WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural school custodian

  1. The Third Correlate of Effective Schools Safe and Orderly Environment--The Custodian Connection: A Study of Job Satisfaction as Perceived by Public Elementary School Custodians in San Bernardino County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ann V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, as perceived by elementary school custodians in San Bernardino County. Methodology. Descriptive research methods were used to conduct this qualitative study. Critical incident technique was employed for data collection. Data were…

  2. 28 CFR 49.4 - Deputy custodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deputy custodians. 49.4 Section 49.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) ANTITRUST CIVIL PROCESS ACT § 49.4 Deputy custodians. Deputy custodians may perform such of the duties assigned to the custodian as may be authorized...

  3. Materials balance area Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1991-07-01

    The material balance area (MBA) custodian has primary responsibility for control and accountability of nuclear material within an MBA. In this role, the custodian operates as an extension of the facility material control and accountability (MC ampersand A) organization. To effectively meet administrative requirements and protection needs, the custodian must be fully trained in all aspects of MC ampersand A related to the MBA, and custodian performance must be periodically evaluated. DOE Policy requires that each facility provide for a program which assures that each facility provide for a program which assures that personnel performing MC ampersand A functions are (1) trained and/or qualified to perform their duties and responsibilities and (2) knowledgeable of requirements and procedures related to their functions. The MBA Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at PNL uses a variety of assessment techniques to meet this goal, including internal and independent MBA audits, periodic custodian testing, conduct of limited scope performance tests, daily monitoring of MC ampersand A documentation, and reviewing custodian performance during physical inventories. The data collected from these sources is analyzed and incorporated into an annual custodian performance evaluation document, given to each custodian and line management. Development of this program has resulted in significantly improved custodian performance and a marked decrease in finding and observations identified during MBA audits

  4. Material balance area custodian performance evaluation program at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the material balance area (MBA) custodian has primary responsibility for control and accountability of nuclear material within an MBA. In this role, the custodian operates as an extension of the facility material control and accountability (MC and A) organization. To effectively meet administrative requirements and protection needs, the custodian must be fully trained in all aspects of MC and A related to the MBA, and custodian performance must be periodically evaluated. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy requires that each facility provide for a program which ensures that personnel performing MC and A functions are trained and/or qualified to perform their duties and responsibilities and knowledgeable of requirements and procedures related to their functions. the MBA Custodian Performance Evaluation Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) uses a variety of assessment techniques to meet this goal, including internal and independent MBA audits, periodic custodian testing, limited scope performance tests, daily monitoring of MC and A documentation, and reviewing custodian performance during physical inventories

  5. 28 CFR 49.2 - Duties of custodian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duties of custodian. 49.2 Section 49.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) ANTITRUST CIVIL PROCESS ACT § 49.2 Duties of custodian. (a) Upon taking physical possession of documentary material, answers to interrogatories, or...

  6. 38 CFR 13.102 - Accountability of legal custodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accountability of legal custodians. 13.102 Section 13.102 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VETERANS BENEFITS ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.102 Accountability of legal custodians. (a...

  7. Challenges in sharing of geospatial data by data custodians in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Sissiel E.

    2018-05-01

    As most development planning and rendering of public services happens at a place or in a space, geospatial data is required. This geospatial data is best managed through a spatial data infrastructure, which has as a key objective to share geospatial data. The collection and maintenance of geospatial data is expensive and time consuming and so the principle of "collect once - use many times" should apply. It is best to obtain the geospatial data from the authoritative source - the appointed data custodian. In South Africa the South African Spatial Data Infrastructure (SASDI) is the means to achieve the requirement for geospatial data sharing. This requires geospatial data sharing to take place between the data custodian and the user. All data custodians are expected to comply with the Spatial Data Infrastructure Act (SDI Act) in terms of geo-spatial data sharing. Currently data custodians are experiencing challenges with regard to the sharing of geospatial data. This research is based on the current ten data themes selected by the Committee for Spatial Information and the organisations identified as the data custodians for these ten data themes. The objectives are to determine whether the identified data custodians comply with the SDI Act with respect to geospatial data sharing, and if not what are the reasons for this. Through an international comparative assessment it then determines if the compliance with the SDI Act is not too onerous on the data custodians. The research concludes that there are challenges with geospatial data sharing in South Africa and that the data custodians only partially comply with the SDI Act in terms of geospatial data sharing. However, it is shown that the South African legislation is not too onerous on the data custodians.

  8. The Custodians of Biodiversity : Sharing Access to and Benefits of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Custodians of Biodiversity : Sharing Access to and Benefits of Genetic Resources. Couverture du livre The Custodians of Biodiversity : Sharing Access to and Benefits of Genetic Resources. Directeur(s) : Manuel Ruiz, Ronnie Vernooy. Maison(s) d'édition : Earthscan, CRDI. 15 décembre 2011. ISBN : 9781849714518.

  9. Formal training program for nuclear material custodians at Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) has established a formal training program for nuclear material (NM) custodians. The program, designed to familiarize the custodian with the fundamental concepts of proper nuclear materials control and accountability, is conducted on a semiannual basis. The program is prepared and presented by the Safeguards and Materials Management Section of HEDL and covers 14 subjects on accountability, documentation, transportation, custodian responsibilities, and the safeguarding of nuclear material

  10. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  11. 12 CFR 330.7 - Accounts held by an agent, nominee, guardian, custodian or conservator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by an agent, nominee, guardian..., nominee, guardian, custodian or conservator. (a) Agency or nominee accounts. Funds owned by a principal or... coverage shall be governed by the provisions of § 330.13. (b) Guardian, custodian or conservator accounts...

  12. Heart to heart - a custodian journal on grassroots ergonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D. M., LLNL

    1998-03-04

    When we first requested to speak at the American Society of Safety Engineer`s Professional Development Conference in Seattle, Washington, the theme we had in mind for this program paper was quite different. It definitely was not anything like our title, `Heart to Heart` implies. It was more formal and traditional. Give you figures, diagrams and the like. But two years later, we have come to another conclusion, to tell you the story about how a group of custodians and health & safety professionals dreamed big dreams and they came true. In order to understand what occurred, we first need to start at the very beginning with the Custodian Quality Improvement Team (CQIT). This group had been formed by the Plant Engineering Department at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) located in Livermore, California. LLNL is operated by the University of California for The U.S.Department of Energy. It is the premier applied physics research laboratory in the world. Plant Engineering (PE) is much like a Public Works Department. PE has all of the crafts, such as plumbers and electricians, who do maintenance-type work, as well as the engineering and construction employees. PE maintain the utilities, constructs new buildings and takes care of old ones. They take of the roads and clean the buildings and landscape the campus. So the Custodian Shop and its some 150 employees is a member of the PE family so to speak. The CQIT had decided to investigate ways they could reduce the number of injuries they were having. They invited health and safety professionals, David Zalk (an Industrial Hygienist) and Jack Tolley (Safety Engineer) to consult with them about this. They are both Hazards Control Team 4 members at LLNL. They were both interested in ergonomics and suggested that an approach to reducing their injuries might lie in studying how the custodians actually do their work. David has extensive training in ergonomics, and Jack simply had a long-time interest in ergonomics for

  13. Portrait of Rural Virtual Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, distance education has become a reality of rural schooling in Newfoundland and Labrador. In this article, I provide historical background into the challenges facing rural schools in the province and how distance education was introduced to address that challenge. I also describe how that system of distance education…

  14. Computerizing primary schools in rural kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogembo, J.G.; Ngugi, B.; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2012-01-01

    questions surrounding this endeavour. Specifically: 1.) what problems do rural schools actually want to solve with computerization; 2.) is computerization the most important priority for rural schools; 3.) are schools ready, in terms of infrastructure, for a computer in the classroom; or 4.) might...... and protective roofing -posing severe challenges to the outstanding conception of computerization. We consider these results and make recommendations for better adapting programs for computer introduction, and also suggest the use of new innovative devices, such as cell phones, which might already have overcome......This paper investigates the outstanding challenges facing primary schools' computerization in rural Kenya. Computerization of schools is often envisaged as a 'magic', or at least a particularly efficient, solution to many of the problems that developing countries face in improving primary school...

  15. Why Rural Schools Are Important for Pre-Service Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, Brooke; Robbins, Holly; Rose, Dana; Beasley, Loren; Greene, Michelle; Kile, Melissa; Broadus, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Rural schools are often overlooked in educational research. At least one in five children in the United States attends a rural school and one-third of all public schools are located in rural areas. Research on the effects of teacher education in rural schools on teacher candidates and the rural schools themselves is almost nonexistent. This…

  16. Characterization of Urinary Phthalate Metabolites Among Custodians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Simcox, Nancy J.; Wakai, Sara; Lu, Chensheng; Garza, Jennifer L.; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and ‘green’ or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for creatinine-adjusted urinary phthalate concentrations. Mixed effects univariate and multivariate modeling, using a random intercept for each individual, was performed to identify predictors of phthalate metabolites including demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations [GM (95% CI)] of MEP, MMP, MEHP, and MBzP were 107 (91.0–126), 2.69 (2.18–3.30), 6.93 (6.00–7.99), 8.79 (7.84–9.86) µg g−1, respectively. An increasing trend in phthalate concentrations from before to after shift was not observed. Creatinine-adjusted urinary MEP was significantly associated with frequency of traditional cleaning chemical intensity in the multivariate model after adjusting for potential confounding by demographics, workplace factors, and personal care product use. While numerous demographics, workplace factors, and personal care products were statistically significant univariate predictors of MMP, MEHP, and MBzP, few

  17. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  18. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  19. Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…

  20. Hanford well custodians. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, A.L.; Underwood, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program recognized the need to integrate monitoring well activities in a centralized manner. A key factor to Hanford Site well integration was the need to clearly identify a responsible party for each of the wells. WHC was asked to identify all wells on site, the program(s) using each well, and the program ultimately responsible for the well. This report lists the custodian and user(s) for each Hanford well and supplies a comprehensive list of all decommissioned and orphaned wells on the Hanford Site. This is the first update to the original report released in December 1993

  1. Rural Elementary School Teachers' Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Wood, Lawrence; Hough, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey responses from more than 500 third-grade teachers, this study addressed three research questions relating to technology integration and its impact in rural elementary schools. The first analyses compared rural with non-rural teachers, revealing that the rural teachers had more positive attitudes toward technology integration. Then…

  2. Unregulated Autonomy: Uncredentialed Educational Interpreters in Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Although many rural Deaf and Hard of Hearing students attend public schools most of the day and use the services of educational interpreters to gain access to the school environment, little information exists on what interpreters are doing in rural school systems in the absence of credentialing requirements. The researcher used ethnographic interviews and field observations of three educational interpreters with no certification or professional assessment to explore how uncredentialed interpreters were enacting their role in a rural high school. The findings indicate that uncredentialed interpreters in rural settings perform four major functions during their school day: preparing the environment, staff, and materials; interpreting a variety of content; interacting with numerous stakeholders; and directly instructing Deaf and Hard of Hearing students. Generally, educational interpreters in rural districts operate with unregulated autonomy, a situation that warrants further research and a national standard for all educational interpreters.

  3. Early Career Leadership Opportunities in Australian Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lorraine; Miller, Judith; Paterson, David

    2009-01-01

    Due to the difficulties inherent in staffing rural schools in Australia, it is increasingly common for beginning teachers to fill school leadership roles early in their careers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the accelerated progression of some early career teachers who have been offered leadership opportunities in rural schools. Results…

  4. Rural Education as Rural Development: Understanding the Rural School-Community Well-Being Linkage in a 21st-Century Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafft, Kai A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant proportions of rural Americans, schools, and public school students situated in the geographic peripheries of an increasingly urbanizing country, rural education in the United States has consistently occupied both scholarly and policy peripheries. This is to the detriment of rural America, especially to the extent that…

  5. Barriers to Distance Education in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; Varre, Claire de la; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to examine barriers to the use of distance education and explore related factors in small and low-income rural schools. Data were collected via a telephone survey with administrators or other qualified personnel. The sample involved 417 randomly selected small and low-income rural school districts…

  6. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education. PMID:29430018

  7. Rural School Math and Science Teachers' Technology Integration Familiarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonde, Gilbert

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the significance of technology integration familiarization and the subsequent PD provided to rural middle school teachers with several opportunities to gain technological skills for technology use in rural middle school math and science classrooms. In order to explore the use of technology in rural schools, this study surveyed…

  8. A Vanishing Rural School Advantage? Changing Urban/Rural Student Achievement Differences in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Fagioli, Loris P.

    2016-01-01

    In 1997, a cross-national assessment of educational achievement in Latin America and the Caribbean found that rural schools in Colombia outperformed urban schools in tests of reading and mathematics, except in very large cities. Given a long history of urban/rural inequality in the region, Colombia's rural school advantage attracted substantial…

  9. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary - Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R

    2017-07-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010-2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas.

  10. Do Rural Schools Need Character Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Janice Carner

    Studies suggest that the challenge of violence in public schools can be met through character education, whether by providing a school culture in which core values are practiced or some form of moral training (indoctrination). To assess the need for character education in rural schools, small-school superintendents and board members in central…

  11. A comparison of the vending environment among three rural subtypes of secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca; Davey, Cynthia S; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further explore the rural school food environment. This study assessed trends in prevalence of vending machines and vending items within and between Minnesota schools located in 3 rural subtypes: town/rural fringe, town/rural distant, and remote rural. Generalized estimating equation models were employed to analyze data from the 2006 through 2012 School Health Profiles Principal's Surveys (Profiles). All 3 rural subtypes had a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of low nutrient energy dense (LNED) vending items between 2006 and 2012, with the exception of sports drinks. However, different vending practices were observed between rural subtypes, with town/rural fringe schools providing more LNED vending options and experiencing less positive change over time compared to town/rural distant and remote rural schools. Differences in vending machine practices emerge when rural schools are subtyped.

  12. Counselors and Special Educators in Rural Schools Working Together to Create a Positive School Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Frank

    2018-01-01

    School counselors and special educators in rural areas working together can be a powerful team to help schools create a positive school community. In one rural school community, they partnered with faculty and staff to implement a School Wide Positive Behavior support program to improve student outcomes. The counselor and special educator, through…

  13. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  14. Leadership in Australian Rural Schools: Bush Track, Fast Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lorraine; Paterson, David; Miller, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Due to the difficulties inherent in staffing rural schools it is increasingly common for beginning teachers to fill school leadership roles early in their careers. The accelerated progression of some teachers impacts on the overall nature of leadership in rural schools and creates unique pathways, generally different from those available to…

  15. THE EVALUATION OF DIVERSITY OF EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS OF LATVIAN RURAL SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Katane, Irēna; Laizāne, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Under conditions of changes and instability in any state rural schools are faced to look for different directions of development in order to manage in the rural areas. Thus the inner structure of rural schools becomes complex and causes formation of new educational environmental models of Latvian rural schools. The aims of the article: 1) to give substantiation of the concept model; 2) to give classification of educational environmental models of rural schools; 3) to emphasize the advantages ...

  16. Church Schools, Educational Markets and the Rural Idyll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Peter J.; Roberts, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have begun to explore the role that faith schools play in contemporary educational markets but the emphasis to date has been on urban rather than rural contexts. This article approaches the issue of marketisation through a qualitative case-study comparison of two Anglican primary schools in contrasting rural localities in England and…

  17. Exploration and analysis of rural primary school teacher’s language violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Honglian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the problem of rural education becomes more and more obvious while the supervision on stay-at-home children’s education becomes more and more difficult, rural primary school teacher’s language violence has become a new big problem today. This paper collected and investigated the improper language used by rural primary school teachers so as to analyze the features, harm, causes and solutions of language violence, trying to explore and analyze rural primary school teacher’s language violence from perspective of sociology and remind primary school teachers of rethinking. In subjective aspect, this paper hopes to improve rural primary school teacher’s comprehensive quality, establish specification for teacher’s language, lower rural teacher’s vocational burnout and alleviate the psychological pressure that exam-oriented education and rural stay-at-home children impose on teachers. In objective aspect, this paper hopes to enhance the supervision from society and administrative departments for education. All the above measures can be taken to effectively eliminate teacher’s language violence and resolve the crisis.

  18. Tensions between the local and the global: contemporary rural and teaching in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeu Clementino de Souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate potential tensions between local and global context of contemporary ruralities, emphasizing the times, rhythms and spaces constructed from the experiences of teachers and students in the organization of the routines of rural schools. The paper presents theoretical considerations resulting from two studies in the Graduate Program in Education and Contemporary - PPGEduC / UNEB. The clipping and analysis undertaken focus on education developed in rural areas and tensions present in this context in view, discuss issues concerning the new ruralities contemporary. This discussion has as its central theme the issues of timing and the rhythm in schools with multigrade classes Island Tide that articulates with dilemmas and tensions surrounding the experience lived by teachers of geography of the city engaged in teaching in rural areas in semi-arid region of Bahia. Research has pointed to difficulties faced by rural school to consider the different temporalities that exist in rural areas in their educational processes, as well as difficulties of articulation in these contexts of learning, between the local-global dimensions through which passes the contemporary space. This movement creates stress for teachers’ work, since it complicates the relationship between the times established, standardized and rigid, with times of personal students and teachers, covering aspects such as age, life histories, movements and experiences socio-historical and geographical subjects involved in the processes of teaching and learning in rural settings in contemporary times.

  19. Schools at the Rural-Urban Boundary – Blurring the Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Logan, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Schools mirror the communities in which they are located. Research on school inequality across the rural-urban spectrum tends to focus on the contrast between urban, suburban, and rural schools and glosses over the variation within these areas as well as the similarities between them. To address this gap and provide a richer description of the spatial distribution of educational inequality, we examine the school composition, achievement, and resources of all U.S. elementary schools in 2010–2011. We apply standard census definitions of what areas fall within central cities, the remainder of metropolitan regions, and in rural America. We then apply spatially explicit methods to reveal blurred boundaries and gradual gradients rather than sharp breaks at the edges of these zones. The results show high levels of variation within the suburbs and substantial commonality between rural and urban areas. PMID:29430017

  20. Landmark survey tracks decade of changes in India's rural schools ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... These are just a few comments from parents of school-aged children in rural ... Landmark survey tracks decade of changes in India's rural schools ... funded by Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

  1. School Absenteeism during Menstruation among Rural Adolescent Girls in Pune

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Bodat, Mrunalini M Ghate, Jyoti R Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Menstrual related problems and inadequate school sanitation facilities have an adverse effect on adolescent girl?s academic performance and school attendance especially in rural setting. The following study was undertaken to determine school absenteeism during menstruation period. Objective: To assess the impact of menstruation on school attendance and factors affecting menstruation management. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in rural field practice area o...

  2. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM 2.5 and PM 10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  3. "Hey, I Saw Your Grandparents at Walmart": Teacher Education for Rural Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This is a case study about how teacher education might better prepare rural teacher candidates for rural schools. Parents, teachers, community members, and students associated with a rural school described what is important in the preparation of teachers for today's rural schools. Their goals and wishes for their children's school and community…

  4. Factors shaping the HIV-competence of two primary schools in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Catherine; Andersen, Louise; Mutsikiwa, Alice

    2015-01-01

    We present multi-method case studies of two Zimbabwean primary schools - one rural and one small-town. The rural school scored higher than the small-town school on measures of child well-being and school attendance by HIV-affected children. The small-town school had superior facilities, more...... teachers with higher morale, more specialist HIV/AIDS activities, and an explicit religious ethos. The relatively impoverished rural school was located in a more cohesive community with a more critically conscious, dynamic and networking headmaster. The current emphasis on HIV/AIDS-related teacher training...

  5. Dialogue and Inclusive Education: The Experience of a Rural School in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Oliveira Aquino Maria Gerlandia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the teaching method of Paulo Freire implemented in Jaguaquara Rural School, Escola Estadual Rural Taylor-Egídio (ERTE, Brazil. The school was the space where dialogical pedagogy has been analyzed and the dialogue between schools and rural households has been a positive and winning response in the children’s literacy process. This research has shown that, before Freire, rural families had not had an education system able to meet their need; then the study has taken into account some factors responsible for this lack; finally, it has singled out the possibility for an effective implementation in the rural school, according to Freire’s model of dialogic pedagogy. The results of this school experience are relevant from the point of view of socialization, for it fosters literacy in rural areas. We verified that the method proposed by Freire is of great social and cultural value and benefits from great appreciation.

  6. A comparison of rural high school students in Germany with rural Tennessee high school students' mathematics and science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, R. Fredrick

    This descriptive study compared the science and mathematics aptitudes and achievement test scores for the final school year students in rural White County and Van Buren County, Tennessee with rural county students in Germany. In accordance with the previous research literature (Stevenson, 2002), German students outperformed U.S. students on The International Trends in Math and Science test (TIMSS). As reform in the U.S. education system has been underway, this study intended to compare German county student final school year performance with White County and Van Buren County (Grade 12) performance in science and mathematics. The entire populations of 176 White and Van Buren Counties senior high final school year students were compared with 120 school final year students from two rural German county high schools. The student responses to identical test and questionnaire items were compared using the t-test statistical analysis. In conclusion after t-test analyses, there was no significant difference (p>.05 level) in student attitudes on the 27 problem achievement and the 35 TIMSS questionnaire items between the sampled population of 120 German students compared with the population of 176 White and Van Buren students. Also, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05 level) between the German, White, and Van Buren County rural science and math achievement in the TIMSS problem section of the final year test. Based on the research, recommendations to improve U.S. student scores to number one in the world include making changes in teaching methodology in mathematics and science; incorporating pamphlet lessons rather than heavily reliance on textbooks; focusing on problem solving; establishing an online clearinghouse for effective lessons; creating national standards in mathematics and science; matching students' course choices to job aspirations; tracking misbehaving students rather than mainstreaming them into the regular classroom; and designing

  7. Gaseous pollutants on rural and urban nursery schools in Northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R A O; Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality in nursery schools is different from other schools and this has been largely ignored, particularly in rural areas. Urban and rural nursery schools have different environmental characteristics whose knowledge needs improvement. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate continuously the concentrations of CO2, CO, NO2, O3, CH2O and total VOC in three rural nursery schools and one urban, being the only one comparing urban and rural nurseries with continuous measurements, thus considering occupation and non-occupation periods. Regarding CO2, urban nursery recorded higher concentrations (739-2328 mg m(-3)) than rural nurseries (653-1078 mg m(-3)). The influence of outdoor air was the main source of CO, NO2 and O3 indoor concentrations. CO and NO2 concentrations were higher in the urban nursery and O3 concentrations were higher in rural ones. CH2O and TVOC concentrations seemed to be related to internal sources, such as furniture and flooring finishing and cleaning products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Violence in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Schools in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kalen; McDonald, Catherine C; D'Alonzo, Bernadette A; Tam, Vicky; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2018-01-01

    School violence is a public health issue with direct and collateral consequences that has academic and social impacts for youth. School violence is often considered a uniquely urban problem, yet more research is needed to understand how violence in rural and suburban schools may be similar or different from urban counterparts. Using school violence data from a state with urban, suburban, and rural counties, we explored the landscape of school violence in Pennsylvania (PA) through mapping, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. Results show school violence is not solely an urban problem. Schools in all county types and across grade levels deal with violence to varying degrees, and the majority of schools across county types experience low levels of violence. Types of violence experienced by PA schools loaded onto three factors, suggesting that targeted interventions may be better suited to addressing school violence.

  9. Rural School In The Context Of Community-Led Local Development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudečková H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the general concept of knowledge society and deals with regional development theories which emphasize local environment as an important part of rural development. The following two questions were studied: (1 What is the early experience of municipalities when establishing a Community School? (2 In which other municipalities would it be possible and appropriate to build such a school? For this purpose, both secondary and primary research methods were combined with data collection techniques – document study, observation, and questioning. Because the examined problem is set in the context of community-led local development (CLLD, violation of the ‘bottom-up’ approach principle is also highlighted. The paper presents the first experiences in the establishment of seven Community Schools within the Pilsen region and based on them also recommendations for the feasibility and suitability of establishing this type of school in other rural municipalities. The results show that the educational sector is not assisting in the modernization of rural schools with regard to community education and that the possibility of the contemporary and meaningful existence of schools in small rural municipalities remains ignored.

  10. Perceptions and Beliefs of Rural High School Coordinators in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Segura Castillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rican rural settings include indigenous populations and groups in scattered areas that require considering issues such as language and culture, among others, to achieve an appropriate curriculum development. The National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC defines rurality based on the existence or lack of public services such as roads, communication, utilities, formation of the household, and participation in agricultural activities, among others. This research seeks to interpret the perceptions and beliefs of rural high school principals in Costa Rica, regarding technical and administrative conditions in compliance with the objectives for which the institutions were created. This is a longitudinal qualitative study, since data was taken from two workshops, one in 2010 with 49 rural high school coordinators and another one in 2012 with 205 participants including principals and teaching staff. Information was analyzed using an open-question questionnaire and a Venn diagram. Seventeen rural high schools were visited, and students, teachers, and parents from 45 rural high schools were interviewed during 2011 and 2012. It is concluded that there is still no real integration between the socio productive, personal and social areas with the academic area; therefore, teachers in the academic area should be trained in vocational aspects such as entrepreneurship, cooperativism, business management, as well as counsoling, physical education, arts, and music to trully meet the objectives for which rural high schools were created.

  11. School nurse experiences with prescription opioids in urban and rural schools: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison-Sharp, Ella; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Elio, Alice; Prendergast, Melissa; Carpenter, Delesha M

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the use of prescription opioids in schools. The current study aimed to: (1) describe the context within which school nurses encounter student opioid prescriptions; (2) assess school nurses' preferences for training and student education; and (3) explore urban-rural differences in school nurses' experiences and training preferences. A convenience sample of school nurses (n = 633) from North Carolina and South Carolina participated in a brief, anonymous, online survey. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and statistical tests (t-tests and Chi-square tests) were performed to investigate urban-rural differences. Many school nurses (40.3%) had encountered a student with an opioid prescription, but only 3.6% had naloxone available in case of an overdose. Most school nurses (69.9%), especially rural school nurses, believed students would benefit from opioid education (74.9 versus 66.6%, p = 0.03). The majority of school nurses (83.9%) were interested in opioid-related training. Many school nurses encounter students with prescription opioids and would like additional opioid-related training. The potential benefits of providing naloxone access to prevent opioid-related deaths at schools should be explored.

  12. Food-related practices and beliefs of rural US elementary and middle school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Shannon, Jackilen; Nguyen, Thuan

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity disproportionately affects rural populations; therefore, promoting healthy eating among rural children is essential. Teachers are important role models for children and can influence children's eating behaviors through their own behaviors and beliefs about food. This study examined the food-related practices and beliefs of rural elementary and middle school teachers. Data were used from the SNACZ study, a school- and community-based trial conducted in rural Oregon. Kindergarten through eighth-grade teachers (n=87), teaching students usually aged 5-14 years, from eight rural school districts completed a baseline survey in November 2012 concerning their classroom food practices, eating behaviors at school, beliefs about the school food environment, and nutrition knowledge. Frequencies of responses to each item were calculated. Nearly all teachers (97.6%) agreed that a healthy school food environment is important, but fewer agreed that teachers' behaviors and the foods available at school influence students' eating behaviors (71.0% and 67.0%, respectively). Nearly 86% of teachers used candy as a reward for students, while 78.2% consumed unhealthy snacks and 42.5% consumed sweetened beverages in the classroom. The results suggest that most rural teachers recognize that having a healthy school food environment is important, but are less aware of factors within the school that influence students' eating behaviors - including their own eating behaviors and classroom food practices - and, perhaps for this reason, many rural teachers engage in classroom practices and behaviors that do not promote healthy eating. Teacher training and expanded school policies that focus on teacher behavior may be needed to ensure a healthier rural school food environment.

  13. Motivation for Math in Rural Schools: Student and Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning…

  14. Top-Down, Routinized Reform in Low-Income, Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickel

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has funded fifty-nine state, urban, and rural systemic initiatives. The purpose of the initiatives is to promote achievement in math, science, and technology among all students, and to encourage schools and communities to secure the resources needed to maintain such outcomes. The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI is a six-state consortium which focuses these efforts on low-income, rural schools. The primary means of accomplishing ARSI's aims is a one-day-one-school site visit, called a Program Improvement Review, done by an ARSI math or science expert. The centrally important Program Improvement Reviews, however, seem to be premised on unsubstantiated assumptions as to the static, easy-to-understand, easy-to-evaluate nature of educational achievement in rural Appalachian schools. As a result, the Reviews resemble exercises in early-twentieth century scientific management, and are unlikely to enhance achievement in science or math. Consequently, even if there is merit to the commonsense human capital approach to economic growth and development on which systemic initiatives are tacitly premised, this first- person account makes a case that desired payoffs are unlikely to follow from the work of ARSI.

  15. Gaseous pollutants on rural and urban nursery schools in Northern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality in nursery schools is different from other schools and this has been largely ignored, particularly in rural areas. Urban and rural nursery schools have different environmental characteristics whose knowledge needs improvement. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate continuously the concentrations of CO_2, CO, NO_2, O_3, CH_2O and total VOC in three rural nursery schools and one urban, being the only one comparing urban and rural nurseries with continuous measurements, thus considering occupation and non-occupation periods. Regarding CO_2, urban nursery recorded higher concentrations (739–2328 mg m"−"3) than rural nurseries (653–1078 mg m"−"3). The influence of outdoor air was the main source of CO, NO_2 and O_3 indoor concentrations. CO and NO_2 concentrations were higher in the urban nursery and O_3 concentrations were higher in rural ones. CH_2O and TVOC concentrations seemed to be related to internal sources, such as furniture and flooring finishing and cleaning products. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing gaseous pollutants continuously measured in urban and rural nurseries. • Children's risk of exposure occurs mainly in the urban nursery school. • Outdoor air was the main determinant of CO, NO_2 and O_3 indoor concentrations. • There is a need to implement measures to reduce critical situations regarding IAQ. - Gaseous pollutant levels were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, except for O_3. High concentrations were due to lack of ventilation, outdoor air and internal sources.

  16. "Rural" schools and universities: The use of partnerships as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "Rural" schools and universities: The use of partnerships as a teaching strategy in enhancing a positive response to rurality. ... These approaches have been initiated within a broad understanding of what is meant by rurality, acknowledging that there is no agreement on what constitutes urban and rural contexts.

  17. Managing Smallness: Promising Fiscal Practices for Rural School District Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Deborah Inman

    Based on a mail survey of over 100 rural school administrators in 34 states, this handbook outlines common problems and successful strategies in the financial management of rural, small school districts. Major problems are related to revenue and cash flow, increasing expenditures, providing quality education programs, and staffing to handle the…

  18. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

  19. Prevalence of and Differences in Salad Bar Implementation in Rural Versus Urban Arizona Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenschine, Michelle; Adams, Marc; Bruening, Meg

    2018-03-01

    Rural children consume more calories per day on average than urban children, and they are less likely to consume fruit. Self-service salad bars have been proposed as an effective approach to better meet the National School Lunch Program's fruit and vegetable recommendations. No studies have examined how rural and urban schools differ in the implementation of school salad bars. To compare the prevalence of school-lunch salad bars and differences in implementation between urban and rural Arizona schools. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional web-based survey. School nutrition managers (N=596) in the state of Arizona. National Center for Education Statistics locale codes defined rural and urban classifications. Barriers to salad bar implementation were examined among schools that have never had, once had, and currently have a school salad bar. Promotional practices were examined among schools that once had and currently have a school salad bar. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare urban and rural differences in presence and implementation of salad bars, adjusting for school-level demographics and the clustering of schools within districts. After adjustment, the prevalence of salad bars did not differ between urban and rural schools (46.9%±4.3% vs 46.8%±8.5%, respectively). Rural schools without salad bars more often reported perceived food waste and cost of produce as barriers to implementing salad bars, and funding was a necessary resource for offering a salad bar in the future, as compared with urban schools (Pbar promotion, challenges, or resources among schools that currently have or once had a salad bar. After adjustment, salad bar prevalence, implementation practices, and concerns are similar across geographic settings. Future research is needed to investigate methods to address cost and food waste concerns in rural areas. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. "We Are Never Invited": School Children Using Collage to Envision Care and Support in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanare, Fumane P.; de Lange, Naydene

    2017-01-01

    The voices of school children who are orphaned and vulnerable are more often than not missing from conversations about their care and support at school. In a rural ecology this is even more so the case. This article draws on a study with school children in rural KwaZulu-Natal and explores their constructions of care and support in the age of HIV…

  1. Vaccination perceptions of school employees in a rural school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle; Luthy, Karlen E; Beckstrand, Renea L; Eden, Lacey M; Orton, Jennifer

    2014-08-20

    There continues to be a need for increases in adult vaccination rates, especially among those working in environments which may easily become communicable disease outbreak centers, such as school employees in the school environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate why rural Utah school employees were non-compliant with the influenza and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines, as well as to identify their views on mandatory vaccination policies. A questionnaire was distributed to all school employees in a rural Utah school district. Data analysis included frequencies and measures of central tendency and dispersion for quantitative items and theme identification for qualitative items. Only 51% of school employees were adequately vaccinated for influenza. Reasons for noncompliance with the influenza vaccine included inconvenience, lack of perceived need, and questionable vaccine efficacy. There were 39.3% school employees who had not received an MMR during adulthood, which was commonly attributed to lack of knowledge regarding the need for this vaccine. Almost half (45.7%) of school employees believed a mandatory vaccination policy should be instituted, although 24.2% of school employees were opposed to mandatory adult vaccination policies. Reasons for opposing vaccination mandates included violation of personal choice, lack of perceived vaccination safety and efficacy, lack of perceived need for adult vaccines, and vaccine cost. Suboptimal vaccination rates of school employees may negatively affect the health and well-being of individuals in the school environment. School employees report a variety of beliefs regarding the influenza and MMR vaccines. While over half of school employees support mandatory vaccination policies for adults working in the school environment, those opposing such a policy report concerns regarding violation of personal choice. Public health officials and school administrators should coordinate efforts to increase vaccination

  2. Rural schools and democratic education. The opportunity for community participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bustos Jiménez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the notions of participation and community empowerment in rural schools are analysed through reflection on experiences conducted in different countries. Reference is made to ducational models of participatory development which, from the viewpoint of excellence, result in increasing educational outcomes and higher rates of satisfaction among the targeted rural populations. Taking as point of departure agents which are considered potential generators of knowledge in rural areas, we examine the process of incorporating the wealth of the rural context. The difficulties that the community group usually faces for its legitimacy as a source of input in rural areas are also shown. Finally, we discuss how the teaching staff can positively contribute to their process of joining the school life.

  3. School environment and sanitation in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Majra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.

  4. School Quality Signals and Attendance in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes school dropout in rural Guatemala using event history data and unusually detailed data on schools and teachers. Significant results for language of instruction, teacher education and fighting between students demonstrate the importance of accounting for school context influences on an outcome that has, historically, been…

  5. Corporal Punishment and Student Outcomes in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of corporal punishment on student outcomes in rural schools by analyzing 1,067 samples from the School Survey on Crime and Safety 2007-2008. Results of descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses indicated that schools with corporal punishment may decrease students' violent behaviors and…

  6. My Future, My Family, My Freedom: Meanings of Schooling for Poor, Rural Chinese Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    In this article, Xin Xiang investigates what dushu, or "schooling," means for rural senior secondary school students in a high-poverty county in southwestern China. With the persistence of China's rural-urban education inequality and alarming reports about secondary school dropout rates, rural students' and their families' attitudes…

  7. Confronting Challenges at the Intersection of Rurality, Place, and Teacher Preparation: Improving Efforts in Teacher Education to Staff Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Price Azano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to solve fixture in the composition of rural communities, we sought to understand how teacher preparation programs might better prepare preservice teachers for successful student teaching placements and, ideally, eventual careers in rural schools. In this study, we explore teacher candidates’ perceptions of rurality while examining how specific theory, pedagogy, and practice influence their feelings of preparedness for working in a rural school. Using pre- and post- questionnaire data, classroom observations, and reflections, we assess the effectiveness of deliberate efforts in our teacher preparation program to increase readiness for rural teaching. In our analysis and discussion, we draw on critical and sociocultural theories to understand the experiences of a cohort of teacher candidates as they explore personal histories, the importance of place, expectations, and teaching strategies for rural contexts. While rural education researchers have long lamented the struggle to recruit and retain teachers, there is relatively little known about intentional efforts to prepare teachers specifically for rural classrooms. We conclude our article with recommendations for enhancing teacher preparation programs in ways that might result in significant progress toward the goal of staffing rural schools with the highly skilled teachers all students deserve.

  8. [Hygienic assessment of intraschool environment in rural and urban secondary school institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylnikova, I V

    The purpose of the research is to assess the intra-environment indices in urban and rural secondary schools. In the course of special studies there was given the hygienic assessment of the climate, illumination and air quality of classrooms. In classrooms in rural schools microclimate indices were established to fail to meet hygienic requirements mainly on the temperature and humidity parameters. In rural schools, the temperature was decreased to 16-17 °C in 19.0 ± 8.6% of classrooms, humidity was elevated to 63.1% in 25.7 ± 7.4% of classrooms. Among urban schools the humidity in 49.6 ± 4.4% of classrooms reduced to 23.3 ± 0.3%, in 20.8 ± 5.4% of offices it was increased to 71.9 ± 0.9%. The coefficient of the natural illumination in rural schools has been reduced to 0.86-1.4% in 33.9 ± 14.2% of classrooms. In 25.1 ± 2.3% of classrooms in urban schools the level of natural light ratio was below the normative values and varied in the range of 0.32-1.3%. It is noted that in the offices of informatics natural light indices are significantly lower than in the classrooms for core subjects. The artificial lighting in urban schools was found to be lower than hygienic standards on the desks by 1.9 times, 2.2 times - at the board. There were obtained statistically significant handshaking health problems of urban schoolchildren due to intraenvironmental factors. The c dimate in surveyed gyms in rural schools is different in the low temperature and high humidity. The hygienic assessment of the air pollution classrooms’ medium was executed for a range of chemicals: formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter. Concentrations of formaldehyde; nitrogen dioxide, suspended solids in the air in classrooms in urban schools appeared to be higher than in rural schools. Carbon monoxide concentrations in classrooms in rural schools was found to exceed their values in urban schools. The air in classrooms of the one of the cities was found

  9. Examining the relationship between school district size and science achievement in Texas including rural school administrator perceptions of challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Matthew James

    Rural and small schools have almost one-third of all public school enrollment in America, yet typically have the fewest financial and research based resources. Educational models have been developed with either the urban or suburban school in mind, and the rural school is often left with no other alternative except this paradigm. Rural based educational resources are rare and the ability to access these resources for rural school districts almost non-existent. Federal and state based education agencies provide some rural educational based programs, but have had virtually no success in answering rural school issues. With federal and state interest in science initiatives, the challenge that rural schools face weigh in. To align with that focus, this study examined Texas middle school student achievement in science and its relationship with school district enrollment size. This study involved a sequential transformative mixed methodology with the quantitative phase driving the second qualitative portion. The quantitative research was a non-experimental causal-comparative study conducted to determine whether there is a significant difference between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8 th grade science results and school district enrollment size. The school districts were distributed into four categories by size including: a) small districts (32-550); b) medium districts (551-1500); c) large districts (1501-6000); and d) mega-sized districts (6001-202,773). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to compare the district averages from the 2010 TAKS 8th grade science assessment results and the four district enrollment groups. The second phase of the study was qualitative utilizing constructivism and critical theory to identify the issues facing rural and small school administrators concerning science based curriculum and development. These themes and issues were sought through a case study method and through use of semi

  10. DIMENSIONS OF BASIC SCHOOL DROPOUTS IN RURAL GHANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR PRINCE

    of teaching and learning in the rural environment was directly linked to the high rate of drop- out. Although some ... tion that leaving school after the completion of basic school ...... There are several ways by which the informal apprenticeship ...

  11. The Retention of Hispanic/Latino Teachers in Southeastern Rural Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study reviewed reasons so few Hispanic/Latino teachers remain employed with rural county public elementary schools. The study evaluated issues that present high retention and attrition concerns for Hispanic/Latino teachers in rural schools. In addition, the dissertation offered suggestions on ways to increase the representation of…

  12. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  13. Inclusive education in schools in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Callado Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Spain decided to embark on the development of inclusive schooling, studies have taken place to see if the inclusive principle is being developed satisfactorily. Inclusive schooling implies that all students, regardless of their particular characteristics, may be taught in ordinary schools, and in the majority of cases receive help in the classroom in which they have been integrated in order to cover any special educational needs. Our research aims to find out if schools situated in rural areas follow this principle and, once it has been put into practice, what strategies are being used. To this end, we designed a questionnaire addressed to Infant and Primary school teachers in the Sierra Sur area in the province of Jaén, in an agricultural context where most of the population live on olive picking and the cultivation of olive groves. Given the extension of the area, our research concentrated on schools situated in urban nuclei with a population of less than one thousand five hundred inhabitants. The results obtained demonstrate that rural areas do not take full advantage of the context they are in to favour inclusion processes and continue to develop proposals that are merely integrative.

  14. Programa único o diferenciado: especificidad curricular de la escuela rural uruguaya - Common or differentiated school programs: uruguayan rural school curriculum specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limber Elbio Santos, Uruguay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo se refere ao fenômeno da especificidade curricular que as escolas rurais uruguaias têm tido durante mais de um século e à ruptura histórica registrada em 2009 quando se começou a aplicar uma estrutura curricular comum a escolas urbanas e rurais. Analisam-se as circunstâncias históricas da pedagogia rural e, em particular, uma de suas materialidades simbolicamente mais potentes constituída pelo Programa para Escolas Rurais de 1949. Assim mesmo, refere-se ao peso que essa pedagogia continua tendo atualmente e da maneira como influi na gestão curricular do programa único. As especificidades social e didática da escola rural têm efeitos evidentes sobre o programa curricular no seu sentido mais amplo, com alcances muito mais extensos que os relativos ao currículo prescrito. No entanto, o desafio da escola rural atual de abordar a nova estrutura curricular de caráter único não é tão diferente do que se registrou historicamente: dialogar com o meio de igual para igual e maximizar o potencial de aprendizagem proporcionado pela instituição educacional, pela comunidade e estrutura multidisciplinar do grupo.Palavras-chave: escola rural, currículo, programa, pedagogia rural. COMMON OR DIFFERENTIATED SCHOOL PROGRAMS: URUGUAYAN RURAL SCHOOL CURRICULUM SPECIFICITY AbstractThe paper refers to the phenomenon of the Curriculum specificity to which the Rural Schools had for more than a century inUruguayand to the historic rupture registered in 2009 when a common Curriculum for Rural and Urban schools was introduced. The paper analyses the historic circumstances of the Rural Pedagogy and, in particular, one of its most potent symbolic materiality constituted of the 1949 program for Rural Education. The analysis show that the challenge to current Rural Education is not that different to that registered historically: to dialogue with the environment and take maximum advantage of the potential to learn which is provided by the

  15. Instructional Leadership Challenges and Practices of Novice Principals in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezorek, Douglas; Manard, Carolyn

    2018-01-01

    We report on a phenomenological study of the leadership experiences of six novice, rural public school principals in a midwestern U.S. state. We situated our analysis within existing research on leadership for learning, particularly how novice principals interpreted instructional leadership challenges in the context of rural school leadership. Our…

  16. Preferred practice location at medical school commencement strongly determines graduates' rural preferences and work locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Marie S; Bulsara, Max K; Jones, Michael P; Mak, Donna B

    2017-02-01

    To identify factors influencing whether Australian medical graduates prefer to, or actually, work rurally. Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Twenty Australian medical schools. Australian or New Zealand citizens and Australian permanent residents who completed MSOD questionnaires between 2006 and 2013. Preferred and actual work locations 1 (PGY1) and 3 (PGY3) years postgraduation. Of 20 784 participants, 4028 completed a PGY1 or PGY3 questionnaire. Self-reported preference for rural practice location at medical school commencement was the most consistent independent predictor of whether a graduate would have a rural location preference at PGY1 (odds ratio (OR) 6.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.91-7.51) and PGY3 (OR 7.95, 95% CI 4.93-12.84), and work rurally during PGY1 (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.01-1.88) and PGY3 (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.30-2.64). The effect of preferred practice location at medical school commencement is independent of, and enhances the effect of, rural background. Graduates of graduate-entry programs or with dependent children were less likely to have worked rurally during PGY1 and PGY3 respectively. The most consistent factor associated with rural preferences and work location was students' preferred location of practice at medical school commencement; this association is independent of, and enhances the effect of, rural background. Better understanding of what determines rural preference at medical school commencement and its influence on rural workplace outcomes beyond PGY3 is required to inform Australian medical school selection policies and rural health curricula. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  17. prevalence of substance use among rural high school students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    School of Public Health, University of the Limpopo. Sovenga, South Africa ... KEY WORDS: substance use, rural high school students, South Africa ... increased into the 1990s, these behaviours ..... Canada's Mental Health Supplement, 68,. 12.

  18. Oral Competency of ESL/EFL Learners in Sri Lankan Rural School Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath Withanarachchi Samaranayake

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the current teaching trends and practices in teaching oral English in rural Sinhala-medium schools in Sri Lanka and their relevance to the current theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical perspectives of second-language acquisition (SLA. The present study, which was conducted in two Sri Lankan Sinhala-medium rural schools, is a case study in which the classroom observation, interviewing of the participants, and videotaping of students’ interaction were included as data collection tools. The spoken data were analyzed using the Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching (COLT scheme designed by Fröhlich, Spada, and Allen, while the numerical data obtained from the structured speaking test (Cambridge Key English for Schools Test were analyzed using independent samples t test. The findings of the study indicate that the instructional method used by English teachers does not provide the learners with adequate input of the target language to improve their oral communication skills in rural school contexts. As a result, a majority of students from rural schools in Sri Lanka demonstrate a limited or a low proficiency level in oral communication in English. Therefore, possible reasons for the lack of greater awareness towards more communicative teaching are discussed, and suggestions for promoting changes in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL in rural school contexts are offered.

  19. Driving change in rural workforce planning: the medical schools outcomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jonathan P; Landau, Louis I

    2010-01-01

    The Medical Schools Outcomes Database (MSOD) is an ongoing longitudinal tracking project ofmedical students from all medical schools in Australia and New Zealand. It was established in 2005 to track the career trajectories of medical students and will directly help develop models of workforce flow, particularly with respect to rural and remote shortages. This paper briefly outlines the MSOD project and reports on key methodological factors in tracking medical students. Finally, the potential impact of the MSOD on understanding changes in rural practice intentions is illustrated using data from the 2005 pilot cohort (n = 112). Rural placements were associated with a shift towards rural practice intentions, while those who intended to practice rurally at both the start and end of medical school tended to be older and interested in a generalist career. Continuing work will track these and future students as they progress through the workforce, as well as exploring issues such as the career trajectories of international fee-paying students, workforce succession planning, and the evaluation of medical education initiatives.

  20. The Rural-Urban Divide, Intergroup Relations, and Social Identity Formation of Rural Migrant Children in a Chinese Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    Through ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a Beijing public school, this study aims to investigate how rural migrant children in China negotiate and construct their identity vis-à-vis the school's local children. Building on social identity theory, this study reveals that rural migrant children develop a strong non-local group identity as a…

  1. School meals and educational outcomes in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, Robert; Frölich, Markus; Haile, Getinet

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between providing school meals programme and educational outcomes in Ethiopia. Using data from school catchment areas across rural Ethiopia, the paper examines the role played by programme modalities and their implementation. The results indicate that supplementing on-site school meals with take-home rations can be beneficial for concentration, reading, writing and arithmetic skills. The timing of the distribution of school meals is also found to play an import...

  2. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  3. Amblyopia in Rural Nigerian School Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The prevalence of amblyopia among these rural school children was ... Amblyopia is defined as suboptimal vision in one eye despite best spectacle ..... Data obtained were entered into the computer and analyzed using the Statistical ..... the National Postgraduate Medical College in Ophthalmology;. 1999. 21.

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHER’S SOCIAL COMPETENCE IN RURAL MOUNTAIN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Varetska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempted to illuminate the importance of social competence for elementary school teacher in rural mountain environment. The author analyzes the essential features, social and pedagogical challenges in rural schools, sensible changes characteristic of the modern village. Special attention is paid to the rural mountain school as a center of educational and social activities, its peculiarities and factors causing them, including the effect of mountain environment, climatic conditions, administration method, traditions, etc. It’s pointed out that teachers are also exposed to the effect of mountain environment. They work under tough weather conditions, often in a closed team, in the atmosphere of professional, social, economic and political information scarcity, which leads to a rapid “aging”, gradual professional, social decline and social competence development recession. The author proves the need to consider the environmental impact in the design of modern school, the need for innovative processes while maintaining the national spirit and the environment; the development of social competence of elementary school teacher in constantly changing social rural mountain environment is in the focus of attention.

  5. Case Study of Leadership Practices and School-Community Interrelationships in High-Performing, High-Poverty, Rural California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Marcia; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Many rural California high schools are impacted by the disadvantages of poverty, non-English speaking students, limited resources, changing demographics, and challenges of the rural context. Focusing on contemporary leadership theories and school-community interrelationships, this qualitative study examines the practices of educational leaders in…

  6. Community participation in rural Ecuador’s school feeding programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka

    2017-01-01

    participation can include the possibility of the community challenging the social order at school, and the educational policies and practices. When addressing community participation, counter-participating and non-participating can be also considered as legitimate forms of participating. Originality/value......Purpose - The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning health education and health promotion at schools, particularly with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach - Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural...... – The study contributes to an understanding of policy implementation and the implications of a HPS approach to health education and health promotion in small rural schools....

  7. Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana School performance of rural area students in urban school

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    Stella Maris Cortez Bacha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural, turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno, tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas.PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of

  8. School Quality and Learning Gains in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2009-01-01

    I use unusually detailed data on schools, teachers and classrooms to explain student achievement growth in rural Guatemala. Several variables that have received little attention in previous studies--including the number of school days, teacher content knowledge and pedagogical methods--are robust predictors of achievement. A series of…

  9. Rural origin plus a rural clinical school placement is a significant predictor of medical students' intentions to practice rurally: a multi-university study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith H; Dewitt, Dawn E; Pallant, Julie F; Cunningham, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Health workforce shortages are a major problem in rural areas. Australian medical schools have implemented a number of rural education and training interventions aimed at increasing medical graduates' willingness to work in rural areas. These initiatives include recruiting students from rural backgrounds, delivering training in rural areas, and providing all students with some rural exposure during their medical training. However there is little evidence regarding the impact of rural exposure versus rural origin on workforce outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify and assess factors affecting preference for future rural practice among medical students participating in the Australian Rural Clinical Schools (RCS) Program. Questionnaires were distributed to 166 medical students who had completed their RCS term in 2006; 125 (75%) responded. Medical students were asked about their preferred location and specialty for future practice, their beliefs about rural work and life, and the impact of the RCS experience on their future rural training and practice preferences. Almost half the students (47%; n=58) self-reported a 'rural background'. Significantly, students from rural backgrounds were 10 times more likely to prefer to work in rural areas when compared with other students (ppreferring general practice, 80% (n=24) wished to do so rurally. Eighty-five per cent (n=105) of students agreed that their RCS experience increased their interest in rural training and practice with 62% (n=75) of students indicating a preference for rural internship/basic training after their RCS experience. A substantial percentage (86%; n=108) agreed they would consider rural practice after their RCS experience. This baseline study provides significant evidence to support rural medical recruitment and retention through education and training, with important insights into the factors affecting preference for future rural practice. By far the most significant predictor of rural practice

  10. USING A DEA MANAGEMENT TOOLTHROUGH A NONPARAMETRIC APPROACH: AN EXAMINATION OF URBAN-RURAL EFFECTS ON THAI SCHOOL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANGCHAN KANTABUTRA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines urban-rural effects on public upper-secondary school efficiency in northern Thailand. In the study, efficiency was measured by a nonparametric technique, data envelopment analysis (DEA. Urban-rural effects were examined through a Mann-Whitney nonparametric statistical test. Results indicate that urban schools appear to have access to and practice different production technologies than rural schools, and rural institutions appear to operate less efficiently than their urban counterparts. In addition, a sensitivity analysis, conducted to ascertain the robustness of the analytical framework, revealed the stability of urban-rural effects on school efficiency. Policy to improve school eff iciency should thus take varying geographical area differences into account, viewing rural and urban schools as different from one another. Moreover, policymakers might consider shifting existing resources from urban schools to rural schools, provided that the increase in overall rural efficiency would be greater than the decrease, if any, in the city. Future research directions are discussed.

  11. Interest in rural clinical school is not enough: Participation is necessary to predict an ultimate rural practice location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playford, Denese; Puddey, Ian B

    2017-08-01

    Rural exposure during medical school is associated with increased rural work after graduation. How much of the increase in rural workforce by these graduates is due to pre-existing interest and plans to work rurally and how much is related to the extended clinical placement is not known. This cohort study compared the employment location of medical graduates who professed no rural interest as undergraduates (negative control), with those who applied but did not participate in Rural Clinical School of Western Australia (RCSWA) (positive control), and those who applied and participated in RCSWA (participants). All 1026 University of Western Australia students who had an opportunity to apply for a year-long rotation in RCSWA from 2004 to 2010, and who had subsequently graduated by the end of 2011, were included. Graduates' principal workplace location (AHPRA, Feb 2014). The three groups differed significantly in their graduate work locations (χ 2 = 39.2, P rural background (OR 2.99 (95% CI 1.85, 4.85), P Rural Bonded Scholarship (OR 3.36 (95% CI 1.68, 6.73, P = 0.001) and actually participating in the RCSWA remained significantly related to rural work (OR 3.10 (95% CI 1.95, 4.93), P rural work, RCSWA graduates were three times more likely to work rurally than either control group. These data suggest that RCSWA has a significant independent effect on rural workforce. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Instructional Technology for Rural Schools: Access and Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundeen, Todd H.; Sundeen, Darrelanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating instructional technology into all classrooms has the potential to transform modern education and student learning. However, access to technology is not equally available to all districts or schools. Decreased funding and budgetary restraints have had a direct impact on technology acquisition in many rural school districts. One of the…

  13. TRANSFORMING RURAL SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZIMBABWE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY: LIVED EXPERIENCES OF STUDENT COMPUTER USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomba Clifford

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A technological divide exists in Zimbabwe between urban and rural schools that puts rural based students at a disadvantage. In Zimbabwe, the government, through the president donated computers to most rural schools in a bid to bridge the digital divide between rural and urban schools. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the experiences of Advanced Level students using computers at two rural boarding Catholic High Schools in Zimbabwe. The study was guided by two research questions: (1 How do Advanced level students in the rural areas use computers at their school? and (2 What is the experience of using computers for Advanced Level students in the rural areas of Zimbabwe? By performing this study, it was possible to understand from the students’ experiences whether computer usage was for educational learning or not. The results of the phenomenological study showed that students’ experiences can be broadly classified into five themes, namely worthwhile (interesting experience, accessibility issues, teachers’ monopoly, research and social use, and Internet availability. The participants proposed teachers use computers, but not monopolize computer usage. The solution to the computer shortage may be solved by having donors and government help in the acquisitioning of more computers.

  14. Vulnerable children speak out: voices from one rural school in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends some strategies by which the Swaziland Ministry of Education and Training, the community, and the school can make collaborative and coordinated efforts aimed at enhancing vulnerable children's quality of schooling experiences. Keywords: Children; Schooling; Rural; Vulnerability; Education; ...

  15. Characteristics of National Merit Scholars from Small Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Gary; And Others

    This study compares 1988 National Merit Scholars enrolled in rural public schools with a senior class smaller than 99 students to other merit scholars and the national sample of SAT takers. Rural scholars were more likely to be female (45.5%) and Caucasian (98%) than other scholars. Involvement in extracurricular activities was significantly…

  16. Rural schools: In the middle of nowhere.The invisible cities in the world of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Vázquez Recio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article includes some reflections about rural schools, coming from the personal and professional experience of the author. The article claims that rural schools should cease to be forgotten or underestimated and that they should be recognized as real schools. This issue is linked to the field of initial teacher training, making some considerations to be taken into account in order to promote a change in the appraisal and recognition of schools in the rural world.

  17. Decentralization and Educational Performance: Evidence from the PROHECO Community School Program in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…

  18. Food Insecurity and Its Association With School Absenteeism Among Rural School Adolescents in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Melaku, Yabsira; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-03-01

    Studies showed that poor health and nutrition among school adolescents are major barriers to educational access and achievements in low-income countries. This school-based study was aimed to assess the association of school absenteeism and food insecurity among rural school adolescents from grades 5 to 8 in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between dependent and independent variables using odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictor of school absenteeism. Validated tools are used to collect household food insecurity data. Results showed that school absenteeism is significantly high among adolescents from food insecure households when compared to adolescents from food secure households ( P absenteeism was negatively associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = -0.91, 95% CI -1.85 to -0.03), household food security (adjusted odds ratio = -1.85, 95% CI -3.11 to -0.59), being an elder sibling (AOR = -0.37, 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.12), and mother involvement in decision making (AOR = -0.68, 95% CI, -1.33 to -0.03) while male-headed household was positively associated (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI, 1.37 to 4.56). Generally, this study showed that household food insecurity has significant contribution to school absenteeism among rural adolescents. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve household income earning capacity to reduce the prevalence of school absenteeism among rural school adolescents.

  19. Secondhand Smoke Exposure in a Rural High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hahn, Ellen J.; Riker, Carol A.; Hoehne, Amber; White, Ashleigh; Greenwell, Devin; Thompson, Dyshel

    2007-01-01

    Although federal law requires all public schools to be smoke free, lack of compliance with the smoke-free policy is commonly reported. The aims of this study were to describe the indoor fine-particle (PM[subscript 2.5]) air pollution in a rural high school and surrounding public venues. This cross-sectional, nonexperimental study was conducted in…

  20. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  1. Staff Development for Rural Middle Schools through Regional Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William F.

    1994-01-01

    Isolation, limited access to colleges and universities, and financial constraints restrict staff development opportunities for rural school systems. Recognizing these problems, the Virginia Middle School Association has adopted a regional conference structure that shifts meeting locations throughout seven major areas. The "hot topics"…

  2. Schoolchildren affected by HIV in rural South Africa: Schools as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores how schoolchildren made vulnerable due to HIV and AIDS might cope and even thrive in a rural school environment in South Africa. I argue that ... Keywords: appreciative inquiry, assets, coping, PhotoVoice, psychosocial aspects, research methods, rural settings, visual participatory methods

  3. The Dissonance between Schooling and Learning: Evidence from Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Using a basic mathematics competence test based on the primary school curricular standard, we examine the extent to which years spent in school actually increases numeracy achievement in rural Bangladesh. Our sample includes 10-18-year-old children currently enrolled in school as well as those out of school. About half of the children failed to…

  4. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  5. Paediatric case mix in a rural clinical school is relevant to future practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Helen M; Maley, Moira A L; Playford, Denese E; Nicol, Pam; Evans, Sharon F

    2017-11-29

    Exposure to a representative case mix is essential for clinical learning, with logbooks established as a way of demonstrating patient contacts. Few studies have reported the paediatric case mix available to geographically distributed students within the same medical school. Given international interest in expanding medical teaching locations to rural contexts, equitable case exposure in rural relative to urban settings is topical. The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia locates students up to 3500 km from the urban university for an academic year. There is particular need to examine paediatric case mix as a study reported Australian graduates felt unprepared for paediatric rotations. We asked: Does a rural clinical school provide a paediatric case mix relevant to future practice? How does the paediatric case mix as logged by rural students compare with that by urban students? The 3745 logs of 76 urban and 76 rural consenting medical students were categorised by presenting symptoms and compared to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) database Major Diagnostic Categories (MDCs). Rural and urban students logged core paediatric cases, in similar order, despite the striking difference in geographic locations. The pattern of overall presenting problems closely corresponded to Australian paediatric hospital admissions. Rural students logged 91% of cases in secondary healthcare settings; urban students logged 90% of cases in tertiary settings. The top four presenting problems were ENT/respiratory, gastrointestinal/urogenital, neurodevelopmental and musculoskeletal; these made up 60% of all cases. Rural and urban students logged similar proportions of infants, children and adolescents, with a variety of case morbidity. Rural clinical school students logged a mix of core paediatric cases relevant to illnesses of Australian children admitted to public hospitals, with similar order and pattern by age group to urban students, despite major differences

  6. Psychosocial and Physical Benefits of Exercise Among Rural Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntwanano Alliance Kubayi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits of physical exercise among secondary school students. Participants in the study were 251 students (120 boys and 131 girls attending three public secondary schools in the Hlanganani rural area of South Africa. A validated questionnaire was used to collect data. Results of this study indicated that students exercised to be with their friends, to be physically attractive and compete with others. The findings of this study have practical implications for promoting participation in physical activity among students in rural schools. In an effort to promote physical activity participation, schools should be provided with quality sports infrastructure and funding so that they can implement school sport programmes. Finally, the teaching of physical education should be emphasised in schools as it is the cornerstone for children’s involvement in physical activity.

  7. Rural School as a Resource for the Intellectual and Labour Potential Formation of the Rural Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasibullov, Ramis R.; Korshunova, Olga V.; Arshabekov, Nurgali R.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem is reasoned by the need to create conceptual grounds of life organization variants in the rural school as a resource of intellectual and labor potential formation of rural society taking into account the socio-economic realities of Russia's development in the beginning of the twenty-first century, as well as…

  8. Strategies to address learner aggression in rural South African secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunam D. Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Managing learner aggression in the school system is central to learners’ academic performance and holistic development. In order to manage learner aggression, it is important to understand the contributory factors and the forms of learner aggression. This article reports on an investigation of factors contributing to learner aggression in rural secondary schools in the Empangeni district of KwaZulu-Natal in order to identify the forms of learner aggression and to establish strategies to manage such aggression in these secondary schools. A qualitative research design was adopted to investigate the phenomenon through an interview process with participants from five rural secondary schools. The findings showed that the factors contributing to learner aggression include family factors, environmental factors and school-related factors whilst the most common forms of learner aggression in schools are verbal aggression, physical aggression and bullying. The article concludes with the role that the school, parents and the Department of Education can play in addressing learner aggression in schools.

  9. Leadership Strategies for Maintaining Success in a Rural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Greta G.; Randolph, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Success in a PK-12 educational environment begins at the top with school leadership. Due to economic problems, poverty and added responsibilities, leaders in rural communities throughout the United States face sensitive and distinctive challenges. Based on research and years of administrative experience as school and school system leaders, the…

  10. Differences in students' mathematics engagement between gender and between rural and urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md.; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Salim, Nur Raidah; Sulaiman, Tajularipin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore secondary school students' mathematics engagement focusing on the cognitive, affective and behavioural engagement domains. A total of 387 students (186 male and 201 female) from the urban and rural secondary schools in Pahang, Malaysia, were randomly selected. There were 158 students from the urban schools and 229 students from the rural schools. Descriptive analyses for mathematics engagement domains revealed behavioural engagement had the highest mean (M = 3.74, SD = .63), followed by cognitive engagement (M = 3.56, SD = .43) and affective engagement (M = 3.48, SD = .47). The mean for students' overall mathematics engagement was 3.56 (SD = .46). Further analyses showed there were significant differences in each of the engagement domains in mathematics learning (affective, cognitive and behavioural), where students in the urban schools showed significantly better in the mean scores for affective, cognitive, behavioural domains and the overall mathematics engagement as compared to the students in the rural schools. Similar findings also showed there were significant differences in the overall mathematics engagement mean between the genders. The findings indicated girls were significantly better than boys in all (affective, cognitive and behavioural) of the engagement domains in mathematics learning. It was also shown girls had higher overall mathematics engagement mean as compared to boys. However, the study also indicated the overall students' mathematics engagement was at a moderate level. Besides, the rural school students did not show high mathematics engagement as compared to the urban school students. Further analyses showed girls significantly had better mathematics engagement as compared to boys. Hence, it is recommended that in order to optimize students' mathematics engagement, they should be actively engaged in more participative learning activities in mathematics classrooms. Focus should be given to rural schools

  11. Rural. The Other Neglected "R": Making Space for Place in School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azano, Amy Price

    2014-01-01

    Rurality is rarely considered or oftentimes completely neglected in conversations about culturally relevant pedagogy. Yet, without a relevant curriculum, students both in and out of rural communities are left with dominant and deficiently positioned narratives about rural people. School librarians must provide counter and critical narratives for…

  12. Beyond the City Lights: A Multiple-Case Study of Successful, Experienced Secondary Science Teachers in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore-Wedding, Beverly R.

    Recruitment and retention concerns for teachers, particularly in rural school districts and in science, fill the daily news and research literature. The shortage of STEM workers is also another concern as well. Then why do nationally recognized secondary science teachers remain in rural schools with lower salaries, increased responsibilities beyond teaching content, and multi-preparations, stay in those schools? How do they overcome challenges in their schools? This multiple case study focuses on Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics and Science Teaching (PAEMST) awardees who have taught secondary science in rural school districts 10 years or more. Eight rural PAEMST high school science teachers were identified in Nebraska and the six contiguous states; four consented to participate in this study. Interviews of these teachers and a colleague, principal, and or students were conducted to answer the research questions. Using a lens of resiliency, similarities were identified that show how these teachers overcome adversity and thrived in their rural school and communities. Resilient themes that emerged from this study are adaptability, autonomy, collaborative, competency, connectedness, problem-solvers, and resourcefulness. Common themes of success for teaching in rural schools for the four teachers were autonomy and relationships. Common themes of challenges for teaching in rural schools were diversity, funding, professional isolation, and teaching assignments. These characteristics and strategies may help schools with their recruitment and retention of teachers as well as teachers themselves benefiting from hearing other teachers' stories of success and longevity.

  13. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  14. School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

  15. Information Needs Assessment for K-12 School Nurses in Rural Eastern Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    School nurses are an often-overlooked population of health care professionals who have great importance in rural communities where access to health care is limited. In order to better serve school nurses in rural eastern Washington, an assessment was conducted to determine their information needs, behaviors, and perceptions. Results indicated this population of school nurses searches for multiple types of health information on a daily basis and navigates obstacles to information access using a variety of resources. While largely confident in their searching ability, they are open to learning more about how to find reliable health information to support their daily responsibilities. These results will guide the development of a workshop for school nurses about using reliable health information resources to improve health care in their rural communities.

  16. Urban-Rural Differences in School Nurses' Asthma Training Needs and Access to Asthma Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson; Roberts, Courtney A; Elio, Alice; Prendergast, Melissa; Durbin, Kathy; Jones, Graceann Clyburn; North, Steve

    Few studies have examined school nurses preferences' for asthma training. Our purpose was to: 1) assess school nurses' perceived asthma training needs, 2) describe nurses' access to asthma educational resources, and 3) identify urban-rural differences in training needs and access to resources in southern states. A convenience sample of school nurses (n=162) from seven counties (two urban and five rural) in North Carolina and South Carolina completed an online, anonymous survey. Chi-square tests were used to examine urban-rural differences. Although most nurses (64%) had received asthma training within the last five years, urban nurses were more likely to have had asthma training than rural nurses (χ 2 =10.84, p=0.001). A majority of nurses (87%) indicated they would like to receive additional asthma training. Approximately half (45%) of nurses reported access to age-appropriate asthma education materials, but only 16% reported that their schools implemented asthma education programs. Urban nurses were more likely than rural nurses to have access to asthma education programs (χ 2 =4.10, p=0.04) and age-appropriate asthma education materials (χ 2 =8.86, p=0.003). Few schools are implementing asthma education programs. Rural nurses may be disadvantaged in terms of receiving asthma training and having access to asthma education programs and materials. Schools are an ideal setting for delivering age-appropriate asthma education. By providing school nurses with access to age-appropriate asthma education resources and additional asthma training, we can help them overcome several of the barriers that impede their ability to deliver asthma care to their students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The One Laptop School: Equipping Rural Elementary Schools in South India Through Public Private Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Jon Byker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a Public Private Partnership (PPP program in South India that provided information and communication technology (ICT to rural elementary schools. The article examined the current status of rural, government-run elementary schools in India by reviewing reports like the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER in India. Challenges like teacher absences, student drop-outs, lack of electricity, lack of separate toilets for genders, and a lack of teaching resources is discussed. To meet these challenges, the article describes the rise in popularity of India’s PPPs. Then the article reports on a case study of a PPP, called the SSA Foundation, which implemented a “one laptop per school” program in rural areas in the Indian States of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Using ethnographic data from field research, the case study includes a description of how the students in a rural Karnataka elementary school use their school’s laptop. The school was situated in a small village where most travel was non-motorized. Walking, usually without shoes, was the main form of transportation. A bicycle was considered a luxury. Most villagers worked in the surrounding ragi and millet fields; laboring, often with only simple tool blades. Wood fires were the main source of fuel for cooking. In this village, the school’s laptop became a prized possession. The case study offers a “thick description” (Geertz, 1973 of how the village school’s students used the laptop for learning basic computing skills and for learning English.

  18. Parents' Attitudes to the Closure of Small Rural Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, A.; Nisbet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes of 134 parents of children from 10 rural schools threatened with closure, and 56 parents of children from seven schools recently closed, were assessed by interview. Most parents opposed closure, and most gave educational reasons for their attitudes. (Author)

  19. Educational Quality Differences in a Middle-Income Country: The Urban-Rural Gap in Malaysian Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Mariam; Muijs, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Shortcomings of educational quality in rural schools remain a key focus in the literature related to developing countries. This paper studies whether rural primary schools in Malaysia, an upper middle-income developing country, are still experiencing lower levels of educational resources, school climate, school leadership, and parental involvement…

  20. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  1. PROFESSIONAL MOBILITY AND COMPETENCE CORRELATION OF RURAL SCHOOLS TEACHERS IN THE CONDITIONS OF EDUCATION MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Gavrilova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article deals with the problem of teacher's professional activity in conditions of education modernization. The subject of analysis is professional mobility and competence correlation of rural schools teachers and the conditions of its formation. The authors’ aim to reveal the concepts of teacher’s "professional mobility", "professional competence" in rural schools and to determine its nature and structure in the changing paradigm of education. Results. The results of this work are that the authors give the definition of teacher’s "professional competence" and "professional mobility" in rural schools; concern teacher’s professional competence as a part of professional mobility in rural schools and suggest the conditions of studying to improve teacher’s professional competence and mobility. Practical implications. The results of the study can be applied in the field of teachers retraining and advanced training in primary and secondary school.

  2. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  3. 76 FR 54196 - Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Public Meeting, Cherokee National Forest Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self Determination Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-393), [as...

  4. Estimating the Efficiency of Michigan's Rural and Urban Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranowski, Rita

    2012-01-01

    This study examined student achievement in Michigan public school districts to determine if rural school districts are demonstrating greater financial efficiency by producing higher levels of student achievement than school districts in other geographic locations with similar socioeconomics. Three models were developed using multiple regression…

  5. Otitis media in indonesian urban and rural school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, Ratna; Hartanto, Widya W; Djelantik, Bulantrisna; Ghanie, Abla; Utama, Denny S; Setiawan, Eka P; Lukman, Erica; Hardiningsih, Chintriany; Asmuni, Suprihati; Budiarti, Rery; Rahardjo, Sutji Pratiwi; Djamin, Riskiana; Mulyani, Tri; Mutyara, Kuswandewi; Carosone-Link, Phyllis; Kartasasmita, Cissy B; Simões, Eric A F

    2014-10-01

    Although the epidemiology of otitis media is well-known in industrialized countries, the extent of otitis media in developing Asian countries, especially in south East Asia is not well studied. To define the burden of otitis media and its sequelae in children 6-15 years of age, we enrolled elementary and junior high school children in 6 areas in rural and urban Indonesia. Randomly selected schools and classrooms were selected. All children were administered a questionnaire and had ear examinations, pneumatic otoscopy and screening audiometry. Children with any abnormality on examination or with a relevant history underwent diagnostic audiometry and tympanometry, if indicated. Of the 7005 children studied, 116 had chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), 30 had acute otitis media and 26 had otitis media with effusion. 2.7% of rural children had CSOM compared with 0.7% of urban children (P < 0.0001). The rates per 1000 of CSOM in rural Bali and Bandung were significantly higher (75 and 25, respectively) than in the rest of Indonesia (P < 0.05). In rural Bali, the rate per 1000 children of inactive CSOM was 63 in 6- to 9-year-old children, compared with 37 in children aged 13-15 years. Concomitantly, the rates of tympanosclerosis were 7 and 26/1000, respectively, in these age groups. In Indonesia, the prevalence of CSOM is relatively high with most disease occurring in rural areas. The high rates in rural Bali with early progression to tympanosclerosis suggest a significant burden of potentially vaccine preventable illness.

  6. [Relationship between nutritional status and school absenteeism among students in rural schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escobar, Gilma; Vargas-Cruz, Sandra L; Ibáñez-Pinilla, Edgar; Matiz-Salazar, María I; Jörgen-Overgaard, Hans

    2015-12-01

    Objective To determine the nutritional status and prevalence of malnutrition and overweight in students in rural schools and their relationship with school absence rates. Methods Descriptive study carried out in 34 rural schools in Anapoima and La Mesa in 2013. A sample of 785 (82.4 %) students was selected by convenience sampling. The inclusion criteria were students registered for the period 2013 in grades 0-5 (ages 5-16) with parental consent and student assent. Weight and height of all subjects were taken. Overall absence rates and illness-related absence rates were recorded. Results 422 pupils were male (53.8 %) and 524 (66.8 %) had between 5-9 years old. A lower than average height for age occurred in 10.1 %(n=79) of the students. The thinness was recorded at 1.75 %(n=13), the overweight at 14.3 %(n=112) and the obesity at 4.5 %(n=45) of the students. The number of absence episodes per child per year due to any reason and due to disease was 5.7 and 1.4, respectively. Stunted growth and overweight students had a significantly higher number of absence days compared to students with adequate nutritional status (p school absence days (both general and illness-related) and stunting and overweight in students.

  7. Exploring rural high school learners' experience of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in ... State using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 17.0. ... to observe its prevalence and to implement strategies toward the alleviation of the ...

  8. Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural community in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, no previous vision screening study among primary schools children ...

  9. Adolescent alcohol use in rural South African high schools | Onya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine psychosocial correlates of lifetime alcohol use among adolescents in rural South African high schools. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 1600 students from 20 randomly selected high schools in the Mankweng district within Limpopo province. Self-report data on alcohol use, demographic, ...

  10. The custodian administered research extract server: "improving the pipeline" in linked data delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitelhuber, Tom; Davis, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    At Western Australia's Data Linkage Branch (DLB) the extraction of linked data has become increasingly complex over the past decade and classical methods of data delivery are unsuited to the larger extractions which have become the norm. The Custodian Administered Research Extract Server (CARES) is a fast, accurate and predictable approach to linked data extraction. The Data Linkage Branch (DLB) creates linkage keys within and between datasets. To comply with the separation principal, these keys are sent to applicable data collection agencies for extraction. Routing requests through multiple channels is inefficient and makes it hard to monitor work and predict delivery times. CARES was developed to address these shortcomings and involved ongoing consultation with the Custodians and staff of collections, plus challenges of hardware, programming, governance and security. The introduction of CARES has reduced the workload burden of linked data extractions, while improving the efficiency, stability and predictability of turnaround times. As the scope of a linkage system broadens, challenges in data delivery are inevitable. CARES overcomes multiple obstacles with no sacrifice to the integrity, confidentiality or security of data. CARES is a valuable component of linkage infrastructure that is operable at any scale and adaptable to many data environments.

  11. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  12. A Case Study of a Rural Iowa School Preparing to Meet New State Guidelines for School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Karla Steege

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative case study highlighting one rural Iowa elementary school provided insight into the issue of small schools without library programs as they are preparing to meet the Iowa reinstatement of the requirement for school library programs. The site was purposefully chosen because it has been operating without a school library program or…

  13. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Urban and Rural Low-Socioeconomic Status Tennessee Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    Comparing a small, rural school with sometimes less than 100 students to a massive inner-city school with greater than 2,500 students is crude and untenable. There are simply too many variables. Nonetheless, the No Child Left Behind Act treats these two very different schools the same. When urban and rural schools cannot meet AYP or highly…

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural area close to the southeast of Lake Langano, Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Methods: In April 2003, fresh stool samples were collected from 259 students enrolled in two primary schools located in southeast of Lake Langano.

  15. Management of School Infrastructure in the Context of a No-Fee Schools Policy in Rural South African Schools: Lessons from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishane, Ramodikoe Nylon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the management of school infrastructure in the context of the "no-fee schools" policy introduced in the South African education delivery system. Focusing on four rural schools, the study applied a qualitative method, which involved observation of infrastructure conditions prevailing at four selected schools and…

  16. A Matter of Money? Policy Analysis of Rural Boarding Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government has shifted the pattern of rural schooling over the past decade, replacing village schools with urban boarding schools. The stated goal is to improve school quality, while deploying resources more effectively. However, the new boarding schools fail to provide a safe, healthy environment or protect and enable students' human…

  17. The Sensitivity of Primary School Enrollment to the Cost of Post-Primary Schooling in Rural Pakistan: A Gender Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Gautam

    2001-01-01

    Examines gender differences in the sensitivity of primary-school enrollment to the costs of postprimary schooling in rural Pakistan. Finds that distance from primary school is a significant determinant of female primary-school enrollment and distance from middle school is a significant determinant of male primary-school enrollment. Suggests…

  18. Improving Immunization Coverage in a Rural School District in Pierce County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…

  19. A study on acceptance of mobileschool at secondary schools in Malaysia: Urban vs rural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Ahmad Sobri; Ahmad, Wan Fatimah Wan; Sarlan, Aliza

    2017-10-01

    Developing countries are in dilemma where sophisticated technologies are more advance as compared to the way their people think. In education, there have been many novel approaches and technologies were introduced. However, very minimal efforts were put to apply in our education. MobileSchool is a mobile learning (m-learning) management system, developed for administrative, teaching and learning processes at secondary schools in Malaysia. The paper presents the acceptance of MobileSchool between urban and rural secondary schools in Malaysia. Research framework was designed based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The constructs of the framework include computer anxiety, self-efficacy, facilitating condition, technological complexity, perceived behavioral control, perceive ease of use, perceive usefulness, attitude and behavioral intention. Questionnaire was applied as research instrument which involved 373 students from four secondary schools (two schools in urban category and another two in rural category) in Perak. Inferential analyses using hypothesis and t-test, and descriptive analyses using mean and percentage were used to analyze the data. Results showed that there were no big difference (acceptance constructs between urban and rural secondary schools except computer anxiety.

  20. "Somebodies, They Broke My Castle for Notheen": Lessons from Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Penny

    1998-01-01

    Using memoirs from early- and mid-20th century rural teachers, the paper challenges assumptions that public education needs a new, more sophisticated foundation, describing the positive qualities of early rural schools and teachers and recommending the introduction of place-consciousness into teacher education so teachers can realize the power of…

  1. An evaluation of the role of rural primary school teachers in community development tasks in southern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ngalam, Jabi Jack

    1987-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of rural primary school teachers in community development activities within an integrated rural education centres project (IRECs) in southern Sudan. The study explores five areas of importance for an extended teacher's role in rural areas: (i) the school or community environment, (ii) community perception of the teacher's role and its expectations of the school, (iii) teachers' perception of their own role in the community, (iv) teachers' ...

  2. Built environment predictors of active travel to school among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Gibson, Lucinda; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Swain, Karin; Xie, Haiyi; Owens, Peter M

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of active travel to school (ATS) have been conducted in urban or suburban areas and focused on young children. Little is known about ATS among rural adolescents. To describe adolescent ATS in two predominantly rural states and determine if school neighborhood built environment characteristics (BECs) predict ATS after adjusting for school and individual characteristics. Sixteen BECs were assessed through census data and onsite observations of 45 school neighborhoods in 2007. ATS and individual characteristics were assessed through telephone surveys with 1552 adolescents and their parents between 2007 and 2008. Active travelers were defined as those who walked/cycled to/from school ≥1 day/week. Hierarchic linear modeling was used for analysis, conducted in 2009. Slightly less than half (n=735) of the sample lived within 3 miles of school, of whom 388 (52.8%) were active travelers. ATS frequency varied by season, ranging from a mean of 1.7 (SD=2.0) days/week in the winter to 3.7 (SD=1.6) in the spring. Adolescents who attended schools in highly dense residential neighborhoods with sidewalks were most likely to be active travelers. ATS frequency was greater in school neighborhoods with high residential and intersection densities, on-street parking, food outlets, and taller and continuous buildings with small setbacks. The BECs that support safe travel may be necessary to allow for ATS, whereas ATS frequency among adolescents may be influenced by a wider variety of design characteristics. Additional strategies to promote ATS and physical activity are needed in rural areas because of long commuting distances for many students. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Leading Change for the Implementation of Common Core State Standards in Rural School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Paul; Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Rural school districts across the nation, with their limited resources, face daunting challenges posed by the implementation of the Common Core State Standards. This article presents a recent study of 13 rural school districts in the Central Valley of California and how these districts are responding to those challenges. A total of 352 teachers…

  4. Risk Factors of Anaemia Among Rural School Children in Kenitra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. Methods: 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was ...

  5. Female Sport Participation In South African Rural Schools: Analysis Of Socio-Cultural Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubayi Ntwanano Alliance

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine constraints to sport participation among female secondary school students in Hlanganani rural area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 101 female students aged 17–24 years from four secondary schools were recruited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results indicated that the dress code, lack of energy, lack of family support and family commitment were identified as major constraints to sport participation among female students. The results of this study provide practical implications for promoting and developing female sports programmes in rural schools. This study suggests that stakeholders such as parents, peers, and teachers should motivate and encourage female students to participate in school sport. Additionally, the study recommended that in order to promote sport participation in rural areas, the values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and customs that restrict females from participating in sport and physical activity should be dissented.

  6. Australia's rural medical workforce: Supply from its medical schools against career stage, gender and rural-origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah J

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between career stage and rural medical workforce supply among Australian-trained medical graduates. Descriptive analysis using the national Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) longitudinal study. Australian-trained GPs and other specialists who participated in the MABEL study, 2008-2013. Proportions of GPs and specialists working in rural locations, according to career stage (establishing, early, mid and late), gender and childhood-origin type (rural versus metropolitan). Logistic regression models revealed that establishing- and early-career GPs had significantly higher likelihood (OR 1.67 and 1.38, respectively) of working rurally, but establishing and early-career doctors were significantly less likely (OR 0.34 and 0.43, respectively) to choose general practice, contributing proportionally fewer rural GPs overall (OR 0.77 and 0.75, respectively) compared to late-career doctors. For specialists, there were no significant associations between career cohorts and rural practice. Overall, there was a significantly lower likelihood (OR 0.83) of establishing-career doctors practising rurally. Women were similarly likely to be rural GPs but less likely to be rural specialists, while rural-origin was consistently associated with higher odds of rural practice. The supply of Australia's rural medical workforce from its medical schools continues to be challenging, with these data highlighting both their source and associations with doctors at different career stages. Despite large investments through rural medical training and rural workforce recruitment and retention policies, these data confirm continued reliance on internationally trained medical graduates for large proportions of rural supply is likely. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. Supervision of Special Education Instruction in Rural Public School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, Debora Ann

    2001-01-01

    The grounded theory presented in this study describes how the supervision of special education instruction occurs in public elementary schools in rural settings. Grounded theory methodology (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) was employed in this study. Nine elementary schools in three rural districts in the state of Virginia participated in the study. Interview data were collected from 34 participants, including special and general education teachers, principals, and directors of special education. Obs...

  8. Evolutionary Approach of Virtual Communities of Practice: A Reflection within a Network of Spanish Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Frédérique; Trifonova, Anna; Barajas Frutos, Mario

    The isolation of rural communities creates special necessities for teachers and students in rural schools. The present article describes "Rural Virtual School", a Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP) in which Spanish teachers of rural schools share learning resources and teaching methodologies through social software applications. The article arrives to an evolutionary model, in which the use of the social software tools evolves together with the needs and the activities of the VCoP through the different stages of its lifetime. Currently, the community has reached a high level of maturity and, in order to keep its momentum, the members intentionally use appropriate technologies specially designed to enhance rich innovative educational approaches, through which they collaboratively generate creative practices.

  9. Factors affecting school completion by the girl child in Binga Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the plausible increase in the enrolment rate of girls, progress in education among rural girls at global, regional and local level has been impeded by high influx of school dropouts. The objectives of the study were to assess factors that prohibit girls from completing their formal education in Binga rural district in ...

  10. Rural Revitalization in New Mexico: A Grass Roots Initiative Involving School and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzel, Gerald R.; Benavidez, Alicia C.; Bianchi, Barbara C.; Croom, Linda L.; de la Riva, Brandy R.; Grein, Donna L.; Holloway, James E.; Rendon, Andrew T.

    2007-01-01

    The Rural Education Bureau of the New Mexico Public Education Department has established a program to address the special needs of schools and communities in the extensive rural areas of the state. High poverty rates, depopulation and a general lack of viable economic opportunity have marked rural New Mexico for decades. The program underway aims…

  11. How rural and urban parents describe convenience in the context of school-based influenza vaccination: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Candace; Russell, Margaret L; Collins, Ramona; MacDonald, Judy; Frank, Christine J; Davis, Amy E

    2015-01-22

    Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among school-age children has been low, particularly among rural children, even in jurisdictions in Canada where this immunization is publicly funded. Providing this vaccination at school may be convenient for parents and might contribute to increased vaccine uptake, particularly among rural children. We explore the construct of convenience as an advantage of school based influenza vaccination. We also explore for rural urban differences in this construct. Participants were parents of school-aged children from Alberta, Canada. We qualitatively analyzed focus group data from rural parents using a thematic template that emerged from prior work with urban parents. Both groups of parents had participated in focus groups to explore their perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools. Data from within the theme of 'convenience' from both rural and urban parents were then further explored for sub-themes within convenience. Data were obtained from nine rural and nine urban focus groups. The template of themes that had arisen from prior analysis of the urban data applied to the rural data. Convenience was a third level theme under Advantages. Five fourth level themes emerged from within convenience. Four of the five sub-themes were common to both rural and urban participants: reduction of parental burden to schedule, reduction in parental lost time, decrease in parental stress and increase in physical access points for influenza immunization. The fifth subtheme, increases temporal access to influenza immunization, emerged uniquely from the rural data. Both rural and urban parents perceived that convenience would be an advantage of adding an annual influenza immunization to the vaccinations currently given to Alberta children at school. Improving temporal access to such immunization may be a more relevant aspect of convenience to rural

  12. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases.

  13. A Narrative Inquiry into Rural School Leadership in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    This article attends to rural school leadership in two South African schools through the lens of the concepts of relational leadership and emotional labour. The inquiry draws on five years of guided conversations and observations that speak to leadership experiences of hope and anticipation as well as despair and disillusionment. I worked with one…

  14. Putting Foucault to Work: Understanding Power in a Rural School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freie, Carrie; Eppley, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This case study uses the work of Michel Foucault to challenge the normalization of the principal's role and to examine the complex power relations of a rural school and community in the midst of a closure/consolidation and subsequent reopening as a charter school. In so doing, we move beyond analysis of best practices and toward a more theoretical…

  15. Cultural Congruence and Unbalanced Power between Home and School in Rural Ghana and the Impact on School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masko, Amy L.; Bosiwah, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines the cultural congruence between home and school in rural Ghana, exploring the cultural norms of child-rearing practices within families and the institution of schooling. The data illustrate both the agreement between home and school in regard to discipline practices and instruction in morality, while…

  16. Equity for Rural School Districts: The Final Report of the Countryside Council's School Finance Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Steve

    Soaring values of agricultural land have created inequities in funding between urban and rural school districts in Minnesota. The state's Foundation Aid to school districts is formulated so that districts of high property valuation receive less Foundation Aid than those districts with low property valuation. In recent years inflation has had…

  17. Enhancing the Motivation for Rural Career: The Collaboration between the Local Government and Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguchi, Masaru; Furuta, Noriko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Kouji; Hori, Hiroki; Okuno, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    The shortage of medical workforce in rural areas is a global long-standing problem. Due to the severity of shortages in the medical workforce, Mie prefectural government has collaborated with a medical school and the municipal governments to increase the rural medical workforce. Since 2010, this collaboration has led to an annual lecture series on rural practice for medical students. We distributed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the lecture series to examine the effect of this program. The questionnaire consisted of two parts that included an understanding of rural practice and the motivation to work in rural areas. The lecture series significantly improved the responses to the following questions "Rural practice is interesting" (p motivation of medical students and their interest in a rural career. While collaboration between the local government and medical school rarely occurs in planning medical education programs, this approach may offer a promising way to foster local health professionals.

  18. The Causes of Dropout in Rural Primary Schools in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    谷口, 京子

    2017-01-01

    High dropout rates is a critical issue in most of developing countries. Malawi follows this trend of student nonpersistence; in 2013, the primary school dropout rate was approximately 12.2%.This study aims to find the causes of dropout in rural Malawian primary schools. There are two features: data were collected through survival analysis, which has been used to study dropout in developed countries; a multilevel logistic regression was used to classify individual, family, teacher and school f...

  19. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban, suburban, exurban and rural primary school children in Indonesian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Tri Mahayana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Uncorrected refractive error (URE is a major health problem among school children. This study was aimed to determine the frequency and patterns of URE across 4 gradients of residential densities (urban, exurban, suburban and rural. This was a cross-sectional study of school children from 3 districts in Yogyakarta and 1 district near Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The information regarding age, sex, school and school grader were recorded. The Snellen’s chart was used to measure the visual acuity and to perform the subjective refraction. The district was then divided into urban, suburban, exurban and rural area based on their location and population. In total, 410 school children were included in the analyses (urban=79, exurban=73, suburban=160 and rural=98 school children. Urban school children revealed the worst visual acuity (P<0.001 and it was significant when compared with exurban and rural. The proportion of URE among urban, suburban, exurban and rural area were 10.1%, 12.3%, 3.8%, and 1%, respectively, and it was significant when compared to the proportion of ametropia and corrected refractive error across residential densities (P=0.003. The risk of URE development in urban, suburban, exurban, and rural were 2.218 (95%CI: 0.914-5.385, 3.019 (95%CI: 1.266-7.197, 0.502 (95%CI: 0.195-1.293, and 0.130 (95%CI:0.017-0.972, respectively. Urban school children showed the worst visual acuity. The school children in urban and suburban residential area had 2 and 3 times higher risk of developing the URE.

  20. A View of Rural Schooling through the Eyes of Former Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Mercedes Suarez; DePalma, Renee; Membiela, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Teachers who attended unitary rural schools in northwestern Spain were asked to relate their early school experiences in the form of a personal reflective and analytical narrative. Our analysis of these narratives revealed some strikingly difficult conditions; nevertheless, students tended to relate these hardships with a strong sense of…

  1. Universal Prevention Program Outcomes: Safe Schools Healthy Students in a Rural, Multicultural Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elizabeth; McFarland, Joyce; Siebold, Wendi; Aguilar, Rafael; Sarmiento, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho Consortium for Safe Schools Healthy Students consists of three school districts in rural North Central Idaho and the Nez Perce Tribe's Students for Success Program. Universal prevention programs implemented in the elementary schools include Second Step and the middle schools implemented the Life Skills program. Each of the three…

  2. Predictors of Summer Sun Safety Practice Intentions among Rural High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunyi; Sands, Laura P.; Wilson, Kari M.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the association between theoretically grounded psychosocial motivators and the sun safety practice intentions of rural youth. Method: A survey was given to 219 members of FFA (Future Farmers of America) at high schools in the rural Midwest (average age = 16). Results: Perceived self-efficacy, peer norms, response efficacy, and…

  3. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF THEIR ROLE IN TRANSFORMING RURAL AND TONSHIP SCHOOLS: A DISTRIBUTED LEADERSHIP ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mafora

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in South Africa suggest that the social, material and curriculartransformation espoused in post-apartheid legislation and education policies donot always translate into implementation in schools. This article reports on aqualitative multi case study on transformative leadership in township schools anda follow up study in rural schools. The article isrestricted to three rural and threetownship secondary schools regarding the question:how do teachers perceive andexperience their role in school transformation. Semi-structured focus groupinterviews and phenomenological steps were the basis for data collection andanalysis, respectively. Findings suggests that while teachers query their limitedinvolvement in school transformation initiatives, and question the concentration ofdecision-making power regarding transformation issues on school management,they are equally reluctant to take additional non-teaching responsibilities.Perceived contextual barriers to teacher involvement in rural and township schooltransformation are outlined.

  4. Exploring rural high school learners' experience of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    times, often, or always experience mathematics anxiety in academic settings. It is therefore ... South African Journal of Education, Volume 32(3), August 2012 in education and ... This study was conducted in rural school settings owing to the reality that I face as ..... European Journal of Social Sciences, 16:75-86. Leppavirta J ...

  5. Child Marriage, Agency, and Schooling in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin; Leal, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationships between child marriage, agency, and schooling in rural Honduras. Through an in-depth qualitative case study, we address the following questions: (1) In what ways, if any, do girls exercise agency in their decision to marry? (2) How might education enhance girls' agency, expanding their choice sets and…

  6. The influence of rural clinical school experiences on medical students' levels of interest in rural careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Watts, Lisa; Forster, Lesley; McLachlan, Craig S

    2014-08-28

    Australian Rural Clinical School (RCS) programmes have been designed to create experiences that positively influence graduates to choose rural medical careers. Rural career intent is a categorical evaluation measure and has been used to assess the Australian RCS model. Predictors for rural medical career intent have been associated with extrinsic values such as students with a rural background. Intrinsic values such as personal interest have not been assessed with respect to rural career intent. In psychology, a predictor of the motivation or emotion for a specific career or career location is the level of interest. Our primary aims are to model over one year of Australian RCS training, change in self-reported interest for future rural career intent. Secondary aims are to model student factors associated with rural career intent while attending an RCS. The study participants were medical students enrolled in a RCS in the year 2013 at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) and who completed the newly developed self-administered UNSW Undergraduate Destinations Study (UDS) questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline and after one year of RCS training on preferred location for internship, work and intended specialty. Interest for graduate practice location (career intent) was assessed on a five-variable Likert scale at both baseline and at follow-up. A total of 165 students completed the UDS at baseline and 150 students after 1 year of follow-up. Factors associated with intent to practise in a rural location were rural background (χ2 = 28.4, P influence practice intent (toward rural practice) and interest levels (toward greater interest in rural practice).

  7. Teachers' knowledge and attitudes towards seizure disorder: a comparative study of urban and rural school teachers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, M U; Ikpeme, E E; Utuk, E-Oe

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge and attitude of school teachers with regard to seizure disorder has an important impact on continuation of schooling of children with seizure disorder. Though school teachers in both rural and urban settings are exposed to the same training, their perception of seizure disorder could be influenced by the environment in which they reside. To determine the knowledge and attitudes of school teachers towards children with seizure disorder, and the influence of urban residence on perception of seizure disorder by the teachers. A self-administered questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes to seizure disorder were filled by school teachers drawn from both urban and rural settings in Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. One-hundred and thirty-two urban school teachers and an equal number of their rural counterparts completed the questionnaire. There were significantly more female teachers in the urban schools whereas the rural schools were dominated by male teachers with male to female ratio of 1:5.6 and 1.2:1, respectively. Majority of the urban (60.6%) and rural (57.6%) school teachers were National Certificate of Education holders. Thirty-eight (28.8%) of urban respondents versus eight (6.1%) of rural respondents thought seizure disorder was caused by evil spirits whereas 60 (45.5%) urban respondents compared to 80 (60.6%) of rural respondents felt seizure disorder was infectious. Majority of the respondents from both urban and rural schools (68.2% and 63.6% respectively) believed that the foam from the mouth of a convulsing child with seizure disorder is the infecting agent. However, 62.1% of urban respondents as well as 45.5% of rural respondents would advise that children with seizure disorder be admitted into special schools. There was no significant difference in the mean overall knowledge and attitudes of school teachers to seizure disorder in the two settings ( P = 0.33 for knowledge and 0.28 for attitudes). Teachers' high level of education however, had a positive

  8. Confronting Challenges at the Intersection of Rurality, Place, and Teacher Preparation: Improving Efforts in Teacher Education to Staff Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azano, Amy Price; Stewart, Trevor Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to…

  9. Using a Strategic Plan to Promote Technology in Rural School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSciver, James H.

    1994-01-01

    About six years ago, a rural Delaware school district formed a community/staff long-range planning committee to craft a strategic plan that would identify school system values and reallocate resources. As vision and mission statements emerged, technology evolved as a major value, with three goals related to funding and accessibility. Collaborative…

  10. Dimensions Of Basic School Dropouts In Rural Ghana: The Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the various dimensions of basic school dropouts in rural Ghana using the Asutifi district as a case study. The analysis of data (both quantitative and qualitative) gathered from several stakeholders of basic education in the district, revealed that the causes of school dropout were ...

  11. Establishing a Rural School Counseling Agenda: A Multiagency Needs-Assessment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braucht, Stephanie; Weime, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Developed creative approach to conduct needs assessment in rural schools that involved sending questionnaires to 49 key informants and 145 high school students. Key informants and students agreed that the 2 most serious issues were alcohol-related problems and family dysfunction (violence, divorce). Both groups indicated need for a teen center;…

  12. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-02-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3 rd to 7 th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher's teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed.

  13. Engaging Rural Appalachian High School Girls in College Science Laboratories to Foster STEM-Related Career Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Louise Kelly

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Setting students on a path to success in careers in science is a challenge in poor rural Appalachian public schools. Students face many socioeconomic obstacles. Their teachers are also limited by many factors including inadequate facilities, under-funding, geographical isolation of the schools, and state-testing constraints. Additionally, students and teachers lack the availability of outside science educational opportunities. In an effort to address this situation, 24 academically strong high school junior girls and their teachers from the Carter County School System in rural east Tennessee were invited for a laboratory day at Milligan College, a small liberal arts college in the heart of the county. Science faculty, female science majors, and admissions staff volunteered in service to the project. The event included three laboratory sessions, lunch in the college cafeteria, and campus tours. This successful example, as evidenced by positive evaluations by the invited girls and their teachers, of educational outreach by a local, small liberal arts college to a rural county school system provides a model for establishing a relationship between higher education institutions and these underprivileged schools, with the intention of drawing more of these poor, rural Appalachian students, particularly girls, into a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM career path.

  14. Transformational Leadership: A Qualitative Study of Rural Elementary Schools in Fresno County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Principal leadership is crucial to improving school effectiveness and positively affecting organizational culture in the midst of expectations from education reform mandates. Principals who provide direction and exercise influence can inspire commitment from organizational members to attain shared goals. Rural school principals face unique…

  15. Does rural generalist focused medical school and family medicine training make a difference? Memorial University of Newfoundland outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, James; Asghari, Shabnam; Hurley, Oliver; Ravalia, Mohamed; Jong, Michael; Graham, Wendy; Parsons, Wanda; Duggan, Norah; O'Keefe, Danielle; Moffatt, Scott; Stringer, Katherine; Sturge Sparkes, Carolyn; Hippe, Janelle; Harris Walsh, Kristin; McKay, Donald; Samarasena, Asoka

    2018-03-01

    Rural recruitment and retention of physicians is a global issue. The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, was established as a rural-focused medical school with a social accountability mandate that aimed to meet the healthcare needs of a sparse population distributed over a large landmass as well as the needs of other rural and remote areas of Canada. This study aimed to assess whether Memorial medical degree (MD) and postgraduate (PG) programs were effective at producing physicians for their province and rural physicians for Canada compared with other Canadian medical schools. This retrospective cohort study included medical school graduates who completed their PG training between 2004 and 2013 in Canada. Practice locations of study subjects were georeferenced and assigned to three geographic classes: Large Urban; Small City/Town; and Rural. Analyses were performed at two levels. (1) Provincial level analysis compared Memorial PG graduates practicing where they received their MD and/or PG training with other medical schools who are the only medical school in their province (n=4). (2) National-level analysis compared Memorial PG graduates practicing in rural Canada with all other Canadian medical schools (n=16). Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Overall, 18 766 physicians practicing in Canada completed Canadian PG training (2004-2013), and of those, 8091 (43%) completed Family Medicine (FM) training. Of all physicians completing Canadian PG training, 1254 (7%) physicians were practicing rurally and of those, 1076 were family physicians. There were 379 Memorial PG graduates and of those, 208 (55%) completed FM training and 72 (19%) were practicing rurally, and of those practicing rurally, 56 were family physicians. At the national level, the percentage of all Memorial PG graduates (19.0%) and FM PG graduates (26.9%) practicing rurally was significantly better than the national average for PG (6.4%, p<0.000) and FM (12

  16. Place Attachment and Place Disruption: The Perceptions of Selected Adults and High School Students on a Rural School District Reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Regi Leann

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with adult residents and high school students in two rural Kansas communities that had consolidated their high schools found that adults in the community that lost its high school had more negative reactions and feelings of loss than adults in the community that retained its high school. Student reactions were generally positive.…

  17. Women's decision-making autonomy and children's schooling in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Luciana; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-03-24

    Women's decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women's autonomy and children's schooling. To examine the relationship between rural women's decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child's gender. The analysis uses data from a 2009 survey of rural households in four districts of Gaza province in southern Mozambique. Multilevel logistic models predict the probability of being in school for children between 6 and 14 years old. The results show a positive association of women's decision-making autonomy with the probability of being enrolled in primary school for daughters, but not for sons. The effect of women's autonomy is net of other women's characteristics typically associated with enrollment and does not mediate the effects of those characteristics. Based on the results, we argue that women with higher levels of decision-making autonomy may have a stronger preference for daughters' schooling and may have a greater say in making and implementing decisions regarding daughters' education, compared to women with lower autonomy levels. Results also illustrate a need for considering a broader set of autonomy-related characteristics when examining the effects of women's status on children's educational outcomes.

  18. Why Rural Community Day Secondary Schools Students' Performance in Physical Science Examinations Is Poor in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlangeni, Angstone Noel J. Thembachako; Chiotha, Sosten Staphael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate factors that affect students' poor performance in physical science examinations at Malawi School Certificate of Education and Junior Certificate of Education levels in Community day secondary schools (CDSS) in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi. Students' performance was collected from schools'…

  19. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Primary School Children in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...

  20. High Stakes Testing and Its Impact on Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, V. Pauline

    2002-01-01

    The movement to standardization and high-stakes testing has been driven by ideological and political concerns and has adversely affected teaching/learning, democratic discourse, and educational equity. Rural schools are hit harder because of geographic isolation and insufficient staff and resources. Testing used for purposes other than measuring…

  1. James Cook University's rurally orientated medical school selection process: quality graduates and positive workforce outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Robin A; Woolley, Torres; Sen Gupta, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    The regionally based James Cook University (JCU) College of Medicine and Dentistry aims to meet its mission to address the health needs of the region by using a selection policy favouring rural origin applicants and providing students with early and repeated exposure to rural experiences during training. This study seeks to determine if the JCU medical school's policy of preferentially selecting rural and remote background students is associated with differing patterns of undergraduate performance or graduate practice location. Data at application to medical school and during the undergraduate years was retrieved from administrative databases held by the university and the medical school. Postgraduate location data were obtained either from personal contact via email, telephone or Facebook or electronically from the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Authority website. Practice location was described across Australian Standard Geographical Classification Remoteness Area (ASGC-RA) categories, with 1 being a major city and 5 being a very remote location. The 856 Australian-based students accepted into the JCU medical program between 2000 and 2008 came from all geographical regions across Australia: 20% metropolitan (ASGC-RA 1), 20% inner regional (ASGC-RA 2), 56% outer regional (ASGC-RA 3), and 5% from remote or very remote locations (ASGC-RA 4 and 5). Having a rural or remote hometown at application (ASGC-RA 3-5) was significantly associated with a lower tertiary entrance score (pacademic achievement across years 1 to 3 (p=0.002, p=0.005 and p=0.025, respectively). Graduates having either a rural or a remote home town at application were more likely to practise in rural (RA 3-5) towns than graduates from metropolitan/inner regional centre across all postgraduate years. For example, the prevalence odds ratios (POR) for graduates practising in a rural town at postgraduate year 1 (PGY 1) having either a rural or remote hometown were 2.6 and 1.8, respectively

  2. Cultural context of school communities in rural Hawaii to inform youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Dyanne D; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y; Archambeau, Olga G; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N; Frueh, B Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward school-based youth violence prevention program development. Eight focus groups involving 86 community stakeholders included 51 adults (parent, teachers, school staff, community leaders) and 35 children aged 8-15 years old (3rd- to 10-th grade). Qualitative narrative analysis elicited major themes. Five themes emerged: (1) School-community violence takes on many forms that become entrenched in local culture. (2) Disintegration of community resources and a sense of learned helplessness underlie the escalation of youth violence. (3) Inadequate role modeling coupled with behavioral ambivalence among adults has sustained a climate of local cultural acceptance with youth violence. (4) Connection to cultural values has diminished, leading to a sense of loss in cultural identity among students. (5) Cultural values and practices are potential strategies for youth violence prevention. Cultural and community contextual factors contributed to youth violence in rural Hawaiian communities. Study implications include the need to further investigate the impact of vigilant, community involvement of stakeholders in school-based youth violence prevention program development. Cultural revitalization at family, school, and community levels may be critical success factors of such programs.

  3. Problematizing the Relationship between Rural Small Schools and Communities: Implications for Youth Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Small schools are often the hub of many rural communities. In the school space, a multiplicity of social, economic and political relationships are sustained, which enhance the vitality of the community. As such, the relationship between small schools and communities is often presented as a powerful one; however, too often as a harmonious, natural…

  4. Community perceptions of a rural medical school: a pilot qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestel D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school. Methods: An advertisement in the local newspaper invited volunteers to participate in a telephone interview about the new medical school. An independent researcher external to the medical school conducted the interviews using a topic guide. Audio recordings were not made, but detailed notes including verbatim statements were recorded. At least two research team members analyzed interview records for emergent themes. Human research ethics approval was obtained. Results: Twelve interviews were conducted. Participants offered rich imaginings on the role of the school and expectations and opportunities for students. Most participants expressed strong and positive views, especially in addressing long-term health workforce issues. It was considered important that students live, mix, and study in the community. Some participants had very clear ideas about the need of the school to address specified needs, such as indigenous health, obesity, aging, drug and alcohol problems, teenage pregnancy, ethnic diversity, and working with people of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study has initiated a dialogue with potential

  5. Cultural Context of School Communities in Rural Hawaii to Inform Youth Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Dyanne D.; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y.; Archambeau, Olga G.; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward…

  6. Narratives of Resilience among Learners in a Rural Primary School in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsa, Ncamsile Daphne; Morojele, Pholoho Justice

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the concepts of social constructionism, the article provides insights on how six purposively sampled Grade 6 vulnerable children, aged between 11-15, from poverty-stricken families, child-headed households and those allegedly orphaned by AIDS, resiliently navigated their schooling spaces and places in one rural, primary school in…

  7. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with…

  8. Can Peru's Rural Schools Be Agents for Quechua Language Maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1989-01-01

    Draws on sociolinguistic literature and on an ethnographic study of language use and bilingual education in Quechua-speaking rural communities of Puno. Consider the roles of both language planning and the schools in achieving language maintenance for Quechua. (35 references) (Author/CB)

  9. PROFESSIONAL MOBILITY AND COMPETENCE CORRELATION OF RURAL SCHOOLS TEACHERS IN THE CONDITIONS OF EDUCATION MODERNIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Vladimirovna Gavrilova; Elena Aleksandrovna Zakharova

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The article deals with the problem of teacher's professional activity in conditions of education modernization. The subject of analysis is professional mobility and competence correlation of rural schools teachers and the conditions of its formation. The authors’ aim to reveal the concepts of teacher’s "professional mobility", "professional competence" in rural schools and to determine its nature and structure in the changing paradigm of education. Results. The results of this wo...

  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Safety at School and Their Solutions for Enhancing Safety and Reducing School Violence: A Rural Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    An exploratory study of a small rural high school in upstate New York investigated students' perceptions of safety at school and empowered students to develop solutions to school violence. A mixed-methods approach drew on action research, youth-based phenomenology, and a general systems frame of reference. Data collection included two surveys of…

  11. Sexuality Education in Rural Lesotho Schools: Challenges and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khau, Mathabo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the obstacles to effective sexuality education in rural Lesotho schools and offer some suggestions that could facilitate positive change in the current status of sexuality education. The call for education as a "vaccine" against new HIV infections places teachers at the forefront of…

  12. English Cooperative Learning Mode in a Rural Junior High School in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Peng, Wen; Sun, Liuhua

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative learning is one of the most recognized and fruitful research areas in modern education practice. It has been widely used in many countries as an effective teaching strategy to improve class efficiency and students' comprehensive language ability since the 1990's. This paper takes JA Junior High School, a rural junior high school in…

  13. Study Of Diet And Nutritional Status Of School Going Rural Adolescent Boys In Allahabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Bali

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of malnutrition among school going rural adolescent boys?Objective: To assess the diet and nutritional status of school going rural adolescent boys.Study design: Cross sectional study.Setting: Rural Intermediate Colleges.Participants: 660 study subjects (adolescents boys. 10-19 years, of classes 6th to 12th from 8 rural intermediate colleges in two blocks of Allahabad.Study period: One year (From April 2002 to May 2003.Statistical Analysis: Chi square lestResults: Overall mean height. BM1 and Haemoglobin level of adolescents were 1 56.97+9.84cm. 18.59+2.20 kg/m2 and 12.12+1.31 gm/dl respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition in terms of Stunting (24.1 % Thinness (10.5% and Overweight (1.4% was observ ed. Maximum calorie deficit was seen in thirteen-year-old boys, it was 42.5% below the RDA and minimum deficit (25.7% was observed among nineteen-year-old boys. Overall mean caloric deficit among 10 to 19 years’ adolescents was 839.57 Kcal/day. Prevalence of anaemia was observed in 371(56.3% adolescent boys. Prevalence of Vit. A deficiency. Vitamin B - complex and Vitamin C deficiency were found to be 3.5%. 25.3% and 6.8% respectively.Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going adolescent boys in rural areas of Allahabad is not satisfactory and there is a strong need for a programme especially for adolescent boys to fulfill their nutritional needs.

  14. An Exploration and Analysis of the Modes of Rural School Consolidation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyong, Jia; Fenfen, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Based on research involving 177 primary and secondary schools spread over thirty-eight counties in six provinces (including one autonomous region), this article explores and analyzes four modes used in rural school consolidation in China. These four modes are: complete amalgamation, annexation, crossover, and centralization-decentralization.

  15. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and ...

  16. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Mosome

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng. Research design and method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was ‘What are the adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?’ Data were analysed by means of open coding. Results: The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.

  17. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  18. Managing Decline in Rural School Systems: Program Organization and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackney, L. E.

    Organizational theory offers rural school administrators several ways of thinking about retrenchment made necessary by declining enrollment. Obstacles to innovative responses to retrenchment include a shift in how organizations are perceived: from closed systems in which rational decisions are made about changes, to open systems in which…

  19. Leading the Small Rural School in Iceland and Australia: Building Leadership Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Siguräardóttir, Sigríäur Margrét; Faulkner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on a set of Australian case studies exploring the impact of Place on the work of principals and of the importance of Place in the preparation and development of principals. The project compares the ways that principals in Iceland and Australia build leadership capacity in small rural schools. Leaders of small schools in both…

  20. A program to enhance k-12 science education in ten rural New York school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, E; Visco, R; Pollock, P

    1999-04-01

    The Rural Partnership for Science Education, designed by educators and scientists in 1991 with funding from the National Institutes of Health, works in two rural New York State counties with students and their teachers from kindergarten through grade 12 to improve pre-college science education. The Partnership is an alliance among ten rural New York school districts and several New York State institutions (e.g., a regional academic medical center; the New York Academy of Sciences; and others), and has activities that involve around 4,800 students and 240 teachers each year. The authors describe the program's activities (e.g., summer workshops for teachers; science exploration camps for elementary and middle-school students; enrichment activities for high school students). A certified science education specialist directs classroom demonstrations throughout the academic year to support teachers' efforts to integrate hands-on activities into the science curriculum. A variety of evaluations over the years provides strong evidence of the program's effectiveness in promoting students' and teachers' interest in science. The long-term goal of the Partnership is to inspire more rural students to work hard, learn science, and enter the medical professions.

  1. [Evaluation of nutritional status of school-age children after implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" in rural area in Hunan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".

  2. The Development of the Institution of School Counselors in Rural Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurianova, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Two decades of experience with the use of school counselors in rural areas of Russia has demonstrated their necessity in supporting students, but their further development and increasing effectiveness requires a significant increase in resources provided to them.

  3. Educational Access Is Educational Quality: Indigenous Parents' Perceptions of Schooling in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara-Brito, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings and implications of a qualitative study conducted in Guatemala, which focused on rural, indigenous parents' perceptions of their children's schooling and educational quality. For these parents, the simple fact that their children had improved access to school signifies a satisfactory educational accomplishment;…

  4. Rural Adolescents' Reading Motivation, Achievement and Behavior across Transition to High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Rintamaa, Margaret; Anderman, Eric M.; Anderman, Lynley H.

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined 1,781 rural students' reading motivation and behavior across the transition from middle to high school. Using expectancy-value theory, they investigated how motivational variables predicted changes in reading behavior and achievement across the transition in terms of their expectancies, values, and out-of-school reading…

  5. Creation of a mobile rural workforce following undergraduate longitudinal rural immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playford, Denese E; Ng, Wen Qi; Burkitt, Tessa

    2016-05-01

    This study followed the workforce choices of 10-years of graduates from a longitudinal rural immersion programme, which involved living for one academic year in a rural location as a medical student. The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia is a whole-of-state Rural Clinical School partnership involving two medical schools and fourteen rural/remote towns. For this longitudinal cohort study, all consenting graduates were contacted annually after graduation, with the outcome measure being rural work location (defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification -Remoteness Area) of any duration. There were 417 consenting graduates. Between 16 and 50% of contacted alumni worked rurally for a period of each post-graduate year. Aggregated over time, the majority took up to 30% of their postgraduate training rurally. There was considerable movement in and out of rural work. About 17% of contacted and practicing graduates were working full time rurally at the 2013 contact point. The majority remained in their state of training. The majority identified with GP and other rural-related colleges, and College-affiliation predicted amount of rural training time. Entry into rural work was equivalent for urban-origin and rural origin alumni, suggesting one year of RCS is sufficient to convert commitment to rural work. Undergraduate rural immersion is sufficient to create a graduate rural workforce that is far more mobile that was previously appreciated.

  6. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosome, Connie; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris

    2011-11-17

    Violence is a public health problem and often an issue of criminal justice.Violence in schools is a worldwide phenomenon and exposes adolescents to premature death. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents' views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was 'What are the adolescents' views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?' Data were analysed by means of open coding. The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.

  7. [Survey and analysis of the intakes of energy and macronutrients in rural boarding school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Wei; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Jin; Sun, Jing; Wang, Chen; Li, Ying; Wei, Yanli; Huo, Junsheng; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-05-01

    To preliminarily survey the intakes of energy and macronutrients in rural boarding school students and analyse the affect factors of discrepancies between different sex and age groups. A total of 1834 rural boarding junior high school first grade students were selected from 16 provinces, and stratified cluster sampling method was used. The method of weight recording and three days dietary recall were used to investigate the diet of boarding school students. The ratios which reached the EER of energy intakes in boy and girl groups were 37.0% and 46.7% (P 0.05) respectively, and the proportion of the intakes level of EAR among the age groups of 11y ~ and 14y ~ for both boys and girls were 124.8%, 107.3% (P > 0.05) and 134.8%, 112.1% (P 0.05) respectively, and among the age groups of 11y ~ and 14y ~ for both boys and girls were 21.8% and 30.5% (P 0.05) respectively. Double burden of nutrient might exist in the rural boarding schools. The status of nutrition could be improved evidently, by fulfilling the relative national policies, promoting the balance of the nutrition supplying in schools, and enriching the boarding students' knowledge of nutrition.

  8. A Study of Rural High School Principals' Perceptions as Social Justice Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Shelly; Huffman, Stephanie; McClellan, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    This multisite case study explores how rural principals in high poverty schools in a Southern state that had identified themselves as social justice leaders perceived student diversity, specifically LGBTQ students, and how they sustained a socially-just school climate for all students. Using a qualitative approach lent itself to understanding the…

  9. Community perceptions of a rural medical school : a pilot qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nestel, Debra; Gray, Katherine; Simmons, Margaret; Pritchard, Shane A; Islam, Rumana; Eng, Wan Q; Ng, Adrian; Dornan, Tim

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient

  10. A Food Service Intervention Improves Whole Grain Access at Lunch in Rural Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F. W.; Rimm, Eric B.; Austin, S. Bryn; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Kraak, Vivica I.; Economos, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole grain (WG) options are often limited in schools, which may impact rural, low-income students who rely on school meals for a substantial portion of their food intake. This study examined the changes in the availability and quantity of WG and refined grain foods offered in schools participating in the Creating Healthy, Active and…

  11. Rural Teacher's Perceptions of Safety on Texas High School Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ronald J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the perceptions of safety of rural Texas high school teachers as it related to a campus intruder or active shooter. The investigator utilized Creswell's (2012) six steps in analyzing and interpreting the qualitative data. The results of the study showed that…

  12. A Study on Nutritional Status of Rural School going Children in Kavre District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, D I; Haque, M K; Sharma, K; Mehta, D K; Shakya, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood is a time of active growth in terms of physical size, mental, emotional and psychological development. Normal growth is dependent on adequate nutrition and encompasses major transformations from birth to adulthood. Nutrition is a focal point for health and well being; and has special significance in countries with disadvantages in socioeconomic and hygienic standards. Objective The objective of the present study was to assess the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among rural school going children. Method The present study was cross-sectional study, conducted on 438 rural school going children (169 male and 259 female) with the age group 4-16 years, during the period from April 2014 to July 2014. Age was recorded in year; height and weight were measured in centimeter and kilogram respectively. BMI was calculated by using standard equation. Result The present study concluded that the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were found to be 30.85%, 24.54% and 10.05% respectively among rural school going children of Kavre district. It was revealed that 37.87% was underweight, 29.59% was stunted and 11.25% was thinness among male children whereas in female children, 26.27% was underweight, 21.24% was stunted and 9.27% was thinness. Hence, high prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were observed in male than in female children. Conclusion The present study has successfully documented the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among the rural school going children of Kavre district. The results of the present study will be useful for policy makers in their endeavor to formulate various developmental and health care programs.

  13. Reading Motivation and Engagement at a Rural Georgia High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As college and workplace success becomes increasingly dependent on reading, parents and educators have become more interested in how to engage students in reading. Teachers at a rural Georgia high school have reported that students are reluctant to engage in academic reading. Guided by previous research on the factors that promote or discourage…

  14. The rural school meal as a site for learning about food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Irene; Benn, Jette

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the article is to contribute to the understanding of the school meal as a site for learning about food, nutrition and the wider determinants of health in three small rural schools of Ecuador. Based on a year-long qualitative fieldwork, the multiple case study associates Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning with Noddings' theory of care to analyze the findings. In the study, elements of care in the relationships between children and adults seemed to promote dialogue and, in this way, adults were able to model what is required to care for others and oneself. This entails that a focus solely on food or limitations on social interaction during the school meal may reduce its learning opportunities. The study concurs with the research that the food is better received when it is more aligned with the students' expectations. In addition, the findings support the view that rural school meal programs should address the views of parents and teachers because of their influence on how the meal is prepared and provided. The article proposes that schools work within a flexible framework emphasizing attention to the caring aspects of the meal, as a means to develop this dimension of the school meal. The study also contends that a collaborative reshaping of conditions formally set by school food policy is consistent with a critical approach to food and nutrition. In connection with this, the study concludes by highlighting the value of revisiting Noddings' perspective of care as deriving from the practice of opening up and meeting the other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Mosome

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a public health problem and often an issue of criminal justice.Violence in schools is a worldwide phenomenon and exposes adolescents to premature death.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng.Research design and method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was ‘What are the adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?’ Data were analysed by means of open coding.Results: The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.

  16. Women’s decision-making autonomy and children’s schooling in rural Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Luz; Victor Agadjanian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women's decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women's autonomy and children's schooling. Objective: To examine the relationship between rural women's decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child's gender. Methods: The analysis uses data...

  17. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural elementary and middle schools in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Nguyen, Thuan; Pickus, Hayley; Chen, Zunqiu

    2014-08-01

    Food stores near schools are an important source of snacks for children. However, few studies have assessed availability of healthy snacks in these settings. The aim of this study was to assess availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near schools and examine how availability of healthy items varied by poverty level of the school and rural-urban location. Food stores were selected based on their proximity to elementary/middle schools in three categories: high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural. Audits were conducted within the stores to assess the presence or absence of 48 items in single-serving sizes, including healthy beverages, healthy snacks, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables. Overall, availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was low in all stores. However, there was significant cross-site variability in availability of several snack and fruit items, with stores near high-income urban schools having higher availability, compared to stores near low-income urban and/or rural schools. Stores near rural schools generally had the lowest availability, although several fruits were found more often in rural stores than in urban stores. There were no significant differences in availability of healthy beverages and fresh vegetables across sites. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was limited in stores near schools, but these limitations were more severe in stores proximal to rural and low-income schools. Given that children frequent these stores to purchase snacks, efforts to increase the availability of healthy products, especially in stores near rural and low-income schools, should be a priority.

  18. Dynamics of Community Participation, Student Achievement and School Management: The Case of Primary Schools in a Rural Area of Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kyoko; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    School management in many sub-Saharan African countries has been enhanced through community participation in an attempt to improve education quality. This study uses field research in a rural district of Malawi to assess how community and parent participation differs between schools, the intentions of communities and parents when carrying out…

  19. The contribution of farmer field schools to rural development in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, A.M.B.

    2012-01-01

     This thesis argues that Farmer Field Schools in Nepal contributed to agriculture and rural development and to gendered empowerment. The Nepalese government, but also NGOs involved in FFS applied a rather technocratic approach towards development (Li, 1999) and assumed that will well-defined

  20. Oral health status and oral health behaviors of 12-year-old urban and rural school children in Udupi, Karnataka, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Singh Thakur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the oral health status and oral health behavior among 12-year-old urban and rural school children and to evaluate the relative effect of sociobehavioral risk factors on caries experience. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted which included urban and rural subgroups of 12-year-old school children. The final study population covered two groups: 12 years rural (n = 261 and urban school children (n = 264. Data were collected and compared using Chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the importance of variables associated with dental caries. Results: Highly significant differences (P < 0.001 were observed between rural and urban school children for the use of oral hygiene aids, frequency of tooth brushing, and dental services utilization. Dental caries level was significantly higher (P < 0.03 for rural children. Decayed teeth (DT component constituted majority of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (FT in both population. 55.6% of the rural school children required treatment compared to 42.4% of urban school children. Mean Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified values, mean DT, and FT were statistically significant for urban and rural school children. Logistic regression analysis showed that government or private school, dental care utilization, socioeconomic status, and malocclusion status were significantly associated with dental caries. Conclusion: Poor oral health and high treatment needs of children belonging to low socioeconomic background is an alarming situation. Strengthening of oral health care in the rural and underprivileged section should be priority of the policymakers.

  1. Indiana Wesleyan University SPS Physics Outreach to Rural Middle School and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Joshua; Rose, Heath; Burchell, Robert; Ramos, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    The Society of Physics Students chapter at Indiana Wesleyan University is unusual in that it has no physics major, only physics minors. Yet while just over a year old, IWU-SPS has been active in performing physics outreach to middle school and high school students, and the rural community of Grant County. Our year-old SPS chapter consists of majors from Chemistry, Nursing, Biology, Exercise Science, Computer Science, Psychology, Pastoral Studies, and Science Education, who share a common interest in physics and service to the community. IWU currently has a physics minor and is currently working to build a physics major program. Despite the intrinsic challenges, our multi-disciplinary group has been successful at using physics demonstration equipment and hands-on activities and their universal appeal to raise the interest in physics in Grant County. We report our experience, challenges, and successes with physics outreach. We describe in detail our two-pronged approach: raising the level of physics appreciation among the IWU student community and among pre-college students in a rural community of Indiana. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge the support of the Society of Physics Students through a Marsh White Outreach Award and a Blake Lilly Prize.

  2. Influence of Science, Technology, and Engineering Curriculum on Rural Midwestern High School Student Career Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, John

    Low degree completion in technical and engineering degrees is a growing concern for policymakers and educators in the United States. This study was an examination of the behaviors of adolescents specific to career decisions related to technology and engineering. The central research question for this study was: do rural, Midwestern high school technical and engineering curricula serve to engage students sufficiently to encourage them to persist through high school while sustaining their interests in technology and engineering careers? Engaging students in technology and engineering fields is the challenge for educators throughout the country and the Midwest. Rural schools have the additional challenge of meeting those issues because of resource limitations. Students in three Midwestern schools were surveyed to determine the level of interest in technology and engineering. The generalized likelihood ratio test was used to overcome concerns for small sample sizes. Accounting for dependent variables, multiple independent variables are examined using descriptive statistics to determine which have greater influence on career decisions, specifically those related to technology and engineering. A typical science curriculum is defined for rural Midwestern high schools. This study concludes that such curriculum achieves the goal of maintaining or increasing student interest and engagement in STEM careers. Furthermore, those schools that incorporate contextual and experiential learning activities into the curriculum demonstrate increased results in influencing student career choices toward technology and engineering careers. Implications for parents, educators, and industry professionals are discussed.

  3. The rural pipeline to longer-term rural practice: General practitioners and specialists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella M S Kwan

    Full Text Available Rural medical workforce shortage contributes to health disadvantage experienced by rural communities worldwide. This study aimed to determine the regional results of an Australian Government sponsored national program to enhance the Australian rural medical workforce by recruiting rural background students and establishing rural clinical schools (RCS. In particular, we wished to determine predictors of graduates' longer-term rural practice and whether the predictors differ between general practitioners (GPs and specialists.A cross-sectional cohort study, conducted in 2012, of 729 medical graduates of The University of Queensland 2002-2011. The outcome of interest was primary place of graduates' practice categorised as rural for at least 50% of time since graduation ('Longer-term Rural Practice', LTRP among GPs and medical specialists. The main exposures were rural background (RB or metropolitan background (MB, and attendance at a metropolitan clinical school (MCS or the Rural Clinical School for one year (RCS-1 or two years (RCS-2.Independent predictors of LTRP (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] were RB (2.10 [1.37-3.20], RCS-1 (2.85 [1.77-4.58], RCS-2 (5.38 [3.15-9.20], GP (3.40 [2.13-5.43], and bonded scholarship (2.11 [1.19-3.76]. Compared to being single, having a metropolitan background partner was a negative predictor (0.34 [0.21-0.57]. The effects of RB and RCS were additive-compared to MB and MCS (Reference group: RB and RCS-1 (6.58[3.32-13.04], RB and RCS-2 (10.36[4.89-21.93]. Although specialists were less likely than GPs to be in LTRP, the pattern of the effects of rural exposures was similar, although some significant differences in the effects of the duration of RCS attendance, bonded scholarships and partner's background were apparent.Among both specialists and GPs, rural background and rural clinical school attendance are independent, duration-dependent, and additive, predictors of longer-term rural practice. Metropolitan

  4. Childhood psychological problems in school settings in rural Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Cortina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many children can be exposed to multiple adversities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs placing them at potential risk of psychological problems. However, there is a paucity of research using large representative cohorts examining the psychological adjustment of children in school settings in these countries. Children's psychological adjustment has been shown to affect educational progress which is critical for their future. This study, based in a rural, socio-economically disadvantaged area of South Africa, aimed to examine the prevalence of children's psychological problems as well as possible risk and protective factors. METHODS: Rates of psychological problems in 10-12 year olds were examined using teacher- and child-report questionnaires. Data on children from 10 rural primary schools, selected by stratified random sampling, were linked to individual and household data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system collected from households over 15 years. RESULTS: A total of 1,025 children were assessed. Teachers identified high levels of behavioural and emotional problems (41%. Children reported lower, but substantial rates of anxiety/depression (14%, and significant post-traumatic stress symptoms (24%; almost a quarter felt unsafe in school. Risk factors included being a second-generation former refugee and being from a large household. Protective factors highlight the importance of maternal factors, such as being more educated and in a stable partnership. CONCLUSION: The high levels of psychological problems identified by teachers are a serious public health concern, as they are likely to impact negatively on children's education, particularly given the large class sizes and limited resources in rural LMIC settings. Despite the high levels of risk, a proportion of children were managing well and research to understand resilience could inform interventions.

  5. Preferred Writing Topics of Urban and Rural Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippen, Margaret E.; Houchins, David E.; Puckett, DaShaunda; Ramsey, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the preferred writing topics of urban and rural middle school students. Eighth graders (n = 205) responded to a brief survey of preferred writing topics in the descriptive writing genres of real or imagined stories, reports, and opinions. While some preferred writing topics were divergent such as society, crime, and violence,…

  6. School-to-Work Transition in Arizona: Does Public Policy Ignore Social Equality for Rural Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Arnold; Vandegrift, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Public policy implications for Arizona of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act are explored, specifically with regard to rural areas. It is argued that should additional resources become available to the state, population-based allocations to rural areas are likely to be insufficient for meaningful educational and economic-development reform. (SLD)

  7. Rural and urban children with asthma: are school health services meeting their needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Gusic, Maryellen E; Bai, Yu

    2006-09-01

    Children with asthma spend a large portion of their day in school, and the extent to which public schools are prepared to meet their health needs is an important issue. The objective of this study was to identify asthma policies and practices in rural and urban school settings and to compare them with current National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommendations. A stratified random sample of school nurses who represented each of the 500 active Pennsylvania school districts were surveyed in 2004 concerning nurse staffing patterns, availability of asthma monitoring and treatment-related equipment, emergency preparedness, availability of asthma-related support and case management services, school-specific procedures including identification of children with asthma and accessibility of inhaler medication during school hours, presence and content of written asthma management plans, and perceived obstacles to asthma management in the school setting. Sampling weights were incorporated into the analyses to take the survey design into account. The overall response rate was 76%, with a total of 757 surveys analyzed. In more than half of secondary schools and three quarters of elementary schools, nurses were present asthma attack were not always available. In 72% of rural schools, children were allowed to self-carry rescue inhalers, as compared with 47% of urban schools. Asthma management plans were on file for only 1 quarter of children with asthma, and important information often was omitted. Approximately half of the schools were equipped with peak flow meters and nebulizers, and spacers were available in 1 third of schools. Improvements are needed to bring schools into compliance with current recommendations, including more consistent availability of knowledgeable staff, improved access to asthma monitoring and treatment-related equipment, more universal use of asthma management plans, and greater access to inhalers while at school, including increasing the

  8. Do benefits accrue from longer rotations for students in Rural Clinical Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denz-Penhey, Harriet; Shannon, Susan; Murdoch, Campbell J; Newbury, Jonathon W

    2005-01-01

    The Australian Government has provided funding for Rural Clinical Schools (RCS) to provide substantial rural clinical experience to medical students. The strategy aims to acculturate students into rural living with the intended long-term outcome of increasing the availability and viability of rural health services. When evaluators from two of the Rural Clinical Schools discussed findings and insights relating to rural rotations from their in-depth evaluation studies of their respective schools they found a range of similarities. This article is a collaboration that articulates parallel findings from evaluations over 2 years, using three different approaches to students' placements across the two RCS: (1) students based long term in one centre (with only a few days away at a time); (2) students based long term in one centre with short-term rotations of 3-6 weeks away from home base; and (3) week rotations without a home base. The two RCS, as part of their initial establishment, put comprehensive internal evaluation processes in place, including the employment of dedicated evaluators extant from the teaching and assessment of the rural medical curriculum. Data were collected and analysed according to standard education evaluation procedures. Home-base preference: most students preferred having a home base in one centre and having as little time as possible away from that centre, while recognising that sometimes the requirement to go and learn elsewhere was useful. The reasons for this were three-fold: academic, clinical and social. Academic benefits: students enjoyed the excellence of teaching and learning opportunities in their rural sites and did not want their discipline of learning interrupted by what they perceived as unnecessary change. Students with a home base used their learning opportunities qualitatively differently from those students who had 6 week rotations. Their learning became self-directed and students sought opportunities to extend and consolidate

  9. Rural School Superintendents: A National Study of Perspectives of Board Presidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert L.; Barker, Bruce O.

    1987-01-01

    Results of two surveys of 59 and 47 school board presidents from 26 and 21 different states, respectively, having district enrollments of 300 or smaller, indicated the most valued capabilities considered in hiring rural superintendents were interpersonal relations/communications skills, financial/organizational management skills, and good moral…

  10. Rural Student Entrepreneurs: Linking Commerce and Community. (Benefits)[Squared]: The Exponential Results of Linking School Improvement and Community Development, Issue Number Three.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boethel, Martha

    In many rural areas, both communities and schools are threatened by decreasing population and changing economic conditions. To boost both the local economy and student achievement, a growing number of rural schools are turning to entrepreneurial education. In school entrepreneurship programs, students create small businesses under the guidance of…

  11. Professional Networks among Rural School Food Service Directors Implementing the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubker Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was designed to explore the professional networks of rural school food service directors (FSD), the resources they use for implementing the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), and their needs for information and support to continue to implement successfully. Methods: Rural FSD participated in an in-depth…

  12. The Impact an Integrated Workforce of a Rural Southwestern School District Has in the Making of a Blue Ribbon School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Annie J.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized a contemporary approach to qualitative research, the descriptive survey design, to discover whether a diverse workforce was a major influence in producing a rural Blue Ribbon School. The population represented the school systems of a county located in the West South Central region of the United States. In this study, the terms…

  13. Assessment of common otolaryngological diseases among children in rural primary schools in south eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaegbe, Onyinyechi C; Umedum, Nnaemeka G; Chime, Ethel N; Orji, Foster T

    2016-10-01

    Despite a global improvement in health care delivery, rural areas in developing countries still have poor access to specialist care. This study aims to assess the occurrences of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders among rural primary school children in south-eastern Nigeria. Two rural primary schools were selected randomly from one of the rural regions of South Eastern State of Nigeria. All the pupils of the schools who gave consent were recruited. A structured study proforma investigating the pupils' biodata, otolaryngological symptoms, ear, nose and throat examination findings, was used to evaluate each pupil in the presence of the teachers. A total of 246 children participated in the study. 145(58.9%) were males while 101(41.1%) were females with a mean age of 8.5 ± 2.4 years. The commonest symptoms reported were nasal discharge (20%) followed by nasal obstruction (11.1%), itching of the ears (11.1%) and sneezing bouts (10%), while 3.7% had subjective hearing impairment. The commonest ENT finding was cerumen auris (43%) and this was observed in 43.4% of males and 42.4% of females, 11% had abnormal tympanic membranes and 20% had grades 3/4 tonsils(Brodsky grading). ENT disorders are still common in children in the rural areas of developing countries. To avoid the morbidity associated with these preventable and easily manageable disorders, community health workers should be trained to manage common ENT disorders and mobile clinics with scheduled visits made available in areas where ENT services remain inaccessible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Just-in-Time Online Professional Development Activities for an Innovation in Small Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Christine; Allaire, Stephane; Turcotte, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the just-in-time online professional development offered to teachers in the Remote Networked Schools (RNS), a systemic initiative funded by the Quebec Ministry of Education (Canada), which aims at enriching the learning environment of small rural schools with the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The…

  15. Father's Labour Migration and Children's School Discontinuation in Rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor

    2017-08-01

    We examine how the discontinuation of schooling among left-behind children is related to multiple dimensions of male labor migration: the accumulation of migration experience, the timing of these migration experiences in the child's life course, and the economic success of the migration. Our setting is rural southern Mozambique, an impoverished area with massive male labor out-migration. Results show that fathers' economically successful labor migration is more beneficial for children's schooling than unsuccessful migration or non-migration. There are large differences, however, by gender: compared to sons of non-migrants, sons of migrant fathers (regardless of migration success) have lower rates of school discontinuation, while daughters of migrant fathers have rates of school discontinuation no different than daughters of non-migrants. Furthermore, accumulated labor migration across the child's life course is beneficial for boys' schooling, but not girls'. Remittances sent in the past year reduce the rate of discontinuation for sons, but not daughters.

  16. The significance of parental involvement in early childhood learner development in Mafikeng rural school / Nicholas Maikanya Lebopa

    OpenAIRE

    Lebopa, Nicholas Maikanya

    2010-01-01

    The study aims at investigating the importance of parental involvement in the teaching and learning of learners in their early years of schooling, especially in rural areas. The researcher is of the opinion that many parents in rural areas are illiterate and poor. Their disadvantages are therefore vast to their counterparts who live in urban areas. Parents could become involved in several activities occurring at school which could provide opportunities for them to be familiar w...

  17. The Use of Telehealth to Teach Reproductive Health to Female Rural High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoost, Jennie Lee; Starcher, Rachael Whitley; King-Mallory, Rebecca Ann; Hussain, Nafeeza; Hensley, Christina Ann; Gress, Todd William

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the use of telehealth to teach reproductive health to rural areas with high rates of teen pregnancy. Prospective cohort study. Two high schools in rural West Virginia. High school female students who attended telehealth sessions. Teleconferencing equipment connected rural high schools to a distal academic institution. Telehealth sessions included reproductive health and life skills topics. Demographic information, session pre- and post-tests, and 6- month assessment was obtained. Reproductive health knowledge, behavior, and self-efficacy were assessed at intervention and at 6 months, along with Likert scale evaluation of telehealth as an educational tool. Fifty-five students participated in the program with an average age of 16.14 (SD 1.24) years. Only 20% (10/50) of subjects' mothers and 12% (6/50) of subjects' fathers had achieved education beyond high school, and 20% (10/50) of subject's mothers had experienced teen pregnancies (age 18 or younger). Sexual activity was reported among 52% (26/50) of subjects, 4/50 (8%) reported desire to become pregnant within the next year, and 4/50 (8%) reported already pregnant. Thirty-seven students completed the 6-month follow-up survey. Reported condom use increased from 20% (10/50) at baseline to 40% (15/37) at 6 months (P = .04) and hormonal contraception use increased from 22% (11/50) to 38% (14/37) (P = .12). Report of human papillomavirus vaccination increased from 38% (10/26) to 70% (26/37) (P = .001) among all subjects. At 6 months, 91.8% (34/37) reported the use of telehealth was "very effective" as a means to teach the material. Telehealth is an effective tool to teach reproductive health to rural areas. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rural school in the Tenza Valley, rural education and agroecology reflections on rural “development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejia Alfonso Miguel Fernando

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The municipality of Sutatenza (Boyaca, constitutes an important reference for rural education in Colombia due to “Radio Sutatenza” (Educational Radio and the People’s Cultural Action in the mid-twentieth century. Currently, in the same town, a process called the Campesina Community School del Valle de Tenza has been brewing, under an agroecological approach, guided in its work to the cultural and productive Andean farmers, their families and their young people to cultivate in them a return the field. This article addresses this educational experience for contrasting approaches of “development” with the perceptions and visions that emerge from the rural world, without being radically different, it raises important questions for the call for and controversy of development, from the local.

  19. Perceptions of Childhood Obesity among Rural Parents, Teachers, and School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Paula J.; Choi, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this exploratory qualitative research were to describe perceptions related to childhood obesity of rural parents, teachers, and school administrators and to examine how their perceptions shape their choices and behaviors for children's eating and physical exercise. The results showed that the perceptions of childhood obesity in the…

  20. PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES IN RURAL SCHOOLS: A COMMUNITY MISSION OF THE EXECUTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena del Rosario Piñero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study consisted of valuing the productive activities for rural schools from the community mission that the executive exercises in the educational context of the Parish Ana Maria Campos, municipality Elevated place, condition Zulia. The study was considered to be descriptive, to such effects his basic action consisted of the valuation of elements considered like fundamental to identify the productive activities in rural schools from the community mission of the executive. The design of the investigation is not experimental, of field, transactional with a methodology qualitative and quantitative of dominant quantitative approach carried out in the educational context of the communities El Mecocal, El Crespo, El Rodeo, La Quebrada y el Kilometro 42. The population was constituted by teachers, parents and rural representatives to whom an instrument applied comprising questionnaire of 15 questions type Likert and 5 questions opened of triple version, validated in his content by 10 experts whose results were valued for categories and processed statistically across percentage tests. Between the conclusions there was demonstrated that the pedagogic practices are based basically on the approximation of executives and teachers by prevalence in knowing the expectations of learning of the pupils, the performance of the executives is estimated by good disposition by the teachers and the productive projects are realized across the education of the theoretical contents in the classroom of classes.

  1. Speech-language pathology telehealth in rural and remote schools: the experience of school executive and therapy assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, Glenn C; Lincoln, Michelle A; Ramsden, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in accessing allied health services, especially in rural and remote areas, appear to be driving the use of telehealth services to children in schools. The objectives of this study were to investigate the experiences and views of school executive staff and therapy assistants regarding the feasibility and acceptability of a speech-language pathology telehealth program for children attending schools in rural and remote New South Wales, Australia. The program, called Come N See, provided therapy interventions remotely via low-bandwidth videoconferencing, with email follow-up. Over a 12-week period, children were offered therapy blocks of six fortnightly sessions, each lasting a maximum of 30 minutes. School executives (n=5) and therapy assistants (n=6) described factors that promoted or threatened the program's feasibility and acceptability, during semistructured interviews. Thematic content analysis with constant comparison was applied to the transcribed interviews to identify relationships in the data. Emergent themes related to (a) unmet speech pathology needs, (b) building relationships, (c) telehealth's advantages, (d) telehealth's disadvantages, (e) anxiety replaced by joy and confidence in growing skills, and (f) supports. School executive staff and therapy assistants verified that the delivery of the school-based telehealth service was feasible and acceptable. However, the participants saw significant opportunities to enhance this acceptability through building into the program stronger working relationships and supports for stakeholders. These findings are important for the future development of allied health telehealth programs that are sustainable as well as effective and fit the needs of all crucial stakeholders. The results have significant implications for speech pathology clinical practice relating to technology, program planning and teamwork within telehealth programs.

  2. Consumption of junk foods by school-aged children in rural Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Singh, Gajendra

    2018-01-01

    There has been an increase in the consumption of junk food (JF) among school-aged children (SAC) possibly leading to obesity and diet-related diseases among them. We do not have evidence on consumption of JF in rural areas; hence, we conducted a study to assess the consumption of JF by SAC in rural, Himachal Pradesh. A total of 425 children in the age group of 12-18 years studying in 30 government schools (clusters) were included. The clusters were selected using population proportionate to size sampling methodology. We found high prevalence (36%) of consumption of JF among SAC during the last 24 h. Efforts should be taken to reduce the consumption of JF by promotion of healthy dietary habits and educating children about the ill effects of JF.

  3. Random Assignment of Schools to Groups in the Drug Resistance Strategies Rural Project: Some New Methodological Twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Zhou, Jiangxiu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Random assignment to groups is the foundation for scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But assignment is challenging in group randomized trials when only a few units (schools) are assigned to each condition. In the DRSR project, we assigned 39 rural Pennsylvania and Ohio schools to three conditions (rural, classic, control). But even with 13 schools per condition, achieving pretest equivalence on important variables is not guaranteed. We collected data on six important school-level variables: rurality, number of grades in the school, enrollment per grade, percent white, percent receiving free/assisted lunch, and test scores. Key to our procedure was the inclusion of school-level drug use data, available for a subset of the schools. Also, key was that we handled the partial data with modern missing data techniques. We chose to create one composite stratifying variable based on the seven school-level variables available. Principal components analysis with the seven variables yielded two factors, which were averaged to form the composite inflate-suppress (CIS) score which was the basis of stratification. The CIS score was broken into three strata within each state; schools were assigned at random to the three program conditions from within each stratum, within each state. Results showed that program group membership was unrelated to the CIS score, the two factors making up the CIS score, and the seven items making up the factors. Program group membership was not significantly related to pretest measures of drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, chewing tobacco; smallest p>.15), thus verifying that pretest equivalence was achieved. PMID:23722619

  4. Schooling girls in a rural community: An examination of female science identity and science career choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy

    There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have been successful in science in a rural K-12 school once they leave high school and enter the world of academia. Thus, this study examined the following questions: (1) How do three recent female high school graduates from rural K-12 high schools narrate their identity? (2) How do the females narrate their experiences in a rural community and high school in relation to their science identity? (3) What do the participants describe as influencing their academic and career choices as they transition into the life of a college student? This study involved three female participants from a small rural community in a southeastern state. Each female has lived their entire life in the community and has attended only one K-12 school. All three females ranked in the top ten of their senior class and excelled in their science coursework. Additionally, each female elected to attend college locally and to live at home. The study utilized the qualitative methodology of interpretive biography. The researcher used a guided interview protocol with participants which served as the basis for the creation of their narrative biographies. The biographies were then analyzed for emergent themes. Sociocultural theory, identity theory, and critical feminism provided the theoretical frameworks utilized in data analysis. Findings from this study suggested that there were many differing factors influencing the science identity and career choices of the females under study. However, the most salient factor impacting their choices was their desire to remain in their hometown. Directions for future research suggestions involve exploring female students who

  5. Local traditions in the development of rural education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, John Matthias

    This presentation discuss two issues of rural change: 1) cultural reproduction and transformation in the local contex and 2) the importance and effect of schooling and education in rural society, especially how school can support the rural community in times of change.......This presentation discuss two issues of rural change: 1) cultural reproduction and transformation in the local contex and 2) the importance and effect of schooling and education in rural society, especially how school can support the rural community in times of change....

  6. Determinants of Tracking Intentions, and Actual Education Choices among Junior High School Students in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingquan; Loyalka, Prashant; Wei, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes rural middle school students' tracking intentions (academic high school, vocational high school, or going to work), actual education choices, and the factors affecting them, using a random sampled baseline survey and follow-up survey of 2,216 second-year students residing outside of county seats in forty-one impoverished…

  7. Changes and Challenges: Key Issues for Scottish Rural Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jennie

    2009-01-01

    Education in rural Scottish schools has changed rapidly over the past 15 years. These changes include the implementation of national curriculum and assessment guidelines, increased parental influence and a shift from local authority based management to more locally based schemes. During the 1990s, research in the field focused largely on learning…

  8. Women’s decision-making autonomy and children’s schooling in rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Luciana; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Women’s decision-making autonomy in developing settings has been shown to improve child survival and health outcomes. However, little research has addressed possible connections between women’s autonomy and children’s schooling. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between rural women’s decision-making autonomy and enrollment status of primary school-age children living in their households and how this relationship differs by child’s gender. METHODS The analysis uses data from a 2009 survey of rural households in four districts of Gaza province in southern Mozambique. Multilevel logistic models predict the probability of being in school for children between 6 and 14 years old. RESULTS The results show a positive association of women’s decision-making autonomy with the probability of being enrolled in primary school for daughters, but not for sons. The effect of women’s autonomy is net of other women’s characteristics typically associated with enrollment and does not mediate the effects of those characteristics. CONCLUSIONS Based on the results, we argue that women with higher levels of decision-making autonomy may have a stronger preference for daughters’ schooling and may have a greater say in making and implementing decisions regarding daughters’ education, compared to women with lower autonomy levels. Results also illustrate a need for considering a broader set of autonomy-related characteristics when examining the effects of women’s status on children’s educational outcomes. PMID:26491400

  9. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF OBESITY IN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN A RURAL POPULATION IN SOUTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesamony Maneksh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is defined as having excess body fat due to ‘calorie imbalance’ -too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed. Childhood obesity has both immediate and long-term effects on health and well-being. This study is aimed to highlight the burden of obesity among school children. The objectives of this study are to find the prevalence of obesity among school children aged 11-15 years and to compare prevalence of obesity among school children of government and private schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS School-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2 private and 2 government schools of a rural area in Trivandrum district. Total 800 students (200 from each school aged 11-15 years in 6 th to 10 th standards were selected by systematic random sampling and consent were obtained. Height (cm and weight (kg were measured using stadiometer and standardised weighing machine, respectively. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated and categorised as underweight, normal, overweight and obese. The prevalence is expressed in percentages. RESULTS In this study, the total prevalence of overweight and obesity among the total 800 school children is found to be 4% and 1%, respectively. An alarming incidental finding is that the underweight prevalence is 61%, which is significantly high and should be addressed. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity is 4.25% and 1.75%, respectively in private schools, whereas it is 3.5% and 1%, respectively, in government schools. There is not a significant difference between private and government school children. This may be due to the awareness about problems of obesity and its effects among school children and also timely health checkups in the schools. CONCLUSION This study done in a rural area found that there is a significant prevalence of obesity and overweight as well as a very high prevalence of underweight. It indicates that childhood obesity is an emerging health problem in rural areas

  10. CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RHODES, ALVIN E.

    AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOL…

  11. Thriving Together: Connecting Rural School Improvement and Community Development = Prosperando juntos: La conexion entre el mejoramiento de la escuela rural y el desarrollo comunitario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boethel, Martha

    Available in English or Spanish, this resource guide aims to help rural schools and communities learn ways of supporting each other so that both can thrive. Background information and basic tools are provided for starting a joint school-community development effort. Chapters contain: (1) outline of the guide and statement of beliefs about…

  12. Demographic and financial characteristics of school districts with low and high à la Carte sales in rural Kansas Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Kimminau, Kim S; Nazir, Niaman

    2011-06-01

    Reducing à la carte items in schools-foods and beverages sold outside the reimbursable meals program-can have important implications for childhood obesity. However, schools are reluctant to reduce à la carte offerings because of the impact these changes could have on revenue. Some foodservice programs operate with limited à la carte sales, but little is known about these programs. This secondary data analysis compared rural and urban/suburban school districts with low and high à la carte sales. Foodservice financial records (2007-2008) were obtained from the Kansas State Department of Education for all public K-12 school districts (n=302). χ² and t tests were used to examine the independent association of variables to à la carte sales. A multivariate model was then constructed of the factors most strongly associated with low à la carte sales. In rural districts with low à la carte sales, lunch prices and participation were higher, lunch costs and à la carte quality were lower, and fewer free/reduced price lunches were served compared to rural districts with high à la carte sales. Lunch price (odds ratio=1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.4) and free/reduced price lunch participation (odds ratio=3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 9.8) remained in the multivariate model predicting low à la carte sales. No differences were found between urban/suburban districts with low and high à la carte sales. Findings highlight important factors to maintaining low à la carte sales. Schools should consider raising lunch prices and increasing meal participation rates as two potential strategies for reducing the sale of à la carte items without compromising foodservice revenue. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a proposed rural dental school on regional dental workforce and access to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchek, Tanya N; Rephann, Terance J

    2013-01-01

    Southwest Virginia is a rural, low-income region with a relatively small dentist workforce and poor oral health outcomes. The opening of a dental school in the region has been proposed by policy-makers as one approach to improving the size of the dentist workforce and oral health outcomes. A policy simulation was conducted to assess how a hypothetical dental school in rural Southwest Virginia would affect the availability of dentists and utilization levels of dental services. The simulation focuses on two channels through which the dental school would most likely affect the region. First, the number of graduates who are expected to remain in the region was varied, based on the extensiveness of the education pipeline used to attract local students. Second, the number of patients treated in the dental school clinic under different dental school clinical models, including the traditional model, a patient-centered clinic model and a community-based clinic model, was varied in the simulation to obtain a range of additional dentists and utilization rates under differing dental school models. Under a set of plausible assumptions, the low yield scenario (ie private school with a traditional clinic) would result in three additional dentists residing in the region and a total of 8090 additional underserved patients receiving care. Under the high yield scenario (ie dental pipeline program with community based clinics) nine new dentists would reside in the region and as many as 18 054 underserved patients would receive care. Even with the high yield scenario and the strong assumption that these patients would not otherwise access care, the utilization rate increases to 68.9% from its current 60.1%. While the new dental school in Southwest Virginia would increase the dentist workforce and utilization rates, the high cost combined with the continued low rate of dental utilization suggests that there may be more effective alternatives to improving oral health in rural areas

  14. Does Context Matter? An Analysis of Training in Multicultural Assessment, Consultation, and Intervention between School Psychologists in Urban and Rural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Markeda; Looser, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent of training in multicultural assessment, intervention, and consultation of school psychologists in urban and rural contexts. Although there is greater cultural and sociodemographic diversity in urban settings as compared to rural settings, it is unknown whether school psychologists in urban…

  15. Therapeutic Responses to "At Risk" Disengaged Early School Leavers in a Rural Alternative Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The identification of disengaged early school leavers as young people "at risk" can lead to a deficit-based framing of how educational institutions respond to them. A rural secondary school in Victoria, Australia established an alternative education programme to cater for local disengaged young people. A critical ethnographic study was…

  16. Integrated Literacies in a Rural Kenyan Girls' Secondary School Journalism Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Maureen; Early, Margaret; Chemjor, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to foreground contextual issues in studies of situated writing practices. During a year-long case study in a rural Kenyan secondary school, we applied a number of ethnographic techniques to document how 32 girls (aged 14-18 years) used local cultural and digital resources (i.e., donated digital cameras, voice…

  17. Knowledge of Concussions by High School Coaches in a Rural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroyer, Josh; Stewart, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and opinions on concussions of high school coaches from a geographically large yet rural state in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. Few medical issues in sport are more important, or have had as much publicity recently, as concussions. The exposure gleaned from tragic health…

  18. Creating a new rural pharmacy workforce: Development and implementation of the Rural Pharmacy Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; Kiser, Stephanie; Park, Irene; Grandy, Rebecca; Joyner, Pamela U

    2017-12-01

    An innovative certificate program aimed at expanding the rural pharmacy workforce, increasing the number of pharmacists with expertise in rural practice, and improving healthcare outcomes in rural North Carolina is described. Predicted shortages of primary care physicians and closures of critical access hospitals are expected to worsen existing health disparities. Experiential education in schools and colleges of pharmacy primarily takes place in academic medical centers and, unlike experiential education in medical schools, rarely emphasizes the provision of patient care in rural U.S. communities, where chronic diseases are prevalent and many residents struggle with poverty and poor access to healthcare. To help address these issues, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy developed the 3-year Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program. The program curriculum includes 4 seminar courses, interprofessional education and interaction with medical students, embedding of each pharmacy student into a specific rural community for the duration of training, longitudinal ambulatory care practice experiences, community engagement initiatives, leadership training, development and implementation of a population health project, and 5 pharmacy practice experiences in rural settings. The Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program at UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy seeks to transform rural pharmacy practice by creating a pipeline of rural pharmacy leaders and teaching a unique skillset that will be beneficial to healthcare systems, communities, and patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Year in the Life: Academic Coaching and the Role of Collaboration in a Rural Ohio School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sara Lohrman

    2012-01-01

    This year-long qualitative case study provides an analysis of the work of a math coach as she built collaborative partnerships in a rural Appalachian school. Academic coaches provide embedded professional development and the theoretical hope of improving teachers' instructional abilities and thereby raising student achievement. As rural schools…

  20. Including Migrant Worker Children in the Learning and Social Context of the Rural Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Many of the larger towns and cities within the UK have long experienced a cosmopolitan mix of cultures, resulting in ethnically and linguistically diverse schools. However, the wider expansion of the European Union in 2004 has brought about significant changes and challenges for many schools, particularly for those in more rural areas. This…

  1. Outdoor Education in Rural Primary Schools in New Zealand: A Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Tara; Legge, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    This research examines teaching outdoor education in two rural primary schools in Aotearoa New Zealand. The aim was to give "voice" to how outdoor education is taught, programmed and understood. Underpinning the research was the question: what factors enable/constrain teachers' ability to implement outdoor education? The findings…

  2. Rural Schools and Traditional Knowledge: Representing Alternatives to a Consumer-Dependent Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Given the present pace of educational globalization, educators--especially in rural schools--will benefit from an awareness of traditional knowledge as a significant contributor to sustainability. Many countries operate through a system whereby major decision making, especially in such areas as education and health, emanate from state levels of…

  3. at advanced level in rural secondary schoolş in Makonde District in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in the Geography 'A' level results for both the Physical and Human Geography components have been noticed in both ... It cantherefore be concluded that the variations in the results for Advanced level Geography in rural secondary schools ..... not problem-solving approaches yet diversification of teaching and ...

  4. Gender Factors Associated with Sexual Abstinent Behaviour of Rural South African High School Going Youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, Siyabonga; Taylor, Myra; Mkhize, Nosipho; Huver, Rosemarie; Sathiparsad, Reshma; de Vries, Hein; Naidoo, Kala; Jinabhai, Champak

    2009-01-01

    The cross-sectional study investigated South African rural high school learners' choice of sexual abstinence in order to be able to develop tailored health education messages. All Grade 9 learners from one class at each of 10 randomly selected rural high schools participated. The Integrated Model for Motivational and Behavioural Change was used to…

  5. Comparison of nutritional status of rural and urban school students receiving midday meals in schools of Bengaluru, India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, C N; Murthy, N S; Shalini, S; Dinesh, R; Shivaraj, N S; Suryanarayana, S P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the mid day meal program by assessing the nutritional status of school students aged 5-15 years receiving midday meals in rural schools and compare them with those in urban schools in Bengaluru, India. This cross sectional study involved a sample of 4378 students from government and aided schools. Weight and height were measured and compared with ''means'' and ''percentiles'' of expected standards as endorsed by the Indian Association of Pediatrics. Regression coefficients were also estimated to assess the rate of growth. In all age groups and in both sexes, the observed mean weight and height were below the expected standards. The study findings showed that 13.8% and 13.1% of the studied students were underweight and stunted, respectively (below the third percentile for weight and height for age). A higher proportion of rural students were below the third percentile for both weight and height compared with urban students (weight: 16.3% and 11.5%; height: 17.0% and 10.0%; P nutrition in children and indirectly impact school performance, attendance and literacy.

  6. The impact of a museum travelling exhibition on middle school teachers and students from rural, low-income homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United States responded to a travelling museum exhibition hosted at a non-museum site. The authors explore the impact of the exhibition on students from poor, rural backgrounds, discussing how it helped them to engage with themes such as freedom of expression, democracy, citizenship and Holocaust education. The results show that, by connecting curricular content with real-life situations, field trips such as this have the potential to change not only students' understanding of the curriculum, but also their teachers' estimation of their abilities.

  7. Custodians of Silences? School Principal Perspectives on the Incidence and Nature of Homophobic Bullying in Primary Schools in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Gerard; O'Higgins Norman, James; O'Leary, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The research reported in this paper sought to determine the level of awareness among school principals in primary schools in Ireland where homophobic bullying is concerned. International research has previously shown that school leaders as animators of school climate are often lacking in their responses to this type of bullying [Walton, G. 2004.…

  8. Absorptive Capacity in Rural Schools: Bending Not Breaking during Disruptive Innovation Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Sarah J.; Wicox, Kristen Campbell; Schiller, Kathryn S.; Durand, Francesca T.

    2018-01-01

    Rural schools have repeatedly been subjected to standardizing state and federal education policies that seek to minimize variance in instructional systems and increase the number of college- and career-ready graduates. The Race to the Top policy agenda combined standards-based and accountability-based reforms to meet these objectives and once…

  9. Exploring Rural High School Learners' Experience of Mathematics Anxiety in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlalele, Dipane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in academic settings. Mathematics anxiety has been found to have an adverse effect on confidence, motivation and achievement. This quantitative study is exploratory and descriptive in nature. The participants were 403 learners doing mathematics in…

  10. Women Managing/Managing Women: The Marginalization of Female Leadership in Rural School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines 21 female administrators' accounts of their experience in a rural Nova Scotia school district. Presents preliminary findings of these women's own responses, resistances, and initiatives while attempting to legitimize and implement their preferred leadership styles, which stressed relationships, instructional leadership, communication, and…

  11. A Survey of Professional Training and Certification of Rural Administrators and Rural Teachers in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Wayne

    Teachers and administrators in rural New Mexico schools and preservice teachers at New Mexico State University were surveyed to determine components that could be included in teacher education programs to augment prospective rural teachers' skills and to ease problems of recruitment/retention of certified personnel in rural schools. Questionnaires…

  12. Propaganda, Censorship, and Civic Education in Rural Missouri Schools during World War I: The Benton County Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William I.

    This study describes the patriotic public rituals, the propaganda materials, and the censorship activities that were part of the school experience in Missouri during World War I. It also examines the apparent responses of two rural Benton County communities to those rituals, materials and activities. Benton County is a rural area of central…

  13. Health risk behavior of rural secondary school students in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, C K; McDermott, R J; Westhoff, W W; Mushore, M; Mushore, T; Chitsika, E; Majange, C S; Chauke, P

    2001-10-01

    A socioculturally appropriate health risk behavior instrument, modeled after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), was administered to 717 secondary school students in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Comparisons of risk behaviors by gender and school grade were made using univariate procedures and multiple logistic regression. Males were significantly more likely than females to have had sexual intercourse (odds ratio = 5.02, p < .0001) and to report drug use behaviors. Males also were significantly more likely to report early initiation (by age 13 years) of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. School site violence and drug use behaviors also were prevalent in this sample. An interaction between gender and grade was evident for some behaviors. Additional research may further the understanding of these risk behaviors and facilitate development of effective, culturally relevant risk reduction programs.

  14. Urban-Rural Literacy Gaps in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Roles of Socioeconomic Status and School Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author documents the learning disadvantage of rural primary school students in sub-Saharan Africa and attempts to identify the factors underlying such disadvantages. Analyzing data from 14 school systems participating in the second study of the Southern and Western Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ…

  15. A qualitative study of medical students in a rural track: views on eventual rural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseamelia, Carrie; Greenwald, James L; Bush, Tiffany; Pratte, Morgan; Wilcox, Jessica; Morley, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    Rural tracks (RTs) exist within medical schools across the United States. These programs often target those students from rural areas and those with primary care career interests, given that these factors are robust predictors of eventual rural practice. However, only 26% to 64% of graduates from RTs enter eventual rural practice. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory study of medical students enrolled in one school's RT, examining their interests in rural training, specialization, and eventual rural practice, via open coding of transcripts from focus groups and in-depth individual interviews, leading to identification of emerging themes. A total of 16 out of 54 eligible first- and second-year preclinical medical students participated in focus group sessions, and a total of seven out of 17 eligible third- and fourth-year medical students participated in individual interviews. Analyses revealed the recognition of a "Rural Identity," typical characteristics, and the importance of "Program Fit" and "Intentions for Practice" that trended toward family medicine specialization and rural practice. However, nuances within the comments reveal incomplete commitment to rural practice. In many cases, student preference for rural practice was driven largely by a disinterest in urban practice. Students with rural and primary care practice interests are often not perfectly committed to rural practice. However, RTs may provide a haven for such students within medical school.

  16. The Life Plans of Rural School Students in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abankina, T. V.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a comparative study of the educational, career, and migration strategies of rural school students in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan show high levels of educational aspiration. This is likely to increase the flow of population to urban areas, to increase the rate of urbanization, and to have demographic and economic consequences that will…

  17. Teacher Identity in a Multicultural Rural School: Lessons Learned at Vista Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Kerri J.; Dinsmore, Jan; Villagomez, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a 30-month qualitative exploration of diverse teachers' identities in a high-poverty, bilingual, K-8 public charter school in rural eastern Oregon. First, we use the perspectives of saberes docentes and a situated view of teacher development to document the life histories of monolingual and bilingual teachers at Vista…

  18. Racism and Bullying in Rural Primary Schools: Protecting White Identities Post Macpherson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how two primary schools in rural England with overwhelmingly White populations (of students and teachers) dealt with incidents of racist bullying in relation to their race equality policies. The data are drawn from in-depth interviews with parents, head teachers and teachers. The article draws on the work of Foucault to argue…

  19. Exploring rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in academic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipane Hlalele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in academic settings. Mathematics anxiety has been found to have an adverse effect on confidence, motivation and achievement. This quantitative study is exploratory and descriptive in nature. The participants were 403 learners doing mathematics in 18 rural schools in the Free State province of South Africa. Participants completed a 20-item questionnaire and 373 (92.5% questionnaires were found to contain valid responses and were analysed by a professional statistician at the University of the Free State using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 17.0. The questionnaire was testedfor reliability using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and was found to have a reliability score of .841, indicating an acceptable reliability coefficient. Findings reveal that all learners sometimes, often, or always experience mathematics anxiety in academic settings. It is therefore important for teachers and authorities in education to observe its prevalence and to implement strategies toward the alleviation of the effects ofmathematics anxiety.

  20. In-school Snacking, Breakfast Consumption, and Sleeping Patterns of Normal and Overweight Iranian High School Girls: A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Mohsen; Rashidi, Arash; Mohammadpour, Behnoush; Vafa, Reza; Karandish, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of snacking during school hours, sleep time, and breakfast consumption by weight status of Iranian high school girls in urban and rural areas in Guilan Province, Iran. Design: Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire and measure of body weight and height. Setting: High schools in urban and…

  1. Rural Dilemmas in School-to-Work Transition: Low Skill Jobs, High Social Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Arnold

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-three employers in rural Arizona were interviewed concerning employer expectations, workplace opportunities, authority patterns, rewards, and social interaction at work regarding entry level workers directly out of high school. Available work was low skill with few rewards, yet demanded strong social skills and work ethic. Discusses…

  2. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, A M; Longacre, M R; Skatrud-Mickelson, M; Li, Z; Purvis, L A; Titus, L J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A

    2013-05-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location - urban, town or rural - and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Cross-sectional observational study. Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P = 0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sociotechnical Narratives in Rural, High-Poverty Elementary Schools: Comparative Findings from East Texas and South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker, Erik J.

    2014-01-01

    The article's purpose is to compare case studies of computer technology use at two rural elementary schools across two international settings. This study uses the Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) theory to guide this comparative investigation of how elementary school teachers and students in East Texas and South India construct meaning for…

  4. Rural Schooling in Mobile Modernity: Returning to the Places I've Been

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In my book "Learning to Leave: The Irony of Schooling in a Coastal Community" (Corbett, 2007) I make the claim that there is a deep and established connection between formal education and mobility out of rural areas. The book reports on a study undertaken in a coastal community in Atlantic Canada focusing on the educational and life…

  5. TLE TeachLive™: Using Technology to Provide Quality Professional Development in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieker, Lisa A.; Hynes, Michael C.; Hughes, Charles E.; Hardin, Stacey; Becht, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Rural schools face challenges in training and retaining qualified teachers, especially special education personnel. This article describes how an interdisciplinary team at the University of Central Florida developed TLE TeachLivE™, a virtual reality application designed to serve as a classroom simulation to support teachers and administrators to…

  6. Adaptability of the In-Use Textbooks to Students in Rural Junior Middle School in Henan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Daohuan

    2013-01-01

    In Henan province, and through out China, both students in cities and countrysides are using the same textbooks for junior high schools. This phenomenon unavoidably resulted in the fact that it is difficult for students in rural junior high school to understand the contents in textbooks. In order to investigate whether the learning difficulty…

  7. The Headmaster-as-a-mentor: a Mentoring Model for Rural Primary School of Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Tuah, Adi Badiozaman

    2015-01-01

    : This paper attempts to present an alternative approach to training and improving the quality of teachers serving in rural schools of Sarawak. Based on the understanding that teacher training places are quite limited and that there are limited opportunities for meaningful interaction between school personnel and the central office or the teacher training institutions, it is argued that the overall quality of the teaching learning processes can be achieved through a systematic and properly st...

  8. Context and the Gendered Status of Teachers: Women's Empowerment through Leadership of Non-Formal Schooling in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Empowering women to control and change their lives continues to be an important goal for many nations. This article examines the empowering effects of being selected and trained to lead rural schools in Bangladesh, using survey and interview data from 152 village women working with the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee education programme.…

  9. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  10. Changes in Body Mass Index During a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.

  11. An Investigation of Factors Related to Teachers' Organizational Commitment in Rural High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Victoria LaShawn

    2013-01-01

    Relevant literature indicates that teachers who are not committed to their organization do not perform, do not provide a quality education for their students, and do not remain members of the organization; thus, making staffing, retaining, and maintaining highly qualified teachers problematic for rural schools. Limited research has been conducted…

  12. Principal Stability and the Rural Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendola, Andrew; Fuller, Edward J.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the unique features of the rural school context and how these features are associated with the stability of principals in these schools. Given the small but growing literature on the characteristics of rural principals, this study presents an exploratory analysis of principal stability across schools located in different…

  13. Eye Injuries among Primary School Children in Enugu, Nigeria: Rural vs Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonso Ejikeme Okpala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were <15 years in two randomly selected primary schools in the urban area and three randomly selected schools in the rural area were interviewed and examined with Snellen chart, pen torch, head loupe, and direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire and the World Health Organization Programme for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL eye examination form. Training on visual acuity measurement was done for each of the class teachers. A total of 1,236 children <15 years of age were studied and analyzed. Slightly more females, 652 (52.8%, than males, 584 (47.2%, constituted the sample population giving a female/male ratio of 1.1:1. A total of 98 (7.93% children had evidence of injury to the eye or its adnexa. Eyelid scar was the commonest (5.34% followed by eyebrow scar (2.10%. Canthal scar was the next (0.32%. Two girls had monocular blindness from eye trauma (0.16%. One had leucoma, while the other had a dislocated lens. All the monocular blind children of this study were from the urban area. The home was the commonest environment for an eye injury (69.39% followed by the school (20.41%. The farm was next in frequency (7.14%, especially among boys in the rural area. The church and the road/street constituted the remainder. Regarding persons causing the injury, the child's playmate was the commonest (55.10% followed by self (27.55%. Parents and guardians were the next (9.18%. These were injuries associated with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%, RTA

  14. [Study on the school-related-factors of attempted suicide among rural middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiu-Ya; Tao, Fang-Biao; Hao, Jia-Hu; Xu, Shao-Jun; Su, Pu-Yu; Huang, Zhao-Hui

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine possible relationship between attempted suicide and underachievement, bullying, low life satisfaction and low self-concept at school. An anonymous self-report survey assessing demographic characteristics and the major risk factors of teenage attempted suicide was completed by students from 16 middle schools in grades seven to twelve in 4 counties of Anhui province (age 10 to 21 years). An anonymous questionnaire was used to rate attempted suicide, bullying involvement and learning performance. Attempted suicide was defined as: experiencing specific suicide actions at least one time during the 12 months preceding the survey. Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale and Children' s Self-concept Scale were used to evaluate satisfaction and self-conscience on and at respectively. In total, 10 894 respondents substantially completed the survey. Multiple logistic-regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic variables, was used to analyze if underachievement, bullying, low school life satisfaction and low children' s self-conscience at school had been risk factors. 629 participants (5.8%) reported having made at least one attempted suicide within the last 12 months. Students being underachieved were significantly having more attempted suicide events than those excellent students (chi2 = 11.39, P = 0.023). Students being both bully-victims and practiced bully were significantly more than those being only practiced bully (28.7% vs. 15.8% , P bullying, lower school life satisfaction and low self conscience were risk factors for attempted suicide. Data from this study confirmed that school bullying and children' s self-conscience at school were significantly associated with attempted suicide among rural middle school students in Anhui province. It is of importance to improve the school' s environments to reduce the risk of attempted suicide among this group.

  15. 國民中學適足教育經費:臺灣偏遠與非偏遠地區學校的比較 Estimating Adequate Funding to Meet Performance Standards for Junior High School Students: Adequate Funding Comparisons Between Rural and Non-Rural Schools in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張良丞 Liang-Cheng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 臺灣學生近年來在國際大型測驗表現亮眼,但如進一步檢視學校所處地區,即可明顯看出臺灣存在巨大的城鄉差距問題:偏遠地區與大城市相比,不僅數學表現較差,且出現各校數學差距相對較大的情況。不足的教育經費可能是導致此差距的原因之一,本研究因此以成本函數法來估算偏遠與非偏遠地區學校達成預期學生學業成就所需的適足經費,並以國中基測數學基礎級、平均數、精熟級來作為適足分數,以估算不同程度所需的適足經費,結果發現,無論何種適足分數,偏遠地區所需的每生適足經費皆比非偏遠地區為高,且超過半數以上的偏遠學校未達適足經費水準。本研究亦根據研究結果,提出改進建議。 Although the mathematical ability of Taiwanese students is ranked high according to the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA, Taiwan faces the problem of a gap in test scores between rural students and their non-rural counterparts, with the latter group scoring higher on average. Inadequate funding is a possible reason for this discrepancy. Therefore, this paper uses the cost function approach to compare adequate funding requirements between rural and non-rural schools. The adequate funding estimates are calculated based on the different levels of mathematics scores in the Basic Competence Test (basic, average, and proficient. The results showed that rural schools require more per student funding than do non-rural schools, irrespective of the use of score levels as references. A greater portion of rural schools were shown to operate under inadequate per student funding compared with non-rural schools. This paper provides further evidence of the urgency of increased investment in rural schools.

  16. Enhancing Asthma Self-Management in Rural School-Aged Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama; Brown, Sharon A; Rew, D Lynn

    2016-06-01

    To test the effects of 2 modes of delivering an asthma educational intervention on health outcomes and asthma self-management in school-aged children who live in rural areas. Longitudinal design with data collected 4 times over 12 months. The target sample was composed of children in grades 2-5 who had a provider diagnosis of asthma. Elementary schools were stratified into high or low socioeconomic status based on student enrollment in the free or reduced-cost lunch program. Schools were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment arms: in-school asthma class, asthma day camp, or the attention-control group. Sample retention was good (87.7%) and equally distributed by study arm. Improvements in emergency department visits and office visits were related to attending either the asthma class or asthma day camp. Asthma severity significantly decreased in both asthma treatment groups. Other factors such as hospitalizations, parent asthma management, and child asthma management improved for all groups. Both asthma class and asthma day camp yielded significant reductions in asthma severity. There were reductions in the emergency department and office visits for the 2 asthma arms, and hospitalizations declined significantly for all groups. Asthma self-management also improved in all groups, while it was somewhat higher in the asthma arms. This may be due to the attention being drawn to asthma management by study participation and the action of completing questionnaires about asthma management, asthma symptoms, and health outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  17. ICT4RED 12 - Component implementation framework: A conceptual framework for integrating mobile technology into resource-constrained rural schools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ICT for Rural Education Development (ICT4RED) is a large-scale pilot that is testing the use of tablets in 26 deep rural schools in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The aim is to develop a replicable framework that will enable evidence...

  18. The Generational Impact of Technology on Formal Writing of Rural Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact text messages, social networks, Instant Messaging, email, and blogging had on rural middle school students' ability to decipher between formal and informal writing. Students completed self-evaluation logs, completed Formal and Informal Writing Assessments, and were scored on their use of…

  19. Faunal knowledge of students in rural schools: a guide for their recognition in science class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinsten Hernández-Barbosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to describe a methodological proposal to identify, classify, and organize the faunistic knowledge of students of rural schools. The research was conducted with twenty sixth graders from a rural school in the Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Through five types of activities, they expressed, in different ways, their knowledge about the animals of the region. The information collected was organized, categorized, and systematized in tables; these tables resulted from the analysis of the information the students provided. It is a possibility of school work that favors the recognition and valuation of the traditional and ancestral knowledge, and its incorporation to the dynamics of the teaching and learning of the Natural Sciences as a way to create “bridges” between that knowledge and the scholarly scientific knowledge. It is a proposal that, among other things, favors the development of more positive attitudes toward science itself, motivates students to ask questions, to recognize the importance of the cultural context, and to recognize themselves as part of a biocultural system.

  20. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Biyun; Xu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC) and the Children’s Lonelin...

  1. School District Personnel Selection Practices: Exploring the Effects of Demographic Factors on Rural Values within a Person-Organization Fit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paula S.; Miller, Stephen K.

    A study examined the extent to which demographic factors predict rural values in Kentucky public school district hiring officials. Among the demographic factors considered were school district metropolitan classification, school district size, community racial composition, decision makers' position in the organizational hierarchy, and decision…

  2. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly T. Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential impact of poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM on equity for girls’ education. This study was conducted prior to a menstrual feasibility study in rural Kenya, to examine current WASH in primary schools and the resources available for menstruating schoolgirls. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in 62 primary schools during unannounced visits. Of these, 60% had handwashing water, 13% had washing water in latrines for menstruating girls, and 2% had soap. Latrines were structurally sound and 16% were clean. Most schools (84% had separate latrines for girls, but the majority (77% had no lock. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs supported WASH in 76% of schools. Schools receiving WASH interventions were more likely to have: cleaner latrines (Risk Ratio (RR 1.5; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.0, 2.1, handwashing facilities (RR 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.5, handwashing water (RR 2.7; CI 1.4, 5.2, and water in girls’ latrines (RR 4.0; CI 1.4, 11.6. Schools continue to lack essential WASH facilities for menstruating girls. While external support for school WASH interventions improved MHM quality, the impact of these contributions remains insufficient. Further support is required to meet international recommendations for healthy, gender-equitable schools.

  3. Current Use of E-Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes Among US High School Students in Urban and Rural Locations: 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T; Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Rayens, Emily A; Howard, Tiffany; Hahn, Ellen J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use is higher in rural than in urban areas. While e-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among this age group, differences in prevalence between rural versus urban populations for this relatively novel product have not been explored. The purpose is to investigate whether location of school (rural-urban) is associated with e-cigarette use and dual use (defined as the use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes) among high school students. Cross-sectional survey obtained using a stratified, 3-stage cluster sample design. United States. A nationally representative sample of US high school students (N = 11 053) who completed the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS); slightly more than half were urban (54%). The NYTS measures tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and use behavior and demographics of students in the United States. Weighted logistic regression assessed the relationships of urban-rural location with current e-cigarette use and dual use, adjusting for demographic factors, perceived risk, and social norms. There were clear differences in patterns of adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette use in rural versus urban areas. Social norms and perceptions may play a role in understanding these differences. Urban youth current cigarette smokers were nearly twice as likely as rural cigarette smokers to also use e-cigarettes. Reasons for urban-rural differences need to be taken into account when designing prevention programs and policy changes.

  4. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  5. 2014 Rural Clinical School Training and Support Program Snapshot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Kumara; Greenhill, Jennene; Walker, Judi; Bailey, Jannine; Croft, Amanda; Doyle, Zelda; McCrossin, Timothy; Stevens, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The Rural Clinical Training and Support (RCTS) program is an Australian Government initiative to address the shortage of medical practitioners within rural and remote Australia. There is a large amount of published information about the RCTS program and rural medical student cohorts who have undertaken short- and long-term rotations. However, very little is known about the academic and professional staff involved in the program, a knowledge gap that may impact workforce and succession planning. To address this, the Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) initiated the pilot 2014 RCTS Snapshot survey to obtain data on the current RCTS workforce. All professional, academic and clinical academic staff (fixed-term and continuing, regardless of fraction) employed through the RCTS program were invited to complete a short, web-based survey. The survey was conducted from March to June 2014. The quantitative variables in the survey included demographics (age and gender), rural background and exposure, employment history in rural/regional areas and at rural clinical schools (RCS), experience and expertise, reasons for working at RCS, and future employment intentions. The last three questions also were of a qualitative open-ended format to allow respondents to provide additional details regarding their reasons for working at RCSs and their future intentions. The estimated total RCTS workforce was 970. A total of 413 responses were received and 316 (40.9%) complete responses analysed. The majority of respondents were female (71%), the 40-60-year age group was predominant (28%), and professional staff constituted the majority (62%). The below 40-year age group had more professionals than academics (21% vs 12%) and more than 62% of academics were aged above 50 years. Notably, there were no academics aged less than 30 years. The percentage of professional staff with a rural background was higher (62%) than that of academics with a rural background (42%). However

  6. Design for sustainability: rural connectivity with village operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has approximately 26500 primary and secondary schools, of which at least 17000 are in remote rural villages. None of these rural schools have any form of Internet connectivity. The same rural villages may have one health facility...

  7. Training and Updating of Education Boards in Indigenous Schools of Rural Areas: Strengthening Local Education Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Torres-Victoria; Oscar Castro-Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Education management in the schools of indigenous rural areas faces a number of difficulties to implement and comply with the guidelines and requirements of the laws related to budgetary management of resources allocated to Education or Administrative Boards. In addition to being located in scattered rural areas, far from the municipal heads and regional offices of the Ministry of Public Education, one of the main obstacles is that all regulations, laws and guidelines are written in Spanish, ...

  8. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a critical but neglected factor influencing school participation of Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Azam, Mohammad Nurul; Ithoi, Init; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Surin, Johari

    2012-05-01

    Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), among the most common neglected tropical diseases, is a major public health problem in Malaysia with a possible impact on the nutritional status and school participation of rural children. This study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren, living in an endemic area for STH in Malaysia, to determine the possible relationship between intestinal helminthiasis and school absenteeism. We also evaluated whether successful treatment of the infection will affect school attendance among the subjects. Stool analysis revealed that more than 90% of the subjects were infected with at least 1 helminth species, with Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections being most prevalent. Infection of moderate-to-heavy worm burdens, low level of fathers' education and anaemia were identified as the significant predictors of high absenteeism among the subjects (P<0·05). Following treatment of the infected children, it was found that school absenteeism was reduced significantly (P<0·01). In conclusion, STH continues to have significant impacts on public health, particularly in rural communities with a negatively significant effect on the school participation of Aboriginal children. A school-based de-worming programme should be introduced and incorporated in the current educational assistance targeted towards the Aboriginal communities, under the auspices of the government.

  9. New School and Applied Anthropology: Rural Education in Peru in the 20s and 30s

    OpenAIRE

    Giesecke Sara-Lafosse, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The connection between the new school and applied anthropology through classical American pragmatism is examined here, as well as its effects on the reflections  on the Indian problem, the spread of the new school methods, and on proposals for rural education in Peru. New education or new school is a trend proposed to implement popular education and even university education, linking education to the community, its history and geography.The literature reviewed emphasizes the development of ci...

  10. What do beginning students, in a rurally focused medical course, think about rural practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Louise; Lindsay, Daniel B; Ray, Robin A

    2016-12-07

    Medical schools may select students for their attitudes towards rural medical practice, yet the rural-urban disparity in availability of medical practitioners and services has not diminished in recent times despite government initiatives and increasing numbers being trained for a career in medicine. One medical school, with a focus on rural and remote medicine, aims to select students with positive perceptions for rural medical practice. A research project collected data on the perceptions of these medical students in the first week of their medical studies. Students completed a low stakes essay on the life and work of a rural doctor. Initially, this formed part of a literacy assessment to determine any students requiring remediation. All students were asked if they would consent to their essay being reviewed for a research project. Data was obtained from those students who consented and handed their essays in for review. The 103 student essays underwent thematic analysis and sentences were coded into three main themes of rural lifestyle, doctor role and rural practice. Second level themes were further elicited and results were quantified according to whether they were positive or negative. Positive themes included rural lifestyle, doctor role, views of doctor, impact on community, broader work and skills knowledge, and better relationships with community and patients. Negative themes included doctor's health, pressure on doctor, family problems, greater workload, privacy and confidentiality issues, cultural issues, isolation, limited resources and financial impacts. Quantitisation of this data was used to transform essay sentences into a numerical form which allowed statistical analysis and comparison of perceptions using Z tests. No significant differences on the number of positive and negative responses for rural lifestyle and rural practice were found. The rural doctor role had a significantly more positive than negative views. Significant differences were

  11. Prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment among rural school-age children of Goro District, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedir, Jafer; Girma, Abonesh

    2014-10-01

    Refractive error is one of the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in children; but community based studies are scarce especially in rural parts of Ethiopia. So, this study aims to assess the prevalence of refractive error and its magnitude as a cause of visual impairment among school-age children of rural community. This community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2009 in rural villages of Goro district of Gurage Zone, found south west of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. A multistage cluster sampling method was used with simple random selection of representative villages in the district. Chi-Square and t-tests were used in the data analysis. A total of 570 school-age children (age 7-15) were evaluated, 54% boys and 46% girls. The prevalence of refractive error was 3.5% (myopia 2.6% and hyperopia 0.9%). Refractive error was the major cause of visual impairment accounting for 54% of all causes in the study group. No child was found wearing corrective spectacles during the study period. Refractive error was the commonest cause of visual impairment in children of the district, but no measures were taken to reduce the burden in the community. So, large scale community level screening for refractive error should be conducted and integrated with regular school eye screening programs. Effective strategies need to be devised to provide low cost corrective spectacles in the rural community.

  12. Dismantling Rural Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, James A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The natural beauty that surrounds many rural schools hides the troubling realities that students in these schools frequently live in poverty and the schools struggle to give these students the education they need. James A. Bryant believes that one source of the problem is the fact that so many school reforms are designed with urban schools in…

  13. Healthy behaviors among teenagers studying in schools in the urban and rural areas of Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Woitas-Ślubowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unhealthy behaviors are related to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Reduction of the risk is possible, although it requires modification of the unhealthy behaviors. This change is possible in all stages of life, however it is most effective in its early phases. A well documented correlation between health-related behaviors and morbidity and mortality makes them an important aspect of public health. Aim: The aim of this study was the recognition  of health-related behaviors among boys and girls studying in the schools of the urban and rural areas of Western Poland and also pointing out a group of youth that should be targeted with specialized health education programmes. Method: This study was conducted on a group of 845 middle school students (14-16 yrs, attending randomly selected middle schools in urban and rural areas located in the Western Poland. An anonymous auditory survey was conducted. The survey consisted of 31 close-ended questions about the demographic and socioeconomic status, and health-related behaviors. In this paper in the statistical evaluation of the accumulated data concerned relationships between health-related behaviors and gender and place of study. Results: A widespread occurrence of unhealthy behaviors was observed. Many participants admitted to unhealthy nutritional habits, and, although less frequently, tobacco use, drinking alcohol and low physical activity. The area in which the students were located played an important part in the nutritional behaviors of boys and with the use of tobacco and the physical activity of girls. The group at the most risk of unhealthy behaviors were the girls studying in the urban middle schools and the boys studying in the rural middle schools. Conclusion: The unhealthy behaviors are a reason for maintaining a regular health education of the middle school students. This education should consider specific educational needs related to the sex and students

  14. "Sticking Together": The Adolescent Experience of the Cohesion Process in Rural School Counseling Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tara M.; Rubel, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory of how adolescents experience the cohesion process in rural school counseling groups. A total of 20 individual interviews with 7 participants were conducted. Data analysis generated the central category of the cohesion process as "sticking together," which describes a "tight…

  15. A Philippine Rural School's Organizational Climate, Teachers' Performance, and Management Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalanon, Junhel; Diano, Liz Muriel; Belarmino, Ma Paciencia; Hayama, Rika; Miyagi, Mayu; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2018-01-01

    This 2016 cross-sectional inquiry used quantitative and thematic content analysis to determine the organizational climate (OC) with empirical and theoretical relation to the teachers' performance (TP) and management competencies (MC) of a rural, K-12, private school in the Philippines. Analyses from a focus group discussion (FGD) was done using…

  16. Training and Updating of Education Boards in Indigenous Schools of Rural Areas: Strengthening Local Education Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Torres-Victoria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Education management in the schools of indigenous rural areas faces a number of difficulties to implement and comply with the guidelines and requirements of the laws related to budgetary management of resources allocated to Education or Administrative Boards. In addition to being located in scattered rural areas, far from the municipal heads and regional offices of the Ministry of Public Education, one of the main obstacles is that all regulations, laws and guidelines are written in Spanish, and there is people, in this indigenous rural communities, who do not speak, write, read or understand this language. This puts them at an enormous disadvantage, which has a direct impact on the indigenous children’s right to education.

  17. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka

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    Muralidhar M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.

  18. Prevalence of Malnutrition in a Rural Residential Sanskrit School in Baglung, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, B; Shrestha, N

    2017-01-01

    Under-nutrition is a condition in which there is inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. Nepal still faces high chronic as well as acute under-nutrition in children. The following study was conducted a Sanskrit school in rural Baglung to find the prevalence of malnutrition among the children which could reflect the nutritional status of the community. Out of 60 students admitted to the school, only 43 were present at the time when we collected our data. Weight was measured with a standard weighing scale and standing height with a measuring tape attached to the wall. Data were filled up in proforma, entered in Microsoft Excel 2013 and were analyzed and indicators calculated with SPSS version 20 using WHO Child Growth Reference data for 5-19 years and macros. Stunting (Z score Sanskrit school where the study was conducted.

  19. Caries prevalence and treatment needs of rural school children in Chidambaram Taluk, Tamil Nadu, South India

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    Saravanan S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain information on caries prevalence and treatment needs of children aged 5-10 years to plan appropriate dental care services in rural areas. Materials and Methods: Children studying in all the primary schools (six schools in the field practice area of the Rural Health Centre of the Faculty of Medicine, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, were surveyed. Each child was clinically examined in the schools by calibrated examiners. Dental caries was assessed using diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO (1997. The chi-square test and two-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Five hundred and eight 5-10 year-old school children (247 boys and 261 girls were surveyed. Caries prevalence was 71.7 and 26.5% in primary and permanent dentition, respectively. The mean dmft and decayed missing filled tooth (DMFT scores were 3.00 and 0.42 respectively. The mean dmft decreased with age ( P < 0.01 whereas the mean DMFT increased with age ( P < 0.001. Although the mean dmft scores were not statistically significant different for the two sexes, the mean DMFT score was found to be higher among girls than among boys ( P < 0.02. The entire dmft/DMFT value represented the ′decay′ component only. There was a strong need for single surface restorations (60.6%. In the WHO index age (5-6 years, the caries prevalence was 70.2% (29.8% caries-free with a mean dmft value of 3.54 ± 3.71. Conclusion: Dental caries is a significant public health problem in this population. An extensive system to provide primary oral health care has to be developed in the rural areas of India.

  20. Rural Teachers' Experiences: Lessons for Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Betsy

    1986-01-01

    Compares and contrasts first year teaching experiences of a grandmother (1919) and granddaughter (1980) in small, isolated, rural New Mexico schools. Offers suggestions for improving recruitment and retention of rural teachers in areas of salary, housing conditions, school philosophy and morale, student population, and community life. (NEC)

  1. Rural Schools in Developing Countries: A Case of Donon Manga in Eastern Tandjile in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoutorlengar, Médard; Djangrang, Man-na; Mamgue, Bassinang; Yongsi, H. B. Nguendo; Groza, Octavian

    2014-01-01

    The schools in rural areas in developing countries are often confronted with difficulties which are, in general, related to poverty, the quantitative and qualitative insufficiency of the professionals and the organization. Consequently, every year, the examinations results are unsatisfactory playing on the curriculum and excellence in the…

  2. FAR FROM THE CITY LIGHTS: ENGLISH READING PERFORMANCE OF ESL LEARNERS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo Manyike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the findings of a research study, in which the English reading performances of Grade 7 English Second Language (ESL learners in four different types of rural primary school which use English as the language of learning and teaching (LoLT were observed, are examined and how poor scores can be partly explained by the social context of learners and schools is explored. Although the Language in Education Policy in South Africa seeks to distribute and maintain the linguistic capital of the official languages through its support of multilingualism, the predominant preference for English as the LoLT in schooling disadvantages most ESL learners and perpetuates inequality in learner outcomes. This situation is exacerbated in certain school contexts such as those in rural settings. Bourdieu’s theory of linguistic capital and Coleman’s distinction between school social capital and home social capital are used as theoretical frameworks to the empirical inquiry undertaken in this study. The findings indicate a difference in the grammar and comprehension scores of learners in the respective participating schools as well as a sharp difference in the performance of learners in the different types of school involved. This suggests the current use of English as the LoLT does not mean that linguistic capital is equally distributed throughout schools. School type can thus act as an agent of cultural reproduction which influences learner outcomes.

  3. Urban and Rural High School Students' Perspectives of Productive Peer Culture for Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Melva R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' perspectives about productive peer culture (PPC) in general and for mathematics learning. The urban and rural high school students in this study have participated for at least one year in either an Algebra Project Cohort Model (APCM) for daily mathematics instruction and/or worked as mathematics…

  4. Modern Distance Education Project for the Rural Schools of China: Recent Development and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. Q.; Wang, Minjuan J.

    2006-01-01

    The Modern Distance Education Project for the Rural Schools (MDEPRS) of China has a wider scope and serves a larger population than any other informational project in the world. It likely will result in a far-reaching informational revolution for basic education in China. Here, we introduce three main innovative models of material delivery, the…

  5. Educational Facility Evaluations of Primary Schools in Rural Honduras: Departments of Cortes and Meambar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    A team of 11 educational facility planners and architects from the United States and Canada conducted a facility evaluation of schools in the rural areas of Meambar and Cortes, Honduras. Team members were all part of the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International and traveled to Honduras under the auspices of a Christian mission…

  6. Do Rural and Regional Students in Queensland Experience an ICT "Turn-Off" in the Early High School Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Lyn; Anderson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Students learning in regional, rural and remote locations in Queensland are currently experiencing a "turn-off" in relation to school-based ICT in the first three years of high school. At the same time, students are experiencing increasing levels of interest and motivation from their use of ICT at home. Given the importance of ICT as an…

  7. Custodian for elderly with memory impairment in Sweden - a study of 260 physicians' statements to the court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstén, Karin S; Fälldin, Kerstin; Ulfvarson, Johanna

    2014-08-26

    In the modern world with new family structures, international migration and increased life expectancy, there is a growing need for legal ways of assisting elderly with impaired mental capacity to decide about their life and assets. There are few studies about the physician's role when a court appoints proxies for vulnerable elderly. Many doctors do not know how to assess mental capacity, and most lawyers and judges know little about medicine. Applications for a custodian sent to the Stockholm Chief Guardian' Office in Sweden were used. Physician's statements to the court for elderly with memory impairment were selected and 260 statements were scrutinized with regard to formal quality, the narrative content and the physician who wrote it. The quality of the statements varied from one sentence to excellent. Most statements were written by senior family practitioners or geriatricians. Seventeen % of the statements were handwritten and had more formal shortcomings than machine/computer written statements.The majority of patients needed massive help with daily life and economy. Median age was 84 years of age. MMSE score was given in 20% of the cases and varied from 6-27.A diagnosis of dementia was established in 57%. At the time of application, at least 48% were in a hospital or nursing home and at least 27% were in their private home. Only 5% were living with a spouse or a child. In 53% of the cases, the doctor knew the patient, but in 40% of the cases, the identity of the patient was not confirmed. The physician found that 54% were unable to understand the idea of getting a custodian, but out of those very vulnerable elderly, 20% had signed consent and 57% were considered able to be heard in court. There is a large variation in the quality of physicians' statements to the court concerning the mental capacity of elderly patients with cognitive impairment. Many statements have serious short-comings, and the system is not safe. There is a strong need for guide

  8. A Holistic School-Based Nutrition Program Fails to Improve Teachers' Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxu; Stewart, Donald; Chang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of a holistic school-based nutrition programme using the health-promoting school (HPS) approach, on teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two…

  9. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  10. Sexual and reproductive health information sources preferred by out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and

  11. Student perception about working in rural United States/Canada after graduation: a study in an offshore Caribbean medical school [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4vz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravi Shankar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural residents of the United States (US and Canada face problems in accessing healthcare. International medical graduates (IMGs play an important role in delivering rural healthcare. IMGs from Caribbean medical schools have the highest proportion of physicians in primary care.  Xavier University School of Medicines admits students from the US, Canada and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD course and also offers a premedical program. The present study was conducted to obtain student perception about working in rural US/Canada after graduation.   Methods: The study was conducted among premedical and preclinical undergraduate medical (MD students during October 2014. The questionnaire used was modified from a previous study. Semester of study, gender, nationality, place of residence and occupation of parents were noted. Information about whether students plan to work in rural US/Canada after graduation, possible reasons why doctors are reluctant to work in rural areas, how the government can encourage rural practice, possible problems respondents anticipate while working in rural areas were among the topics studied. Results: Ninety nine of the 108 students (91.7% participated. Forty respondents were in favor of working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Respondents mentioned good housing, regular electricity, water supply, telecommunication facilities, and schools for education of children as important conditions to be fulfilled. The government should provide higher salaries to rural doctors, help with loan repayment, and provide opportunities for professional growth.  Potential problems mentioned were difficulty in being accepted by the rural community, problems in convincing patients to follow medical advice, lack of exposure to rural life among the respondents, and cultural issues. Conclusions: About 40% of respondents would consider working in rural US/Canada. Conditions required to be fulfilled have been

  12. In-Place Training: Optimizing Rural Health Workforce Outcomes through Rural-Based Education in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jennifer; Brown, Leanne; Burrows, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The medical workforce shortfall in rural areas is a major issue influencing the nature of undergraduate medical education in Australia. Exposing undergraduates to rural life through rural clinical school (RCS) placements is seen as a key strategy to address workforce imbalances. We investigated the influence of an extended RCS placement and rural…

  13. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  14. The relationship between BMI and dietary intake of primary school children from a rural area of South Africa: The Ellisras longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Monyeki, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between dietary intake and BMI of primary school children from a rural area of South Africa cross-sectionally. Both under and over nutrition remain major health problems in South Africa. In rural areas, where especially undernutrition leads to child

  15. A Rural Math, Science, and Technology Elementary School Tangled up in Global Networks of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Kimmel, Sue; Tschida, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This is an ethnographic study of a newly created math, science, and technology elementary magnet school in a rural community fiercely committed to cultural preservation while facing unprecedented economic instability brought on by massive loss of manufacturing jobs. Our goal was to understand global- and community-level contexts that influenced…

  16. Health Needs of Ashram Schools in Rural Wardha

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    Amol R Dongre

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the health needs for health promoting Ashram schools in rural Wardha. Methods: It was a cross sectional study undertaken in 10 Ashram schools, using qualitative (SWOT analysis, Transect walks and Semi-structured interviews of teachers and quantitative (Survey methods. Hemoglobin examination of all children was done by using WHO hemoglobin color scale. Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight of each child were obtained. Physical activity score for each child was calculated. The manual content analysis of qualitative data was done and the quantitative data was entered and analyzed using Epi_info (version 6.04d software package. Results: Out of 1287 children examined, 724 (56.3% were boys and 563 (43.7% were girls. About 576 (44.8%, 213 (16.6%, 760 (59.1% children had untrimmed nails, dirty clothes and unclean teeth respectively. More girls had (31.6% lice infestation than boys (18.2%. Eighty six (6.7%, 75 (5.8% and 110 (8.6% children had scabies, fungal infection and multiple boils on their skin respectively and 158 (12.3%, 136 (10.6% and 66 (18.3% children had dental caries, wax in ears and worm infestation respectively. Notably, 988 (76.8% children had iron deficiency anemia which was significantly more among girls (81.9% than boys (72.8%. About 506 (39.3% children consumed any tobacco product in last one month. About 746 (57.9% children were classified to have sedentary physical activity. Among 774 children (>12 years, 183 (23.6% and 34 (4.4% children felt lonely ‘sometime’ and ‘most of the times’ respectively. About 398 (94.3% boys and 342 (97.2% girls did not know the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. Conclusions: In conclusion, there was high prevalence of risk factors for both communicable and non-communicable diseases in Ashram school environment. This dictates the urgent need for teacher driven, needs based and school based intervention that can screen and identify potentially preventable health

  17. Smart Snacks in School Legislation Does Not Change Self-Reported Snack Food and Beverage Intake of Middle School Students in Rural Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna; Hosig, Kathy; Zhang, Angang; Shen, Sumin; Serrano, Elena

    To assess the effects of the national Smart Snacks in School standards, which include nutrient and ingredient limitations for school competitive foods and beverages effective July, 2014, on student intake in low-income rural Appalachian middle schools. Food-frequency questionnaires were administered to students before and after implementation. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were conducted to examine effects from year of data collection, grade, and free or reduced price lunch participation rates. No significant changes were observed after implementation except a decrease in consumption of 1% or nonfat flavored milk at school. Smart Snacks in School standards did not result in significant dietary changes in this study. Longitudinal studies could evaluate long-term impacts of nutrition standards. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of Current Situation of Learning Motivation, Social Anxiety and Loneliness of the Left-behind Children in Rural Primary School

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    Zhang Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the situation of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children. Method: Selecting three rural primary schools in Xian’an District of Xianning City to investigate left-behind situation, learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of pupils in Grades 4 to 6 in rural primary school in Xian’an District by the use of the MAAT-I-A which is revised by Zhou Bucheng, the Social Anxiety Scale for Children (SASC and the Children’s Loneliness Scale (CLS. Results: (1 The learning motivation of the left-behind children in rural primary school is in a slightly higher medium level. Social anxiety is significantly higher than normal level in Chinese city, and the level of loneliness of about 1/5 of the left-behind children is relatively high. (2 The score of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children in the level of knowledge learning has significant grade differences, without significant gender differences. (3 The level of learning motivation, social anxiety and loneliness of the left-behind children is slightly higher than that of non-left-behind children, but both differences are not significant.

  19. Phenomenological Analysis of Teachers' Organizational Deviance Experiences in a Rural Primary School in Turkey

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    Anasiz, Burcu Türkkas; Püsküllüoglu, Elif Iliman

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze organizational deviance experiences of teachers. The study was in phenomenological design among qualitative research methods. In the research convenience sampling technique was used. The research was conducted in a rural primary school in Mugla province in Turkey. Nine teachers participated in the study,…

  20. Classroom Goal Structures and HIV and Pregnancy Prevention Education in Rural High School Health Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV and pregnancy instruction, 3 months after instruction, and 1 year after instruction). Results indicated…

  1. Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic factors among rural school-aged children in Bijar, 2014

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    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of major dietary patterns using factor analysis can provide information about health status of children by obtaining an overall picture of the person's diet. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and to identify socioeconomic factors affecting them in school age children in rural areas of Bijar, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 255 rural school age children living rural areas of Bijar were selected by simple random sampling. Dietary intakes during the past year and assessment of socioeconomic information were examined. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis and their relation to socioeconomic factors was investigated. Results: Three major dietary patterns," traditional", "modern" and "mixed", were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnic and energy intake, Age of mother (b= 0.03, CI=0.00_0.05 was positively associated and age of father (b= -0.03, CI=-0.05_-0.01, laboring Job for father (b= -0.24, CI=-0.44_-0.03 and higher education of parents (b= -0.20, CI=-0.35_-0.05 were negatively associated with traditional dietary pattern. In addition, higher education of parents (b= 0.27, CI=0.11_0.44 was positively associated and age of mother (b= -0.03, CI=-0.06_0.00 was negatively associated with mixed dietary pattern. Conclusion: Some socio-economic variables such as maternal age, parental education, parental occupation and economic conditions can have effect on major dietary patterns among rural children.

  2. Interactive Instructional Television: Education for Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagal, Judy; And Others

    The Rural Special Education Project is a federally funded partnership between Kayenta Unified School District and Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Center for Excellence in Education that aims to prepare well qualified special education teachers to work in rural and reservation schools. The participants are Native American residents working…

  3. Constructing and Reconstructing the "Rural School Problem": A Century of Rural Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Catharine; Azano, Amy Price

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines 100 years of rural education research in the context of the demographic, migratory, economic, and social changes that have affected rural America in the past century. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature on rural teacher recruitment, retention, and training as a case study to examine the constancy and…

  4. Growing health partnerships in rural and remote communities: what drives the joint efforts of primary schools and universities in maintaining service learning partnerships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sue; Held, Fabian P; Jones, Debra; Lyle, David

    2018-01-10

    Aim This study explored the partnership between universities and local primary schools to deliver a classroom-based paediatric communication impairment service provided by undergraduate speech pathology students. It aimed to understand how partnerships work to facilitate programme replication. The partners included universities sending students on rural clinical placement, local host academic units and primary schools who worked together to provide paediatric speech and language services in primary schools in three sites in Australia. Rural and remote communities experience poorer health outcomes because of chronic workforce shortages, social disadvantage and high Aboriginality, poor access to services and underfunding. The study was in twofold: qualitative analysis of data from interviews/focus group with the partners in the university and education sectors, and quantitative social network analysis of data from an electronic survey of the partners. Findings Factors supporting partnerships were long-term, work and social relationships, commitment to community, trust and an appetite for risk-taking. We postulate that these characteristics are more likely to exist in rural communities.

  5. The Joan Wint Story: Biography of a Principal Whose Leadership for Social Justice Transformed a Rural Jamaican High School

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    Oram-Sterling, Jacqueline

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a biographical study of the life of a retired high school principal in Jamaica. Joan Miller Wint was born on May 10, 1946, in the small rural district of Success in Westmoreland, Jamaica. This study of Wint's life centers on school transformation and organizational change, exploring her leadership as a principal through the…

  6. Rural Education and teaching material: an analysis of History textbooks

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    Cicero da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the goal is to analyse history textbooks (LDH used by Elementary School (6th grade in rural schools located in the municipality of Tocantinópolis-TO. Considering that the training in the Rural Education perspective has made it possible to recognize and value knowledge and culture, seeking the emancipation of the peasants, this investigation of the selected teaching material includes an analysis of the following elements of the textbooks: (1 contents; (2 activities; (3 teacher-student interaction; and (4 images. The research is of bibliographic nature and qualitative approach. The corpus consists of two LDHs: one produced for the Programa Escola Ativa and another for schools located in urban areas, but also used in the rural schools of research context. In view of the reality of rural schools and the social, political and economic context in which the peasants have lived, the research results have revealed that only one of the LDHs analyzed follows the principles defended by Rural Education.

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Secondary School Teenagers towards HIV Transmission and Prevention in Rural and Urban Areas of Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukundo, Annamaria; Muwonge, Mathias M; Mugisha, Danny; Aturwanaho, Dickens; Kasangaki, Arabat; Bbosa, Godfrey S

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has remained a challenge in Uganda among adolescent despite the ABC strategy used globally to prevent HIV infection. The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of secondary school teenagers towards HIV transmission and prevention in rural and urban schools of central Uganda. A cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaires and structured interviews was used to collect data from adolescents in secondary schools in Kampala and Buikwe districts. Eight schools were randomly selected with 4 schools in each district. A total of 245 students from schools were recruited in the study with 120 and 125 students from urban Kampala and rural Buikwe district schools respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. The results were expressed as percentages in a 2 × 2 tables. The mean age of the participants was 15.9 ± 2.5 years. Results showed that 95.1% participants had knowledge on HIV/AIDS in both urban and rural schools and 27.4% knew all the modes of HIV transmission. About 83.7% knew the ABC strategy for HIV prevention and 37.6% would talk about HIV/AIDS mainly with friends. For HIV cure, 62.0% of study participants reported non-cure and 24.9% were not sure. The remaining 13.1% of the study participants in both urban and rural schools reported that HIV can be cured. And the modes of curing HIV that were mentioned by participants included spiritual healing, transmitting it to others through sexual intercourse and that antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs can cure it as well as that it can be cured abroad. About 65.7% of participants reported recognition of one with HIV/ AIDS and by having red lips, being sickly; weight loss, skin rash and being very rich were mentioned. About 39.2% of the study participants mentioned that they cannot get infected with HIV and can't contract HIV at all and 18.4% believed that chances of getting HIV infection were high. On perception and attitude on condoms and their use, participants reported that it is

  8. Eye Injuries Among Primary School Children in Enugu, Nigeria: Rural vs Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Nonso Ejikeme; Umeh, Rich Enujioke; Onwasigwe, Ernest Nnemeka

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of eye injuries among primary school children in two noncontiguous local government areas of Enugu State of Nigeria was undertaken. One of the local government areas was urban, while the other one was rural. Children who were children children had evidence of injury to the eye or its adnexa. Eyelid scar was the commonest (5.34%) followed by eyebrow scar (2.10%). Canthal scar was the next (0.32%). Two girls had monocular blindness from eye trauma (0.16%). One had leucoma, while the other had a dislocated lens. All the monocular blind children of this study were from the urban area. The home was the commonest environment for an eye injury (69.39%) followed by the school (20.41%). The farm was next in frequency (7.14%), especially among boys in the rural area. The church and the road/street constituted the remainder. Regarding persons causing the injury, the child's playmate was the commonest (55.10%) followed by self (27.55%). Parents and guardians were the next (9.18%). These were injuries associated with corporal punishment. Corporal punishment-related eye injury, according to this study, appears to be common in the rural area and affects boys predominantly. Other human intermediary agents that cause an eye injury include passersby (2.04%), RTA (2.04%), siblings (2.04%), and others (1.02%). The primary agents that caused an eye injury were sticks/wood, 29 (29.60%); stone, 21 (21.43%); pieces of metal, 19 (19.39%); fall, 10 (10.20%); fight/fist blow, 9 (9.918%); plastic, 2 (2.04%); fingernails, 2 (2.04%); farm tools/fruits, 2 (2.04%); and RTA, glass, and headbutt, each 1.02%. Farm implements/fruits as well as fingernails appear to be fairly common primary agents that cause an eye injury in the rural Enugu, Nigeria. In terms of prevalence, there was no significant difference between the urban and rural areas. The findings from this study showed a high prevalence of eye injury among primary school children. In terms of

  9. Teachers' Perspectives of the Principals' Invitational Leadership Behaviors, Teacher Job Satisfaction and Principal Effectiveness in High-Poverty Rural Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Matthew Christopher Zadin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Invitational Leadership behaviors on school teacher satisfaction, teacher perceptions of the school principal's performance, and to identify if there was a difference between the levels of inviting behaviors of principals at high-achieving and low-achieving rural schools in North Carolina. The…

  10. Determinants of Primary School Non-Enrollment and Absenteeism: Results from a Retrospective, Convergent Mixed Methods, Cohort Study in Rural Western Kenya.

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    Nia King

    Full Text Available Education is a key element in the socioeconomic development required to improve quality of life in Kenya. Despite the introduction of free primary education, primary school enrollment and attendance levels remain low. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data, this study explores the determinants of non-enrollment and absenteeism in rural western Kenya and potential mitigation strategies to address these issues.The study was conducted in Bwaliro village in rural western Kenya. A random sample of 64 students was obtained by blocking the village primary school's student population according to grade level, gender, and orphan status. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through interviews with parents, guardians, and key informants, and focus group discussions with students. Quantitative data were compared using chi-square tests, Student's T-test, and Poisson regressions. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic content analysis.Malaria, menstruation, and lack of money were among the most notable determinants of primary school dropout and absenteeism, and these factors disproportionately impacted orphans and female students. Potential mitigation strategies suggested by the community included provision of malaria treatment or prevention, reduction in education costs, expansion of the established school-feeding program, and provision of sanitary pads.Despite free primary education, numerous factors continue to prevent children in rural western Kenya from attending primary school. The findings suggest that interventions should primarily target orphaned and female students. Prior to implementation, suggested mitigation strategies should be assessed for cost-effectiveness.

  11. Rural and school community in appreciating knowledge on medical plants

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    Marcílio Souza Carneiro

    2016-05-01

    Isolated communities in the urban environment still use medicinal plants, but such knowledge is not always passed on to new generations. In this scenario, we propose a study with students, teachers, and community residents from Córrego da Ema, Amontada, Ceará, Brazil, aiming to know the wisdom of medicinal plants in a small rural community in the Brazilian semi-arid region. We interviewed the medicinal plant connoisseurs, named as local experts, by using the “snow ball” method. We applied questionnaires to investigate Elementary School students’ knowledge on medicinal plants (pre-tour. These actions provided a basis for planning guided-tours, activities aimed at 51 students, which we carried out along with the 10 experts and 2 local school teachers, whose results (post-tour were assessed by using the same pre-tour questionnaire. Most local experts were women (80%, their families had many people and low education level, factors that contribute to using medicinal plants. Experts cited 35 medicinal plant species. Students cited 24 pre-tour plant species and 28 post-tour plant species. Students increased their knowledge, as there was also a post-tour increase in therapeutic indications and preparation methods, as mentioned. The school played an important role in appreciating this intangible heritage, because it enabled actions involving formal and informal education.

  12. The Consortium for Evidence Based Research in Rural Educational Settings (CEBRRES): Applying Collaborative Action Research as a Means of Enhancing the Development of Rural Middle School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, A. H.

    2006-05-01

    Kentucky ranks third in the U.S. in need of rural education attention. Rural schools in Kentucky serve nearly 40% of the total student population, and graduation rates and NAEP scores are low. A two-year pilot study is being completed addressing psychological, social, and content knowledge based constructs, as they apply to science and mathematics achievement in rural environments. The goals are to identify the key aspects of rural teachers knowledge and skills, use a framework to describe how knowledge and skills develop in the rural classroom, apply a useful model of intervention to promote teacher development and increased student learning. If proven successful the knowledge can be incorporated into the practice of current teaching and preservice pedagogical methods. The problem that was identified and addressed by CEBRRES is the high level of student disengagement and the shortage of rigorous stimulating curriculum models. The action taken was the development and implementation of model eliciting activities. Teachers at the target school were expected to utilize action research methodology to execute model-eliciting activities in the classroom, and then communicate results in forms that are useful for other teachers. Benefits to teachers included stipends, increased science content depth and breadth, support to achieve "highly qualified teacher status", extensive professional development, and technology, equipment, and supplies for their school. Survey instruments were devised to address school perceptions (61% worry that they are not doing well enough in school), future plans (80% expect to attend college vs. the current 47.5%), various self concepts, academic self concepts (23% feel that learning is difficult for them), and family self concepts. Science was identified by the students as the subject that interests them the most, followed by math, yet Kentucky ranks near the bottom of the U.S. in math and science training in the workplace. Geology

  13. Narratives of Resilience among Learners in a Rural Primary School in Swaziland

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    Pholoho Justice Morojele

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the concepts of social constructionism, the article provides insights on how six purposively sampled Grade 6 vulnerable children, aged between 11‒15, from poverty-stricken families, child-headed households and those allegedly orphaned by AIDS, resiliently navigated their schooling spaces and places in one rural, primary school in Swaziland. The article uses qualitative data from semi-structured individual and focus group interviews and a participatory research method, photovoice, to foreground narrative accounts of the vulnerable children’s creative coping mechanisms aimed at overcoming the unfavourable circumstances of their schooling experiences. Despite facing some home- and school-based challenges, the vulnerable children were found to display deep-rooted resilience, with or without social support and aspiration for educational attainment, seen as a viable alternative for a better future. Creative coping mechanisms that vulnerable children adopted included calculated rebellion against abusive teachers and consignment to solitude or isolation when feeling overwhelmed by unpleasant experiences. It is recommended that support strategies should involve affirming vulnerable children’s voice and resilience, drawing on how these children already creatively navigate their challenges. 

  14. Work-related injuries of educational support staff in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dong Hwan; Jeong, Byung Yong

    2018-02-15

    This study aims to describe the characteristics of occupational injuries to educational support staff (service worker) in schools. In this research, 803 injured workers registered in 2015 were analyzed in terms of their gender, age, work experience, school type, work type, accident type, agency of accident, nature of injury and injured part of the body for each occupation. The workers were classified into after-school instructor, custodian and cooking staff. Accidents occurred mainly due to slips (35.6%) on floor/stair or contact with high temperature (18.1%). Also, the workers mostly fractured (41.2%) or had burns (19.3%) on their leg/foot (37.1%) or arm/hand/finger (29.8%). The results showed the difference in characteristics and injury pattern of injured persons for each occupation type, addressing the need for customized preventative measures for each situation. The results of this study can be a baseline in devising policies and guidelines for preventing accidents of service workers in schools.

  15. The Prevalence of anemia among informal primary school children: a community based study in Rural Upper Egypt

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    Rasha Aziz Salama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background: Anemia has been recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries. The magnitude of anemia among school children has received less attention compared with that in preschoolers and pregnant women. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anemia and to assess its associated factors among informal school children in rural Upper Egypt.Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a randomly selected Girls Education initiative schools in three Egyptian governorates for duration of 11 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data from 2826 children aged 6-19 years. Hemoglobin concentration and anthropometric indicators were assessed using the World Health Organization guidelines. Stool samples were examined for parasitic infestations, using the Kato Katz technique. The objective of the study was adequately explained to participants’ guardian and their consensus was obtained with assured confidentiality.Results: the prevalence of anemia among these children was 59.3%, out of which, 82.5% had mild anemia and 17.4% of them had moderate anemia. It was significantly higher among 64% of children in age group 6-9years and 61.3% of females. The majority of underweight children (75.8% and 66.4% of children with parasitic infestation were anemic.Conclusions: Anemia remains a common problem among GEI School particularly the young children and girls of low income household. School children should be screened periodically and appropriate measures should be taken in order to promote health and guide effective education sector reform initiatives. Keywords: Anemia, GEI schools, Rural Upper Egypt  

  16. Rural Principal Leadership Skill Proficiency and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Pam; Erwin, Sue; Gentry, Jim; Cauble, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Because of the importance of developing highly skilled rural school leaders, statewide assessments of 259 rural Texas public school administrators were analyzed to determine principal confidence levels in leadership skill domains identified by the National Policy Board of Educational Administration (NPBEA). Important findings indicate differences…

  17. -And twelve months later, we are still waiting-: Insights into teaching and use of ICT in rural and remote Australian schools

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    Neil Anderson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the combined data sets from a large ARC (Australian Research Council funded study on the declining enrolments of female students in high school information technology subjects, and a SiMERR (Science, ICT and Mathematics Education for Rural and Regional Australia study of 9 rural or remote schools in the state of Queensland. The aim of examining the combined data set was to investigate any apparent differences between girls’ perceptions of studying higher level ICT subjects in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas. The findings of the study highlighted some problems experienced by female students studying outside of metropolitan areas. They perceived the subject offerings to be ‘more boring’ than their city counterparts and reported a lower level of home ownership. The paper offers possible explanations for the findings and strongly recommends that strategies need to be implemented to overcome these problems.

  18. Relationship between school dropout and teen pregnancy among rural South African young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Miller, William C; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Emch, Michael; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa. Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from 2000 through 2011 for 15 457 young women aged 12-18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time. We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday. School enrolment was associated with lower teen pregnancy rates [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.57 (0.50, 0.65)].This association was robust to potential misclassification of school enrolment. For those enrolled in school, pregnancy occurred less commonly during school term than during school holidays [incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)]. Young women who drop out of school may be at higher risk for teen pregnancy and could likely benefit from receipt of accessible and high quality sexual health services. Preventive interventions designed to keep young women in school or addressing the underlying causes of dropout may also help reduce the incidence of teen pregnancy. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  20. Investigation of air pollutants in rural nursery school - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Anna; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Kozielska, Barbara; Brągoszewska, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Children's exposure to air pollutants is an important public health challenge. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in nursery school is believed to be different from elementary school. Moreover, younger children are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children because they spend more time indoors, and their immune systems and bodies are less mature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the indoor air quality (IAQ) at naturally ventilated rural nursery schools located in Upper Silesia, Poland. We investigated the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), bacterial and fungal bioaerosols, as well as carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in younger and older children's classrooms during the winter and spring seasons. The concentration of the investigated pollutants in indoor environments was higher than those in outdoor air. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1,000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of PM and CO2 levels were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children) and of season (winter or spring).

  1. The Effect of Teacher-Support Programs on Teacher Attrition in a Rural Pre-Kindergarten through Twelfth Grade Public School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    Many new teachers are leaving the profession during their first 3 years in a rural pre-kindergarten through 12th grade public school classroom in the southeastern United States. This study reviewed the teacher-support programs typically used in this school that assisted new teachers and encouraged their retention. This work is important because…

  2. The Impact an Oratory Project generates to Primary School Students who live in Rural Areas of Cartago

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    María Gabriela Amador-Solano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at showing the development and relevance of an extension project in seven rural schools located in “circuito 05” in the central area of Cartago. The main goal is to enhance oral commu­nication in elementary school students. The project was designed as a training workshop for the teach­ers in the chosen schools in order to be taught to students by implementing an oratory club. In each student´s dissertation, the researchers observed the enthusiasm that the project caused in the schools. Objectives, contents, activities, assessment and observations were designed in a didactic plan to be used upon needs of institutions.

  3. A study on health risk behavior of mid-adolescent school students in a rural and an urban area of West Bengal, India

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    Nivedita Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: High-risk behaviors can have adverse effects on health of adolescents. It is essential to identify risks so that modification can be initiated before any damage. The present study was conducted among adolescents to study their risk behaviors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study based on the concept of Global School-based Student Health Survey was conducted by interviewing adolescents of one urban and one rural randomly selected school. For quick overall assessment of their risk behaviors, a predesigned three-point scoring system was followed. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1. Results: The study of six domains of important risk behaviors among 788 school-going adolescents (rural: 436 [55.3%], urban: 352 [44.7%], (male: 406 [51.5%], female: 382 [48.5%] revealed that occurrence of dietary high-risk behavior was more in urban students (11.4% than rural students (1.8%. Regarding violence, occurrence of high-risk behavior was also higher among urban students (18.8% vs. 6%. The number of mentally disturbed girls is more than boys. Conclusion: The mean risk scores in all domains, except personal hygiene, are either in ′Moderate′ or ′high′ risk grade. It is of great concern that rural and urban, male and female adolescents are at risk though their vulnerability varies.

  4. Comparison of nutritional status of rural and urban school students receiving midday meals in schools of Bengaluru, India: A cross sectional study

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    C N Shalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the mid day meal program by assessing the nutritional status of school students aged 5-15 years receiving midday meals in rural schools and compare them with those in urban schools in Bengaluru, India. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study involved a sample of 4378 students from government and aided schools. Weight and height were measured and compared with ′′means′′ and ′′percentiles′′ of expected standards as endorsed by the Indian Association of Pediatrics. Regression coefficients were also estimated to assess the rate of growth. Results: In all age groups and in both sexes, the observed mean weight and height were below the expected standards. The study findings showed that 13.8% and 13.1% of the studied students were underweight and stunted, respectively (below the third percentile for weight and height for age. A higher proportion of rural students were below the third percentile for both weight and height compared with urban students (weight: 16.3% and 11.5%; height: 17.0% and 10.0%; P < 0.05 for both weight and height. Only 2.4% and 3.1% were above 97 th percentile for weight and height. The rate of growth of height for weight showed a declining trend with increasing age in all the groups. Discussion: The authors believe that the magnitude of the burden of undernourished students as seen in this study would have been much greater in the absence of the midday meal program. Conclusion: Greater involvement of the private sector to assist the government would help augment nutrition in children and indirectly impact school performance, attendance and literacy.

  5. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers from urban and rural areas in Chuquisaca, Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Soto, María Teresa; Schön, Anabel; Solis-Soto, Angel; Parra, Manuel; Radon, Katja

    2017-10-27

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are important health problems in working populations. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of MSD among school teachers from urban and rural areas in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 60 randomly selected schools. In total, 1062 teachers were invited to participate (response 58%). The Spanish version of the Standardized Nordic questionnaire was used assessing the 12-months and 7-days prevalence of MSD as well as the 12-months prevalence of work limiting pain. Prevalence were calculated for the different parts of the body; as summary measures, MSD in any part of the body and in ≥3 parts of the body were assessed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, teaching level and school type. Prevalence of MSD in any part of the body was 86% during the last 12 months, 63% during the last 7 days and 15% for work limiting pain. MSD was most common in the neck (12-months prevalence 47%) and least common in the wrist/hands (26%). In the adjusted model, teachers working in rural areas presented significantly higher odds than teachers from urban schools for work-limiting pain during the last 12-months considering any part of the body (aOR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.1), and for ≥3 parts of the body (aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.3-10.6). The prevalence of MSD is high in School teachers, even more in teachers working in rural areas. It is needed to identify risk factors for MSD in teachers in order to propose appropriate strategies to control and reduce it.

  6. Impact of a Rural Special Education Field-Based Program on the Kayenta School System and Community.

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    Silva, Charlie; And Others

    In partnership with the Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) on the Navajo Reservation in northeastern Arizona, Northern Arizona University developed the Rural Special Education Project (RSEP) as a field-based training program for special education teachers. In the past 3 years, 22 Anglo American and 26 Navajo students have graduated from RSEP.…

  7. An Investigation on Moving Rural Secondary Schools to Town in New Countryside Construction: Taking Ling County in Shandong Province as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    Based on some problems lying in current rural secondary education taking Ling County as an example, this paper proves the necessity and feasibility of moving rural secondary schools to town in the current condition: it is an objective demand by the changes in students; it is a necessary demand to optimize resource allocation and to improve…

  8. Epidemiology of Hymenolepis nana infections in primary school children in urban and rural communities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P R; Patterson, B A

    1994-04-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained on 3 occasions at 10-12 wk intervals from 315 children in 3 rural villages in Zimbabwe and from 351 children in the high-density suburbs of an adjacent small town. Specimens were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for eggs of Hymenolepis nana, and these were found in 142 (21%) children. Infections occurred more frequently in younger children in the urban area but in older children in rural areas. The prevalence in urban areas (24%) was higher than in rural areas (18%), and in urban areas infection correlated with low "hygiene scores" (determined by observation) and with the presence in the household of an infected sibling. The prevalence of infection in the 3 rural communities did not correlate with availability of water, number of households per toilet, with low "hygiene scores," or with the presence of an infected sibling. Treatment with a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg praziquantel cured 84% of the infected children. New or reinfections occurred more frequently in households that had an infected sibling in an urban but not rural setting. The study demonstrates distinct differences in the transmission of H. nana infection in rural and urban communities. The data suggest intrafamily transmission in urban areas, particularly in households with poor hygiene behavior, leading to primary infection early in life. In rural areas, the prevalence of infection and the incidence of reinfection were highest in children of school age, and there was little evidence for intrafamily transmission of the parasite.

  9. A rural math, science, and technology elementary school tangled up in global networks of practice

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    Carlone, Heidi B.; Kimmel, Sue; Tschida, Christina

    2010-06-01

    This is an ethnographic study of a newly created math, science, and technology elementary magnet school in a rural community fiercely committed to cultural preservation while facing unprecedented economic instability brought on by massive loss of manufacturing jobs. Our goal was to understand global- and community-level contexts that influenced the school's science curriculum, the ways the school promoted itself to the community, and the implicit meanings of science held by school staff, parents and community members. Main sources of data were the county's newspaper articles from 2003 to 2006, the school's, town's, and business leaders' promotional materials, and interviews with school staff, parents, and community members. A key finding was the school's dual promotion of science education and character education. We make sense of this "science with character" curriculum by unpacking the school and community's entanglements with historical (cultural preservation), political (conservative politics, concerns for youth depravity), and economic (globalization) networks. We describe the ways those entanglements enabled certain reproductive meanings of school science (as add-on, suspect, and elitist) and other novel meanings of science (empathetic, nurturing, place-based). This study highlights the school as a site of struggle, entangled in multiple networks of practice that influence in positive, negative, and unpredictable ways, the enacted science curriculum.

  10. Diarrhea and dengue control in rural primary schools in Colombia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Overgaard Hans J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal diseases and dengue fever are major global health problems. Where provision of clean water is inadequate, water storage is crucial. Fecal contamination of stored water is a common source of diarrheal illness, but stored water also provides breeding sites for dengue vector mosquitoes. Poor household water management and sanitation are therefore potential determinants of both diseases. Little is known of the role of stored water for the combined risk of diarrhea and dengue, yet a joint role would be important for developing integrated control and management efforts. Even less is known of the effect of integrating control of these diseases in school settings. The objective of this trial was to investigate whether interventions against diarrhea and dengue will significantly reduce diarrheal disease and dengue entomological risk factors in rural primary schools. Methods/design This is a 2×2 factorial cluster randomized controlled trial. Eligible schools were rural primary schools in La Mesa and Anapoima municipalities, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Eligible pupils were school children in grades 0 to 5. Schools were randomized to one of four study arms: diarrhea interventions (DIA; dengue interventions (DEN; combined diarrhea and dengue interventions (DIADEN; and control (C. Schools were allocated publicly in each municipality (strata at the start of the trial, obviating the need for allocation concealment. The primary outcome for diarrhea is incidence rate of diarrhea in school children and for dengue it is density of adult female Aedes aegypti per school. Approximately 800 pupils from 34 schools were enrolled in the trial with eight schools in the DIA arm, nine in the DEN, eight in the DIADEN, and nine in the control arms. The trial status as of June 2012 was: completed baseline data collections; enrollment, randomization, and allocation of schools. The trial was funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Lazos de

  11. Diarrhea and dengue control in rural primary schools in Colombia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Hans J; Alexander, Neal; Mátiz, Maria Ines; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Olano, Victor Alberto; Vargas, Sandra; Sarmiento, Diana; Lenhart, Audrey; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2012-10-03

    Diarrheal diseases and dengue fever are major global health problems. Where provision of clean water is inadequate, water storage is crucial. Fecal contamination of stored water is a common source of diarrheal illness, but stored water also provides breeding sites for dengue vector mosquitoes. Poor household water management and sanitation are therefore potential determinants of both diseases. Little is known of the role of stored water for the combined risk of diarrhea and dengue, yet a joint role would be important for developing integrated control and management efforts. Even less is known of the effect of integrating control of these diseases in school settings. The objective of this trial was to investigate whether interventions against diarrhea and dengue will significantly reduce diarrheal disease and dengue entomological risk factors in rural primary schools. This is a 2×2 factorial cluster randomized controlled trial. Eligible schools were rural primary schools in La Mesa and Anapoima municipalities, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Eligible pupils were school children in grades 0 to 5. Schools were randomized to one of four study arms: diarrhea interventions (DIA); dengue interventions (DEN); combined diarrhea and dengue interventions (DIADEN); and control (C). Schools were allocated publicly in each municipality (strata) at the start of the trial, obviating the need for allocation concealment. The primary outcome for diarrhea is incidence rate of diarrhea in school children and for dengue it is density of adult female Aedes aegypti per school. Approximately 800 pupils from 34 schools were enrolled in the trial with eight schools in the DIA arm, nine in the DEN, eight in the DIADEN, and nine in the control arms. The trial status as of June 2012 was: completed baseline data collections; enrollment, randomization, and allocation of schools. The trial was funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Lazos de Calandaima Foundation. This is the first trial

  12. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

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    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  13. Assistive Technology Service Delivery in Rural School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Melinda Jones; Bausch, Margaret E.; Mclaren, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the implementation of assistive technology (AT) services for students in rural areas. This study investigated the AT service delivery in 10 rural districts across six states. The results indicated that students use AT across functional areas, but considerably fewer number of devices than do those not living in rural areas. AT…

  14. School-based prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in rural communities of Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K

    2016-11-01

    Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene

  15. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1...

  16. Rural and school community in appreciating knowledge on medical plants

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    Marcílio Souza Carneiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Isolated communities in the urban environment still use medicinal plants, but such knowledge is not always passed on to new generations. In this scenario, we propose a study with students, teachers, and community residents from Córrego da Ema, Amontada, Ceará, Brazil, aiming to know the wisdom of medicinal plants in a small rural community in the Brazilian semi-arid region. We interviewed the medicinal plant connoisseurs, named as local experts, by using the “snow ball” method. We applied questionnaires to investigate Elementary School students’ knowledge on medicinal plants (pre-tour. These actions provided a basis for planning guided-tours, activities aimed at 51 students, which we carried out along with the 10 experts and 2 local school teachers, whose results (post-tour were assessed by using the same pre-tour questionnaire. Most local experts were women (80%, their families had many people and low education level, factors that contribute to using medicinal plants. Experts cited 35 medicinal plant species. Students cited 24 pre-tour plant species and 28 post-tour plant species. Students increased their knowledge, as there was also a post-tour increase in therapeutic indications and preparation methods, as mentioned. The school played an important role in appreciating this intangible heritage, because it enabled actions involving formal and informal education.

  17. Former Teachers' and Pupils' Autobiographical Accounts of Punishment in Italian Rural Primary Schools during Fascism

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    Loparco, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Despite the prohibition on punishment in the form of emotional, psychological and physical abuse under the Fascist school regulations, it was common--particularly in Italian rural classrooms--for the purpose of managing and disciplining students. Sticks, "chickpeas" or "donkey desks" represent just a few examples of the methods…

  18. What Makes the Difference? An Analysis of a Reading Intervention Programme Implemented in Rural Schools in Cambodia

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    Courtney, Jane; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the existing single-strategy approach towards the teaching of early literacy in schools in rural Cambodia with a multiple-strategy approach introduced as part of a reading intervention programme. Classroom observations, questionnaires and in-depth interviews with teachers were used to explore teachers' practices and…

  19. Does Improved Water Access Increase Child School Attendance? A Quasi-Experimental Approach From Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of improved water access on child school attendance using two years of primary panel data from a quasi-experimental study in Oromiya, Ethiopia. A predominant form of child labor in rural poor households in least developed countries is water collection. Girls are often the primary water collectors for households, and because of the time intensive nature of water collection improved water access may allow for time to be reallocated to schooling (Rosen and Vincent 1999; Nankhuni and Findeis 2004). Understanding how improved water access may increase schooling for girls has important development policy implications. Indeed, abundant research on returns to education suggests increased schooling for girls is tied to improved future child and maternal health, economic opportunities, and lower fertility rates (Handa 1996; Schultz 1998; Michaelowa 2000). The literature to date finds that improved water access leads to increased schooling; however, there still exists a clear gap in the literature for understanding this relationship for two reasons. First, only four studies have directly examined the relationship between improved water access and schooling in sub-Saharan Africa, and analyses have been limited due to the use of cross-sectional data and research designs (Nankhuni and Findeis 2004; Koolwal and Van de Walle 2010; Ndiritu and Nyangan 2011; Nauges and Strand 2011). Indeed, only two studies have attempted to control for the endogenous nature of water access. Second, all studies use a binary school enrollment indicator from household surveys, which may suffer from response bias and may be an imperfect measure for actual schooling. Respondents may feel pressured to report that their children are enrolled in school if, like in Ethiopia, there are compulsory education laws. This may result in an overestimation of school enrollment. In addition, most children from rural poor households combine work and school, and a binary indicator does

  20. Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data. PMID:24155907

  1. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. PMID:28805668

  2. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Dennis R; Tingen, Martha S; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine C; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention, whereas the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. We sought to compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared with 1514 (60.0%) in Georgia. Average population density in high school postal codes was 5628 people/mile(2) in Detroit and 45.1 people/mile(2) in Georgia. The percentages of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and Georgia was similar: 15.0% (95% CI, 14.1-15.8) and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.0-17.1) (P = .22), respectively. The prevalence of undiagnosed asthma in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in Georgia (P = .56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit, whereas those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit, suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  4. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  5. Formative Evaluation to Increase Availability of Healthy Snacks and Beverages in Stores Near Schools in Two Rural Oregon Counties, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Betty T.; Findholt, Nancy E.; Pickus, Hayley A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Children living in rural areas are at greater risk for obesity than their urban counterparts. Differences in healthy food access may contribute to this disparity. Most healthy food access initiatives target stores in urban areas. We conducted a formative evaluation to increase availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores near schools in rural Oregon. Methods We assessed availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores (n = 15) using the SNACZ (Students N...

  6. EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES OF SCHOOL FEEDING INTERVENTION: EVIDENCE FROM RURAL NORTHERN GHANA

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    Oloruntoba Abayomi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated how policy intervention could have significant impact on beneficiaries. Using quasi-experimental design, 360 pupils from participating and non-participating schools in a feeding program were selected from a rural setting. Instrument for data collection was validated, pre-tested and administered on cross-section of respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and regression analyses. Findings show that significant differences existed in educational outcomes as participating pupils performed better in core subjects of English Language, Mathematics and Integrated Science. In terms of socio-economic determinants, findings show that selected variables such as sex of pupils and number of dependents in the family had directly impacted on the performance of pupils. The study also found causal link between the school feeding intervention and others as one of the multiplier effects was not only an increased enrolments by almost a quarter, but reduced dropout and absenteeism rates. This implied that the policy environments was sufficiently pro-poor and effective since it has strengthened the standard of foundational primary school and completion rate envisaged in the educational policy. It is recommended that further policy options that would facilitate the scaling-up of the program in the entire intervention area be formulated.

  7. Homeless Children: Addressing the Challenge in Rural Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, Yvonne M.

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, homelessness is as prevalent in rural as urban areas. This digest examines the implications of homelessness for rural children and youth and discusses possible actions by rural educators. An estimated half of the rural homeless are families with children. Compared to urban counterparts, rural homeless families…

  8. Delivering Online Professional Development in Mathematics to Rural Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jo; Rearden, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Rural school districts struggle to attract, retain, and support highly qualified mathematics teachers. A series of four online professional development courses in the form of integrated mathematics content and pedagogy courses was designed to meet the professional development needs of rural middle school mathematics teachers. Changes in teachers'…

  9. Bush Tracks: Journeys in the Development of Rural Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, Cathryn; Lloyd, Linley; Hardy, Joy; Jenkins, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    The academic and social achievements of students in rural schools are very uneven and often absenteeism and suspension rates are high. Factors such as globalisation, economic restructuring, unemployment, youth suicide and family trauma, drought and environmental change (see Bourke & Lockie 2001) also impact on rural schooling and add further…

  10. Estimating the effectiveness of early control measures through school absenteeism surveillance in observed outbreaks at rural schools in Hubei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunzhou; Yang, Mei; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhixia; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K; Xu, Biao; Dong, Hengjin; Palm, Lars; Liu, Li; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    School absenteeism is a common data source in syndromic surveillance, which allows for the detection of outbreaks at an early stage. Previous studies focused on its correlation with other data sources. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of control measures based on early warning signals from school absenteeism surveillance in rural Chinese schools. A school absenteeism surveillance system was established in all 17 primary schools in 3 adjacent towns in the Chinese region of Hubei. Three outbreaks (varicella, mumps, and influenza-like illness) were detected and controlled successfully from April 1, 2012, to January 15, 2014. An impulse susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model was used to fit the epidemics of these three outbreaks. Moreover, it simulated the potential epidemics under interventions resulting from traditional surveillance signals. The effectiveness of the absenteeism-based control measures was evaluated by comparing the simulated datasets. The school absenteeism system generated 52 signals. Three outbreaks were verified through epidemiological investigation. Compared to traditional surveillance, the school absenteeism system generated simultaneous signals for the varicella outbreak, but 3 days in advance for the mumps outbreak and 2-4 days in advance for the influenza-like illness outbreak. The estimated excess protection rates of control measures based on early signals were 0.0%, 19.0-44.1%, and 29.0-37.0% for the three outbreaks, respectively. Although not all outbreak control measures can benefit from early signals through school absenteeism surveillance, the effectiveness of early signal-based interventions is obvious. School absenteeism surveillance plays an important role in reducing outbreak spread.

  11. Permaculture: an alternative approach for environmental education in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Rangel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The term sustainability is important for the comprehension of how Environmental Education and practices of Permaculture can be used as tools of education. Permaculture is characterized as a system for planning and creation, in a harmonic manner, of productive, sustainable and ecologic environments. The goal of this paper is to evaluate permaculture’s practices efficiency as a tool of environmental education and mechanism of integration between the human being and the environment. The project was developed in a school of municipal education system located in the rural part of Ituiutaba, State of Minas Gerais, involving 40 people directly. Students and staff participated taking to school plants that are part of their everyday life, in other words, that have cultural value for their community. The integration between students, staff and the remaining residents was noticed mainly when everyone got involved in developing the vegetable garden, showing the aggregating potential through joint actions that such activities allow. The unity and estimation of one’s own living place bring the feeling of belonging and the improvement of ambiance, important aspects for the improvement of people’s, that live far from urban centers, life quality.

  12. The Reasons, Motivation, and Selection of Approach to the Consolidation of Primary and Secondary Schools in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianzuo, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1990s and especially since 2000, a new round of large-scale school consolidation has been introduced in rural communities in China. What is the background of this policy initiative? How has it been introduced and implemented? This article examines these issues.

  13. ['Life satisfaction' as a moderator or mediator of accommodation category and loneliness for rural school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhao-Hui; Tao, Fang-Biao; Hao, Jia-Hu; Yang, Ling; Cheng, Dai-Juan; Xiao, Li-Min

    2009-03-01

    To examine life satisfaction as a moderator or mediator of accommodation category and loneliness for elementary and middle school students in rural areas so as to provide evidence for psychological health intervention among said students. All participants were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire battery which including an 18-item General Health Questionnaire, Children's Loneliness Scale and Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction. The average score of loneliness scale (35.0 +/- 9.5) among boarding-school students was significantly higher than those students living at home (33.1 +/- 10.1) (P mediated by school-satisfaction (the standardized coefficients of loneliness was reduced from 0.043 (P 0.05) and partly mediated by self-satisfaction and friend-satisfaction. Data through Moderation analyses indicated that self-satisfaction, school-satisfaction and friend-satisfaction did not serve as moderators. Accommodation category, life satisfaction seemed to be good predictors on loneliness among elementary and middle school students and the fully mediated effect of school-satisfaction between accommodation category and loneliness was significant, suggesting that intervention of loneliness should focus on these variables.

  14. Rurality and resilience in education: place-based partnerships and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ongoing longitudinal intervention study (STAR)1 we found that, although similarities existed in the way teachers promoted resilience, rural schools (in comparison to other STAR case schools) took longer to implement strategies to buoy support and found it difficult to sustain such support. Using rurality we wanted to ...

  15. The Experiences of Female Head Teachers in Rural Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The broad research aim was to investigate the lived experiences of women heading public rural primary schools in Kenya, and to explore possible strategies that may be applied to improve women's participation in educational leadership in rural primary schools in Kenya. This article is limited to the findings regarding the ...

  16. School Enrollment among Urban Non-Slum, Slum and Rural Children in Kenya: Is the Urban Advantage Eroding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    For long now, the urban child has been considered to be more likely than his/her rural counterpart in being able to realize the dream of fully participating in school. This observation has mainly been attributed to what is commonly known as the "urban advantage." This "urban advantage" is associated with increased access to…

  17. Opting for rural practice: the influence of medical student origin, intention and immersion experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playford, Denese; Ngo, Hanh; Gupta, Surabhi; Puddey, Ian B

    2017-08-21

    To compare the influence of rural background, rural intent at medical school entry, and Rural Clinical School (RCS) participation on the likelihood of later participation in rural practice. Analysis of linked data from the Medical School Outcomes Database Commencing Medical Students Questionnaire (CMSQ), routinely collected demographic information, and the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency database on practice location. University of Western Australia medical students who completed the CMSQ during 2006-2010 and were practising medicine in 2016. Medical practice in rural areas (ASGC-RAs 2-5) during postgraduate years 2-5. Full data were available for 508 eligible medical graduates. Rural background (OR, 3.91; 95% CI, 2.12-7.21; P practice in the multivariate analysis of all potential factors. When interactions between intention, origin, and RCS experience were included, RCS participation significantly increased the likelihood of graduates with an initial rural intention practising in a rural location (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.25-10.2; P = 0.017). The effect of RCS participation was not significant if there was no pre-existing intention to practise rurally (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.61-3.16; P = 0.44). For students who entered medical school with the intention to later work in a rural location, RCS experience was the deciding factor for realising this intention. Background, intent and RCS participation should all be considered if medical schools are to increase the proportion of graduates working rurally.

  18. The Role of Internet Use and Parental Mediation on Cyberbullying Victimization among Spanish Children from Rural Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Raúl; Serna, Cristina; Martínez, Verónica; Ruiz-Oliva, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying victimization research on individual and familial correlates is scarce in Spain. By building upon previous studies, this research examines the role of Internet usage and parental mediation in online victimization. Spanish children from rural public schools (10-12 years; n?=?1068) completed a self-report questionnaire which measured…

  19. Medical student selection criteria as predictors of intended rural practice following graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette; Playford, Denese E; Pougnault, Sue; Riley, Geoffrey J

    2014-10-14

    Recruiting medical students from a rural background, together with offering them opportunities for prolonged immersion in rural clinical training environments, both lead to increased participation in the rural workforce after graduation. We have now assessed the extent to which medical students' intentions to practice rurally may also be predicted by either medical school selection criteria and/or student socio-demographic profiles. The study cohort included 538 secondary school-leaver entrants to The University of Western Australia Medical School from 2006 to 2011. On entry they completed a questionnaire indicating intention for either urban or rural practice following graduation. Selection factors (standardised interview score, percentile score from the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) and prior academic performance (Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank), together with socio-demographic factors (age, gender, decile for the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) and an index of rurality) were examined in relation to intended rural or urban destination of practice. In multivariate logistic regression, students from a rural background had a nearly 8-fold increase in the odds of intention to practice rurally after graduation compared to those from urban backgrounds (OR 7.84, 95% CI 4.10, 14.99, P practice rurally (OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.69, 11.22, P medical school entry may have the unintended consequence of selecting fewer graduates interested in a rural practice destination. Increased efforts to recruit students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds may be beneficial in terms of an ultimate intended rural practice destination.

  20. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  1. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  2. Under-nutrition among adolescents: a survey in five secondary schools in rural Goa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sohini; Dias, Amit; Shinkre, Rajal; Patel, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    This study was done in 2008-09 to assess the nutritional status among adolescents (10-19 years of age, Classes V-XII) in 5 schools in rural Goa to inform the content of a health promotion intervention in these schools. Three methods were used. First, nutritional status was measured by assessing body mass index among 1015 students during a health camp in each school. Second, a diet analysis was done to measure energy and protein Intake of 76 randomly selected underweight students. Third, a self-report questionnaire survey measured the prevalence of hunger among 684 students. One-third of students (338; 37.8% boys and 27.5% girls) who attended the health camps were underweight and 59.2% of the 684 students who completed the survey reported experiencing hunger due to inadequate food consumption. More boys were underweight than girls (pissue and ways to address it. There is an immediate need to address the high burden of hunger and under-nutrition in adolescents of both sexes in schools by instituting routine annual monitoring of nutritional status, extending the mid-day meal programme to all school-going adolescents, providing nutritional counselling for underweight adolescents and expanding research on the causes and impact of under-nutrition and evaluation of the impact of the enhanced mid-day meal programme.

  3. ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups of people interested in their development of social-economic scale, rural women are trying to adapt, to evolve, to overcome the barriers imposed at psychologically, socially and financially. The paper highlights the results of a survey on a sample of 979 women students in the project "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. An inter-regional model for women entrepreneurial school "(AntrES acronym, which certified mediators intention to initiate their own business.The results of questionnaires have provided important information about the character, ambition, motivation, courage, and moral support and financial support to women entrepreneurs based in Romania, including those in rural areas. The information obtained inetrmediul "I shattered" 7 myths about starting a business in our country. Romanian entrepreneur spirit, women in rural areas in Romania is not only a manifestation of strong desire to improve living standards in financial terms, but rather an "effort" to improve and "beauty" of the individual, family, environment and society we belong! In developed countries, at its home, female entrepreneurship is trying to reform, to seek new solutions to rethink the principles, to exercise imagination, to learn. Here, in Romania standard behavior still predominates. Female entrepreneurs are doing what everyone else in the same category does. The future however belongs to those who will opt diversity, surprise, excitement, personalization. How could this

  4. Mentoring At-risk Youth: Improving Academic Achievement in Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie C. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research supports the implementation of mentoring programs as potentially successful approaches to meeting the needs of at-risk students. This study examined a mentoring program entitled: LISTEN (Linking Individual Students To Educational Needs. The LISTEN mentoring program was a district-sponsored, school-based program in which at-risk, middle school students were identified by the school system and mentors were recruited specifically to assist these students with school performance or related issues. Mentors, in this study, were classroom teachers, school counselors, administrators, custodians, librarians, teaching assistants, retired teachers, and cafeteria employees. Archival data from the 2003–04 and 2004–05 academic years were analyzed. A statistically significant difference was found for all three of the study’s criterion variables (GPAs, discipline referrals, and attendance records between those measured in the 2003–04 academic year (pre-intervention and those measured in the 2004–05 academic year (post-intervention. Forty-nine of the fifty-four LISTEN participants experienced academic achievement gains in all three areas of the study.

  5. Adolescent health: a rural community's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groft, Jean N; Hagen, Brad; Miller, Nancy K; Cooper, Natalie; Brown, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Significant health problems encountered in adulthood often have their roots in health behaviours initiated during adolescence. In order to reverse this trend, school and health personnel, as well as parents and other community members working with high school students, need to be aware of the health-related beliefs and choices that guide the behaviours of teenagers. Although a wide variety of research has been conducted on this topic among urban adolescents, less is known about the health beliefs and behaviors of adolescents residing in rural areas, particularly in Canada. In general, rural Canadians are less healthy than their urban counterparts. Building on the knowledge and understanding of their own community, key stakeholders were invited to engage in the design and implementation of a participatory action research project aimed at understanding and improving the health of rural adolescents. A group of parents, teachers, students, school administrators and public health nurses engaged in a participatory action research project to better understand determinants of the health of rural adolescents at a high school in Western Canada. Group members developed and administered a health survey to 288 students from a small rural high school, in an effort to identify areas of concern and interest regarding health practices and beliefs of rural adolescents, and to take action on these identified concerns. Results indicated some interesting but potentially worrying trends in this population. For example, while frequent involvement in a physical activity was noted by 75.9% of participants, close to half of the females (48%) described their body image as 'a little overweight' or 'definitely overweight', and approximately 25.8% of respondents noted that they skipped meals most of the time. Differences between the genders were apparent in several categories. For example, more girls smoked (16.2%) than boys (12.3%), and more males (55.0%) than females (41%) had tried illegal

  6. Incorporating Rural and Farm Novels in the Secondary School Classroom: Where We Come from Is Who We Are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Jesse Moon

    2012-01-01

    Place-based education has received significant attention in recent years. This article briefly surveys common place-based education models and then argues for a more place-focused English language arts classroom in secondary schools where rural and regional literature is often absent from the curricula. The author posits that teacher-education…

  7. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-06-01

    Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security status. Baseline analysis using data from a randomized trial to increase school breakfast participation (SBP) in rural Minnesota high schools. Students completed a survey regarding food security, characteristics, and home and school environments. Schools provided academic data and staff measured height and weight. Food security was dichotomized as FS vs FIS. Bivariate analysis, multivariate linear/logistic regression, and testing for interaction of food security and sex were performed. Food-insecure adolescents reported poorer health, less exercise, had lower grades, and higher SBP (p breakfast (p = .05). All associations except reported benefits remained significant after adjustment. Interactions were identified with girls' grade point average and with boys' caloric and added sugar intake. Negative associations among food insecurity and positive youth development are identified in our sample. Policy and environmental strategies should address the complexities of these associations, including exploration of the role of school meals. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  8. [Relationship between gender, experience of migration and premarital sex among out-of-school youths in rural Hainan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Wang, Yu; He, Qi-ya; Wang, Zhao-qian; Feng, Wei-ping; Ji, Jin-hua; Liao, Su-su

    2011-11-01

    To assess pre-marital sex behavior and its relationship with gender and experience of migration among 16 - 24 years-old out-of-school youths in rural Hainan province, China. 160 eligible youths from each of the 2 townships in County A and 80 from each of the 6 townships in County B were recruited, under equal proportion on gender, age distribution and experience of migration. An interviewer-administered, standardized questionnaire was used. 760 eligible participants (with each gender of 380) were interviewed. There were no significant differences in the proportions of reporting as sexually active (56.8% and 57.9%) or having premarital sex (54.5% and 50.0%) between male and female youths. However, among those sexually active participants, the average age at first sexual intercourse was (18.2 ± 1.9 years or 19.2 ± 1.8 years, P vs. 35.5%, P Married women were more likely to report pre-marital sex behavior than the unmarried ones. Through multivariate analysis on unmarried men, data showed that those having had experience on migration and at older age were associated with experiencing premarital sex. Gender difference was identified on the pattern of migration and its relationship with premarital sex among out-of-school rural youths in Hainan province. When prevention program is developed for rural youth, these differences should be taken into account.

  9. Rural older people had lower mortality after accidental falls than non-rural older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang JW

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jen-Wu Huang,1,2 Yi-Ying Lin,2,3 Nai-Yuan Wu,4 Yu-Chun Chen5–7 1Department of Surgery, National Yang-Ming University Hospital, National Yang-Ming University, Yilan, Taiwan; 2Institute of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Pediatrics, Heping Fuyou Branch, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Biomedical Informatics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Medical Research and Education, National Yang-Ming University Hospital, Yilan, Taiwan; 6Faculty of Medicine and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan Objective: This study aimed to investigate the mortality rate after falls of rural and non-rural older people and to explore the risk factors of mortality after falls among older people. Patients and methods: This population-based case–control study identified two groups from a nationwide claim database (National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan: a rural group and a non-rural group, which included 3,897 and 5,541 older people, respectively, who were hospitalized for accidental falls (The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: E880–E888 during 2006–2009. Both groups were followed up for 4 years after falls. Four-year cumulative all-cause mortality rate after falls was calculated, and the demographic factor, comorbidity, and medications were considered as the potential risk factors of mortality after falls. Results: The rural group had a significantly higher frequency of fall-related hospitalizations (7.4% vs 4.3%, P<0.001, but a lower 4-year cumulative all-cause mortality rate after falls than the non-rural group (8.8% vs 23.4%, P<0.001. After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidity, and medication use, the rural group had

  10. Investigating Rural Teachers' Professional Development, Instructional Knowledge, and Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Todd A.; Nugent, Gwen C.; Chumney, Frances L.; Ihlo, Tanya; Shapiro, Edward S.; Guard, Kirra; Koziol, Natalie; Bovaird, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Teachers Speak was a national survey study designed to investigate the characteristics of rural elementary school teachers' existing professional development; differences in professional development practices between rural and non-rural settings; and the potential influence of professional development characteristics on rural teachers' knowledge,…

  11. AWARENESS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral interventions for Non Communicable Diseases (NCD abeyance would profit the most, if initiated at an early age. Major risk factors of NCDs are changing life style and behavior pattern which are largely due to practices adopted in younger age. Students' awareness about NCDs and their risk factors is an important part of population based prevention strategy. Objective: To assess the awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among rural intermediate school children. Methodology: A School based cross sectional study was conducted in Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi from July - Aug 2010. Intermediate school children from eight inter-colleges of Chiraigaon development block were the study subjects. Pretested questionnaire was used in the study and frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results: Less than one third of the children were aware about Diabetes and Hypertension (27% and 31% respectively. Only 18% knew about Body Mass Index (BMI as an indicator of obesity. In general awareness of NCDs was more in boys than girl. Conclusion: Over all awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among students was not satisfactory. There is a need and scope for health education activity regarding NCDs and their risk factors to promote healthy life style among these school children.

  12. ‘One day I will pick up a snake, wanting to read it’: Becoming a successful reader in a rural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline van der Mescht

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Children learning to read and write in rural areas in Southern Africa perform poorly compared to children in urban schools. The poor results of rural schools in national assessments of reading literacy are explained by the deficits of rural areas: poverty, under-resourced schools and under-qualified teachers. Children in rural areas are frequently not exposed to home literacy practices, which prepare them for formal literacy learning at school. Whilst acknowledging the impact of rural poverty on children’s performance, this article explores a role-playing game amongst pre-school and school-going children of rural villages that enabled some children to become successful learners. Focusing on affect, I analyse the way in which the game motivated these children and suggest some of the benefits that promoting this practice may have for teaching and learning in rural areas. The continued underperformance of children in rural schools makes a compelling case for investigating ways of promoting learning and reading in rural homes.

  13. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Gustafson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods: A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina. Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results: Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval 0.99, 3.82]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [−0.001 (95% CI −0.001, 0.0001] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions: There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results

  14. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; McDonald, Jordan; Ford, Hannah; Connelly, Paige; Gillespie, Rachel; Liu, Emily; Bush, Heather; Brancato, Candace; Babatande, Toyin; Mullins, Janet

    2017-10-21

    Background : Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods : A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina). Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica) and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results : Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.99, 3.82)]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44)] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [-0.001 (95% CI -0.001, 0.0001)] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions : There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results informed the

  15. Municipal service provision in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... hierarchies and considering local resources and place bound potentials.  This paper draws on a study of rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are managed by rural municipalities and local communities. The paper further discusses whether rural...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....

  16. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ler, Ee Chop

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the rural "cultural" problems and to determine their effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools…

  17. Factors affecting the initial literacy development of urban and rural learners in the Iganga district, Uganda

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    Banda, Felix

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial motivation for the study was data from the Ministry of Education in Uganda that suggests that in terms of academic performance, urban learners continually outperform rural schools at primary and secondary school levels (Ministry of Education 2002. At present all government examinations are written in English. However, the language in education policy in Uganda differentially stipulates the use English as medium of instruction in urban schools and the use of the mother tongue in rural schools (cf. Kyeyune 2004. Other factors which mitigate against rural learners’ successful academic performance are untrained educators, poor infrastructure and school management practices in rural schools, poverty, lack of supportive academic discourse practices, and a general lack of enthusiasm among rural parents (most of whom have very little formal education for their children’s education. Using data from observations of selected urban and rural homes and schools in The Iganga district and field notes in the form of diary entries, the study draws on New Literacy Studies (NLS particularly the notion of literacy as social practice (Street 2001; Gee 2000; Baynham 2000, 2001, to explore the differential effect of urban and rural-based acculturation processes on the initial literacy development of learners. Finally, since 88% of Ugandans live in rural areas (Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002, the pedagogical implications for primary schools are discussed and suggestions are made on how to establish an inclusive education system.

  18. Knowledge of communicable and noncommunicable diseases among Karen ethnic high school students in rural Thasongyang, the far northwest of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorga, Thaworn; Aung, Myo Nyein; Naunboonruang, Prissana; Junlapeeya, Piyatida; Payaprom, Apiradee

    2013-01-01

    The double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) is an increasing trend in low- and-middle income developing countries. Rural and minority populations are underserved and likely to be affected severely by these burdens. Knowledge among young people could provide immunity to such diseases within a community in the long term. In this study we aimed to assess the knowledge of several highly prevalent NCDs (diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) and several highly incident communicable diseases (malaria and diarrheal diseases) among Karen high school students in a rural district in far northwest of Thailand. The aim of the study is to explore information for devising life-course health education that will be strategically based in schools. A cross-sectional survey approved by the ethics committee of Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP), Lampang, Thailand was conducted in Thasongyang, Tak province, from September 2011 to January 2012. Questionnaires for assessing knowledge regarding diabetes, hypertension, COPD, malaria, and diarrheal diseases were delivered to all 457 Karen high school students attending Thasongyang high school. A total of 371 students returned the questionnaires. Experts' validation and split-half reliability assessment was applied to the instrument. Students' main sources of health information were their teachers (62%), health care workers (60%), television (59%), and parents (54%). Familial risk factors of diabetes and hypertension were not known to more than two thirds of the students. Except obesity and physical inactivity, lifestyle-related risk factors were also not known to the students. Though living in a malaria-endemic area, many of the Karen students had poor knowledge about preventive behaviors. Half of the students could not give a correct answer about the malaria and hygienic practice, which might normally be traditionally relayed messages. Health education and

  19. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie

    2014-08-01

    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this paper develops the notion of dichotomous inequality to conceptualize the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality-the household registration system ( hukou ) assigns people to a top-bottom hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution and diverse school mission. Based on this conceptualization, we formulate a Chinese version of the maximally maintained inequality (MMI) hypothesis. We capitalize on individual educational history data from the China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2008 and conduct a trajectory analysis using the generalized mixture modeling to estimate the differential effects of the two aspects of rural-urban divide on educational inequality in China. Findings indicate that (1) the sorting mechanism of the rural hukou places rural- hukou people in the very bottom of educational stratification, (2) the penalty of attending rural pre-tertiary school increases with educational stages, and (3) there is a cumulative disadvantage of rural hukou and rural school. Overall, our findings attest to the Chinese-version MMI and the behind principle of inequality reproduction.

  20. GeoFORCE Alaska: Four-Year Field Program Brings Rural Alaskan High School Students into the STEM Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowell, S. J.; Rittgers, A.; Stephens, L.; Hutchinson, S.; Peters, H.; Snow, E.; Wartes, D.

    2016-12-01

    GeoFORCE Alaska is a four-year, field-based, summer geoscience program designed to raise graduation rates in rural Alaskan high schools, encourage participants to pursue college degrees, and increase the diversity of Alaska's technical workforce. Residents of predominantly Alaska Native villages holding degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) bring valuable perspectives to decisions regarding management of cultural and natural resources. However, between 2010 and 2015 the average dropout rate for students in grades 7-12 was 8.5% per year in the North Slope School District and 7% per year in the Northwest Arctic School District. 2015 graduation rates were 70% and 75%, respectively. Statewide statistics highlight the challenge for Alaska Native students. During the 2014-2015 school year alone 37.6% of Alaska Native students dropped out of Alaskan public schools. At the college level, Alaska Native students are underrepresented in University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) science departments. Launched in 2012 by UAF in partnership with the longstanding University of Texas at Austin program, GeoFORCE applies the cohort model, leading the same group of high school students on geological field academies during four consecutive summers. Through a combination of active learning, teamwork, and hands-on projects at spectacular geological locations, students gain academic skills and confidence that facilitate high school and college success. To date, GeoFORCE Alaska has recruited two cohorts. 78% of these students identify as Alaska Native, reflecting community demographics. The inaugural cohort of 18 students from the North Slope Borough completed the Fourth-Year Academy in summer 2015. 94% of these students graduated from high school, at least 72% plan to attend college, and 33% will major in geoscience. A second cohort of 34 rising 9th and 10th graders entered the program in 2016. At the request of corporate sponsors, this cohort was recruited from both the

  1. Effects of a school-based stroke education program on stroke-related knowledge and behaviour modification-school class based intervention study for elementary school students and parental guardians in a Japanese rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Suzuka; Okamura, Tomonori; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Takekawa, Hidehiro; Nagao, Masanori; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Hino, Tenyu; Wada, Shinichi; Arimizu, Takuro; Takebayashi, Toru; Kobashi, Gen; Hirata, Koichi; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2017-12-21

    This study aimed to determine the effect of a stroke education programme on elementary school students and their parental guardians in a rural area in Japan that has high stroke mortality. School class based intervention study. Eleven public elementary schools in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. 268 students aged 11-12 years and 267 parental guardians. Students received lessons about stroke featuring animated cartoons and were instructed to communicate their knowledge about stroke to their parental guardians using material (comic books) distributed in the lessons. Stroke knowledge (symptoms, risk factors and attitude towards stroke) and behavioural change for risk factors were assessed at baseline, immediately after the programme and at 3 months. We also evaluated behavioural change for risk factors among parental guardians. The percentage of students with all correct answers for stroke symptoms, risk factors and the recommended response to stroke was significantly increased at 3 months Pbehavioural response to improving risk factors was significantly increased at 3 months compared with baseline (P<0.001). In a rural population with high stroke mortality, stroke education can improve knowledge about stroke in elementary school students and their parental guardians. We conducted the intervention as a part of compulsory education; this study was not a clinical trial. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center (M27-026). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Attracting and retaining doctors in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R

    2010-01-01

    In Nepal, a number of private sector medical schools have opened recently; although sufficient numbers of doctors are graduating there continues to be a doctor shortage in rural areas. This article analysed the rural doctor shortage in Nepal and reviewed the international literature for strategies that may be suitable for use in Nepal. Original research articles, reviews, magazine articles and project reports dealing with Nepal and other developing countries during the period 1995 to 2010 were sourced via Google, Google Scholar and Pubmed. Full text access was obtained via WHO's HINARI database. The health workforce in Nepal is unevenly distributed resulting in doctor shortages in rural areas. The recent introduction of mandatory rural service for scholarship students was aimed to reduce the loss of medical graduates to developed nations. High tuition fees in private medical schools and low Government wages prevent recent graduates from taking up rural positions, and those who do face many challenges. Potential corrective strategies include community-based medical education, selecting rural-background medical students, and providing a partial or complete tuition fee waiver for medical students who commit to rural service. Traditional healers and paramedical staff can also be trained for and authorized to provide rural health care. A range of strategies developed elsewhere could be used in Nepal, especially community-oriented medical education that involves rural doctors in training medical students. The reimbursement of tuition fees, assistance with relocation, and provision of opportunities for academic and professional advancement for rural doctors should also be considered. Government investment in improving working conditions in rural Nepal would assist rural communities to attract and retain doctors.

  3. Rural Aspirations, Rural Futures: From "Problem" to Possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieken, Mara Casey; San Antonio, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Young people aspire, make choices, and develop within a particular place and historical context. Recently, federal and state governments, policy and research institutes, and advocacy organizations have shown a growing interest in the aspirations and transitions of rural youth--and, in particular, the role that schools play in shaping and…

  4. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  5. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  6. Rural Youth Education Project: First Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania contracted with Pennsylvania State University to begin a longitudinal study of rural Pennsylvania school students to understand their future aspirations, the factors influencing these aspirations, whether their plans change as they age, and if they attain their goals and plans. The main research questions…

  7. State of the educational research project: “the efficacy and the quality of skill acquisition in rural education: is this model transferable to different types of schools?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Domingo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a State of the Art regarding the research project “the efficacy and the quality of skill acquisition in rural education: is this model transferable to different types of schools?” (EDU2009-13460, Subprograma EDUC. This 3-year project was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, within the Work Programme of the National R&D&I Plan for Fundamental Oriented Research Projects. The study, now in its third year, was carried out in both Latin America and Europe. It analyses the skill acquisition of primary students in rural schools in Chile, Uruguay, France, Portugal and Spain, according to the active and participatory didactic methodologies that were applied in specific schools and in relation to the degree of influence each local territory has at a cultural-pedagogical level. This study uses an interpretive paradigm, combining quantitative methods such as the design and application of a survey, and qualitative techniques including semi-structured interviews and ethnography. The investigation is now in its last phase, during which we will carry out an analysis of documents and participant observation. The results intend to show whether the pedagogic model found in rural schools that use participatory and active didactic methodologies is transferable to urban schools, and will generate conclusions that will aid in improving the quality of education in schools of all types.

  8. Formative Evaluation to Increase Availability of Healthy Snacks and Beverages in Stores Near Schools in Two Rural Oregon Counties, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Betty T; Findholt, Nancy E; Pickus, Hayley A

    2015-12-03

    Children living in rural areas are at greater risk for obesity than their urban counterparts. Differences in healthy food access may contribute to this disparity. Most healthy food access initiatives target stores in urban areas. We conducted a formative evaluation to increase availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores near schools in rural Oregon. We assessed availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores (n = 15) using the SNACZ (Students Now Advocating to Create Healthy Snacking Zones) checklist and conducted in-depth interviews with food store owners (n = 6). Frequency distributions were computed for SNACZ checklist items, and interview data were analyzed by using applied thematic analysis. Overall, availability of healthy snacks and beverages in study communities was low. Four interrelated themes regarding store owner perspectives on stocking healthy snacks and beverages emerged from the interviews: customer demand, space constraints, vendor influence, and perishability. In addition to working with food store owners, efforts to increase availability of healthy snacks and beverages in rural areas should engage young people, food buyers (eg, schools), and vendors as stakeholders for identifying strategies to increase demand for and availability of these items. Further research will be needed to determine which strategies or combinations of strategies are feasible to implement in the study communities.

  9. The Impact of Teen Court on Rural Adolescents: Improved Social Relationships, Psychological Functioning, and School Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Rose, Roderick A; Evans, Caroline B R; Barbee, James; Cotter, Katie L; Bower, Meredith

    2017-08-01

    Teen Court is a prevention program aimed at diverting first time juvenile offenders from the traditional juvenile justice system and reintegrating them into the community. Few studies have examined if Teen Court impacts adolescent functioning. We examined how Teen Court participation impacted psychosocial functioning, social relationships, and school experiences in a sample of 392 rural Teen Court participants relative to two comparison samples, one from the same county as Teen Court (n = 4276) and one from a neighboring county (n = 3584). We found that Teen Court has the potential to decrease internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, violent behavior, parent-adolescent conflict, and delinquent friends, and increase self-esteem and school satisfaction.

  10. Mental Health Condition of the Only-Child: A Study of Urban and Rural High School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenying; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.

    2005-01-01

    The mental health of the only-child continues to generate interest in research literature. The present study examines the issue in China, where the one-child phenomenon is highest due to deliberate government policy. Subjects are 299 and 333 students in two high-rank high schools in urban Harebin and rural Qing an Xian, respectively (mean age =…

  11. Growth and development in school-age children from Rostov region, Russia: Comparison between urban and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voynov, V B; Kulba, S N; Arapova, Yu Yu

    2017-12-01

    The purposes of the current study were: (1) to describe growth and physical development and establish norms for schoolchildren from Rostov region in Russia; (2) to compare major characteristics of development between urban and rural children by sex and age. Nearly 200,000 children (198,712) aged between 7 and 17 years from 232 urban and rural schools of Rostov region (Southern Federal District of Russia) participated in the study. School age is a period of intensive growth and physiological and psychological development. Irregularities of personal development are caused by a multitude of factors, such as sex differences, heredity, socio-economic status of a family, standard of living, particular environmental conditions, and lifestyle. It has been established that children from the Southern Federal District of Russia had body mass index values higher than age-appropriate norms for all Russians (Total Russian, Rudnev et al., 2014) and World Health Organization charts. Children from urban settings were taller and heavier than children from rural settings. Sex is one of the most influential factors which play key role in determining specific characteristics of growth and personal development. According to our results, boys and girls both had similar age-related changes in weight and height, but their respective dynamics differed. Girls' height and weight values accelerated at the age 10 to 12 years and plateaued after the age fourteen, whereas in boys height and weight steadily increased with age, showing slight acceleration at the age 12 to 13 years, and reached a plateau by the age of seventeen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative evaluation of MRSA nasal colonization epidemiology in the urban and rural secondary school community of Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Basharat, Zarrin; Muhammed, Ary H; Al-Dabbagh, Samim A

    2015-01-01

    To study the nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (including methicillin-resistant strains) in secondary school community of the urban and rural districts of the Kurdistan region of Iraq, a cross-sectional population based survey was carried out in the city Duhok and rural areas of Amedya, Akre and Zakho. Nasal swabs were obtained from nostrils of 509 students aged 14-23 years. Resistance to methicillin was assessed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and agar dilution assay. Vancomycin sensitivity was also tested on Muller-Hinton agar. It was found that the frequency of overall S. aureus nasal carriage (SANC) was 17.75% (90/509, CI95, 14.58-21.42%). In urban areas, the carriage rate was 20.59% (49/239, CI95, 15.64-26.29%), whereas it was 15.24% (41/270, CI95, 11.17-20.10%) in rural districts. The frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among the isolated strains was found to be 2.04% (1/49) and 21.95% (9/41) in urban and rural areas respectively. It was found that in urban residents, the odd ratio (OR) of acquiring SANC was 1.44 (CI95, 0.91-2.27%) and risk ratio (RR) was at least 1.35 (CI95, 0.92-1.96%) while OR decreased to 0.12 (CI95, 0.01-0.96%) for MRSA carriage. Hence, the S. aureus carriage rate was higher in urban districts compared to rural areas while more MRSA were found in rural areas compared to urban districts. All studied strains were sensitive to vancomycin. This study provided baseline information for S. aureus nasal colonization in the region. Also, it showed that living in rural areas increased the odds of MRSA colonization. More attention should be paid to control MRSA colonization in rural communities.

  13. Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Nyothach, Elizabeth; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T.; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M.; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F.

    2016-01-01

    Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Primary

  14. Rural Youth Education Project: Second Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Diane K.; Demi, Mary Ann; Curry, Alisha; Snyder, Anastasia R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania contracted with Pennsylvania State University to begin a longitudinal study of rural Pennsylvania school students to understand their educational and career aspirations and the factors influencing their aspirations, whether their plans change as they age and if they attain their goals. In its entirety,…

  15. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  16. Risk factors of anaemia among rural school children in Kenitra, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hioui, M; Ahami, A O T; Aboussaleh, Y; Rusinek, S; Dik, K; Soualem, A; Azzaoui, F-Z; Loutfi, H; Elqaj, M

    2008-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of anaemia and factors associated with iron deficiency among school children in rural Kenitra, Morocco. 295 students between 6 and 16 years old composed the study group. The level of haemoglobin was measured in a group of 295 school children. The iron status was determined by ferritin level in serum, and anaemia was defined when haemoglobin educational status of the parents. The mean haemoglobin concentration was 12.4 g/dl in boys and 12.5 g/dl in girls, whereas the mean ferritin level was 26.7 microg/l in boys and 27.9 microg/l in girls. The overall prevalence of anaemia in the studied population was 12.2% and iron deficiency was 20.4%. There was a significant relationship between education of the mother and anaemia in children (p= 0.01). Serum ferritin (SF), serum iron concentrations and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were significantly correlated with haemoglobin by multiple regression analysis. However, using logistic regression analysis, the results showed that anaemia was not significantly associated with gender, parents' employment and monthly family income. Anaemia remains a common problem in the young children particularly the primary education school boys of the households of low income. The results suggest also, that iron deficiency is an important determinant of anaemia in this population; however, whole anaemia cannot be solely explained by iron deficiency. Further studies are needed to consider micronutrients status and exposure to environmental pollutants.

  17. Teachers? Attitudes towards and Comfort about Teaching School-Based Sexuality Education in Urban and Rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mkumbo, Kitila Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Teachers? attitudes towards sexuality education are among the important predictors of their willingness to teach sexuality education programmes in schools. While there is a plethora of studies on teachers? attitudes towards sexuality in developed countries, there is a paucity of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Tanzania in particular. This study examined teachers? attitudes towards and comfort in teaching sexuality education in rural and urban Tanzania. The results show that ...

  18. Rural Districts Left Behind? Rural Districts and the Challenges of Administering the Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yettick, Holly; Baker, Robin; Wickersham, Mary; Hupfeld, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to inform the upcoming and overdue reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) by exploring whether rural school districts face disadvantages as they attempt to follow the law's provisions and, if so, if the law's rural-specific section ameliorates these disadvantages. The research drew upon…

  19. Factors associated with anemia among Sri Lankan primary school children in rural North Central Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Gayani Shashikala; Naottunna, Naotunna Palliya Guruge Chamidri Randika; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika

    2017-03-27

    Despite interventions, childhood anemia is still a major public health problem in low and middle income countries. Purpose of the present study is to determine factors associated with anemia among rural primary school children in Sri Lanka, a country undergoing rapid socioeconomic changes. Multi stage cluster sampling was used to select 100 rural schools in NCP and a maximum of 50 children aged 60-131 months were enrolled from each school. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were obtained by trained investigators. Blood reports were analyzed in a commercial laboratory with external quality control measures. Total of 4412 children were included in the analysis. A Multiple regression was performed for hemoglobin. Only 4.2% of the change in hemoglobin could be explained by the model. District (p > 0.001), age (p > 0.001), timing of warm treatment(p = 0.026) and BMI for age (p = 0.002) uniquely contributed 1.12%, 1.19%, 0.13% and 0.26% to change in hemoglobin level respectively whereas, sex, monthly family income and frequency of meat and green leaf consumption didn't contribute significantly. Peripheral blood film analyses were available for 146 anemic children. Blood film was reported as normal in 19.9% while evidence of iron deficiency (18.5%), early iron deficiency (32.5%) and thalassemia trait with iron deficiency (29.5%) were reported in the rest. Serum ferritin level was available for 417 children with hemoglobin less than 12 g/dl. Mean ferritin level was 63.7 microgram/l. Only 0.5% had depleted iron stores. A multiple regression was performed for serum ferritin and R 2 was 0.123 (p nutrition of younger children in Sri Lanka, studying weather behaviors are related to anemia in primary school children is important. Possible etiologies including but not limited to nutritional deficiencies need to be studied further.

  20. Effects of Social Class and School Conditions on Educational Enrollment and Achievement of Boys and Girls in Rural Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of parental SES, school quality, and community factors on children's enrollment and achievement in rural areas in Viet Nam, using logistic regression and ordered logistic regression. Multivariate analysis reveals significant differences in educational enrollment and outcomes by level of household expenditures and…

  1. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Contextualized in China’s social change of the past half-century, this paper develops the notion of dichotomous inequality to conceptualize the two aspects of China’s rural-urban divide in educational inequality—the household registration system (hukou) assigns people to a top-bottom hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution and diverse school mission. Based on this conceptualization, we formulate a Chinese version of the maximally maintained inequality (MMI) hypothesis. We capitalize on individual educational history data from the China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2008 and conduct a trajectory analysis using the generalized mixture modeling to estimate the differential effects of the two aspects of rural-urban divide on educational inequality in China. Findings indicate that (1) the sorting mechanism of the rural hukou places rural-hukou people in the very bottom of educational stratification, (2) the penalty of attending rural pre-tertiary school increases with educational stages, and (3) there is a cumulative disadvantage of rural hukou and rural school. Overall, our findings attest to the Chinese-version MMI and the behind principle of inequality reproduction. PMID:26166835

  2. Genital Ulcers and Sexual Transmitted Disease in Rural Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casual sex was a dominant behavioural pattern. The phenomenon of denial was encountered in females. STDs are not uncommon in rural Nigeria. Integration of Sexual health in rural health, family health, and school health is urgently needed. Key Words: Genital ulcers, STDs, Rural Nigeria Jnl of Medical Investigation and ...

  3. Association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children in rural Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kalyan Kumar; Panigrahi, Sandeep Kumar; Soodi Reddy, Arun Kiran; Sahu, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    In India, children of upper primary school receive less attention from health-care providers. The majority of their health problems are preventable through hygienic practices. The aim of this study was to find out the association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children. A cross-sectional study conducted in a rural upper primary school of Odisha. A semi-structured schedule based on the Global School Health Survey Questionnaire and necessary instruments for clinical examination were used. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Of 90 participants, 58 (64.4%) were girls. The mean age was 11.8 (±1.01) years. The mean body mass index of females was significantly higher than males (16.95 vs. 14.72; P = 0.001). More than 90% of children maintained good personal hygiene such as clean tongue, clean hair, handwashing, and using footwear. The most common morbidities found were dental caries (38.9%), history of worms in stool and lethargy (20%). A mean score of 6.14 ± 0.11 (out of 8) was seen for personal hygiene and not associated with any particular morbidity or gender. Brushing daily was significantly associated with reduced dental caries (χ 2 = 8.7; P personal hygiene. School health services should also focus on upper primary school children for improvement of personal hygiene.

  4. Assessment of difference in physical activities in urban and rural adolescents of Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of adolescents who are overweight is one of the most pressing public health problems in India. Aims & Objectives: To find the difference in Physical Activities(PA among urban adolescents to that of rural in Mangalore. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study among high school students using a standard questionnaire (PAQ-A to elicit total hours of PA during the past seven days. Results: Average age of the adolescents was 13.9. We could find 56% boys and 44% girls studying in urban schools and 53.3% boys and 46.6 % girls in rural. Seventy seven percent of the total students do running/jogging as their major PA and 66.6% students do cycling. Only 32.8% students had PA while coming to school every day and it was most common among boys in rural schools (55%. Total PA Score for rural areas was 453.5 with a mean of 3.06(out of 5. For Urban areas, total score was 376.3 with a mean of 2.5 and the difference in proportion was statistically significant. Conclusion: We found that the adolescents studying in the schools of rural areas had better physical activities compared to their urban school counterparts.

  5. Assessment of difference in physical activities in urban and rural adolescents of Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of adolescents who are overweight is one of the most pressing public health problems in India. Aims & Objectives: To find the difference in Physical Activities(PA among urban adolescents to that of rural in Mangalore. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study among high school students using a standard questionnaire (PAQ-A to elicit total hours of PA during the past seven days. Results: Average age of the adolescents was 13.9. We could find 56% boys and 44% girls studying in urban schools and 53.3% boys and 46.6 % girls in rural. Seventy seven percent of the total students do running/jogging as their major PA and 66.6% students do cycling. Only 32.8% students had PA while coming to school every day and it was most common among boys in rural schools (55%. Total PA Score for rural areas was 453.5 with a mean of 3.06(out of 5. For Urban areas, total score was 376.3 with a mean of 2.5 and the difference in proportion was statistically significant. Conclusion: We found that the adolescents studying in the schools of rural areas had better physical activities compared to their urban school counterparts.

  6. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema symptoms in rural and urban school-aged children from Oropeza Province - Bolivia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis Soto, María Teresa; Patiño, Armando; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2014-03-10

    Asthma and allergies are world-wide common chronic diseases among children and young people. Little information is available about the prevalence of these diseases in rural areas of Latin America. This study assesses the prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergies among children in urban and rural areas at Oropeza Province in Bolivia. The Spanish version of the ISAAC standardized questionnaire and the ISAAC video questionnaire were implemented to 2584 children attending the fifth elementary grade in 36 schools in Oropeza province (response 91%). Lifetime, 12 months and severity prevalence were determined for asthma, rhinitis and eczema symptoms. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated adjusting for age using generalized linear mixed-effects models. Median age of children was 11 years, 74.8% attended public schools, and 52.1% were female. While children attending urban schools had lower prevalence of self-reported wheeze in the written questionnaire (adjusted OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-1.9), they were more likely than children attending rural schools to report wheeze in the video questionnaire (aOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0-2.6). They also reported more frequently severe rhinoconjunctivitis (aOR 2.8; 95% CI 1.2-6.6) and severe eczema symptoms (aOR 3.3; 95% CI 1.0-11.0). Overall in accordance with the hygiene hypothesis, children living in urban areas of Bolivia seem to have a higher prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergies compared to children living in the country side. In order to develop primary prevention strategies, environmental factors need to be identified in future studies.

  7. The Ideological Foundations of Midwest Rural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    A relationship exists between agrarian thought and the practice of formal schooling in the rural Midwest. Three traditions have shaped agrarian thinking about democracy and its application to social institutions, especially education. Fundamentalism, localism, and pastoralism have combined to form the ideological base for rural resistance to…

  8. SATISFACTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS FROM ROMANIAN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Stefanescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Organization’s human resource is often called the "most valuable asset", although it does not appear in the organization’s accounts. Organization's success depends on the way in which its members implement its objectives; therefore the satisfaction of human resources is crucial for achieving good results in the organization. In this work, we conducted an analysis of the particularities of human resource management in secondary education area and an empirical study on the satisfaction of human resources in a typical rural Romanian schools. It is imperative for Romania to adopt a strategy to improve the education system in order to include new approaches of organizational governance and human resources management so that human resources within the education system have a high degree of satisfaction from the work performed.

  9. Perceived ease of access to alcohol, tobacco and other substances in rural and urban US students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in the US state of Georgia in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513 909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a four-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using χ2 analysis. In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. The present study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban students' perceived ease of access

  10. Inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage among school-age children from urban and rural areas in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Eduardo Santos Galvão

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Some studies have shown that inflammatory processes in the nasal air passages may reflect or affect those in the lower airways. We decided to indirectly assess the inflammatory status of the nasal airways in two groups of children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens. OBJECTIVE: To compare the inflammatory activity in the nasal airways, through the determination of mediators in nasal lavage fluid in two distinct populations. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two public elementary schools, one in an urban setting and the other in a rural setting of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Two groups of 40 elementary school children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens were formed. Samples of nasal lavage fluid were assessed for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP and tryptase. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of ECP were observed among students living in the urban area than those in the rural area (p < 0.05. No significant difference in the tryptase levels was observed. Also, the urban children who were sensitized to aeroallergens presented higher levels of ECP in nasal mucosa than the non-sensitized children, while this difference was not observed among the rural children. DISCUSSION: The lack of mast cell activity and increased eosinophil degranulation revealed a chronic inflammatory state in the nasal air passages. The higher eosinophil activity in the urban area, coinciding with higher sensitization to aeroallergens, suggests that there must be some factors in the urban area that can modulate airway inflammation by influencing the activation of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that there was no difference in the concentrations of tryptase in nasal lavage fluids between the two studied groups. However, the children from the urban area presented with higher concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein than did those

  11. Science Learning in Rural Australia: Not Necessarily the Poor Cousin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell; Symington, David

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that students in rural schools lag behind their city counterparts in measures of science literacy and attitude to science learning. If we are to address this situation we need to build as full a picture as we can of the key features of what is a complex and varied rural schooling context. In this article…

  12. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces...... ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnational Garden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should...... invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks...

  13. The differential impacts of episodic, chronic, and cumulative physical bullying and cyberbullying: the effects of victimization on the school experiences, social support, and mental health of rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impacts of past, current, and chronic physical bullying and cyberbullying on youth, especially in rural settings. This study augments this scant literature by exploring the school experiences, social support, and mental health outcomes for rural, middle school youth. The participants for this 2-year longitudinal study were 3,127 youth from 28 middle schools. Participants were classified as nonvictims, past victims (i.e., victimized during Year 1 but not Year 2), current victims (i.e., victimized during Year 2 but not Year 1), and chronic victims (i.e., victimized during both Year 1 and Year 2). Findings illustrated that chronic victimization resulted in the lowest levels of school satisfaction, social support, future optimism, and self-esteem. Chronic victims also reported the highest levels of school hassles, perceived discrimination, peer rejection, anxiety, depression, and externalizing behaviors. In terms of episodic victimization, current year victimization was associated with worse outcomes than past year victimization. Implications and limitations were discussed.

  14. Rural Junior Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environments and Their Attitude and Achievement in Mathematics in West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey of how rural junior secondary school students in the western part of China perceive their mathematics classroom learning environments and associations of learning environment with their attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. Using adaptations of the widely-used What Is Happening In this…

  15. Low Educational Participation of Marginalised Children in Botswana's Rural and Remote Schools: Interface between Cultural, Structural and Institutional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molosiwa, Annah; Boikhutso, Keene

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wisdom sees education as a primary vehicle through which all people can graduate out of poverty. Education as an instrument of societal change is capable of facilitating a wide range of human rights. However, in many developing countries the education gap seems to be growing within schools in urban, rural and remote areas. The key…

  16. A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Positive Action Program in a Low-Income, Racially Diverse, Rural County: Effects on Self-Esteem, School Hassles, Aggression, and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shenyang; Wu, Qi; Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L

    2015-12-01

    Positive Action is a school-based program that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., school engagement, academic achievement). Although a number of studies have shown that Positive Action successfully achieves these goals, few studies have evaluated the program's effectiveness in rural schools. Given that rural youth are at an increased risk for risky behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use), this is a critical gap in the existing Positive Action research base. The current study assesses the impact of Positive Action on change rates of self-esteem, school hassles, aggression, and internalizing symptoms in a group (N = 1246, 52% female) of ethnically/racially diverse (27% White, 23% African American, 12% mixed race/other, 8% Latino, 30% as American Indian) middle school youth (age range 9-20) located in two violent, low-income rural counties in North Carolina. One county engaged in Positive Action over the 3-year study window while the other county did not. Following multiple imputation and propensity score analysis, 4 two-level hierarchical linear models were run using each of the outcome measures as dependent variables. The results indicate that the program generates statistically significant beneficial effects for youth from the intervention county on self-esteem scores and school hassles scores. Although the program generates beneficial effects for intervention youth on the change in aggression scores, the finding is not statistically significant. The finding on the change in internalizing scores shows a non-significant detrimental effect: the youth from the comparison county have lower internalizing scores than those from the intervention county. Implications are discussed.

  17. Changes in Body Mass Index during a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a significant but largely "modifiable" health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing…

  18. Knowledge of communicable and noncommunicable diseases among Karen ethnic high school students in rural Thasongyang, the far northwest of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Prissana Naunboonruang,1 Piyatida Junlapeeya,1 Apiradee Payaprom31Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Thasongyang Hospital, Thasongyang, Tak, ThailandBackground: The double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCD is an increasing trend in low- and-middle income developing countries. Rural and minority populations are underserved and likely to be affected severely by these burdens. Knowledge among young people could provide immunity to such diseases within a community in the long term. In this study we aimed to assess the knowledge of several highly prevalent NCDs (diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and several highly incident communicable diseases (malaria and diarrheal diseases among Karen high school students in a rural district in far northwest of Thailand. The aim of the study is to explore information for devising life-course health education that will be strategically based in schools.Method: A cross-sectional survey approved by the ethics committee of Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand was conducted in Thasongyang, Tak province, from September 2011 to January 2012. Questionnaires for assessing knowledge regarding diabetes, hypertension, COPD, malaria, and diarrheal diseases were delivered to all 457 Karen high school students attending Thasongyang high school. A total of 371 students returned the questionnaires. Experts' validation and split-half reliability assessment was applied to the instrument.Results: Students' main sources of health information were their teachers (62%, health care workers (60%, television (59%, and parents (54%. Familial risk factors of diabetes and hypertension were not known to more than two thirds of the students. Except obesity and physical

  19. Breakfast, midday meals and academic achievement in rural primary schools in Uganda: implications for education and school health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acham, Hedwig; Kikafunda, Joyce K; Malde, Marian K; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Egal, Abdulkadir A

    2012-01-01

    Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge. To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren. We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9-15 years) in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006-2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total) and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study. Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points) was high (68.4%); in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (pbreakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p1.0). We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor, significantly higher scores among children from 'less poor' households and a significant association between academic achievement and breakfast and midday meal consumption.

  20. Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-01-01

    This is first of a series of application guides that the Program of 'Energia of Villas' of NREL has commissioned to connect renewable commercial systems with rural applications, including water, rural schools and micro companies. The guide is complemented by the development activities of the Program of 'Energia of Villas' of NREL, international pilot projects and programs of professional visits [es

  1. Comparison of breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs before and after educational intervention for rural Appalachian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Allison K; Schetzina, Karen E; Freeman, Sherry C; Coulter, Meredith M; Colgrove, Nicole J

    2013-03-01

    Breast-feeding rates in rural and southeastern regions of the United States are lower than national rates and Healthy People 2020 targets. The objectives of this study were to understand current breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among rural southern Appalachian adolescents and to explore whether a high school educational intervention designed to address the five tenets (knowledge, attitudes, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms) of the theory of planned behavior may be effective in increasing future rates of breast-feeding in this population. An educational session including an interactive game was developed and administered to occupational health science students during a single class period in two county high schools. A presurvey and a postsurvey administered 2 weeks after the intervention were completed by students. Pre- and postsurveys were analyzed using paired t tests and Cohen d and potential differences based on sex and grade were explored. Both pre- and postsurveys were completed by 107 students (78%). Knowledge, attitudes about breast-feeding benefits, subjective norms, and intentions significantly improved following the intervention. Baseline knowledge and attitudes about breast-feeding benefits for mothers were low and demonstrated the greatest improvement. Offering breast-feeding education based on the theory of planned behavior in a single high school class session was effective in improving student knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast-feeding and intention to breast-feed.

  2. Efficacy of Self-Regulated Strategy Development Instruction for Developing Writers with and without Disabilities in Rural Schools: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda H.; Cramer, Anne Mong; Garwood, Justin D.; Varghese, Cheryl; Hamm, Jill; Murray, Allen

    2017-01-01

    A workshop with virtual consultation practice-based professional development model for self-regulated strategy development persuasive writing instruction was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Nineteen general education teachers and 564 Grade 5 and 6 students in 16 low-wealth rural schools participated. Following training, teachers…

  3. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF OBESITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Obesity has become a continous increasing global health problem. Obesity can happen in adult population and also on children as well as teenagers. There are several factors that influence the occurrence of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in primary school children in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study was conducted with a total sample of 241 pupils in several elementary schools. Anthropometric status determine using body mass index for age and obesity stated if measurement exceed ?95th percentile based on CDC 2000. Analysis data perform with the Pearson Chi-square, Fisher's Exact Test, and logistic regression. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. This study showed the prevalence of obesity was 15%. The prevalence of obesity in urban areas was 21% and rural areas was 5%. The result showed risk of obesity multiplied by 3.8 times in urban children as they had a habit of "snacking" had risk of suffering obesity by 3.4 times (95% CI 1.2 to 9.0. Children who had habit of having fast food more than 2 times per week had the more risk of obesity by 5 times (95% CI 1.9 to 13.5. Mothers education in urban areas as a protective factor. Conclusion of this study show that the prevalence of obesity in urban areas is 21% and 5% in rural areas. “Snacking” habit and eating fast food more than 2 times per week increase the risk of obesity in urban areas, while in rural areas no risk factors consider significant for obesity. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso

  4. Improving access to school based education for South African children in rural areas who have a tracheostomy: A case series and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomva, Chengetai; Harris, Sue; Seebran, Narvanie; Mudge, Bridget; Catlin, Brian; Davies, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Currently few children with tracheostomies attend rural mainstreams schools in South Africa limiting their ability to gain an education. We sought to document the current school experience for the few children attending school who have tracheostomies and devise educational tools for teachers and administrators that will facilitate greater acceptance and safety in classrooms for this population. The four patients that are currently attending school with a tracheostomy were identified from the patient records of a tertiary hospital with a pediatric tracheostomy home based care service. With the aid of a Zulu language translator, the mothers and classroom teachers completed a semi structured interview and closed item questionnaire in their home and school, respectively. Schools were visited to understand and describe the settings in which the children and their teachers were being asked to function. Tools for education were developed in conjunction with key stakeholders at schools already hosting such children. The key teacher-identified barriers to enrollment were: teacher unfamiliarity with tracheostomies, uncertainty about the school's liability, and concerns about the response of other children. The safety barriers identified were: greater than 60 children per classroom - limiting teacher's ability to attend to the child with a tracheostomy, lack of running water, pit latrines separate from school threatening hygiene and isolating the child when they leave to use the latrines & sandy classrooms which can result in sand entering the airway. Identified needs for successful school placement include providing tracheostomy supplies and suctioning equipment, hand hygiene materials and training teachers in: identification of respiratory distress, performance of emergency tracheostomy changes, CPR. Children with tracheostomies could likely successfully attend South African rural mainstream public schools with a training program for teachers. As a first step, an

  5. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strawn, N.

    2000-08-31

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil.

  6. Rural/Nonrural Differences in College Attendance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J; Meece, Judith L

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance patterns among rural students differed from those among their non-rural counterparts and which factors explained these rural/nonrural differences. Results showed that rural youth were less likely than their nonrural counterparts to attend a selective institution. In addition, rural youth were more likely to delay entry to postsecondary education, compared to their urban counterparts. Finally, rural students were less likely than their urban counterparts to be continuously enrolled in college. Much of these rural/nonrural disparities in college attendance patterns were explained by rural/nonrural differences in socioeconomic status and high school preparation. Policy implications, limitations of the study, and future research directions are also discussed.

  7. Cross-sectional study of malnutrition and associated factors among school aged children in rural and urban settings of Fogera and Libo Kemkem districts, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on malnutrition-related factors among school-aged children ≥5 years in Ethiopia. This study describes the prevalence of stunting and thinness and their related factors in Libo Kemkem and Fogera, Amhara Regional State and assesses differences between urban and rural areas. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometrics and individual and household characteristics data were collected from 886 children. Height-for-age z-score for stunting and body-mass-index-for-age z-score for thinness were computed. Dietary data were collected through a 24-hour recall. Bivariate and backward stepwise multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess malnutrition-associated factors in rural and urban communities. The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 42.7% in rural areas and 29.2% in urban areas, while the corresponding figures for thinness were 21.6% and 20.8%. Age differences were significant in both strata. In the rural setting, fever in the previous 2 weeks (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.23-2.32), consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29-0.91) and consumption of the family's own cattle products (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.27-0.93), among others factors were significantly associated with stunting, while in the urban setting, only age (OR: 4.62; 95% CI: 2.09-10.21) and years of schooling of the person in charge of food preparation were significant (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79-0.97). Thinness was statistically associated with number of children living in the house (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60) and family rice cultivation (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41-0.99) in the rural setting, and with consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10-0.67) and literacy of head of household (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09-0.65) in the urban setting. The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in rural areas, whereas no significant differences were observed for thinness. Various factors were associated with one or both types of

  8. "Make My Day, Shoot a Teacher": Tactics of Inclusion and Exclusion, and the Contestation of Community in a Rural School-Community Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry-Sorber, Erin; Schafft, Kai A.

    2015-01-01

    Far from being the harmonious and homogenous communities of popular imagination, rural communities often are characterised by stark differences in class-situated values over education philosophy and financing. These differences can produce contentious political environments, vastly complexifying local decision-making, including school district…

  9. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  10. Disseminating Evidence-Based Physical Education Practices in Rural Schools: The San Luis Valley Physical Education Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belansky, Elaine S; Cutforth, Nick; Kern, Ben; Scarbro, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    To address childhood obesity, strategies are needed to maximize physical activity during the school day. The San Luis Valley Physical Education Academy was a public health intervention designed to increase the quality of physical education and quantity of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education class. Elementary school physical education teachers from 17 schools participated in the intervention. They received SPARK curriculum and equipment, workshops, and site coordinator support for 2 years. A pre/post/post within physical education teacher design was used to measure intervention effectiveness. System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and a physical education teacher survey were collected 3 times. MVPA increased from 51.1% to 67.3% over the 2-year intervention resulting in approximately 14.6 additional hours of physical activity over a school year and 4662 kcal or 1.33 lbs. of weight gain prevention. More time was spent on skill drills and less time on classroom management and free play. The San Luis Valley Physical Education Academy succeeded in increasing rural, low-income students' physical activity. The multicomponent intervention contributed to the program's success. However, cost-effective approaches are needed to disseminate and implement evidencebased practices aimed at increasing students' physical activity during the school day.

  11. A Personal Narrative: The Synergistic Leadership Theory as It Applies to the Leadership of a Principal of a Rural Intermediate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Karlis R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative study was two-fold. First, the researcher, an African American male principal in a rural, high minority, intermediate school, used to reflect on strategies implemented to enhance the learning environment that subsequently increased student achievement. Second, determined through the study was how personal leadership…

  12. Curriculum Reform and the Displacement of Knowledge in Peruvian Rural Secondary Schools: Exploring the Unintended Local Consequences of Global Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarin, Maria; Benavides, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws attention to processes of policy implementation in developing contexts, and to the unintended consequences of education policies that follow international policy scripts without enough consideration of local histories and cultures. Drawing on a study of teaching practices in Peruvian rural secondary schools after a period of…

  13. Renewable Energy for Rural Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, A.C.; Lawand, T.

    2000-11-28

    This publication addresses the need for energy in schools, primarily those schools that are not connected to the electric grid. This guide will apply mostly to primary and secondary schools located in non-electrified areas. In areas where grid power is expensive and unreliable, this guide can be used to examine other energy options to conventional power. The authors' goal is to help the reader to accurately assess a school's energy needs, evaluate appropriate and cost-effective technologies to meet those needs, and to implement an effective infrastructure to install and maintain the hardware.

  14. Social Anxiety and Internet Addiction among Rural Left-behind Children: The Mediating Effect of Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujia; Yang, Jiao; Liu, Liqiong

    2017-12-01

    At present, the mental health of rural left-behind children is a major social problem in China. Internet addiction, social anxiety, and loneliness are common psychological and behavioral problems among rural left-behind children, but the relationships among these issues have not been clearly identified. A total of 432 junior year 1 to senior year 3 students were randomly selected from 2 rural middle schools in Hunan Province of China as the research subjects. The Internet Addiction Disorder Diagnostic Scale, Social Anxiety Subscale of the Self-Consciousness Scale (SASS-CS), and University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale were employed to measure the degree of Internet addiction, feelings of social fear, social avoidance behavior, and the level of loneliness among the research subjects. The rate of Internet addiction among rural left-behind middle school students was 18.27%, and was correlated with the length of time their parents spent at home as well as whether one or both parents migrated for work. Positive correlations were found among Internet addiction, social anxiety, and loneliness. Loneliness was found to play a mediating role in the relationship between social anxiety and Internet addiction among rural left-behind middle school students. Social anxiety and loneliness both increase the likelihood of Internet addiction in rural left-behind middle school students and social anxiety can affect Internet addiction through loneliness, implying an urgent need to strengthen care for rural left-behind children, reduce their loneliness, and thereby effectively alleviate the problem of Internet addiction among rural left-behind middle school students.

  15. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  16. NUTRITIONAL ESTIMATES OF SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS: STUDY FROM A RURAL AREA OF VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the adoption of western lifestyle the problem of overweight and obesity is gradually increasing in children, while problem of malnutrition is persisting continuously in the country. With this background a school based cross sectional study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of school going children in a rural area: Chiraigaon block of Varanasi. Study period: July 2010 to September 2010 Methods: A school-based study with cross-sectional design was adopted. A total of 1448 school children were examined from 3 middle-schools that were selected by simple random sampling method. Height and weight of the children were measured, and BMI and other parameters were assessed. Results: On applying the BMI-for-age criteria, twelve percent of the children (12.4% boys and 11.1% girls were found underweight while 5.4% were overweight or obese (5.71% of the boys and 4.63% of the girls. But when the previous WHO’s BMI classification was used, 86.5% children had BMI <18.5 (88.4% of total boys and 81.9% of all girls. Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going children based on WHO criteria of BMI for age has been satisfactory. However, this approach needs scientific validation by undertaking a multi-centric study.

  17. Patterns and risk factors for helminthiasis in rural children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Corresponding author: ... in rural Bangladesh using data in a birth cohort in rural Mirzapur.18 ... intervention strategies to control STH.

  18. An innovative program to address learning barriers in small schools: Washington State School Nurse Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Gail Ann; Gray, Lorali; Miles-Koehler, Mona

    2013-01-01

    While all schools in Washington State have had to deal with shrinking financial resources, small, rural school districts, with fewer than 2,000 students, face unique circumstances that further challenge their ability to meet rising student health needs. This article will explore how small districts utilize the services of the Washington State School Nurse Corps (SNC), an innovative program that supports student health and safety while reducing barriers to learning. Through direct registered nursing services and regional nurse administrative consultation and technical assistance, the SNC strengthens rural school districts' capacity to provide a safe and healthy learning environment. In addition, we will examine current research that links health and learning to discover how the SNC model is successful in addressing health risks as barriers to learning. Lastly, as resources continue to dwindle, partnerships between schools, the SNC, and state and local health and education organizations will be critical in maintaining health services and learning support to small, rural schools.

  19. SOCIAL PORTRAIT OF RURAL TEACHERS: THE RESULTS OF A COMPARATIVE SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY COUNTRY AND CITY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Alexandrovna Amirova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of application of the comparative sociological study of rural and urban schools. The characteristic of a social portrait of the rural teacher. The basic social problems, an assessment of social well-being of rural and urban teachers. Purpose. The authors aimed to identify specific problems of the rural school for making sound management decisions in the field of social educational policy. Methodology. A comparative type of applied sociological research is realized by applying such methodological approaches as structural and functional analysis and its variety – typological analysis [2; 3; 5]. Results. In summary, the social portrait of a rural educator is characterized by the following social characteristics. He lives mostly in his own house. One member of his family has, mainly, 12-18 or more square meters of living space. Entrepreneurship and tutoring are poorly distributed in rural areas. In comparison with urban teachers, rural teachers are more oriented to vocational training, rather than to the formation of spiritual and intellectual culture of students. This is the practicality of the rural educator. Employment in the subsidiary farm is also the reason for the greater practicality of the rural teacher and his relatively low spiritual activity. In rural educational institutions the level of collectivism is higher, but the desire for individual achievements is lower. Practical implications. The management of social processes at the level of a rural school can be implemented in the form of social planning, drawing up of social programs, social projects aimed at solving social problems of a rural teacher and optimizing the development of a rural school.

  20. Eliciting and utilizing rural students' funds of knowledge in the service of science learning: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Ellen M.

    Several researchers have pointed out the failures of current schooling to adequately prepare students in science and called for radical reform in science education to address the problem. One dominant critique of science education is that several groups of students are not well served by current school science practices and discourses. Rural students represent one of these underserved populations. Yet, there is little in the literature that speaks specifically to reforming the science education of rural students. Utilizing action research as a methodology, this study was designed to learn more about the unique knowledge and life experiences of rural students, and how these unique knowledge, skills and interests could suggest new ways to improve science education in rural schools. Informed by this ultimate goal, I created an after school science club where the participating high school students engaged in solving a local watershed problem, while explicitly bringing to bear their unique backgrounds, local knowledge and life experiences from living in a rural area of Upstate New York. Using Funds of Knowledge as the theoretical framework, this after-school club served as the context to investigate the following research questions: (1) What science-related funds of knowledge do rural high school students have? (2) How were these funds of knowledge capitalized on to support science learning in an after-school setting?

  1. An evaluation of the role of email in promoting science investigative skills in primary rural schools in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tina; Hargreaves, Linda; Comber, Chris

    1997-06-01

    This project evaluated the effect of collaboration via email links on the quality of 10-11 year old students’ science investigative skills in six primary rural schools. After a joint planning meeting, sixty children collected, identified and shared information via email about moths in their area, in order to produce a joint booklet. All email traffic was monitored throughout the project. Indepth structured observations and interviews were carried out at the schools. Children completed daily diaries. The children demonstrated a variety of science skills, particularly observation and recording. Their competence and confidence in using computers, handling email and in manipulating a data base developed during the project. The project identified a number of important issues relating to teacher inservice training requirements, the importance of a suitable progression of IT experiences throughout the school, development in cooperative groupwork for children, and software design.

  2. Motivation to Read among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belken, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    This study used quantitative methods to investigate motivation to read among high school students in a tenth-grade English course at a rural high school in the Midwestern USA. Data were collected and analyzed to replicate previous studies. In this study, when compared to large-scale surveys, respondents showed more positive attitudes toward…

  3. Parental Empowerment in Mexico: Randomized Experiment of the "Apoyos a La Gestion Escolar (Age)" Program in Rural Primary Schools in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Paul; Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Rodriguez-Oreggia, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Previous evaluations from Mexico are limited. The urban school-based management program, Programa Escuelas de Calidad (PEC), was analyzed using panel data regression analysis and propensity score matching. Participation in PEC is found to lead to decreases in dropout, failure and repetition rates. An evaluation of the rural parental empowerment…

  4. Rural elementary students', parents', and teachers' perceptions of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Margaret S; Hangaduambo, Saidou; Duys, David; Larson, Karl; Sarvela, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of bullying in 7 rural elementary schools from students', parents', and teachers' perspectives. Surveys were completed by 739 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students, 367 parents, and 37 teachers. Students tended to report higher prevalence of bullying than did parents or teachers, and their reports were associated with aggression, attitudes toward violence, and perceptions of school safety. Bullying behavior is prevalent in rural elementary schools and is indicative of aggression and proviolence attitudes. Parents and teachers need to pay closer attention to bullying behavior among schoolchildren and to impart their knowledge to children in a comprehensive, coordinated manner.

  5. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2015-01-01

    Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.

  6. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  7. Breakfast, midday meals and academic achievement in rural primary schools in Uganda: implications for education and school health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Acham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge.To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren.We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9–15 years in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006–2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study.Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points was high (68.4%; in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (p<0.05. Achievement was significantly associated with consumption of breakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p<0.05, and a greater likelihood of scoring well was observed for better nourished children (all OR values>1.0.We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor, significantly higher scores among children from ‘less poor

  8. EARLY CHILDHOOD AND RURAL EDUCATION: A NECESSARY MEETING AIMING THE ACHIEVEMENT OF JUSTICE WITH YOUNG CHILDREN LIVING IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Silveira Barbosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years the Brazilian government has constituted a major basic education attendance programmed for Brazilian citizens. The 1988 Federal Constitution states the right to education for all Brazilians, whether living in rural or urban areas, and it set kindergarten as the first level in basic education, it constituted a space to be filled by a large contingent of children who, until then, were without an institutional educational space guaranteed for them. Although, the kindergarten coverage in large urban centers has been effective in numerical terms, especially, regarding the pre-school provision, in rural areas this is still not a reality. IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - Demographic Census, 2010 reports that Brasil has 16,044 children under 6 years old, in other words, 12% of the total population of Brazil, 3,546 are living in rural areas. According to INEP (National Institute of Educational Studies - School Census, INEP, 2010, from the universe of children aged 0-6 years living in rural areas, only 12.1% attend day care centers and 67.6% attend preschools, a value lower than the urban areas where the coverage is 26% for attendance to day cares and 83% for attendance to pre-school classes. Besides questioning the exiguity of this coverage, especially from the point of view of the mandatory provision of pre-school, it is necessary to map the points of connection and tension between the areas, so it would be possible to give an expansion linked to a qualified and contextualized offer.

  9. A Letter of Ladizlaus, the Franciscan Custodian of Gazaria (Caffa, April 10, 1287.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hautala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The following letter of Friar Ladizlaus, Franciscan Custodian of Gazaria (that is, of the Northern Black Sea region, contains an interesting description of the collision between Catholic missionaries and Muslim residents of Solkhat. In his letter, Friar Ladizalus describes the circumstances of the conflict that arose in the summer of 1286 between the Franciscans of Solkhat and local Muslim residents who were angered by Catholics’ habit of sound a bell on their church. During the conflict, the Solkhat Muslims demolished this bell and destroyed the Catholic church. In turn, the Franciscans submitted a complaint against their actions to khan Tula-Buga and Nogay. In response to the Minorites’ petition, Jochid rulers sent their representatives to Solkhat. Despite personal commitment to the Muslim faith, these representatives severely punished Franciscans’ offenders and allowed the Minorites both to rebuild their church and to hang three bells instead of one destroyed earlier. Letter’s translation is provided with the necessary comments, which will be expanded in the future monograph of the author. It is appropriate to note that the letter was analyzed in detail in a recent article of the Hungarian researcher Szylvia Kovács [4, p. 157–164]. The Latin text of the letter is reproduced according to Girolamo Golubovich’s edition based on the Codex Ottoboniana 2115 from the Vatican library (fol. 62 [3, p. 444–445]. Discrepancies from the followin earlier editions are also taken into account in the text: [8, no. 250, s. 248–250 (referred to as Starzer & Redlich; 2, p. 165, nota 1 (referred to as Eubel].

  10. Educating Physicians for Rural America: Validating Successes and Identifying Remaining Challenges With the Rural Medical Scholars Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, John R; Leeper, James D; Murphy, Shannon; Brandon, John E; Jackson, James R

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the Rural Medical Scholars (RMS) Program's effectiveness to produce rural physicians for Alabama. A nonrandomized intervention study compared RMS (1997-2002) with control groups in usual medical education (1991-2002) at the University of Alabama School of Medicine's main and regional campuses. Participants were RMS and others admitted to regular medical education, and the intervention was the RMS Program. Measures assessed the percentage of graduates practicing in rural areas. Odds ratios compared effectiveness of producing rural Alabama physicians. The RMS Program (N = 54), regional campuses (N = 182), and main campus (N = 649) produced 48.1% (odds ratio 6.4, P rural physicians, respectively. The RMS Program, contrasted to other local programs of medical education, was effective in producing rural physicians. These results were comparable to benchmark programs in the Northeast and Midwest USA on which the RMS Program was modeled, justifying the assumption that model programs can be replicated in different regions. However, this positive effect was not shared by a disparate rural minority population, suggesting that models for rural medical education must be adjusted to meet the challenge of such communities for physicians. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Learning professionalism during the third year of medical school in a 9-month-clinical rotation in rural Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Therese; Halaas, Gwen Wagstrom; Brooks, Kathleen D

    2009-11-01

    Professionalism is now an explicit part of the medical school curricula. To examine the components that are part of developing professionalism during the Rural Physician Associate Program (RPAP) experience, a 9-month rotation in a rural community during the third year of medical school. Two researchers analysed 3 years of essays for themes. IRB approval was obtained. Themes were organized using Van de Camp's model of professionalism. Students described how patients taught them about illnesses, the affects on their lives and the lives of their families. Preceptors role-modelled how to relate to patients with compassion and respect (Professionalism Towards the Patient). As a member of the health care team, clinic and hospital staff taught students how to be a good team member (Towards Other Health Care Professionals). Shadowing preceptors in their roles as physicians and community members, students learned about their responsibilities to the community (Towards the Public). Multiple opportunities for self-evaluation and reflection taught students to know themselves and find balance between work responsibilities and their personal lives (Towards Oneself). The RPAP appears to create a supportive learning environment that incorporates psychological safety, appreciation of differences, openness to new ideas and time for reflection - an ideal environment for developing professionalism.

  12. Experiencias Educativas en el Medio Rural Colombiano. Serie Divulgacion No. 2. [Educational Experiences in the Rural Colombian Milieu. Circulation Series No. 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Pedagogica.

    In fulfillment of the Colombian National Government's educational policy aimed toward improving the rural population's level of living, two fundamental projects have been implemented. These projects have led to the creation of schools, the continuous extension of grades, and the creation of "Concentraciones de Desarrollo Rural." They…

  13. Irregular and incomplete primary schooling in rural Ghana. A case-study of late enrolment and early drop-out in the eastern region

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, Beth Cathrine Fagerlid

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a closer look at the issue of late enrolment and early drop out in a rural area in Eastern Region in Ghana. Children enrolling in school later than the recommended age of six, is a persistent problem in Ghana in spite of a fee free public school. Using qualitative methodology through household interviews in two villages, interviews with teachers and staff at Ghana Educational Service, a registration scheme and diaries the study seeks to unravel some of the stor...

  14. Strengthening training in rural practice in Germany: new approach for undergraduate medical curriculum towards sustaining rural health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens; Normann, Oliver; Herrmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    After decades of providing a dense network of quality medical care, Germany is facing an increasing shortage of medical doctors in rural areas. Current graduation rates of generalists do not counterbalance the loss due to retirement. Informed by international evidence, different strategies to ensure rural medical care are under debate, including innovative teaching approaches during undergraduate training. The University of Magdeburg in Saxony-Anhalt was the first medical school in Germany to offer a rural elective for graduate students. During the 2014 summer semester, 14 medical students attended a two-weekend program in a small village in Northern Saxony-Anhalt that allowed them to become more familiar with a rural community and rural health issues. The elective course raised a series of relevant topics for setting up rural practice and provided students with helpful insight into living and working conditions in rural practice. Preliminary evaluations indicate that the rural medicine course allowed medical students to reduce pre-existing concerns and had positive impact on their willingness to set up a rural medical office after graduation. Even short-term courses in rural practice can help reduce training-related barriers that prevent young physicians from working in rural areas. Undergraduate medical training is promising to attenuate the emerging undersupply in rural areas.

  15. Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Satyawan G; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health.

  16. Meeting Increasing Demands for Rural General Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, Mary C; Bowers, Howard E; Campbell, Damon M; Parikh, Priti P; Woods, Randy J

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic assessment of the effective surgical workforce recommends 27,300 general surgeons in 2030; 2,525 more than are presently being trained. Rural shortages are already critical and there has been insufficient preparation for this need. A literature review of the factors influencing the choice of rural practice was performed. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed and the Web of Science to identify applicable studies in rural practice, surgical training, and rural general surgery. These articles were reviewed to identify the pertinent reports. The articles chosen for review are directed to four main objectives: 1) description of the challenges of rural practice, 2) factors associated with the choice of rural practice, 3) interventions to increase interest and preparation for rural practice, and 4) present successful rural surgical practice models. There is limited research on the factors influencing surgeons in the selection of rural surgery. The family practice literature suggests that physicians are primed for rural living through early experience, with reinforcement during medical school and residency, and retained through community involvement, and personal and professional satisfaction. However, more research into the factors drawing surgeons specifically to rural surgery, and keeping them in the community, is needed.

  17. Physical growth and diets of school children: Trends from 2001 to 2015 in rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in physical growth and diets of school children in rural West Java, Indonesia, between 2001 and 2015, a period of rapid socioeconomic change. In 2001 and 2015, anthropometric measurements (height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, skin-fold thickness), food consumption surveys, and questionnaires on socioeconomic status were completed by fourth-grade school children in a rural village in West Java. Height increments of 5.9 cm for boys and 4.7 cm for girls during this 14-year period were calculated as 4.21 cm per decade for boys and 3.36 cm per decade for girls, which is equivalent to height increments observed during rapid economic development periods in other countries. Weights also increased by 3.8 kg for boys and 2.0 kg for girls during this period. Variations in weight status significantly increased in 2015; while 98% of the children were within the 'normal' range in 2001, the prevalence of overweight increased from 2.4% in 2001 to 13.7% in 2015 and that of thinness was 4.3% in 2015. Energy, protein, and fat intakes significantly increased in 2015. In 2015, a significant correlation between nutritional intake and weight status was observed, especially among boys. Socioeconomic changes between 2001 and 2015 caused increased heights and weights and greater variation in weight status, especially among boys. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Medical student attitudes before and after participation in rural health fairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Landy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite an increased need, residents of rural communities have decreased access to healthcare and oftenpresentuniquehealthcare challenges associated with their rurality. Ensuring medical students receive adequate exposure to these issues is complicated by the urban location of most medical schools. Health fairs (fairs conducted in rural communities can provide students exposure to ruralhealth;however, it is unknown how participation affects attitudes regarding these issues. Materials and Methods: During the 2010-2011 academic year, first-year medical students were surveyed before and after participating in a rural fair regarding the importance of rural health issues, the need for exposure to rural healthcare, their plans to practice in a rural community,andthe educational impact of fairs. Results : Of the 121participating students, 77% and 61% completed pre- and post-fair surveys, respectively. Few had lived in a rural area or planned to practice primary care. Participants strongly agreed that the delivery of healthcare in rural areas was important, and that all physicians should receive rural health training (4.8 and 3.7 out of 5, respectively despite less than halfplanning to practice in a rural community.After participating in a rural fair, student attitudes were unchanged, although 87% of participants strongly agreed their involvement had contributed to improving patient health and 70% that the fairs provided rural medicine experience. Conclusions : Among urban medical school students with varied interests in primary care, there was strong interest in volunteering at rural fairs and appreciation for the importance of rural health. Fairs provided interested students with rural medicine experience that reinforced student attitudes regarding rural health. Further, students felt their participation improved patient health.

  19. Community Strikes Back? Belonging and Exclusion in Rural English Villages in Networked Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyard, Sam; Bagley, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The paper draws upon ethnographic research of two contrasting English primary schools and their villages to explore the themes of belonging and exclusion in contemporary rural contexts. The paper first describes the schools and the villages. A second, conceptual section explores the meaning of rurality in relation to the themes of class, belonging…

  20. Meeting EFA: Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) Primary Schools. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboux, Collette

    2006-01-01

    This case study describes the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), which was formed to explore ways to help children from its rural development program gain access to improved education. Working mainly in rural areas, BRAC focused on improved quality through improved education service delivery, management detail, and finance. While…