,000 live births. Following KP, clearance of jaundice was achieved in 42.9% of patients. Five-year actuarial survival with native liver was 55.2%, and overall 5-year actuarial survival was 89.3%. The results of KP performed at Women's and Children's Hospital from 1989 to 2010 can be considered comparable with international benchmarks. Based on these results, we propose the creation of a 'centralized' pool of surgeons in Australia to help continue providing 'decentralized' care of BA. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Lack of Men, Flame Throwers and Rabbit Drives: Student Life in Australia's First Rural Teachers College 1945-1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This article examines student life in an Australian rural teachers college. The paper is informed by studies on university student life and extends these to Australia's first rural teachers college in the period 1945-1955. It explores the diversity of students' experiences in a small college with predominately female students gradually…

  11. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  12. Schoolchildren affected by HIV in rural South Africa: Schools as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores how schoolchildren made vulnerable due to HIV and AIDS might cope and even thrive in a rural school environment in South Africa. I argue that ... Keywords: appreciative inquiry, assets, coping, PhotoVoice, psychosocial aspects, research methods, rural settings, visual participatory methods

  13. The South Australia Health Chronic Disease Self-Management Internet Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L.; Plant, Kathryn; Laurent, Diana D.; Kelly, Pauline; Rowe, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an online chronic disease self-management program for South Australia residents. Method: Data were collected online at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic disease self-management program offered online. The authors measured eight health status measures,…

  14. Atomic test site (south Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godman, N.A.; Cousins, Jim; Hamilton, Archie.

    1993-01-01

    The debate, which lasted about half an hour, is reported verbatin. It was prompted by the campaign by the Maralinga people of South Australia to have their traditional lands restored to them. Between 1953 and 1957 the United Kingdom government carried out of atomic tests and several hundred minor trials on the lands. A clean-up programme had taken place in 1967 but further decontamination was needed before the area is safe for traditional aboriginal life and culture. A small area will remain contaminated with plutonium for thousands of years. The cost and who would pay, the Australian or UK government was being negotiated. The UK government's position was that the site is remote, the health risk is slight and the clean-up operation of 1967 was acknowledged as satisfactory by the Australian government. (UK)

  15. STRATEGIC MODEL FOR ATTENUATING RURAL INEQUITIES IN SOUTH-MUNTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA BÂLDAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carrying out the paper: “Strategic model for attenuating rural inequities in South-Muntenia Region”, I had like primary goals the accomplishment of two kinds of objectives: general objectives and specific objectives. For the general objectives, I followed: developing the approach theoretical mode for combating rural inequities; the development of strategic plans for approaching the rural inequities combat and identifying strategic socio-economic measures dedicated for promoting necessary measures for combating social inequities. And the specific objectives had like goals the SWOT analysis and the development of strategic plans in local profile, based on clusters. The analysis of rural area in South-Muntenia Region has been made at the level of local administrative-territorial units, the smallest territorial level from which is collecting and after the statistic information is published. Utilizing this kind of territorial level is a positive premise for obtaining results with a high accurate degree.

  16. Rural health service managers' perspectives on preparing rural health services for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rachael; McGirr, Joe

    2018-02-01

    To determine health service managers' (HSMs) recommendations on strengthening the health service response to climate change. Self-administered survey in paper or electronic format. Rural south-west of New South Wales. Health service managers working in rural remote metropolitan areas 3-7. Proportion of respondents identifying preferred strategies for preparation of rural health services for climate change. There were 43 participants (53% response rate). Most respondents agreed that there is scepticism regarding climate change among health professionals (70%, n = 30) and community members (72%, n = 31). Over 90% thought that climate change would impact the health of rural populations in the future with regard to heat-related illnesses, mental health, skin cancer and water security. Health professionals and government were identified as having key leadership roles on climate change and health in rural communities. Over 90% of the respondents believed that staff and community in local health districts (LHDs) should be educated about the health impacts of climate change. Public health education facilitated by State or Federal Government was the preferred method of educating community members, and education facilitated by the LHD was the preferred method for educating health professionals. Health service managers hold important health leadership roles within rural communities and their health services. The study highlights the scepticism towards climate change among health professionals and community members in rural Australia. It identifies the important role of rural health services in education and advocacy on the health impacts of climate change and identifies recommended methods of public health education for community members and health professionals. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  17. STROKE IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA - CONTRIBUTING TO THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in a rural South African population. Design. ... part of a community-based prospective study examining the burden of disease, in ... to support district health development. .... Community-based work looking at ...

  18. Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The need to obtain baseline information on rural poultry with respect to their population and the production potentials of the indigenous chicken under the village conditions in Ondo Area formed ...

  19. The Internet & Regional Australia: How Rural Communities Can Address the Impact of the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rosie

    In the last decade, a technological revolution has touched all aspects of business and society in Australia, the Western world, and to a lesser extent, the developing world. This revolution has occurred against a backdrop of long-term fundamental changes in rural Australian communities. The decline in traditional agriculture's terms of trade and…

  20. Failure of rural schemes in South Africa to provide potable water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mackintosh, G

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available rural areas is substandard. This paper describes the results of sampling drinking water supplies in rural communities in the Western and Eastern Cape, South Africa. The majority of samples collected failed microbial drinking water quality standards...

  1. A review of the availability and cost effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management interventions in rural Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Michelle E; Spiliopoulos, Nicolaos; Collins, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive disease, which consumes a significant proportion of the Australian and New Zealand healthcare budget. Studies have shown that people living with COPD outside of urban areas have higher rates of hospitalisations. Two international reviews have demonstrated reduced hospital admissions and length of stay in people with COPD who participate in an integrated disease management program. However, most studies included in these reviews are in urban settings. The purpose of this review is to explore the type and cost-effectiveness of COPD management interventions located in rural or remote settings of Australia and New Zealand in order to inform planning and ongoing service development in the authors' local health district. Six databases and Google scholar were searched to find literature relating to the availability and cost-effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for the management of COPD in rural and remote areas of Australia and New Zealand. Two studies were found that met the inclusion criteria. Both studies had small sample sizes, were single intervention studies and showed a positive influence on variables such as number of hospital admissions and length of stay at 12 months post-intervention. However, because of the limited number of studies and the lack of homogeneity of interventions, no conclusions regarding availability and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions in rural and remote areas of Australia and New Zealand could be drawn. Limited literature exists to inform planning and development of services for people with COPD living in rural and remote areas of Australia and New Zealand. Approximately 50% of pulmonary rehabilitation programs are situated in rural and remote locations in Australia and New Zealand. Outcomes from existing programs need to be reported in a consistent and coordinated manner to allow evaluation of health resource utilisation.

  2. The management of diabetes among the rural poor in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of diabetes among the rural poor in South Africa. ... have been found to lead to a diet that has very high carbohydrate, high in saturated fatty acids, ... to facilitate good self-management of diabetes among the rural people.

  3. Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia.

  4. Decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and southeast Australia surface air temperature in austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Sen; Mao, Jiangyu; Dong, Di; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Austral summer (December-February) surface air temperature over southeast Australia (SEA) is found to be remotely influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Atlantic at decadal time scales. In austral summer, warm SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic induce concurrent above-normal surface air temperature over SEA. This decadal-scale teleconnection occurs through the eastward propagating South Atlantic-Australia (SAA) wave train triggered by SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic. The excitation of the SAA wave train is verified by forcing experiments based on both linear barotropic and baroclinic models, propagation pathway and spatial scale of the observed SAA wave train are further explained by the Rossby wave ray tracing analysis in non-uniform basic flow. The SAA wave train forced by southwest South Atlantic warming is characterized by an anomalous anticyclone off the eastern coast of the Australia. Temperature diagnostic analyses based on the thermodynamic equation suggest anomalous northerly flows on western flank of this anticyclone can induce low-level warm advection anomaly over SEA, which thus lead to the warming of surface air temperature there. Finally, SST-forced atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments also demonstrate that SST forcing in the South Atlantic is associated with the SAA teleconnection wave train in austral summer, this wave train then modulate surface air temperature over SEA on decadal timescales. Hence, observations combined with numerical simulations consistently demonstrate the decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and summertime surface air temperature over SEA.

  5. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  6. Identifying maternity services in public hospitals in rural and remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jo; Pilcher, Jennifer M; Donoghue, Deborah A; Rolfe, Margaret; Kildea, Sue V; Kruske, Sue; Oats, Jeremy J N; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Barclay, Lesley M

    2014-06-01

    This paper articulates the importance of accurately identifying maternity services. It describes the process and challenges of identifying the number, level and networks of rural and remote maternity services in public hospitals serving communities of between 1000 and 25000 people across Australia, and presents the findings of this process. Health departments and the national government's websites, along with lists of public hospitals, were used to identify all rural and remote Australian public hospitals offering maternity services in small towns. State perinatal reports were reviewed to establish numbers of births by hospital. The level of maternity services and networks of hospitals within which services functioned were determined via discussion with senior jurisdictional representatives. In all, 198 rural and remote public hospitals offering maternity services were identified. There were challenges in sourcing information on maternity services to generate an accurate national picture. The nature of information about maternity services held centrally by jurisdictions varied, and different frameworks were used to describe minimum requirements for service levels. Service networks appeared to be based on a combination of individual links, geography and transport infrastructure. The lack of readily available centralised and comparable information on rural and remote maternity services has implications for policy review and development, equity, safety and quality, network development and planning. Accountability for services and capacity to identify problems is also compromised.

  7. Bone allograft banking in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D G; Oakeshott, R D

    1995-12-01

    The South Australian Bone Bank had expanded to meet an increased demand for allograft bone. During a 5 year period from 1988 to 1992, 2361 allografts were harvested from 2146 living donors and 30 cadaveric donors. The allografts were screened by contemporary banking techniques which include a social history, donor serum tests for HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis B and C, syphilis serology, graft microbiology and histology. Grafts were irradiated with 25 kGy. The majority of grafts were used for arthroplasty or spinal surgery and 99 were used for tumour reconstruction. Of the donated grafts 336 were rejected by the bank. One donor was HIV-positive and two had false positive screens. There were seven donors with positive serology for hepatitis B, eight for hepatitis C and nine for syphilis. Twenty-seven grafts had positive cultures. Bone transplantation is the most frequent non-haematogenous allograft in South Australia and probably nationally. The low incidence of infectious viral disease in the donor population combined with an aggressive discard policy has ensured relative safety of the grafts. The frequency of graft rejection was similar to other bone banks but the incidence of HIV was lower.

  8. Reasons and Motivations of School Leaders Who Apply for Rural, Regional and Remote Locations in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, R. John; Drummond, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there are significant difficulties associated with the attraction and retention of appropriately qualified, high quality teachers and educational leaders (e.g., principals) for rural, regional and remote locations in Australia. Further, educational leadership in these areas carries complex demands, and educational leaders…

  9. Rural outreach by specialist doctors in Australia: a national cross-sectional study of supply and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda G; Joyce, Catherine M; McGrail, Matthew R

    2014-09-04

    Outreach has been endorsed as an important global strategy to promote universal access to health care but it depends on health workers who are willing to travel. In Australia, rural outreach is commonly provided by specialist doctors who periodically visit the same community over time. However information about the level of participation and the distribution of these services nationally is limited. This paper outlines the proportion of Australian specialist doctors who participate in rural outreach, describes their characteristics and assesses how these characteristics influence remote outreach provision. We used data from the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey, collected between June and November 2008. Weighted logistic regression analyses examined the effect of covariates: sex, age, specialist residential location, rural background, practice arrangements and specialist group on rural outreach. A separate logistic regression analysis studied the effect of covariates on remote outreach compared with other rural outreach. Of 4,596 specialist doctors, 19% (n = 909) provided outreach; of which, 16% (n = 149) provided remote outreach. Most (75%) outreach providers were metropolitan specialists. In multivariate analysis, outreach was associated with being male (OR 1.38, 1.12 to 1.69), having a rural residence (both inner regional: OR 2.07, 1.68 to 2.54; and outer regional/remote: OR 3.40, 2.38 to 4.87) and working in private consulting rooms (OR 1.24, 1.01 to 1.53). Remote outreach was associated with increasing 5-year age (OR1.17, 1.05 to 1.31) and residing in an outer regional/remote location (OR 10.84, 5.82 to 20.19). Specialists based in inner regional areas were less likely than metropolitan-based specialists to provide remote outreach (OR 0.35, 0.17 to 0.70). There is a healthy level of interest in rural outreach work, but remote outreach is less common. Whilst most providers are metropolitan-based, rural doctors are more

  10. Water Poverty and Rural Development: Evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matshe, Innocent; Moyo-Maposa, Sibonginkosi; Zikhali, Precious

    2013-01-01

    Using household data from the 2009 General Household Survey, this paper examines the role of natural resource scarcity in rural development in South Africa, with a particular focus on water scarcity. It seeks to examine whether there is a direct link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use, ...

  11. The distribution of maternity services across rural and remote Australia: does it reflect population need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Margaret I; Donoghue, Deborah Anne; Longman, Jo M; Pilcher, Jennifer; Kildea, Sue; Kruske, Sue; Kornelsen, Jude; Grzybowski, Stefan; Barclay, Lesley; Morgan, Geoffrey Gerard

    2017-02-23

    Australia has a universal health care system and a comprehensive safety net. Despite this, outcomes for Australians living in rural and remote areas are worse than those living in cities. This study will examine the current state of equity of access to birthing services for women living in small communities in rural and remote Australia from a population perspective and investigates whether services are distributed according to need. Health facilities in Australia were identified and a service catchment was determined around each using a one-hour road travel time from that facility. Catchment exclusions: metropolitan areas, populations above 25,000 or below 1,000, and a non-birthing facility within the catchment of one with birthing. Catchments were attributed with population-based characteristics representing need: population size, births, demographic factors, socio-economic status, and a proxy for isolation - the time to the nearest facility providing a caesarean section (C-section). Facilities were dichotomised by service level - those providing birthing services (birthing) or not (no birthing). Birthing services were then divided by C-section provision (C-section vs no C-section birthing). Analysis used two-stage univariable and multivariable logistic regression. There were 259 health facilities identified after exclusions. Comparing services with birthing to no birthing, a population is more likely to have a birthing service if they have more births, (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 1.50 for every 10 births, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.33-1.69]), and a service offering C-sections 1 to 2 h drive away (aOR: 28.7, 95% CI [5.59-148]). Comparing the birthing services categorised by C-section vs no C-section, the likelihood of a facility having a C-section was again positively associated with increasing catchment births and with travel time to another service offering C-sections. Both models demonstrated significant associations with jurisdiction but not socio

  12. Prevention and surveillance of public health risks during extended mass gatherings in rural areas: the experience of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, B G; Massey, P D; Durrheim, D N; Byrnes, T; MacIntyre, C R

    2013-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the public health response to the Tamworth Country Music Festival, an annual extended mass gathering in rural New South Wales, Australia; and to propose a framework for responding to similar rural mass gatherings. Process evaluation by direct observation, archival analysis and focus group discussion. The various components of the public health response to the 2011 Tamworth Country Music Festival were actively recorded. An archival review of documentation from 2007 to 2010 was performed to provide context. A focus group was also conducted to discuss the evolution of the public health response and the consequences of public health involvement. Public health risks increased with increasing duration of the rural mass gathering. Major events held within the rural mass gathering further strained resources. The prevention, preparedness, response and recovery principles provided a useful framework for public health actions. Particular risks included inadequately trained food preparation volunteers functioning in poorly equipped temporary facilities, heat-related ailments and arboviral disease. Extended mass gatherings in rural areas pose particular public health challenges; surge capacity is limited and local infrastructure may be overwhelmed in the event of an acute incident or outbreak. There is value in proactive public health surveillance and monitoring. Annual mass gatherings provide opportunities for continual systems improvement. Early multi-agency planning can identify key risks and identify opportunities for partnership. Special consideration is required for major events within mass gatherings. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Qualitative exploration of the career aspirations of rural origin health science students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Paula N; Flack, Penny S; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Reid, Stephen J Y

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence in the literature that rural background significantly encourages eventual rural practice. Given the shortage of healthcare providers in rural areas, we need to explore ways of ensuring throughput and success of rural-origin students in health sciences. It is therefore important to understand who these students are, what motivates them and the factors involved in the formation of their career choices. The aim of this study is to understand the aspirations of undergraduate health science students of rural origin with regard to their future career plans. The objectives of the study include to explore and identify the key issues facing rural-origin students with regard to their future career plans. Individual interviews were conducted with 15 health science students from two South African universities. Transcriptions were analyzed with the aid of Nvivo v8 (www.qsrinternational.com). The findings suggest health science students of rural origin studying at universities in the South African context face specific challenges related to the nature of the contrast between rural and urban life, in addition to the more generic adaptations that confront all students on entering tertiary education. In order to support rural students in their studies, academic, financial, emotional and social stressors need to be addressed. Universities should strengthen existing support structures as well as aid the development of further support that may be required.Key words: career plan, health science, rural background, South Africa.

  14. The Importance of Broadband for Socio-Economic Development: A Perspective from Rural Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced connectivity offers rural communities prospects for socio-economic development. Despite Australia’s national broadband infrastructure plans, inferior availability and quality of rural Internet connections remain persistent issues. This article examines the impact of limited connectivity on rural socio-economic opportunities, drawing from the views of twelve citizens from the Boorowa local government area in New South Wales. The available fixed wireless and satellite connections in Boorowa are slow and unreliable, and remote regions in the municipality are still without any Internet access. Participants identified four key areas in their everyday lives that are impacted by insufficient connectivity: business development, education, emergency communication, and health. Rural citizens often already face challenges in these areas, and infrastructure advancements in urban spaces can exacerbate rural-urban disparities. Participants’ comments demonstrated apprehension that failure to improve connectivity would result in adverse long-term consequences for the municipality. This article suggests that current broadband policy frameworks require strategic adaptations to account for the socio-economic and geographic contexts of rural communities. In order to narrow Australia’s rural-urban digital divide, infrastructure developments should be prioritised in the most underserved regions.

  15. Canine parvovirus in Australia: A comparative study of reported rural and urban cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourkas, Elaine; Ward, Michael P; Kelman, Mark

    2015-12-31

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease reported worldwide. Outbreaks occur throughout Australia, and it has been suggested that disproportionally more CPV cases occur in rural locations. However, evidence to support this suggestion-and possible reasons for such a predisposition-has not existed until now. In this study a total of 4870 CPV cases reported from an Australian disease surveillance system between September 2009 and July 2014 were analysed. Australian postcodes were classified as rural or urban (based on human population density) and reported CPV cases were then categorised as rural or urban based on their reported home postcode. Parvovirus cases were predominately young (<12 months), entire, unvaccinated, mixed-breed dogs. More than twice as many of the reported cases were from a rural area (3321 cases) compared to an urban area (1549 cases). The overall case fatality rate was 47.2%; it was higher for those CPV cases reported from urban areas (50.6%) than rural areas (45.5%). A greater proportion of rural cases were younger, entire dogs compared to urban cases. The final multivariable model of CPV cases being reported from a rural area included age (<12 months) and vaccination status (never vaccinated) as significant predictors. Poor socioeconomic status might be a reason for the decision of rural owners not to vaccinate their dogs as readily as urban owners. The excess reporting of rural CPV cases compared to urban cases and the predictive risk factors identified in this study can be used by veterinarians to reduce the incidence of CPV by educating owners about the disease and promoting better vaccination programs in rural areas. This study also supports that the increased risk of CPV in rural areas may necessitate a need for increased vigilance around preventing CPV disease spread, additional care with puppies which are the most susceptible to this disease and tighter vaccination protocols, compared to urban areas

  16. High modulus asphalt (EME) technology transfer to South Africa and Australia: shared experiences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experiences with the implementation of French enrobés à module élevé (EME) (high modulus asphalt) technology in South Africa and Australia. Tentative performance specifications for EME mixes were set in the two countries based...

  17. Breakup of pangaea and isolation of relict mammals in australia, South america, and madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooden, J

    1972-02-25

    The composition of aboriginal land mammal faunas in Australia and New Guinea (prototherians and metatherians), South America (metatherians and eutherians) and Madagascar (eutherians only) is reconsidered in light of continental drift reconstructions of Mesozoic-Tertiary world paleogeography It is proposed that these three faunas represent successively detached samples of the evolving world mammal fauna as it existed when each of these land masses became faunally isolated from the rest of the world as a result of the progressive fragmentation of Pangaea. Isolation of aboriginal prototherians and metatherians in Australia and New Guinea may date from the Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal metatherians and eutherians in South America may date from the Middle Cretaceous-Upper Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal eutherians in Madagascar may date from the Paleocene-Eocene.

  18. Vanuatu, the country of rural decentralized electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maigne, Y.; Molli, L.

    1998-01-01

    The status of decentralized rural electrification in Vanuatu was presented. Vanuatu is a sparsely populated rural country in the south Pacific. The country includes 92 populated islands spread over 1,000 kilometers in the south Pacific, halfway between Fiji and Australia. The low population density and the tremendous distances between the different islands have made local electrical networks a necessity in Vanuatu. Apart from the two principal urban centres, Vanuatu does not have a centralized electrical distribution network. In the early 1990s the government initiated a program to provide independent power sources to the isolated communities. Photovoltaic cells are used to power most telecommunications services. Solar cells are also used to provide power to important community buildings such as the schools or nursing stations on the remote islands. Two small hydroelectric generating stations of 600 kW were also installed with the help of the German government

  19. Mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banking in South Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Javanparast, Sara; Newman, Lareen

    2013-05-01

    The beneficial effects of breastfeeding for mothers and babies are well recognized. When maternal breast milk is not available in sufficient quantity, donor breast milk is recommended as an alternate source of nutrition, particularly in preterm and other high-risk infants. Australia lags behind the rest of the developed world in establishing and promoting human milk banks; there is no human milk bank in South Australia and little is known concerning mothers' perceptions of using human milk banks in that state. This study explored mothers' knowledge of and attitudes toward human milk banks, to inform the development of human milk banking policies and guidelines in South Australia should a milk bank be established. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 mothers who were breastfeeding and/or had preterm or sick babies. In addition, 2 focus groups were conducted-1 with breastfeeding mothers as potential donors (n = 5) and the other with mothers of preterm or high-risk infants (n = 4)-to answer questions raised by early analysis of the individual interview data. Breastfeeding mothers, as potential donors, unanimously supported donating their breast milk to a human milk bank, provided it would be easy (especially if required to drop off milk) and not overly time consuming. Mothers of preterm or sick infants would use a human milk bank if they were assured the milk was safe and appropriate for their babies. Study participants would welcome having access to a human milk bank for both donating and receiving milk in South Australia.

  20. New Economy Manufacturing Meets Old Economy Education Policies in the Rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Despite growth in the service sector, manufacturing remains a vital part of the rural South's economic base and is related to lower poverty rates. However, manufacturing is changing, adopting new technologies and management practices, and seeking more highly skilled labor. Poor rural schools, an unskilled workforce, and absence of community…

  1. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  2. Menstruation in Rural Igbo Women of South East Nigeria: Attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menstruation in Rural Igbo Women of South East Nigeria: Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices. ... African Journal of Reproductive Health ... Some respondents observed self-imposed restrictions on exercises, food items, visits and sex in order to ...

  3. Repositioning Educational Research on Rurality and Rural Education in South Africa: Beyond Deficit Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2012-01-01

    Almost two decades after the demise of apartheid, rural communities in South Africa are still plagued by seemingly insurmountable challenges, with no change in sight for those who need it most. In spite of the many interventions that have been implemented, real transformation remains elusive. This position paper is premised on the notion that this…

  4. Modelling the impact of rural migration on tropical deforestation in South-West Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rompaey, Anton; Debonne, N.; Vanmaercke, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A major driver of tropical deforestation is rural frontier migration. In this paper an attempt is made to formally describe the human-environment interactions that are manifested in a forested system experiencing a large influx of rural migrants. The Guraferda district in South-West Ethiopia was

  5. Improving access to antiretrovirals in rural South Africa – a call to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving access to antiretrovirals in rural South Africa – a call to action. South Africa (SA) already has the world's biggest antiretroviral (ARV) programme. With the introduction of extended criteria for initiating ARVs, the National Department of Health (NDoH) wishes to increase the number of people on ARVs by around.

  6. The Learning Projects of Rural Third Age Women: Enriching a Valuable Community Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Glenna

    2011-01-01

    As a third age PhD candidate with a passion for learning, I wanted to explore the learning of other rural third age women who live on the Lower Eyre Peninsula (LEP) of South Australia. This reflects the methodological stance of heuristic inquiry, which requires the researcher to have a passionate interest in the phenomena under investigation, and…

  7. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khathutshelo P. Mashige

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim: To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence theirdecisions. Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results: Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate. Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66% or second practices (64.6% in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2% or second (79.4% practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areaswere financial concerns (81.2%, personal safety (80.1% and poor living conditions (75.3%, with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05 being from urban respondents for the latter twoissues only. Conclusion: Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remoteareas of the country.

  8. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashige, Khathutshelo P; Oduntan, Olalekan A; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-07-31

    Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05) being from urban respondents for the latter two issues only. Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remote areas of the country.

  9. Management of snakebites at a rural South African hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... snakebites at this rural hospital where they were treated frequently. It is crucial for primary care physicians to be familiar with the most common venomous snakes in South Africa and the management of their bites in humans. Elevation of the affected limb, administration of intravenous fluids and administration of analgesia, ...

  10. Building consensus on key priorities for rural health care in South Africa using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Marije; du Toit, Lilo; Couper, Ian

    2013-01-24

    South Africa is currently undergoing major health system restructuring in an attempt to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities in access. Such inequities exist between private and public health care and within the public health system itself. Experience shows that rural health care can be disadvantaged in policy formulation despite good intentions. The objective of this study was to identify the major challenges and priority interventions for rural health care provision in South Africa thereby contributing to pro-rural health policy dialogue. The Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on a list of statements that was generated through interviews and literature review. A panel of rural health practitioners and other stakeholders was asked to indicate their level of agreement with these statements and to rank the top challenges in and interventions required for rural health care. Response rates ranged from 83% in the first round (n=44) to 64% in the final round (n=34). The top five priorities were aligned to three of the WHO health system building blocks: human resources for health (HRH), governance, and finance. Specifically, the panel identified a need to focus on recruitment and support of rural health professionals, the employment of managers with sufficient and appropriate skills, a rural-friendly national HRH plan, and equitable funding formulae. Specific policies and strategies are required to address the greatest rural health care challenges and to ensure improved access to quality health care in rural South Africa. In addition, a change in organisational climate and a concerted effort to make a career in rural health appealing to health care workers and adequate funding for rural health care provision are essential.

  11. Evolving electrical SCLM models of the Australian continent - results of the South Australia AusLAMP deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K. E.; Thiel, S.; Heinson, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Lithospheric Architecture Magnetotelluric Project (AusLAMP) is an Australian initiative to map the Australian continental lithosphere using magnetotelluric (MT) stations to obtain a resistivity model of the subsurface. It is a joint project between Geoscience Australia, state surveys, and Universities. We present new MT 3D inversion results of the largest coherent array of the AusLAMP MT deployments to date covering two-thirds of South Australia, funded largely by the Geological Survey of South Australia with additional funding by Geoscience Australia and The University of Adelaide. The model extends across the South Australian Gawler Craton, including the Eucla Basin to the west of the craton and the Flinders Ranges and Curnamona Province to the east. The MT array covers parts of the Australian lithosphere, which has been largely unexplored with seismic tomography methods and provide a unique insight into the tectonic evolution of the continent. We incorporate 284 long-period (10s-10,000s) MT stations separated roughly every half degree latitude and longitude across an area spanning 1200 km x 800 km, south of latitude -28.5 degrees and from longitude 129 degrees to 141 degrees. We invert 24 discrete periods of the impedance tenor between 7 s and 13,000 s, and 22 different periods of the tipper data between 7s-8000 s period. The results show a heterogeneous lower crust and mantle lithosphere with a primarily resistive mantle (>1000 Ωm) lithosphere in the central and western part of the Gawler Craton and Eucla Domain. The model shows a generally NS oriented electric LAB offset from deeper cratonic lithosphere in the west to a shallow lithosphere along the eastern margin of the Gawler Craton extending further east towards the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic eastern part of Australia. The lower crust is generally resistive with elongated lower crustal conductivity anomalies, which are associated with major translithospheric shear zones likely existent

  12. Attitudes towards disability in rural area in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reus, A.; Mostert, L.; Moonen, X.; Vermeer, A.; Magyarszeky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to gain insight into the attitudes of people living in a rural area of South Africa towards persons with a disability and the extent to which these attitudes are related to people's characteristics. A total of 105 residents of a township in the Gauteng province

  13. Household livelihood security in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mtshali, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of the poor South Africans are to be found in rural areas. Their location is characterised by combinations of difficult situations that contribute to their vulnerability and poverty. Some of the common problems are hilly

  14. A casemix study of patients seen by a dermatology trainee in rural and urban outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilakaratne, Dev; Warren, Lachlan; Menz, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    For 8 years South Australian dermatologists have provided an outreach service to the Northern Territory (NT), including rural and remote areas. In 2012 and 2013, a trainee accompanied a dermatologist on these outreach visits. This is the first prospective study that documents the spectrum of dermatological diseases requiring outpatient specialist input in various settings in the NT, and also the first study to compare the clinical experience of one Australian dermatology trainee in urban and rural settings. Characteristics of patients managed primarily by the outreach dermatology registrar were recorded prospectively from February 2013 to July 2013. The data from the trainee's urban encounters were compared to that of the rural centres. The spectrum of conditions seen in these two settings was placed in the disease categories specified in the Australasian College of Dermatologists (ACD) curriculum. The Royal Adelaide Hospital outpatient experience provided greater exposure to skin neoplasms, lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders and non-infectious neutrophilic/eosinophilic disorders. The outreach sites provided greater exposure to infections, adnexal diseases and genodermatoses. Both urban and rural experiences provided a broad exposure to the disease categories outlined in the ACD curriculum. The spectrum of disease requiring specialist dermatology input varies between urban South Australia and rural NT. The inclusion of dermatology trainees in outreach visits broadens their clinical exposure. It is recommended that other dermatology service providers in Australia consider documenting clinical casemix comparisons to assess dermatology demand, outcomes and trainee exposure. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsuvivatwong Virasakdi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Methods Years of life lost (YLL rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Results Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2–8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Conclusion Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  16. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2006-10-14

    Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Years of life lost (YLL) rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2-8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  17. Building a Nation: Religion and Values in the Public Schools of the USA, Australia, and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, Jacqueline Joy; de Waal, Elda

    2008-01-01

    Although the systems of public schools differ among Australia, South Africa and the USA, all three countries recognize that religion plays a significant role in determining values. All three countries have written constitutions but only South Africa and the USA have a Bill of Rights that protects persons' exercise of religious beliefs. In…

  18. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, Juhan; Geerlings, Mirjan; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were

  19. Adolescent alcohol use in rural South African high schools | Onya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine psychosocial correlates of lifetime alcohol use among adolescents in rural South African high schools. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 1600 students from 20 randomly selected high schools in the Mankweng district within Limpopo province. Self-report data on alcohol use, demographic, ...

  20. Real-world innovation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulder, I

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mulder_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 46126 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mulder_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The Electronic Journal for Virtual... Organizations and Networks Volume 10, “Special Issue on Living Labs”, August 2008 REAL-WORLD INNOVATION IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA Ingrid Mulder1,2, Walter Bohle3, Shela Boshomane4, Chris Morris4, Hugo Tempelman5, & Daan Velthausz1,6 1Telematica Instituut...

  1. Perspectives of rural health and human service practitioners following suicide prevention training programme in Australia: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Ferguson, Monika; Walsh, Sandra; Martinez, Lee; Marsh, Michael; Cronin, Kathryn; Procter, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    There are well-established training programmes available to support health and human services professionals working with people vulnerable to suicide. However, little is known about involving people with lived experience in the delivery of suicide prevention training with communities with increased rates of suicide. The aim of this paper was to report on a formative dialogical evaluation that explored the views of health and human services workers with regard to a suicide prevention training programme in regional (including rural and remote areas) South Australia which included meaningful involvement of a person with lived experience in the development and delivery of the training. In 2015, eight suicide prevention training workshops were conducted with health and human services workers. All 248 participants lived and worked in South Australian regional communities. We interviewed a subsample of 24 participants across eight sites. A thematic analysis of the interviews identified five themes: Coproduction is key, It is okay to ask the question, Caring for my community, I can make a difference and Learning for future training. The overall meta-theme was "Involvement of a person with lived experience in suicide prevention training supports regional communities to look out for people at risk of suicide." This paper highlights the need for suicide prevention training and other workforce development programmes to include lived experience participation as a core component in development and delivery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Building consensus on key priorities for rural health care in South Africa using the Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Versteeg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is currently undergoing major health system restructuring in an attempt to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities in access. Such inequities exist between private and public health care and within the public health system itself. Experience shows that rural health care can be disadvantaged in policy formulation despite good intentions. The objective of this study was to identify the major challenges and priority interventions for rural health care provision in South Africa thereby contributing to pro-rural health policy dialogue. Methods: The Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on a list of statements that was generated through interviews and literature review. A panel of rural health practitioners and other stakeholders was asked to indicate their level of agreement with these statements and to rank the top challenges in and interventions required for rural health care. Results: Response rates ranged from 83% in the first round (n=44 to 64% in the final round (n=34. The top five priorities were aligned to three of the WHO health system building blocks: human resources for health (HRH, governance, and finance. Specifically, the panel identified a need to focus on recruitment and support of rural health professionals, the employment of managers with sufficient and appropriate skills, a rural-friendly national HRH plan, and equitable funding formulae. Conclusion: Specific policies and strategies are required to address the greatest rural health care challenges and to ensure improved access to quality health care in rural South Africa. In addition, a change in organisational climate and a concerted effort to make a career in rural health appealing to health care workers and adequate funding for rural health care provision are essential.

  3. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, J.M.; Geerlings, M.I.; Vivian, L.; Collinson, M.; Robertson, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used

  4. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa : prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, Juhan M.; Geerlings, Mirjan I.; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used

  5. The increasing burden of tuberculosis in rural South Africa - impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the impact of the HIV epidemic on tuberculosis caseload in rural South Africa. Setting. Hlabisa health district, Kwazulu-Natal. Methods. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the tuberculosis database for the period, May 1991 June 1995. The attributable fraction of HIV-infected ...

  6. The Fly-in Fly-out and Drive-in Drive-out model of health care service provision for rural and remote Australia: benefits and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rafat; Maple, Myfanwy; Hunter, Sally V; Mapedzahama, Virginia; Reddy, Prasuna

    2015-01-01

    Rural Australians experience poorer health and poorer access to health care services than their urban counterparts, and there is a chronic shortage of health professionals in rural and remote Australia. Strategies designed to reduce this rural-urban divide include fly-in fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in drive-out (DIDO) services. The aim of this article is to examine the opportunities and challenges involved in these forms of service delivery. This article reviews recent literature relating to FIFO and DIDO healthcare services and discusses their benefits and potential disadvantages for rural Australia, and for health practitioners. FIFO and DIDO have short-term benefits for rural Australians seeking healthcare services in terms of increasing equity and accessibility to services and reducing the need to travel long distances for health care. However, significant disadvantages need to be considered in the longer term. There is a potential for burnout among health professionals who travel long distances and work long hours, often without adequate peer support or supervision, in order to deliver these services. A further disadvantage, particularly in the use of visiting medical practitioners to provide generalist services, is the lack of development of a sufficiently well-resourced local primary healthcare system in small rural communities. Given the potential negative consequences for both health professionals and rural Australians, the authors caution against the increasing use of FIFO and DIDO services, without the concurrent development of well-resourced, funded and staffed primary healthcare services in rural and remote communities.

  7. Integrating indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) in improving rural accessibility and mobility (in support of the comprehensive rural development programme in South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nhemachena, C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS (IKS) IN IMPROVING RURAL ACCESSIBILITY AND MOBILITY (IN SUPPORT OF THE COMPREHENSIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN SOUTH AFRICA) CHARLES NHEMACHENA1, JAMES CHAKWIZIRA2, SIPHO DUBE1, GOODHOPE MAPONYA1, REMINA RASHOPOLA3... of Environmental Sciences, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, 0950 3 Department of Rural Development and Land Reform, PO Box X833, Pretoria 0001 ABSTRACT This study discusses opportunities and challenges for integrating local knowledge in improving...

  8. The long term sustainability of Mound Springs in South Australia : implications for olympic dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudd, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Mound Springs of South Australia are unique groundwater discharge features of the Great Artesian Basin, a deep regigonal groundwater system that covers over one-fifth of the Australia continent. They are the principal sources of water in the arid and semi-arid inland heart of Australia, and have great ecological, scientific, anthropological and economic significance. Excessive development of the Great Artesian Basin over the past century by European activity has seen an overall decline in the flows from the mound springs, and recent development of the water supply borefields for the WMC Olympic Dam Operations copper-uranium mine in the midst of the most important spring groups has exacerbated this problem. A review of the history of the borefields, an analysis of the impacts on the mound springs, and future recommendations for protection of the springs is presented. (orig.)

  9. Determinants of social media usage among a sample of rural South African youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herring Shava

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youths have been found to utilise and adopt information communication technology (ICT faster than any other population cohort. This has been aided by the advent of social media, especially Facebook and Instagram as platforms of choice. Calls have been made for more research (especially in rural communities on the usage of ICT platforms such as social media among the youth as a basis for interventions that not only allow for better communication but also for learning.   Objectives: The research investigated the relationship between knowledge sharing, habit and obligation in relation to social media usage among a sample of rural South African youth.   Method: This study is descriptive by design. Primary data were collected from 447 youths domiciled within a rural community in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa using a self-administered questionnaire. The respondents to the study were all social media users. A combination of descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to make meaning of the data.   Results: The study found a significant positive correlation to exist in all three independent variables (knowledge sharing, habit and obligation with the dependent variable (social media usage concerning Facebook usage among the sample of South African rural youth.   Conclusion: Based on the findings of the research, recommendations and implications with regard to theory and practice are made.

  10. Teaching Hinduism through a Rural Homestay in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Edward T.

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, in 2008, I offered a world religions study abroad course in South India. The special emphasis was meeting and befriending locals, and the centerpiece of the course was a six-night stay in rural homes. I considered this immersion in a Hindu context to be the best setting for learning Hindu thought. However, the environment was…

  11. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  12. Gender Factors Associated with Sexual Abstinent Behaviour of Rural South African High School Going Youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, Siyabonga; Taylor, Myra; Mkhize, Nosipho; Huver, Rosemarie; Sathiparsad, Reshma; de Vries, Hein; Naidoo, Kala; Jinabhai, Champak

    2009-01-01

    The cross-sectional study investigated South African rural high school learners' choice of sexual abstinence in order to be able to develop tailored health education messages. All Grade 9 learners from one class at each of 10 randomly selected rural high schools participated. The Integrated Model for Motivational and Behavioural Change was used to…

  13. Radiotherapy in the Barwon South Western Region: a rural perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Margaret J.; Jones, Phil; Coory Michael; Chapman, Adam; Morrissy, Kate; Matheson, Leigh M.; Pitson, Graham; Lynch, Rod; Healy, Pat; Ashley, David

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-related mortality rates are higher in rural areas compared with urban regions. Whether there are corresponding geographical variations in radiotherapy utilisation rates (RURs) is the subject of this study. RURs for the regional centre of Geelong and rural areas of the Barwon South Western Region were calculated using a population-based database (2009). Lower RURs were observed for rural patients compared with the Geelong region for prostate cancer (15.7% vs 25.8%, P=0.02), rectal cancer (32.8% vs 44.7%, P=0.11), lymphoma (9.4% vs 26.2%, P=0.05), and all cancers overall (25.6% vs 28.9%, P=0.06). This lower rate was significant in men (rural, 19.9%; Geelong, 28.3%; P=0.00) but not in women (rural, 33.6%; Geelong, 29.7%; P=0.88). Time from diagnosis to radiotherapy was not significantly different for patients from the two regions. Tumour staging within the rural and Geelong regions was not significantly different for the major tumour streams of rectal, prostate and lung cancer (P=0.61, P=0.79, P=0.43, respectively). A higher proportion of tumours were unstaged or unstageable in the rural region for lung (44% vs 18%, P<0.01) and prostate (73% vs 57%, P<0.01) cancer. Lower RURs were observed in our rural region. Differences found within tumour streams and in men suggest a complexity of relationships that will require further study.

  14. Cross-Spectrum of Wind Speed for Meso-Gamma Scales in the Upper Surface Layer over South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Milton J.; Davy, Robert J.; Russell, Christopher J.; Coppin, Peter A.

    2011-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the cross-spectrum of wind speed are developed for the stochastic simulation of wind power in south-eastern Australia. The expressions are valid for heights above the ground in the range 40-80 m, site separations of 1-30 km, and frequencies of (1/6)-3 cycles h-1. The influence of site separation distance is taken into account, as are variables that are defined for blocks of time. These variables include the mean and standard deviation of wind speed and the mean wind direction. The parameters of the model equations are determined by non-linear least-squares regression with cross-validation over 10 years of wind measurements from 84 towers in south-eastern Australia.

  15. Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Akpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational

  16. Culture care of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia: sharing transcultural nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeri, A

    1997-01-01

    Discovery and analysis of care meanings, expressions, and practices of Iranian Immigrants in New South Wales, Australia was the focus of this ethnonursing qualitative research. The purpose of the study was to systematically discover, describe and analyse the values, beliefs, and practices of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia. The aim of the investigation was to discover transcultural nursing knowledge to guide nurses and health professionals to provide culturally congruent nursing and health care to Iranians. Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Leininger, 1991) was used as the conceptual framework for the study. It was predicted that care meanings and expressions of Iranian immigrants would be influenced by their worldview, social structure features, language, and cultural values rooted in their long ethnohistorical past and reflected in their lifeways in Australia. Using the ethnonursing qualitative research method, key and general informants were purposefully selected among Iranian immigrants residing in New South Wales. Three care themes supported by a number of universal and some diverse patterns were identified for Iranian immigrants. The three themes were: (1) Care meant family and kinship ties (hambastegie) as expressed in daily lifeways and interactions with family, friends, and community; (2) Care as expressed in carrying out traditional urban gender roles (role-zan-o-mard) (Azadie zan) as well as in fulfilling emerging new role responsibilities related to equality for female Iranian immigrants; and (3) Care as preservation of Iranian identity (inhamoni, hamonandi) as expressed in traditional cultural events and health care practices. Leininger's (1991) three modes of actions and decisions were used to develop appropriate and culturally meaningful nursing care actions and decisions which were in harmony with the cultural beliefs of Iranian immigrants.

  17. Poor long-term outcomes for cryptococcal meningitis in rural South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To explore linkage to and retention in HIV care after an episode of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in rural South Africa. Design. A retrospective case series of adult individuals (≥16 years old) with laboratory-confirmed CM from January - December 2007 at Hlabisa Hospital – a district hospital in northern KwaZulu- ...

  18. Sexual behaviour of women in rural South Africa: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Henk Dubbink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual behaviour is a core determinant of the HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI epidemics in women living in rural South Africa. Knowledge of sexual behaviour in these areas is limited, but constitutes essential information for a combination prevention approach of behavioural change and biomedical interventions. Methods This descriptive study was conducted in rural Mopani District, South Africa, as part of a larger study on STI. Women of reproductive age (18–49 years who reported sexual activity were included regardless of the reason for visiting the facility. Questionnaires were administered to 570 women. We report sexual behaviour by age group, ethnic group and self-reported HIV status. Results Young women (34 years; there was no difference for condom use during last sex act (36 % overall. Sotho women were more likely to report concurrent sexual partners whereas Shangaan women reported more frequent intravaginal cleansing and vaginal scarring practice in our analysis. HIV-infected women were older, had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners, reported more frequent condom use during the last sex act and were more likely to have a known HIV-infected partner than women without HIV infection; hormonal contraceptive use, fellatio, and a circumcised partner were less often reported. Conclusions This study provides insight into women’s sexual behaviour in a rural South African region. There are important differences in sexual behaviour by age group and ethnicity and HIV status; these should be taken into account when designing tailor-made prevention packages.

  19. An evaluation of the District Health Information System in rural South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the District Health Information System in rural South Africa. ... Design and subjects. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with clinic managers, supervisors and district information staff. ... of the data collection and collation process but little analysis, interpretation or utilisation of data.

  20. Development of a New South Dakota Rural Family Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Jean; Huber, Thomas; Huntington, Mark K

    2017-11-01

    The healthcare workforce is a priority in South Dakota. It has been estimated that 8,000 additional healthcare workers beyond those in practice in 2010 will be needed by 2020. In 2016, the South Dakota Department of Health included in its budget funds for the development of a new Rural Family Medicine Residency Training Program as one of the steps toward addressing the physician component of these workforce needs. This new program has just received its accreditation and is recruiting the inaugural class of resident physicians for the spring of 2018. This article provides a concise overview of the program's initial development. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  1. A Narrative Inquiry into Rural School Leadership in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    This article attends to rural school leadership in two South African schools through the lens of the concepts of relational leadership and emotional labour. The inquiry draws on five years of guided conversations and observations that speak to leadership experiences of hope and anticipation as well as despair and disillusionment. I worked with one…

  2. Indoor radon measurements in Adelaide, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, D.

    1989-01-01

    In 1986 a study of radon levels in homes in Melbourne was made, using activated charcoal to adsorb the gas from indoor air. Cups containing 25g of activated charcoal were exposed for periods of nominally 7 days. The cups were sealed and the accumulated activity was measured by gamma counting. Cup activity was related to ambient radon concentration by calibrations done in the Australian Radiation Laboratory's radon reference chamber. This work was continued in Adelaide, South Australia (S.A.) between July and November 1986 using the same methods. Cups were exposed in their homes by 213 volunteers from the staff of the S.A. Institute of Technology and the S.A. Health Commission. The median concentration of radon in air was 10 Bq/m 3 , with 90% of values below 35 Bq/m 3 , and 100% below 75 Bq/m 3 . The lower bound of the distribution is poorly defined because of inadequate counting statistics. 4 refs., 6 figs

  3. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Spearing, Kerry; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Results are presented for men (n = 52) and women (n = 84) 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day) and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  4. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture content.Data from

  5. Attitudes and experiences of restaurateurs regarding smoking bans in Adelaide, South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, K.; Wakefield, M.; Turnbull, D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine compliance with a voluntary code of practice (VCP) for restricting smoking in restaurants and to canvass the attitudes of restaurateurs towards tougher smoking restrictions.
DESIGN—Cross-sectional survey conducted in 1996 using a telephone questionnaire.
SETTING—Metropolitan restaurants and cafés in Adelaide, South Australia.
PARTICIPANTS—276 (86.8%) of a sample of randomly selected owners and managers.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Restaurant non-smoking policies, reported an...

  6. Seeds of revolt. Intergenerational relationships in rural KwaZulu, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vailati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe social role of youth, in the last twenty years, has become a key point of the political agenda of many African nations. In South Africa, the consequences of segregationist politics, market economy and migrations have profoundly shaped the social and cultural role of youth, both in urban and rural contexts. Moreover, the end of apartheid has opened a new period of wide transformation. Based on my ethnographic research in KwaMashabane, a rural region of South Africa, this article analyses how the social role of male youth is shaped by national state policy and by local dynamics. I will focus on the relationship between models of adulthood, and the strategies that youth adopt to cope with conflicts and continuities. This analysis will show how post-apartheid freedom and the constraints of the local social structure are negotiated, and how society is coping with the complex relationships between cultural reproduction and social change.

  7. Funding issues and options for pharmacists providing sessional services to rural hospitals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amy Cw; Emmerton, Lynne M; Hattingh, H Laetitia; La Caze, Adam

    2015-06-01

    Many of Australia' s rural hospitals operate without an on-site pharmacist. In some, community pharmacists have sessional contracts to provide medication management services to inpatients. This paper discusses the funding arrangements of identified sessional employment models to raise awareness of options for other rural hospitals. Semistructured one-on-one interviews were conducted with rural pharmacists with experience in a sessional employment role (n =8) or who were seeking sessional arrangements (n = 4). Participants were identified via publicity and referrals. Interviews were conducted via telephone or Skype for ~40-55 min each, recorded and analysed descriptively. A shortage of state funding and reliance on federal funding was reported. Pharmacists accredited to provide medication reviews claimed remuneration via these federal schemes; however, restrictive criteria limited their scope of services. Funds pooling to subsidise remuneration for the pharmacists was evident and arrangements with local community pharmacies provided business frameworks to support sessional services. Participants were unaware of each other's models of practice, highlighting the need to share information and these findings. Several similarities existed, namely, pooling funds and use of federal medication review remuneration. Findings highlighted the need for a stable remuneration pathway and business model to enable wider implementation of sessional pharmacist models.

  8. Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dumrak, Jantanee; Mostafa, Sherif; Kamardeen, Imriyas; Rameezdeen, Raufdeen

    2013-01-01

    While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such ...

  9. The NSW Steam Trawl Fishery on the South-East Continental Shelf of Australia, 1915-1961

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, A. Lif Lund

    2014-01-01

    How was modern fishing methods, in the form of steam trawling, introduced in Australia? And what were the consequences for the fish stocks found on the South-East Continental Shelf? Through historical catch records and archival resources, the history of the NSW Steam Trawl Industry from 1915...... that flathead biomass on the South-East Continental shelf was permanently reduced. The study furthermore reveals how the trawl industry was influenced by government policy, market conditions, war and fishing effort with little understanding of the marine resources which they relied on....

  10. Treatment outcomes in a rural HIV clinic in South Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the treatment outcomes of an HIV clinic in rural Limpopo province, South Africa. Methods: A retrospective cohort study involving medical records review of HIV-positive patients initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART) was conducted from December 2007 to November 2008 at Letaba Hospital. Data on ...

  11. Uranium in tertiary stream channels, Lake Frome area, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunt, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium exploration over a wide area of the Southern Frome Embayment, South Australia, has defined a number of Lower Tertiary fluvial palacochannels incised in older rocks. The buried channels contain similar stratigraphic sequences of interbedded sand, silt, and clay, probably derived from the adjacent uranium-rich Olary Province. Uranium mineralization is pervasive within two major palacochannels, and four small uranium deposits have been found in the basal sands of these channel sequences, at the margins of extensive tongues of limonitic sand. A genetic model is proposed suggesting formation by a uraniferous geochemical cell which migrated down the stream gradient and concentrated uranium on its lateral margins adjacent to the channel bank

  12. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  13. No comfort in the rural South: women living depressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, Emily J

    2003-02-01

    Despite the widespread notion of the bucolic life in the country, major depressive disorder (MDD) is common among impoverished women in the rural South. Women with MDD seldom get treated because of the paucity of treatment available, the inability to pay for services because of no insurance, and the distance they must travel to reach care. Even if treatment was available, impoverished rural Southern women are unlikely to seek services because of cultural and social prohibitions. These include incongruence between the biomedical model of MDD and sociocultural explanations for its causes and manifestations, stigma, and traditional viewpoints of women that keep them isolated and invisible. Innovative treatment strategies must be devised for these women that are based on local views of MDD and its treatment, and people and monetary resources available in poor rural economies. Needed research with this population include ethnographic studies to gain understanding of the cultural factors associated with MDD and its treatment and evaluation of outreach, and other novel paradigms of rural service delivery including the use of nonprofessional personnel. Although the problems of treatment and research with this population are daunting, there is an opportunity for imagination, innovation, and creativity in devising local solutions to local problems. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  14. Population uptake of antiretroviral treatment through primary care in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KwaZulu-Natal is the South African province worst affected by HIV and the focus of early modeling studies investigating strategies of antiretroviral treatment (ART delivery. The reality of antiretroviral roll-out through primary care has differed from that anticipated and real world data are needed to inform the planning of further scaling up of services. We investigated the factors associated with uptake of antiretroviral treatment through a primary healthcare system in rural South Africa. Methods Detailed demographic, HIV surveillance and geographic information system (GIS data were used to estimate the proportion of HIV positive adults accessing antiretroviral treatment within northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in the period from initiation of antiretroviral roll-out until the end of 2008. Demographic, spatial and socioeconomic factors influencing the likelihood of individuals accessing antiretroviral treatment were explored using multivariable analysis. Results Mean uptake of ART among HIV positive resident adults was 21.0% (95%CI 20.1-21.9. Uptake among HIV positive men (19.2% was slightly lower than women (21.8%, P = 0.011. An individual's likelihood of accessing ART was not associated with level of education, household assets or urban/rural locale. ART uptake was strongly negatively associated with distance from the nearest primary healthcare facility (aOR = 0.728 per square-root transformed km, 95%CI 0.658-0.963, P = 0.002. Conclusions Despite concerns about the equitable nature of antiretroviral treatment rollout, we find very few differences in ART uptake across a range of socio-demographic variables in a rural South African population. However, even when socio-demographic factors were taken into account, individuals living further away from primary healthcare clinics were still significantly less likely to be accessing ART

  15. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-marc; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Boroto, Jean R.

    Halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, is one of the targets of the 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In South Africa, with its mix of developed and developing regions, 9.7 million (20%) of the people do not have access to adequate water supply and 16 million (33%) lack proper sanitation services. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH), which provides water directly to households enables a number of small-scale productive activities, has the potential to supply water even in rural and peri-urban areas that conventional technologies cannot supply. As part of the effort to achieve the MDGs, the South African government has committed itself to provide financial assistance to poor households for the capital cost of rainwater storage tanks and related works in the rural areas. Despite this financial assistance, the legal status of DRWH remains unclear and DRWH is in fact illegal by strict application of the water legislations. Beyond the cost of installation, maintenance and proper use of the DRWH system to ensure its sustainability, there is risk of waterborne diseases. This paper explores challenges to sustainable implementation of DRWH and proposes some interventions which the South African government could implement to overcome them.

  16. Caring for clients with dual diagnosis in rural communities in Australia: the experience of mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, C; Soar, R

    2005-06-01

    This paper identifies and describes the experiences of 13 rural mental health professionals who care for clients diagnosed with a mental illness and a coexisting alcohol and other drug disorder (dual diagnosis). Dual diagnosis is a common problem which is often poorly understood and managed by mental health professionals. The effect of excessive substance use on a person's mental well-being can present as a diagnostic challenge as each condition may mask symptoms of the other. The authors utilized a phenomenological approach to discover the experiences of a group of mental health professionals working in rural communities in Victoria, Australia. Caring for clients diagnosed with dual diagnosis was found to be a complex and stressful role that involved high levels of skill and knowledge. Despite the fact that health professionals in rural areas are expected to deliver the most appropriate care to individuals with a dual diagnosis, a number of these rural health professionals have limited preparation and experience in dealing with arising clinical diagnosis issues. Clinicians experience frustration, resentment and powerlessness in their attempt to understand their clients' drug misuse whilst simultaneously endeavouring to provide a quality mental health service.

  17. Investigating the Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction of Construction Workers in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reza Hosseini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, its aim is to ascertain the major aspects of job satisfaction for South Australian construction workers including the main ramifications of job satisfaction in the working environment. Secondly, it investigates the influence of key age-related factors i.e. chronological age, organisational age and length of service on major aspects of job satisfaction. The collected data for this study comprised 72 questionnaires completed by construction practitioners working at operational levels in the South Australian construction industry. Based on the responses from the target group, this study deduced that job dissatisfaction was predominantly related to the adverse impact on personal health and quality of life. In addition, indifference and the perception of dejection in the workplace are the main consequences of low levels of job satisfaction. Inferential analyses revealed that none of the age-related factors could significantly affect the major aspects of job satisfaction of construction workers in the South Australian context. The study concludes with providing practical suggestions for redesigning human resources practices for increasing the level of job satisfaction within the South Australian construction industry.Keywords: Job satisfaction, workers, age, construction industry, South Australia

  18. Perceptions of Water Pricing during a Drought: A Case Study from South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Martin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of urban and regional water consumers in three areas of South Australia on the fairness of the water pricing system, the impact of increases in water pricing on households and pricing as a driver of water conservation. The study was conducted in 2009 during a time of severe drought and mandatory water restrictions. The results did not show a general aversion to all aspects of price increases but rather different sectors of the population were particularly resistant to different, specific aspects of water pricing. A state-wide water pricing policy in South Australia means that all consumers pay the same rate per volume of water consumed regardless of their location; yet in the regional study area, where it costs more for the service provider to supply the water, the respondents had stronger feelings that the price of water should be higher in places where it costs more to supply it. Generally, low income earners were less in favor of a block pricing system than higher income earners. The latter findings indicate a common lack of awareness around various aspects of water pricing. Some implications of the findings for water managers are outlined.

  19. The NSW Steam Trawl Fishery on the South-East Continental Shelf of Australia, 1915–1961

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Jacobsen, A. Lif

    2014-01-01

    How was modern fishing methods, in the form of steam trawling, introduced in Australia? And what were the consequences for the fish stocks found on the South-East Continental Shelf? Through historical catch records and archival resources, the history of the NSW Steam Trawl Industry from 1915...

  20. Dietary adequacies among South African adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food quality, determined by micronutrient content, is a stronger determinant of nutritional status than food quantity. Health concerns resulting from the co-existence of over-nutrition and under-nutrition in low income populations in South Africa have been fully recognized in the last two decades. This study aimed to further investigate dietary adequacy amongst adults in rural KwaZulu-Natal, by determining daily energy and nutrient intakes, and identifying the degree of satisfaction of dietary requirements. METHODS: Cross-sectional study assessing dietary adequacy from 24-hour dietary recalls of randomly selected 136 adults in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Results are presented for men (n = 52 and women (n = 84 19-50 and >50 years old. Mean energy intake was greatest in women >50 years (2852 kcal/day and exceeded Dietary Reference Intake's for both men and women, regardless of age. Mean daily energy intake from carbohydrates was 69% for men and 67% for women, above the Dietary Reference Intake range of 45-65%. Sodium was also consumed in excess, and the Dietary Reference Intakes of vitamins A, B12, C, D, and E, calcium, zinc and pantothenic acid were not met by the majority of the population. CONCLUSION: Despite mandatory fortification of staple South African foods, micronutrient inadequacies are evident among adults in rural South African communities. Given the excess caloric intake and the rising prevalence of obesity and other non-communicable diseases in South Africa, a focus on diet quality may be a more effective approach to influence micronutrient status than a focus on diet quantity.

  1. Enhancing Care for Older People Living in Nursing Homes in Rural Australia Using Action Learning as a Catalyst for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Wendy; Meyer, Julienne; Cash, Penny; Clinnick, Lisa; Martin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of action learning workshops in three nursing homes in rural Victoria, Australia has been critical in the re-visioning of how care can be enhanced for residents. The workshops were designed with the intent of improving quality of care for residents by providing health care staff with opportunities to learn together and effect…

  2. HIV risk and prevention among men who have sex with men in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleke, Kabelo; Makhakhe, Nosipho; Peters, Remco Ph; Jobson, Geoffrey; De Swardt, Glenn; Daniels, Joseph; Lane, Timothy; McIntyre, James A; Imrie, John; Struthers, Helen

    2017-03-01

    Rural South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are likely to be underserved in terms of access to relevant healthcare and HIV prevention services. While research in urban and peri-urban MSM populations has identified a range of factors affecting HIV risk in South African MSM, very little research is available that examines HIV risk and prevention in rural MSM populations. This exploratory study begins to address this lack by assessing perceptions of HIV risk among MSM in rural Limpopo province. Using thematic analysis of interview and discussion data, two overarching global themes that encapsulated participants' understandings of HIV risk and the HIV risk environment in their communities were developed. In the first theme, "community experience and the rural social environment", factors affecting HIV risk within the broad risk environment were discussed. These included perceptions of traditional value systems and communities as homophobic; jealousy and competition between MSM; and the role of social media as a means of meeting other MSM. The second global theme, "HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk and experience", focused on factors more immediately affecting HIV transmission risk. These included: high levels of knowledge of heterosexual HIV risk, but limited knowledge of MSM-specific risk; inconsistent condom and lubricant use; difficulties in negotiating condom and lubricant use due to uneven power dynamics in relationships; competition for sexual partners; multiple concurrent sexual partnerships; and transactional sex. These exploratory results suggest that rural South African MSM, like their urban and peri-urban counterparts, are at high risk of contracting HIV, and that there is a need for more in-depth research into the interactions between the rural context and the specific HIV risk knowledge and behaviours that affect HIV risk in this population.

  3. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, Roxby Downs, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.E.; Hudson, G.R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit appears to be a new type of strata-bound sediment-hosted ore deposit. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide in South Australia and was discovered in 1975. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. The deposit is estimated to contain in excess of 2,000 million metric tons of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6 percent copper, 0.06 percent uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/metric ton gold. The deposit occurs in the basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat-lying Adelaidean (late Proterozoic) to Cambrian sediments in the Stuart shelf region of South Australia. The host rocks of the deposit are unmetamorphosed and are probably younger than 1,580 m.y. The deposit is spatially related to coincident gravity and magnetic anomalies and the intersection of west-northwest- and north-northwest-trending lineaments. The Proterozoic sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias ranging from matrix-poor granite breccias to matrix-rich polymict breccias containing clasts of a variety of rock types. This sequence is over 1 km thick and has been divided into two main units--the Olympic Dam Formation and the Greenfield Formation. The Olympic Dam Formation has five members, three of which are matrix rich. The Greenfield Formation has three members, the lower two being very hematite rich while the upper has a significant volcanic component. Pervasive hematite, chlorite, and sericite alteration of varying intensity affects all the basement sequence

  4. Rural-urban variations in age at menarche, adult height, leg-length and abdominal adiposity in black South African women in transitioning South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2018-03-01

    The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.

  5. Care: what it means to Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeri, A

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries of linguistic terms relating to care/caring can create better understanding of diversities in expression and experiences of care of different cultures. Such linguistic understandings and discovery of "meaning-in-context" can enhance communication toward unity in light of diversity. In order to gain an understanding of expression of care/caring for Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia, linguistic terms in the Persian language as discovered are described. The study, conceptualised within Leininger's theory of Culture Care diversity and universality led to the discovery of 31 linguistic care terms in the Persian language, reflecting the emic view of care for Iranian Immigrants in multicultural Australia. Using Leininger's ethnonursing research method and in depth naturalistic interviews, five types of care were abstracted from recurrent patterning and saturation according to type and meaning of care were discovered and described. The five categories describe care as: action; (hamoyat, parastari), thoughts; (ba-fakr-ham-boodan), reflecting family ties; (hambastegie), care as being Iranian, reflecting Iranian identity; (inhamani, hamonandi). Finally, care as related to context and expressed in safety and peace; (amnieyat, aramash), describing Australia as a safe and peaceful place to live. This paper will attempt to share an Iranian immigrants' emic view of care.

  6. In situ leaching of uranium in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed two new uranium mines at Beverley and Honeymoon, South Australia plan to use the cheap but potentially polluting process of in situ leaching (ISL) and permission has already been given for experimental underground leaching at Beverley. The mining industry describes ISL as environmentally benign because, instead of excavating, a corrosive liquid such as sulphuric acid is used. The liquid, sometimes 10000 times more acid than the aquifer water, is pumped into the ground in order to leach out the uranium and the resulting solution is then pumped to the surface where the uranium is extracted. Because the groundwater is salty and radioactive, the mining companies regard it as useless, so its contamination by ISL is considered of no concern. Salty radioactive water can be purified or desalinated and such processes are commonly used by mining companies such as Western Mining Corporation at Roxby Downs. (author)

  7. Rural education: Reimagining the role of the church in transforming poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Thesnaar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The desire to remember the plight of the poor in South Africa has reduced in the last 20 years after the transition from apartheid to freedom. To a large extent, Faith Based Organizations (FBOs and the religious society at large have lost their ‘dangerous memory’ which keeps us mindful of those who suffered and whose plight is usually forgotten or suppressed. In this contribution the conditions of poor farm school children in multigrade rural education will be scrutinised by unpacking the contextual factors that cause us to forget their plight. This article will seek to reimagine the role of the church in poverty-stricken South Africa by engaging with the work of Talcott Parsons, the practical theologian Johannes A. Van der Ven, as well as the work of the political theologian Johann Baptist Metz in order to affirm the focus of Practical Theology to transform society and to contribute to the quest for justice and liberation for the poor in rural education. This reimagining discourse has a fundamental responsibility to challenge the social, political and economic realities that shape the lives of human beings within rural education, remembering the plight of the poor, and participating on their journey towards liberation and healing. It is proposed that if the church can activate its ‘dangerous memory’ it will be able to reimagine its role by transforming our poverty-stricken South African society, open new avenues for breaking the cycle of poverty and contribute to rural education.

  8. Speciation and distribution of Botryosphaeria spp. on native and introduced Eucalyptus trees in Australia and South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Fourie, G.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Carnegie, A.J.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Botryosphaeria spp. are important canker and die-back pathogens that affect Eucalyptus spp. They also occur endophytically in Eucalyptus leaves and stems. For the purpose of this study, Botryosphaeria strains were isolated from diseased and symptomless Eucalyptus material from Australia and South

  9. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Whiteley, P L; Woolford, L; Duignan, P J; Bacci, B; Lathe, S; Boardman, W; Scheelings, T F; Funnell, O; Underwood, G; Stevenson, M A

    2017-07-01

    To describe outbreaks of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in free-ranging koalas in Victoria (December 2008 to November 2015) and South Australia (October 2011 to September 2014). Koalas affected by mange-like lesions were reported by wildlife carers, veterinary practitioners or State Government personnel to the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne and the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences at The University of Adelaide. Skin scrapings were taken from live and dead koalas and S. scabiei mites were identified. Tissues from necropsied koalas were examined histologically. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange were found to occur in koalas from both Victoria (n = 29) and South Australia (n = 29) for the first time. The gross pathological and histopathological changes are described. We present the first reported cases of sarcoptic mange outbreaks in free-ranging koalas. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Changes in monthly unemployment rates may predict changes in the number of psychiatric presentations to emergency services in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Bastiampillai, Tarun; Schrader, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert; Piantadosi, Cynthia; Strobel, Jörg; Tucker, Graeme; Allison, Stephen

    2015-07-24

    To determine the extent to which variations in monthly Mental Health Emergency Department (MHED) presentations in South Australian Public Hospitals are associated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) monthly unemployment rates. Times series modelling of relationships between monthly MHED presentations to South Australian Public Hospitals derived from the Integrated South Australian Activity Collection (ISAAC) data base and the ABS monthly unemployment rates in South Australia between January 2004-June 2011. Time series modelling using monthly unemployment rates from ABS as a predictor variable explains 69% of the variation in monthly MHED presentations across public hospitals in South Australia. Thirty-two percent of the variation in current month's male MHED presentations can be predicted by using the 2 months' prior male unemployment rate. Over 63% of the variation in monthly female MHED presentations can be predicted by either male or female prior monthly unemployment rates. The findings of this study highlight that even with the relatively favourable economic conditions, small shifts in monthly unemployment rates can predict variations in monthly MHED presentations, particularly for women. Monthly ABS unemployment rates may be a useful metric for predicting demand for emergency mental health services.

  11. Rural-urban variation in injury-related hospitalisation, health outcomes and treatment cost in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Lower, Tony

    2018-04-19

    To compare differences in injury characteristics, health outcomes and treatment costs between urban and rural residents who were hospitalised following an injury. A retrospective examination of injury-linked hospitalisation and mortality data in New South Wales from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2014. Urban (496 325) and rural (213 139) residents who were hospitalised following an injury. Demographic and injury characteristics, injury severity, hospital length of stay, 28-day hospital readmission, 90-day mortality and treatment cost. Rural residents had an increased likelihood of being hospitalised for injuries from motorcycles, vehicles, animate causes, venomous animals or plants and assault compared to urban residents. Rural residents were less likely to be readmitted to hospital within 28 days and had a lower length of stay and age-adjusted length of stay than urban residents. Injury-related hospitalisations for urban and rural residents cost $4.4 billion and $1.7 billion, respectively. Annually, acute injury treatment ($1.1 billion), rehabilitation ($130 million) and subacute non-acute patient care ($57 million) cost $1.3 billion ($990 million for urban and $384 million for rural residents) in New South Wales. Fall-related injuries and transport incidents were the costliest injury mechanisms for both urban and rural residents. Injuries contribute substantially to hospitalised morbidity and its cost. The development and implementation of injury prevention strategies targeting the most common injuries for urban and rural residents will go some way towards reducing hospitalised injury and its cost. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  12. Using Quality of Family Life Factors to Explore Parents' Experience of Educational Provision for Children with Developmental Disabilities in Rural Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Kathleen; Hussain, Rafat

    2017-01-01

    Australian education service provision includes the delivery of quality educational programmes to rural and remote living children. However, according to their parents, many children with developmental disabilities (such as Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders) who are living in rural country areas in New South Wales (NSW) still do not have…

  13. Beyond 50. challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depczynski Julie C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Methods Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Results Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex

  14. Beyond 50. Challenges at work for older nurses and allied health workers in rural Australia: a thematic analysis of focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragar, Lyn J; Depczynski, Julie C

    2011-02-21

    The health workforce in Australia is ageing, particularly in rural areas, where this change will have the most immediate implications for health care delivery and workforce needs. In rural areas, the sustainability of health services will be dependent upon nurses and allied health workers being willing to work beyond middle age, yet the particular challenges for older health workers in rural Australia are not well known. The purpose of this research was to identify aspects of work that have become more difficult for rural health workers as they have become older; and the age-related changes and exacerbating factors that contribute to these difficulties. Findings will support efforts to make workplaces more 'user-friendly' for older health workers. Nurses and allied health workers aged 50 years and over were invited to attend one of six local workshops held in the Hunter New England region of NSW, Australia. This qualitative action research project used a focus group methodology and thematic content analysis to identify and interpret issues arising from workshop discussions. Eighty older health workers from a range of disciplines attended the workshops. Tasks and aspects of work that have become more difficult for older health workers in hospital settings, include reading labels and administering medications; hearing patients and colleagues; manual handling; particular movements and postures; shift work; delivery of babies; patient exercises and suturing. In community settings, difficulties relate to vehicle use and home visiting. Significant issues across settings include ongoing education, work with computers and general fatigue. Wider personal challenges include coping with change, balancing work-life commitments, dealing with attachments and meeting goals and expectations. Work and age-related factors that exacerbate difficulties include vision and hearing deficits, increasing tiredness, more complex professional roles and a sense of not being valued in the

  15. Downscaling an Eddy-Resolving Global Model for the Continental Shelf off South Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughan, M.; Baird, M.; MacDonald, H.; Oke, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Australian Bluelink collaboration between CSIRO, the Bureau of Meteorology and the Royal Australian Navy has made available to the research community the output of BODAS (Bluelink ocean data assimilation system), an ensemble optimal interpolation reanalysis system with ~10 km resolution around Australia. Within the Bluelink project, BODAS fields are assimilated into a dynamic ocean model of the same resolution to produce BRAN (BlueLink ReANalysis, a hindcast of water properties around Australia from 1992 to 2004). In this study, BODAS hydrographic fields are assimilated into a ~ 3 km resolution Princeton Ocean Model (POM) configuration of the coastal ocean off SE Australia. Experiments were undertaken to establish the optimal strength and duration of the assimilation of BODAS fields into the 3 km resolution POM configuration for the purpose of producing hindcasts of ocean state. It is shown that the resultant downscaling of Bluelink products is better able to reproduce coastal features, particularly velocities and hydrography over the continental shelf off south eastern Australia. The BODAS-POM modelling system is used to provide a high-resolution simulation of the East Australian Current over the period 1992 to 2004. One of the applications that we will present is an investigation of the seasonal and inter-annual variability in the dispersion of passive particles in the East Australian Current. The practical outcome is an estimate of the connectivity of estuaries along the coast of southeast Australia, which is relevant for the dispersion of marine pests.

  16. The relationship between BMI and dietary intake of primary school children from a rural area of South Africa: The Ellisras longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Monyeki, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between dietary intake and BMI of primary school children from a rural area of South Africa cross-sectionally. Both under and over nutrition remain major health problems in South Africa. In rural areas, where especially undernutrition leads to child

  17. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  18. Assessing Program Efficiency: A Time and Motion Study of the Mental Health Emergency Care — Rural Access Program in NSW Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Saurman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program (MHEC-RAP is a telehealth solution providing specialist emergency mental health care to rural and remote communities across western NSW, Australia. This is the first time and motion (T&M study to examine program efficiency and capacity for a telepsychiatry program. Clinical services are an integral aspect of the program accounting for 6% of all activities and 50% of the time spent conducting program activities, but half of this time is spent completing clinical paperwork. This finding emphasizes the importance of these services to program efficiency and the need to address variability of service provision to impact capacity. Currently, there is no efficiency benchmark for emergency telepsychiatry programs. Findings suggest that MHEC-RAP could increase its activity without affecting program responsiveness. T&M studies not only determine activity and time expenditure, but have a wider application assessing program efficiency by understanding, defining, and calculating capacity. T&M studies can inform future program development of MHEC-RAP and similar telehealth programs, both in Australia and overseas.

  19. Brazilian policies and strategies for rural territorial development in Mozambique: South-South cooperation and the case of ProSAVANA and PAA

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Elizabeth Alice [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Brazil's present role in South-South development cooperation in Africa, focusing on the implementation and impact of Brazilian policies for rural territorial development in Mozambique. Specifically, two different programs for agricultural development-ProSAVANA and PAA Africa-are examined. ProSAVANA is an ongoing trilateral program run by the governments of Brazil, Japan and Mozambique that aims to modernize agriculture in three provinces in Northern Mozambique. PAA Africa...

  20. Multi criteria analysis for sustainability assessments of electricity generation systems in a rural community in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigun, B.; Mehlwana, M. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Sustainable Energy Futures, Natural Resources and the Environment; Musango, J.K. [Department of Energy (DoE), Pretoria (South Africa); Brent, A.C. [Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies

    2011-07-01

    One of the key challenges of the energy policy in South Africa is to ensure that rural areas have access to electricity. This is reflected in the key energy policy documents (the 1998 Energy White Paper and the 2002 Renewable Energy White Paper). Both these documents identified renewable energy resources as immediate alternatives to grid electricity in especially remote rural communities that are characterised by low population densities. Centralised energy generation and transmission is very costly and inefficient in these areas due to greater transmission and distribution losses. While the cost of electricity in South Africa is relatively cheaper, it is not accessible for many rural households. There are still over two million households in rural areas without access to electricity. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to compare various electricity technologies (mainly renewables) in a specific rural community of South Africa using social, economic, environment and technical indicators. These technologies were than ranked against each indicator assuming that the high-level criteria have equal importance for sustainable development. It is demonstrated that energy from wind is the most sustainable, followed by photovoltaic, anaerobic digestion (biogas) and then gasification. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to verify the stability of the priority ranking. The outcome of this study will specifically assist energy planners and decision-makers to choose the best alternative from a range of technology alternatives in a milieu of conflicting and competing criteria. (orig.)

  1. Faculty of health sciences, walter sisulu university: training doctors from and for rural South african communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iputo, Jehu E

    2008-10-01

    Introduction The South African health system has disturbing inequalities, namely few black doctors, a wide divide between urban and rural sectors, and also between private and public services. Most medical training programs in the country consider only applicants with higher-grade preparation in mathematics and physical science, while most secondary schools in black communities have limited capacity to teach these subjects and offer them at standard grade level. The Faculty of Health Sciences at Walter Sisulu University (WSU) was established in 1985 to help address these inequities and to produce physicians capable of providing quality health care in rural South African communities. Intervention Access to the physician training program was broadened by admitting students who obtained at least Grade C (60%) in mathematics and physical science at standard grade, and who demonstrated appropriate personal attributes. An innovative curriculum, combining problem-based learning with community-based education (PBL/CBE) in small tutorial group settings, was also adopted. This approach was aimed at educating and graduating a broader cohort of students, while training future doctors to identify, analyze, and treat health problems in the rural South African context. Outcomes To date, 745 doctors (72% black Africans) have graduated from the program, and 511 students (83% black Africans) are currently enrolled. After the PBL/CBE curriculum was adopted, the attrition rate for black students dropped from 23% to 80%, and the proportion of students graduating within the minimum period rose from 55% to >70%. Many graduates are still completing internships or post-graduate training, but preliminary research shows that 36% percent of graduates practice in small towns and rural settings. Further research is underway to evaluate the impact of their training on health services in rural Eastern Cape Province and elsewhere in South Africa. Conclusions The WSU program increased access to

  2. Reproductive behavior in the squid Sepioteuthis australis from South Australia: interactions on the spawning grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Troy M; Havenhand, Jon N

    2003-06-01

    Squid behavior is synonymous with distinctive body patterns, postures, and movements that constitute a complex visual communication system. These communications are particularly obvious during reproduction. They are important for sexual selection and have been identified as a potential means of species differentiation. Here we present a detailed account of copulation, mating, and egg deposition behaviors from in situ observations of the squid Sepioteuthis australis from South Australia. We identified four mating types from 85 separate mating attempts: "Male-upturned mating" (64% of mating attempts); "Sneaker mating" (33%); "Male-parallel" (2%); and "Head-to-head" (1%). Intervals between successive egg deposition behaviors were clearly bimodal, with modes at 2.5 s and 70.0 s. Ninety-three percent of egg capsules contained 3 or 4 eggs (mean = 3.54), and each egg cluster contained between 218 and 1922 egg capsules (mean = 893.9). The reproductive behavior of S. australis from South Australia was different from that described for other cephalopod species. More importantly, comparison between these results and those for other populations of S. australis suggests that behavior may differ from one population to another.

  3. Impact of the introduction of a colposcopy service in a rural South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To describe the establishment of a colposcopy service at a district hospital in a rural sub-district of the Western Cape, South Africa, and assess its impact on colposcopy uptake. Design. A retrospective double-group cohort study using a laboratory database of cervical cytology results, clinical records and ...

  4. A qualitative study of the challenges of providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennion, Liezel; Johannesson, Anton

    2018-04-01

    There is a known shortage of rehabilitation staff in rural settings and a sharp increase in the number of lower limb amputations being performed. A lack of adequate pre-prosthetic rehabilitation will result in worse physical and psychological outcomes for a person with a lower limb amputation, and they will not be eligible to be fitted with a prosthesis. To explore therapists' experiences with providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in a rural setting. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to collect and analyse data. Data were collected from 17 purposively sampled therapists in five district hospitals in a rural community in South Africa. Data were collected in two rounds of focus groups to explore the challenges of providing pre-prosthetic rehabilitation in rural South Africa. The main themes identified in the study were (1) a lack of government health system support, (2) poor socioeconomic circumstances of patients and (3) cultural factors that influence rehabilitation. These themes all negatively influence the therapists' ability to follow up patients for pre-prosthetic rehabilitation after discharge from hospital. A lack of adequate pre-prosthetic rehabilitation is a substantial barrier to prosthetic fitting in rural South Africa. Patients who do not receive pre-prosthetic rehabilitation have a poorly shaped residuum or other complications such as knee or hip joint contractures which disqualifies them from being referred to prosthetic services. Therapists involved in this study identified the most important barriers to patients having access to prosthetic services. Clinical relevance Pre-prosthetic rehabilitation provides care of the residuum; maintenance or improvement of physical strength, joint range of motion and referral to a prosthetist. By exploring the challenges known to exist in this service, we can identify potential ways to reduce these barriers and improve the lives of those who use it.

  5. From Vision to Reality: Views of Primary School Principals on Inclusive Education in New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Linda J.; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research study that used semi-structured interviews to explore the views of primary school principals on inclusive education in New South Wales, Australia. Content analysis of the transcript data indicates that principals' attitudes towards inclusive education and their success in engineering inclusive…

  6. Indigenous Respiratory Outreach Care: the first 18 months of a specialist respiratory outreach service to rural and remote Indigenous communities in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Linda G; Chang, Anne B; Fong, Kwun; Jackson, Rebecca; Bishop, Penny; Dent, Annette; Hill, Deb C; Vincent, Stephen; O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Indigenous Australians. However, there are limited approaches to specialist respiratory care in rural and remote communities that are culturally appropriate. A specialist Indigenous Respiratory Outreach Care (IROC) program, developed to address this gap, is described. The aim of the present study was to implement, pilot and evaluate multidisciplinary specialist respiratory outreach medical teams in rural and remote Indigenous communities in Queensland, Australia. Sites were identified based on a perception of unmet need, burden of respiratory disease and/or capacity to use the clinical service and capacity building for support offered. IROC commenced in March 2011 and, to date, has been implemented in 13 communities servicing a population of approximately 43000 Indigenous people. Clinical service delivery has been possible through community engagement and capacity building initiatives directed by community protocols. IROC is a culturally sensitive and sustainable model for adult and paediatric specialist outreach respiratory services that may be transferrable to Indigenous communities across Queensland and Australia.

  7. European origin of Bradyrhizobium populations infecting lupins and serradella in soils of Western Australia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyzańska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J; Howieson, John

    2005-11-01

    We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Housekeeping gene phylogenies revealed that all serradella and Lupinus cosentinii isolates from Western Australia and three of five South African narrow-leaf lupin strains were intermingled with the strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, forming a well supported branch on each of the trees. All nodA gene sequences of the lupin and serradella bradyrhizobia formed a single branch, referred to as clade II, together with the sequences of other lupin and serradella strains. Similar patterns were detected in nodZ and nolL trees. In contrast, nodA sequences of the strains isolated from native Australian legumes formed either a new branch called clade IV or belonged to clade I or III, whereas their nonsymbiotic genes grouped outside the B. canariense branch. These data suggest that the lupin and serradella strains, including the strains from uncultivated L. cosentinii plants, are descendants of strains that most likely were brought from Europe accidentally with lupin and serradella seeds. The observed dominance of B. canariense strains may be related to this species' adaptation to acid soils common in Western Australia and South Africa and, presumably, to their intrinsic ability to compete for nodulation of lupins and serradella.

  8. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  9. Impact of rurality and substance use on young people at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Helen J; Halpin, Sean A; Baker, Amanda L; Startup, Mike; Carr, Vaughan J; Schall, Ulrich; Crittenden, Kylie; Clark, Vanessa; Lewin, Terry J; Bucci, Sandra

    2017-07-26

    Longitudinal research into early intervention for youth at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis demonstrates beneficial outcomes including increased treatment compliance and greater participation in education and the workforce. Despite known barriers for rural youth accessing mental health services, research comparing urban and rural UHR youth is lacking. The study included an examination of the impact of substance use on functioning of UHR youth. Youth aged 12 to 25 years were recruited from the urban area of Newcastle or the rural area of Orange, New South Wales, Australia, and identified as UHR by the Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States. Rural and urban youth were compared on clinical profiles, social and occupational functioning and substance use. The rural youth showed different help-seeking behaviours and had greater functional impairment than urban youth. Substance use was common across the sample of 57 youth (mean age 16.5 years, 56% female) and a history of hazardous substance use was associated with higher levels of depression. Rural youth (n = 32) were more likely than urban youth to be taking antidepressants at baseline (44% compared with 16%). Different patterns of help seeking by rural UHR youth suggest a need for greater access to psychosis informed primary care early intervention services. Interventions should target functional decline to prevent adverse outcomes such as reduced community participation and unemployment. In addition, interventions for substance use should be a priority for UHR youth, who should also be screened and monitored for depressive symptoms and treated for depression if indicated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in rural and urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy N. Otwombe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in sub-Saharan Africa are widely reported. However rural–urban disparities and their association with all-cause mortality remain unclear. Furthermore, commonly used classical Cox regression ignores unmeasured variables and frailty. Objective: To incorporate frailty in assessing factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in rural and urban South Africa. Design: Using data from a prospective cohort following 6,690 HIV-infected participants from Soweto (urban and Mpumalanga (rural enrolled from 2003 to 2010; covariates of mortality were assessed by the integrated nested Laplace approximation method. Results: We enrolled 2,221 (33% rural and 4,469 (67% urban participants of whom 1,555 (70% and 3,480 (78% were females respectively. Median age (IQR was 36.4 (31.0–44.1 in rural and 32.7 (28.2–38.1 in the urban participants. The mortality rate per 100 person-years was 11 (9.7–12.5 and 4 (3.6–4.5 in the rural and urban participants, respectively. Compared to those not on HAART, rural participants had a reduced risk of mortality if on HAART for 6–12 (HR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10–0.39 and >12 months (HR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.05–0.18. Relative to those not on HAART, urban participants had a lower risk if on HAART >12 months (HR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.27–0.46.The frailty variance was significant and >1 in rural participants indicating more heterogeneity. Similarly it was significant but <1 in the urban participants indicating less heterogeneity. Conclusion: The frailty model findings suggest an elevated risk of mortality in rural participants relative to the urban participants potentially due to unmeasured variables that could be biological, socio–economic, or healthcare related. Use of robust methods that optimise data and account for unmeasured variables could be helpful in assessing the effect of unknown risk factors thus improving patient management and care in South

  11. Dementia and rural nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.F.; Davison, A.; Logan-Sinclair, P.; Sturt University, Dubbo, NSW; Greenough, R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The rapid increase in dementia is directly related to the growing number of aged people in developed countries, such as Australia. This increase heightens the need for accurate dementia diagnosis to ensure treatment resources are appropriately allocated. However, current diagnostic methods are unable to determine specific dementia types limiting the effectiveness of many care plans. The lack of specialist resources in rural Australian communities presents nuclear medicine with an opportunity to make a significant impact on the management of this disease. This investigation aimed to identify how SPECT perfusion imaging could maximise its role in the management of dementia in a rural New South Wales setting. The study reviewed all Technetium 99m HMPAO SPECT brain studies over a three-year period. This included a medical record audit, review of all diagnostic imaging reports and an analysis of referral patterns. The results of this study provide compelling evidence that, even in a rural setting, brain SPECT, in conjunction with neuropsychological testing, offers high accuracy in determining the presence and type of dementia. In addition, the study found more than 30% of referrers had no training in SPECT, emphasising the importance of ensuring that brain SPECT reports, in a rural setting, educate and specify to referrers the significance and exact disease type found in the study. Copyright (2003) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference of Information Science and Computer Applications (ICISCA), Bali, Indonesia, 19-20 November 2012 Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa Nomusa Dlodlo and Mofolo Mofolo CSIR...

  13. Issues Affecting Community Attitudes and Intended Behaviours in Stormwater Reuse: A Case Study of Salisbury, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater has been recognised as one of the additional/alternative sources of water to augment freshwater supply and address the growing needs of humankind. South Australia has been a leader in the development of large-scale urban stormwater harvesting schemes in Australia for nearly 50 years and the Salisbury Local Government Area (LGA, in particular, is at the forefront of urban stormwater management and recycling, not only in the state of South Australia, but worldwide. This is mainly due to its pioneering achievements in stormwater capture and treatment through the managed aquifer recharge (MAR process. However, there are many challenges in implementing water reuse strategies and past studies have identified public health concerns and public acceptance as major challenges. In line with this, our team conducted an internet survey to gauge the attitude and intentions of Salisbury LGA residents to use stormwater treated through the MAR process for non-potable uses. We found that respondents’ emotions and perceptions of health risk, regarding the use of treated stormwater, were closely related to the proximity of the end use to human contact. In terms of quality indicators, colour, odour, and salt levels were all seen as being important. Quality preferences were also closely related to the proximity of the end use to human contact, and reflected the use of water for indoor/outdoor purposes.

  14. The effect of a smoke-free law on restaurant business in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Lal, Anita; Hyland, Andrew; McCaul, Kieran; Miller, Caroline

    2002-08-01

    Despite evidence to the contrary from overseas research, the introduction of smoke-free legislation in South Australia (SA), which required all restaurants to go smoke-free in January 1999, sparked concerns among the hospitality industry about loss of restaurant business. This study aimed to determine whether the law had a detrimental impact on restaurant business in SA. Using time series analysis, we compared the ratio of monthly restaurant turnover from restaurants and cafés in SA to (a) total retail tumover in SA (minus restaurants) for the years 1991 to 2001 and (b) Australian restaurant tumover (minus SA, Westem Australia and the Australian Capital Territory) for the years 1991-2000. There was no decline in the ratio of (a) SA restaurant turnover to SA retail turnover or (b) SA restaurant tumover to Australian restaurant turnover. The introduction of a smoke-free law applying to restaurants in SA did not adversely affect restaurant business in SA.

  15. Australia's energy profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE)'s biennial fuel and electricity survey provides a comprehensive database with which is possible to examine recent trends and developments in Australia's energy market. Some key development are outlined in this article. While energy consumption in Australia has been increasing steadily since 1973-74, substantial changes have occurred 'behind the scenes' in terms of the states and sectors in which energy is consumed and the overall fuel mix. Historically, the south-eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria have accounted for the largest shares of total energy consumption In recent years, however, the dominance of New South Wales and Victoria (and particularly New South Wales) has come under pressure from the states of Queensland. Western Australia, and to a lesser extent, the Northern Territory. Each of these states has experienced rapid growth in energy consumption, due mainly to a number of strongly growing energy intensive industries, particularly in the mining and minerals processing sectors. High economic and population growth over this period were also important factors. An increase in the share of natural gas- and a corresponding decline in the share of crude oil - is the most evident change to have occurred in the fuel mix since 1973-1974. However, since 1993, the trend has changed, the share of coal (and particularly brown coal) increased strongly, making it the primary fuel source for thermal electricity generation. This recent shift has been driven by developments in Queensland and Victoria

  16. Female sex, poverty and globalization as determinants of obesity among rural South African type 2 diabetics: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ter Goon, Daniel

    2015-03-27

    Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have recently been experiencing increases in the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other non-communicable diseases in both urban and rural areas. Despite their growing influence on population health in the region, there is a paucity of epidemiological studies on the twin epidemic of obesity and T2DM, particularly in the rural communities in South Africa. We investigated the prevalence and the determinants of overall obesity among patients with T2DM in rural and semi-urban areas surrounding the town of Mthatha, South Africa. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with T2DM attending the outpatient department at Mthatha General Hospital, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Data were obtained from 327 participants using standardized questionnaires that included items on sex, age, level of education, type of residence, employment status, smoking status, physical activity, diet and alcohol intake. After taking measurements of height and weight, participants were defined as obese if their body mass index exceeded 30 kg/m(2). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the determinants of obesity in our sample population. We found that 60.2% of our sample population were defined as obese. In our univariate analyses, female sex (p rural residence (p poverty reduction and public education are urgently needed to address the growing obesity epidemic in rural areas of South Africa.

  17. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  18. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris and feral cats (Felis catus, and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, feral pigs (Sus scrofa, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, goats (Capra hircus and a European hare (Lepus europaeus, from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37, 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55 and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164 were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia. Keywords: Tongue worm, Australia, Linguatulidae, Pentastomida

  19. Small hydropower for rural electrification in South Africa - using experiences from other African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, WE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Local hydropower sources can play an important role in the electrification of rural areas in South Africa remote from the national electricity grid. To ensure the sustainability of hydropower developments it is essential that lessons learned...

  20. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  1. Teachers' Attitudes towards Adolescent Sexuality and Life Skills Education in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people's sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes…

  2. Water yield issues in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, J. K.; Stoneman, G. L.

    1993-10-01

    The jarrah forest of south-western Australia produces little streamflow from moderate rainfall. Water yield from water supply catchments for Perth, Western Australia, are low, averaging 71 mm (7% of annual rainfall). The low water yields are attributed to the large soil water storage available for continuous use by the forest vegetation. A number of water yield studies in south-western Australia have examined the impact on water yield of land use practices including clearing for agricultural development, forest harvesting and regeneration, forest thinning and bauxite mining. A permanent reduction in forest cover by clearing for agriculture led to permanent increases of water yield of approximately 28% of annual rainfall in a high rainfall catchment. Thinning of a high rainfall catchment led to an increase in water yield of 20% of annual rainfall. However, it is not clear for how long the increased water yield will persist. Forest harvesting and regeneration have led to water yield increases of 16% of annual rainfall. The subsequent recovery of vegetation cover has led to water yields returning to pre-disturbance levels after an estimated 12-15 years. Bauxite mining of a high rainfall catchment led to a water yield increase of 8% of annual rainfall, followed by a return to pre-disturbance water yield after 12 years. The magnitude of specific streamflow generation mechanisms in small catchments subject to forest disturbance vary considerably, typically in a number of distinct stages. The presence of a permanent groundwater discharge area was shown to be instrumental in determining the magnitude of the streamflow response after forest disturbance. The long-term prognosis for water yield from areas subject to forest thinning, harvesting and regeneration, and bauxite mining are uncertain, owing to the complex interrelationship between vegetation cover, tree height and age, and catchment evapotranspiration. Management of the forest for water yield needs to acknowledge

  3. Healthy dietary practices among rural and semi-urban Blacks in the Northern Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate five healthy dietary behaviours in a sample of rural and semi-urban South Africans. The sample consisted of 200 adults, 100 from an semi-urban area (Mankweng and 100 from a rural area (Tiberius in the central region of the Northern Province of South Africa. The two geographically different communities were chosen by convenience and the participants in the two communities were choosen by cluster sampling. Results indicate that about a third (30% in semi-urban and 34% in rural of the study sample are overweight and 18% are obese. A moderately high prevalence of six simple healthy dietary practices was found. However, there was a very low prevalence rate of eating fruits daily among both semi-urban (10% and rural dwellers (9%. Semi-urban dwellers showed significantly higher healthy diet behaviour than rural dwellers in regard to avoiding fat, trying to eat fiber, limiting red meat, and limiting salt. Men reported more than women that they tried to eat fiber and they had more often breakfast everyday. Being semi-urban and female were significantly associated with the healthy dietary index, whereas age, BMI, educational level and marital status were not. The results give insight into dietary health behaviour practices and the factors that influence them, which have practical implications for dietary health promotion.

  4. THE LEVEL OF BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER AWARENESS AMONG WOMEN IN A RURAL AREA OF SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, O; Shemesh, N

    2017-06-01

    In South Africa breast and cervical cancer are the most predominant cancers amongst women, with mortality rates reaching surprising proportions. As a result of the continued rise of these conditions it is vital to determine these women's awareness of both, so as to determine the exact factors contributing to this rise. Whilst both urban and rural areas are afflicted, this study focused primarily on women in a rural area. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a shopping mall located in the rural area of Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga, South Africa. A total of 300 women of reproductive age were randomly identified and requested to fill out a study questionnaire assessing their level of breast and cervical cancer awareness. A total of 300 women participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 35.66 with a range of 13.53. Overall levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer in rural Bushbuckridge were found to be reduced with 66.89% and 74.49% of women who rated themselves with a poor understanding of breast and cervical cancer knowledge respectively. Among the participating women, those over the age of 40, with higher level of education were found to be more cognizant in terms of breast and cervical cancer awareness with a 30% (p = 0.0923) and 52% (p < 0.001) respectively. Their younger and less educated counterparts had a 21% (p = 0.078) and 32% (p = 0.034) awareness of breast and cervical cancer, respectively. The leading source of information for both breast and cervical cancer was healthcare facilities with a 67.11% and 63.5% respectively. This study highlights the lack of awareness and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer in women living in the rural area of Bushbuckridge, South Africa. There is also evidence showing that the older and more educated women have better knowledge than their younger and less educated counterparts, therefore there is a need for increased breast and cervical cancer education and awareness campaigns

  5. Soccer and the politics of identity for young Muslim refugee women in South Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the ways in which a group of young Muslim refugee women in Adelaide, South Australia, draw upon their experiences of playing in a soccer team as a way of establishing and embellishing a particular cultural identity that both affirms and challenges many of the traditions of Islam. Based primarily on qualitative interviews with the players, this study examines some of the ways in which they construct notions of self, sameness and difference as young Muslim women growing up i...

  6. Environmental degradation and intra-household welfare: the case of the Tanzanian rural South Pare Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimoso, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Environmental degradation, intrahousehold labour allocation, intrahousehold welfare.
    Rural south Pare highlands in Tanzania experience a deteriorating environmental situation. Of particular importance is the disappearance of forests and woodlands. The consequence are declining

  7. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. Method This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p influencer leur décision. Méthode C’est une étude quantitative transversale utilisant un instrument de sondage contenant des questions semi-structurées fermée et ouvertes. Résultats Quatre cent trente-huit étudiants ont répondu au questionnaire (un taux de réponse de 85.4%). En général, un grand nombre de répondants ne voulaient pas ouvrir leur premier (66%) ou deuxième cabinet (64.6%) dans les zones rurales. Cependant, la plupart des répondants originaires de la campagne ont répondu qu’ils ouvriraient leur premier cabinet (77.2%) ou leur second (79.4%) dans les zones rurales. Les raisons principales citées par les répondants pour ne pas vouloir travailler dans les zones rurales étaient des préoccupations financières (81.2%), la sécurité personnelle (80.1%) et les mauvaises conditions de vie (75.3%), avec un plus grand nombre (p < 0.05) de la part des r

  8. Typically Diverse: The Nature of Urban Agriculture in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Pollard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In our visions of the future, urban agriculture has long been considered an integral part of the ‘sustainable city’. Yet urban agriculture is an incredibly diverse and variable field of study, and many practical aspects remain overlooked and understudied. This paper explores the economic sustainability of urban agriculture by focusing on the physical, practical, and economic aspects of home food gardens in South Australia. New data from the Edible Gardens project online survey is presented on a broad range of current garden setups, including a figure illustrating the statistically typical South Australian food garden. The differences between the survey data and a recent optimized garden model further highlight the gap in knowledge regarding existing home food gardens. With regard to the financial accessibility and economic sustainability of home food gardens, there is also still much more work to be done. Although saving money is a top motivation, with many survey respondents believing that they do succeed in saving money, it remains to be seen whether their current gardening practices support this aspiration. Measurement of the full costs of different gardens would allow for better predictions of whether growing food can save household’s money and under what circumstances.

  9. Rural Autochthony? The Rejection of an Aboriginal Placename in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Newton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of why the name ‘Mullawallah’, advanced by local Wada wurrung for a new suburb in the Ballarat area, was contested and rejected by residents. It argues that the intersection between corporate profit, government policy and meaning-based issues of belonging should be highlighted for a deeper understanding of practices around place naming. The contextual conditions regarding the democratisation of place-naming policy, overwhelming power of commercial developers to ‘name Australia’ with marketable high status names and a ‘carpentered’ pastoral environment ‘emptied’ of the Indigenous population, created an environment conducive for the contests over naming. The Indigenous people appeared to have been wiped from the landscape and the worldview of settler locals. Concepts of ‘locals’ and ‘rural autochthony’ prove useful for understanding the ambiguities of belonging and placename attachment in Australia. The article argues that cultural politics of naming remains a contested social practice.

  10. Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy administered by general practitioners in rural South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R. E.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Schrooders, P. A.; van de Vijver, D. A.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Tempelman, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the one-year efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) administered by general practitioners in a primary care community clinic in rural South Africa. We performed an observational cohort study of 675 treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus

  11. What keeps health professionals working in rural district hospitals in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis S. Jenkins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The theme of the 2014 Southern African Rural Health Conference was ‘Building resilience in facing rural realities’. Retaining health professionals in South Africa is critical for sustainable health services. Only 12% of doctors and 19% of nurses have been retained in the rural areas. The aim of the workshop was to understand from health practitioners why they continued working in their rural settings. Conference workshop: The workshop consisted of 29 doctors, managers, academic family physicians, nurses and clinical associates from Southern Africa, with work experience from three weeks to 13 years, often in deep rural districts. Using the nominal group technique, the following question was explored, ‘What is it that keeps you going to work every day?’ Participants reflected on their work situation and listed and rated the important reasons for continuing to work. Results: Five main themes emerged. A shared purpose, emanating from a deep sense of meaning, was the strongest reason for staying and working in a rural setting. Working in a team was second most important, with teamwork being related to attitudes and relationships, support from visiting specialists and opportunities to implement individual clinical skills. A culture of support was third, followed by opportunities for growth and continuing professional development, including teaching by outreaching specialists. The fifth theme was a healthy work-life balance. Conclusion: Health practitioners continue to work in rural settings for often deeper reasons relating to a sense of meaning, being part of a team that closely relate to each other and feeling supported.

  12. Application of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) in a rural, Zulu speaking, adolescent population in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Christopher P; Allwood, Clifford W

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken as part of an exploration of the potential risk for future eating disorders in the black female population of South Africa. Previous research has documented eating attitudes suggesting that such a risk exists in urban populations. A translated version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied in a Zulu speaking, rural population (n=361). A prevalence of 3% for abnormal eating attitudes was established. In keeping with the hypothesis, the findings suggest that the risk for developing an eating disorder in a rural population is somewhat lower. In this regard, there does appear to be an urban-rural divide, which may have implications for the prevention of the emergence of eating disorders in black, South African adolescents. However, the validity of the EAT-26 in this population is a consideration in interpreting the data. PMID:16633489

  13. Assessment of common otolaryngological diseases among children in rural primary schools in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaegbe, Onyinyechi C; Umedum, Nnaemeka G; Chime, Ethel N; Orji, Foster T

    2016-10-01

    Despite a global improvement in health care delivery, rural areas in developing countries still have poor access to specialist care. This study aims to assess the occurrences of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders among rural primary school children in south-eastern Nigeria. Two rural primary schools were selected randomly from one of the rural regions of South Eastern State of Nigeria. All the pupils of the schools who gave consent were recruited. A structured study proforma investigating the pupils' biodata, otolaryngological symptoms, ear, nose and throat examination findings, was used to evaluate each pupil in the presence of the teachers. A total of 246 children participated in the study. 145(58.9%) were males while 101(41.1%) were females with a mean age of 8.5 ± 2.4 years. The commonest symptoms reported were nasal discharge (20%) followed by nasal obstruction (11.1%), itching of the ears (11.1%) and sneezing bouts (10%), while 3.7% had subjective hearing impairment. The commonest ENT finding was cerumen auris (43%) and this was observed in 43.4% of males and 42.4% of females, 11% had abnormal tympanic membranes and 20% had grades 3/4 tonsils(Brodsky grading). ENT disorders are still common in children in the rural areas of developing countries. To avoid the morbidity associated with these preventable and easily manageable disorders, community health workers should be trained to manage common ENT disorders and mobile clinics with scheduled visits made available in areas where ENT services remain inaccessible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants of Uncontrolled Hypertension in Rural Communities in South Asia - Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar, Tazeen H; Gandhi, Mihir; Jehan, Imtiaz; Naheed, Aliya; de Silva, H Asita; Shahab, Hunaina; Alam, Dewan; Luke, Nathasha; Lim, Ching Wee

    2018-04-26

    Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) is a leading risk factor for death and disability in South Asia. We aimed to determine the cross-country variation, and the factors associated with uncontrolled BP among adults treated for hypertension in rural South Asia. We enrolled 1718 individuals aged ≥40 years treated for hypertension in a cross-sectional study from rural communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the factors associated with uncontrolled BP (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg). Among hypertensive individuals, 58.0% (95% confidence interval 55.7, 60.4) had uncontrolled BP: 52.8% (49.0, 56.6) in Bangladesh, 70.6% (65.7, 75.1) in Pakistan, and 56.5% (52.7, 60.1) in Sri Lanka. The odds (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)) of uncontrolled BP were significantly higher in individuals with lower wealth index (1.17 (1.02, 1.35)); single vs married (1.46 (1.10, 1.93)); higher log urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (1.41 (1.24, 1.60)); lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (1.23 (1.01, 1.49)); low vs high adherence to antihypertensive medication (1.50 (1.16, 1.94)); and Pakistan (2.91 (1.60, 5.28)) vs Sri Lanka. However, the odds were lower in those with vs without self-reported kidney disease (0.51 (0.28, 0.91)); and receiving vs not receiving statins (0.62 (0.44, 0.87)). The majority of individuals with treated hypertension have uncontrolled BP in rural Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka with significant disparities among and within countries. Urgent public health efforts are needed to improve access and adherence to antihypertensive medications in disadvantaged populations in rural South Asia.

  15. Hydrological response to bauxite mining and rehabilitation in the jarrah forest in south west Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew H. Grigg

    2017-01-01

    Study region: Jarrah forest in south west Australia. Study focus: The hydrological response to bauxite mining in the jarrah forest could differ from other land uses such as timber harvesting or clearing for agriculture, since mining involves excavation of the upper regolith in addition to changes in forest cover due to clearing and subsequent rehabilitation. Three catchments, one subject to mining, a second subject to an intensive forest thinning treatment and an untreated control were mon...

  16. Syphilis screening among 27,150 pregnant women in South Chinese rural areas using point-of-care tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Gang Yang

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China.Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA tests.Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphilis. 106 (0.39% syphilis cases were diagnosed, of which 78 (73.6% received treatment for syphilis. Multivariate analysis revealed that older pregnant women (31-35 years old, aOR 2.7, 95% CI 0.99-7.32; older than 35 years old, aOR 5.9, 95% CI 2.13-16.34 and those with a history of adverse pregnant outcomes (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.30-5.76 were more likely to be infected with syphilis.A high prevalence of syphilis exists among pregnant women living in rural areas of South China. Enhanced integration of syphilis screening with other routine women's health services (OB GYN, family planning may be useful for controlling China's syphilis epidemic.

  17. 'Taking care' in the age of AIDS: older rural South Africans' strategies for surviving the HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, Nicole; Mojola, Sanyu A; Schatz, Enid; Williams, Jill R; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier

    2018-03-01

    Older adults have been largely overlooked in community studies of HIV in highly endemic African countries. In our rural study site in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, HIV prevalence among those aged 50 and older is 16.5%, suggesting that older adults are at risk of both acquiring and transmitting HIV. This paper utilises community-based focus-group interviews with older rural South African men and women to better understand the normative environment in which they come to understand and make decisions about their health as they age in an HIV endemic setting. We analyse the dimensions of an inductively emerging theme: ku ti hlayisa (to take care of yourself). For older adults, 'taking care' in an age of AIDS represented: (1) an individualised pathway to achieving old-age respectability through the taking up of responsibilities and behaviours that characterise being an older person, (2) a set of gendered norms and strategies for reducing one's HIV risk, and (3) a shared responsibility for attenuating the impact of the HIV epidemic in the local community. Findings reflect the individual, interdependent and communal ways in which older rural South Africans understand HIV risk and prevention, ways that also map onto current epidemiological thinking for improving HIV-related outcomes in high-prevalence settings.

  18. European Origin of Bradyrhizobium Populations Infecting Lupins and Serradella in Soils of Western Australia and South Africa† ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyżańska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J.; Howieson, John

    2005-01-01

    We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Housekeeping gene phylogenies revealed that all serradella and Lupinus cosentinii isolates from Western Australia and three of five South African narrow-leaf lupin strains were intermingled with the strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, forming a well supported branch on each of the trees. All nodA gene sequences of the lupin and serradella bradyrhizobia formed a single branch, referred to as clade II, together with the sequences of other lupin and serradella strains. Similar patterns were detected in nodZ and nolL trees. In contrast, nodA sequences of the strains isolated from native Australian legumes formed either a new branch called clade IV or belonged to clade I or III, whereas their nonsymbiotic genes grouped outside the B. canariense branch. These data suggest that the lupin and serradella strains, including the strains from uncultivated L. cosentinii plants, are descendants of strains that most likely were brought from Europe accidentally with lupin and serradella seeds. The observed dominance of B. canariense strains may be related to this species' adaptation to acid soils common in Western Australia and South Africa and, presumably, to their intrinsic ability to compete for nodulation of lupins and serradella. PMID:16269740

  19. Access to ICT education for girls and women in rural South Africa: a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the impact of socio-economic factors on girls and women’s access to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) education and training in a rural South African environment and recommends strategies for improved access to ICT...

  20. Predicting the distribution of Endophyllum osteospermi (Uredinales, Pucciniaceae) in Australia based on its climatic requirements and distribution in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wood, A.R.; Crous, P.W.; Lennox, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    The perennial bush Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (Asteraceae) is infected by the autoecious, microcyclic rust fungus Endophyllum osteospermi. Both organisms are native to South Africa, whilst the plant has also become naturalised in Australia where it is the target of a biological

  1. Diagnosing cancer in the bush: a mixed-methods study of symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in people with cancer from rural Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Jon D; Walter, Fiona M; Gray, Vicky; Sinclair, Craig; Howting, Denise; Bulsara, Max; Bulsara, Caroline; Webster, Andrew; Auret, Kirsten; Saunders, Christobel; Nowak, Anna; Holman, C D'Arcy

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the treatment received by rural cancer patients and have not examined their diagnostic pathways as reasons for poorer outcomes in rural Australia. To compare and explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in patients with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural Western Australia (WA). A mixed-methods study of people recently diagnosed with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural WA. The time from first symptom to diagnosis (i.e. total diagnostic interval, TDI) was calculated from interviews and medical records. Sixty-six participants were recruited (24 breast, 20 colorectal, 14 prostate and 8 lung cancer patients). There was a highly significant difference in time from symptom onset to seeking help between cancers (P = 0.006). Geometric mean symptom appraisal for colorectal cancer was significantly longer than that for breast and lung cancers [geometric mean differences: 2.58 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.64-4.53), P = 0.01; 3.97 (1.63-6.30), P = 0.001, respectively]. There was a significant overall difference in arithmetic mean TDI (P = 0.046); breast cancer TDI was significantly shorter than colorectal or prostate cancer TDI [mean difference : 266.3 days (95% CI: 45.9-486.8), P = 0.019; 277.0 days, (32.1-521.9), P = 0.027, respectively]. These differences were explained by the nature and personal interpretation of symptoms, perceived as well as real problems of access to health care, optimism, stoicism, machismo, fear, embarrassment and competing demands. Longer symptom appraisal was observed for colorectal cancer. Participants defined core characteristics of rural Australians as optimism, stoicism and machismo. These features, as well as access to health care, contribute to later presentation of cancer.

  2. Pathogen Presence in European Starlings Inhabiting Commercial Piggeries in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Hayley E; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-06-01

    The majority of bacterial diarrhea-causing illnesses in domestic pigs result from infection with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., or Campylobacter spp. These bacterial enteropathogens also correspond with the most-common bacteria isolated from wild birds. Additionally, viral pathogens such as avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV, including Kunjin disease), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) may also be carried and transmitted by birds in Australia. Introduced European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus) are one of the most-frequently reported birds on piggeries in Australia. The presence of the three bacterial pathogens, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli , as well as the three viral pathogens AIV, WNV, and NDV, were evaluated in starlings captured on four commercial piggeries in South Australia. A total of 473 starlings were captured on the four piggeries in 2008 and 2009. A cloacal swab was taken from each bird and cultured for bacterial identification, with follow-up serotyping of any positives, whilst fifty samples were analyzed by PCR for the three target viral pathogens. There was no AIV, WNV, or NDV detected in the 50 starlings sampled. Escherichia coli was found to be present in the starling populations on all four piggeries whilst Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni were found to be present only in the starling population sampled on one piggery. Serotyping identified pig-pathogenic strains of the bacteria. The prevalence of these production-limiting bacterial pathogens in starlings, coupled with the large starling populations often found inside piggeries during daylight hours in the summer months, presents a disease transmission risk and jeopardizes piggery disease management. Removal of starlings from agricultural enterprises (as shown by international studies), or prevention of starling access to animal feed and water, could substantially reduce the risk of transmission of enterobacterial pathogens from starlings to

  3. "Latte rural": the tangible and intangible factors important in the choice of a rural practice by recent GP graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Caroline O; Williamson, Victoria; Sumner, Karen E; Fleming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    A large of amount of literature exists on the factors that influence the recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners (GPs) in Australia and other countries. The selection of a rural practice location is known to be influenced by professional, personal and family, community and economic factors. Most of this research has been undertaken on the either the baby boomer generation or their predecessors, and this is likely to have influenced the responses gained. Generation X and Y doctors are known to have a different perception regarding workload, lifestyle and the support required to practise. The aim of this study was to explore, from a Generation X perspective, factors deemed important by general practice graduates in selecting a rural practice at completion of their training. The study also aimed to identify the process general practice graduates use to identify a potential rural practice, and when they commence this process. Semi-structured interviews were held with 15 rural pathway general practice registrars in their final year of training with 2 regional training providers in South Australia. The interview topics included source of information on potential practices, their ideal rural practice and community, the process used to select a practice, and when they commenced this process. Phenomenological hermeneutic thematic analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken to identify themes and sub-themes. For an ideal rural practice, registrars wished to work in a practice with a friendly atmosphere, good business structure, support from senior GPs and in close proximity to a hospital. They also wanted reasonable on-call arrangements, the chance to develop further skills (such as anaesthetics or obstetrics) and the freedom to practise according to their interests. They also emphasised the importance of a good team and an ethical practice. In terms of community, registrars wanted a positive living place, access to amenities such as childcare, good

  4. Cervical cancer screening in rural South Africa among HIV-infected migrant farm workers and sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omara Afzal

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate successful integration of cervical cancer screening using VIA for HIV+ farm workers and sex workers into an existing HIV treatment and prevention clinic in rural South Africa, addressing and treating abnormal results promptly.

  5. Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia.

  6. Double jeopardy: The dichotomy of fuelwood use in rural South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsika, R.; Erasmus, B.F.N.; Twine, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Energy security is central to achieving sustainable development and reducing poverty worldwide. Over 70% of the population of Sub-Saharan Africa, mostly in the rural areas, depend on wood fuel, as firewood or charcoal, to meet their primary domestic energy requirements. This dependence is projected to increase with population growth in the intermediate future, regardless of the implementation of rural electrification programmes.. Fuelwood shortages occur at the localised village level and are a chronic landscape syndrome, becoming more severe over time, with increasing population pressures and competing land-uses. In the South African context, the provision of electricity to rural households at subsidised rates would be expected to provide a viable alternative to fuelwood under conditions of scarcity. This paper compares the fuelwood consumption strategies of households in a fuelwood-scarce environment against those in fuelwood-abundant environment in order to illustrate the inelastic nature of the demand for fuelwood in rural communities, even in the face of severely depleted wood stocks. We seek to understand the mechanisms that households implement to ensure household fuelwood/energy security and how these responses aggregate at the landscape level to shape landscape dynamics. This will aid better planning of intervention policies in the future. - Highlights: ► Rural household demand for fuelwood is inelastic inspite of fuelwood scarcity. ► Electricity is incorporated into household energy mix but is rarely used exclusively. ► Opportunity-cost of wood collection is discounted by the lack of viable alternatives. ► Potential for land-use conflicts once communal woodland resources are depleted.

  7. Water governance challenges for rural supply: A case study of two local municipalities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkuna, ZW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available . W Nkuna Student Number: 10544403 Supervisor: Prof. C J dew. Rautenbach Department: Geography, Geo-informatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria ABSTRACT In South Africa water is regarded as constitutional right and government has therefore... the water needs of rural communities. Issues such as poverty, water resources challenges and lack of capacity and skills at municipalities create problems which leave rural communities with no alternative but to rely on unsafe water sources for their water...

  8. A comparison of barriers to accessing services for mental and physical health conditions in a sample of rural Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Kate; Hull, Melissa; Jones, Martin; Dollman, James

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of chronic disease, mortality and suicide rates is higher in rural Australia than in urban centres. Understanding rural Australians' barriers to accessing health services requires urgent attention. The purpose of this study was to compare barriers to help-seeking for physical and mental health issues among rural South Australian adults. A total of 409 people from three rural and remote regions in South Australia completed a computer-assisted telephone interview. They were presented a physical or mental health scenario and rated the extent to which barriers would prevent them from seeking help for that condition. Responses ranged from 1 ('strongly disagree') to 5 ('strongly agree') and were averaged to form domain scores (higher scores representing stronger barriers to seeking support), in addition to being examined at the item level. Men reported higher barriers for the mental compared with physical health scenario across four domains ('need for control and self-reliance', 'minimising the problem, resignation and normalisation', 'privacy' and 'emotional control'). Women reported higher barriers for the mental compared to physical health scenario in two domains ('need for control and self-reliance' and 'privacy'). Both men and women endorsed many items in the mental health context (eg 'I don't like feeling controlled by other people', 'I wouldn't want to overreact to a problem that wasn't serious', 'Problems like this are part of life; they're just something you have to deal with', 'I'd prefer just to put up with it rather than dwell on my problems', 'Privacy is important to me, and I don't want other people to know about my problems' and 'I don't like to get emotional about things') but in the physical health context, barriers were endorsed only by men (eg 'I wouldn't want to overreact to a problem that wasn't serious',' I'd prefer just to put up with it rather than dwell on my problems', 'Problems like this are part of life; they're just something

  9. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-06-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAIC c ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R (2)(m) (76.4) and R (2)(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km(2)) of the Adelaide-Mount Lofty Ranges, a density-suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685-199,723; average density = 5.0-35.8 km(-2)). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  10. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAICc ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R2(m) (76.4) and R2(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km2) of the Adelaide–Mount Lofty Ranges, a density–suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685–199,723; average density = 5.0–35.8 km−2). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  11. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15 percent. There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A vertical flux manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on climate, land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In areas with land-use change, recharge rates have increased. Where rainfall has declined sufficiently, recharge rates are decreasing, and where compensating factors combine, there is little change to recharge. In the southwestern part of the study area, the patterns of groundwater recharge are dictated primarily by soil, geology and land cover. In the sand-dominated areas, there is little response to future climate change, because groundwater levels are shallow and much rainfall is rejected recharge. Where the combination of native vegetation and

  12. Rural development and the role of game farming in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasmans, Thijs; Hebinck, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of game farming is set in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Game farming reorders the use, meaning and value of land and animal species. However, what it means for rural development processes in the immediate region and beyond is not well accounted for. We perceive game farming as an

  13. Conceptions of Contraceptive Use in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Lessons for Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndinda, Catherine; Ndhlovu, Tidings; Khalema, Nene Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Community family planning programmes in South Africa arose from the controversial apartheid history of controlling the African population while encouraging the growth of European migrant population. Post-apartheid population policies shifted away from population control to aligning policies to the global agenda that placed emphasis on the link between population and development. The focus on population and development polices in post-apartheid South Africa is on social equality, justice and peace rather than controlling sections of the population. Given the shift, this paper interrogates the conceptions of contraceptive use among rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal. Our primary objective is to understand the dynamics surrounding access to and use of family planning services in peri-urban and rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal. Using focus group data, the findings of the study suggest that different social categories interact with the family planning programmes differently. How teenagers and married women perceive the value of family planning differs. Gender differences regarding the use of condoms are also evident. The paper attempts to grapple with the non-use of condoms despite the knowledge that these prevent pregnancy and provide protection from sexually-transmitted diseases. The contribution of this paper lies in its identification of socio-cultural factors and the political economy underlying the different attitudes towards contraceptive use in rural KwaZulu-Natal. PMID:28350334

  14. Conceptions of Contraceptive Use in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Lessons for Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndinda, Catherine; Ndhlovu, Tidings; Khalema, Nene Ernest

    2017-03-28

    Community family planning programmes in South Africa arose from the controversial apartheid history of controlling the African population while encouraging the growth of European migrant population. Post-apartheid population policies shifted away from population control to aligning policies to the global agenda that placed emphasis on the link between population and development. The focus on population and development polices in post-apartheid South Africa is on social equality, justice and peace rather than controlling sections of the population. Given the shift, this paper interrogates the conceptions of contraceptive use among rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal. Our primary objective is to understand the dynamics surrounding access to and use of family planning services in peri-urban and rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal. Using focus group data, the findings of the study suggest that different social categories interact with the family planning programmes differently. How teenagers and married women perceive the value of family planning differs. Gender differences regarding the use of condoms are also evident. The paper attempts to grapple with the non-use of condoms despite the knowledge that these prevent pregnancy and provide protection from sexually-transmitted diseases. The contribution of this paper lies in its identification of socio-cultural factors and the political economy underlying the different attitudes towards contraceptive use in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

  15. "The grave yawns for the horseman." Equestrian deaths in South Australia 1973-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, D J

    1984-11-10

    The fatalities associated with the riding and handling of horses in South Australia over the 11-year period 1973-1983 are reviewed. There were 18 deaths, including two sudden natural deaths in the saddle and one drowning. The 15 cases of horse-related trauma represent a death rate of approximately one per million population per annum. Thirteen of the deaths were the result of a head injury after a fall. Nine persons were not wearing protective headgear. The two principal groups at risk were male professional riders with a mean age of 32 years and female amateurs with a mean age of 19 years.

  16. The discovery and development of uranium in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    The history of the discovery of Australia's uranium deposits is reviewed. The exploration can be conveniently divided into three periods - pre-1944, when the only significant discoveries were made by prospectors in South Australia at Radium Hill and Mount Painter; 1944-1960 and post-1967. The second period saw uranium discoveries in the Northern Territory and Queensland, most of which were made by prospectors using hand-held geiger counters and rewarded by the Australian Government. Since 1967 new deposits have been found in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia by companies using maps, airborne radiometric surveys and sophisticated equipment. The step from the discovery of Mary Kathleen by prospectors to finding Roxby Downs by a combination of geophysical methods, geological concepts and deep drilling was a very big one

  17. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  18. Temperature Data From AUSTRALIA STAR and Other Platforms From Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean From 19860929 to 19890106 (NODC Accession 8900196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data from Australia Star and other ships from Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from September 29, 1986 to January 6, 1989. The data were collected by...

  19. BUSHFIRE BEHAVIOUR MODELLING USING FARSITE WITH GIS INTEGRATION FOR THE MITCHAM HILLS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAAD ALSHARRAH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bushfire behaviour modelling using FARSITE with GIS integration for the Mitcham Hills, South Australia. Bushfires are now becoming of serious concern as they can have devastating effects on the natural and human ecosystems. An important element of bushfires is fire behaviour. Fire behaviour describes the mode in which a fire reacts to the influences of fuel, weather, topography and fire fighting. In order to understand and predict fire growth and the behaviour of fires, decision makers use fire models to simulate fire behaviour. Fire behaviour modelling can assist forest managers and environmental decision makers in the understanding of how a fire will behave with the influences of environmental factors such as fuels, weather and topography. This study models (spatially and temporally the behaviour of a hypothetical fire for the Mitcham Hills in South Australia using FARSITE (Fire Area Simulator. FARSITE, a two-dimensional deterministic model, takes into account the factors that influence fire behaviour (fuels, weather and topography and simulates the spread and behaviours of fires based on the parameters inputted. Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS techniques were utilised for data preparation and the mapping of parameters that are needed and welcomed by FARSITE. The results are a simulation of spread of fire, fireline intensity, flame length and time of arrival for the area of interest. The simulation confirmed that it can be used for predicting how a fire will spread and how long it will take which can be very beneficial for fire suppression and control and risk assessment.

  20. Female Sport Participation In South African Rural Schools: Analysis Of Socio-Cultural Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubayi Ntwanano Alliance

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine constraints to sport participation among female secondary school students in Hlanganani rural area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 101 female students aged 17–24 years from four secondary schools were recruited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results indicated that the dress code, lack of energy, lack of family support and family commitment were identified as major constraints to sport participation among female students. The results of this study provide practical implications for promoting and developing female sports programmes in rural schools. This study suggests that stakeholders such as parents, peers, and teachers should motivate and encourage female students to participate in school sport. Additionally, the study recommended that in order to promote sport participation in rural areas, the values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and customs that restrict females from participating in sport and physical activity should be dissented.

  1. Characteristics of suicidal attempts among farmers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, farming as an industry is considered a high-risk occupation for suicides. Certain states in India like Karnataka have a suicide rate higher than the national average, and this is generally attributed to the farmers' suicide. Aims: The aim is to study the characteristics of suicidal attempts among the farmer community in South India, with special emphasis on gender differences, modes used, and the immediate precipitant causes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, case register-based, explorative-descriptive study of 426 consecutive medicolegal case files of patients whose stated occupation was farming and who were admitted as cases of deliberate self-harm or suicide attempt to a rural tertiary care hospital in rural South India. Results: Out of the 426 farmers who attempted suicide, majority were male (355, 83.3%, in the age group of 21–40 years (318, 75%, married (358, 84%, and belonging to lower socioeconomic status (268, 62.9%. About 54% of them had attempted suicide by consuming pesticides (230. Surprisingly, 183 (43% and 86 (20.2% reported the immediate precipitant as being relationship issues and marital conflict, respectively, and only 100 (23.5% attributed it to financial reasons. Females were significantly associated with a past history of suicidal attempt while males tended to abuse alcohol before an attempt more frequently. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning was the most common mode for attempting suicide among the farmers. Contrary to public perception and other studies, relationship, and marital issues, not financial reasons were found to be the most common immediate precipitant for the attempters in our study.

  2. Interest in rural clinical school is not enough: Participation is necessary to predict an ultimate rural practice location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playford, Denese; Puddey, Ian B

    2017-08-01

    Rural exposure during medical school is associated with increased rural work after graduation. How much of the increase in rural workforce by these graduates is due to pre-existing interest and plans to work rurally and how much is related to the extended clinical placement is not known. This cohort study compared the employment location of medical graduates who professed no rural interest as undergraduates (negative control), with those who applied but did not participate in Rural Clinical School of Western Australia (RCSWA) (positive control), and those who applied and participated in RCSWA (participants). All 1026 University of Western Australia students who had an opportunity to apply for a year-long rotation in RCSWA from 2004 to 2010, and who had subsequently graduated by the end of 2011, were included. Graduates' principal workplace location (AHPRA, Feb 2014). The three groups differed significantly in their graduate work locations (χ 2 = 39.2, P rural background (OR 2.99 (95% CI 1.85, 4.85), P Rural Bonded Scholarship (OR 3.36 (95% CI 1.68, 6.73, P = 0.001) and actually participating in the RCSWA remained significantly related to rural work (OR 3.10 (95% CI 1.95, 4.93), P rural work, RCSWA graduates were three times more likely to work rurally than either control group. These data suggest that RCSWA has a significant independent effect on rural workforce. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. Aqueduct networks in the Roman Valentia: rural supply channels south the Turia River | La red de acueductos de la Valentia romana: canales de abastecimiento rural al sur del Túria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Hortelano Uceda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the hydraulic network existing in the south bank of the Túria River. It supplies water to the rural settlements of the Pla de Quart region, in the territorium of Valentia. We show the channel’s plans, the result of recent researches and altimetric studies, and we propose their relation to the centuriated area in the south of Valentia. | El presente artículo es una revisión de las redes hidráulicas de época romana que toman sus aguas en la ribera sur del Túria y sirven para el abastecimiento rural de la comarca del Pla de Quart, en el territorium de Valentia. Se presentan sus trazados conforme a los tramos conocidos como fruto de recientes trabajos de prospección y estudio altimétrico y se propone su relación con los asentamientos rurales del área centuriada del sur de Valentia.

  4. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Surona; Schneider, Marguerite

    2014-02-18

    The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa's health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, health worker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcare services and increasing the doctors' hours.

  5. The associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyema, M; Norris, S A; Said-Mohamed, R; Tollman, S T; Twine, R; Kahn, K; Richter, L M

    2018-03-23

    Approximately 25% of the world's population consists of young people. The experience of violence peaks during adolescence and the early adult years. A link between personal experience of violence and mental health among young people has been demonstrated but rural-urban differences in these associations are less well known in low to middle income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women. Data on experiences of violence and psychological distress were collected from a total of 926 non-pregnant young women aged between 18 and 22 years of age in rural and urban sites in South Africa. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess psychological distress as an indicator of mental health. Generalised structural equation models were employed to assess potential pathways of association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress. Thirty-four percent of the urban young women (n = 161) reported psychological distress compared to 18% of rural young women (n = 81). In unadjusted analysis, exposure to interpersonal violence doubled the odds of psychological distress in the urban adolescents and increased the odds 1.6 times in the rural adolescents. In adjusted models, the relationship remained significant in the urban area only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.00). Rural residence seemed protective against psychological distress (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Structural equation modelling did not reveal any direct association between exposure to interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural young women. Stressful household events were indirectly associated with psychological distress, mediated by violence among young women in the urban area. The relationship between violence and psychological distress differs between urban and rural-residing young women in South Africa, and is influenced by individual, household and community

  6. Integrating evidence into policy and sustainable disability services delivery in western New South Wales, Australia: the 'wobbly hub and double spokes' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Craig; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Gallego, Gisselle; Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Brentnall, Jennie; Griffiths, Scott

    2012-03-21

    Policy that supports rural allied health service delivery is important given the shortage of services outside of Australian metropolitan centres. The shortage of allied health professionals means that rural clinicians work long hours and have little peer or service support. Service delivery to rural and remote communities is further complicated because relatively small numbers of clients are dispersed over large geographic areas. The aim of this five-year multi-stage project is to generate evidence to confirm and develop evidence-based policies and to evaluate their implementation in procedures that allow a regional allied health workforce to more expeditiously respond to disability service need in regional New South Wales, Australia. The project consists of four inter-related stages that together constitute a full policy cycle. It uses mixed quantitative and qualitative methods, guided by key policy concerns such as: access, complexity, cost, distribution of benefits, timeliness, effectiveness, equity, policy consistency, and community and political acceptability. Stage 1 adopts a policy analysis approach in which existing relevant policies and related documentation will be collected and reviewed. Policy-makers and senior managers within the region and in central offices will be interviewed about issues that influence policy development and implementation. Stage 2 uses a mixed methods approach to collecting information from allied health professionals, clients, and carers. Focus groups and interviews will explore issues related to providing and receiving allied health services. Discrete Choice Experiments will elicit staff and client/carer preferences. Stage 3 synthesises Stage 1 and 2 findings with reference to the key policy issues to develop and implement policies and procedures to establish several innovative regional workforce and service provision projects. Stage 4 uses mixed methods to monitor and evaluate the implementation and impact of new or adapted

  7. Age and Gender Differences in Social Network Composition and Social Support Among Older Rural South Africans: Findings From the HAALSI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Morris, Katherine Ann; Manderson, Lenore; Perkins, Jessica M; Berkman, Lisa F

    2018-03-26

    Drawing on the "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH community in South Africa" (HAALSI) baseline survey, we present data on older adults' social networks and receipt of social support in rural South Africa. We examine how age and gender differences in social network characteristics matched with patterns predicted by theories of choice- and constraint-based network contraction in older adults. We used regression analysis on data for 5,059 South African adults aged 40 and older. Older respondents reported fewer important social contacts and less frequent communication than their middle-aged peers, largely due to fewer nonkin connections. Network size difference between older and younger respondents was greater for women than for men. These gender and age differences were explicable by much higher levels of widowhood among older women compared to younger women and older men. There was no evidence for employment-related network contraction or selective retention of emotionally supportive ties. Marriage-related structural constraints impacted on older women's social networks in rural South Africa, but did not explain choice-based network contraction. These findings suggest that many older women in rural Africa, a growing population, may have an unmet need for social support.

  8. Human Rights as Practice: Dalit Women's Collective Action to Secure Livelihood Entitlements in rural South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangubhai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate how Dalit women in rural South India secure livelihood entitlements by analysing processes of social exclusion as well as collective action by these women through their perspectives. This problematic requires focus on how caste, class and gender mutually construct

  9. Low-temperature thermochronology of the Mt Painter Province, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.M.; Kohn, B.P.; O'Sullivan, P.B.; Hartley, M.J.; University of Florida, FL

    2002-01-01

    Apatite fission track results are reported for 26 outcrop samples from the Mt Painter Inlier, Mt Babbage Inlier and adjacent Neoproterozoic rocks of the northwestern Curnamona Craton of South Australia. Forward modelling of the data indicates that the province experienced variable regional cooling from temperatures >110deg C during the Late Palaeozoic (Late Carboniferous to Early Permian). The timing of this cooling is similar to that previously reported from elsewhere in the Adelaide Fold Belt and the Curnamona Craton, suggesting that the entire region underwent extensive Late Palaeozoic cooling most likely related to the waning stages of the Alice Springs or Kanimblan Orogenies. Results from the Paralana Fault Zone indicate that the eastern margin of the Mt Painter Inlier experienced a second episode of cooling (∼40-60deg C) during the Paleocene to Eocene. The entire region also experienced significant cooling (less than ∼40deg C) during the Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene in response to unroofing and/or a decrease in geothermal gradient. Regional cooling/erosion during this time is supported by: geomorphological and geophysical evidence indicating Tertiary exhumation of at least 1 km; Eocene sedimentation initiated in basins adjacent to the Flinders and Mt Lofty Ranges sections of the Adelaide Fold Belt; and Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary cooling previously reported from apatite fission track studies in the Willyama Inliers and the southern Adelaide Fold Belt. Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene cooling is probably related to a change in stress field propagated throughout the Australian Plate, and driven by the initiation of sea-floor spreading in the Tasman Sea in the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene global plate reorganisation. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  10. Consumers’ experiences of back pain in rural Western Australia: access to information and services, and self-management behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briggs Andrew M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated, interdisciplinary services, supported by self-management underpin effective management for chronic low back pain (CLBP. However, a combination of system, provider and consumer-based barriers exist which limit the implementation of such models into practice, particularly in rural areas where unique access issues exist. In order to improve health service delivery for consumers with CLBP, policymakers and service providers require a more in depth understanding of these issues. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore barriers experienced by consumers in rural settings in Western Australia (WA to accessing information and services and implementing effective self-management behaviours for CLBP. Methods Fourteen consumers with a history of CLBP from three rural sites in WA participated. Maximum variation sampling was employed to ensure a range of experiences were captured. An interviewer, blinded to quantitative pain history data, conducted semi-structured telephone interviews using a standardised schedule to explore individuals’ access to information and services for CLBP, and self-management behaviours. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis techniques were used to derive and refine key themes. Results Five key themes were identified that affected individuals’ experiences of managing CLBP in a rural setting, including: 1 poor access to information and services in rural settings; 2 inadequate knowledge and skills among local practitioners; 3 feelings of isolation and frustration; 4 psychological burden associated with CLBP; and 5 competing lifestyle demands hindering effective self-management for CLBP. Conclusions Consumers in rural WA experienced difficulties in knowing where to access relevant information for CLBP and expressed frustration with the lack of service delivery options to access interdisciplinary and specialist services for CLBP. Competing

  11. Building an argument for Internet expansion in Dwesa- an under-serviced rural community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present research findings that investigate the extent of Internet usage as well as options for extending the current reach of the wireless network in Dwesa, a rural area in South Africa’s Eastern Cape Province. A mix...

  12. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Diverse sessile organisms inhabit the coral reef ecosystems, including corals, sponges, and sea anemones. In the past decades, scleractinian corals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia) and their associated microorganisms have attracted much attention. Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) are commonly found in coral reefs. However, little is known about the community structure of zoanthid-associated microbiota. In this study, the microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae in the South China Sea was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. As a result, 2,353 bacterial, 583 archaeal, and 36 eukaryotic microbial ribotypes were detected, respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla (16 formally described phyla and six candidate phyla) were recovered. Proteobacteria was the most abundant group, followed by Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. High-abundance Rhizobiales and diverse Chloroflexi were observed in the bacterial community. The archaeal population was composed of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with Marine Group I as the dominant lineage. In particular, Candidatus Nitrosopumilus dominated the archaeal community. Besides bacteria and archaea, the zoanthid harbored eukaryotic microorganisms including fungi and algae though their diversity was very low. This study provided the first insights into the microbial community associated with P. australiae by 454 pyrosequencing, consequently laid a basis for the understanding of the association of P. australiae-microbes symbioses.

  13. Neofusicoccum luteum associated with leaf necrosis and fruit rot of olives in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sergeeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neofusicoccum luteum is reported for the first time from olives (Olea europaea, causing fruit rot and leaf necrosis. Affected fruits initially became brown with pycnidia developing on the surface, later drying out and becoming mummified. The fungus was shown to be pathogenic on both fruits and leaves. The association of Botryosphaeriaceae with rotting olive fruits in Mediterranean regions and in New South Wales, Australia indicates that these fungi play a significant role in fruit rots of olives and deserve greater attention.

  14. Differences in health care seeking behaviour between rural and urban communities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. Design A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health and (access to) health care was collected. Results The results clearly illustrated differences in socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health, and health care utilisation. In general, inhabitants of urban communities rated their health significantly better than rural participants. Although most urban and rural participants consider their access to health care as sufficient, they still experienced difficulties in receiving the requested care. The difference in employment rate between urban and rural communities in this study indicated that participants of urban communities were more likely to be employed. Consequently, participants from rural communities had a significantly lower available weekly budget, not only for health care itself, but also for transport to the health care facility. Urban participants were more than 5 times more likely to prefer a medical doctor in private practice (OR:5.29, 95% CI 2.83-988). Conclusion Recommendations are formulated for infrastructure investments in rural communities, quality of health care and its perception, improvement of household socio-economical status and further research on the consequences of delay in health care seeking behaviour. PMID:22691443

  15. The value of solar: Prices and output from distributed photovoltaic generation in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maine, Tony; Chapman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Australian government's Solar Cities Program sees great value in so-called 'cost-reflective pricing', code for valuing solar at pool prices. We test that proposition in South Australia where pool prices and insolation are often high and we show that there were few days in 2004 when the pool price gives better outcomes than if the solar is valued at the regulated and fixed, so-called standing contract price. We also find that the illustrative day used in the Solar Cities Program literature to promote the notion of cost-reflective pricing is highly atypical. Finally, we consider ways in which the incentive to install distributed photovoltaic generation might be improved

  16. Association Between Home Visit Programs and Emergency Preparedness Among Elderly Vulnerable People in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kathy Tannous PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the association between home visit programs and emergency preparedness among elderly vulnerable people in New South Wales, Australia. Method: The study used data acquired from an intervention program run by emergency agencies and consisted of 370 older people. Seven emergency outcome measures were examined by adjusting for key demographic factors, using a generalized estimating equation model, to examine the association between home visit programs and emergency preparedness. Results: The study revealed that knowledge demonstrated by participants during visits and post home visits showed significant improvements in the seven emergency outcome measures. The odds of finding out what emergencies might affect one’s area were significantly lower among older participants who were born outside Australia and those who were women. Discussion: The findings suggest that the intervention via home visits and periodic reminders post these visits may be a useful intervention in improving emergency preparedness among older people, especially among men and those who were born outside of Australia. In addition, other reminders such as safety messaging via mobile or landline telephone calls may also be a supplementary and useful intervention to improve emergency preparedness among older people.

  17. Demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Erin; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Correll, Patricia; Bentley, Jason

    2015-04-18

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the child. Rates of smoking during pregnancy, and rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy, vary between demographic groups. This study describes demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, and describes trends in smoking cessation in demographic subgroups over the period 2000 - 2011. Data were obtained from the New South Wales Perinatal Data Collection, a population-based surveillance system covering all births in New South Wales. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore associations between smoking cessation during pregnancy and demographic factors. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation in pregnancy increased from 4.0% to 25.2%. Demographic characteristics associated with lower rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy included being a teenage mother, being an Aboriginal person, and having a higher number of previous pregnancies. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased dramatically across all demographic groups. However, specific demographic groups remain significantly less likely to quit smoking, suggesting a need for targeted efforts to promote smoking cessation in these groups.

  18. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  19. Rural Resilience: Youth "Making a Life" in Regions of High Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan

    2001-01-01

    In rural Australia, education beyond year 10 involves leaving home. Rural families may influence young people to stay home. Family influence and culture should not always be considered a deficit, for the family provides support when jobs are scarce. Rural families' social capital and rural resilience should be considered in developing rural school…

  20. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa’s health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas. Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa. Method: A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, healthworker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions. Conclusion: The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcareservices and increasing the doctors’ hours.

  1. Children with intellectual disability in rural South Africa: prevalence and associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, A L; Zwane, M E; Manga, P; Rosen, E; Venter, A; Downs, D; Kromberg, J G R

    2002-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and its associated disabilities in rural South African children aged 2-9 years. It was undertaken in eight villages in the district of Bushbuckridge, Northern Province, South Africa. A two-phase design was utilized. The first phase involved screening children on a house-to-house basis by interviewing mothers or caregivers using an internationally validated questionnaire for detecting childhood disability in developing countries. The second phase consisted of a paediatric/neurodevelopmental assessment of the children who screened positive. A total of 6692 children were screened; 722 (10.8%) had a paediatric evaluation and 238 children were diagnosed with ID, giving a minimum observed prevalence of 35.6 per 1000 children in this population. The prevalence of severe and mild ID was 0.64 per 1000 and 29.1 per 1000 children, respectively. The male:female ratio of children with ID was 3:2. In the affected children, a congenital aetiology for the ID was determined in 49 subjects (20.6%), an acquired aetiology in 15 (6.3%) and the aetiology was undetermined in 174 children (73.1%). Epilepsy (15.5%) and cerebral palsy (8.4%) were the commonest associated disabilities. The present study represents the first data on the prevalence of ID and associated disabilities in rural South African children. The prevalence of ID was comparable with results from a study performed in one other African country (Zambia) as well as those from other developing countries. The data provide an initial factual insight into ID and its associated disabilities for healthcare, social service and educational policy planners. This study provides a basis for the initiation and development of appropriate and integrated services for the best possible care of individuals affected with these disabilities, and for their possible prevention.

  2. Climate change and runoff in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Aryal, S. K.; Durrant, J.; Pearcey, M.; Braccia, M.; Charles, S. P.; Boniecka, L.; Hodgson, G. A.; Bari, M. A.; Viney, N. R.; McFarlane, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents the results of computer simulations of runoff from 13 major fresh and brackish river basins in south-western Australia (SWA) under climate projections obtained from 15 GCMs with three future global warming scenarios equivalent to global temperature rises of 0.7 °C, 1.0 °C and 1.3 °C by 2030. The objective was to apply an efficient methodology, consistent across a large region, to examine the implications of the best available projections in climate trends for future surface water resources. An ensemble of rainfall-runoff models was calibrated on stream flow data from 1975 to 2007 from 106 gauged catchments distributed throughout the basins of the study area. The sensitivity of runoff to projected changes in mean annual rainfall is examined using the climate 'elasticity' concept. Averaged across the study area, all 15 GCMs project declines in rainfall under all global warming scenarios with a median decline of 8% resulting in a median decline in runoff of 25%. Such uniformity in projections from GCMs is unusual. Over SWA the average annual runoff under the 5th wettest and 5th driest of the 45 projections of the 2030 climate declines by 10 and 42%, respectively. Under the 5th driest projection the runoff decline ranges from 53% in the northern region to 40% in the southern region. Strong regional variations in climate sensitivity are found with the proportional decline in runoff greatest in the northern region and the greatest volumetric declines in the wetter basins in the south. Since the mid 1970s stream flows into the major water supply reservoirs in SWA have declined by more than 50% following a 16% rainfall reduction. This has already had major implications for water resources planning and for the preservation of aquatic and riparian ecosystems in the region. Our results indicate that this reduction in runoff is likely to continue if future climate projections eventuate.

  3. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  4. Characterization of Phytophthora hybrids from ITS clade 6 associated with riparian ecosystems in South Africa and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jan H; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J; Hardy, Giles E St J; Stukely, Michael J C; Burgess, Treena I

    2013-05-01

    Surveys of Australian and South African rivers revealed numerous Phytophthora isolates residing in clade 6 of the genus, with internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions that were either highly polymorphic or unsequenceable. These isolates were suspected to be hybrids. Three nuclear loci, the ITS region, two single copy loci (antisilencing factor (ASF) and G protein alpha subunit (GPA)), and one mitochondrial locus (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (coxI)) were amplified and sequenced to test this hypothesis. Abundant recombination within the ITS region was observed. This, combined with phylogenetic comparisons of the other three loci, confirmed the presence of four different hybrid types involving the three described parent species Phytophthora amnicola, Phytophthora thermophila, and Phytophthora taxon PgChlamydo. In all cases, only a single coxI allele was detected, suggesting that hybrids arose from sexual recombination. All the hybrid isolates were sterile in culture and all their physiological traits tended to resemble those of the maternal parents. Nothing is known regarding their host range or pathogenicity. Nonetheless, as several isolates from Western Australia were obtained from the rhizosphere soil of dying plants, they should be regarded as potential threats to plant health. The frequent occurrence of the hybrids and their parent species in Australia strongly suggests an Australian origin and a subsequent introduction into South Africa. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  6. Rethinking the Pattern of External Policy Referencing: Media Discourses over the "Asian Tigers" PISA Success in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldow, Florian; Takayama, Keita; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The article compares how the success of the "Asian Tiger" countries in PISA, especially PISA 2009, was depicted in the media discussion in Australia, Germany and South Korea. It argues that even in the times of today's "globalised education policy field", local factors are important in determining whether or not a country…

  7. Oral health status of rural-urban migrant children in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Li; McGrath, Colman; Lin, Huan-Cai

    2011-01-01

    In China, there is a massive rural-urban migration and the children of migrants are often unregistered residents (a 'floating population'). This pilot study aimed to profile the oral health of migrant children in South China's principal city of migration and identify its socio-demographic/behavioural determinants. An epidemiological survey was conducted in an area of Guangzhou among 5-year-old migrant children (n = 138) who received oral examinations according to the World Health Organization criteria. Parents' oral health knowledge/attitude, child practices, and impact of children's oral health on their quality-of-life (QoL) were assessed. The caries rate and mean (SD) dmft were 86% and 5.17 (4.16), respectively, higher than those national statistics for both rural and urban areas (P Oral hygiene was satisfactory (DI-S Oral health impacts on QoL were considerable; 60% reported one or more impacts. 58% variance in 'dmft' was explained by 'non-local-born', 'low-educated parents', 'bedtime feeding', 'parental unawareness of fluoride's effect and importance of teeth', and 'poor oral hygiene' (all P oral health-related QoL (both P Oral health is poor among rural-urban migrant children and requires effective interventions in targeted sub-groups. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Factors contributing to the use of complementary and alternative medicine in rural older women with chronic pain in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Saunjoo L; Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) use for managing pain and to investigate the factors predictive of current CAM use among rural older women in South Korea. Access to medical care among older adults in rural areas is poorer than in urban areas. A cross-sectional descriptive study with a stratified sample of 139 women aged over 65 with chronic pain residing in rural areas of Jeju Island, South Korea. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Most subjects reported using at least one type of CAM for relieving pain within the past 12 months. Almost half of them reported currently using CAM. Herbs were the most commonly used CAM. Only 'severity of pain' was presently associated with an increased use of CAM. It is imperative to take socio-geographic-cultural factors into consideration when planning health promotion programs and caring for clients. © 2013.

  9. Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit was discovered in July 1975. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide on Roxby Downs Station in South Australia. The first diamond drill hole, RD1, intersected 38 m of 1.05% copper. A further eight holes were drilled with only marginal encouragement to November 1976, when RD10 cored 170 m of 2.12% copper and 0.06% of uranium oxide, thus confirming an economic discovery. The discovery of Olympic Dam is an excellent example applying broad-scale, scientifically based conceptual studies to area selection. Exploration management supported its exploration scientists in testing their ideas with stratigraphic drilling. Geologic modeling, supported by geophysical interpretations and tectonic studies, was used to site the first hole. The discovery also illustrates the persistence required in mineral exploration. The deposit appears to be a new type of stratabound sediment-hosted ore. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. It is estimated to contain more than 2000 million MT of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6% copper, 0.06% uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/MT gold. The deposit occurs in middle Proterozoic basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat upper Proterozoic sediments. The sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias controlled by a northwest-trending graben

  10. Adapting to Climate Change: Lessons from Farmers and Peri-Urban Fringe Residents in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on results from two major research projects conducted in South Australia. The first investigates adaptation to climate change in two of the state’s major grain and sheep farming regions, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The second uses a postal questionnaire and an internet-based survey of residents in the peri-urban fringes of Adelaide, the state capital, to examine knowledge of and attitudes to climate change and resulting adaptations, especially in the context of increasing risk of wildfires. The research on adaptation to climate change in agriculture focused on formal institutions (e.g., government agencies and communities of practice (e.g., farm systems groups. Both groups noted that farmers autonomously adapt to various risks, including those induced by climate variability. The types and levels of adaptation varied among individuals partly because of barriers to adaptation, which included limited communication and engagement processes established between formal institutions and communities of practice. The paper discusses possibilities for more effective transfers of knowledge and information on climate change among formal institutions, communities of practice, trusted individual advisors and farmers. Research in the peri-urban fringe revealed that actions taken by individuals to mitigate and/or adapt to climate change were linked to the nature of environmental values held (or ecological worldview and place attachment. Individuals with a strong place attachment to the study area (the Adelaide Hills who possessed knowledge of and/or beliefs in climate change were most likely to take mitigating actions. This was also linked to previous experience of major risk from wildfires. The paper concludes by discussing prospects for developing co-management for reducing the impact of climate change across multiple groups in rural and peri-urban areas.

  11. Community leaders’ perspectives on facilitators and inhibitors of health promotion among the youth in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Aziato

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are a number of factors that influence health promotion activities among the youth. This study sought to gain a comprehensive understanding of the facilitators and inhibitors of health promotion among the youth from the perspectives of community leaders in a rural setting in South Africa. Methods: The study adopted an exploratory, descriptive and contextual qualitative approach involving community leaders in rural South Africa. Data saturation occurred after individual interviews with 21 participants. Data analysis employed the principles of content analysis. Results: We found that facilitators of health promotion were access to education on the benefits of health promotion activities, efforts of organizations and community leaders/teachers, access to health care services and engaging in physical activities, and youth motivation and positive role modelling. The themes that described the inhibitors of health promotion were inadequate recreational and health facilities and health personnel, the impact of stringent religious doctrines, unemployment, social vices and poor parenting. Conclusion: We concluded that there is the need to implement more engaging activities and opportunities for the youth and parents in rural communities to enhance health promotion. Keywords: Health promotion, Young adults, Qualitative research, Rural community

  12. Fifty Years of Water Sensitive Urban Design, Salisbury, South Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John C.Radcliffe; Declan Page; Bruce Naumann; Peter Dillon

    2017-01-01

    Australia has developed extensive policies and guidelines for the management of its water.The City of Salisbury,located within metropolitan Adelaide,South Australia,developed rapidly through urbanisation from the 1970s.Water sensitive urban design principles were adopted to maximise the use of the increased run-off generated by urbanisation and ameliorate flood risk.Managed aquifer recharge was introduced for storing remediated low-salinity stormwater by aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in a brackish aquifer for subsequent irrigation.This paper outlines how a municipal government has progressively adopted principles of Water Sensitive Urban Design during its development within a framework of evolving national water policies.Salisbury's success with stormwater harvesting led to the formation of a pioneering water business that includes linking projects from nine sites to provide a non-potable supply of 5 × 106 m3 ·year-1.These installations hosted a number of applied research projects addressing well configuration,water quality,reliability and economics and facilitated the evaluation of its system as a potential potable water source.The evaluation showed that while untreated stormwater contained contaminants,subsurface storage and end-use controls were sufficient to make recovered water safe for public open space irrigation,and with chlorination,acceptable for third pipe supplies.Drinking water quality could be achieved by adding microfiltration,disinfection with UV and chlorination.The costs that would need to be expended to achieve drinking water safety standards were found to be considerably less than the cost of establishing dual pipe distribution systems.The full cost of supply was determined to be AUD$1.57 m-3 for non-potable water for public open space irrigation,much cheaper than mains water,AUD $3.45 m-3 at that time.Producing and storing potable water was found to cost AUD$1.96 to $2.24 m-3.

  13. Creation of a mobile rural workforce following undergraduate longitudinal rural immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playford, Denese E; Ng, Wen Qi; Burkitt, Tessa

    2016-05-01

    This study followed the workforce choices of 10-years of graduates from a longitudinal rural immersion programme, which involved living for one academic year in a rural location as a medical student. The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia is a whole-of-state Rural Clinical School partnership involving two medical schools and fourteen rural/remote towns. For this longitudinal cohort study, all consenting graduates were contacted annually after graduation, with the outcome measure being rural work location (defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification -Remoteness Area) of any duration. There were 417 consenting graduates. Between 16 and 50% of contacted alumni worked rurally for a period of each post-graduate year. Aggregated over time, the majority took up to 30% of their postgraduate training rurally. There was considerable movement in and out of rural work. About 17% of contacted and practicing graduates were working full time rurally at the 2013 contact point. The majority remained in their state of training. The majority identified with GP and other rural-related colleges, and College-affiliation predicted amount of rural training time. Entry into rural work was equivalent for urban-origin and rural origin alumni, suggesting one year of RCS is sufficient to convert commitment to rural work. Undergraduate rural immersion is sufficient to create a graduate rural workforce that is far more mobile that was previously appreciated.

  14. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety.

  15. Sociotechnical Narratives in Rural, High-Poverty Elementary Schools: Comparative Findings from East Texas and South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker, Erik J.

    2014-01-01

    The article's purpose is to compare case studies of computer technology use at two rural elementary schools across two international settings. This study uses the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory to guide this comparative investigation of how elementary school teachers and students in East Texas and South India construct meaning for…

  16. Strengthening rural health placements for medical students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening rural health placements for medical students: Lessons for South Africa ... rural health, primary healthcare and National Health Insurance strategies. ... preferential selection of students with a rural background, positioning rural ...

  17. Telehealth clinics increase access to care for adults with cystic fibrosis living in rural and remote Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jamie; Mulrennan, Siobhain; Hill, Kylie; Cecins, Nola; Morey, Sue; Jenkins, Sue

    2017-08-01

    Introduction A significant proportion (15%, n = 28) of the adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) in Western Australia (WA) live in rural and remote areas and have difficulty accessing specialist care at the state adult CF centre, located in Perth. We aimed to increase access by offering telehealth clinics, and evaluate the impact on health outcomes. Methods Telehealth clinics were offered via videoconference over a 12-month period, with uptake and satisfaction measured at the end of the intervention. Participants could still attend in person clinics at the CF centre if requested. Other outcomes comprised healthcare utilisation (HCU), spirometry, weight and health-related quality of life. Results In 21 participants, total clinic visits increased from 46 (median (range) per participant 2 (0-6)) in the 12-month period preceding the study to 100 (5 (2-8), p vitality domain of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire - Revised ( p < 0.05). Discussion Telehealth had good uptake and increased clinic attendance in adults with CF living in rural and remote WA, and had high satisfaction amongst participants. The increase in HCU, resulting from increased detection and treatment of exacerbations, may improve long-term outcomes in this population.

  18. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, I.B.; McKay, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Australia's economic, demonstrated resources of uranium (U) at the end of 1996 amounted to 622,000 tonnes U, the largest of any country. Uranium is currently produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. Improved market conditions and recent changes to Government policies have encouraged Australian companies to commit to the expansion of existing operations and the development of new uranium mines. Australia's annual production is likely to increase from its present level of 6000 tonncs (t) U 3 O 8 to approximately 12 000 t U 3 O 8 by the year 2000. (author)

  19. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce survey: helping to fill the evidence gap in primary health workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Deirdre; Smith, Tony; Newbury, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of detailed evidence about the allied health workforce to inform proposed health care reforms. The South Australian Allied Health Workforce (SAAHW) survey collected data about the demographic characteristics, employment, education and recruitment and retention of allied health professionals in South Australia. The SAAHW questionnaire was widely distributed and 1539 responses were received. The average age of the sample was 40 years; males were significantly older than females, the latter making up 82% of respondents. Three-quarters of the sample worked in the city; 60% worked full time and the remainder in part-time, casual or locum positions. 'Work-life balance' was the most common attraction to respondents' current jobs and 'Better career prospects' the most common reason for intending to leave. Practice in a rural location was influenced by rural background and rural experience during training. A greater proportion of Generation Y (1982-2000) respondents intended to leave within 2 years than Generation X (1961-81) or Baby Boomers (1943-60). Most respondents were satisfied with their job, although some reported lack of recognition of their knowledge and skills. Systematic, robust allied health workforce data are required for integrated and sustainable primary health care delivery.

  20. Australia's Sustainability: A New Policy Front for Rural Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, R. John

    2009-01-01

    Rural education and its policy agenda has for many decades primarily focussed upon responding to decline to "keep things going; keep things open". While this has been understandable and much has been achieved, it is now opportune--essential?--that rural education and its leaders embrace a new challenge, sustainability, and use it to…

  1. The financial and economic feasibility of rural household biodigesters for poor communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael T; Goebel, Jessica Schroenn; Blignaut, James N

    2014-02-01

    Given the persistence of systemic poverty in, most notably, the rural parts of South Africa, the question is whether the use of biodigesters as a source of energy offers potential solutions to some of the difficulties and development needs faced by people in these areas. At the core, this translates into whether this technology would be financially and economically feasible for installation and use by rural households. Here we conduct both a financial and an economic cost-benefit analysis in one such community based on survey data from 120 households. Analysis of these data and supporting literature reveals that a biodigester is not a financially feasible investment for a rural household. Substantial economic benefits are, however, found to make a biodigester a worthwhile investment from a broader societal perspective. This is a compelling argument for further study and the consideration of government support in the light of broader economy-wide benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Status of radionuclide monitoring stations in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the

  3. Socio-economic status and cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban areas of Vellore, Tamilnadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Raghupathy, Palani; Richard, Joseph; Fall, Caroline H D

    2012-10-01

    We examined associations between socio-economic status (SES) indicators and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among urban and rural South Indians. Data from a population-based birth cohort of 2218 men and women aged 26-32 years from Vellore, Tamilnadu were used. SES indicators included a household possessions score, attained education and paternal education. CVD risk factors included obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, plasma total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and triglyceride levels and consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between SES indicators and risk factors. Most risk factors were positively associated with possessions score in urban and rural men and women, except for tobacco use, which was negatively associated. Trends were similar with the participants' own education and paternal education, though weaker and less consistent. In a concurrent analysis of all the three SES indicators, adjusted for gender and urban/rural residence, independent associations were observed only for the possessions score. Compared with those in the lowest fifth of the score, participants in the highest fifth had a higher risk of abdominal obesity [odds ratio (OR) =6.4, 95% CI 3.4-11.6], high total cholesterol to HDL ratio (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.5) and glucose intolerance (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.9-4.1). Their tobacco use (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6) was lower. Except for hypertension and glucose intolerance, risk factors were higher in urban than rural participants independently of SES. In this young cohort of rural and urban south Indians, higher SES was associated with a more adverse CVD risk factor profile but lower tobacco use.

  4. Shelf spawning habitat of Emmelichthys nitidus in south-eastern Australia - Implications and suitability for egg-based biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Francisco J.; Lyle, Jeremy M.; Keane, John P.

    2009-03-01

    The spawning habitat of Emmelichthys nitidus (Emmelichthyidae) in south-eastern Australia is described from vertical ichthyoplankton samples collected along the shelf region off eastern through to south-western Tasmania during peak spawning in October 2005-06. Surveys covered eastern waters in 2005 (38.8-43.5°S), and both eastern and southern waters in 2006 (40.5°S around to 43.5°S off the south-west). Eggs ( n = 10,393) and larvae ( n = 378) occurred along eastern Tasmania in both years but were rare along southern waters south and westwards of 43.5°S in 2006. Peak egg abundances (1950-2640 per m -2) were obtained off north-eastern Tasmania (40.5-41.5°S) between the shelf break and 2.5 nm inshore from the break. Eggs were up to 5-days old, while nearly 95% of larvae were at the early preflexion stage, i.e. close to newly emerged. Average abundances of aged eggs pooled across each survey declined steadily from day-1 to day-5 eggs both in 2005 (97-18) and 2006 (175-34). Moreover, day-1 egg abundances were significantly greater 2.5 nm at either side of the break, including at the break, than in waters ≥5 nm both inshore and offshore from the break. These results, complemented with egg and larval data obtained in shelf waters off New South Wales (NSW; 35.0-37.7°S) in October 2002-03, indicate that the main spawning area of E. nitidus in south-eastern Australia lies between 35.5°S off southern NSW and 43.5°S off south-eastern Tasmania, and that spawning activity declines abruptly south and westwards of 43.5°S around to the south-west coast. In addition, quotient analyses of day-1 egg abundances point to a preferred spawning habitat contained predominantly within a 5 nm corridor along the shelf break, where waters are 125-325 m deep and median temperatures 13.5-14.0 °C. Spawning off eastern Tasmania is timed with the productivity outburst typical of the region during the austral spring, and the temperature increase from the mixing between the southwards

  5. Periodontal disease among 45-54 year olds in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, D S; Spencer, A J; Roberts-Thomson, K F

    2007-03-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence, extent and severity of periodontal disease among middle-aged adults, and to examine periodontitis by dental visit pattern, dental and health behaviour, socio-demographics and socioeconomic status. A random sample of 45-54 year olds from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia was surveyed by mailed self-complete questionnaire during 2004-2005 with up to four follow-up mailings of the questionnaire to non-respondents (n=879 responded, response rate = 43.8 per cent). Oral examinations were performed on 709 people who responded to the questionnaire (completion rate=80.7 per cent), providing an assessment of periodontal status. Prevalence of loss of attachment (LOA) of 6+ mm was 19.2 per cent, extent of sites with LOA of 6+ mm was 1.3 per cent, and severity of LOA of sites with LOA of 2+ mm was 2.4mm. Using a case definition for periodontitis of two or more sites with LOA of 5+ mm and one or more sites with PD of 4+ mm in a multivariate logistic regression showed higher odds of periodontitis for people who last visited for relief of pain (OR = 1.93) and who smoked daily/occasionally (OR = 3.84), while lower odds were observed for people who were born in Australia (OR = 0.51) and spoke English as the main language at home (OR = 0.34). While periodontal disease was related to visit pattern and health-related behaviours, the relationship with place of birth and main language spoken at home indicated socio-cultural variation in disease not explained by behaviour among this cohort of 45-54 year olds.

  6. Profiles of illicit drug use during annual key holiday and control periods in Australia: wastewater analysis in an urban, a semi-rural and a vacation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Foon Yin; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral; Ort, Christoph; Kirkbride, Paul; Prichard, Jeremy; Thai, Phong K; Carter, Steve; Mueller, Jochen F

    2013-03-01

    To examine changes in illicit drug consumption between peak holiday season (23 December-3 January) in Australia and a control period two months later in a coastal urban area, an inland semi-rural area and an island populated predominantly by vacationers during holidays. Analysis of representative daily composite wastewater samples collected from the inlet of the major wastewater treatment plant in each area. Three wastewater treatment plants. Wastewater treatment plants serviced approximately 350, 000 persons in the urban area, 120,000 in the semi-rural area and 1100-2400 on the island. Drug residues were analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Per capita drug consumption was estimated. Changes in drug use were quantified using Hedges' g. During the holidays, cannabis consumption in the semi-rural area declined (g = -2.8) as did methamphetamine (-0.8), whereas cocaine (+1.5) and ecstasy (+1.6) use increased. In the urban area, consumption of all drugs increased during holidays (cannabis +1.6, cocaine +1.2, ecstasy +0.8 and methamphetamine +0.3). In the vacation area, methamphetamine (+0.7), ecstasy (+0.7) and cocaine (+1.1) use increased, but cannabis (-0.5) use decreased during holiday periods. While the peak holiday season in Australia is perceived as a period of increased drug use, this is not uniform across all drugs and areas. Substantial declines in drug use in the semi-rural area contrasted with substantial increases in urban and vacation areas. Per capita drug consumption in the vacation area was equivalent to that in the urban area, implying that these locations merit particular attention for drug use monitoring and harm minimisation measures. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Segregation and Protectionism: Institutionalised Views of Aboriginal Rurality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Hollinsworth, D.

    2009-01-01

    Rurality is a complex and contested term, with multiple notions and gazes amid calls for theoretical pluralism. In Australia, the spatial categories of "remote", "rural", "regional" and "urban" are applied to places that vary in their distance from an economic and political core and have differing population…

  8. Implementation of Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Rural Primary Healthcare Clinics in South Africa: Perspectives of Key Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P; Jama, Ngcwalisa A; Sartorius, Benn; Drain, Paul K; Thompson, Rowan M

    2017-01-08

    Key stakeholders' involvement is crucial to the sustainability of quality point-of-care (POC) diagnostics services in low-and-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the implementation of POC diagnostics in rural primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in South Africa. We conducted a qualitative study encompassing in-depth interviews with multiple key stakeholders of POC diagnostic services for rural and resource-limited PHC clinics. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to thematic content analysis. Thematic content analysis was conducted using themes guided by the World Health Organisation (WHO) quality-ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User friendly, Rapid and to enable treatment at first visit and Robust, Equipment free and Delivered to those who need it) criteria for POC diagnostic services in resource-limited settings. 11 key stakeholders participated in the study. All stakeholders perceived the main advantage of POC diagnostics as enabling access to healthcare for rural patients. Stakeholders perceived the current POC diagnostic services to have an ability to meet patients' needs, but recommended further improvement of the following areas: research on cost-effectiveness; improved quality management systems; development of affordable POC diagnostic and clinic-based monitoring and evaluation. Key stakeholders of POC diagnostics in rural PHC clinics in South Africa highlighted the need to assess affordability and ensure quality assurance of current services before adopting new POC diagnostics and scaling up current POC diagnostics.

  9. Implementation of Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Rural Primary Healthcare Clinics in South Africa: Perspectives of Key Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tivani P. Mashamba-Thompson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Key stakeholders’ involvement is crucial to the sustainability of quality point-of-care (POC diagnostics services in low-and-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the implementation of POC diagnostics in rural primary healthcare (PHC clinics in South Africa. Method: We conducted a qualitative study encompassing in-depth interviews with multiple key stakeholders of POC diagnostic services for rural and resource-limited PHC clinics. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to thematic content analysis. Thematic content analysis was conducted using themes guided by the World Health Organisation (WHO quality-ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User friendly, Rapid and to enable treatment at first visit and Robust, Equipment free and Delivered to those who need it criteria for POC diagnostic services in resource-limited settings. Results: 11 key stakeholders participated in the study. All stakeholders perceived the main advantage of POC diagnostics as enabling access to healthcare for rural patients. Stakeholders perceived the current POC diagnostic services to have an ability to meet patients’ needs, but recommended further improvement of the following areas: research on cost-effectiveness; improved quality management systems; development of affordable POC diagnostic and clinic-based monitoring and evaluation. Conclusions: Key stakeholders of POC diagnostics in rural PHC clinics in South Africa highlighted the need to assess affordability and ensure quality assurance of current services before adopting new POC diagnostics and scaling up current POC diagnostics.

  10. Molecular differentiation of Entamoeba spp. in a rural community of Loja province, South Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, L; Barrionuevo-Samaniego, M; Ortiz, W Benitez; Praet, N; Brandt, J; Dorny, P

    2011-12-01

    Although previous epidemiological surveys in Ecuador indicate the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, prevalence data of this parasite remain scarce. Most of the studies were based on microscopic examination, which does not allow a morphological differentiation from the non-pathogenic Ent. dispar and Ent. moshkovskii. In the present study, 674 stool samples from a South Ecuadorian rural community were screened for Entamoeba spp. Subsequently, molecular identification was performed on 101 samples containing Ent. histolytica/Ent. dispar/Ent. moshkovskii cysts. The study indicated the absence of Ent. histolytica in this South Ecuadorian community and confirmed the difficulty of differentiating Entamoeba spp. based on morphological features. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence of arsenic in selected marine macroalgae from two coastal areas of South Australia. [Rhodophyceae; phaeophyceae; Chlorophyceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, W.A.; Clarke, S.M.

    1984-03-01

    Total arsenic concentrations have been measured in macroalgae specimens from two coastal areas of South Australia. Phaeophyta in both areas were found to contain elevated arsenic concentrations (42.2-179 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 26.3-65.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) relative to Rhodophyta (17.6-31.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 12.5-16.2 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) and Chlorophyta (6.3-16.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 9.9-10.8 ..mu..g g/sup -1/). 13 references, 3 tables.

  12. Community Development as an Approach to Community Engagement in Rural-Based Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netshandama, V. O.

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is that the "jury is still out" to describe what effective Community Engagement entails in South African higher education institutions. The current discussions about community engagement and service learning do not cover the primary objective of adding value to the community, particularly of the rural-based…

  13. European Origin of Bradyrhizobium Populations Infecting Lupins and Serradella in Soils of Western Australia and South Africa† ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Stępkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyżańska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J.; Howieson, John

    2005-01-01

    We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA inter...

  14. Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Maybery

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

  15. Rural Banking: The Strategic Solution in Capital Strengthening and Performance of Micro and Small Agribusiness Enterprises in South Sumatera Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Syahirman yusi; Umiyati Idris

    2016-01-01

    The aim this study is to obtain the empirical evidence about the program effect of rural banking toward the micro and small agribusiness enterprises in South Sumatera. Primary data was collected through survey technique from 250 respondents and taken by random sampling method and was analyzed by structural equation modelling (SEM). The study result showed that in aggregate programs of rural banking which consisted of business financing, management skill, and business monitoring had a positive...

  16. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe; Pedro T. Pisa; Alison B. Feeley; Titilola M. Pedro; Kathleen Kahn; Shane A. Norris

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to ...

  17. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by 'Meals on Wheels' South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-02-20

    An audit of 'standard' (STD) and 'energy and protein fortified' (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia's summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia's kitchen and delivered to three 'sham(dummy)-clients' over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21-39% for energy and 42-63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29-55% for energy and 46-69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  18. Co-infection with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths in rural South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvik, Mari; Helland, Elin; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2017-01-01

    trichiura in schoolgirls in the rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We also explored if S. haematobium can serve as a predictor for soil-transmitted helminths in this area. From 15 selected schools, 726 primary schoolgirls aged 10–12 years provided both urine and stool samples. The samples were...... interval =1.58–2.93; pwater contact and haematuria) were significantly associated with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection. We have demonstrated a highly significant correlation and overall association between urogenital...

  19. Causes and consequences of rural-urban migration: The case of Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babi Moses, Lomoro Alfred; Guogping, Xiong; Celestino Ladu John, Leju

    2017-08-01

    Migration is the movement of people from one ecological region to another; it may be on temporary or permanent basis. This research studies focused on the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan as a case study. The stratified random sampling method on the basis of existing payam (districts) was used to divide the study area into three zones of Juba, Kator and Munuku. Data were generated through primary and secondary sources. The data generated were analyzed using SPSS. The findings of the study show that Munuki payam covers most of the migrants. The study also reveals that males migrate more than the females in Juba and migration is high within the age cohorts of 30-39 years and 40-49 years old. Furthermore, the study revealed that the propensity to migrate is directly related to educational attainment. It can be inferred from the findings of the study that the majority of migrants in Juba Metropolitan migrated in search of employment while others migrated to continue their education while others migrated in search for basic amenities, to join relatives and get married. This means, until the imbalance or disparity in socio-economic development between the rural and urban areas are removed, no amount of persuasion or force can put a stop to rural-urban migration and its’ multiplying effects in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan.

  20. Is the "Health and Physical Education" Curriculum in South Australia Enough? A Critical Review of the SACSA Framework and the New SACE Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases as well as the major hepatides, hepatitis A, B and C are on the rise in South Australia, specifically among the adolescents and young adults' age group. Adolescents rely much on school programs for their health-related information. Accordingly, the present review provides critical insights into the existing…

  1. Understanding L2 motivation within a multilingual framework: A comparative analysis of Japanese language learners in Australia and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    TOSHIYUKI NAKAMURA

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the motivational development of Japanese language learners in Australia and South Korea and their future self-images as bilingual or multilingual individuals. Initial motivation to study Japanese was generally linked to an interest in Japanese language and culture. However, visions of possible future careers became a more significant motivational factor as the students progressed in their studies. The study explores the impact of the students’ multilingual competencies, ...

  2. Solar home systems for rural electrification - the case of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laarhoven, J. van [Rural Electrification (Africa) Shell Solar BV, Helmond (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Prior to that, as an introduction, I'd like to tell you a bit about Shell solar and rural electrification from their perspective. If I could add something to the speech of Mr. Holm, I would gladly do that. Thirdly, I'd like to address the South African rural electrification market. I'd like to talk a bit about the system we have on the offering called the ''Powerhouse'' system, give you the Eastern Cape project status, and draw some conclusions with you. ''Jenza'' is a Zulu word, which means ''just do it - get on with it''. In a number of speeches today, I heard the words ''demonstration'', ''research'', ''study'', etc. I don't think the two billion people that have been on several occasions are waiting for more studies; I think they are waiting for initiatives - to ''just do it'' on a large scale. As Mr. Gehr pointed out, in Morocco there is a program of 200,000 customers, and they're running it.

  3. PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY IN RURAL AREAS OF HALF SOUTH OF RS: AN ANALYSYS OF THE 2010 CENSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernanda Tonini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a result of an analysis of the 2010 Census, applied by IBGE, related to person with disability in rural areas located in 8 cities of half south of RS. The aim is to discuss the methodology of the Census and how the database is constructed, by the comprehension of the term disability. At this level, was performed a documental research to understand the definition of disability in the federal law, what enabled conclude that the number of person with disability in Brazil – in rural or urban areas – increased from previous Census, according with the definition adopted from IBGE and law. Analyzing the variant about gender, the database shows that the number of women with disability is higher than men with disability, both in rural and urban areas. But analyzing the number of person with disability in general, in rural areas the number is higher than in urban, independent of the gender. The results indicates that rural areas are more vulnerable and shows the importance in consider this elements to develop public policy directed to people with disability and towards the social development in this regions.

  4. Tamworth, Australia's "Country Music Capital": Place Marketing, Rurality, and Resident Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Chris; Davidson, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Tamworth has become well known as Australia's "country music capital". Its annual Country and Western Music Festival has become the leading event of its type in Australia, attracting over 60,000 visitors every year. The festival, and country music more generally, have become central to the town's identity and tourism…

  5. Is Ips grandicollis disrupting the biological control of Sirex noctilio in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie; Andrew D. Loch

    2011-01-01

    Sirex woodwasp (Sirex noctilio) is considered one of the most serious threats to exotic Pinus radiata plantations in Australia. This exotic wasp has been established in Australia for more than six decades. The most significant outbreak occurred in the Green Triangle region of southeastern South Australia-western Victoria in the...

  6. Annual vaccine-preventable disease report for New South Wales, Australia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Saul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This report provides an epidemiological description of selected vaccine-preventable diseases in New South Wales (NSW, Australia, for 2014 to inform ongoing disease monitoring and control efforts. A trend of increasing pertussis notifications was observed, beginning midway through 2014 with the highest disease rates in the 5–9 year age group. Measles notifications increased to 67 cases in 2014 from 34 cases in 2013. Measles cases were associated with travel-related importations—predominantly from the Philippines—and secondary transmission increased compared to 2013 involving three main disease clusters. Notifications of invasive meningococcal disease continued to decline across the state with meningococcal B remaining the most common serogroup in NSW. Increasing rates of pertussis notifications from mid-2014 may indicate the beginning of an epidemic, ending the period of low transmission observed in 2013 and the first half of 2014. An increase in measles notifications in 2014, including secondary transmission, indicates the continued need for public health actions including robust follow-up and awareness campaigns.

  7. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from coastal rivers of mid-northern New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart A.; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien; Rourke, Meaghan L.

    2017-01-01

    Tandanus bellingerensis, new species, is described based on specimens from four river drainages (Bellinger, Macleay, Hastings, and Manning rivers) of the mid-northern coast of New South Wales, Australia. Previously, three species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tropicanus of the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland, T. tandanus of the Murray-Darling drainage and coastal streams of central-southern Queensland and New South Wales, and T. bostocki of southwestern Western Australia. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by a combination of the following morphologic characters: a high count of rays in the continuous caudodorsal and anal fins (range 153–169, mode 159), a high count of gill rakers on the first arch (range 35–39, mode 36), and strongly recurved posterior serrae of the pectoral-fin spine. Additionally, results from previously conducted genetic studies corroborate morphologic and taxonomic distinctness of the new species.

  8. Marketing of rural and remote pharmacy practice via the digital medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G M; Fitzmaurice, K D; Rasiah, R L; Kruup, H

    2010-08-01

    The shortage of community and hospital pharmacists is particularly acute in rural and remote areas of Australia. Pharmacy students, in particular, as those who may be able to alleviate this shortage, need to be made more aware of the challenges and rewards of rural pharmacy practice. A marketing tool was developed to promote rural and remote pharmacy practice as a career option. A DVD was produced from interviews with health professionals working in rural and remote areas of Australia. This DVD will complement current rural practical placements, which have been incorporated into the curriculum of Australian schools of pharmacy. Interviews were conducted with healthcare professionals from areas in Tasmania, Northern Queensland and the Northern Territory. Interviewees included pharmacists, graduate pharmacists, pharmacy students, aboriginal health workers and a general practitioner. Each of the interviewees was able to provide personal accounts of experiences in rural and remote healthcare, and roles and opportunities for pharmacists. A final draft of the DVD was shown to University of Tasmania students to assess the impact and quality of the production. A number of common themes arose from interviewing and these were subsequently converted into five key chapters of the DVD - Lifestyle, Belonging, Diversity, Indigenous Health and 'Give it a go'. The final DVD, produced from over 15 h of footage, runs for 35 min. Students reported positive feedback on both the technical quality and the information contained within the DVD; 37% of students who viewed the DVD felt that it increased their awareness of what rural pharmacy has to offer. The rural pharmacy, 'Enjoy the Lifestyle' DVD can be used to increase awareness of rural and remote pharmacy practice to students and other pharmacists, and complements other pharmacy workforce strategies for rural and remote areas of Australia. It could also be a useful approach for adaptation in other countries.

  9. Children of South Sea Island immigrants to Australia: factors associated with adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M W; Fua, C

    1995-01-01

    Social-delinquent problem youth of South Sea Island immigrant to Australia parents, were compared to non-problem youth from the same circumstances, on family, sociocultural, personality, and substance abuse variables. Interviews and testing were done by members of their own community. A consistent pattern of differences most pronounced for males was found between the two groups although not all reached statistical significance. The problem youth compared to the non-problem youth tended to come from families somewhat lower in socioeconomic level, somewhat less traditional in culture, and notably more prone to discipline by physical punishment than by verbal reasoning. The problem youth had significantly lower self-esteem, significantly higher maladjustment test scores, and significantly greater use and problems with alcohol and drugs. They were more alienated and had less clearly established direction for their future. Recommendations for remediation are considered.

  10. Factors Associated with Toothache among African American Adolescents Living in Rural South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Ryan E.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Salinas, Carlos F.; London, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore behavioral factors associated with toothache among African American adolescents living in rural South Carolina. Methods Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected on toothache experience in the past 12 months, oral hygiene behavior, dental care utilization, and cariogenic snack and non-diet soft drink consumption in a convenience sample of 156 African American adolescents aged 10-18 years old living in rural South Carolina. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between reported toothache experience and socio-demographic variables, oral health behavior, and snack consumption. Results Thirty-four percent of adolescents reported having toothache in the past 12 months. In univariable modeling, age, dental visit in the last two years, quantity and frequency of cariogenic snack consumption, and quantity of non-diet soft drink consumption were each significantly associated with experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values cariogenic snacks, and number of cans of non-diet soft drink consumed during the weekend significantly increased the odds of experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Findings indicate age, frequent consumption of cariogenic snacks and number of cans of non-diet soft drinks are related to toothache in this group. Public policy implications related to selling cariogenic snacks and soft drink that targeting children and adolescents especially those from low income families are discussed. PMID:22085328

  11. In hot water: the future of Australia's coastal and marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Anthony J; Poloczanska, Elvira

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Marine ecosystems are extremely important economically and ecologically to Australia in terms of tourism, coastal defence, resources, and ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and waste disposal. Australia is also a globally important repository of biodiversity. Here we describe the observed and potential future impacts of climate change on Australia's marine diversity. Climate simulations project oceanic warming, an increase in stratification, a strengthening of the Eastern Australian Current, increased ocean acidification, a rise in sea level, and altered storm and rainfall regimes, which taken collectively will fundamentally change marine ecosystems. There has already been widespread bleaching of tropical corals, poleward shifts of temperate fish and plankton populations, and a decline in cold-water giant kelp off Tasmania. Future changes are likely to be even more dramatic and have considerable economic and ecological consequences, especially in 'hot spots' of climate change such as theTasman Sea and the Great Barrier Reef area. Corals are likely to bleach more frequently and decline in abundance in response to both warming and ocean acidification. Planktonic animals with calcium carbonate shells, such as winged pteropod snails and coccolithophorid phytoplankton, are likely to decline as increased ocean acidification impairs their ability to maintain carbonate body structures. The projected high warming off south-east Australia is of particular concern. Marine ecosystems in this region are already stressed by high metal concentrations, sewage pollution, and overfishing, and climate models project that this region will warm more than anywhere else in the Southern Hemisphere this century because of enhanced southerly penetration of the East Australian Current. Venomous jellyfish and harmful algal blooms, which are major threats to human health, will potentially extend further south and occur more frequently. Temperate species

  12. Evaluating quality management systems for HIV rapid testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya, Ziningi; Drain, Paul K.; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Material and methods We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and couns...

  13. Improved survival for non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Dianne L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated if the survival benefit of adding rituximab to standard chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL observed in clinical trials has been experienced by an Australian NHL patient population. Methods NHL cases diagnosed in 1985-2004 in New South Wales (NSW were followed-up to the end of 2004. Rituximab prescription data were obtained from Medicare Australia. Using a Poisson regression model adjusted for age group, sex, NHL subtype and time period (1990-1994, 1995-1999 and 2000-2004, we estimated excess risk of death after a diagnosis of NHL. To give context to the survival trend, trends in incidence and mortality were also estimated. Results Compared with 1990-1994, after adjusting for age, sex and NHL subtype the relative excess risk of death was significantly lower (p Conclusion It is likely that some benefit of adding rituximab to the standard chemotherapy for NHL has been experienced at the population level.

  14. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Yaliso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimation of maternal mortality is difficult in developing countries without complete vital registration. The indirect sisterhood method represents an alternative in places where there is high fertility and mortality rates. The objective of the current study was to estimate maternal mortality indices using the sisterhood method in a rural district in south-west Ethiopia. Method We interviewed 8,870 adults, 15–49 years age, in 15 randomly selected rural villages of Bonke in Gamo Gofa. By constructing a retrospective cohort of women of reproductive age, we obtained sister units of risk exposure to maternal mortality, and calculated the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Based on the total fertility for the rural Ethiopian population, the maternal mortality ratio was approximated. Results We analyzed 8503 of 8870 (96% respondents (5262 [62%] men and 3241 ([38%] women. The 8503 respondents reported 22,473 sisters (average = 2.6 sisters for each respondent who survived to reproductive age. Of the 2552 (11.4% sisters who had died, 819 (32% occurred during pregnancy and childbirth. This provided a lifetime risk of 10.2% from pregnancy and childbirth with a corresponding maternal mortality ratio of 1667 (95% CI: 1564–1769 per 100,000 live births. The time period for this estimate was in 1998. Separate analysis for male and female respondents provided similar estimates. Conclusion The impoverished rural area of Gamo Gofa had very high maternal mortality in 1998. This highlights the need for strengthening emergency obstetric care for the Bonke population and similar rural populations in Ethiopia.

  15. Early Career Leadership Opportunities in Australian Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lorraine; Miller, Judith; Paterson, David

    2009-01-01

    Due to the difficulties inherent in staffing rural schools in Australia, it is increasingly common for beginning teachers to fill school leadership roles early in their careers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the accelerated progression of some early career teachers who have been offered leadership opportunities in rural schools. Results…

  16. Renewable energy development and prospects in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zahedi

    2000-01-01

    Development of renewable energies in Australia is still in its infancy and will require active support by government, utilities and financing institutions to ensure a steady growth. Much has been done to increase the utilisation of renewable energies in the energy supply, but much still remains to be done, especially in the areas of promotion, demonstration, training and technology transfer. This process will lead to meeting the energy needs of the population in rural areas and to contributing to a suitable development of the region during the next century. Australia is endowed with a wealth of renewable energy resources that hold great promise for addressing a host of important environmental, employment and socioeconomic issues. Australia has a set of climate, geographic and other factors that provide favourable conditions for many specific renewable energy applications. The objectives of this paper is to look at the current situation of renewable energies in Australia, opportunities, constraints, current projects, available potential and future prospects. (Author)

  17. Online Mental Health Resources in Rural Australia: Clinician Perceptions of Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Kristi; Riley, Geoffrey; Auret, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Online mental health resources have been proposed as an innovative means of overcoming barriers to accessing rural mental health services. However, clinicians tend to express lower satisfaction with online mental health resources than do clients. Objective To understand rural clinicians’ attitudes towards the acceptability of online mental health resources as a treatment option in the rural context. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 rural clinicians (general practitioners, psychologists, psychiatrists, and clinical social workers). Interviews were supplemented with rural-specific vignettes, which described clinical scenarios in which referral to online mental health resources might be considered. Symbolic interactionism was used as the theoretical framework for the study, and interview transcripts were thematically analyzed using a constant comparative method. Results Clinicians were optimistic about the use of online mental health resources into the future, showing a preference for integration alongside existing services, and use as an adjunct rather than an alternative to traditional approaches. Key themes identified included perceptions of resources, clinician factors, client factors, and the rural and remote context. Clinicians favored resources that were user-friendly and could be integrated into their clinical practice. Barriers to use included a lack of time to explore resources, difficulty accessing training in the rural environment, and concerns about the lack of feedback from clients. Social pressure exerted within professional clinical networks contributed to a cautious approach to referring clients to online resources. Conclusions Successful implementation of online mental health resources in the rural context requires attention to clinician perceptions of acceptability. Promotion of online mental health resources to rural clinicians should include information about resource effectiveness, enable integration with existing

  18. Uranium exploration and mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wutzler, B.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium minerals were discovered in Australia in the years 1850 to 1900 already, but most of them were not recognised as such. It was not until 1894 that the first significant uranium find was made in Carcoar, west of Sydney. At that time, the uranium output of the world, which only amounted to a few hundred cwts, was for the most part obtained from mining areas close to the border between Saxony and Bohemia. In South Australia, uranium ore was mined experimentally for the production of radium at Radium Hill from 1906 onwards and at Mt. Painter from 1910 onwards. It was not until World War II, however, that uranium gained importance as a valuable raw material that could also be used for military purposes. The second phase of uranium mining in Australia commenced in 1944. Within ten years Australia's presumed uranium potential was confirmed by extensive exploration. The development of uranium mining in Australia is described in the present paper. (orig.)

  19. Detection, referral and control of diabetes and hypertension in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa by community health outreach workers in the rural primary healthcare project: Health in Every Hut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela A. Morris-Paxton

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion: In this rural area of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the follow-up of patients with hypertension or diabetes as well as those individuals at-risk adds value to hypertension and glucose control.

  20. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension amongst adults in a rural community of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Ntuli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is problem already faced by urban populations of South Africa, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in rural areas. Aim: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors associated with hypertension amongst adults in a rural community in South Africa. Setting: Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out at this site where individuals aged 15 years and older were screened using a locally adapted version of the World Health Organization STEPwise questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometry and three independent blood pressure (BP readings were taken. The average of the three BP measurements was used in analysis, and hypertension taken as systolic and diastolic BP of ≥ 140 or ≥ 90 mmHg respectively, or at least a two-week history of antihypertensive treatment. Analysis included the Chi-square test and statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had complete BP, weight and height measurements taken. The mean age of participants was 44.2 ± 2 0.9 years (range 15–98 years, 63% were female, 55% were single and 90% were unemployed, whilst 13% were tobacco smokers and 20% reported drinking alcohol. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 41% and this was significantly associated with age and marital status. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be high. Prevention strategies are urgently needed to address this life-threatening and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in rural Limpopo Province.

  1. Infant Development and Pre- and Post-partum Depression in Rural South African HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Violeta J; Matseke, Gladys; Cook, Ryan; Bellinger, Seanna; Weiss, Stephen M; Alcaide, Maria L; Peltzer, Karl; Patton, Doyle; Lopez, Maria; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-10-06

    HIV-exposed infants born to depressed women may be at risk for adverse developmental outcomes. Half of HIV-infected women in rural South Africa (SA) may suffer from pregnancy-related depression. This pilot study examined the impact of depression in HIV-infected women in rural SA on infant development. Mother-infant dyads (N = 69) were recruited in rural SA. Demographics, HIV disclosure, depression, male involvement, and alcohol use at baseline (18.35 ± 5.47 weeks gestation) were assessed. Male involvement, depression, infant HIV serostatus and development were assessed 12 months postnatally. Half of the women (age = 29 ± 5) reported depression prenatally and one-third reported depression postnatally. In multivariable logistic regression, not cohabiting with their male partner, nondisclosure of HIV status, and postnatal depression predicted cognitive delay; decreased prenatal male involvement predicted delayed gross motor development (ps depression among HIV-infected women and infant development and increasing male involvement may reduce negative developmental outcomes among HIV-exposed or infected infants.

  2. The unfolding counter-transition in rural South Africa: mortality and cause of death, 1994-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Houle

    Full Text Available The HIV pandemic has led to dramatic increases and inequalities in adult mortality, and the diffusion of antiretroviral treatment, together with demographic and socioeconomic shifts in sub-Saharan Africa, has further changed mortality patterns. We describe all-cause and cause-specific mortality patterns in rural South Africa, analyzing data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system from 1994 to 2009 for those aged 5 years and older. Mortality increased during that period, particularly after 2002 for ages 30-69. HIV/AIDS and TB deaths increased and recently plateaued at high levels in people under age 60. Noncommunicable disease deaths increased among those under 60, and recently also increased among those over 60. There was an inverse gradient between mortality and household SES, particularly for deaths due to HIV/AIDS and TB and noncommunicable diseases. A smaller and less consistent gradient emerged for deaths due to other communicable diseases. Deaths due to injuries remained an important mortality risk for males but did not vary by SES. Rural South Africa continues to have a high burden of HIV/AIDS and TB mortality while deaths from noncommunicable diseases have increased, and both of these cause-categories show social inequalities in mortality.

  3. Spatial distribution of suicide in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shilu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a lack of investigation into the spatial distribution and clustering of suicide in Australia, where the population density is lower than many countries and varies dramatically among urban, rural and remote areas. This study aims to examine the spatial distribution of suicide at a Local Governmental Area (LGA level and identify the LGAs with a high relative risk of suicide in Queensland, Australia, using geographical information system (GIS techniques. Methods Data on suicide and demographic variables in each LGA between 1999 and 2003 were acquired from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. An age standardised mortality (ASM rate for suicide was calculated at the LGA level. GIS techniques were used to examine the geographical difference of suicide across different areas. Results Far north and north-eastern Queensland (i.e., Cook and Mornington Shires had the highest suicide incidence in both genders, while the south-western areas (i.e., Barcoo and Bauhinia Shires had the lowest incidence in both genders. In different age groups (≤24 years, 25 to 44 years, 45 to 64 years, and ≥65 years, ASM rates of suicide varied with gender at the LGA level. Mornington and six other LGAs with low socioeconomic status in the upper Southeast had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. Conclusions There was a notable difference in ASM rates of suicide at the LGA level in Queensland. Some LGAs had significant spatial clusters of high suicide risk. The determinants of the geographical difference of suicide should be addressed in future research.

  4. Rural and remote health research: Does the investment match the need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lesley; Phillips, Andrew; Lyle, David

    2018-04-01

    To determine the percentage of research projects funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council in the period 2000-2014 that aimed specifically to deliver health benefits to Australians living in rural and remote areas and to estimate the proportion of total funding this represented in 2005-2014. This is a retrospective analysis of publicly available datasets. National Health and Medical Research Council Rural and Remote Health Research 2000-2014. 'Australian Rural Health Research' was defined as: research that focussed on rural or remote Australia; that related to the National Health and Medical Research Council's research categories other than Basic Science; and aimed specifically to improve the health of Australians living in rural and remote areas. Grants meeting the inclusion criteria were grouped according to the National Health and Medical Research Council's categories and potential benefit. Funding totals were aggregated and compared to the total funding and Indigenous funding for the period 2005-2014. Of the 16 651 National Health and Medical Research Council-funded projects, 185 (1.1%) that commenced funding during the period 2000-2014 were defined as 'Australian Rural Health Research'. The funding for Australian Rural Health Research increased from 1.0% of the total in 2005 to 2.4% in 2014. A summary of the funding according to the National Health and Medical Research Council's research categories and potential benefit is presented. Addressing the health inequality experienced by rural and remote Australians is a stated aim of the Australian Government. While National Health and Medical Research Council funding for rural health research has increased over the past decade, at 2.4% by value, it appears very low given the extent of the health status and health service deficits faced by the 30% who live in rural Australia. © 2018 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of National

  5. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, Bart; Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Toxopeus, Marten E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  6. Bouncing off the bottom. [South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    South African coal exporters face a number of economic problems, including high levels of inflation and unemployment, increasing costs of opening new mines, and increasing transport costs. However, their main competitors, the US, Australia and Colombia, have their own difficulties - labour problems in Australia and the US, and quality control problems in Colombia. The South Africans are optimistic that their own profitability can now only improve.

  7. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  8. The Digitally Disadvantaged: Access to Digital Communication Technologies among First Year Students at a Rural South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Toks; Mogano, Saki

    2018-01-01

    Considering the importance of digital skills in university education, this article reports on a study which examined access to technology among first year students at a rural South African university. The study focused on the digital readiness of students prior to their admission to the university, since many universities provide access to…

  9. Efficient solar energy conversion in a low cost flat-plate solar cooker fabricated for use in rural areas of the south asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Y.; Raza, M.; Muhammad, N.

    2008-01-01

    Solar flat plate cooker has been designed and fabricated for use in the rural areas of the South Asian countries. Indigenous low cost materials have been utilized for the fabrication of the cooker. The manufacturing cost of the cooker is less than US$ 150. The aim of this work is to utilize direct solar energy for cooking purpose. A flat plate absorber made of copper is used to absorb the heat energy from the sun. The maximum recorded plate temperature of the cooker was 110 degree C at an ambient temperature of 37 degree C. At this temperature sufficient steam is produced which is channeled to the cooking region though copper pipes. The cooker is found to be effective for cooking traditional food items like pulses, vegetables, meat, eggs, etc. It may be used as an alternative of fossil fuels in the rural areas of the South Asian countries, particularly by the rural women. (author)

  10. Origin of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, Frome Embayment, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the Frome Embayment of South Australia is largely a result of tectonic events possibly as old as the Archean. Uranium deposits of several types and ages in the region demonstrate the importance of uranium enrichment in the source area. Mobile zones around the Archean terrane of the Gawler block have been the locus of intermittent tectonic activity from Early Proterozoic to recent time. Vein-type uranium deposits in basement source rocks are concentrated in these zones, because they favor deep crustal partial melting and ascent of Na-rich granitic magmas and hydrothermal solutions. Relatively stable areas bordered by mobile zones, are important for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits because they act as platforms for terrigenous sedimentation from the surrounding, uplifted, uranium-rich basement rocks. Wet, subtropical conditions prevailing at the time of uplift aided rapid erosion and subaerial deposition of channel sands with intermixed organic detritus. Later uplift accompanied by erosion of the recently deposited sands in the headwater area caused increased recharge of oxygenated uraniferous ground water, which led to the formation of geochemical-cell roll-front type deposits like those in the Wyoming basins. Subsequent arid conditions helped preserve the deposits. (author)

  11. Self-recognition of mental health problems in a rural Australian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Tonelle E; Lewin, Terry J; Perkins, David; Kelly, Brian

    2018-04-19

    Although mental health literacy has increased in recent years, mental illness is often under-recognised. There has been little research conducted on mental illness in rural areas; however, this can be most prominent in rural areas due to factors such as greater stigma and stoicism. The aim of this study is to create a profile of those who are most and least likely to self-identify mental health problems among rural residents with moderate- to-high psychological distress. Secondary analysis of a longitudinal postal survey. Rural and remote New South Wales, Australia. Four-hundred-and-seventy-two community residents. Participants completed the K10 Psychological Distress Scale, as well as the question 'In the past 12 months have you experienced any mental health problems?' The characteristics of those who reported moderate/high distress scores were explored by comparing those who did and did not experience mental health problems recently. Of the 472 participants, 319 (68%) with moderate/high distress reported a mental health problem. Reporting a mental health problem was higher among those with recent adverse life events or who perceived more stress from life events while lower among those who attributed their symptoms to a physical cause. Among a rural sample with moderate/high distress, one-third did not report a mental health problem. Results suggest a threshold effect, whereby mental health problems are more likely to be acknowledged in the context of additional life events. Ongoing public health campaigns are necessary to ensure that symptoms of mental illness are recognised in the multiple forms that they take. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  12. Who Benefits-Or Does not-From South Africa's Old Age Pension? : evidence from Characteristics of Rural Pensioners and Non-Pensioners

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, Margaret; Schatz, Enid; Menken, Jane; Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier; Tollman, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Social protection grants play a critical role in survival and livelihoods of elderly individuals in South Africa. Rarely is it possible to assess how well a social program reaches its target population. Using a 2010 survey and Agincourt Health Demographic Surveillance System census data we conduct multivariate logistic regression to predict pension receipt in rural South Africa. We find only 80% of age-eligible individuals report pension receipt. Pension non-recipients tend to be male, have p...

  13. Voluntary blood donation in a rural block of Vellore, South India: A knowledge, attitude and practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Kurup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a shortage of voluntary blood donors in developing countries which are, therefore, more dependent on replacement donors. Aim: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding voluntary blood donation in a rural block in Vellore, South India. Settings and Designs: A cross-sectional survey in randomly selected villages of a rural block in Vellore, South India. Materials and Methods: Knowledge, attitude, and practices were assessed using a pilot-tested, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire on randomly chosen rural adults aged between 18 and 60 years. Results: Of the 104 individuals interviewed, 90% were aware of voluntary blood donation, the main source of this awareness being television. Nearly, two-thirds of the participants felt they would fall sick by donating blood and that women and manual laborers were not capable of blood donation. Among the interviewed, 70.3% were of the opinion that blood can purchased with money. Only 44% were willing to donate blood on a voluntary basis. Perceived weakness and a misconception on the apparent lack of blood were the major reasons for unwillingness to donate blood. There was a significant association between willingness to donate blood and educational status as well as occupation, with the less educated and manual laborers unwilling to donate blood on a voluntary basis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.758, confidence interval [CI] = 1.54–9.156; OR = 5.333, CI = 1.429–19.90, respectively. Conclusions: The study found that although awareness on voluntary blood donation among individuals in the rural community was widespread, hesitancy to donate blood in real life situation was high. Since voluntary unpaid donors are the best candidates for blood donation, community being the best available source, education, and motivation of the community should play a greater role in increasing voluntary blood donation.

  14. A 10-year cohort analysis of routine paediatric ART data in a rural South African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilian, R R; Mutasa, B; Railton, J; Mongwe, W; McINTYRE, J A; Struthers, H E; Peters, R P H

    2017-01-01

    South Africa's paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme is managed using a monitoring and evaluation tool known as TIER.Net. This electronic system has several advantages over paper-based systems, allowing profiling of the paediatric ART programme over time. We analysed anonymized TIER.Net data for HIV-infected children aged ART in a rural district of South Africa between 2005 and 2014. We performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to assess outcomes over time. Records of 5461 children were available for analysis; 3593 (66%) children were retained in care. Losses from the programme were higher in children initiated on treatment in more recent years (P ART programme and highlights interventions to improve programme performance.

  15. Conducting health survey research in a deep rural South African community: challenges and adaptive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler; Sello, Lebo; Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-04-24

    In many parts of the developing world, rural health requires focused policy attention, informed by reliable, representative health data. Yet there is surprisingly little published material to guide health researchers who face the unique set of hurdles associated with conducting field research in remote rural areas. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the key challenges encountered during health survey field research carried out in 2010 in a deep rural site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim of the field research was to collect data on the health of children aged 10 to 17 years old, and their primary adult caregivers, as part of a larger national health survey; the research was a collaboration between several South African and foreign universities, South African national government departments, and various NGO partners. In presenting each of the four fieldwork challenges encountered on this site, we describe the initial planning decisions made, the difficulties faced when implementing these in the field, and the adaptive strategies we used to respond to these challenges. We reflect on learnings of potential relevance for the research community. Our four key fieldwork challenges were scarce research capacity, staff relocation tensions, logistical constraints, and difficulties related to community buy-in. Addressing each of these obstacles required timely assessment of the situation and adaptation of field plans, in collaboration with our local NGO partner. Adaptive strategies included a greater use of local knowledge; the adoption of tribal authority boundaries as the smallest geopolitical units for sampling; a creative developmental approach to capacity building; and planned, on-going engagement with multiple community representatives. We argue that in order to maintain high scientific standards of research and manage to 'get the job done' on the ground, it is necessary to respond to fieldwork challenges that arise as a cohesive team, with timely

  16. The Changing Nature of the Role of Principals in Primary and Junior Secondary Schools in South Australia Following the Introduction Local School Management (Partnerships 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahid, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the changing nature of the role of principals following the introduction of local school management (Partnerships 21) in South Australia. The study reports the series of interviews with primary and junior secondary principals with regard to their roles in several areas namely; instructional leadership, teachers' professional…

  17. Increasing Participation of Rural and Regional Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Michele J.; Grace, Diana M.

    2014-01-01

    Regional and rural students in Australia face unique challenges when aspiring to higher education. These challenges reflect systematic disadvantage experienced by rural and regional populations as a whole. In an effort to redress these inequities, and aided by the Australian Government's Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Program…

  18. Rural health professionals' perspectives on providing grief and loss support in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, L J; O'Connor, M

    2013-11-01

    Research demonstrates considerable inequalities in service delivery and health outcomes for people with cancer living outside large metropolitan cities. Semi-structured interviews with 11 professionals providing grief and loss support for people with cancer and their families in rural, regional, and remote areas Western Australia revealed the challenges they faced in delivering such support. The data are presented in four themes - Inequity of regional versus metropolitan services, Strain of the 'Jack of all trades' role, Constraints to accessing professional development, and Challenges in delivering post-bereavement services. These challenges are likely to be of growing concern given that populations are declining in rural areas as Australia becomes increasingly urban. The findings have implications in enhancing the loss and grief support services available in rural, regional, and remote Western Australia, including those grieving the death of a loved one through cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Uranium mining in Australia: dreams--and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    By the early 1980's if the current mining projects described are allowed to go on stream, Australia will be able to produce at least 10 900 tons of U$sub 3$O$sub 8$ annually from ores whose grade ranges from a low of 0.150% to a high of 2.300%. The Jabiluka Project of uranium mining is described, and plans for other mines are discussed in Queensland, South and Western Australia. 2 refs

  20. Epidemiology and trends for Caesarean section births in New South Wales, Australia: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section (CS rates around the world have been increasing and in Australia have reached 30% of all births. Robson's Ten-Group Classification System (10-group classification provides a clinically relevant classification of CS rates that provides a useful basis for international comparisons and trend analyses. This study aimed to investigate trends in CS rates in New South Wales (NSW, including trends in the components of the 10-group classification. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study using data from the Midwives Data Collection, a state-wide surveillance system that monitors patterns of pregnancy care, services and pregnancy outcomes in New South Wales, Australia. The study population included all women giving birth between 1st January 1998 and 31st December 2008. Descriptive statistics are presented including age-standardised CS rates, annual percentage change as well as regression analyses. Results From 1998 to 2008 the CS rate in NSW increased from 19.1 to 29.5 per 100 births. There was a significant average annual increase in primary 4.3% (95%CI 3.0-5.7% and repeat 4.8% (95% CI 3.9-5.7% CS rates from 1998 to 2008. After adjusting for maternal and pregnancy factors, the increase in CS delivery over time was maintained. When examining CS rates classified according to the 10-group classification, the greatest contributors to the overall CS rate and the largest annual increases occurred among nulliparae at term having elective CS and multipara having elective repeat CS. Conclusions Given that the increased CS rate cannot be explained by known and collected maternal or pregnancy characteristics, the increase may be related to differences in clinical decision making or maternal request. Future efforts to reduce the overall CS rate should be focussed on reducing the primary CS rate.

  1. Having a baby in the new land: a qualitative exploration of the experiences of Asian migrants in rural Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, H T; Le, Q; Kilpatrick, S

    2009-01-01

    Australia is a land of cultural diversity. Cultural differences in maternity care may result in conflict between migrants and healthcare providers, especially when migrants have minimal English language knowledge. The aim of the study was to investigate Asian migrant women's child-birth experiences in a rural Australian context. The study consisted of semi-structured interviews conducted with 10 Asian migrant women living in rural Tasmania to explore their childbirth experiences and the barriers they faced in accessing maternal care in the new land. The data were analysed using grounded theory and three main categories were identified: 'migrants with traditional practices in the new land', 'support and postnatal experiences' and 'barriers to accessing maternal care'. The findings revealed that Asian migrants in Tasmania faced language and cultural barriers when dealing with the new healthcare system. Because some Asian migrants retain traditional views and practices for maternity care, confusion and conflicting expectations may occur. Family and community play an important role in supporting migrant women through their maternity care. Providing interpreting services, social support for migrant women and improving the cross-cultural training for healthcare providers were recommended to improve available maternal care services.

  2. South-Moravian Rural Borderland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, A.; Šťastná, M.; Trnka, P.; Dvořák, Petr; Zapletalová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2013), s. 115-132 ISSN 1803-8417 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : borderland * landscape * rural settlement * economy * Moravia Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/euco.2013.5.issue-2/euco-2013-0008/euco-2013-0008.xml?format=INT

  3. Dual (oxygen and nitrogen) isotopic characterization of the museum archived nitrates from the United States of America, South Africa and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Chitoshi; Hosono, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Midori; Okumura, Azusa

    2018-06-01

    Dual (oxygen and nitrogen) isotopic composition of the museum archived nitrates from the United States of America, South Africa and Australia was studied. The analyzed specimens were collected in middle 19th to early 20th centuries, and represent world-wide acquisition of the Smithsonian Institution Natural Museum of Natural History (Washington, D. C., USA) and the Natural History Museum (London, UK). The samples consist of transparent to semi-transparent aggregates of minute nitrate, euhedral crystallites which imply precipitation from percolating fluids under ample space and dry regimes. The major nitrate chemistry is saltpetre (KNO 3 ) with minor nitratine (NaNO 3 ). A binary plot of δ 15 N vs. δ 18 O of almost all nitrates indicates a trend, reflecting microbial origin through nitrification of ammonium. The diagram excludes the contribution of meteoric origin formed by mass-independent, photochemical reaction of NO with ozone in stratosphere. Calculated paleo-ambient fluid compositions responsible for microbial nitrification imply extreme evaporative concentration of relevant fluids under dry climatic regimes in the Northern Cape Province (South Africa) and in the Northern Territory (central Australia), and even throughout the United States of America. The dual isotopic characterization provides direct evidence to the origin of the museum archived nitrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The experience of living with stroke in low urban and rural socioeconomic areas of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maleka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of stroke on stroke survivors are profound and affecttheir quality of life. The aim of this study was to establish the experience of peopleliving with stroke in low socioeconomic urban and rural areas of South Africa.A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was used to collect data.Participants were identified from stroke registers and recruited from PHC clinicsin Soweto, Gauteng and Limpopo provinces. Participants had to have had a stroke,be above the age of 18 and had lived in the community six months to a year followingtheir stroke. The researcher or research assistant conducted the interviews ofparticipants who had had strokes as well as their caregivers in the home language of the participants. The interviewswere audio taped, transcribed and translated into English. A thematic content analysis was done.Thirty two participants were interviewed, 13 from Soweto, Gauteng, and 19 from rural Limpopo provinces. Theresults suggest that the sudden, overwhelming transformation as a result of a stroke forms a background for loss ofcommunity mobility, social isolation, role reversal within the family and community, loss of role within the family andcommunity, loss of meaningful activities of daily living, loss of hope and threat to livelihood amongst stroke survivorsliving in low socioeconomic areas of South Africa.An overwhelming picture of despondency was found, with few positive stories told in both settings. The themesidentified from the interviews reflected the experience and issues that a patient with stroke has to deal with in lowsocioeconomic areas of South Africa.

  5. Assessing health and well-being among older people in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population in developing countries is ageing, which is likely to increase the burden of non-communicable diseases and disability. Objective: To describe factors associated with self-reported health, disability and quality of life (QoL of older people in the rural northeast of South Africa. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 6,206 individuals aged 50 and over. We used multivariate analysis to examine relationships between demographic variables and measures of self-reported health (Health Status, functional ability (WHODASi and quality of life (WHOQoL. Results: About 4,085 of 6,206 people eligible (65.8% completed the interview. Women (Odds Ratio (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.09, 1.55, older age (OR=2.59, 95% CI 1.97, 3.40, lower education (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.31, 2.00, single status (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.01, 1.37 and not working at present (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.59 were associated with a low health status. Women were also more likely to report a higher level of disability (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.14, 1.66, as were older people (OR=2.92, 95% CI 2.25, 3.78, those with no education (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.97, with single status (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.06, 1.46 and not working at present (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.06, 1.66. Older age (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.06, 1.74, no education (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.11, 1.73, single status (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.10, 1.49, a low household asset score (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.19, 1.94 and not working at present (OR=1.32; 95% CI 1.07, 1.64 were all associated with lower quality of life. Conclusions: This study presents the first population-based data from South Africa on health status, functional ability and quality of life among older people. Health and social services will need to be restructured to provide effective care for older people living in rural South Africa with impaired functionality and other health problems.

  6. Grandparent caregiving among rural African Americans in a community in the American South: challenges to health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clottey, Emmanuel N; Scott, Alison J; Alfonso, Moya L

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of grandparents in rural USA are serving as primary caregivers for their grandchildren because of parental incarceration, addiction, joblessness, or illness. Low-income, African American women from the South are overrepresented in this growing population. There is a paucity of research exploring the challenges faced by rural grandparent caregivers, and past studies have not explicitly addressed the potential consequences of rural grandparent caregiving for health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore grandparent caregiving among rural, low-income, African American grandmothers in a community in the American South, and to identify challenges to health that arose in that context. McLeroy's social ecological model (SEM) was used to examine these challenges at multiple levels of influence. This qualitative interview-based study was conducted in a high-poverty community in rural Georgia. In-depth interviews were conducted with African American grandparent caregivers and key informants from local community-based organizations. A key informant assisted in identifying initial interview participants, and then snowball sampling was used to recruit additional participants. Interview questions were grouped under five domains (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, organizational, and policy), according to the levels of the SEM. Iterative content analysis of interview transcripts was utilized. Transcripts were coded to identify text segments related to each domain of the SEM, which were grouped together for analysis by domain. Reflexive memo-writing aided in development of themes, and data quality was assessed using Lincoln and Guba's trustworthiness criteria. Rural African American grandparent caregivers faced a range of challenges to health. Direct physical challenges included chronic pain that interfered with sleep and daily functioning, mobility issues exacerbated by child care, and the pressure of managing their own medical conditions

  7. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  8. ANALYSIS FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WAGE DISPARITY BETWEEN FEMALE WORKERS IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the factors that influence wage disparity between working women (female workers in urban and rural areas in South Sumatera in 2013 using cross-sectional data from Susenas 2013. Methods used in this study are wage equation of Mincer (1994 and wage decomposition model of Blinder-Oaxaca. The results show that average wage disparity between working women in urban and rural areas are 34.93%. This disparity is caused by endowment (independent variables, namely, education, age, working hours (jam kerja, non-agricultural sector (non-pertanian, marital status (menikah, and the presence of children under the age of five (balita, by 11.82%. The rest of 88.18% are explained by other variables outside this study. Endownment variables such as senior high school (SMA education, higher education (pendidikantinggi and working hours (jam kerja are also found to be the cause of an increase in wage disparity of working women in urban and rural areas.

  9. Rurality and mental health: an Australian primary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A; Manoff, T; Caffery, J

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, there has been a significant gap in the literature exploring the issues of the mental health needs for rural communities in Australia. In this study we investigated the prevalence of diagnosable psychological disorders in both a rural and a non-rural primary care sample in far north Queensland, Australia. In a previous study we had screened some 300 GP attendees, on a number of sociodemographic variables and measures of psychological wellbeing, from four rural GP practices and one regional GP practice. Of these, 130 participants agreed to further follow up. In this study, 118 of the participants were selected and contacted by phone to complete the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF). The CIDI-SF diagnosis was then analysed in relation to the sociodemographic indicators that had previously been collected. The prevalence of diagnosable mental health disorders in the rural sample was found to be higher in comparison with the regional urban sample. The sociodemographic factors of rural residence, gender, and length of residence were associated with having a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Although there were a number of methodological limitations to this study, there did appear to be a significant relationship between rural location and the likelihood of receiving a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Why this might be the case is not clear, and we consider a number of explanations, but our finding suggests that further research in mental health should consider the issue of rurality as a key feature to be explored.

  10. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  11. Drought, Endurance and Climate Change 'Pioneers': Lived Experience in the Production of Rural Environmental Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Anderson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the politicisation of environmental knowledge on rural Australia, in an analysis of discourse on the lived experience of drought. It draws on research conducted in dryland farm communities in the Mallee wheat-belt of Victoria – where rural histories have presented spirited sagas of community perseverance in ‘battling’ a harsh climate – during a period of marked shift in public awareness of climate change (2004-07. Indeed climate change projections have intensified debate over rural futures in Australia, where droughts have played a powerful role in the mythologizing of rural battlers and landscapes, and where drought discourse has been dominated by the language of war. Cultural engagement with climate is, however, under constant renegotiation, as rural cultural research is apt to reveal.

  12. Scars of disengagement: perspectives on community leadership and youth engagement in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Wilson; Jooste, Karien; Aziato, Lydia; Anakwe, Adaobi

    2017-08-01

    Given the emerging global youth disengagement epidemic, anticipated population growth, and the threat of continued rural-urban migration among young adults, recent research has focused on community leadership practice and the factors that influence youth engagement at the local level. Studying these practices and factors can elicit interventions that can improve youth engagement and youth health. This study engaged South African rural community leaders in interviews to collect perceptions and experiences on community leadership and factors that influence youth engagement and their health behaviors. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Emergent themes are categorized into four domains: conceptualizations of leadership, current youth behaviors, barriers to youth engagement, and youth leadership opportunities and potential solutions. Findings demonstrate a clear grasp of the concept of community leadership among community leaders, and an awareness of the complex interplay of social, economic and environmental factors on youth disengagement and the potential interventions to promote more youth participation.

  13. Science Learning in Rural Australia: Not Necessarily the Poor Cousin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell; Symington, David

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that students in rural schools lag behind their city counterparts in measures of science literacy and attitude to science learning. If we are to address this situation we need to build as full a picture as we can of the key features of what is a complex and varied rural schooling context. In this article…

  14. Maternal mortality in rural south Ethiopia: outcomes of community-based birth registration by health extension workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaliso Yaya

    Full Text Available Rural communities in low-income countries lack vital registrations to track birth outcomes. We aimed to examine the feasibility of community-based birth registration and measure maternal mortality ratio (MMR in rural south Ethiopia.In 2010, health extension workers (HEWs registered births and maternal deaths among 421,639 people in three districts (Derashe, Bonke, and Arba Minch Zuria. One nurse-supervisor per district provided administrative and technical support to HEWs. The primary outcomes were the feasibility of registration of a high proportion of births and measuring MMR. The secondary outcome was the proportion of skilled birth attendance. We validated the completeness of the registry and the MMR by conducting a house-to-house survey in 15 randomly selected villages in Bonke.We registered 10,987 births (81·4% of expected 13,492 births with annual crude birth rate of 32 per 1,000 population. The validation study showed that, of 2,401 births occurred in the surveyed households within eight months of the initiation of the registry, 71·6% (1,718 were registered with similar MMRs (474 vs. 439 between the registered and unregistered births. Overall, we recorded 53 maternal deaths; MMR was 489 per 100,000 live births and 83% (44 of 53 maternal deaths occurred at home. Ninety percent (9,863 births were at home, 4% (430 at health posts, 2·5% (282 at health centres, and 3·5% (412 in hospitals. MMR increased if: the male partners were illiterate (609 vs. 346; p= 0·051 and the villages had no road access (946 vs. 410; p= 0·039. The validation helped to increase the registration coverage by 10% through feedback discussions.It is possible to obtain a high-coverage birth registration and measure MMR in rural communities where a functional system of community health workers exists. The MMR was high in rural south Ethiopia and most births and maternal deaths occurred at home.

  15. Maternal Mortality in Rural South Ethiopia: Outcomes of Community-Based Birth Registration by Health Extension Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaya, Yaliso; Data, Tadesse; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rural communities in low-income countries lack vital registrations to track birth outcomes. We aimed to examine the feasibility of community-based birth registration and measure maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in rural south Ethiopia. Methods In 2010, health extension workers (HEWs) registered births and maternal deaths among 421,639 people in three districts (Derashe, Bonke, and Arba Minch Zuria). One nurse-supervisor per district provided administrative and technical support to HEWs. The primary outcomes were the feasibility of registration of a high proportion of births and measuring MMR. The secondary outcome was the proportion of skilled birth attendance. We validated the completeness of the registry and the MMR by conducting a house-to-house survey in 15 randomly selected villages in Bonke. Results We registered 10,987 births (81·4% of expected 13,492 births) with annual crude birth rate of 32 per 1,000 population. The validation study showed that, of 2,401 births occurred in the surveyed households within eight months of the initiation of the registry, 71·6% (1,718) were registered with similar MMRs (474 vs. 439) between the registered and unregistered births. Overall, we recorded 53 maternal deaths; MMR was 489 per 100,000 live births and 83% (44 of 53 maternal deaths) occurred at home. Ninety percent (9,863 births) were at home, 4% (430) at health posts, 2·5% (282) at health centres, and 3·5% (412) in hospitals. MMR increased if: the male partners were illiterate (609 vs. 346; p= 0·051) and the villages had no road access (946 vs. 410; p= 0·039). The validation helped to increase the registration coverage by 10% through feedback discussions. Conclusion It is possible to obtain a high-coverage birth registration and measure MMR in rural communities where a functional system of community health workers exists. The MMR was high in rural south Ethiopia and most births and maternal deaths occurred at home. PMID:25799229

  16. Partnership in Knowledge Creation: Lessons Learned from a Researcher-Policy Actor Partnership to Co-Produce a Rapid Appraisal Case Study of South Australia's Social Inclusion Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Kate; Patterson, Jan; Baum, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a partnership between researchers and policy actors that was developed within a short timeframe to produce a rapid appraisal case study of a government policy initiative--South Australia's "Social Inclusion Initiative"--for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the international Commission on Social Determinants…

  17. Job satisfaction and turnover intent of primary healthcare nurses in rural South Africa: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delobelle, Peter; Rawlinson, Jakes L; Ntuli, Sam; Malatsi, Inah; Decock, Rika; Depoorter, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relationships between demographic variables, job satisfaction, and turnover intent among primary healthcare nurses in a rural area of South Africa. Health systems in Southern Africa face a nursing shortage fuelled by migration, but research on job satisfaction and turnover intent of primary healthcare nurses remains poorly described. A cross-sectional study with survey design was conducted in 2005 in all local primary healthcare clinics, including nurses on duty at the time of visit (n = 143). Scale development, anova, Spearman's rank correlation, and logistic regression were applied. Nurses reported satisfaction with work content and coworker relationships and dissatisfaction with pay and work conditions. Half of all nurses considered turnover within two years, of whom three in ten considered moving overseas. Job satisfaction was statistically significantly associated with unit tenure (P job satisfaction, age and education (P Satisfaction with supervision was the only facet significantly explaining turnover intent when controlling for age, education, years of nursing and unit tenure (P job satisfaction and retention of primary healthcare nurses in rural South Africa should rely not only on financial rewards and improved work conditions but also on adequate human resource management. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G; Bottomley, Christian; Ngugi, Anthony K; Ibinda, Fredrick; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R; Wagner, Ryan; Twine, Rhian; Connor, Myles; Collinson, Mark; Masanja, Honratio; Mathew, Alexander; Kakooza, Angelina; Pariyo, George; Peterson, Stefan; Ndyo-mughenyi, Donald; Odhiambo, Rachael; Chengo, Eddie; Chabi, Martin; Bauni, Evasius; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odera, Victor Mung'ala; Mageto, James O; Ae-Ngibise, Ken; Akpalu, Bright; Akpalu, Albert; Agbokey, Francis; Adjei, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Doku, Victor C K; Odermatt, Peter; Neville, Brian; Sander, Josemir W; White, Steve; Nutman, Thomas; Wilkins, Patricia; Noh, John

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package. The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0). Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5), with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4)), and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4)). The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  19. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Wagner

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease.A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package.The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0. Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5, with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4, and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4.The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  20. Factors associated with the severity of construction accidents: The case of South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantanee Dumrak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While the causes of accidents in the construction industry have been extensively studied, severity remains an understudied area. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on severity, this study analysed 24,764 construction accidents reported during 2002-11 in South Australia. A conceptual model developed through literature uses personal characteristics such as age, experience, gender and language. It also employs work-related factors such as size of organization, project size and location, mechanism of accident and body location of the injury. These were shown to discriminate why some accidents result in only a minor severity while others are fatal. Factors such as time of accident, day of the week and season were not strongly associated with accident severity. When the factors affecting severity of an accident are well understood, preventive measures could be developed specifically to those factors that are at high risk.

  1. Ice and the outback: Patterns and prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; McEntee, Alice

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether lifetime and recent methamphetamine use (including crystal methamphetamine) differed among city, regional and rural residents and whether particular subpopulations were more at-risk. Secondary analyses of the last three National Drug Strategy Household Surveys and corresponding Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Sets (AODTS NMDS). Australian general population. Australians who completed the 2007 (n = 22 519), 2010 (n = 25 786) and 2013 (n = 23 512) NDSHS (aged 14 + ); and treatment episodes where the principal drug of concern was recorded in the 2006/2007 (n = 139 808), 2009/2010 (n = 139 608) and 2012/2013 (n = 154 489) AODTS NMDS. To determine whether rural Australians were more likely to use methamphetamine than non-rural counterparts. Lifetime and recent methamphetamine and recent crystal methamphetamine use were significantly higher among rural than other Australians. Significantly more rural men and employed rural Australians used methamphetamine than their city, regional or Australian counterparts. Rural Australians aged 18-24 and 25-29 years were significantly more likely to have used methamphetamine in their lifetime than city or Australian residents. Rural Australians aged 18-24 years were significantly more likely to have recently used crystal methamphetamine. Interventions tailored to address the specific and unique circumstances of rural settings are required to reduce and prevent methamphetamine use, particularly crystal methamphetamine. Scope exists to focus prevention efforts on rural workplaces and primary care settings. Greater understanding of the higher prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural areas is required, plus implementation of comprehensive strategies and optimised treatment utilisation. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  2. Comparison of dietary profile of a rural south Indian population with the current dietary recommendations for prevention of non-communicable diseases (CURES 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhan Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The dietary profile of this rural south Indian population reflected unhealthy choices, with the high consumption of refined cereals in the form of polished white rice and low intake of protective foods like fruits, vegetables, n-3 poly and monounsaturated fatty acids. This could potentially contribute to the increase in prevalence of NCDs like diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in rural areas and calls for appropriate remedial action.

  3. The tuberculosis challenge in a rural South African HIV programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Graham S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa remains the country with the greatest burden of HIV-infected individuals and the second highest estimated TB incidence per capita worldwide. Within South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal has one of the highest rates of TB incidence and an emerging epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Methods Review of records of consecutive HIV-infected people initiated onto ART between 1st January 2005 and 31st March 2006. Patients were screened for TB at initiation and incident episodes recorded. CD4 counts, viral loads and follow-up status were recorded; data was censored on 5th August 2008. Geographic cluster analysis was performed using spatial scanning. Results 801 patients were initiated. TB prevalence was 25.3%, associated with lower CD4 (AHR 2.61 p = 0.01 for CD4 25 copies/ml (OR 1.75 p = 0.11. A low-risk cluster for incident TB was identified for patients living near the local hospital in the geospatial analysis. Conclusion There is a large burden of TB in this population. Rate of incident TB stabilises at a rate higher than that of the overall population. These data highlight the need for greater research on strategies for active case finding in rural settings and the need to focus on strengthening primary health care.

  4. Determinants of late antenatal care presentation in rural and peri-urban communities in South Africa: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebonwu, Joy; Mumbauer, Alexandra; Uys, Margot; Wainberg, Milton L; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    To investigate and compare determinates for delayed first presentation to antenatal care (ANC) services. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst pregnant women attending their first ANC visit in rural Capricorn District and peri-urban Tlokwe sub-district communities in South Africa. Data collection included questionnaires and medical record abstraction. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed factors associated with late ANC presentation. We recruited 807 pregnant women. Of these, 51% of rural women and 28% of peri-urban women presented late for first ANC. Rural women were more likely to present late for first ANC (AOR = 2.65; 95% CI 1.98-3.55) and report barriers to accessing ANC services (PANC presentation in rural communities was associated with being married (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.33-4.19), employed (AOR = 1.90; 95% CI 1.03-3.50), ANC after presenting early (AOR 0.51; 95% CI 0.30-0.89) and being pregnant for the first time (AOR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.34-0.94). Both rural and peri-urban women had high rates of late presentation for first ANC. However, women in the rural communities were more likely to present late. Unplanned pregnancy was an independent risk factor in both rural and peri-urban communities. Interventions around family planning, especially for adolescent girls and young women, are needed to improve early presentation for ANC.

  5. Planning for a major expansion of the olympic dam copper/uranium resource in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The polymetallic Olympic Dam deposit in northern South Australia contains the world's largest known economic uranium resource. The current resource estimate is 3,970 million tones at 0.4 kg/t U308. Uranium is a co-product of an existing operation that also produces copper, gold and silver. Production began in 1998. Ore mined in 2006 is expected to be close to 10 million tones to produce 4,500 tonnes of uranium oxide and 220,000 tonnes of copper cathode. BHP Billiton is undertaking a pre-feasibility study into expanding annual production capacity to about 15,000 tonnes of uranium and 500,000 tonnes copper. Subject to successful completion of the pre-feasibility study and a final feasibility study, construction of the expansion could begin by early 2009, with the expanded production capacity being commissioned in 2013. The resource estimate has been significantly increased by drilling of the so-far undeveloped southern section of the orebody. Current planning indicates that this section could be mined by open pit. Ore is at depth and extends from 350 metres to about 1000 metres below surface. The existing operations facilities at Olympic Dam comprise an underground mine, and a mineral processing plant and associated infrastructure which would be expanded to support expanded mining. Major items of infrastructure could include a new powerline, water pipeline and associated coastal desalination plant, a rail link to Olympic Dam from the existing national network and further development of the Roxby Downs township (current population 4,000). The operation is regulated by an Indenture Agreement with the South Australian Government. To enable the expansion to proceed, the Indenture Agreement will be renegotiated. The operation is also regulated by the Federal Government. An Environmental Impact Statement is being developed to secure the necessary State and Federal approvals. A land access agreement is being negotiated with indigenous groups. Plans for

  6. Seizure-related hospital admissions, readmissions and costs: Comparisons with asthma and diabetes in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Michelle L; Barton, Christopher; McCaffrey, Nikki; Parker, Denise; Hutchinson, Claire

    2017-08-01

    Seizures are listed as an Ambulatory Care Sensitive Condition (ACSC), where, in some cases, hospitalisation may be avoided with appropriate preventative and early management in primary care. We examined the frequencies, trends and financial costs of first and subsequent seizure-related hospital admissions in the adult and paediatric populations, with comparisons to bronchitis/asthma and diabetes admissions in South Australia between 2012 and 2014. De-identified hospital separation data from five major public hospitals in metropolitan South Australia were analysed to determine the number of children and adults admitted for the following Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Groups: seizure related conditions; bronchitis/asthma; and diabetes. Additional data included length of hospital stay and type of admission. Demographic data were analysed to identify whether social determinants influence admission, and a macro costing approach was then applied to calculate the financial costs to the Health Care System. The rate of total seizure hospitalizations was 649 per 100,000; lower than bronchitis/asthma (751/100,000), yet higher than diabetes (500/100,000). The highest proportions of subsequent separations were recorded by children with seizures regardless of complexity (47% +CSCC; 17% -CSCC) compared with asthma (11% +CSCC; 14% -CSCC) or diabetes (14% +CSCC; 13% -CSCC), and by adults with seizures with catastrophic or severe complications/comorbidity (25%), compared with diabetes (22%) or asthma (14%). The mean cost per separation in both children and adults was highest for diabetes (AU$4438/$7656), followed by seizures (AU$2408/$5691) and asthma (AU$2084/$3295). Following the lead of well-developed and resourced health promotion initiatives in asthma and diabetes, appropriate primary care, community education and seizure management services (including seizure clinics) should be targeted in an effort to reduce seizure related hospitalisations which may be avoidable

  7. Outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural and urban south Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Lingam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the visual outcome after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study of subjects aged 40 years or more. Three thousand nine hundred and twenty-four rural subjects from 27 contiguous villages and 3850 urban subjects from five randomly selected divisions were studied. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated retinal examination. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, t test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight (216 males, 312 females, 781 eyes rural subjects (13.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI 12.4% to 14.6% and 406 (197 males, 209 females, 604 eyes urban subjects (10.5%, 95% CI 9.6-11.5% had undergone cataract surgery. Outcome of cataract surgery was defined based on visual acuity. Using best-corrected visual acuity for classification, the single most important cause for visual impairment was cystoid macular edema in the aphakic group and posterior capsule opacification in the pseudophakic group. Aphakia (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - odds ratio (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6%, visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR 6.2; 95% 4.0 to 9.8%, rural residence (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.5% and visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.5% were associated with visual impairment. The urban cataract-operated population had significantly more pseudophakics ( P < 0.001, men ( P = 0.02 and literates ( P < 0.001. In the rural group the prevalence of cataract surgery (13.5% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001 and number of people that had undergone cataract surgery within three years prior to examination ( P < 0.001 were significantly greater. In 30% of rural and 16% of urban subjects uncorrected refraction was the cause of visual impairment. Conclusions: Surgery

  8. Planned home and hospital births in South Australia, 1991-2006: differences in outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennare, Robyn M; Keirse, Marc J N C; Tucker, Graeme R; Chan, Annabelle C

    2010-01-18

    To examine differences in outcomes between planned home births, occurring at home or in hospital, and planned hospital births. Population-based study using South Australian perinatal data on all births and perinatal deaths during the period 1991-2006. Analysis included logistic regression adjusted for predictor variables and standardised perinatal mortality ratios. Perinatal death, intrapartum death, death attributed to intrapartum asphyxia, Apgar score home births accounted for 0.38% of 300,011 births in South Australia. They had a perinatal mortality rate similar to that for planned hospital births (7.9 v 8.2 per 1000 births), but a sevenfold higher risk of intrapartum death (95% CI, 1.53-35.87) and a 27-fold higher risk of death from intrapartum asphyxia (95% CI, 8.02-88.83). Review of perinatal deaths in the planned home births group identified inappropriate inclusion of women with risk factors for home birth and inadequate fetal surveillance during labour. Low Apgar scores were more frequent among planned home births, and use of specialised neonatal care as well as rates of postpartum haemorrhage and severe perineal tears were lower among planned home births, but these differences were not statistically significant. Planned home births had lower caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates, and a seven times lower episiotomy rate than planned hospital births. Perinatal safety of home births may be improved substantially by better adherence to risk assessment, timely transfer to hospital when needed, and closer fetal surveillance.

  9. Spatial clustering of fatal, and non-fatal, suicide in new South Wales, Australia: implications for evidence-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2017-10-06

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have

  10. Transnational Telecommunications Capital Expanding From South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    benefits for the operators (such as South Africa's MTN, France's Orange, Middle ... Focusing on a single case study, this paper examines ... By looking at Ericsson's regional growth in post-Apartheid South Africa, my aim is. 1 .... flow of rural urban migration. ... Safaricom's rapid expansion of mobile network coverage in rural.

  11. The density of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in South East Australia is greater in undisturbed than in disturbed habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Hinson , Eloise M.; Duncan , Michael; Lim , Julianne; Arundel , Jonathan; Oldroyd , Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; AbstractApis mellifera is an important pollinator but is sometimes associated with adverse effects on natural ecosystems. We surveyed pairs of disturbed and undisturbed sites across three biomes in South East Australia. We used pheromone lures to trap drones, genotyped the drones to infer the number of colonies within flight range and then estimated colony densities using synthetic sampling distributions. Estimated colony densities ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 colonies km−2 ...

  12. Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban communities in the Free State province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Michélle; van Rooyen, Francois C; Walsh, Corinna M

    2017-12-01

    Higher socioeconomic status impacts profoundly on quality of life. Life-event stressors, such as loss of employment, marital separation/divorce, death of a spouse and food insecurity, have been found to accelerate disease progression among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to determine significant independent sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status in people from rural and urban communities in the Assuring Health for All study, which was undertaken in rural Trompsburg, Philippolis and Springfontein and urban Mangaung, in the Free State Province of South Africa. Sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status were determined in 886 households. Logistic regression with forward selection (p rural participants, 97 (17.1%) were HIV-infected, and 172 (40.6%) of the 424 urban participants. A relatively high percentage of respondents had never attended school, while very few participants in all areas had a tertiary education. The unemployment rate of HIV-infected adults was higher than that of HIV-uninfected adults. A high percentage of respondents in all areas reported running out of money to buy food, with this tendency occurring significantly more among urban HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected respondents. In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to feed their children, with significantly more HIV-infected urban respondents compared to their uninfected counterparts reporting this. Most participants in all areas had to cut the size of meals, or ate less because there was not enough food in the house or not enough money to buy food. During periods of food shortage, more than 50% of respondents in all areas asked family, relatives or neighbours for assistance with money and/or food, which occurred at a higher percentage of HIV-infected rural participants compared to HIV-uninfected rural participants. More than half of all

  13. Environmental review of the Radium hill mine site, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottermoser, B.G.; Ashley, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Radium Hill uranium deposit, in semi-arid eastern South Australia, was discovered in 1906 and mined for radium between 1906 and 1931 and for uranium between 1954 and 1961 (production of 969,300 t of davidite ore averaging 0.12% U 3 O 8 ). Rehabilitation was limited to removal of mine facilities, sealing of underground workings and capping of selected waste repositories. In 2002, gamma-ray data, plus tailings, uncrushed and crushed waste rock, stream sediment, topsoil and vegetation samples were collected to assist in the examination of the current environmental status of the mine site. The preliminary data indicate that capping of tailings storage facilities did not ensure the long-term containment of the low-level radioactive wastes due to the erosion of sides of the impoundments. Moreover, active wind erosion of waste fines from various, physically unstable waste repositories causes increasing radiochemical (up to 0.94 μSv/h) and geochemical (Ce, La, Sc, Th, U, V, Y) impacts on local soils and sediments. However, measured radiation levels of soils and sediments are at or below Australian Radiation Protection Standards (20 mSv/a averaged over five consecutive years). Additional capping and landform design of the crushed waste and tailings repositories are required in order to minimise erosion and impacts on surrounding soils and sediments. (orig.)

  14. Casemix funding in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, J; Hindle, D; Phelan, P D; Hanson, R

    1998-06-01

    Casemix funding for hospitals with the use of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), which organise patients' conditions into similar clinical categories with similar costs, was introduced in Australia five years ago. It has been applied in different ways and to a greater or lesser extent in different Australian States. Only Victoria and South Australia have implemented casemix funding across all healthcare services. Attempts have been made to formally evaluate its impact, but they have not met the required scientific standards in controlling for confounding factors. Casemix funding remains a much-discussed issue. In this Debate, Braithwaite and Hindle take a contrary position, largely to stimulate policy debate; Phelan defends the casemix concept and advocates retaining its best features; and Hanson adds a plea for consumer input.

  15. Impacts of Recent Climate change on wheat production systems in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Milroy, S.P.; Asseng, S.

    2009-01-01

    The wheatbelt of Western Australia shows a distinct Mediterranean climate with most of the rainfall occurring in the winter months. The main factor limiting plant production in this region is rainfall. Due to clearing of native vegetation, dryland salinity is a major problem in south-west Australia.

  16. Socio-economic, environmental and nutritional characteristics of urban and rural South Indian women in early pregnancy: findings from the South Asian Birth Cohort (START).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Vasudevan, Anil; Thomas, Tinku; Anand, Sonia S; Desai, Dipika; Gupta, Milan; Menezes, Gladys; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2018-06-01

    High frequency of low birth weight (LBW) is observed in rural compared with urban Indian women. Since maternal BMI is known to be associated with pregnancy outcomes, the present study aimed to investigate factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy of urban and rural South Indian women. Prospective observational cohort. A hospital-based study conducted at an urban and a rural health centre in Karnataka State. Pregnant women (n 843) aged 18-40 years recruited in early pregnancy from whom detailed sociodemographic, environmental, anthropometric and dietary intake information was collected. A high proportion of low BMI (32 v. 26 %, Pwomen were younger, had lower body weight, tended to be shorter and less educated. They lived in poor housing conditions, had less access to piped water and good sanitation, used unrefined fuel for cooking and had lower standard of living score. The age (β=0·21, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·29), education level of their spouse (β=1·36, 95 % CI 0·71, 2·71) and fat intake (β=1·24, 95 % CI 0·20, 2·28) were positively associated with BMI in urban women. Our findings indicate that risk factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy are different in rural and urban settings. It is important to study population-specific risk factors in relation to perinatal health.

  17. Need for timely paediatric HIV treatment within primary health care in rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham S Cooke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In areas where adult HIV prevalence has reached hyperendemic levels, many infants remain at risk of acquiring HIV infection. Timely access to care and treatment for HIV-infected infants and young children remains an important challenge. We explore the extent to which public sector roll-out has met the estimated need for paediatric treatment in a rural South African setting.Local facility and population-based data were used to compare the number of HIV infected children accessing HAART before 2008, with estimates of those in need of treatment from a deterministic modeling approach. The impact of programmatic improvements on estimated numbers of children in need of treatment was assessed in sensitivity analyses.In the primary health care programme of HIV treatment 346 children <16 years of age initiated HAART by 2008; 245(70.8% were aged 10 years or younger, and only 2(<1% under one year of age. Deterministic modeling predicted 2,561 HIV infected children aged 10 or younger to be alive within the area, of whom at least 521(20.3% would have required immediate treatment. Were extended PMTCT uptake to reach 100% coverage, the annual number of infected infants could be reduced by 49.2%.Despite progress in delivering decentralized HIV services to a rural sub-district in South Africa, substantial unmet need for treatment remains. In a local setting, very few children were initiated on treatment under 1 year of age and steps have now been taken to successfully improve early diagnosis and referral of infected infants.

  18. Partners in ecocide: Australia's complicity in the uranium cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972 uranium producers from France, South Africa, Australia, Great Britain and Canada organized an international cartel to control the production and sale of uranium. The complicity of Australia in the manipulation of the market by and on behalf of C.R.A., Mary Kathleen Uranium, Pancontinental and Queensland Mines is discussed. The roles of both governments and companies and the antitrust implications of the cartel are considered

  19. Conservation systematics of the shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the nigrum-group (Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae, Idiosoma): integrative taxonomy reveals a diverse and threatened fauna from south-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Huey, Joel A; Cooper, Steven J B; Austin, Andrew D; Harvey, Mark S

    2018-01-01

    The aganippine shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the monophyletic nigrum -group of Idiosoma Ausserer s. l. are revised, and 15 new species are described from Western Australia and the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia: I. arenaceum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. corrugatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. clypeatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. dandaragan Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. gardneri Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. gutharuka Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. incomptum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. intermedium Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. jarrah Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. kwongan Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. mcclementsorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , I. mcnamarai Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , and I. schoknechtorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. Two previously described species from south-western Western Australia, I. nigrum Main, 1952 and I. sigillatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1870), are re-illustrated and re-diagnosed, and complementary molecular data for 14 species and seven genes are analysed with Bayesian methods. Members of the nigrum -group are of long-standing conservation significance, and I. nigrum is the only spider in Australia to be afforded threatened species status under both State and Commonwealth legislation. Two other species, I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. and I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. , are also formally listed as Endangered under Western Australian State legislation. Here we significantly relimit I. nigrum to include only those populations from the central and central-western Wheatbelt bioregion, and further document the known diversity and conservation status of all known species.

  20. Conservation systematics of the shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the nigrum-group (Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae, Idiosoma: integrative taxonomy reveals a diverse and threatened fauna from south-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Rix

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aganippine shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the monophyletic nigrum-group of Idiosoma Ausserer s. l. are revised, and 15 new species are described from Western Australia and the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia: I. arenaceum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. corrugatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. clypeatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. dandaragan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. gardneri Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. gutharuka Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. incomptum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. intermedium Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. jarrah Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kwongan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcclementsorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcnamarai Rix & Harvey, sp. n., and I. schoknechtorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. Two previously described species from south-western Western Australia, I. nigrum Main, 1952 and I. sigillatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1870, are re-illustrated and re-diagnosed, and complementary molecular data for 14 species and seven genes are analysed with Bayesian methods. Members of the nigrum-group are of long-standing conservation significance, and I. nigrum is the only spider in Australia to be afforded threatened species status under both State and Commonwealth legislation. Two other species, I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. and I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., are also formally listed as Endangered under Western Australian State legislation. Here we significantly relimit I. nigrum to include only those populations from the central and central-western Wheatbelt bioregion, and further document the known diversity and conservation status of all known species.

  1. Conservation systematics of the shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the nigrum-group (Mygalomorphae, Idiopidae, Idiosoma): integrative taxonomy reveals a diverse and threatened fauna from south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G.; Huey, Joel A.; Cooper, Steven J.B.; Austin, Andrew D.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The aganippine shield-backed trapdoor spiders of the monophyletic nigrum-group of Idiosoma Ausserer s. l. are revised, and 15 new species are described from Western Australia and the Eyre Peninsula of South Australia: I. arenaceum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. corrugatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. clypeatum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. dandaragan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. gardneri Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. gutharuka Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. incomptum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. intermedium Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. jarrah Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. kwongan Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcclementsorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., I. mcnamarai Rix & Harvey, sp. n., and I. schoknechtorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. Two previously described species from south-western Western Australia, I. nigrum Main, 1952 and I. sigillatum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1870), are re-illustrated and re-diagnosed, and complementary molecular data for 14 species and seven genes are analysed with Bayesian methods. Members of the nigrum-group are of long-standing conservation significance, and I. nigrum is the only spider in Australia to be afforded threatened species status under both State and Commonwealth legislation. Two other species, I. formosum Rix & Harvey, sp. n. and I. kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, sp. n., are also formally listed as Endangered under Western Australian State legislation. Here we significantly relimit I. nigrum to include only those populations from the central and central-western Wheatbelt bioregion, and further document the known diversity and conservation status of all known species. PMID:29773959

  2. Measuring the attractiveness of rural communities in accounting for differences of rural primary care workforce supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew R; Wingrove, Peter M; Petterson, Stephen M; Humphreys, John S; Russell, Deborah J; Bazemore, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    Many rural communities continue to experience an undersupply of primary care doctor services. While key professional factors relating to difficulties of recruitment and retention of rural primary care doctors are widely identified, less attention has been given to the role of community and place aspects on supply. Place-related attributes contribute to a community's overall amenity or attractiveness, which arguably influence both rural recruitment and retention relocation decisions of doctors. This bi-national study of Australia and the USA, two developed nations with similar geographic and rural access profiles, investigates the extent to which variations in community amenity indicators are associated with spatial variations in the supply of rural primary care doctors. Measures from two dimensions of community amenity: geographic location, specifically isolation/proximity; and economics and sociodemographics were included in this study, along with a proxy measure (jurisdiction) of a third dimension, environmental amenity. Data were chiefly collated from the American Community Survey and the Australian Census of Population and Housing, with additional calculated proximity measures. Rural primary care supply was measured using provider-to-population ratios in 1949 US rural counties and in 370 Australian rural local government areas. Additionally, the more sophisticated two-step floating catchment area method was used to measure Australian rural primary care supply in 1116 rural towns, with population sizes ranging from 500 to 50 000. Associations between supply and community amenity indicators were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients and ordinary least squares multiple linear regression models. It was found that increased population size, having a hospital in the county, increased house prices and affluence, and a more educated and older population were all significantly associated with increased workforce supply across rural areas of both countries

  3. Asthma management in rural New South Wales: perceptions of health care professionals and people with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovski, Biljana; Armour, Carol; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the perceptions and attitudes towards asthma management of general practitioners, pharmacists and people with asthma in a rural area. Qualitative semistructured interviews. Small rural centre in New South Wales. General practitioners, pharmacists and people with asthma in a rural area. General practitioners perceived that the patient provided a barrier to the implementation of optimal asthma services. They were aware that other health care professionals had a role in asthma management but were not aware of the details, particularly in relation to that of the pharmacist and would like to improve communication methods. Pharmacists also perceived the patient to be a barrier to the delivery of optimal asthma management services and would like to improve communication with the general practitioner. The impact of the rural environment for the health care professionals included workforce shortages, availability of support services and access to continuing education. People with asthma were satisfied with their asthma management and the service provided by the health care professionals and described the involvement of family members and ambulance officers in their overall asthma management. The rural environment was an issue with regards to distance to the hospital during an emergency. General practitioners and pharmacists confirmed their existing roles in asthma management while expressing a desire to improve communication between the two professions to help overcome barriers and optimise the asthma service delivered to the patient. The patient described minimal barriers to optimising asthma management, which might suggest that they might not have great expectations of asthma care.

  4. Management of severe acute malnutrition in children under 5 years through the lens of health care workers in two rural South African hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Muzigaba, Moise; van Wyk, Brian; Puoane, Thandi

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of severe malnutrition in South Africa, poor treatment outcomes for children under 5 years are still observed in some hospitals, particularly in rural areas. Objective To explore health care workers’ perceptions about upstream and proximal factors contributing to poor treatment outcomes for severe acute malnutrition in two district hospitals in South Africa. Methods An explora...

  5. Management of severe acute malnutrition in children under 5 years through the lens of health care workers in two rural South African hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Moise Muzigaba; Brian van Wyk; Thandi Puoane

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite the widespread implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of severe malnutrition in South Africa, poor treatment outcomes for children under 5 years are still observed in some hospitals, particularly in rural areas.Objective: To explore health care workers’ perceptions about upstream and proximal factors contributing to poor treatment outcomes for severe acute malnutrition in two district hospitals in South Africa.Methods: An explor...

  6. The role of Decentralized Distributed Generation in achieving universal rural electrification in South Asia by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, Kapil; Nagai, Yu; Pachauri, Shonali

    2012-01-01

    This study is motivated by the goal of achieving ‘Universal Energy Access’ by 2030 and looks at electricity access for rural households in the South Asian region. The ‘MESSAGE-Access’ model is employed to assess the cost effectiveness of centralized and Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) technologies. Delivery mechanisms are modelled to include mini-grid and stand-alone systems and the analysis includes an estimation of rural household electricity demand from lighting and appliances. We assume two future demand scenarios with a ‘minimum threshold’ and a ‘higher threshold’ of electricity consumption of 65 and 420 kW h per household per year, respectively. We find that the cost of delivering electricity by centralized generation and grid distribution is up to four times the cost of stand-alone and mini-grid DDG options in the case of ‘minimum threshold’ demand scenario. These results are robust to alternate assumptions regarding costs of technologies. We also estimate that public subsidy bill for kerosene can be substantially reduced if all households switch to electricity as their primary source of lighting. Thus, promoting DDG options can reduce capital investments needed to meet access goals significantly and have an important role to play, in meeting the goal of universal electrification by 2030. - Highlights: ► We model and assess DDG options for rural electrification in South Asia. ► Particularly, when demand is low, off-grid and mini-grid are least cost options for electrification. ► DDG options can be 3–4 times cheaper than extending a central grid. ► Kerosene lighting is up to 6 times as expensive as electric lighting. ► If electricity replaces kerosene for lighting, large subsidy savings can be realized.

  7. The impact of pensions on health and wellbeing in rural South Africa: Does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Enid; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier; Ralston, Margaret; Menken, Jane; Tollman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Unique to Africa, a means-tested non-contributory pension is available to South Africans. In 2006, women over 60 and men over 65 were pension-eligible. To explore the effect of the pension for health and wellbeing indicators of rural South African men and women, we analyze data from the WHO-INDEPTH Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health Survey, carried out in the Agincourt sub-district by the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) in 2006. Because pension receipt was not measured directly, our findings represent intent-to-treat (ITT) rather than treatment-on-the-treated (TOT) effects using age as an indicator for intent-to-treat. Overall, women report poorer wellbeing compared to men. However, women have a “honeymoon” period at ages 60–64, the first years of pension-eligibility, in which they report lower levels of worry and sadness, and higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, and quality of life as compared to younger and older women. For men, in contrast, reports of wellbeing worsen in the pre-pension years, followed by a similar but not as prominent pattern of favorable reports in the five years following pension-eligibility, and a decline in the next five-year period. Thus, while pensions continue to enhance financial wellbeing, our results suggest that their effect on social wellbeing may be gendered and transitory. Further research is needed to improve understanding of these dynamics. PMID:22884944

  8. Rural farmers' perspectives on stock theft: police crime statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural farmers are not only facing challenges of severe drought blamed on the El Nino weather pattern, but the stock theft as well. The South African Police's annual crime statistics report and surveys indicates that rural livestock farmers are mostly affected by stock theft in South Africa. The costs paid by these farmers to ...

  9. Design for sustainability: rural connectivity with village operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has approximately 26500 primary and secondary schools, of which at least 17000 are in remote rural villages. None of these rural schools have any form of Internet connectivity. The same rural villages may have one health facility...

  10. Interstate Differences on Economic Growth Rates in Australia, 1953-54 to 1990-91

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, P; Harris, D

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines interstate differences in economic growth rates in Australia over the period 1953-54 to 1990-91 using a six State classification (with ACT included in New South Wales and the Northern Territory in South Australia). The economic growth rate is measured by the increase in constant price gross state product at factor cost (GSP) per head of population over time, using three year moving averages of GSP and population to remove some of the annual fluctuations in the data. The an...

  11. A situational analysis methodology to inform comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programming, applied in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Naidoo, Evasen; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Raphela, Elsie; Barnhart, Scott; Lippman, Sheri A

    2017-09-01

    Successful HIV prevention programming requires engaging communities in the planning process and responding to the social environmental factors that shape health and behaviour in a specific local context. We conducted two community-based situational analyses to inform a large, comprehensive HIV prevention programme in two rural districts of North West Province South Africa in 2012. The methodology includes: initial partnership building, goal setting and background research; 1 week of field work; in-field and subsequent data analysis; and community dissemination and programmatic incorporation of results. We describe the methodology and a case study of the approach in rural South Africa; assess if the methodology generated data with sufficient saturation, breadth and utility for programming purposes; and evaluate if this process successfully engaged the community. Between the two sites, 87 men and 105 women consented to in-depth interviews; 17 focus groups were conducted; and 13 health facilities and 7 NGOs were assessed. The methodology succeeded in quickly collecting high-quality data relevant to tailoring a comprehensive HIV programme and created a strong foundation for community engagement and integration with local health services. This methodology can be an accessible tool in guiding community engagement and tailoring future combination HIV prevention and care programmes.

  12. A qualitative investigation of the role of paediatric rehabilitation professionals in rural South Africa: Rehabilitation professionals’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Mathye

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the role that rehabilitation professionals play in the rehabilitation of children with disabilities in the rural and under-resourced community of Giyani in South Africa. Method: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used to collect data from a convenient sample of eight rehabilitation professionals. Data were transcribed verbatim by two trained students and verified by the main researcher. An inductive approach to qualitative data analysis was used. In vivo and open coding were used to generate codes. Results: Analysis of data resulted in 21 codes, 9 subcategories, 5 categories and 1 theme. The role of rehabilitation professionals was described in terms of the five categories which are to examine newborn babies and children at risk, support caregivers of children with disabilities, impart skills training for caregivers of children with disabilities, rehabilitate children with disabilities and conduct follow-ups in communities where the children with disabilities reside. Conclusion: The role that rehabilitation professionals play in the rural and under-resourced community of Giyani in South Africa is similar to the role played in high-income countries. The role that rehabilitation professionals play is not only focused on the child but also on the family.

  13. Systematic investigation of gridding-related scaling effects on annual statistics of daily temperature and precipitation maxima: A case study for south-east Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Francia B. Avila; Siyan Dong; Kaah P. Menang; Jan Rajczak; Madeleine Renom; Markus G. Donat; Lisa V. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Using daily station observations over the period 1951–2013 in a region of south-east Australia, we systematically compare how the horizontal resolution, interpolation method and order of operation in generating gridded data sets affect estimates of annual extreme indices of temperature and precipitation maxima (hottest and wettest days). Three interpolation methods (natural neighbors, cubic spline and angular distance weighting) are used to calculate grids at five different horizontal gridded...

  14. Faecal incontinence in rural and regional northern Queensland community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lynne M; Nowak, Madeleine J; Ho, Yikhong

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, faecal incontinence, the involuntary loss of liquid or solid stool with or without a person's awareness, has been reported in 8% of the South Australian and 11% of the urban New South Wales community-dwelling populations. Studies conducted in 2004 and 2005 reported faecal incontinence in more than 20% of colorectal and urogynaecological clinic patients at Townsville Hospital (a referral centre serving rural North Queensland). This prompted concern regarding the level of faecal incontinence in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of faecal incontinence in the North and Far North Queensland urban and rural communities. The sample size was based on the New South Wales postal surveys (11% prevalence). Higher rates were expected in North/Far North Queensland, so prevalence there was estimated at 12.1% (confidence interval ± 2%, ie the true level to be between 10.1% and 14.1%). The sample for each of the Townsville, Cairns (in Far North Queensland) and rural/remote settings was calculated at 1022. The database for the present study was compiled using a systematic randomised process selecting two private names from each column on each page of the Cairns and Townsville White Pages® (Cairns: 1112 urban, 481 rural, 226 remote; Townsville: 1049 urban, 432 rural, 320 remote). The questionnaire covered personal demographics, health/risk factors, bowel habits, nutrition (fibre and fluid intake) and physical activity. Faecal incontinence was defined as accidental leakage of solid or liquid stool in the past 12 months that was not caused by a virus, medication or contaminated food. To improve the response rate a participation incentive of a chance to win a $250 voucher or one of ten $50 vouchers was offered in the initial mail-out. The initial survey was mailed out in July 2007; two follow-up surveys were mailed out to non-responders in September 2007 and January 2008. One hundred randomly selected non-responders were telephoned in

  15. Recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners: a marketing approach reveals new possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Elizabeth; Dunn, Steve; Barich, Hayley; Infante, Rebecca

    2007-12-01

    This paper repositions the challenge of attracting and retaining rural GPs in a marketing context as a new focus for future research and policy development. Case study with mixed design of surveys of GPs and medical students and depth interviews with GPs, medical students, regional-division administrators and GP recruitment agents. GP recruitment and retention in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia. Twenty-seven Limestone Coast (LC) GPs; random sample of medical students from Adelaide University, Adelaide University Rural Health Society and Flinders University; snowball sampling two adjacent rural regions (20 GPs); and administrators from LC and adjacent regions and GP recruitment agencies in Adelaide. Drawing from marketing theory, creative suggestion of 'promotion of the practice and not the region' offers a means of GP recruitment and retention for structured succession planning for rural general practices. Structural attempts to broaden the GP market with overseas recruitment have done little for improving full-time equivalent GP levels. Market segmentation and market orientation offer a new emphasis on value exchange between the corporation (the practice), customer (GPs) and competition (all practices) to influence future mobility. A marketing orientation to the GP challenge emphasises individual's perceptions of value, GP expectations and practice offerings. Failure to acknowledge benefits of this marketing approach means that solutions such as those developed in the Limestone Coast region are unlikely. Research is now required to define GP satisfaction and value for long-term viability of general practices.

  16. Examining the Satisfaction Levels of Continual Professional Development Provided by a Rural Accounting Professional Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Abdel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) recognises education as a lifelong process, and there is a need for continuing education and training to be available to rural communities. This paper examines the satisfaction levels of accounting continual professional development (CPD) when provided by a rural accounting…

  17. A critical examination of the introduction of drug detection dogs for policing of illicit drugs in New South Wales, Australia using Kingdon’s ‘multiple streams’ heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancaster, Kari; Ritter, Alison; Hughes, Caitlin; Hoppe, Robertus

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the introduction of drug detection dogs as a tool for policing of illicit drugs in New South Wales, Australia. Using Kingdon’s ‘multiple streams’ heuristic as a lens for analysis, we identify how the issue of drugs policing became prominent on the policy agenda, and

  18. Voices from the Gila: health care issues for rural elders in south-western New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Jennifer B

    2002-12-01

    A goal of the Healthy People 2010 initiative is to reduce or eliminate health disparities in vulnerable populations, including populations from rural and minority ethnic backgrounds. Rural communities, including elderly populations, experience lower rates of personal income, educational attainment, health-insurance coverage, access to emergency and specialty care services, and reported health status than do urban communities. A need exists to address identified research priorities, such as the perceptions of rural elders, their family members, and health care providers. The purposes of this study were to explore the health care perceptions, needs, and definitions of health for multicultural rural elders in one county of south-western New Mexico, and to consider practice implications. Informed consent procedures followed the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center Human Research Review Committee guidelines. Research methods. This critical ethnography incorporated ethnographic interviews, ethnographic participant observation, photography, review of pertinent documents, and analysis of contextual factors. The sample consisted of 22 participants. Definitions of health varied with socioeconomic status, encompassing avoidance of contact with the health care system, obtaining needed medications, remaining independent, a sense of spiritual belonging, eating wisely, and exercising moderately. Three major concerns emerged from the analysis: the escalating cost of prescription drugs, access-to-care issues, and social isolation. The primary limitation was the small sample size. Although the researcher's position as an outsider to local communities may also have affected the outcome, it provided fresh insight to regional problems. The study addressed national research priorities for a vulnerable group of rural elders. Nursing implications include the need for expanded knowledge and educational preparation regarding elder issues and community-level services, inclusion of

  19. Virtual Rural Community Development: Human Links That Sustain Web Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Larry K.; Evans, Wayne H.; Marmet, Kathy

    Outmigration in the rural Upper Midwest prompted a group of citizens and University of South Dakota faculty to form the Center for the Advancement of Rural Communities (ARC). ARC considers how to stimulate traditionally competitive and isolated South Dakota peoples to collaborate for economic, social, educational, political, and cultural gains. As…

  20. Determining the efficacy of national strategies aimed at addressing the challenges facing health personnel working in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Grace; George, Gavin

    2017-07-31

    Shortages of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in rural areas are often driven by poor working and living conditions, inadequate salaries and benefits, lack of training and career development opportunities amongst others. The South African government has adopted a human resource strategy for the health sector in 2011 aimed at addressing these challenges. This study reviews the challenges faced by health personnel against government strategies aimed at attracting and retaining health personnel in these underserved areas. The study was conducted in six primary health care service sites in the Hlabisa sub-district of Umkhanyakude, located in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study population comprised 25 health workers including 11 professional nurses, 4 staff nurses and 10 doctors (4 medical doctors, 3 foreign medical doctors and 3 doctors undertaking community service). Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Government initiatives including the rural allowance, deployment of foreign medical doctors and the presence of health personnel undertaking their community service in rural areas are positively viewed by health personnel working in rural health facilities. However, poor living and working conditions, together with inadequate personal development opportunities, remain unresolved challenges. It is these challenges that will continue to dissuade experienced health personnel from remaining in these underserved areas. South Africa's HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13-2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030 objectives are to be realised.

  1. Effects of Bio solids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.; Butler, C.; Cody, J.; Warne, M.S.J.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; Bell, M.; Barry, G.; Pritchard, D.; Penny, N.; Penny, N.

    2011-01-01

    Bio solids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with bio solids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Bio solids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, bio solids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did bio solids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Bio solids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the bio solids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that bio solids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  2. Temporal trends over the past two decades in asphyxial deaths in South Australia involving plastic bags or wrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Simpson, Ellie; Gilbert, John D

    2006-01-01

    Asphyxial deaths utilising plastic bags or wrappings occurring over a 20-year period from March 1984 to February 2004 were reviewed at Forensic Science SA, Australia. A total of 45 cases were identified, with three occurring in infants and children (one accidental asphyxia; two homicides). Of the remaining 42 adults the male to female ratio was approximately 1:1 (23 and 19 cases, respectively), with all deaths attributed to suicide. The 42 adult cases represented 1.2% of the 3569 suicides autopsied at the centre over the time period of the study. The age ranges of the adult victims were 19-88 years (mean=47.1 years) for the males, and 32-89 years (mean=60.5 years) for the females. The adult female victims were significantly older than the males (pPlastic bag asphyxial deaths were rare and in adults were due to suicide involving either older females or younger males. A significant increase in cases in South Australia in recent years was demonstrated, possibly related to publicity surrounding assisted suicides, and the ready availability of suicide manuals and information on suicide techniques from the internet.

  3. Investigating the correlation between wastewater analysis and roadside drug testing in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Tscharke, Benjamin J; Longo, Marie; Cooke, Richard; White, Jason M; Gerber, Cobus

    2018-04-10

    The societal impact of drug use is well known. An example is when drug-intoxicated drivers increase the burden on policing and healthcare services. This work presents the correlation of wastewater analysis (using UHPLC-MS/MS) and positive roadside drug testing results for methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cannabis from December 2011-December 2016 in South Australia. Methamphetamine and MDMA showed similar trends between the data sources with matching increases and decreases, respectively. Cannabis was relatively steady based on wastewater analysis, but the roadside drug testing data started to diverge in the final part of the measurement period. The ability to triangulate data as shown here validates both wastewater analysis and roadside drug testing. This suggests that changes in overall population drug use revealed by WWA is consistent and proportional with changes in drug-driving behaviours. The results show that, at higher levels of drug use as measured by wastewater analysis, there is an increase in drug driving in the community and therefore more strain on health services and police. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The One Laptop School: Equipping Rural Elementary Schools in South India Through Public Private Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Jon Byker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a Public Private Partnership (PPP program in South India that provided information and communication technology (ICT to rural elementary schools. The article examined the current status of rural, government-run elementary schools in India by reviewing reports like the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER in India. Challenges like teacher absences, student drop-outs, lack of electricity, lack of separate toilets for genders, and a lack of teaching resources is discussed. To meet these challenges, the article describes the rise in popularity of India’s PPPs. Then the article reports on a case study of a PPP, called the SSA Foundation, which implemented a “one laptop per school” program in rural areas in the Indian States of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Using ethnographic data from field research, the case study includes a description of how the students in a rural Karnataka elementary school use their school’s laptop. The school was situated in a small village where most travel was non-motorized. Walking, usually without shoes, was the main form of transportation. A bicycle was considered a luxury. Most villagers worked in the surrounding ragi and millet fields; laboring, often with only simple tool blades. Wood fires were the main source of fuel for cooking. In this village, the school’s laptop became a prized possession. The case study offers a “thick description” (Geertz, 1973 of how the village school’s students used the laptop for learning basic computing skills and for learning English.

  5. Cross-sectional relationship between haemoglobin concentration and measures of physical and cognitive function in an older rural South African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F; Davies, Justine I; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Hands, Katherine J; Kahn, Kathleen; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Tipping, Brent; Tollman, Stephen M; Wade, Alisha; Witham, Miles D

    2018-04-21

    Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and middle-income countries have not previously been described. We examined the association between these factors among older men and women in rural South Africa. We analysed cross-sectional data from a population-based study of rural South African men and women aged 40 and over (n=4499), with data drawn from questionnaire responses, a cognitive battery, objective physical function tests and blood tests. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin concentration age, grip strength, walk speed and a latent cognitive function z-score for men and women separately. We used unadjusted correlations and linear models to adjust for comorbidities and inflammation. In total, 1042 (43.0%) women and 833 (40.1%) men were anaemic. Haemoglobin concentrations were inversely correlated with age for men but not for women; in adjusted analyses, haemoglobin was 0.3 g/dL lower per decade older for men (95% CI 0.2 to 0.4 g/dL). In adjusted analyses, haemoglobin concentration was independently associated with grip strength in women (B=0.391, 95% CI 0.177 to 0.605), but this did not reach significance in men (B=0.266, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.552); no associations were observed between haemoglobin levels and walk speed or cognitive score. Anaemia was prevalent in this study population of middle-aged and older, rural South African adults, but in contrast to high-income countries, it was not associated with poor physical or cognitive function. Our findings need to be replicated in other populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  7. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly S; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X; Rohr, Julia K; Houle, Brian C; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Wagner, Ryan G; Salomon, Joshua A; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F; Tollman, Stephen M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age-sex standardization. HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age-sex standardization. Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Carruth, Althea; Windsor, Carol; Clark, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where there is good primary care, there develops a number of downstream

  9. Rural self-reliance: the impact on health experiences of people living with type II diabetes in rural Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althea Page-Carruth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to explore whether and how rural culture influences type II diabetes management and to better understand the social processes that rural people construct in coping with diabetes and its complications. In particular, the study aimed to analyse the interface and interactions between rural people with type II diabetes and the Australian health care system, and to develop a theoretical understanding that reflects constructs that may be more broadly applicable. Methods: The study applied constructivist grounded theory methods within an interpretive interactionist framework. Data from 39 semi-structured interviews with rural and urban type II diabetes patients and a mix of rural health care providers were analysed to develop a theoretical understanding of the social processes that define diabetes management in that context. Results: The analysis suggests that although type II diabetes imposes limitations that require adjustment and adaptation, these processes are actively negotiated by rural people within the environmental context to fit the salient social understandings of autonomy and self-reliance. Thus, people normalized self-reliant diabetes management behaviours because this was congruent with the rural culture. Factors that informed the actions of normalization were relationships between participants and health care professionals, support, and access to individual resources. Conclusions: The findings point to ways in which rural self-reliance is conceived as the primary strategy of diabetes management. People face the paradox of engaging with a health care system that at the same time maximizes individual responsibility for health and minimizes the social support by which individuals manage the condition. The emphasis on self-reliance gives some legitimacy to a lack of prevention and chronic care services. Success of diabetes management behaviours is, however, contingent on relative resources. Where

  10. Methods for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods for urban and small, rural streams in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The central purpose of this report is to present methods : for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on : urban and small, rural streams in the Southeast United States : with particular focus on Georgia, South Carolina, and North : Carolin...

  11. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  12. Transfers to metropolitan hospitals and coronary angiography for rural Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients with acute ischaemic heart disease in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-05-01

    Aboriginal people have a disproportionately higher incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) than non-Aboriginal people. The findings on Aboriginal disparity in receiving coronary artery procedures are inconclusive. We describe the profile and transfers of IHD patients admitted to rural hospitals as emergency admissions and investigate determinants of transfers and coronary angiography. Person-linked hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD events commencing at rural hospitals in Western Australia. Outcome measures were receipt of coronary angiography, transfer to a metropolitan hospital, and coronary angiography if transferred to a metropolitan hospital. Compared to non-Aboriginal patients, Aboriginal patients with IHD were more likely to be younger, have more co-morbidities, reside remotely, but less likely to have private insurance. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, Aboriginal people with MI were less likely to be transferred to a metropolitan hospital, and if transferred were less likely to receive coronary angiography. These disparities were not significant after adjusting for comorbidities and private insurance. In the full multivariate model age, comorbidities and private insurance were adversely associated with transfer to a metropolitan hospital and coronary angiography. Disparity in receiving coronary angiography following emergency admission for IHD to rural hospitals is mediated through the lower likelihood of being transferred to metropolitan hospitals where this procedure is performed. The likelihood of a transfer is increased if the patient has private insurance, however, rural Aboriginal people have a lower rate of private insurance than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Health practitioners and policy makers can continue to claim that they treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people alike based upon clinical indications, as private insurance is acting as a filter to reduce rural residents

  13. A Critical Examination of the Introduction of Drug Detection Dogs for Policing of Illicit Drugs in New South Wales, Australia Using Kingdon's "Multiple Streams" Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Ritter, Alison; Hughes, Caitlin; Hoppe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the introduction of drug detection dogs as a tool for policing of illicit drugs in New South Wales, Australia. Using Kingdon's "multiple streams" heuristic as a lens for analysis, we identify how the issue of drugs policing became prominent on the policy agenda, and the conditions under which the…

  14. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G.; Bottomley, Christian; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Ibinda, Fredrick; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease. Methods A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package. Results The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0). Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5), with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4)), and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4)). Conclusions The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa. PMID:26053071

  15. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorean Nabukalu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods: Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo were determined for females (aged 15–49 years resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown. Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95%CI was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results: A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1, peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1 and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.410.9. Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.211.1, accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR, 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05, self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15, and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82; external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62 CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, CI: 1.79–3.75. Conclusion: HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment

  16. Towards understanding the availability of physiotherapy services in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robyn; Jones, Anne; Lefmann, Sophie; Sheppard, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    A recent exploration of factors affecting rural physiotherapy service provision revealed considerable variation in services available between communities of the study. Multiple factors combined to influence local service provision, including macro level policy and funding decisions, service priorities and fiscal constraints of regional health services and capacity and capabilities at the physiotherapy service level. The aim of this article is to describe the variation in local service provision, the factors influencing service provision and the impact on availability of physiotherapy services. A priority-sequence mixed methods design structured the collection and integration of qualitative and quantitative data. The investigation area, a large part of one Australian state, was selected for the number of physiotherapy services and feasibility of conducting site visits. Stratified purposive sampling permitted exploration of rural physiotherapy with subgroups of interest, including physiotherapists, their colleagues, managers, and other key decision makers. Participant recruitment commenced with public sector physiotherapists and progressed to include private practitioners, team colleagues and managers. Surveys were mailed to key physiotherapy contacts in each public sector service in the area for distribution to physiotherapists, their colleagues and managers within their facility. Private physiotherapist principals working in the same communities were invited by the researcher to complete the physiotherapy survey. The survey collected demographic data, rural experience, work setting and number of colleagues, services provided, perspectives on factors influencing service provision and decisions about service provision. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with consenting physiotherapists and other key decision makers identified by local physiotherapists. Quantitative survey data were recorded in spreadsheets and analysed using descriptive statistics. Interviews

  17. One Size Fits All? The Validity of a Composite Poverty Index Across Urban and Rural Households in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Janina Isabel; Cluver, Lucie Dale; Melendez-Torres, G J; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Composite indices have been prominently used in poverty research. However, validity of these indices remains subject to debate. This paper examines the validity of a common type of composite poverty indices using data from a cross-sectional survey of 2477 households in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Multiple-group comparisons in structural equation modelling were employed for testing differences in the measurement model across urban and rural groups. The analysis revealed substantial variations between urban and rural respondents both in the conceptualisation of poverty as well as in the weights and importance assigned to individual poverty indicators. The validity of a 'one size fits all' measurement model can therefore not be confirmed. In consequence, it becomes virtually impossible to determine a household's poverty level relative to the full sample. Findings from our analysis have important practical implications in nuancing how we can sensitively use composite poverty indices to identify poor people.

  18. Doctors' perspectives on the viability of rural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J A; Humphreys, J S; Adena, M A

    2004-01-01

    Private practitioners play a vital role in meeting the health needs of rural communities. However, the prospect of operating a private practice business in rural Australia seems to be increasingly unattractive, because many communities are forced to recruit salaried or overseas-trained doctors. This study focuses on rural practices as businesses whose viability influences their attractiveness for the recruitment and retention of practitioners. The specific objectives are to ascertain which factors contribute to or threaten practice viability in rural areas, and whether they vary according to the degree of rurality or geographical remoteness. This study is based on data collected from a national study into the viability of rural general practice undertaken jointly by the Rural Doctors Association of Australia and Monash University School of Rural Health Bendigo. The Rural Remote and Metropolitan Area (RRMA) classification was used as the indicator of rurality. The study surveyed all general practitioners practising in rural or remote regions of Australia (RRMAs 3 to 7). Only practitioners with some financial interest in the practice were selected for this analysis. Free-text responses to the two questions 'What are the key factors contributing to the viability of your practice?' and 'What factors would put the viability of your practice at risk?' were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Factors were derived iteratively through higher-level aggregation of responses. Chi-square tests were used to make comparisons across the RRMA categories. The national survey achieved a response rate of 35% of the entire population of GPs practising in RRMA 3 to 7 regions. Of these, 1050 respondents were relevant to this analysis. Seven major factors were identified by practitioners as the main contributors to practice viability. 'Practice characteristics' was nominated by 59% of respondents, followed by 'Income' (31%), 'Personal circumstances', 'Workforce' and 'Community

  19. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Change Impacts on Wheat Production in Mid-Lower North, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Q.; Williams, M. [Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia); Bryan, BV. [Policy and Economic Research Unit, CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064 (Australia); Bellotti, W. [School of Agriculture and Wine, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5371 (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Three environmental change scenarios (the best scenario, the most likely scenario and the worst scenario) were used by the APSIM (Agricultural Production System sIMulator) Wheat module to study the possible impacts of future environmental change (climate change plus pCO2 change) on wheat production in the Mid-Lower North of South Australia. GIS software was used to manage spatial-climate data and spatial-soil data and to present the results. Study results show that grain yield (kg ha{sup -1}) was adversely affected under the worst environmental change scenario (-100% {approx} -42%) and the most likely environmental change scenario (-58% {approx} -3%). Grain nitrogen content (% N) either increased or decreased depending on the environmental change scenarios used and climate divisions (-25% {approx} +42%). Spatial variability was found for projected impact outcomes within climate divisions indicating the necessity of including the spatial distribution of soil properties in impact assessment.

  20. Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: water service benchmarks and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuru, Batsirai; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on water supply improvements, few have simultaneously taken into account the reliability of the water services. The study aimed to assess whether upgrading water supply systems in small rural communities improved access, availability and potability of water by assessing the water services against selected benchmarks from the World Health Organisation and South African Department of Water Affairs, and to determine the impact of unreliability on the services. These benchmarks were applied in three rural communities in Limpopo, South Africa where rudimentary water supply services were being upgraded to basic services. Data were collected through structured interviews, observations and measurement, and multi-level linear regression models were used to assess the impact of water service upgrades on key outcome measures of distance to source, daily per capita water quantity and Escherichia coli count. When the basic system was operational, 72% of households met the minimum benchmarks for distance and water quantity, but only 8% met both enhanced benchmarks. During non-operational periods of the basic service, daily per capita water consumption decreased by 5.19l (pwater sources were 639 m further (p ≤ 0.001, 95% CI 560-718). Although both rudimentary and basic systems delivered water that met potability criteria at the sources, the quality of stored water sampled in the home was still unacceptable throughout the various service levels. These results show that basic water services can make substantial improvements to water access, availability, potability, but only if such services are reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Steam trawling on the south-east continental shelf of Australia. An environmental history of fishing, management and science in NSW, 1865 -1961

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, A. Lif Lund

    2010-01-01

    . Motivated by Sydney’s insufficient supplies of fish, the objective of early fisheries management in the state of New South Wales (NSW) was to improve the industry. Driven by state developmentalism, efforts were focused on increasing the productivity of already existing coastal fisheries through fisheries......As many of the world’s fish stocks are fully or over-exploited there is an urgent need for governments to provide robust fisheries management. However, governments are often slow to implement necessary changes to fisheries practices. The will to govern is an essential factor in successful marine...... resource management. Studies of historical documents from State and Commonwealth fisheries authorities involved in the steam trawl fishery on the south-east continental shelf of Australia illustrate different expressions of intentional management and how a more ecological responsible view has emerged...

  2. Childhood deprivation and later-life cognitive function in a population-based study of older rural South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Glymour, M Maria; Kahn, Kathleen; Payne, Collin F; Wagner, Ryan G; Montana, Livia; Mateen, Farrah J; Tollman, Stephen M; Berkman, Lisa F

    2017-10-01

    Little research has evaluated the life course drivers of cognitive aging in South Africa. We investigated the relationships of self-rated childhood health and father's occupation during childhood with later-life cognitive function score and whether educational attainment mediated these relationships among older South Africans living in a former region of Apartheid-era racial segregation. Data were from baseline assessments of "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community" (HAALSI), a population-based study of 5059 men and women aged ≥40 years in 2015 in rural Agincourt sub-district, South Africa. Childhood health, father's occupation during childhood, and years of education were self-reported in study interviews. Cognitive measures assessed time orientation, numeracy, and word recall, which were included in a z-standardized latent cognitive function score variable. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and country of birth were used to estimate the total and direct effects of each childhood risk factor, and the indirect effects mediated by years of education. Poor childhood health predicted lower cognitive scores (total effect = -0.28; 95% CI = -0.35, -0.21, versus good); this effect was not mediated by educational attainment. Having a father in a professional job during childhood, while rare (3% of sample), predicted better cognitive scores (total effect = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.10, 0.40, versus unskilled manual labor, 29% of sample). Half of this effect was mediated by educational attainment. Education was linearly associated with later-life cognitive function score (0.09; 95% CI = 0.09, 0.10 per year achieved). In this post-Apartheid, rural South African context, older adults with poor self-reported childhood health or whose father worked in unskilled manual labor had relatively poor cognitive outcomes. Educational attainment strongly predicted cognitive outcomes, and appeared to be, in part, a mechanism of social

  3. Big gas project for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2005-01-01

    Australia is re-launching its ambitions in liquefied natural gas (LNG) with the Greater Gorgon project of offshore exploitation of the natural gas reserves of the continental shelf of NW Australia. These reserves would represent 200 million tons of LNG which will be exported towards China and USA. The project will cost 11 billion dollars and will yield 2 billion dollars per year. It is managed by a consortium which groups together Chevron Corp. (50%), Shell (25%) and ExxonMobil (25%). Technip company is partner of the project. The China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) has announced its intention to become also partner of the project, and maybe Japan, South Korea and Taiwan will wish too. Short paper. (J.S.)

  4. Roles and challenges of the multidisciplinary team involved in prosthetic rehabilitation, in a rural district in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennion L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Liezel Ennion, Anthea Rhoda Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Community and Health Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa Background: Major lower limb amputations result in a significant sense of loss, psychological stress, and decrease in function and overall quality of life for the amputee. The holistic, patient-centered prosthetic rehabilitation of an amputee requires input from a team of dedicated health professionals from different disciplines commonly referred to as a multidisciplinary team (MDT. MDT rehabilitation is considered crucial in the reintegration of the amputee into the community, as well as for providing psychological support after limb loss. Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary rehabilitation has been proven to be more successful than therapy provided by individual therapists in a number of different populations, regardless of the population studied. However, in most developing countries, there is a significant lack of multidisciplinary rehabilitation.Aim: To explore the roles and challenges of the members of the MDT involved in trans-tibial amputation rehabilitation in a rural community in South Africa (SA.Design: An explorative sequential qualitative descriptive study.Setting: A rural district in the KwaZulu Natal province in SA.Participants: Nine prosthetic users, three surgeons, three traditional healers, 17 therapists, four prosthetists, and four community health workers.Instruments for data collection: Semistructured interviews and focus group discussions.Results: The roles of the members of the MDT were clarified, and various members of the MDT highlighted specific challenges relating to their experiences and roles in the rehabilitation team. Lack of interdisciplinary rehabilitation and communication among team members, as well as lack of resources, and patient education negatively impact the rehabilitation of trans-tibial amputees.Conclusion: Aiming to address the limited resources

  5. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of enteric protozoan infections in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Fletcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods. Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007-December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results. Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%, Giardia intestinalis (27% and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%. The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1% are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions. These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural area is needed.

  6. Uranium exploration in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Hawkins, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of exploration which recommenced in 1966 Australia's uranium reserves increased from 6,200 tonnes in 1967 to 227,000 tonnes uranium by June 1976. Most discoveries in the early 1950's were made by prospectors. The increase in reserves during the past decade is the result of exploration by companies utilising improved technology in areas selected as geologically favourable. These reserves were established at relatively low cost. In the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province the ''vein'' type deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek contain 17% of the world's reserves. Most of these discoveries resulted from the investigation of airborne radiometric anomalies but cover over the prospective host rocks will necessitate the future use of costlier and more indirect exploration techniques. There was exploration for sandstone type uranium deposits in most of Australia's sedimentary basins. The greatest success was achieved in the Lake Frome Basin in South Australia. Other deposits were found in the Ngalia and Amadeus Basins in Central Australia and in the Westmoreland area, N.W. Queensland. A major uranium deposit was found in an unusual environment at Yeelirrie, Western Australia where carnotite occurs in a caliche and clay host which fills a shallow, ancient drainage channel. Although caliche occurrences are relatively widespread on the Precambrian shield no other economic deposit has been found. Recent discoveries in the Georgetown area of Queensland indicate the presence of another uranium province but it is too early to assess its potential. The ore occurs in clastic sediments at the base of a volcanic sequence overlying a Precambrian basement. Several companies which have established large uranium reserves have a number of additional attractive prospects. Exploration activity in Australia in 1975 was at a lower level than in previous years, but the potential for discovering further deposits is considered to be high

  7. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-01

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete

  8. A synthesis of ENSO effects on drylands in Australia, North America and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holmgren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentally, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a climatic and oceanographic phenomenon, but it has profound effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Although the ecological effects of ENSO are becoming increasingly known from a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holmgren et al., 2001, their impacts have been more intensively studied in arid and semiarid systems. In this brief communication, we summarize the main conclusions of a recent symposium on the effects of ENSO in these ecosystems, which was convened as part of the First Alexander von Humboldt International Conference on the El Niño Phenomenon and its Global Impact, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, from 16–20 May 2005. Participants in the symposium shared results and perspectives from research conducted in North and South America and Australia, regions where the ecological effects of ENSO have been studied in depth. Although the reports covered a wide array of organisms and ecological systems (Fig. 1, a recurring theme was the strong increase in rainfall associated with ENSO events in dry ecosystems (during the El Niño phase of the oscillation in the Americas and the La Niña phase in Australia. Because inter-annual variability in precipitation is such a strong determinant of productivity in arid and semiarid ecosystems, increased ENSO rainfall is crucial for plant recruitment, productivity and diversity in these ecosystems. Several long-term studies show that this pulse in primary productivity causes a subsequent increase in herbivores, followed by an increase in carnivores, with consequences for changes in ecosystem structure and functioning that can be quite complex.

  9. An investigation into possibilities for implementation of a virtual community of practice delivered via a mobile social network for rural community media in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Muwanga-Zake

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how a virtual community of practice can be delivered via a mobile social networking framework to support rural community media in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Objectives: The article presents the results of a study conducted to ascertain the possibilities of utilising mobile social networking as a means to provide access to required information and knowledge to rural community media through creation of a virtual community of practice. Improving the operational effectiveness of rural community media as a component of the rural community communication process would serve to improve the entire rural community communication process as well, making them more effective tools for availing relevant news and information to rural communities and reflecting the realities of rural communities to their broader environment. Method: The study was conducted on rural community media small micro and medium enterprises (SMMEs in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The study applied an interpretive research philosophy, qualitative research design and multiple–case study approach. Primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews supported by a questionnaire, with secondary data collected via literature review, observation and documentation analysis. Results: Findings were that rural community media do make use of social media and mobile devices in operating their business, require access to generic and domain specific support services and actively engage their peers and stakeholders in this respect, although no formalised structure existed. The authors’ recommendation is to create a formalised virtual community of practice through the establishment of a mobile social network. Conclusion: Because of the fact that rural community SMMEs already utilise mobile devices and social media to operate their businesses, development of a solution based on a mobile social

  10. Teleradiology in KwaZulu- Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rural doctors and hospitals have in accessing specialist advice in South Africa. Telemedicine programmes between remote rural hospitals and central hospitals have been successfully implemented in Canada, the USA, Saudi Arabia and Australia.' In all these countries telemedicine has allowed the specialist to come to the ...

  11. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in a rural population of south kerala - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vivek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which continues to challenge the dental professional with its wide spectrum of clinical involvement. This pilot study attempts to evaluate the status of oral lichen planus in a rural population from South Kerala in order to obtain such data as prevalence, distribution according to age, gender, clinical types and site of lesion .A drop in the age group of male population presenting with lichen planus was a significant finding in our study. However, more elaborate epidemiologic studies are required to probe further into this finding.

  12. STS-56 Earth observation of Perth in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is probably the best view of Perth in Western Australia. (For orientation purposes, note that the coastline runs north and south). The major feature on the coast is the large estuary of the Swan River. The large port city of Perth is situated on the north bank and the smaller city of Freemantle on the south bank by the sea. Smaller seaside towns trail off north and south of this center of urban life. Inland lies a prominent escarpment, more than 600 feet high, seen running down the middle of the view and dividing the lighter-colored coastal lowlands from the highlands where dark-colored tree savanna and desert scrub dominates the land. The Moore River can be seen entering the sea at the top of the frame. Rottnest Island is visible in the sea and Garden Island near bottom edge of the frame. Perth is the largest economic center in Western Australia. It receives natural gas from an offshore field hundreds of miles

  13. How Local Landholder Groups Collectively Manage Weeds in South-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sonia; Rogers, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    For two decades researchers and policy makers have been arguing that community-based collective action is needed to effectively control weeds. Yet there has been little social research into the ways that collective weed control emerges at local scales. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms through which three local landholder groups in south-eastern Australia collectively manage weeds and the measures they use to evaluate success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of three Landcare groups—Jerrawa Creek/Upper Lachlan, MacLaughlin River and Towamba Valley—as well as government staff external to the groups. The results reveal that for all three groups collective weed control is about supporting individual weed control efforts as well as proactively engaging landholders with the worst infestations. The groups were seen to be successful because they focused on the common challenge that weeds pose to all landholders, thereby removing the shame associated with having weeds, and because they organised community events that were as much about building and maintaining social relationships as improving weed control. Groups were positive about what they had achieved as collectives of landholders, but also saw an important role for government in providing funding, engaging with landholders who were unwilling to engage directly with the group, and controlling weeds on public lands.

  14. Prevalence of Hypertension in Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria: Rural versus Urban Communities Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effiong Ekong Akpan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hypertension in rural communities compared to that of the urban communities. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors (if any in both urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Subjects and Method. This was a cross-sectional study of urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State for the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors. Two urban cities and two rural communities were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts of the state. Hypertension was defined based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension. Results. Nine hundred and seventy-eight (978 participants were recruited from rural areas and five hundred and ninety (590 from urban centers. The rural populace had higher systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure than the urban populace (P<0.001, < 0.002, < 0.001, resp.. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in the rural populace than in the urban populace [44.3% (95% CI 41.1–47.4% versus 28.6% (95% CI 24.9–32.3%]. Age, BMI, and proteinuria were independent predictors of hypertension occurrence. Conclusion. There is an epidemiologic change in the prevalence of hypertension in the rural communities of Nigeria.

  15. A panel data analysis of the determinants of oil consumption: The case of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Wong, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil consumption for a panel consisting of six Australian States and one territory, namely Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia, and the Northern territory, for the period 1985-2006. We find that oil consumption, oil prices and income are panel cointegrated. We estimate long-run elasticities and find that oil prices have had a statistically insignificant impact on oil consumption, while income has had a statistically significant positive effect on oil consumption. (author)

  16. Using the integrated rural mobility and access (IRMA) approach in prospering rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available settlements implications of current rural development approaches are outlined. The potential and impact of the integrated rural mobility and access approach (IRMA) in unlocking socio-economic and spatial livelihood opportunities are discussed. In this regard...

  17. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  18. The Honeymoon project: Australia`s first in situ leach uranium project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackland, M.C. [Southern Cross Resources Inc. Toowond, QLD (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The Honeymoon uranium deposit is one of several roll front uranium deposits in South Australia. It was discovered in 1971, the project developed in the 1970`s, and was ready for demonstration of the In Situ Leaching (ISL) production techniques by January 1983, when the project was stopped, despite it having met the environmental approvals to proceed, due to the Australian Labour Party`s `three mines policy`. From 1983 until March 1996 the project was mothballed. In late 1996 Southern Cross Resources Inc. (SCRI) reached agreement with Mount Isa Mining (MIM) to purchase its uranium interests in Honeymoon, Goulds Dam and EL 2310 whilst simultaneously acquiring Sedimentary Holdings NL`s interests in EL 2310. By April 1997 these interests were consolidated in SCRI`s wholly owned subsidiary, Southern Cross Resources Australia Ply Ltd which is the operating company. Activities are presently underway to rehabilitate the existing treatment plant and continue the program that was outlined in the approved 1981 Honeymoon Environmental Impact Statement. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Women's access needs in maternity care in rural Tasmania, Australia: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ha; Le, Quynh; Terry, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates (i) maternity care access issues in rural Tasmania, (ii) rural women's challenges in accessing maternity services and (iii) rural women's access needs in maternity services. A mixed-method approach using a survey and semi-structured interviews was conducted. The survey explored women's views of rural maternity services from antenatal to postnatal care, while interviews reinforced the survey results and provided insights into the access issues and needs of women in maternity care. The survey was completed by n=210 women, with a response rate of 35%, with n=22 follow-up interviews being conducted. The survey indicated the majority of rural women believed antenatal education and check-ups and postnatal check-ups should be provided locally. The majority of women surveyed also believed in the importance of having a maternity unit in the local hospital, which was further iterated and clarified within the interviews. Three main themes emerged from the interview data, namely (i) lack of access to maternity services, (ii) difficulties in accessing maternity services, and (iii) rural women's access needs. The study suggested that women's access needs are not fully met in some rural areas of Tasmania. Rural women face many challenges when accessing maternity services, including financial burden and risk of labouring en route. The study supports the claim that the closure of rural maternity units shifts cost and risk from the health care system to rural women and their families. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    OpenAIRE

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary scho...

  1. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…

  2. PV power and profit? Electrifying rural South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karottki, R.; Banks, D.

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the background to the implementation of a programme of sustainable off-grid energy services delivered to rural areas through private-public partnership. The implementation of the school photovoltaic (PV) electrification programme, electrification of rural clinics, the solar electrification of rural households on a large scale through a joint venture between Shell Renewables and the national utility ESKOM, and the electrification of widely scattered homesteads are discussed. Details are given of the financial support from the government and the National Electricity Regulator, the development of a national standard for Solar Home Systems, identification of target regions, the regulatory framework, and the opportunities for business and for real improvement. (UK)

  3. Greening and “un”greening Adelaide, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The original design for Adelaide, the capital city of the state of South Australia, incorporated a green belt (known as the Park Lands around the city centre, itself laid out on a one square mile (2.59 km2 grid and including five large public squares. The Park Lands provided a barrier to urban sprawl and covered approximately 9.31 km2, of which 1.53 km2 has been used subsequently for cultural institutions, railways, cemeteries, sporting facilities and other constructions. In addressing issues of greening pertaining to Adelaide, the Park Lands and its management represents a core element in the evolving history of the city's growth. This paper will consider some of the contradictions within this growth, examining the changing attitudes of government and the populace to the Park Lands and also to the increasing sprawl of the city. It can be argued that this sprawl has been antithetical to maintenance of biodiversity and principles of “greening”, not only during the main phase of expansion in the 1960s and 1970s but also in recent years when planned development on prime farmland and other “green” areas is contributing to problems for provision of transport infrastructure and generally reducing capacity for sustainability. The potential for conflict between the desire to maintain biodiversity versus protection for the growing number of people moving into bushfire risk areas is just one of several examples of problems arising as a result of a relaxed attitude to low-density expansion. In examining these problems the paper will present maps of the changing footprint of Adelaide and will elaborate new “greening” initiatives that include green roofs, new systems of water harvesting, community-supported agriculture and schemes directly aimed at creating low-carbon living. A consistent theme will be the contradictions within plans for the city between greening and “un”greening.

  4. Correlates of Recent Declines of Rodents in Northern and Southern Australia: Habitat Structure Is Critical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Lawes

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in Australian rodents. We demonstrate that rodent declines have been greater in the south than in the tropical north, are strongly influenced by phylogeny, and are consistently greater for species inhabiting relatively open or sparsely vegetated habitat. Unlike in marsupials, where some species have much larger body size than rodents, body mass was not an important predictor of decline in rodents. All Australian rodent species are within the prey-size range of cats (throughout the continent and red foxes (in the south. Contrary to the hypothesis that mammal declines are related directly to ecosystem productivity (annual rainfall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbances such as fire and grazing, which occur in non-rainforest habitats and remove cover used by rodents for shelter, nesting and foraging, increase predation risk. We agree with calls to introduce conservation management that limits the size and intensity of fires, increases fire patchiness and reduces grazing impacts at ecological scales appropriate for rodents. Controlling feral predators, even creating predator-free reserves in relatively sparsely-vegetated habitats, is urgently required to ensure the survival of rodent species, particularly in northern Australia where declines are not yet as severe as those in the south.

  5. Ruralization of students' horizons: insights into Australian health professional students' rural and remote placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tony; Cross, Merylin; Waller, Susan; Chambers, Helen; Farthing, Annie; Barraclough, Frances; Pit, Sabrina W; Sutton, Keith; Muyambi, Kuda; King, Stephanie; Anderson, Jessie

    2018-01-01

    Health workforce shortages have driven the Australian and other Western governments to invest in engaging more health professional students in rural and remote placements. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an understanding of the lived experiences of students undertaking placements in various nonmetropolitan locations across Australia. In addition to providing their suggestions to improve rural placements, the study provides insight into factors contributing to positive and negative experiences that influence students' future rural practice intentions. Responses to open-ended survey questions from 3,204 students from multiple health professions and universities were analyzed using two independent methods applied concurrently: manual thematic analysis and computerized content analysis using Leximancer software. The core concept identified from the thematic analysis was "ruralization of students' horizons," a construct representing the importance of preparing health professional students for practice in nonmetropolitan locations. Ruralization embodies three interrelated themes, "preparation and support," "rural or remote health experience," and "rural lifestyle and socialization," each of which includes multiple subthemes. From the content analysis, factors that promoted students' rural practice intentions were having a "positive" practice experience, interactions with "supportive staff," and interactions with the "community" in general. It was apparent that "difficulties," eg, with "accommodation," "Internet" access, "transport," and "financial" support, negatively impacted students' placement experience and rural practice intentions. The study findings have policy and practice implications for continuing to support students undertaking regional, rural, and remote placements and preparing them for future practice in nonmetropolitan locations. This study may, therefore, further inform ongoing strategies for improving rural placement experiences and

  6. The solar photovoltaic feed-in tariff scheme in New South Wales, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Nigel; Rice, John

    2013-01-01

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) electricity systems are part of Australia's energy supply matrix. In the case of New South Wales (NSW), the state government has had to deal with a complex policy problem. In order to play its role in the federal Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme, the NSW government initiated the 7 year Solar Bonus Scheme in 2010. However, in attempting to maximise community investment in small-scale solar PV systems, it relied on faulty financial modelling that applied a generous Feed-in Tariff (FiT) and underestimated the level of investor participation and installed capacity. Consequently, the scheme has resulted in very high public costs that will require policy changes that bring investors and energy retailers into conflict, and unpopular electricity retail price adjustments. This paper uses a structured case and stakeholder analysis to critically analyse the FiT policy, while also highlighting important lessons for policymakers engaging in FiT design. - highlights: • Describes the design of a feed-in tariff policy for solar PV electricity exports. • Exposes a A$1 billion payment overrun and weaknesses in policy controls. • Identifies policy design flaws and opportunities to improve future tariff designs. • Discusses the importance of developing nationally integrated feed-in tariff policies

  7. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A

    2014-08-26

    Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured "duo-interviews" were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of "convenient and less healthy foods". Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important facilitator of healthy eating, and breakfast

  8. Crowdsourcing modern and historical data identifies sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus habitat offshore of south-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Johnson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and use of pelagic habitat by sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus is poorly understood in the south-eastern Indian Ocean off Western Australia. However, a variety of data are available via online portals where records of historical expeditions, commercial whaling operations, and modern scientific research voyages can now be accessed. Crowdsourcing these online data allows collation of presence-only information of animals and provides a valuable tool to help augment areas of low research effort. Four data sources were examined, the primary one being the Voyage of the Odyssey expedition, a five-year global study of sperm whales and ocean pollution. From December 2001-May 2002, acoustic surveys were conducted along 5,200 nautical miles of transects off Western Australia including the Perth Canyon and historical whaling grounds off Albany; 60 tissue biopsy samples were also collected. To augment areas not surveyed by the RV Odyssey, historical Yankee whaling data (1712-1920, commercial whaling data (1904-1999, and citizen science reports of sperm whale sightings (1990-2003 were used. Using Maxent, a species distribution modeling tool, we found that the submarine canyons off Albany and Perth provide important habitat for sperm whales. Current technology, along with current understanding of sperm whale bioacoustics and habitat preferences, provides strong motivation for undertaking long-term passive acoustic studies that can monitor the sperm whale population within Australia’s EEZ waters (Perth and Albany canyons as a way of informing future marine management and policy decisions.

  9. Supervised oral HIV self-testing is accurate in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Steele, Sarah J; Govender, Indira; Arellano, Gemma; Mkwamba, Alec; Hadebe, Menzi; van Cutsem, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    To achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, alternatives to conventional HIV testing models are necessary in South Africa to increase population awareness of their HIV status. One of the alternatives is oral mucosal transudates-based HIV self-testing (OralST). This study describes implementation of counsellor-introduced supervised OralST in a high HIV prevalent rural area. Cross-sectional study conducted in two government-run primary healthcare clinics and three Médecins Sans Frontières-run fixed-testing sites in uMlalazi municipality, KwaZulu-Natal. Lay counsellors sampled and recruited eligible participants, sought informed consent and demonstrated the use of the OraQuick(™) OralST. The participants used the OraQuick(™) in front of the counsellor and underwent a blood-based Determine(™) and a Unigold(™) rapid diagnostic test as gold standard for comparison. Primary outcomes were user error rates, inter-rater agreement, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. A total of 2198 participants used the OraQuick(™) , of which 1005 were recruited at the primary healthcare clinics. Of the total, 1457 (66.3%) were women. Only two participants had to repeat their OraQuick(™) . Inter-rater agreement was 99.8% (Kappa 0.9925). Sensitivity for the OralST was 98.7% (95% CI 96.8-99.6), and specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.8-100). This study demonstrates high inter-rater agreement, and high accuracy of supervised OralST. OralST has the potential to increase uptake of HIV testing and could be offered at clinics and community testing sites in rural South Africa. Further research is necessary on the potential of unsupervised OralST to increase HIV status awareness and linkage to care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Price and availability of healthy food: a study in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P; Fourie, Jean; De Villiers, Anniza

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the availability of healthier food choices and whether a healthier diet costs more than a diet commonly eaten by low-income families in South Africa. We visited 21 food stores in 14 rural towns of the Western Cape province of South Africa. We recorded the price and availability of 66 food items, including both commonly consumed foods as well as healthy options. Healthier food choices are available in supermarkets. However, many towns only have small food stores with a limited selection of healthy foods. We compared the prices of six commonly consumed foods with healthier versions of those foods (e.g., whole-wheat bread in place of white bread). Healthier foods typically cost between 10% and 60% more when compared on a weight basis (Rand per 100 g), and between 30% and 110% more when compared based on the cost of food energy (Rand per 100 kJ). Next, we compared the extra cost of a healthier diet compared to a typical South African menu. On average, for an adult male, the healthier diet costs Rand 10.2 (US$1.22) per day more (69% more). For a household with five occupants, the increased expenditure on food by eating a healthier diet is approximately Rand 1090 per month (US$140); this represents a high proportion (>30%) of the total household income for most of the population. Healthier food choices are, in general, considerably more expensive than commonly consumed foods. As a result, a healthy diet is unaffordable for the large majority of the population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a community-based HIV preventive intervention for female sex workers in rural areas of Karnataka State, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Reynold G; Nath, Anita; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    To examine changes in behavioral outcomes among rural female sex workers (FSWs) involved in a community-based comprehensive HIV preventive intervention program in south India. A total of 14, 284 rural FSWs were reached by means of a community-based model for delivering outreach, medical, and referral services. Changes in behavior were assessed using 2 rounds of polling booth surveys conducted in 2008 and 2011. In all, 95% of the mapped FSWs were reached at least once, 80.3% received condoms as per need, and 71% received health services for sexually transmitted infections. There was a significant increase in condom use (from 60.4% to 72.4%, P = .001) and utilization of HIV counseling and testing services (from 63.9% to 92.4%; P = .000) between the 2 time periods. This model for a community-based rural outreach and HIV care was effective and could also be applied to many other health problems. © 2014 APJPH.

  12. Listening to Country Voices: Preparing, Attracting and Retaining Teachers for Rural and Remote Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Allan; Herschell, Paul; Millwater, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Examines the need for better preparation of teachers to live and work in rural Australia. Uses responses from a rural Queensland community meeting to discuss preparation needs related to multiage classrooms, cultural differences, and school-community involvement. Describes a new internship/mentor program at Queensland University of Technology that…

  13. A community survey of the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban south western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Ojo, Ololade Olusola; Ariyibi, Ebenezer Kayode; Kolawole, Tolutope Fasanmi; Ogunleye, Ayodele Idowu

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid fuels for cooking is associated with indoor pollution and lung diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban South Western, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study of households in urban (Ado-Ekiti) and rural (Ido-Ekiti) local council areas from April to July 2010. Female respondents in the households were interviewed by trained interviewers using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 670 households participated in the study. Majority of rural dwellers used single source of energy for cooking (55.6%) and urban dwellers used multiple source of energy (57.8%). Solid fuel use (SFU) was higher in rural (29.6%) than in urban areas (21.7%). Kerosene was the most common primary source of energy for cooking in both urban and rural areas (59.0% vs.66.6%) followed by gas (17.8%) and charcoal (6.6%) in the urban areas, and firewood (21.6%) and charcoal (7.1%) in the rural areas. The use of solid fuel was strongly associated with lack of ownership of dwellings and larger household size in urban areas, and lower level of education and lower level of wealth in the rural areas. Kerosene was associated with higher level of husband education and modern housing in urban areas and younger age and indoor cooking in rural areas. Gas was associated with high income and modern housing in the urban areas and high level of wealth in rural areas. Electricity was associated with high level of education, availability of electricity and old age in urban and rural areas respectively. The use of solid fuel is high in rural areas, there is a need to reduce poverty and improve the use of cleaner source of cooking energy particularly in rural areas and improve lung health.

  14. Biodegradation of cyanide in groundwater and soils from gasworks sites in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, S.M.E.; Weaver, T.R.; Lawrence, C.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkvills, Vic. (Australia). School of Earth Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Groundwater from a gasworks site in south-eastern Australia has been found to contain high concentrations of cyanide (total), sulphate, and ammonia (1400 mg L{sup -1}, 6500 mg L{sup -1}, and 580 mg L{sup -1} respectively). Soil from another gasworks site has been found to contain 587 mg kg{sup -1} of cyanide (total), with concentrations of cyanide in the groundwater at this site being relatively low ({lt} 21 mgL{sup -1} CN(Total)). Experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation rates of cyanide in groundwater and soils using samples from both sites. Column experiments and bioreactors were constructed to produce both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for the groundwater containing high concentrations of cyanide. Samples of water were taken periodically to analyse the pH, redox potential, temperature, and concentrations of cyanide (free and total), sulphate, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Initial results indicate that concentrations of cyanide are declining in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with biodegradation one process producing degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The results of spectrographic analysis of pigments from known aboriginal quarries and other outcrops in South Australia, and from painting sites in the Olary district of South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobbs, J.M.; Nobbs, M.F.; Moyle, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Pigments are minerals that provide the colour to paints and the pigments most commonly used by Aboriginal people are derived from red and yellow ochre and white minerals for example, gypsum and kaolin. During the early 1980s, the opportunity arose to collect pigments from many sources in South Australia. The sources included samples from known Aboriginal quarries and other outcrops. Pinhead-size samples of paint were collected from figures in some of the rock painting sites in the Olary District. These samples were analysed using Emission Spectrography with the aim of determining the nature of the pigments that is their constituent elements, and to investigate the possibility of finger-printing the sources of the pigments used by Aboriginal people. The ability of being able to source pigments found on the decorated surface of artefacts; pieces of ochre found in archaeological deposits or painted figures in a rock painting is important for understanding the trading and exchange network known to criss-cross Australia in the past. Facilities for Emission Spectrographic analyses were readily available and the capability to analyse (for twenty six elements) samples in milligram proportions suggested its use for the determination of the composition of material from unlimited sources and the compilation of a data-base detailing the results of the analyses in a form suitable for comparison. Examination of this database could then lead to further investigations with narrower and more specific aims. The results of the spectrographic analyses for red ochre from eighteen sources and yellow ochres from eight sources were tabulated as: strongly present >10%; present 1-10%; strong trace 0.1-1% ; trace 0.01-0.1%; faint trace <0.01%. Major elements, for example iron, aluminium, and silica showed in the Strongly Present and Present categories, while Trace and Faint Trace elements were variable. The results of the analyses of seventeen samples of red pigment and five

  16. Access to Productive Resources: The Catalyst to Rural Women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, rural women in post-apartheid South Africa are experiencing hardships in laying hold of such resources. The pertinent questions the article seeks to interrogate are: who should determine the resource needs of rural women? Are the one size fit all programmes ideal for alleviating rural women's poverty. This article ...

  17. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  18. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  19. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  20. Prevalence and distribution of unintended pregnancy: the Understanding Fertility Management in Australia National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather; Holton, Sara; Kirkman, Maggie; Bayly, Christine; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Mistimed, unexpected or unwanted pregnancies occur in Australia, despite widespread contraception use. The objective was to estimate prevalence and ascertain modifiable social factors for prevention of unintended pregnancy. National population-based survey of women and men aged 18-51 years recruited from a random sample of electors on the Australian Electoral Roll in 2013. Data were weighted to reduce non-response bias. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy were identified in multivariable analyses. Data from 2,235 completed questionnaires were analysed (Women: 69%; Men: 31%). Of those ever pregnant or partner in pregnancy (59%), 40% had experienced an unintended pregnancy. Adjusting for other risks, ever having experienced sexual coercion (AOR, 95%CI=Women 1.948; 1.458-2.601; Men 1.657, 1.014-2.708); socioeconomic disadvantage (AOR, 95%CI=Women 1.808, 1.373, 2.381; Men 1.360, 1.004-1.841), living in a rural area (AOR, 95%CI=Women 1.403, 1.056-1.864; Men 1.583, 1.161-2.159), and for men being born overseas (AOR, 95%CI 1.989, 1.317-3.002) were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Experiences of sexual coercion, social disadvantage, rural residence and overseas birth are independently associated with unintended pregnancy in Australia. Public health policy and health service initiatives should prioritise prevention of sexual coercion, reduction of social inequality and reduction of geographic inequality for those in rural areas. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Survival of Patients With Cervical Cancer in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinoda Thulaseedharan, Jissa; Malila, Nea; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Esmy Pulikottil, Okuru; Hakama, Matti; Muwonge, Richard; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients’ survival after diagnosis of cervical cancer is indirectly influenced by socio-economic factors. We evaluated this survival and its socio-economic determinants in a rural population in south India. Methods: We assessed 165 women diagnosed with cervical cancer from the routine care control arm of a randomized screening trial conducted in rural south India. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted to illustrate the observed survival of cancer patients. The effect of socio-econom...

  2. Surgical specialty procedures in rural surgery practices: implications for rural surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticca, Robert P; Mullin, Brady C; Harris, Joel D; Hosford, Clint C

    2012-12-01

    Specialty procedures constitute one eighth of rural surgery practice. Currently, general surgeons intending to practice in rural hospitals may not get adequate training for specialty procedures, which they will be expected to perform. Better definition of these procedures will help guide rural surgery training. Current Procedural Terminology codes for all surgical procedures for 81% of North Dakota and South Dakota rural surgeons were entered into the Dakota Database for Rural Surgery. Specialty procedures were analyzed and compared with the Surgical Council on Resident Education curriculum to determine whether general surgery training is adequate preparation for rural surgery practice. The Dakota Database for Rural Surgery included 46,052 procedures, of which 5,666 (12.3%) were specialty procedures. Highest volume specialty categories included vascular, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, cardiothoracic, urology, and otolaryngology. Common procedures in cardiothoracic and vascular surgery are taught in general surgical residency, while common procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology are usually not taught in general surgery training. Optimal training for rural surgery practice should include experience in specialty procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating deep Earth dynamics in paleogeographic reconstructions of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Christian; Müller, R. Dietmar; Steinberger, Bernhard; DiCaprio, Lydia

    2010-03-01

    It is well documented that the Cenozoic progressive flooding of Australia, contemporaneous with a eustatic sea level fall, requires a downward tilting of the Australian Plate towards the SE Asian subduction system. Previously, this large-scale, mantle-convection driven dynamic topography effect has been approximated by computing the time-dependent vertical shifts and tilts of a plane, but the observed subsidence and uplift anomalies indicate a more complex interplay between time-dependent mantle convection and plate motion. We combine plate kinematics with a global mantle backward-advection model based on shear-wave mantle tomography, paleogeographic data, eustatic sea level estimates and basin stratigraphy to reconstruct the Australian flooding history for the last 70 Myrs on a continental scale. We compute time-dependent dynamic surface topography and continental inundation of a digital elevation model adjusted for sediment accumulation. Our model reveals two evolving dynamic topography lows, over which the Australian plate has progressively moved. We interpret the southern low to be caused by sinking slab material with an origin along the eastern Gondwana subduction zone in the Cretaceous, whereas the northern low, which first straddles northern Australia in the Oligocene, is mainly attributable to material subducted north and northeast of Australia. Our model accounts for the Paleogene exposure of the Gulf of Carpentaria region at a time when sea level was much higher than today, and explains anomalous Late Tertiary subsidence on Australia's northern, western and southern margins. The resolution of our model, which excludes short-wavelength mantle density anomalies and is restricted to depths larger than 220 km, is not sufficient to model the two well recorded episodes of major transgressions in South Australia in the Eocene and Miocene. However, the overall, long-wavelength spatio-temporal pattern of Australia's inundation record is well captured by combining

  4. Obstacles to the take-up of mental health-care provision by adult males in rural and remote areas of Australia: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Peter; Lockwood, Craig

    The objective is to identify and synthesise the best available evidence on the obstacles to the take-up of health-care provision by adult rural and remote dwelling males in Australia seeking mental health services. Men's health, in general health-care practice, is defined as the global management of mental, emotional, and physical health conditions, and related risk factors, that are specific to men in order to promote and generate optimal health.Research and practice tends to suggest that health-care and mental-health care practitioners seem to be confronted with obstacles such as distance clients need to travel and rurality in delivering care to adult rural males. Possible issues might be whether, or to what extent, care providers are conscious of these obstacles. Another issue might be how care providers work with these obstacles in practice, and whether or not they may, also to some extent, share some of the responsibility for the existence of these obstacles, on their own, or in conjunction with other factors which might be said to exist purely in the rural context. There is also a need to explore the contributions to obstacles from the adult rural male side as well. There may also be factors at work in the particular unique nature of rural and remote health-care and mental-health care as well, which could also be involved in the creation of obstacles.The structure and functioning of rural care available to adult males of all cultural backgrounds and the obstacles to the take-up of that care represents an area which warrants further exploration and understanding. A foundation paper in this field by Karoski suggests that obstacles exist in health-care provision, particularly in the field of mental-health care to adult males. Other research suggests that, while obstacles in service provision are common to all areas, some obstacles are more significant for rural and remote areas.The reasons for framing this review in terms of the adult rural and remote male (ARRM

  5. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas. PMID:28036008

  6. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-12-27

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  7. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa | Pike | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes to organ donation may be influenced by cultural beliefs as well as racial prejudices and superstitions. In South Africa we are able to examine these issues from both a Firstand a Third-World perspective. In this study the attitudes of 1 299 urban white, 625 rural black and 826 urban black South Africans were ...

  8. Religiously Motivated Travel and Rural Tourism in Vhembe District of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyekye Agyapong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the socio-economic impact of religious tourism (UAAC gathering on the local tourism industry and on surrounding rural communities in Vhembe District Municipality (VDM of South Africa. Questionnaires were used to collect data on pilgrims (visitors, businesses, and residents during, and immediately after the event. Statistical techniques were used to analyse the data to gain insight into the data as basis for answering the research questions posed in this study. The results revealed that majority of the pilgrims to the UAAC gathering were from the host province of Limpopo. Also, most pilgrims travel to the pilgrimage site solely for religious reasons. Another significant finding is that the average spending per pilgrim by pilgrims from the rest of South Africa is larger than their Limpopo and foreign pilgrim counterparts. Furthermore, the results showed that while businesses were positive about the pilgrimage’s contribution to increased sales from their businesses, they at the same time opined that the event does not generate any additional employment. This could be because out of every R100 of pilgrims spending only R2.16 remains in the local economy through leakages. Finally an important finding of the study is overall consensus among residents that the annual pilgrimage gathering promotes morality, improved socialization as well as a sense of feeling good and proud of their community.

  9. A longitudinal study of the aftermath of rape among rural South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Davhana-Maselesele, Mashudu; Zhang, Muyu; Wong, Lauren H; Nicholson, Fiona; Sarkissian, Alissa Der; Makhado, Lufuno; Myers, Hector F

    2017-05-01

    Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up. Two hundred nine (N = 209) South African women were recruited from rural rape clinics in the Limpopo Province (LP) and North West Province (NWP) of South Africa. Interviews were conducted at baseline (within 6 months of the rape incident) and at 6 and 12 months by trained staff at the clinics in English or the women's native languages. Women were interviewed after services were provided in a private room. One hundred thirty-two (n = 132) women were lost to follow-up at 12 months, resulting in 77 women with interview data for all time points. Undermining by the survivor's social support system and an increased belief in myths about rape were associated with increased dysfunctional sexual practices and symptoms of depression. These findings demonstrate the need for interventions that address the most pervasive effects of rape over time. These behaviors can increase risks for revictimization and reduce psychological well-being in the aftermath of rape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Client characteristics and acceptability of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Reshma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV counselling and testing (HCT is a critical gateway for addressing HIV prevention and linking people to treatment, care, and support. Since national testing rates are often less than optimal, there is growing interest in expanding testing coverage through the implementation of innovative models such as home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT. With the aim of informing scale up, this paper discusses client characteristics and acceptability of an HBHCT intervention implemented in rural South Africa. Methods Trained lay counsellors offered door-to-door rapid HIV testing in a rural sub-district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Household and client data were captured on cellular phones and transmitted to a web-based data management system. Descriptive analysis was undertaken to examine client characteristics, testing history, HBHCT uptake, and reasons for refusal. Chi-square tests were performed to assess the association between client characteristics and uptake. Results Lay counsellors visited 3,328 households and tested 75% (5,086 of the 6,757 people met. The majority of testers (73.7% were female, and 57% had never previously tested. With regard to marital status, 1,916 (37.7%, 2,123 (41.7%, and 818 (16.1% were single, married, and widowed, respectively. Testers ranged in age from 14 to 98 years, with a median of 37 years. Two hundred and twenty-nine couples received couples counselling and testing; 87.8%, 4.8%, and 7.4% were concordant negative, concordant positive, and discordant, respectively. There were significant differences in characteristics between testers and non-testers as well as between male and female testers. The most common reasons for not testing were: not being ready/feeling scared/needing to think about it (34.1%; knowing his/her status (22.6%, being HIV-positive (18.5%, and not feeling at risk of having or acquiring HIV (10.1%. The distribution of reasons for refusal differed significantly by gender

  11. Euastacus morgani sp. n., a new spiny crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae from the highland rainforests of eastern New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Coughran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Euastacus morgani sp. n., is described from a highland, rainforest site in Bindarri National Park, in eastern New South Wales, Australia. Euastacus morgani is found living sympatrically with two more common species, E. dangadi Morgan, 1997 and E. neohirsutus Riek, 1956. Systematically, the species belongs in the ‘simplex’ complex of the genus that includes E. simplex Riek, 1956, E. clarkae Morgan, 1997, E. maccai McCormack and Coughran 2008 and E. morgani. This new species differs from its nearest congenor, E. simplex, inthree mesial carpal spines. A key to the ‘simplex’ complex is presented.

  12. Acute costs and predictors of higher treatment costs of trauma in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Mitchell, Rebecca; Black, Deborah; Taylor, Colman; Dickson, Cara; Jan, Stephen; Palmer, Cameron S; Langcake, Mary; Myburgh, John

    2014-01-01

    Accurate economic data are fundamental for improving current funding models and ultimately in promoting the efficient delivery of services. The financial burden of a high trauma casemix to designated trauma centres in Australia has not been previously determined, and there is some evidence that the episode funding model used in Australia results in the underfunding of trauma. To describe the costs of acute trauma admissions in trauma centres, identify predictors of higher treatment costs and cost variance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data linkage of admitted trauma patient and financial data provided by 12 Level 1 NSW trauma centres for the 08/09 financial year was performed. Demographic, injury details and injury scores were obtained from trauma registries. Individual patient general ledger costs (actual trauma patient costs), Australian Refined Diagnostic Related Groups (AR-DRG) and state-wide average costs (which form the basis of funding) were obtained. The actual costs incurred by the hospital were then compared with the state-wide AR-DRG average costs. Multivariable multiple linear regression was used for identifying predictors of costs. There were 17,522 patients, the average per patient cost was $10,603 and the median was $4628 (interquartile range: $2179-10,148). The actual costs incurred by trauma centres were on average $134 per bed day above AR-DRG costs-determined costs. Falls, road trauma and violence were the highest causes of total cost. Motor cyclists and pedestrians had higher median costs than motor vehicle occupants. As a result of greater numbers, patients with minor injury had comparable total costs with those generated by patients with severe injury. However the median cost of severely injured patients was nearly four times greater. The count of body regions injured, sex, length of stay, serious traumatic brain injury and admission to the Intensive Care Unit were significantly associated with increased costs (p<0.001). This

  13. A survey of the domiciliary situation of urban and rural patients of a palliative care unit in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Kandasamy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A demographic study was conducted to understand the social status of the urban and rural patients attending a palliative care unit in South India. Methods: Fifty rural and 50 urban patients attending the palliative care outpatient clinic of the Christian Medical College and Hospital, South India were prospectively surveyed using a structured interview and home visits. Parameters studied included age, gender, marital status, education, occupation, religion, caste, housing, economic status, diagnosis, distance to the nearest health resource personnel and hospitals. Results: Occupation, religion, caste, housing, electricity, toilet and accessibility to health care were found to be significantly different between urban and rural patients. Seventy percent of the patients were below 60 years of age. The majority were unskilled laborers or housewives. One-third had never been to school and only 3% had been educated beyond high school. Half the patients slept on the floor, 50% of the dwellings had only one or two rooms and did not have toilets or running water. Ninety-five percent had electricity. The economic status of the patients correlated significantly with age, occupation and facilities in the house such as number of rooms, availability of beds, toilets and water supply. Women and older patients were significantly less likely to have completed school education. Women were less likely to be the main decision-makers and more likely to be the main caregivers. Conclusion: Economic status was a strong predictor of the various facilities available to the patient. A significant proportion of this population lived in deprived circumstances. A knowledge and understanding of the social conditions of the palliative care patients helps provide better-tailored care.

  14. Monitoring travellers from Ebola-affected countries in New South Wales, Australia: what is the impact on travellers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amidst an Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic of unprecedented magnitude in west Africa, concerns about the risk of importing EVD led to the introduction of programs for the screening and monitoring of travellers in a number of countries, including Australia. Emerging reports indicate that these programs are feasible to implement, however rigorous evaluations are not yet available. We aimed to evaluate the program of screening and monitoring travellers in New South Wales. Methods We conducted a mixed methods study to evaluate the program of screening and monitoring travellers in New South Wales. We extracted quantitative data from the Notifiable Conditions Information Management System database and obtained qualitative data from two separate surveys of public health staff and arrivals, conducted by phone. Results Between 1 October 2014 and 13 April 2015, public health staff assessed a total of 122 out of 123 travellers. Six people (5% developed symptoms compatible with EVD and required further assessment. None developed EVD. Aid workers required lower levels of support compared to other travellers. Many travellers experienced stigmatisation. Public health staff were successful in supporting travellers to recognise and manage symptoms. Conclusion We recommend that programs for monitoring travellers should be tailored to the needs of different populations and include specific strategies to remediate stigmatisation.

  15. Natural ventilation reduces high TB transmission risk in traditional homes in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygizos, Melissa; Shenoi, Sheela V; Brooks, Ralph P; Bhushan, Ambika; Brust, James C M; Zelterman, Daniel; Deng, Yanhong; Northrup, Veronika; Moll, Anthony P; Friedland, Gerald H

    2013-07-01

    Transmission of drug susceptible and drug resistant TB occurs in health care facilities, and community and households settings, particularly in highly prevalent TB and HIV areas. There is a paucity of data regarding factors that may affect TB transmission risk in household settings. We evaluated air exchange and the impact of natural ventilation on estimated TB transmission risk in traditional Zulu homes in rural South Africa. We utilized a carbon dioxide decay technique to measure ventilation in air changes per hour (ACH). We evaluated predominant home types to determine factors affecting ACH and used the Wells-Riley equation to estimate TB transmission risk. Two hundred eighteen ventilation measurements were taken in 24 traditional homes. All had low ventilation at baseline when windows were closed (mean ACH = 3, SD = 3.0), with estimated TB transmission risk of 55.4% over a ten hour period of exposure to an infectious TB patient. There was significant improvement with opening windows and door, reaching a mean ACH of 20 (SD = 13.1, p ventilation conditions (windows/doors open) and window to volume ratio. Expanding ventilation increased the odds of achieving ≥12 ACH by 60-fold. There is high estimated risk of TB transmission in traditional homes of infectious TB patients in rural South Africa. Improving natural ventilation may decrease household TB transmission risk and, combined with other strategies, may enhance TB control efforts.

  16. Missing medical records: an obstacle to archival survey-research in a rural community in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wegner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping good quality medical records is an essential yet oftenneglected part of a health-care practitioner’s workload. In South Africa, by lawall health care facilities are required to retain medical records for a minimum ofsix years after the cessation of a patient’s treatment. In an archival survey thatwas attempted in a rural community in South Africa, only 39% of the recordsthat were requested were located. The procedure that was followed in order toobtain the records to be included in the survey is briefly described in this paper,highlighting the challenges experienced in four district hospitals in this community.The phenomenon has serious implications not only for the quality of healthcare,incidence of iatrogenic injuries and the future of the health-care practitioner’s career, but it also impacts on the ability to conductresearch to inform practice. An aspect that is not often considered is the impact of poor record keeping on the research and teachingcomponent of the broader medical profession.

  17. Recent developments in Australia's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium is produced at two mining/milling operations in Australia - Ranger in the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, and Olympic Dam in South Australia. In 1996, Ranger produced 4138 tonnes (t) U 3 O 8 from stockpiled ore mined from Ranger No. 1 Orebody. The capacity of the Ranger mill is being expanded to 5000 tonnes per annum (tpa) U 3 O 8 to coincide with the commencement of mining from No. 3 Orebody in mid-1997. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit is the world's largest deposit of low cost uranium. The operation currently has an annual production of 85,000 t copper, 1700 t U 3 O 8 and associated gold and silver. WMC Ltd proposes to expand annual production to 200 000 t copper and approximately 4600 t U 3 O 8 by end of 1999. The environmental impact of the expansion is being assessed jointly by both Commonwealth and South Australian Governments. A draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was released in May. Since its election in March 1996, the Liberal/National Party Coalition Government has made a number of changes to the Commonwealth Government's policies relating to uranium mining, including removal of the former Government's 'three mines' policy, and relaxation of the guidelines for foreign investment in Australian uranium mines. These changes, together with an improved outlook for the uranium market, have resulted in proposals to develop new mines at Jabiluka (Northern Territory), Kintyre (Western Australia) and Beverley (South Australia). Energy Resources of Australia Ltd proposes to develop an underground mine at Jabiluka with the ore to be processed at Ranger mill. Initial production will be 1800 tpa U 3 O 8 which will increase to 4000 tpa U 3 O 8 by the 14th year. The draft EIS was released for public comment in October 1996, and the final EIS is to be released in June 1997. Canning Resources Ltd proposes to mine the Kintyre deposit by open cut methods commencing in 1999 with an annual production of 1200 tpa U 3 O 8

  18. The early childhood oral health program: a qualitative study of the perceptions of child and family health nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Maxine; Ajwani, Shilpi; Johnson, Maree; Nash, Linda; Patterson, Tiffany; George, Ajesh

    2016-05-16

    Early childhood caries affects nearly half the population of Australian children aged 5 years and has the potential to negatively impact their growth and development. To address this issue, an Early Childhood Oral Health (ECOH) program, facilitated by Child and Family Health Nurses (CFHNs), commenced in 2007 in New South Wales, Australia. This study builds on the previous evaluation of the program. It aims to explore the perceptions of CFHNs regarding the implementation of the ECOH program in South Western Sydney and the challenges and barriers related to its sustainability. A descriptive qualitative design was used in this study. Two focus groups were conducted with 22 CFHNs who were sampled from two Community Health Centres in South Western Sydney, Australia. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. Most CFHNs acknowledged the importance of early childhood oral health promotion and were providing education, oral assessments and referrals during child health checks. Many stressed the need for collaboration with other health professionals to help broaden the scope of the program. Some barriers to implementing the program included confusion regarding the correct referral process, limited feedback from dental services and the lack of oral health awareness among parents. The study findings suggest that the ECOH program is being sustained and effectively implemented into practice by CFHNs. Improvement in the referral and feedback process as well as enhancing parental knowledge of the importance of infant and child oral health could further strengthen the effectiveness of the program. Expanding oral health education opportunities into general practice is advocated, while regular on-line training for CFHNs is preferred. Future research should include strategies to reduce non-attendances, and an assessment of the impact on the prevalence of childhood caries of the ECOH program.

  19. Variability in rainfall over tropical Australia during summer and relationships with the Bilybara High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, C. J. C.

    2018-04-01

    Variability in summer rainfall over tropical Australia, defined here as that part of the continent north of 25° S, and its linkages with regional circulation are examined. In particular, relationships with the mid-level anticyclone (termed the Bilybara High) that exists over the northwestern Australia/Timor Sea region between August and April are considered. This High forms to the southwest of the upper-level anticyclone via a balance between the upper-level divergence over the region of tropical precipitation maximum and planetary vorticity advection and moves south and strengthens during the spring and summer. It is shown that variations in the strength and position of the Bilybara High are related to anomalies in precipitation and temperature over large parts of tropical Australia as well as some areas in the south and southeast of the landmass. Some of the interannual variations in the High are related to ENSO, but there are also a number of neutral years with large anomalies in the High and hence in rainfall. On decadal time scales, a strong relationship exists between the leading mode of tropical Australian rainfall and the Bilybara High. On both interannual and decadal scales, the relationships between the High and the regional rainfall involve changes in the monsoonal northwesterlies blowing towards northern Australia, and further south, in the easterly trade winds over the region.

  20. Ruralization of students’ horizons: insights into Australian health professional students’ rural and remote placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Merylin; Waller, Susan; Chambers, Helen; Farthing, Annie; Barraclough, Frances; Pit, Sabrina W; Sutton, Keith; Muyambi, Kuda; King, Stephanie; Anderson, Jessie

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Health workforce shortages have driven the Australian and other Western governments to invest in engaging more health professional students in rural and remote placements. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an understanding of the lived experiences of students undertaking placements in various nonmetropolitan locations across Australia. In addition to providing their suggestions to improve rural placements, the study provides insight into factors contributing to positive and negative experiences that influence students’ future rural practice intentions. Methods Responses to open-ended survey questions from 3,204 students from multiple health professions and universities were analyzed using two independent methods applied concurrently: manual thematic analysis and computerized content analysis using Leximancer software. Results The core concept identified from the thematic analysis was “ruralization of students’ horizons,” a construct representing the importance of preparing health professional students for practice in nonmetropolitan locations. Ruralization embodies three interrelated themes, “preparation and support,” “rural or remote health experience,” and “rural lifestyle and socialization,” each of which includes multiple subthemes. From the content analysis, factors that promoted students’ rural practice intentions were having a “positive” practice experience, interactions with “supportive staff,” and interactions with the “community” in general. It was apparent that “difficulties,” eg, with “accommodation,” “Internet” access, “transport,” and “financial” support, negatively impacted students’ placement experience and rural practice intentions. Conclusions The study findings have policy and practice implications for continuing to support students undertaking regional, rural, and remote placements and preparing them for future practice in nonmetropolitan locations. This study

  1. Medical e-commerce for regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D K; Mikelaitis, P

    2001-12-01

    The residents of rural and regional Australia have less access to health care services than in capital cities. There is a reluctance of General Practitioners to practice in the country. New information technology and government initiatives are now addressing this problem. High bandwidth videoconferencing is now being routinely used to provide psychiatric consultations to areas without this service. But this (like many other implementations of telecommunication technologies to health) has resulted in loss of revenue to regional Australia while benefiting capital cities. Thus, the current implementation of telecommunication technology to health has resulted in loss of revenue of the regions while increasing the bias towards the cities. Further, the system is not economically viable and requires the Government to inject funds for the smooth operation of the system. This paper proposes the use of telecommunication technology for enabling the communities of regional Australia to access health facilities via physical and virtual clinics. The proposed technique is self supporting and is based in the country with the intent to prevent the drain of resources from regional Australia. The technique attempts to eradicate the problem at the root level by providing a business opportunity that is based in and to cater for the needs of the remote communities. The proposed system would provide health services by physical and virtual clinics and while serving the communities would be profit centres- and thus attracting doctors and other resources to the remote communities.

  2. (Im)moral Education in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Moral relativism, spearheaded by values clarification techniques, has transformed the ethos of South Australian schools. The theory and practice of innovative pedagogy in the realm of moral values is critiqued. Suggestions as to how a secular system of education can avoid moral anarchy without relapsing into ideological indoctrination are made.…

  3. Understanding Public Support for Indigenous Natural Resource Management in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous-led natural resource management (NRM on traditionally owned land in northern Australia has raised important questions in relation to policies that compensate indigenous Australians for providing environmental services. A choice experiment survey was mailed out to respondents across the whole of Australia to assess if and to what extent Australian people think that society benefits from these services and how much they would pay for them. More than half the respondents would in principle support indigenous NRM in northern Australia, with a high willingness to pay for carbon, biodiversity, and recreational services. Social aspects of indigenous NRM, however, were not valued by the society, emphasizing the need for awareness raising and clarifications of benefits that indigenous people gain while carrying out land management on their traditional country. Any marketing campaign should take into account preference variation across Australian society, which this research shows is substantial, particularly between people from the north and those from the south. People from the south were more likely to support indigenous NRM, a significant finding for campaigns targeting potential donors.

  4. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-06

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

  5. The Road to Rural Primary Care: A Narrative Review of Factors That Help Develop, Recruit, and Retain Rural Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlier, Anna Beth; Galvin, Shelley L; Thach, Sarah; Kruidenier, David; Fagan, Ernest Blake

    2018-01-01

    To examine the literature documenting successes in recruiting and retaining rural primary care physicians. The authors conducted a narrative review of literature on individual, educational, and professional characteristics and experiences that lead to recruitment and retention of rural primary care physicians. In May 2016, they searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, Web of Science, Google Scholar, the Grey Literature Report, and reference lists of included studies for literature published in or after 1990 in the United States, Canada, or Australia. The authors identified 83 articles meeting inclusion criteria. They synthesized results and developed a theoretical model that proposes how the findings interact and influence rural recruitment and retention. The authors' proposed theoretical model suggests factors interact across multiple dimensions to facilitate the development of a rural physician identity. Rural upbringing, personal attributes, positive rural exposure, preparation for rural life and medicine, partner receptivity to rural living, financial incentives, integration into rural communities, and good work-life balance influence recruitment and retention. However, attending medical schools and/or residencies with a rural emphasis and participating in rural training may reflect, rather than produce, intention for rural practice. Many factors enhance rural physician identity development and influence whether physicians enter, remain in, and thrive in rural practice. To help trainees and young physicians develop the professional identity of a rural physician, multifactorial medical training approaches aimed at encouraging long-term rural practice should focus on rural-specific clinical and nonclinical competencies while providing trainees with positive rural experiences.

  6. Looking through the Keyhole: Exploring Realities and Possibilities for School Breakfast Programs in Rural Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon O. Ichumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the school breakfast program (SBP in two schools with high Aboriginal student populations in rural Western Australia, their contribution to holistic support, nutritional health education and possibilities for improvement. Methods: The operations and functioning of one regional and one remote SBP were assessed by stakeholder inquiry related to process and challenges, observations and documentary review. An intervention to increase health education, social interaction and learning about nutrition and food origins implemented in one school was assessed. Results: Strengths, system and structural factors that impeded realisation of optimal outcomes of the SBPs were identified. The SBPs focussed on serving food rather than building nutritional understanding or on social interactions and support. Systems for delivery and management of the programs largely relied on staff with limited time. When offered a more interactive and social environment, children enjoyed learning about food. Conclusions: Opportunities for SBPs to offer holistic support and educational enhancement for disadvantaged children are limited by the realities of pressures on staff to support them and a view constraining their primary role as food delivery. The lack of volunteer support in disadvantaged schools limits the potential benefits of SBPs in providing psychosocial support. Health education resources which exist for use in SBPs are not necessarily used.

  7. Looking through the Keyhole: Exploring Realities and Possibilities for School Breakfast Programs in Rural Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichumar, Simon O; Dahlberg, Emma E; Paynter, Ellen B; Lucey, Fiona M C; Chester, Miranda R; Papertalk, Lennelle; Thompson, Sandra C

    2018-03-17

    To assess the school breakfast program (SBP) in two schools with high Aboriginal student populations in rural Western Australia, their contribution to holistic support, nutritional health education and possibilities for improvement. The operations and functioning of one regional and one remote SBP were assessed by stakeholder inquiry related to process and challenges, observations and documentary review. An intervention to increase health education, social interaction and learning about nutrition and food origins implemented in one school was assessed. Strengths, system and structural factors that impeded realisation of optimal outcomes of the SBPs were identified. The SBPs focussed on serving food rather than building nutritional understanding or on social interactions and support. Systems for delivery and management of the programs largely relied on staff with limited time. When offered a more interactive and social environment, children enjoyed learning about food. Opportunities for SBPs to offer holistic support and educational enhancement for disadvantaged children are limited by the realities of pressures on staff to support them and a view constraining their primary role as food delivery. The lack of volunteer support in disadvantaged schools limits the potential benefits of SBPs in providing psychosocial support. Health education resources which exist for use in SBPs are not necessarily used.

  8. Examining supply changes in Australia's cocaine market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Chalmers, Jenny; Bright, David A; Matthew-Simmons, Francis; Sindicich, Natasha

    2012-05-01

    Media attention to cocaine use and supply has increased following some of the largest cocaine seizures in Australia's history. Whether there has been an expansion in supply remains unclear. This paper examines the evidence behind assertions of increased supply in Australia and the scale and nature of any apparent increase, using proxy indicators of cocaine importation, distribution and use. Eight proxies of cocaine importation, distribution and use were adopted, including amount of importation, mode of importation and supply flows to Australia. Each proxy indicator was sourced using publicly available and Australia-wide data, including information on the total weight of border seizures, mode of detection and country of embarkation of individual seizures. Data permitting, trends were examined for up to a 12 year period (1997-1998 to 2009-2010). Since 2006-2007 there was evidence of increased cocaine importation, albeit less than between 1998-1999 and 2001-2002. There were further signs that the 2006-2007 expansion coincided with a diversification of trafficking routes to and through Australia (beyond the traditional site of entry-Sydney) and shifts in the geographic distribution of use. The congruity between indicators suggests that there has been a recent expansion in cocaine supply to and distribution within Australia, but that the more notable shift has concerned the nature of supply, with an apparent growth in importation and distribution beyond New South Wales. The diversification of cocaine supply routes may increase risks of market entrenchment and organised crime throughout Australia. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Developing occupational chronologies for surface archaeological deposits from heat retainer hearths on Pine Point and Langwell stations, Far Western New South Wales, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiner, J.

    2003-01-01

    The archaeological record of arid Australia is dominated by deflated distributions of stone artefacts and heat retainer hearths covering many thousands of square metres. These deposits have often been over-looked by archaeologists in preference for stratified deposits, which are regarded as more appropriate for investigating temporal issues. In recent years this situation had slowly begun to change with the large-scale dating of heat retainer hearths from surface contexts. The work of of Fanning and Holdaway (2001) and Holdaway et al. (2002) in Far Western New South Wales has demonstrated that through the dating of large numbers of hearths it is possible to develop occupational chronologies for surface deposits. At a wider landscape scale these chronologies reflect the timing and tempo of the occupation of different places. A major component of my doctoral fieldwork on Pine Point and Langwell stations, 50 km south of Broken Hill in Western New South Wales, aimed to establish occupational chronologies from hearths for surface archaeological distributions. This paper reports on radiocarbon results from this investigation. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. The Role of Libraries in eHealth Service Delivery in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sarada

    2009-01-01

    eHealth is an emerging service sector which has great potential to improve health care delivery to rural and remote communities, facilitate health surveillance, and promote health education and research. Despite the critical need for eHealth services in Australia based on the challenges of distance and human resources, its utility has yet to be…

  11. Australia's South African war 1899-19021

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999, rests on research toward a new history of Australians and the South African war commissioned by ... "spontaneity": the Australian offers of troops for the Boer war', Historical Studies. 18(70) Apr ...... 'People come out of that movie', said Jack Thompson, an actor in it;. 'saying "Fuck ... A documentary due for release soon ...

  12. Rural placement experiences in dental education and the impact on professional intentions and employment outcomes-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G; Wright, F C; Foster, K; Blinkhorn, A

    2017-11-23

    The availability of clinical dental services in rural locations is a major concern for many countries as dental care professionals gravitate to work in metropolitan areas. This systematic review examines the literature on Rural Placement Programs within dentistry and their impact on workforce intentions and employment outcomes. The review provides a detailed analysis of the methodological characteristics of the literature, considers the quality of the evidence and compares the outcomes within an international context. The systematic review identified published literature between 2005 and 2016 from databases including EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, NursingOVID and Cochrane. The PRISMA protocol was adopted for the development of the study, and the Health Gains Notation Framework was implemented to assess the quality of the selected research papers. Eleven studies considering Rural Clinical Placement Programs met the inclusion criteria. The studies were from Australia, South Africa, United States, Thailand and India. The evidence in this review indicates that well-designed, financially supported programmes that provide a perceived valuable clinical experience, good supervision and professional support in a rural environment can lead to dental students stating increased intentions to working in a rural location. However, there was a lack of evidence and research into whether these rural intentions result in positive action to take up employment in a rural location. The evidence suggests that well-prepared rural clinical placements, which have experienced clinical supervisors, good professional student support from the dental school, provide a valuable clinical experience and are sufficiently funded, can increase intentions to work in a rural location upon graduation. However, there is a lack of evidence in dentistry into whether intentions translate into practitioners taking clinical positions in a rural location. Future research should be planned, which will undertake

  13. Fluvial Responses to Holocene sea Level Variations Along the Macdonald River, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustomji, P.; Chappell, J.; Olley, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Macdonald River drains the rugged eastern flanks of Australia's Great Dividing Range. It has a catchment area of 2000km2, restricted alluvial lowlands confined by bedrock interfluves and flows into the Hawkesbury River, a larger estuarine valley. The Macdonald valley is presently tidal for 14km from the Hawkesbury. At about 8000 year before present (BP), rising sea level invaded the Macdonald Valley for at least 35km upstream of the Hawkesbury River. Rapid aggradation occurred between 8000 and 6000 years BP and a sand bed river was established in the Macdonald Valley, its mouth prograding rapidly towards the Hawkesbury. Little is known about the character of the sand bed river during the +2 meter sea level highstand occurring between 5000 and 4000 BP. However, from 3000 to 1500 BP when sea level was consistently at +1 to +1.5m, major floodplain and levee-like structures, now virtually inactive, were established. The bed is inferred to have been elevated above