WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural poverty reduction

  1. Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the impact of industrial diversification on employment and rural poverty reduction in China and Nigeria. The fact that both countries ... better success. Key Words: Agro-Allied Industry, Industrial Diversification, Rural Development, Poverty Reduction, Employment, Non-Farm Enterprise, Nigerian Economy.

  2. partnering, poverty reduction and rural enterprise advancement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    establishment of the Rural Enterprise Advancement Programme (REAP) and its ... poverty, enabling food security and managing natural resources in a sustainable ... Extending the area under sustainable land management and .... the challenges facing the implementation of poverty reduction .... perceived “most beneficial.

  3. China's rural electrification and poverty reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of rural investment in power sector on the rural economic development and poverty reduction in China. An econometric model was developed and six Chinese provinces with different economic background are studied. These provinces comprise Jiangsu and Liaoning with well-developed rural economy, Hebei and Henan with medium-developed rural economy, and Shannxi and Xinjiang with the least-developed rural economy. Over 20-yr historical data for the six provincial rural areas--counties and below, was collected in rural economic development, households, population, per capita income, community infrastructure development, capital investment, electricity consumption, output values in agriculture sector, and township and village enterprises. SPSS V10.0 software program was used in the research. This paper concludes that priority of capital investment in rural power sector should be given to Jiangsu and Liaoning if the objective of the investment is to develop rural economy, and that the priority should be given to Hebei and Henan if the objective is to reduce poverty in rural area

  4. Non-governmental organisations and rural poverty reduction strategies in Zimbabwe: A case of Binga rural district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Mago

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies implemented by Non-governmental organisation (NGOs for poverty alleviation in Zimbabwe with specific reference to Zimbabwe’s Binga Rural District. The qulitative research methodology was employed in the article. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews. Findings indicated that NGOs do not adequately fulfil the needs of the poor due to ineffective strategies that they implement. There is insufficient understanding of the livelihoods of the poor in Binga, hence the need for participatory development approaches. Deepening and widening poverty in the rural areas that are currently served by NGOs is an indicator that their poverty alleviation strategies are inadequate and ineffective to deal with poverty in these rural areas. The paper recommends a policy shift by both NGOs and the government to improve the poverty reduction strategies used by NGOs.

  5. Rural electrification and energy poverty: Empirical evidences from Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Freitas, Marcos Aurelio Vasconcelos; da Silva, Neilton Fidelis [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); International Virtual Institute of Global Change- IVIG, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco I - Sala 129, C.P. 68501 Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on the reduction of energy poverty in Brazil through the analysis of 23,000 rural domiciles or rural properties between the years 2000 and 2004. The results indicate a fast change in the profile of energy consumption and a reduction of energy poverty. This new approach works as a complement, among other variables, to analyze and quantify the real economic, social and energy impacts in rural electrification programs, generally applied in developing countries. (author)

  6. The Role of Micro-financing in Rural Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Juanah, Momoh

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, there is a desperate quest for a way out of the financial predicament confronting the rural poor. In most countries of the developing regions, especially South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, the rural population forms the larger proportion of the entire population and poverty is prevalent among them. According to the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD 2001), in an assessment of poverty in West and Central Africa, poverty in West and Central Af...

  7. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S

    2016-02-01

    China's economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households.

  8. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households. PMID:26855470

  9. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  10. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  11. ON THE EMPIRICAL FINDING OF A HIGHER RISK OF POVERTY IN RURAL AREAS: IS RURAL RESIDENCE ENDOGENOUS TO POVERTY?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Monica G.

    2004-01-01

    Includes: On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?:COMMENT, by Thomas A. Hirschl; On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?: REPLY, by Monica Fisher. Research shows people are more likely to be poor in rural versus urban America. Does this phenomenon partly reflect that people who choose rural residence have unmeasured attributes related to human impoveris...

  12. seed Production and Poverty Reduction: Case of Dodoma Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of seed production to poverty reduction at household level in the participating villages was studied. Food security and household income was used as proxy indicators of poverty. Data was collected through a cross section survey using a structured questionnaire. The average incomes / Adjusted Adult ...

  13. Rural poverty unperceived: problems and remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, R

    1981-01-01

    There are major obstacles to perceiving the nature and the extent of rural poverty in developing countries. These obstacles originate not only in the nature of rural poverty itself, but also in the condition of those, not themselves of the rural poor, who do or, more significantly, do not perceive that poverty. The argument has implications for all rural development programs and projects, and for the training of staff. The conclusion is that reversals of current positions and practices are required if the obstacles are to be surmounted, if the nature and the extent of rural poverty are to be truly appreciated, and if future actions are to be tailored to the actual needs of the rural poor. 49 references.

  14. the contributions of agricultural growth to poverty reduction in ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RahelYilma

    in poverty is estimated indirectly. In the second ... Currently it is estimated that close to half of the ... of land nor private investors can purchase land from rural dwellers. ..... (1995-2000) and extrapolating to 2020 provides a poverty incidence of 39.4. The ..... return in terms of poverty reduction from a growth in farm productivity.

  15. The contribution of the Kakum Rural Bank to poverty reduction in the Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem Municipality in the central region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enu-Kwesi Francis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to examine the contribution of Kakum Rural Bank (KRB to poverty reduction in the Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem Municipality (KEEA. The study employed descriptive and evaluative designs. All four agencies in the KEEA municipality were included in the study. The systematic random sampling technique was used to draw 370 customers and 14 members of staff of Kakum Rural Bank who were purposively sampled for the study. Questionnaires were principally used to collect data from respondents. Graphs and tables were used to present descriptive aspects of the results while non-parametric inferential procedure was used to present the evaluative aspect. The results of the study revealed that KRB, with its financial and non-financial services, has helped in poverty reduction in the KEEA Municipality. Data gathered from the respondents showed a significant improvement in most of the poverty indicators, with the exception of provision of potable water and clothing for families. Judging by the potential that KRB has for reducing poverty, it is recommended that the bank should expand its coverage in the municipality.

  16. Environmental resources and poverty in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen

    , is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing......D study focuses on answering two main research questions: 1) What is the importance of environmental income in assessments of poverty and poverty dynamics in rural forest reliant communities? and 2) What are the impacts of infrastructural development, in the form of rural roads, on rural household income......Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods...

  17. Poverty Underestimation in Rural India- A Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Sarvalingam, A

    2010-01-01

    When ever the Planning Commission of India releases the poverty data, that data is being criticised by experts and economists. The main criticism is underestimation of poverty especially in rural India by the Planning Commission. This paper focuses on that criticism and compares the Indian Planning Commission’s 2004-05 rural poverty data with the India’s 2400 kcal poverty norms, World Bank’s US $1.08 poverty concept and Asian Development Bank’s US $1.35 poverty concept.

  18. Impact of Mental Poverty on Rural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lan-xiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition of mental poverty and the status quo of mental poverty in China's rural areas. Mental poverty in China's rural areas embodies the following aspects: the sense of parochialism is serious; the small farmer consciousness is strong; there is misgiving about identity. This paper analyses the reason of Mental poverty influencing farmers' behavior model and rural economic development. Mental poverty influences the farmers' changing current situation; Mental pover...

  19. Vietnam; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...

  20. World Development Report : Role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... inform research debate and development practice in the sector under study. The 2008 Report will address agriculture and rural development. Since the last World Development Report on agriculture was published in 1982, ... Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategies.

  1. Agricultural Policies and Their Impact on Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries: Lessons Learned from Three Water Basins in Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Corral

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the main driving force of rural economies so there is a need to promote sustainable rural development and hence improve the living conditions of local communities. This article analyses the role of agricultural policies in reducing poverty in rural communities. Two aspects will be analysed: firstly, whether there has been a reduction in poverty in the basins analysed for the period 2006–2013; and secondly, whether that poverty reduction, to the extent that it has occurred, has been due to the agricultural policies applied. The analysis shows that the agricultural policies implemented helped to diversify and enhance agricultural production, so that a reduction in effective poverty occurred. However, these policies need to work jointly and in harmony with other economic sectors.

  2. analysis of profitability and poverty reduction of yoghurt processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    KEY WORDS: Profitability, poverty reduction, yoghurt, processing, employment ... 70% percent of the rural working population (Joshua,. 1999). With about 76 out of every 120 people living ... traditionally the difference between total revenue and ... (70%) of the respondents were males while 30% were females. The age ...

  3. Levels of poverty and the poverty gap in rural Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Mears

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the income and expenditure patterns of selected deep rural villages. This is done by measuring the level of poverty and/or the poverty gap of 132 households in Limpopo, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. Problem investigated: The Millennium Declaration symbolises the commitment to end extreme poverty, but limited data is available for rural areas to inform policy decisions. The relative income shares for individuals, households and percentile groups within a population provide the best information on poverty for policy formulation. The nature and size distribution of income are therefore central to analysing the poverty problem within low-income areas. The survey area is one of the poorest areas in South Africa, and shows what data is needed to measure and understand the extent of poverty. Design/Method/Approach: A representative sample of 132 households was drawn, which represents 6,9 percent of the estimated 1900 households in selected villages of rural Limpopo. A total of 740 household members were represented in the survey, with an average of 5,6 members per household. Originality/Value: Although this is a relatively small sample, it generated much-needed data on this very poor area of South Africa. Detailed empirical data on the income and expenditure patterns is not available, especially for rural areas. The socio-economic data from this research supported an important health project of the Water and Health Research Unit (WHRU of the University of Johannesburg. The article also lays the foundation for further research in this field of study, facilitating engagement with a number of related debates such as those about satisfaction of life, vulnerability to poverty, the geography of deprivation and the mapping of poverty. Conclusion: The main finding is that the government provides for many needs of the poor, especially in the deep rural areas. Only

  4. Rural food insecurity and poverty mappings and their linkage with water resources in the Limpopo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Taigbenu, A. E.; Barron, J.

    2016-04-01

    The mappings of poverty and food insecurity were carried out for the rural districts of the four riparian countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe) of the Limpopo river basin using the results of national surveys that were conducted between 2003 and 2013. The analysis shows lower range of food insecure persons (0-40%) than poverty stricken persons (0-95%) that is attributable to enhanced government and non-government food safety networks in the basin countries, the dynamic and transitory nature of food insecurity which depends on the timings of the surveys in relation to harvests, markets and food prices, and the limited dimension of food insecurity in relation to poverty which tends to be a more structural and pervasive socio-economic condition. The usefulness of this study in influencing policies and strategies targeted at alleviating poverty and improving rural livelihoods lies with using food insecurity mappings to address short-term socio-economic conditions and poverty mappings to address more structural and long-term deprivations. Using the poverty line of 1.25/day per person (2008-2013) in the basin, Zimbabwe had the highest percentage of 68.7% of its rural population classified as poor, followed by Mozambique with 68.2%, South Africa with 56.1% and Botswana with 20%. While average poverty reduction of 6.4% was observed between 2003 and 2009 in Botswana, its population growth of 20.1% indicated no real poverty reduction. Similar observations are made about Mozambique and Zimbabwe where population growth outstripped poverty reductions. In contrast, both average poverty levels and population increased by 4.3% and 11%, respectively, in South Africa from 2007 to 2010. While areas of high food insecurity and poverty consistently coincide with low water availability, it does not indicate a simple cause-effect relationship between water, poverty and food insecurity. With limited water resources, rural folks in the basin require stronger

  5. Rural Poverty in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Griffin

    1999-01-01

    The fact that most poor people in Latin America live in urban areas had implied that poverty in the region is regarded as largely an urban phenomenon. However, this document exposes what available data suggest: that rural poverty still is significant in many Latin American countries.

  6. Rural tourism development: a viable formula for poverty alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of rural tourism and community development has been made in general terms with less focus on poverty alleviation and more emphasis on economic modernisation. Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation has been emphasised in the contemporary tourism and poverty alleviation literature.

  7. Remittances, Inequality and Poverty: Evidence from Rural Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. Edward; Mora, Jorge; Adams, Richard H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Economic research has produced conflicting findings on the distributional impacts of migrant remittances, and there has been little research on the effects of changes in remittances on poverty. This paper utilizes new data from the Mexico National Rural Household Survey, together with inequality and poverty decomposition techniques, to explore the impacts of remittances on rural inequality and poverty. Our findings suggest that remittances from international migrants become more equalizing (o...

  8. Poverty in Rural and Semi-Urban Mexico during 1992-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Dorte

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes poverty in rural and semi-urban areas of Mexico (localities with less than 2,500 and 15,000 inhabitants, respectively) and provides guidance on a social agenda and poverty alleviation strategy for rural Mexico. The analyses are based on INIGH and ENE data sets for 1992-2002. Monetary extreme poverty affected 42 percent of the rural dwellers in dispersed rural areas and 21 percent in semi-urban areas in 2002, slightly less than one decade earlier. Most of the rural poor liv...

  9. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausauer, Amelia K; Keegan, Theresa H M; Chang, Ellen T; Glaser, Sally L; Howe, Holly; Clarke, Christina A

    2009-06-26

    Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8%) versus rural (-7.5%) and low- (-13.0%) or middle- (-13.8%) versus high- (-9.6%) poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  10. Alternative Pathways out of Rural Poverty in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Victor Tetreault

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically analyses the three pathways out of rural poverty proposed by the World Bank in its 2008 World Development report (farming, labour and migration, with the following questions in mind: Has there been a reduction in the incidence of income poverty in rural Mexico during the neoliberal era and, if so, what are the main contributing factors? Is labour migration (national and international the best pathway out of poverty, taking into consideration the labour conditions faced by rural migrants? To what extent does fair trade and organic production represent a pathway out of poverty for Mexico’s peasantry? Should the Mexican government (and Mexico’s trading partners pursue policies that would make farming a more viable alternative for Mexico’s rural poor? If so, what would these policies be? With regards to these last two questions, this paper highlights the proposals of independent peasant organizations, in particular the ones associated with the movement ‘sin maíz no hay país’. It is argued that these proposals point towards an alternative pathway out of rural poverty, one that creates favourable conditions for small-scale farming in Mexico.  Resumen: Rutas alternativas para salir de la pobreza rural en MéxicoEn este artículo se analizan las tres vías para salir de la pobreza rural propuestas por el Banco Mundial en su informe Desarrollo Mundial 2008 (agricultura, trabajo y emigración, con las siguientes preguntas en mente: ¿Ha habido una reducción en la incidencia de pobreza de ingresos en el México rural durante la era neoliberal y, si fuese el caso, cuáles fueron los principales factores que contribuyeron a ello? ¿Es la emigración laboral la mejor vía para salir de la pobreza, tomando en cuenta las condiciones laborales a las que deben adaptarse los emigrantes de zonas rurales? ¿En qué medida representan el comercio justo y la producción orgánica una vía de salida de la pobreza para el campesinado

  11. Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan Theresa HM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status. Methods We obtained invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence data for the years 1997 to 2004 from 29 population-based cancer registries participating in the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries resource. Annual age-adjusted rates were examined overall and by rural/urban and poverty of patients' counties of residence at diagnosis. Joinpoint regression was used to assess trends by annual quarter of diagnosis. Results Between 2001 and 2004, overall invasive breast cancer incidence fell 13.2%, with greater reductions among women living in urban (-13.8% versus rural (-7.5% and low- (-13.0% or middle- (-13.8% versus high- (-9.6% poverty counties. Most incidence rates peaked around 1999 then declined after second quarter 2002, although in rural counties, rates decreased monotonically after 1999. Similar but more attenuated patterns were seen for in situ cancers. Conclusion Breast cancer rates fell more substantially in urban and low-poverty, affluent counties than in rural or high-poverty counties. These patterns likely reflect a major influence of reductions in hormone therapy use after July 2002 but cannot exclude possible effects due to screening patterns, particularly among rural populations where hormone therapy use was probably less prevalent.

  12. Population dynamics and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, M S

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the relationship between demographic factors and rural poverty in developing countries is presented. The author examines both the micro- and macro-level perspectives of this relationship and the determinants and consequences of population growth. The author notes the prospects for a rapid increase in the rural labor force and considers its implications for the agricultural production structure and the need for institutional change. Consideration is also given to the continuing demand for high fertility at the family level and the role of infant and child mortality in the poverty cycle. "The paper concludes by drawing attention to the need for developing the mechanism for reconciliation of social and individual optima with respect to family size and population growth." The need for rural development projects that take demographic factors into account is stressed as is the need for effective population programs. (summary in FRE, ITA) excerpt

  13. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs—economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities—on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, pentrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, pentrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty. PMID:29596517

  14. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naminse, Eric Yaw; Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs-economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities-on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, pentrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, pentrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty.

  15. [Historical succour of poverty and medical assistance in rural China.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Xian; Li, Ning-Xiu; Ren, Xiao-Hui

    2009-11-01

    There was considerable attention paid to the succour of poverty with widespread practice in China's history. Succour of poverty and medical assistance in rural areas were closely connected with famine relief carried out by the rulers. The mutual assistance of emotional and moral support long-term in rural communities is the most important form of medical assistance. A succour of poverty and medical assistance system in the modern sense should inherit and learn from the past consideration of poverty assistance and bring in the fine tradition of multiple forces to participate, in order to establish a succour of poverty and medical assistance system compatible with economic and social development. This is not only an important component of anti-poverty strategy in rural areas but also an inevitable requirement of historical development.

  16. Edentulism in high poverty rural counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jordan; Bennett, Kevin; Brock-Martin, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To examine the differences in oral health status among residents of high-poverty counties, as compared to residents of other rural or urban counties, specifically on the prevalence of edentulism. We used the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the 2006 Area Resource File (ARF). All analyses were conducted with SAS and SAS-callable SUDAAN, in order to account for weighting and the complex sample design. Characteristics significantly related to edentulism include: geographic location, gender, race, age, health status, employment, insurance, not having a usual source of care, education, marital status, presence of chronic disease, having an English interview, not deferring care due to cost, income, and dentist saturation within the county. Significant associations between high-poverty rural and other rural counties and edentulism were found, and other socioeconomic and health status indicators remain strong predictors of edentulism. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between rural households’ environmental dependency, poverty and livelihood strategies. Households’ income from each livelihood activities formed the basis for categorizing households according to livelihood strategies. The principal component analysis...... of livelihood choice were analyzed using multinomial logit model. The results indicate the existence of marked differences in environmental dependency, rural poverty and asset endowments across the livelihood groups. Household’s total saving, access to credit, production implements, business cost, exposure...

  18. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  19. Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diego; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

  20. Impact of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) on Rural Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence, depth and severity of poverty of rural people and influencing rural poverty were investigated in the Southwestern Nigeria. Multi-stage stratified random sampling procedure was used to collect data from 200 clients and 200 non-clients of NGOs in the study area. Linear multiple regression was used to ...

  1. Water Poverty and Rural Development: Evidence from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matshe, Innocent; Moyo-Maposa, Sibonginkosi; Zikhali, Precious

    2013-01-01

    Using household data from the 2009 General Household Survey, this paper examines the role of natural resource scarcity in rural development in South Africa, with a particular focus on water scarcity. It seeks to examine whether there is a direct link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use, ...

  2. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Rural Information Poverty in China - - Case Study of Hebei Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guizhen; Wang, Shuanjun; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Huijun

    Information poverty is a new form of poverty in information society. With the growing information-gap between urban and rural areas, information poverty is prevailing in the vast rural areas in China. It is largely restricted the new rural construction and the social harmonious development of villages and towns and must be resolved. The evaluation of rural information poverty is the premise to resolve it. In order to estimate the problem, index system of rural informatization evaluation of Hebei province was designed by means of Delphi. Then, according to the survey of farmers' information demand, AHP and FCE were used to estimate rural information poverty of Hebei province. The purpose of this study is to provide a new operational approach in evaluating or solving rural information poverty and constructing rural informatization in China.

  3. The Issue of Poverty in the Urban and Rural Communities in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA PARASCHIV

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to answer questions which are relevant for the process of preparing anti-poverty strategies.The major discrepancy between the rural and urban environment with respect to the aspects mentioned above is one of the main conclusions. However, the residence environment usually represents only one of the dimensions or one of the influential factors of poverty in Romania, without any systematic study of the differences/resemblances between urban and rural poverty. In this respect, the study represents a complementary study for the previous analyses, a synthesis of the existent knowledge of resemblances between urban poverty and rural poverty and, implicitly, of the adequate political instruments for combating each of these aspects. According to the arguments presented by the author, in Romania, poverty is territorially concentrated, at the level of both the communities and the households, from the perspective of consumerism, and rural poverty is the key issue of poverty in Romania.

  4. Economic diversification and poverty in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijima, Yoko; Lanjouw, Peter

    This paper analyses National Sample Survey data for 1987-88, 1993-94 and 1999-00 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. While there is little consensus regarding the rate of poverty decline during the 1990s, the region-level estimates provided here suggest that

  5. Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, M Jahi; Wittman, Hannah; Bacon, Christopher M; Ferguson, Bruce G; Barrios, Luis García; Barrios, Raúl García; Jaffee, Daniel; Lima, Jefferson; Méndez, V Ernesto; Morales, Helda; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2013-01-01

    Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in smallholder systems in Mexico and Central America. We highlight emergent research directions that will be necessary to assess the potential of the food sovereignty model to promote both biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction.

  6. SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ISSUES OF RURAL POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRIY POPOVYCH

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study on the causes and consequences of rural poverty in connection with the main influencing factors. The paper suggests a conceptual framework for the investigation of complex relationship among economic growth, environmental degradation, climate change and rural poverty. The study highlights theoretical and empirical approaches to examination of potential relations among the well-being of rural population, the social-economic development of the agrarian sector of the economy and the state of ecology of countryside. The author introduces the practical instruments of filling the gap in current knowledge on links among economy, ecosystems, climate, and poverty, which provides implications for policy application and further research.

  7. 6. Characterization and Local Perceptions of Poverty Among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Background: Poverty has been linked with poor ... seeking behaviours especially for the rural poor ... of women and children to poverty and its effects. ..... India. 14. Francis Teal (2001) Education, incomes, poverty and inequality in Ghana in the ...

  8. Water poverty and rural development: Evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matshe, I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use...

  9. Do we understand the linkages between economic growth, poverty targets and poverty reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Jensen, Stig Eduard Breitenstein

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on poverty trends in Africa, looking at the argument for a correspondence between economic growth and poverty reduction. It questions whether a link between economic growth and poverty reduction can be established. We first look at the general picture...... appears more obvious, social and political unrest in 2009 casts doubt on the reliability of the data. Indeed, it is probable that an increase in poverty contributed to the crisis in Madagascar. Furthermore, there a signs that in both countries poverty strategies are increasingly giving way to Poverty...... Reduction Growth Facility programmes, closely related to former structural adjustment loans. We conclude, first, that analysing poverty strategies through Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers does not help in resolving the uncertainty, since these strategies assume a priori the existence of a link between...

  10. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  11. Fuel poverty in the UK: Is there a difference between rural and urban areas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Deborah; Vera-Toscano, Esperanza; Phimister, Euan

    2015-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a significant policy issue. An argument often made is that rural households are more likely to be fuel poor due to the nature of rural housing stock and the more limited choice of energy sources in rural areas. This paper uses panel data to compare the level and dynamics of fuel poverty in rural and urban areas of the UK. In addition to descriptive analysis, discrete hazard models of fuel poverty exit and re-entry are estimated and used to assess the influence of housing and personal characteristics on the time spent in fuel poverty. The results indicate that, on average, the experience of fuel poverty in urban areas is longer with a higher probability of fuel poverty persistence. However, on average the rural fuel poor appear more vulnerable to energy price increases while living in private accommodation or a flat increases their probability of remaining fuel poor relative to their urban counterparts. These results indicate policy effectiveness may differ across rural and urban space. However, they also emphasise the limits of spatial targeting. Monitoring the dynamics of fuel poverty is important for ensuring that policy targets are effective and reaching those most in need. - Highlights: • Urban fuel poverty is more persistent on average than rural fuel poverty. • Rural fuel poor are on average more vulnerable to energy price shocks. • Fuel poverty policy measures may have different effects in rural and urban areas. • Both spatial and household targeting required for policy effectiveness. • Policy makers should to consider additional monitoring of dynamics of fuel poverty.

  12. Rural Principal Attitudes toward Poverty and the Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used Yun and Weaver's (2010) Attitudes toward Poverty Short Form (ATP-SF) of twenty-one items on a Likert-type scale to determine the poverty attitudes of 309 principals in a rural Appalachian state in the United States. The study compared the poverty attitudes from the ATP-SF scaled score as a dependent variable to the following…

  13. The History and Context of Rural Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Bonnie

    1987-01-01

    Those who are poor and reside in the rural pockets of poverty are at a cumulative disadvantage in United States society. Low educational levels, poor health, lack of competitive job skills, and a mindset restricted by poverty give little hope for mobility--especially in communities devoid of opportunity and supportive services. (JHZ)

  14. Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, M Jahi

    2013-01-01

    Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in smallholder systems in Mexico and Central America. We highlight emergent research directions that will be necessary to assess the potential of the food sovereignty model to promote both biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. PMID:24555109

  15. NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GENERATION GUARANTEE SCHEME IN INDIA ON RURAL POVERTY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. B. Sasikumar

    2017-01-01

    India has become the second most popular the most poverty-stricken countries. Seventy percent of people live in rural area. Poverty is widespread in India, with the Nation; developing economies including India have been plagued by skewed distribution of nation’s resources leading to poverty, illiteracy, low consumption and investment, lagged growth and the like. Economic reforms were introduced in India in 1991, after which there is a great deal of discussion on its impact on growth, employm...

  16. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  17. Does Urbanization Affect Rural Poverty? Evidence from Indian Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Calì, Massimiliano; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Although a high rate of urbanization and a high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, there is little knowledge of the effects of the former on the latter. Using a large sample of Indian districts from the 1983-1999 period, the authors find that urbanization has a substantial and systematic poverty-reducing effect in the surrounding rural areas....

  18. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  19. Cancer screening delivery in persistent poverty rural counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kevin J; Pumkam, Chaiporn; Bellinger, Jessica D; Probst, Janice C

    2011-10-01

    Rural populations are diagnosed with cancer at different rate and stages than nonrural populations, and race/ethnicity as well as the area-level income exacerbates the differences. The purpose of this analysis was to explore cancer screening rates across persistent poverty rural counties, with emphasis on nonwhite populations. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used, combined with data from the Area Resource File (analytic n = 309 937 unweighted, 196 344 347 weighted). Unadjusted analysis estimated screening rates for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Multivariate analysis estimated the odds of screening, controlling for individual and county-level effects. Rural residents, particularly those in persistent poverty counties, were less likely to be screened than urban residents. More African Americans in persistent poverty rural counties reported not having mammography screening (18.3%) compared to 15.9% of urban African Americans. Hispanics had low screening rates across all service types. Multivariate analysis continued to find disparities in screening rates, after controlling for individual and county-level factors. African Americans in persistent poverty rural counties were more likely to be screened for both breast cancer (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.85) and cervical cancer (1.46; 1.07-1.99) when compared with urban whites. Disparities in cancer screening rates exist across not only race/ethnicity but also county type. These disparities cannot be fully explained by either individual or county-level effects. Programs have been successful in improving screening rates for African American women and should be expanded to target other vulnerable women as well as other services such as colorectal cancer screening.

  20. Family Size and Rural Poverty -in the Kwahu South District in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poverty is one of the greatest social problems confronting the world today. The problem is more pronounced in the developing countries. Ghana is no exception to this global problem of rural poverty. Ghana as a nation has adopted a lot of measures to address poverty. From the early 1980's to 2002, the country has ...

  1. Poverty dynamics, income inequality and vulnerability to shocks in rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radeny, M.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Persistent poverty remains a huge challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, official statistics indicate that the incidence of rural poverty was 49% in 2005/2006. This study uses different approaches and data sources to explore temporal and spatial dimensions of rural welfare in Kenya. The

  2. The New Philanthropy, Poverty Reduction and Rural Development: A Case Study of Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila I. Asuru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to explore the significant contributions of the new philanthropy towards improving the conditions of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan African, smallholder farmers’ understanding of philanthropy and to investigate the relationship that exists between philanthropy and smallholder farmers. The research is designed to uncover the needs and drivers of both philanthropy and smallholder farmers in relation to their interaction and the fulfilment of the philanthropic contract they have entered into. The main objective of the thesis is to consider the potential of philanthropy to rural transformation for poverty reduction. It focus is the involvement of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in rural development and poverty reduction in Ghana. Since 2006 the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Gates Foundation has dedicated $1.7 billion to assisting smallholder farmers. The bulk of this investment has been delivered through programmes associated with the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA, which is also supported by the Rockefeller Foundation(Thompson, 2012. This study observed an inherent discrepancies and organisational miscalculations that have adverse influence on the effective collaboration and implementation of philanthropic support to the selected farmers. Untimely release of farming inputs as well as exceedingly unfavourable conditions for the attractions of loans makes it difficult for smooth farming. This exercise also established that both men and women intercrop their farms to ensure household food security and income. Household decisions on which medium of farming to pursue and on use of the income from farming are generally taken by men. Due to these, this research emphasise that philanthropic offering in Ghana should be looked at dispassionately bearing in mind the socio-culturally diverse nature of the country itself as well as key environmental factors that hugely contribute to poverty.

  3. Improvement Of Rural Off-Farm Energy Use In Nigeria: A Prerequisite For Rural Development And Poverty Alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, B

    2002-01-01

    In Nigeria, agricultural production takes place predominantly in the rural areas. The development of those areas, therefore, is necessary for the much-coveted rise in agricultural production and poverty alleviation. Development is a natural ally of improved energy use, both on and off-farm. Energy use in rural Nigeria is rudimentary and unimpressive. This paper discusses the existing pattern of energy use in the off-farm sector of rural areas and suggests ways of improvement to alleviate poverty and propel rural development

  4. Biodiversity Management and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, the keeping of parks, game and forest reserves, are desirable in accordance with international conventions and initiatives, but these efforts are perceived by the rural dwellers as attempts to entrap their means of livelihood. This perception is aggravated by the chronic rural poverty in most parts of Africa. This paper

  5. Characterization and Local Perceptions of Poverty Among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Poverty has been linked with poor health outcomes in world health reports and cited by many scholars and leading health economists and public health specialist as a cause for poor health seeking behaviours especially for the rural poor. Poverty and ill-health are so closely intertwined that it is possible to use ...

  6. In Cameroon, a female-centred organization works to conquer the poverty of rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonkem, R N

    1999-01-01

    This is a discussion of the work of the Rural Women Development Council for poor rural women in Cameroon. The concept of absolute poverty involves the measurement of the quantity and quality of necessities required to maintain the average well-being of an individual or group of individuals. The standards are considered to be relative to a particular time and place. Subjective poverty is a state of acceptance by the person who is poor that he or she is poor; it is independent of the perspective of onlookers. Income levels vary resulting, and as a result, poverty exists. Under those premises, the Rural Women Development Council (RWDC) is helping to alleviate poverty in rural women through microcredit schemes. Over 200 women have engaged in farming and small trades. Increased equity, enhanced opportunity, peace and security, participation and sustainable future, in addition to increased income, help to defeat poverty. Strategies for eradicating poverty include enhancing the ability of local communities to adapt to stress, overcome emergencies and improve long-term productivity. The RWDC have observed that loanees are today economically above other rural women.

  7. 17 GLOBALIZATION AND DEEPENING RURAL POVERTY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between globalization phenomenon and deepening rural poverty situation in ... with low asset base, which translates to insufficient land, livestock possession, capital .... more general question of inequality and social stratification, although the ...

  8. Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource Management in Cambodia. Cambodia has a ... Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  9. Rural poverty in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan: profiles and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M H

    1987-01-01

    The problem of rural poverty in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan remains intractable mainly because it has not been confronted by policies with the biggest impact on the target groups, and because they have relied on "soft" policy options. The agricultural sectors in these countries have not been dynamic enough to sustain the growth process. What is even more disturbing is that agricultural growth has not provided new jobs and incomes to the landless poor. This sorry state of affairs is partly a reflection of the institutional impediments and partly a result of policies that have been contradictory. Industrial growth has not touched many of the rural communities, and the relative abundance of labor in these countries has not been used to advantage in selecting the industries which have the greatest impact on growth in both rural and urban areas. A direct attack on poverty requires that income earning opportunities are provided to the rural poor, by making available assets like land and human capital and through providing productive employment in and out of agriculture. The efforts made so far in the 3 countries do not represent an effective strategy to alleviate rural poverty.

  10. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  11. Poverty decline, agricultural wages, and nonfarm employment in rural India : 1983-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku

    We analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/1988, 1993/1994, 1999/2000, and 2004/2005 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India has declined at a modest rate during this time period. We provide region-level estimates

  12. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  13. How infrastructure and financial institutions affect rural income and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandker, Shahidur R; Koolwal, Gayatri B

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the poor benefit from economic growth remain a topic of debate in development literature. We address this issue in the context of rural Bangladesh, using a pooled dataset of three household panels between 1991-2001. Expansion of irrigation, paved roads, electricity, and access to formal and informal credit have (through different veins) led to higher rural farm and non-farm incomes, accounting for exogenous local agroclimatic endowments that explain a large part of the variation in the growth of infrastructure and credit programmes. However, this has not translated into substantial reductions in poverty for the poorest households.

  14. an assessment of the incidence of poverty among rural active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-10

    Jan 10, 2013 ... Keyword: Incidence, Poverty, Rural, Active Population. Introduction ... economic growth, basic needs, employment- oriented, sectoral ..... strong and positive relationship. ... study of rural households in India has a somewhat.

  15. Persistent Poverty in Rural China: Where, Why, and How to Escape?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glauben, T.; Herzfeld, T.; Rozelle, S.

    2012-01-01

    Using rural household panel data from three Chinese provinces, this paper identifies determinants of long-term poverty and tests the duration dependence on the probability to leave poverty. Special emphasis is given to the selection of the poverty line and inter-regional differences across

  16. Education and Training in Madagascar: Toward a Policy Agenda for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Madagascar is a poor, primarily rural country in which three-quarters of the population has subsisted below the poverty line for at least two decades. In view of the important role of education in the government's poverty reduction agenda, this report documents the current status of educational development in Madagascar and the key constraints on…

  17. Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and Risk Mitigation in Fragile and Post Conflict States. Both the social science literature and policymakers tend to take for granted that poverty reduction, risk mitigation and democratization are mutually reinforcing. This basic assumption was first challenged ...

  18. Poverty induced characteristics and their effects on the rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on poverty induced characteristics and their effect on the rural development was conducted in 45 rural communities in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 90 randomly selected community leaders and analyzed with frequency distribution and percentages. The- most ...

  19. A qualitative survey of poverty in the rural areas around Giyani township

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. Poverty is a serious concern all over the world. This phenomenon hinders development, particularly in rural areas where the majority of families are living below the poverty line. In many rural communities the RDP programme did not reach the majority of people. The study is aimed at finding out the extent, perceived causes and consequences of poverty in Homu A and Homu C near Giyani. The families regarded as the more impoverished in the two villages were selected as participants of t...

  20. The Contributions of Agricultural Growth to Poverty Reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates agricultural growth-poverty relationships at the national and household levels. A rural household model is used to measure the impact of agricultural growth (or decline) on consumption first and the effect of consumption changes on poverty using regression analyses. Two approaches are used here ...

  1. An Assessment of the Incidence of Poverty Among Rural Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the incidence and spatial distribution of poverty among rural active population in Mangu Local Government of Plateau State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the socio-demographic and economic characteristics of the respondents; the incidence and spatial distribution of poverty ...

  2. Globalization and deepening rural poverty in contemporary Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization and deepening rural poverty in contemporary Sub-Saharan ... the issue of globalization and economic integration of world countries has been the ... to globalization trend it is important to examine how globalization impacts on ...

  3. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential.

  4. County-level poverty is equally associated with unmet health care needs in rural and urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E; Litaker, David G

    2010-01-01

    Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet need, a marker of health care access, by rural/urban setting. Multilevel, cross-sectional analysis of a state-representative sample of 39,953 adults stratified by rural/urban status, linked at the county level to data describing contextual characteristics. Weighted random intercept models examined the independent association of regional poverty with unmet needs, controlling for a range of contextual and individual-level characteristics. The unadjusted association between regional poverty levels and unmet needs was similar in both rural (OR = 1.06 [95% CI, 1.04-1.08]) and urban (OR = 1.03 [1.02-1.05]) settings. Adjusting for other contextual characteristics increased the size of the association in both rural (OR = 1.11 [1.04-1.19]) and urban (OR = 1.11 [1.05-1.18]) settings. Further adjustment for individual characteristics had little additional effect in rural (OR = 1.10 [1.00-1.20]) or urban (OR = 1.11 [1.01-1.22]) settings. To better meet the health care needs of all Americans, health care systems in areas with high regional poverty should acknowledge the relationship between poverty and unmet health care needs. Investments, or other interventions, that reduce regional poverty may be useful strategies for improving health through better access to health care. © 2010 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Connecting rural-urban economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lazaro, Evelyn

    The interlinked relationships between urban settlements and their rural hinterlands in Sub-Saharan Africa are perceived crucial in enhancing possibilities for livelihood diversification and poverty reduction. Urban settlements provide opportunities for investment in more remunerative economic...... activities, job/employment opportunities that retain potential migrants in the area, and access to services for the rural hinterlands. This paper examines the role of emerging urban centres (EUCs) as ‘drivers’ of rural development based on a study of two EUCs and their rural hinterlands in Tanzania. Findings...... and poverty reduction....

  6. Rural energy and poverty in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fall, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The study from which this article is drawn was carried out under the auspices of the World Energy Council, in collaboration with the FAO, and under the supervision of a steering committee made up of experts in which the author played an active role. The article begins with an in-depth analysis of the energy crisis in rural areas of developing countries and their economic implications, which contribute to increasing poverty among rural populations. It then assesses the limits and problems related to intervention and the solutions attempted in the past, with the aim of drawing lessons from the various experiments undertaken. From these, we see an edifying and worrying factor emerging as despite a great deal of well-intentioned effort, rural energy poverty still remains at an unacceptable level today in the so-called modern world of the third millennium. Indeed 2 billion people (accounting for a third of the world population and almost all living in developing countries) do not have access to modern forms of energy and still depend on firewood, leftovers from the harvest and animal waste in order to meet their energy needs. It therefore appears necessary and urgent if we intend to take up the challenge of meeting energy requirements in rural areas, to fundamentally change the attitudes and mentalities of decision-makers at a political and other levels (planners, consultants, donors etc). It also means changing direction in research to find solutions. The author then presents a range of 'solutions' advices and recommendations aimed at ensuring that future energy provision in rural areas is more stable and sustainable, enabling rural populations to live the decent life that they should be entitled to expect today. (author)

  7. Effect of Poverty on Risk Attitude of Rural Women Investors in Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In investments, profit is the main reward for risk bearing. A riskless business may promote poverty. Poverty influences the capacities and willingness to acquire new knowledge and apply new technologies. This study sought mainly to determine the effect of poverty on risk attitude of rural women investors. The study area was ...

  8. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITY AND POVERTY DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.

  9. The influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon; Les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdem, Maxime; Edzengte, Joseph

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon. The method used is in two stages: the first stage is a statistical analysis that has allowed to determine the level of energy poverty in rural areas, which is 7.5%. The second stage assesses the influencing factors of this poverty type. The results show that the revenue impacts on energy poverty, as well as the size of the household, in which the arrival of an additional person increases by 1.16% the chances that the household will suffer from energy poverty. [French] L'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun. La methode mise en oeuvre procede en deux etapes : la premiere est une analyse statistique qui a permis de determiner le seuil de pauvrete energetique en milieu rural, qui se situe a 7,5%. La deuxieme etape evalue les determinants de ce type de pauvrete. Les resultats indiquent que le revenu explique la pauvrete energetique, de meme que la taille du menage dont l'arrivee d'une personne supplementaire accroit de 1,16% les chances de ce menage d'etre pauvre sur le plan energetique.

  10. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Baiquni, Muhammad; Ritohardoyo, Su; Setiadi, Setiadi

    2016-01-01

    The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in th...

  11. National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, poverty and prices in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S; Pandey, Manoj K; Imai, Katsushi S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is mainly to construct an intuitive measure of the performance of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in India. The focus is on divergence between demand and supply at the district level. Some related issues addressed are: (i) whether the gap between demand and supply responds to poverty; and (ii) whether recent hikes in NREGS wages are inflationary. Our analysis confirms responsiveness of the positive gap between demand and supply to poverty. Also, apprehensions expressed about the inflationary potential of recent hikes in NREGS wages have been confirmed. More importantly, higher NREGS wages are likely to undermine self-selection of the poor in it.

  12. Community Strategic Visioning as a Method to Define and Address Poverty: An Analysis from Select Rural Montana Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Paul; Austin, Eric; Clark, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Community strategic visioning is a citizen-based planning process in which diverse sectors of a community collectively determine a future state and coordinate a plan of action. Twenty-one communities in rural Montana participated in a multi-phase poverty reduction program that culminated in a community strategic vision process. Research on this…

  13. Income distribution policies for faster poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Cornia, Giovanni Andrea

    2001-01-01

    Inequality has risen in many countries over the last two decades, especially in the transition economies, but also in many developing and developed economies. This is disturbing since little progress can be made in poverty reduction when inequality is high and rising. Moreover, contrary to earlier theories of development, high inequality tends to reduce economic growth, and therefore poverty reduction through growth. This paper finds evidence of a concave relationship between inequality and g...

  14. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motilal SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that the term poor should cover all those who cannot cope with survival, security, and enabling needs. If one were to apply this comprehensive definition of poverty, the poor certainly account for more than 900 million in this region. The poor experience shortfalls in economic welfare; gaps in access to good quality education and health care; deficiencies in the provision of physical infrastructure; and political barriers that stifle personal initiative and self-development. They are unable to participate in governance, which is necessary for a healthy democracy and peaceful development. The poverty encourages corruption, anti-social activities like drugs, smuggling, prostitution, and all sorts of deviant behavior. Poverty is considered an unacceptable human condition Moreover, despite the vast advances that are being made in the spheres of science and technology, information and communication technology(ICT , medicine, capital mobility, etc., income disparities are ever widening, both within countries and nations – world's rich and poor nations. The trends in poverty reduction have recently worsened. The population growth in the developing countries is also adding to absolute number of poor. Overcoming poverty therefore remains the single most important challenge facing those involved in the development activities. It has been recognized by all multilateral and bilateral donors involved in development assistance that expected outcomes could not be achieved in the area of poverty reduction. Poverty constrains implementation of development initiatives because the poor (the beneficiaries are not able to

  15. Trends and Determinants of Rural Poverty: A Logistic Regression Analysis of Selected Districts of Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Amara Amjad Hashmi; Maqbool H. Sial; Maaida Hussain Hashmi

    2008-01-01

    Poverty is widespread in the rural areas, where the people are in a state of human deprivation with regard to incomes, clothing, housing, health care, education, sanitary facilities and human rights. Nearly 61 percent of the country’s populations live in rural areas. In Pakistan poverty has been increased in rural areas and is higher than urban areas. Of the total rural population 65 percent are directly or indirectly linked with agriculture sector. In Pakistan more than 44.8 percent people g...

  16. Rural-to-urban migration and its implications for poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1997-03-01

    This article examines rural-urban migration, its role in poverty alleviation in Thailand, and policy implications. The empirical research literature suggests that the poorest tend be left behind by wealthier migrants moving to urban areas. The youngest tend to migrate. The impact of remittances tends to appear more positive in international migration, but the impact of remittances among rural internal migrant families can also be substantial and be responsible for wealth differences within rural communities. Return migrants contribute to communities by bringing back new ideas and new attitudes toward family size. Migration can also produce negative impacts for sending communities, but the total analysis appears to favor positive impacts. The urban sector becomes another resource base for rural populations that can sustain rural populations during rapid change processes. The migrant population tends to be wealthier and better educated than rural populations, but poorer and less educated than urban populations. Informal sectors in urban areas may offer migrants flexible working hours, no taxes or deductions, less bureaucratic structures, and only 9% less income than the formal sector. Social networks reinforce migrant work in the informal sector and segmentation of the labor force. Social networks may be formalized into associations and help in securing migrant's housing and living. Migrants are integrated in a variety of ways into city life. Migrant communities are a source of energy, organizational skills, and talent. The incidence of poverty appears to be the greatest among women. Women migrants and women left behind by migrants must adjust to new conditions. Migration policies tend to focus on regulating the volume of migration. The author concludes that migration alleviates poverty and that policies should address city management, migrant adjustment processes, and training programs for nonmigrants.

  17. The Dynamics of Poverty and Vulnerability in Rural Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the random effects probit model suggest that determinants of poverty status in rural Ethiopia ... 1 School of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, ... security policies, strategies and programs in the last two decades (FDRE,. 2004 ...

  18. analysis of poverty status of rural farm families in akwa ibom state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    This study was conducted to provide empirical evidence of the effect of farming on the poverty status of rural farm families in Uyo, Akwa ... Reducing poverty in developing economies is a ... is one of the poorest among the poor countries of the.

  19. Reducing Food Poverty and Vulnerability among the Rural Elderly with Chronic Diseases: The Role of the New Rural Pension Scheme in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohua; Luo, Yuxi; Robinson, Derrick

    2018-06-13

    Vulnerability to food poverty is the probability of an individual falling below the food poverty line in the near future, which provides a forward-looking welfare analysis. Applying a nationally representative survey dataset, this study investigates the role of the New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) in reducing food poverty and vulnerability among the rural elderly with chronic diseases. By designing province-specific food poverty lines to account for variations in the elderly’s needs, as well as the prices across provinces using a least-cost linear programming approach, the food poverty incidences among the elderly with chronic diseases are calculated. Applying a three-stage feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) procedure, the vulnerability to food poverty is estimated. Our results show that food poverty incidence and vulnerability of the elderly with chronic diseases in rural China is 41.9% and 35% respectively, which is 8% and 6% higher, respectively, than the elderly that are in good health. To address the potential endogeneity of pension payment, a fuzzy regression discontinuity (RD) regression is employed to investigate the effects of pension income on food poverty and vulnerability for different population groups. We found that pension income decreases the probability of being food poor and the vulnerability to food poverty among the elderly with chronic diseases by 12.9% and 16.8% respectively, while it has no significant effect on the elderly in good health.

  20. Entrepreneurship, Public Policy and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar S. Garba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of entrepreneurship and public policy toward poverty reduction in Nigeria. Entrepreneurship has proven to be a mechanism for poverty reduction through creation of employment opportunities, income as well as wealth. In some occasion entrepreneurs exploit opportunities at the expense of the existing policy to engage in activities that are not economically and socially productive. They neither create wealth nor do they improve on the economic performance of a country. The author conducted survey and interview to solicit for data from small and micro enterprises across Kano state and also used secondary information in analysing the situation in the country. Infrastructural decay, lack of coherent policies and institutional framework were partly responsible for escalating poverty in the Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that the government while designing a policy toward entrepreneurship attempt should be made to identify and encourage high impact entrepreneurs that will genuinely contribute in creating real jobs and poverty reduction.

  1. Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy: A Critical Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Sarah; Gorlick, Carolyne; Forchuk, Cheryl; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Berman, Helene

    2016-01-01

    This article overviews the second phase of a two-phase study which examined experiences of health and social exclusion among mothers experiencing homelessness in Ontario, Canada. A critical discourse analysis was employed to analyze the policy document, Realizing Our Potential: Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2014-2019. In nursing, analysis of policy is an emerging form of scholarship, one that draws attention to the macro levels influencing health and health promotion, such as the social determinants of health, and the policies that impact them. The clear neo-liberal underpinnings, within the strategy, with a focus on productivity and labor market participation leave little room for an understanding of poverty reduction from a human rights perspective. Further, gender-neutrality rendered the poverty experienced by women, and mothers, invisible. Notably, there were a lack of deadlines, target dates, and thorough action and evaluation plans. Such absence troubles whether poverty reduction is truly a priority for the government, and society as a whole.

  2. Strategies of Successful Poverty Reduction: Case Studies of Tanzania and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Economic Update: Raising the Game , Can Tanzania Eradicate Extreme Poverty? The World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit Africa Region. No...poverty threshold were exceptionally modest and based on the minimum caloric requirement, which excludes meat and fish.259 The Zambian government...Tanzania Economic Update: Raising the Game , Can Tanzania Eradicate Extreme Poverty? The World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit Africa

  3. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in the research area is still low. The results of the combined value of the characteristic size of the hilly topography of poverty are 84 per cent and 83.7 per cent flat topography caused by low levels of income, quality of houses, agricultural land ownership, livestock ownership, ownership of valuables

  4. Pathways out of poverty in lagging regions: evidence from rural western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaensen, L.; Pan, L.; Wang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    How to reduce poverty in lagging regions remains much debated and underserved with solid empirical evidence. This study illustrates an empirical methodology to analyze the pathways households followed out of poverty and to explore their potential in the future using 20002004 rural household panel

  5. Financial development and poverty reduction in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayar Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty reduction is one of the key challenges in the globalized world. This study investigates the relationship between financial development and poverty reduction in emerging market economies during the period 1993- 2012. The Carrión-i-Silvestre, del Barrio-Castro, and López-Bazo (2005 panel unit root test and the Basher and Westerlund (2009 cointegration test was applied considering the cross-sectional dependence and multiple structural breaks in the study period. The findings indicated that financial development, including banking sector development and stock market development, had a significant positive impact on poverty reduction in emerging market economies.

  6. The Casual Nexus of Banking Sector Development and Poverty Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Salah Uddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the inter-temporal causal relationship between banking sector development and poverty reduction in Bangladesh from 1976 to 2010. We have applied new methods using modern time series econometrics techniques based on simulations that are robust to the violation of statistical assumptions, especially when the sample size is small, as is the case in this paper. The results reveal that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between banking sector development and poverty reduction in the case of Bangladesh. Surprisingly, poverty reduction appears to be a long-term forcing variable to the explanation of Bangladesh’s banking sector development. There is bidirectional causality between these variables. The diagnostic tests show that the underlying desirable assumptions are fulfilled. Time series data on poverty in many developing countries, particularly in Bangladesh, is scant and inadequate. The empirical results of this study will help policy makers determine whether poverty reduction in Bangladesh is a spur to financial sector development. This implies that, in the long term, Bangladeshi policy makers can influence the reduction of poverty through financial sector development. Although several attempts have been made to investigate the relationship between financial development and growth, this paper is the first of its kind to empirically examine the causal relationship between poverty and the development of the banking sector in Bangladesh.

  7. The Role of Zakah and Binary Economics in Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyah, Muniaty

    2014-01-01

    Poverty reduction remains the most important challenge for every countries. Zakah, as an Islamic faith-based institution, is a strategic tool for combating poverty. This study aims to identify the role of zakah and compare its principles with an overview of the characteristics and practices within binary economics which also provides a systemic solution for poverty. The study shows that zakah has an essential role to the economic growth and poverty reduction in Muslim community, as well as,...

  8. Rural poverty and environmental degradation in the Philippines: A system dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayno, Phares Penuliar

    Poverty among the small cultivators in the Philippines remains widespread despite a general increase in per capita income during the last three decades. At the same time, the degradation of agricultural land resources, as sources of daily subsistence for the rural workers, is progressing. Past policy studies on the alleviation of rural poverty in the developing countries have centered on the issue of increasing food production and expanding economic growth but gave little attention to the issue of constraints imposed by degradation of agricultural land resources. Only in recent years have there been increasing focus on the relationship between rural poverty and environmental degradation. Inquiry is, however, often done by simplistic one way causal relationships which, although often illuminating, does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the different interacting processes that create rural poverty and land degradation. Thus, policies ensuing from such analyses provide only short-term gains without effecting lasting improvement in the living conditions of the small cultivators. This dissertation examines the complex interrelationships between rural poverty and land degradation and attempts to explain the inefficacy of broad development programs implemented in alleviating rural poverty and reversing deterioration of land resources. The study uses the case of the Philippines for empirical validation. The analysis employs computer simulation experiments with a system dynamics model of a developing economy consisting of an agricultural sector whose microstructure incorporates processes influencing: agricultural production; disbursement of income; changes in the quality of agricultural land resources; demographic behavior; and rural-urban transfer of real and monetary resources. The system dynamics model used in this study extends the wage and income distribution model of Saeed (1988) by adding to it decision structures concerning changes in the quality of

  9. Reducing Food Poverty and Vulnerability among the Rural Elderly with Chronic Diseases: The Role of the New Rural Pension Scheme in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability to food poverty is the probability of an individual falling below the food poverty line in the near future, which provides a forward-looking welfare analysis. Applying a nationally representative survey dataset, this study investigates the role of the New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS in reducing food poverty and vulnerability among the rural elderly with chronic diseases. By designing province-specific food poverty lines to account for variations in the elderly’s needs, as well as the prices across provinces using a least-cost linear programming approach, the food poverty incidences among the elderly with chronic diseases are calculated. Applying a three-stage feasible generalized least squares (FGLS procedure, the vulnerability to food poverty is estimated. Our results show that food poverty incidence and vulnerability of the elderly with chronic diseases in rural China is 41.9% and 35% respectively, which is 8% and 6% higher, respectively, than the elderly that are in good health. To address the potential endogeneity of pension payment, a fuzzy regression discontinuity (RD regression is employed to investigate the effects of pension income on food poverty and vulnerability for different population groups. We found that pension income decreases the probability of being food poor and the vulnerability to food poverty among the elderly with chronic diseases by 12.9% and 16.8% respectively, while it has no significant effect on the elderly in good health.

  10. Rural Nonfarm Activities and Poverty in the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, FHG; Lanjouw, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper combines two complementary data sets to present a disaggregated spatial profile of poverty in the Brazilian Northeast, and to investigate the importance of nonagricultural activities for its rural dwellers. We present both univariate and multivariate profiles of nonagricultural employment

  11. Islamic Micro Finance and Its Impact on Poverty Reduction of Two Village Models in Bogor, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustica Bintang Sabiti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of Islamic microfinance institutions and their impact on poverty reduction in two types of rural areas in the district of Bogor, Indonesia. This research uses descriptive analysis, using a likert’s scale and with a paired sample t test to determine the impact of Islamic micro finance to micro business performance. Multiple regression is also used to see the effect of the types of villages in the implementation of micro-enterprise businesses. The results show that the Islamic micro financing has affected the effectiveness of the income and expenditure aspects, but also quite effective in the aspect of profit and use in expenditure. Furthermore, funding-based Islamic microfinance also has a positive influence on business micro and poverty reduction.DOI:  10.15408/sjie.v6i1.4337

  12. Promoting Debates on Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Debates on Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Eastern Africa through Strengthening the Links between Research and the Media. Policy researchers have a key role to play in insuring that economic growth and poverty reduction plans are responsive to the needs and interests of poor people. They can ...

  13. Key Sustainable Tourism Mechanisms for Poverty Reduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing populations, together with the impact of climate change, are resulting in greater competition for land and a necessity for sustainable land use. Tourism can provide a flow of benefits from conservation to rural communities to reduce poverty and promote biodiversity conservation. Three key mechanisms of ...

  14. Look both ways: mainstreaming biodiversity and poverty reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Steve; Roe, Dilys; Smith, Jessica

    2010-10-15

    The world's failure to meet its 2010 target to significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss demonstrates that conservation efforts have so far been insufficient. They are too often undermined by seemingly more pressing economic and poverty goals — despite the frequent correlation of high biodiversity with high incidence of poverty. But it shouldn't be a competition. Biodiversity and poverty reduction are intrinsically linked and demand an integrated approach. The Convention on Biological Diversity has long emphasised the need for integrating, or 'mainstreaming', biodiversity into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies, most recently in its new Strategic Plan. Lessons learnt from wider experience of environmental mainstreaming can help parties to the Convention achieve this target in practice — they point to a six-step plan for the task.

  15. LOCAL INSTITUTIONS’ MICRO CREDIT DELIVERY AND EFFECTS ON RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS’ POVERTY IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Onyedikachi ANYIRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of local institutions’ micro credit delivery on rural farm household poverty status in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204 rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, poverty indices, and paired t-test. The study revealed reveals that the religious association granted the highest amount of credit (N91,950.0 to their members more than any other local institutions in the study area, while the mean amount demanded was N 128,491.3. The average annual contribution of members in different local association was N36357.35 with a low percentage cash contribution index of 10.59%. The result of the poverty indicators of the rural farm households in local institutions showed that the poverty line (mean monthly household expenditure of the farm households was N16 N20648.94 per month or N 247787.28 per annum. The incidence of poverty otherwise called the head count ratio was 0.4863 while the coefficient of poverty gap (poverty depth was 0.2458. The result of the paired t-test showed that the local institutions’ micro credits impacted significantly on the mean annual farm income and monthly expenditures of the rural farm households in the study area. It was however, recommended that the autonomous local institutions should be integrated into the current poverty alleviation programme of the government and making them channels for loan delivery with a view to strengthening the financial capacity of its members as well as achieving the Millennium development goals of reducing poverty by half.

  16. Alleviating Energy Poverty through innovation: The case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Access to electricity is important for alleviation energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In spite of rural electrification schemes people in numerous villages do not have access to electricity because of inadequate and erratic power supply. The Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme) of Gujarat in India transformed the rural electricity distribution scenario creating immense opportunities for socio-economic development. It shows how vision and political will can transcend the boundaries of technical and financial expertise and systemic rigidities, and facilitate successful adoption of simple but innovative approaches for alleviation of energy poverty and bringing about socio-economic development.

  17. Industrialisation, Trade Policy and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Warr

    2003-01-01

    Over recent decades, most of the developing economies of Asia achieved reductions in absolute poverty incidence, but these reductions varied greatly in size. Differences in the rate of aggregate economic growth explain part, but not all of these differences. One factor that would be important is the sectoral composition of the growth. This paper examines the relationship between poverty reduction outcomes and the rate of growth in the agricultural, industrial and services sectors. It assemble...

  18. Educational Outcomes across the Generational and Gender Divide: The Rural Family Habitus of Pakistani Families Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnot, Madeleine; Naveed, Arif

    2014-01-01

    Education for all as a global agenda has particular repercussions for those living in rural poverty. By adopting a Bourdieusian framework to analyse interview data collected from fathers, mothers, sons and daughters in 10 rural Punjabi households, we expose the intersections of education, gender, poverty and rurality. The concept of a "rural…

  19. The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public

  20. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  1. Utilization of Adult and Non-Formal Education Programs in Combating Rural Poverty in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihejirika, John Chinedu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the concept of poverty and its causes in Nigeria and to analyze how adult and non-formal education programs can be utilized to reduce rural poverty in Nigeria. In spite of Nigeria's affluence in human and material resources, it is classified among countries with high level of poverty. Incidentally, the…

  2. POVERTY AND CALORIE DEPRIVATION ACROSS SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS IN RURAL INDIA: A DISAGGREGATED ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Abha; Mishra, Deepak K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between calorie deprivation and poverty in rural India at a disaggregated level. It aims to explore the trends and pattern in levels of nutrient intake across social and economic groups. A spatial analysis at the state and NSS-region level unravels the spatial distribution of calorie deprivation in rural India. The gap between incidence of poverty and calorie deprivation has also been investigated. The paper also estimates the factors influencing calorie depri...

  3. ICT Pathways to Poverty Reduction: Empirical evidence from East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PO Box 8500, Ottawa, ON, K1G 3H9, Canada .... Changing food poverty and overall poverty incidence in Kenya. 102. 5.2 ... Analytical framework for assessing the impact of ICTs on growth/poverty reduction among MSEs. 135. 6.2 ... 210. 9.2. Population characteristics: Census 2001 and medium projections for 2011. 212.

  4. Off-farm employment and income poverty in favourable agro-climatic areas of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Msinde, John Victor; Urassa, Justin K.; Nathan, Iben

    2016-01-01

    Income poverty in Tanzania as elsewhere in developing countries is predominantly a rural phenomenon and affects largely households relying on subsistence farming. This is despite the fact that poverty reduction strategies have devoted increasing attention on the role farm employment in enhancing...... household income. This paper argues that, off-farm employment may have potential to contribute to reduction of rural households’ income poverty. Hence the main objective of the paper is set to examine effects of off-farm employment on income poverty. Data was collected from a random sample of 309 households...... in the first quarter of 2014 in five villages of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Income poverty was analysed using the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index and two stage least square (2SLS) regression. Households with off-farm employment income were found to be less poor...

  5. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  6. The challenge of energy poverty: Brazilian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini Pereira, Marcio; Vasconcelos Freitas, Marcos Aurelio; Fidelis da Silva, Neilton

    2011-01-01

    In recent years successive Brazilian governments have actively pursued economic and social policies aimed at reducing poverty and promoting social equality and inclusion. In the field of energy, this has meant introducing and implementing programs aimed at expanding the supply of safe and reliable energy to the poorest sectors of Brazilian society, including those living in remote rural areas. This paper draws attention on the findings of extensive field research to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on energy poverty in the context of government policies aimed at promoting energy equity. The authors re-examine the concept of an energy poverty line, seeking to fine tune its application to Brazilian social and economic realities, and then apply an analytical framework (Lorenz Curve, Gap Poverty, Gap Quadratic, Gini Coefficient and Sen Index) to evaluate the effectiveness of recent efforts in Brazil to expand access to electricity. One of the main conclusions of this study is that is that rural electrification leads to a significant reduction of the energy poverty level and a consequent improvement in energy equity. -Research highlights: → The access to electricity led to a marked change in the reality of the researched population. → Energy poverty and energy inequality were reduced significantly. → The strategy of combating energy poverty through programs of rural electrification is efficient.

  7. Trickling Down: Are Rural and Rural Poor Family Incomes Responsive to Regional Economic Growth? Institute for Research on Poverty, Discussion Papers No. 210-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bruce A.

    The past decade has seen a number of studies of how the poverty incidence (the percentage of families below the poverty line) of certain demographic groups changes in response to economic growth. The question of whether regional economic growth trickles down to rural and rural poor families was examined by statistically estimating the relationship…

  8. Crime and the “poverty penalty” in urban Ghana | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Ghana's rapid urbanization has contributed to a reduction in poverty across the ... of their three-year project, “Exploring the crime and poverty nexus in urban Ghana. ... ​Youth violence and the shift of land disputes from rural ...

  9. Poverty Reduction in India through Palliative Care: A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Cathy; Thyle, Ann; Duomai, Savita; Manak, Manju

    2017-01-01

    bereaved widows and children are disinherited. Convinced that palliative care can address these, EMMS and EHA implemented PRIPCare - a pilot project. EHA began training staff for rural palliative care in north India in 2009, and started its first palliative care service at Harriet Benson Memorial Hospital, Lalitpur, Uttar Pradesh, in 2010, with home-based care backed by hospital out- and in-patient care. With EMMS support since 2012, EHA's palliative care service functions in eight hospitals in six states and Delhi. EMMS International provided the concept, commissioned the study and reviewed the report. EHA hired and guided a consultant, who piloted a questionnaire in EHA's Delhi Shalom Centre, and conducted 129 in-depth, one-to-one interviews in July and August 2015 with patients or close family members enrolled in the palliative care of three EHA rural hospitals, in Fatehpur, Lalitpur and Utraula. This represents 83% of patients in these hospitals, which in July 2015 was 79 patients in Lalitpur, 39 in Utraula, and 38 in Fatehpur. The questionnaire concerned illness, cost of treatment, use of government benefits, and family economic status. The consultant held focus group discussions with palliative care staff in these three hospitals. An intern in EHA's Shalom Centre in Delhi entered data into Excel. The consultant analysed it using Excel. Poverty of palliative care patients 18% of households enrolled for palliative care earn poverty line cardsMany patients do not know their rights to government benefitsMany patients lack documents to enroll for government benefitsMany village headmen demand bribes to list people as eligible for benefitsPatients do not plan inheritance; many bereaved women and children lose everything. Poverty reduction through palliative care 85% of patients and families spent less monthly on medicine and travel after joining palliative care than before, due to symptom management, cheaper medicine, and home-based care31% of patients received free

  10. Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Akpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational

  11. Economic growth, poverty and rural labour markets in India: a survey of research.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardhan K

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the relationship between agricultural development, agrarian structures, rural employment and poverty in India - based on a literature survey, examines trends in rural population, agricultural income, labour contracts, farm size and food prices; investigates the role of agricultural credit, wage determination and labour market segmentation; considers the informal sector and rural public works. Bibliography.

  12. THE ROLE OF ZAKAH AND BINARY ECONOMICS IN POVERTY REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Poverty reduction remains the most important challenge for every countries. Zakah, as an Islamic faith-based institution, is a strategic tool for combating poverty.  This study aims to identify the role of zakah and compare its principles with an overview of the characteristics and practices within binary economics which also provides a systemic solution for poverty. The study shows that zakah has an essential role to  the economic growth and poverty reduction in Muslim community, as well as, binary economics which also offers a way of enhanching everyone’s economic well-being and fundamentally different from all forms of conventional economics.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v4i1.1964

  13. Adequacy of dietary intakes and poverty in India: trends in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahal, Ajay; Karan, Anup K

    2008-03-01

    Linear programming methods, indicators of nutritional adequacy from the Indian Council of Medical Research and household expenditure survey data from the National Sample Survey Organization were used to construct poverty lines for India. Poverty ratios were calculated for 1993--1994 and 1999--2000 on the basis of nutritional adequacy poverty lines and compared to official estimates of poverty based on energy requirements. Nutritional adequacy poverty lines are higher than official poverty lines, particularly in rural areas. The application of nutritional adequacy poverty lines points to greater rural-urban poverty differences than in official estimates. Declines in rural poverty during the 1990s were also slower under the nutritional adequacy definition, especially in south India. There is a greater degree of rural-urban and regional bias in nutritional adequacy poverty reduction than suggested by official data. Inter-state variations in changes in nutritional poverty and official poverty in the 1990s are largely explained by differences in assumptions on overall price movements. However, relative price movements in food items also played a role, particularly the slow increase in prices of cereals and edible oils in comparison to the prices of pulses, and in some southern states, compared to milk and vegetable prices as well.

  14. Contribution of Donkeys to Poverty Reduction among Rural and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the contribution of donkeys to poverty alleviation among smallholder farmers in four states (Kaduna, Kano, Jigawa and Katsina states Kaduna, Kano, Jigawa and Katsina) of northwestern Nigeria. One hundred and twelve (112) farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with the aid of ...

  15. Understanding the urban-rural disparity in HIV and poverty nexus: the case of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Monica A

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between HIV and poverty is complex and recent studies reveal an urban-rural divide that is not well understood. This paper examines the urban-rural disparity in the relationship between poverty and HIV infection in Kenya, with particular reference to possible explanations relating to social cohesion/capital and other moderating factors. Multilevel logistic regression models are applied to nationally-representative samples of 13 094 men and women of reproductive age from recent Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys. The results confirm a disproportionate higher risk of HIV infection among the urban poor, despite a general negative association between poverty and HIV infection among rural residents. Estimates of intra-community correlations suggest lower social cohesion in urban than rural communities. This, combined with marked socio-economic inequalities in urban areas is likely to result in the urban poor being particularly vulnerable. The results further reveal interesting cultural variations and trends. In particular, recent declines in HIV prevalence among urban residents in Kenya have been predominantly confined to those of higher socio-economic status. With current rapid urbanization patterns and increasing urban poverty, these trends have important implications for the future of the HIV epidemic in Kenya and similar settings across the sub-Saharan Africa region. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Partnering, poverty reduction and rural enterprise advancement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given this scenario, the University of Fort Hare (UFH) has, through its establishment of the Rural Enterprise Advancement Programme (REAP) and its implementation through the Nguni Cattle Project and the Agri-Park Business Training Programme, restructured its agricultural research, training and community partnering ...

  17. One Size Fits All? The Validity of a Composite Poverty Index Across Urban and Rural Households in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Janina Isabel; Cluver, Lucie Dale; Melendez-Torres, G J; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Composite indices have been prominently used in poverty research. However, validity of these indices remains subject to debate. This paper examines the validity of a common type of composite poverty indices using data from a cross-sectional survey of 2477 households in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Multiple-group comparisons in structural equation modelling were employed for testing differences in the measurement model across urban and rural groups. The analysis revealed substantial variations between urban and rural respondents both in the conceptualisation of poverty as well as in the weights and importance assigned to individual poverty indicators. The validity of a 'one size fits all' measurement model can therefore not be confirmed. In consequence, it becomes virtually impossible to determine a household's poverty level relative to the full sample. Findings from our analysis have important practical implications in nuancing how we can sensitively use composite poverty indices to identify poor people.

  18. Role of animal husbandry to alleviate poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faye

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Poverty reduction is one of the top priorities of many international authorities. In this context the role played by animal husbandry deserves to be specified. Poverty is defined by economic, but also by social and cultural parameters. It is expressed at different levels such as the country, region, social category, and individual levels. Urban and rural poverty are closely related. Three types of poor farmers might be distinguished: farmers who lost their herds, farmers whose herds are too small or little productive, indebted farmers. These three types might correspond to various stages of increasing poverty. In response to the challenge of poverty reduction animal husbandry intervenes at the following five levels: security, capitalization, diversification, economical integration, and social integration. The place held by animal husbandry brings to light the need for some research and development issues to be specified.

  19. Creating a Social Wasteland? Non-Traditional Agricultural Exports and Rural Poverty in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Korovkin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal economic policies in Latin America  have resulted in the rapid growth of nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAE. This  growth is often seen as contributing to the alleviation of rural poverty. The paper examines this  view with the focus on Ecuador, using the World  Bank’s definition poverty as a reference. It is  argued that the flower export expansion has created employment opportunities but did not allow  the rural poor to raise themselves above the poverty line. Moreover, flower employment has undermined the pre-existing social networks and community organizations, increasing the levels of insecurity among rural families and undermining  their ability to influence the processes of decision  making.  Resumen: Creando un páramo social? Exportaciones agrícolas no-tradicionales y pobreza rural en EcuadorLas políticas económicas neo-liberales en América Latina han resultado en el rápido crecimiento  de las exportaciones agrícolas no tradicionales  (EANT, lo que es considerado a menudo como  un alivio de la pobreza rural. En este artículo se  estudia esta visión para el caso de Ecuador, utilizando como referencia la definición de pobreza  del Banco Mundial. Aunque se dice que la expansión en la exportación de flores ha creado oportunidades de empleo, no ha logrado que los pobres  rurales crucen la línea de la pobreza. Además, el empleo en este sector ha socavado las redes sociales y organizaciones comunitarias anteriores,  elevando los niveles de inseguridad entre las  familias rurales y minando su capacidad de intervención en el proceso de toma de decisiones.

  20. Analysis of food security and poverty status of rural farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the relationship between poverty and food security among rural faming households in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling was used to select respondents for the study. Questionnaire was administered to one hundred and eighty households who were randomly selected from three different Local ...

  1. Gender and poverty reduction strategy processes in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Geske

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn 1999, countries that wished to qualify for the Enhanced Initiative for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC initiative) had to elaborate Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) and had to do so with participation of civil society. Since then, the elaboration and subsequent implementation of PRSs (Poverty Reduction Strategies)have been seen as a tool for the international donor community to guarantee that not only debt relief, but also aid in general would be spent well. T...

  2. The role of tourism in poverty alleviation in rural areas of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeić Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty in Serbia has increased dramatically in the last decade of the twentieth century. The social middle class has disappeared, the number of poor has doubled, and the data collected by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia shows that a quarter of the population lives below the poverty line. Although the number of those who live below the absolute poverty line is increasing in cities, this increase is even more significant in rural areas. The aim of this paper is to show the possibilities of implementation of pro-poor tourism strategy in the Republic of Serbia. The paper consists of an introductory part, concluding remarks and three chapters. In the first chapter, the concepts of poverty, pro-poor, rural and sustainable tourism are covered. The second chapter gives insight into the international pro-poor experiences (Trinidad and Tobago, Bangladesh, Nepal, South Africa, Ecuador, Kenya, Tanzania and Brazil. The third chapter is dedicated to the situation in Serbia. It has been shown that new forms of tourism, which bring benefits to both tourism enterprises and local communities, can initiate the development of Serbia's rural areas.

  3. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: An Analysis of a Hegemonic Link between Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina; Jacovkis, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to analyse the connections between education and poverty established by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a central policy tool for the articulation of the Post Washington Consensus. Second, it intends to study how the PRSPs have been consolidated and expanded through different…

  4. Dichotomies of chronic and episodic rural-urban poverty: a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This conceptual paper engages on a scholarship synthesis of characteristics and contexts of the rural-urban dichotomy and the chronic or episodic nature of various dimensions and dynamics of income poverty in a bid to lay a foundation upon which interventions can be successfully designed, implemented and appraised ...

  5. Food sovereignty: an alternative paradigm for poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in Latin America [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/23s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahi Chappell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in smallholder systems in Mexico and Central America. We highlight emergent research directions that will be necessary to assess the potential of the food sovereignty model to promote both biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction.

  6. Female entrepreneurship in rural Uganda : a poverty trap analysis based on in-depth interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, H.A.; Kyejjusa, S.

    2017-01-01

    Rural female entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa are less privileged and often have limited resources and edification. Poverty traps analysis on rural female entrepreneurs in food processing in Uganda focused on identifying and explaining the existence of low well-being “basins of attraction”.

  7. Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Bangladesh: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Bodrun; Siriwardana, Mahinda

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to investigate the impact on poverty of trade liberalisation in Bangladesh. The simulation results show that the complete removal of tariffs favours export oriented sectors in the economy. With trade liberalisation, rural and urban areas experience an overall reduction in poverty in the short run. However, a marginal increase in the poverty gap and poverty severity for urban areas is projected, implying that the poor become poorer i...

  8. Poor trends - The pace of poverty reduction after the Millennium Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluhm, R; de Crombrugghe, D.P.I.; Szirmai, A.

    2014-01-01

    We review the origins of the dollar-a-day poverty line, discuss historical poverty and inequality trends, and forecast poverty rates until 2030 using a new fractional response approach. Three findings stand out. First, global poverty reduction since 1981 has been rapid but regional trends are

  9. Beyond the feminisation of poverty: gender-aware poverty reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, M; Baden, S

    1995-09-01

    There must be an awareness of gender issues in poverty reduction programs. For example, program efforts that direct aid to the promotion of labor intensive employment options disregard women's already overburdened work regime. Public expenditures to benefit the poor, such as primary education or reformed agricultural extension, may be based on the assumption that men and women will benefit equally, yet there is often gender bias in the delivery of services. One recommendation is to target female headed households in budget-constrained anti-poverty programs. One of the few examples of such programs provides urban female household heads in Chile with employment training, housing, health care, child care, and legal aid services. Causes of female headship vary, and a simple correlation with poverty is not always the case. Well-intentioned women-in-development credit programs in Ghana and Bangladesh have been "hijacked" by men. Programs to address gender discrimination only among the poor may overlook other oppressed women. In India gender discrimination is often greatest among women in wealthy households. Programs must offer more than economic resources, they must help women stretch traditional gender boundaries and obtain skills such as literacy or financial management. They must help women organize collectively to protest injustices and achieve institutional reforms.

  10. Improving animal health and livestock productivity to reduce poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradère, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study is based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations. It shows the importance of livestock in the economy and in the risk management strategies implemented by poor farming households. A comparison of livestock performance trends with the evolution of rural poverty in developing countries indicates that growth in livestock production alone is not enough to reduce rural poverty. To help reduce poverty, sustainable production should be based on productivity gains. Prerequisites for improving productivity include better public policies, enhanced research and the reduction of animal disease risk. The study draws attention to the economic, social and environmental consequences of inadequate support for animal health and production in the least developed countries, especially those of sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Multidimensional poverty in rural Mozambique: a new metric for evaluating public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Bart; Blevins, Meridith; Green, Ann F; Ndatimana, Elisée; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Fischer, Edward F; Vergara, Alfredo E; Vermund, Sten H; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D

    2014-01-01

    Poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon and unidimensional measurements have proven inadequate to the challenge of assessing its dynamics. Dynamics between poverty and public health intervention is among the most difficult yet important problems faced in development. We sought to demonstrate how multidimensional poverty measures can be utilized in the evaluation of public health interventions; and to create geospatial maps of poverty deprivation to aid implementers in prioritizing program planning. Survey teams interviewed a representative sample of 3,749 female heads of household in 259 enumeration areas across Zambézia in August-September 2010. We estimated a multidimensional poverty index, which can be disaggregated into context-specific indicators. We produced an MPI comprised of 3 dimensions and 11 weighted indicators selected from the survey. Households were identified as "poor" if were deprived in >33% of indicators. Our MPI is an adjusted headcount, calculated by multiplying the proportion identified as poor (headcount) and the poverty gap (average deprivation). Geospatial visualizations of poverty deprivation were created as a contextual baseline for future evaluation. In our rural (96%) and urban (4%) interviewees, the 33% deprivation cut-off suggested 58.2% of households were poor (29.3% of urban vs. 59.5% of rural). Among the poor, households experienced an average deprivation of 46%; thus the MPI/adjusted headcount is 0.27 ( = 0.58×0.46). Of households where a local language was the primary language, 58.6% were considered poor versus Portuguese-speaking households where 73.5% were considered non-poor. Living standard is the dominant deprivation, followed by health, and then education. Multidimensional poverty measurement can be integrated into program design for public health interventions, and geospatial visualization helps examine the impact of intervention deployment within the context of distinct poverty conditions. Both permit program

  12. Multidimensional poverty in rural Mozambique: a new metric for evaluating public health interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Victor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon and unidimensional measurements have proven inadequate to the challenge of assessing its dynamics. Dynamics between poverty and public health intervention is among the most difficult yet important problems faced in development. We sought to demonstrate how multidimensional poverty measures can be utilized in the evaluation of public health interventions; and to create geospatial maps of poverty deprivation to aid implementers in prioritizing program planning. METHODS: Survey teams interviewed a representative sample of 3,749 female heads of household in 259 enumeration areas across Zambézia in August-September 2010. We estimated a multidimensional poverty index, which can be disaggregated into context-specific indicators. We produced an MPI comprised of 3 dimensions and 11 weighted indicators selected from the survey. Households were identified as "poor" if were deprived in >33% of indicators. Our MPI is an adjusted headcount, calculated by multiplying the proportion identified as poor (headcount and the poverty gap (average deprivation. Geospatial visualizations of poverty deprivation were created as a contextual baseline for future evaluation. RESULTS: In our rural (96% and urban (4% interviewees, the 33% deprivation cut-off suggested 58.2% of households were poor (29.3% of urban vs. 59.5% of rural. Among the poor, households experienced an average deprivation of 46%; thus the MPI/adjusted headcount is 0.27 ( = 0.58×0.46. Of households where a local language was the primary language, 58.6% were considered poor versus Portuguese-speaking households where 73.5% were considered non-poor. Living standard is the dominant deprivation, followed by health, and then education. CONCLUSIONS: Multidimensional poverty measurement can be integrated into program design for public health interventions, and geospatial visualization helps examine the impact of intervention deployment within the context

  13. Financial Sector Development, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: New Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf DANDUME

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a common view that a well developed financial system will usher economic growth and further reduce the level of poverty. In late years the automaticity of this relationship in poor states such as Nigeria has been an area of considerable argument. This study attempts to examine this presuppose causal relationship between financial sector development, economic growth and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study uses Autoregressive Distributed Lag model (ARDL and Toda and Yamamoto No causality test, using a time series data covering the period of 1970-2011. The study includes poverty into the ongoing competing finance growth nexus hypothesis, in order to ascertain whether the poor segment of the Nigerian society have access to financial resources and also fully participate in the economic growth process in the country. Empirical results of the study reveal that financial sector development does not cause poverty reduction. This implies, increased in the supply of loan able funds due to financial sector development is not enough to ensure poverty reduction. Certain measures are important. Therefore, the results reveal, that economic growth causes financial sector growth. Implies that economic growth lead and financial sector follow. This implies that for financial sector development, economic growth is necessary, even though not sufficient for poverty reduction.

  14. Tourism as a Poverty Reduction Tool: The Case of Mukuni Village in the Southern Province of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Horák

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, tourism is becoming one of the cornerstones of national economic growth and as a means of poverty alleviation, especially in the tourist attractions in rural areas. This article assesses the levels of utilization of tourism potentials in Zambia, in general, and the Mukuni village in the Southern province in Zambia, in particular, with reference to poverty reduction. The world famous Victoria Falls is situated in the Southern province and therefore this area is the most visited places in Zambia and attracts more tourists throughout the whole year. The main income of the local people, which includes the Tonga tribe comes from tourism. Even though tourism has brought positive results, including the realization of some local development projects and prosperity to the people, it has also brought some negative effects such as sociocultural change, pollution and waste in the tourist destination areas in Zambia.For the Mukuni people and Zambia as a whole to fully exploit tourism potentials, stricter laws protecting the destruction of the environment and the preservation culture of the indigenous people should be enforced in the tourist destination areas. The government should use the levy from tourism to provide better infrastructure, create job opportunities and create wealth within the tourist areas for sustainable tourism development and poverty reduction.

  15. Governance and poverty reduction in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, Goran

    2007-01-01

    A careful review of the literature in political science and neighboring social science disciplines shows that prevailing assumptions in the international development policy community about improved governance as a principal mechanism to reduce poverty in Africa rests more on faith than science. Conventional policy models for tackling poverty fail to take into account the peculiar socioeconomic and political conditions in Africa, where the vast majority of those living on one dollar a day or less are only marginally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on solving their problems “outside the system.” Poverty reduction through formal institutions therefore becomes ineffective. Although political science and other neighboring social science disciplines offer insights into these peculiarities, these contributions have been largely ignored to date. One reason is that economists continue to dominate the international development policy agenda. Another is that political scientists have typically looked at how economic variables shape political ones, rather than the other way around, as implied in the current governance agenda. Governance remains an undertheorized area of research held back by two chasms, one between economists and other social scientists and another between the scientific and the policy communities, to the detriment of gaining a better understanding of how it may help reduce poverty in Africa. PMID:17942700

  16. Reducing out-of-pocket expenditures to reduce poverty: a disaggregated analysis at rural-urban and state level in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Charu C; Karan, Anup K

    2009-03-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on health care has significant implications for poverty in many developing countries. This paper aims to assess the differential impact of OOP expenditure and its components, such as expenditure on inpatient care, outpatient care and on drugs, across different income quintiles, between developed and less developed regions in India. It also attempts to measure poverty at disaggregated rural-urban and state levels. Based on Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) data from the National Sample Survey (NSS), conducted in 1999-2000, the share of households' expenditure on health services and drugs was calculated. The number of individuals below the state-specific rural and urban poverty line in 17 major states, with and without netting out OOP expenditure, was determined. This also enabled the calculation of the poverty gap or poverty deepening in each region. Estimates show that OOP expenditure is about 5% of total household expenditure (ranging from about 2% in Assam to almost 7% in Kerala) with a higher proportion being recorded in rural areas and affluent states. Purchase of drugs constitutes 70% of the total OOP expenditure. Approximately 32.5 million persons fell below the poverty line in 1999-2000 through OOP payments, implying that the overall poverty increase after accounting for OOP expenditure is 3.2% (as against a rise of 2.2% shown in earlier literature). Also, the poverty headcount increase and poverty deepening is much higher in poorer states and rural areas compared with affluent states and urban areas, except in the case of Maharashtra. High OOP payment share in total health expenditures did not always imply a high poverty headcount; state-specific economic and social factors played a role. The paper argues for better methods of capturing drugs expenditure in household surveys and recommends that special attention be paid to expenditures on drugs, in particular for the poor. Targeted policies in just five poor states to reduce

  17. The impact of micro financing on poverty levels of rural women farm households in Abia state, Nigeria; implication for policy intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EZEH Innocent

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the impact of micro-finance on poverty level of rural women farm households in Abia State, Nigeria: Implication for policy intervention. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to +select the local government areas, communities and respondents in the three (Aba, Ohafia and Umuahia agricultural zones of the State. The sample size was 240 (120 a piece for rural women farmer borrowers and non borrowers. Instrument of data collection was a set of structured and pre-tested questionnaire administered on both groups of rural women farmers. The result indicated that incidence of poverty or head count ratio was 0.558 for the rural women farmers borrowers and 0.933 for the rural women farmer non borrowers; poverty gap otherwise known as income short fall was 0.4547 for the rural women farmer borrowers and 0.6995 for the rural women farmer non borrowers. The result of the paired t-test showed that micro-finance impacted significantly on annual farm income, farm size and fertilizer use level of rural women farmer borrowers at given levels of significance. It was however, recommended that increased subsidy policy on agro-inputs and increased funding by the micro-finance will significantly aim at reducing the poverty levels of these women.

  18. The limits of poverty reduction in support of climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Donald R.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Eakin, Hallie; Lo, Yun-Jia

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between poverty and climate change vulnerability is complex and though not commensurate, the distinctions between the two are often blurred. There is widespread recognition of the need to better understand poverty-vulnerability dynamics in order to improve risk management and poverty reduction investments. This is challenging due to the latent nature of adaptive capacities, frequent lack of baseline data, and the need for high-resolution studies. Here we respond to these challenges by analyzing household-level data in Northeast Brazil to compare drought events 14 years apart. In the period between droughts, the government implemented an aggressive anti-poverty program that includes financial and human capital investments. Poverty declined significantly, but the expected reduction in vulnerability did not occur, in part because the households were not investing in risk management strategies. Our findings complement other research that shows that households make rational decisions that may not correspond with policymaker expectations. We emphasize the need for complementary investments to help channel increased household wealth into risk reduction, and to ensure that the public sector itself continues to prioritize the public functions of risk management, especially in areas where the social cost of climatic risk is high.

  19. IWRM and poverty reduction in Malawi: A socio-economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Msosa, Hendrina K.

    Like most other countries in the SADC region, Malawi has swiftly endorsed the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. In the water sector, these principles are reflected in the National Water Policy (2004) and in the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) (2002) which emphasize three key aspects. First, the articulation of a vision and policy objectives that address development and management of water for productive purposes, conservation and poverty reduction. Second, the recognition of international and regional conventions and agreements on water resources to which Malawi is a signatory, thereby promoting global partnership for development. Third, the provision of mechanisms for monitoring, assessment and development related to watershed management, conservation and the mitigation of floods and droughts. Both the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and the National Water Policy seek to reduce poverty by increasing access to water for domestic and productive purposes. In particular, the MPRSP will focus on constructing and rehabilitating water facilities, extend water supply capacity, promote community-based management and improve water resources conservation and management. In this paper, we examine the challenges of implementing these goals against the background of various institutional reforms in the water sector. We argue that although Malawi has come up with very clear strategies and guidelines for promoting MDGs, a combination of human and financial resources, bedevil the successful implementation of these ideas. In addition, the strategies do not articulate water as a medium for poverty alleviation in a holistic manner. The paper further demonstrates ways in which the promotion of IWRM can facilitate in reducing poverty.

  20. Exploring the Poverty Reduction Potential of Social Marketing in Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao V. Truong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although social marketing has been demonstrated to be an effective tool of behavior change in a variety of contexts, its poverty reduction potential in tourism development has captured limited research attention. This paper explores the potential contribution of social marketing to tourism-related poverty alleviation in Sapa, Vietnam. It does so by creating an understanding of how local residents perceive poverty, then exploring whether social marketing could be a potential solution in the case of Sapa. Through participant observations and semi-structured interviews, this study reveals that local people perceive poverty as a lack of rice and/or income and ascribe it to both internal and external factors. Local women often follow tourists to sell handicrafts, causing discomfort for tourists and driving them away from certain destinations. Insufficient capital and farming land are also identified as a critical barrier to poverty reduction. This study argues that by understanding the poor people’s perspectives on poverty, we can identify meaningful approaches to poverty alleviation. Thereby, social marketing can be one of the tools to bring the marginalized voice of poor people to the attention of decision-makers.

  1. Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Empowerment of women when pursued beyond mere rhetoric and instrumentation, it will improve their wellbeing, self esteem, resource allocation, political voice and increased productivity generally.

  2. factors influencing transient poverty among agro-pastoralists in semi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    and social capital, and limited access to markets and service institutions like credit institutions, extension and ... declining with positive influential factors, reduction of transient poverty can be achieved through ...... Rural incomes, inequality and.

  3. Aid effectiveness for poverty reduction:macroeconomic overview and emerging issues

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Guillaumont

    2011-01-01

    Following the adoption of the MDG, particulary the first one that is to reduce poverty by half between 1995 and 2015, numerous studies have examined how external aid can contribute to their achievement. The formula "doubling aid to reduce the poverty by half" relied on the implicit assumption that aid was an effective instrument for poverty reduction. The formula and corresponding assumption have of course been debated. Two opposite views have clearly appeared, one, well represented by Jeffre...

  4. Urbanization and Inequality/Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brantley Liddle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The level of world urbanization has crossed the 50% mark, and nearly all future population growth is projected to occur in cities. Cities are disproportionately wealthy, but are associated with poverty, too. Addressing the dual challenges of urbanization and poverty is key to achieving sustainable development. This paper performs cross-sectional regressions, based on Kuznets, as a starting point for understanding the relationship between urbanization and poverty/inequality indicators. Increases in gross domestic product per capita unambiguously lowered poverty and narrowed rural-urban gaps. By contrast, levels of urbanization were either unrelated to poverty/inequality indicators and measures of rural-urban gaps, or had a nonlinear effect where, initially, increases in urbanization likewise led to improvements in those areas, while at higher levels of urbanization, increases in urbanization exacerbated poverty and rural-urban gaps.

  5. Impact of animal health programmes on poverty reduction and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradere, J P

    2017-04-01

    Based on data from publications and field observations, this study analyses the interactions between animal health, rural poverty and the performance and environmental impact of livestock farming in low-income countries and middle-income countries. There are strong statistical correlations between the quality of Veterinary Services, livestock productivity and poverty rates. In countries with effective Veterinary Services, livestock growth stems mainly from productivity gains and poverty rates are the lowest. Conversely, these analyses identify no statistical link between the quality of Veterinary Services and increased livestock production volumes. However, where animal diseases are poorly controlled, productivity is low and livestock growth is extensive, based mainly on a steady increase in animal numbers. Extensive growth is less effective than intensive growth in reducing poverty and aggravates the pressure of livestock production on natural resources and the climate.

  6. County-Level Poverty Is Equally Associated with Unmet Health Care Needs in Rural and Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E.; Litaker, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Purpose: Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet…

  7. Developing Capability and Agency through a Poverty-reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing Capability and Agency through a Poverty-reduction Approach to ... Women in the Tswapong Region of Botswana depend on natural resources for their ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  8. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Indonesia Before and After the Asian Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Asep Suryahadi; Asep Suryahadi; Gracia Hadiwidjaja; Gracia Hadiwidjaja; Sudarno Sumarto; Sudarno Sumarto

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction in Indonesia before and after the asian financial crisis (afc). Indonesia has a significantly slower poverty reduction post-afc compared to the pre-afc era. the trend in the growth elasticity of poverty indicates that the power of each% of economic growth to reduce poverty did not change greatly between the pre and post-afc time periods. during both these periods, the growth of services sector is the largest co...

  9. Foreign aid and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-country investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GT Ijaiya

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in the rate of poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to the inadequate management and use of international financial assistance such as foreign aid. Using a cross-country data, this paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The result obtained indicates that foreign aid has no significant influence on poverty reduction in SSA, because of the countries’ weak economic management evidenced by high levels of corruption, bad governance, and political and economic instability. To improve the performance of foreign aid directed at poverty reduction, the paper suggests the implementation of measures directed at good governance, macroeconomic and political stability.Incentives in Nigeria’s food manufacturing industries and their impact on output and prices

  10. EFFECTS OF REMITTANCES ON POVERTY REDUCTION: THE CASE OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Husnayeni Nahar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Remittances have been reported as a tool for fighting poverty in some selected countries, such as Indonesia. An increase of income through remittances tends to improve the economic status of the migrant’s household. Once they get a high salary, they will remit money (a remittance to their household in Indonesia via formal institutions, such as banks. The migrant’s household can fulfil their basic needs and can use the remittance for educational investment and productive activities. The education investment aims to educate the children or grandchildren of migrants, which will be beneficial for the future generations of the family, allowing them the chance of a more prosperous life. The poverty rate would be reduced gradually, and economic welfare can be achieved. The main objectives of this paper are first to estimate the effects of remittances on poverty in Indonesia from 1983 to 2015 and second, to propose several strategic policies related to remittances and poverty reduction. Other variables considered include inflation, exchange rates, income, income inequality and the labor force participation rate. An Ordinary Least Square (OLS method was used to explore the econometric and estimated results. The study found that an increase in remittances led to a reduction in poverty by 2.56%. Inflation and the exchange rate have positive and negative effects on poverty, respectively. The small effect of remittances on poverty’s reduction could possibly be explained by the low educational background of the migrants, low wage jobs, expensive remittance costs, and migrants not knowing how to remit money through formal financial institutions. Hence, to reduce the poverty level, the government needs to first facilitate skills training for the workers so that they could get a better job and earn more, second, lower the transaction costs of remittances, and lastly, provide agents at Indonesian banks overseas to provide better facilities to Indonesian

  11. Energy services and energy poverty for sustainable rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2011-01-01

    In many rural areas, poor people still depend on wood and other biomass fuels for most of their household and income-generating activities. The difficult, time-consuming work of collecting and managing traditional fuels is widely viewed as women's responsibility, which is a factor in women's disproportionate lack of access to education and income, and inability to escape from poverty. Therefore, it is important for energy access programs to have a special focus on women. New options for energy access and sustainable livelihoods, like small-scale biofuels production, can have dramatic benefits for rural women, and their families and communities. Energy development, as both a driving force and a consequence of such tremendous changes, has had profound impact on economic, social, and environmental development. Rural energy has always been a critical issue due to years of energy shortage for both households and industries. Biomass, for long time, has been the only available fuel in many rural areas. The situation in rural areas is even more critical as local demand for energy outstrips availability and the vast majority of people depend on non-commercial energy supplies. Energy is needed for household uses, such as cooking, lighting, heating; for agricultural uses, such as tilling, irrigation and post-harvest processing; and for rural industry uses, such as milling and mechanical energy and process heat. Energy is also an input to water supply, communication, commerce, health, education and transportation in rural areas. (author)

  12. Flooding and poverty: Two interrelated social problems impacting rural development in Tsholotsho district of Matabeleland North province in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding and poverty are the two social problems that have coexisted within the rural communities of Tsholotsho district. As a result, both problems have negatively affected and disrupted the everyday pattern of lives of people living in the district. This study sought to highlight how the two problems combine to impact human societies. The objectives that the study sought to fulfil were to establish the impact of flooding on the development of rural communities, to analyse how poverty manifests itself in rural communities, to analyse the relationship that exists between flooding and poverty and to suggest ways for dealing with the two problems. A qualitative research approach, using interviews and observations, was used to gather data from the research participants. The study findings were that flooding impeded development through shifting of human populations, destruction of crops, shelter and livestock. Floods also affected human capital through causing injuries to members of the community. Poverty manifested itself in three ways – as a development barrier, a vulnerability amplifier and a non-discriminatory agent. The study further found that a strong relationship exists between flooding and poverty because of the fact that flooding causes or worsens poverty, whereas poverty increases flood vulnerability. The study concluded that the poor need government assistance to reconstruct shelter destroyed by floods. Furthermore, programs aimed at improving livelihoods of the poor are an indispensable imperative. This study informs policymakers and offers a methodological significance to development and disaster practitioners. It also adds to the body of literature on flooding and poverty.

  13. Rural education: Reimagining the role of the church in transforming poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Thesnaar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The desire to remember the plight of the poor in South Africa has reduced in the last 20 years after the transition from apartheid to freedom. To a large extent, Faith Based Organizations (FBOs and the religious society at large have lost their ‘dangerous memory’ which keeps us mindful of those who suffered and whose plight is usually forgotten or suppressed. In this contribution the conditions of poor farm school children in multigrade rural education will be scrutinised by unpacking the contextual factors that cause us to forget their plight. This article will seek to reimagine the role of the church in poverty-stricken South Africa by engaging with the work of Talcott Parsons, the practical theologian Johannes A. Van der Ven, as well as the work of the political theologian Johann Baptist Metz in order to affirm the focus of Practical Theology to transform society and to contribute to the quest for justice and liberation for the poor in rural education. This reimagining discourse has a fundamental responsibility to challenge the social, political and economic realities that shape the lives of human beings within rural education, remembering the plight of the poor, and participating on their journey towards liberation and healing. It is proposed that if the church can activate its ‘dangerous memory’ it will be able to reimagine its role by transforming our poverty-stricken South African society, open new avenues for breaking the cycle of poverty and contribute to rural education.

  14. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Rangel-Gómez, Gudelia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural). During 1990-2000 a total of 48,761 cervical cancer (CC) deaths were reported in Mexico (1990 = 4,280 deaths/year; 2000 = 4,620 deaths/year). On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference = Mexico City) found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR] = 10.99; Nayarit, RR = 10.5). Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population). CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection. This paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  15. Mainstreaming Informal Employment and Gender in Poverty Reduction

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Mainstreaming Informal Employment and Gender in Poverty Reduction: ... of the global population that survives on less than $1 a day by the year 2015. ... Joann Vanek is a sociologies who specializes in social and gender statistics ...

  16. World Bank and agricultural development: food production and rural poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stryker, R E

    1979-03-01

    Over the past decade, the World Bank has become the leading international institution for development financing and for elaborating new development strategies. This has involved a major shift in lending toward agriculture and rural development. Explanations for the change range from more progressive expertise within the Bank to the shock of the 1972-74 food crisis and renewed penetration of Third World agriculture by capitalist agribusiness. Discriminating among these perspectives requires attention to the core issue of the relationship between increasing food production and reducing rural poverty. The author feels that the issue is irreducibly political and that the Bank's record is less encouraging than the reformist rhetoric. 33 references, 4 tables.

  17. Poverty Reduction Programme in Nigeria: An Assessment of its Implementation in Enugu State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilichukwu A. Omemma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study has as its main thrust the evaluation of the implementation of the national poverty reduction programme in Enugu State of Nigeria. Using cross-sectional and exploratory methods of data collection and analysis, the study discovered that, compared to most states in other parts of the country, Enugu State has a low poverty profile owing to the relative positive impact of the implementation of poverty alleviation programme. Nevertheless, policy inconsistency and mismanagement deny the programme from becoming a total success; hence the existence of a larger number of citizens that are in absolute poverty. It is therefore suggested that the way out of the ineffective poverty reduction programme in Enugu State is the effective monitoring mechanism and the creation of an enabling environment for wealth creation and employment generation.

  18. GLOBAL GOVERNANCE AND POVERTY REDUCTION THIS MILLENNIUM: NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Issue of global poverty became very worrisome that the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 placed it at the heart of global agenda to halve 1990 extreme poverty and hunger rates by the end of 2015. This means that the percentage of improvised people defined by the World Bank as those living on less than $1.25 a day must fall to 25 percent by the end of this year, while the proportion of people without adequate food security must be reduced to 12.5 percent. To achieve the aim, global leaders agreed to set a time-bound and measurable goals and targets. The United Nations believes that achieving the target which involves improvements in standards of living, universal primary education, empowerment of women, reduction in mortality rates, unemployment, among others, requires a global partnership with national governments, multinational agencies through global governance architecture. The ideal of global governance is a process of co-operative leadership that brings together national governments, multilateral public agencies and civil society to achieve commonly accepted goals. It provides strategic direction and then marshals collective energies to address global challenges. It is inclusive, dynamic and operates across national and sectoral boundaries and interests. It is this perspective of global governance that drives the Millennium Development Goals agenda toward global poverty reduction. This perspective is making positive contributions with some regions in the world heading toward the achievement of the target. Even those countries in sub-saharan Africa where most of the global poor live and who are lagging behind, are making frantic efforts to do so, with the assistance of global bodies like the world bank,  IMF, UNIDO, among others. The beauty of global governance is that it appears to be more democratic than authoritarian, more openly political than bureaucratic, and more integrated than specialized. This is the level that drives the

  19. Poverty reduction Approaches in Kenya: Assessing the Usefulness of the Right Based Approach in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambua Leonard Munyao, Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While billions of dollars have been spent in development projects in least developed countries, poverty continues to increase. This study proposes human-rights based approach to poverty eradication. To this end, the study seeks to assess the key determinants of use of rights- based approaches to poverty reduction and it’s usefulness in Kenya with special reference to NGOs in Kibera. The study further high lights some of the basic skills of implementing the rights based approach to poverty reduction. The attempts to establish the proportion of NGOs applying rights based approach to poverty reduction in Kibera Division as well. The review of relevant literature has been undertaken and a field study done. The study is informed by a qualitative human rights framework.

  20. driven and community-driven poverty reduction strategies/progr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Bank assisted Community-Based Poverty Reduction Programme ... economic performance and in the absence of adequate social safety net, the per capita income ... the international community, development workers, the political class, scholars, activists, ..... Manufacturing and Direct Public Policy in South Western.

  1. Dominica; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Joint Staff Advisory Note

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    The Growth and Social Protection Strategy (GSPS) attaches great importance to the promotion of economic growth and job creation, given the nature of poverty in Dominica. The GSPS also stresses that existing health and education programs are essential to foster growth in the medium and long terms, but further efforts are needed. The GSPS contains a macroeconomic framework that is consistent with the proposed objectives of poverty reduction. The growth and fiscal targets envisaged in the macroe...

  2. Poverty in the Brazilian Amazon: An Assessment of Poverty Focused on the State of Para

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    The states in the Brazilian Amazon have made progress in reducing poverty and improving social indicators in the last decade. Despite this progress, the poverty rate in the Amazon is among the highest in Brazil. As of 2000, rural poverty is the greatest challenge. In Par?, not only is the headcount poverty rate of 58.4 percent in rural areas more than 55 percent higher than headcount pover...

  3. Page Gender Differences in Rural Off-farm Employment Pa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    off-farm employment plays in the reduction of poverty in Asia (Sanchez 1991), Africa ( ... the rate at which women participate in off-farm employment increased faster than ...... Rural poverty and non-farm employment in India: evidence from.

  4. Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: Implications for rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay ...

  5. Gender earnings and poverty reduction: post-Communist Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Bilal Ahmad Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Women get less of the material resources, social status, power and opportunities for self-actualization than men do who share their social location – be it a location based on class, race, occupation, ethnicity, religion, education, nationality, or any intersection of these factors. The process of feminization of poverty in Central Asia and Uzbekistan is intimately connected to the cultural and institutional limitations that put a ceiling on women’s involvement in economic activity. This article attempts to study and explore gender in the context of poverty reduction in Uzbekistan, the most populated state of Central Asia, to understand the ways and manner in which poverty and other forms of deprivation demand women’s participation in variety of contexts. The study is primarily an empirical one and is based on an extensive sociological investigation in the field.

  6. Pathways from Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Barbara, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue are based on presentations at the Pathways from Poverty Workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on May 18-25, 1995. The event aimed to foster development of a network to address rural poverty issues in the Western Rural Development Center (WRDC) region. Articles report on outcomes from the Pathways from Poverty…

  7. Blood pressure among rural Montenegrin children in relation to poverty and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovic, Milica; Belojevic, Goran; Evans, Gary W; Asanin, Bogdan; Lausevic, Dragan; Kovacevic, Natasa Duborija; Samardzic, Mira; Jaksic, Marina; Pantovic, Snezana

    2014-06-01

    Health inequalities may begin during childhood. The aim of this study was to investigate the main effect of poverty and its interactive effect with gender on children's blood pressure. The study was performed in two elementary schools from a rural region near Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro. A questionnaire including questions on family monthly income, children's physical activity and the consumption of junk food was self-administered by parents of 434 children (223 boys and 211 girls) aged 6-13 years. Children's poverty level was assessed using the recommendations from the National Study on Poverty in Montenegro. Children's body weight and height were measured and body mass index-for-gender-and-age percentile was calculated. An oscillometric monitor was used for measurement of children's resting blood pressure in school. A two-factorial analysis of variance with body mass index percentile, physical activity and junk food as covariates showed an interaction of gender and poverty on children's blood pressure, pointing to synergy between poverty and female gender, with statistical significance for raised diastolic pressure (F = 5.462; P = 0.021). Neither physical activity nor the consumption of junk food explained the interactive effect of poverty and gender on blood pressure. We show that poverty is linked to elevated blood pressure for girls but not boys, and this effect is statistically significant for diastolic pressure. The results are discussed in the light of gender differences in stress and coping that are endemic to poverty. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. A note on banking reform and poverty : Revisiting the Indian social banking experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platschorre, B.; Bulte, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent empirical work demonstrates that state-led bank expansion in rural India has contributed to a reduction in the number of poor people. In this note it is shown that the social banking policies have not simultaneously decreased the rural poverty gap. This suggests a potential trade-off for

  9. A Note on Banking Reform and Poverty: Revisiting the Indian Social Banking Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platschorre, B.; Bulte, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent empirical work demonstrates that state-led bank expansion in rural India has contributed to a reduction in the number of poor people. In this note it is shown that the social banking policies have not simultaneously decreased the rural poverty gap.This suggests a potential trade-off for

  10. Assessing the Long-term Impact of Microcredit on Rural Poverty: Does the Timing and Length of Participation Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane, G.; Gardebroek, C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, microfinance institutions are seen as beacons of hope to help eradicate poverty through, among others, providing credit to poor rural households. Availability of small but repeated loans is, in the long-term, expected to impact on poverty. However, decades after the introduction of

  11. Relationship between Income-poverty and Food insecurity in Rural Far-western Mid-hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Maharjan, Keshav Lall; Joshi, Niraj Prakash

    2009-01-01

    For the purpose of this study, sample was selected through stratified random sampling from Baitadi district, which falls in rural Far-western Hills of Nepal. Both income and consumption measure of poverty revealed that problem of poverty is more severe in Melauli, which is relatively remote village devoid of transportation, communication, market, and other developmental services. Education, occupation, gender of household head, and family size are found to be the most important factors that a...

  12. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1 examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2 describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey technique, observation, and structured interviews to collect data. The processing and analysis of data was carried out by a quantitative method using a multiple regression analysis. The results of the study showed that the factors significantly affecting the poverty among rural communities around gold mine areas were material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability and powerlessness (R2 = 0.715. However, the mostly dominant factor affecting the poverty was powerlessness (t = 19.715. Meanwhile, the distribution of poverty based on topographic sites showed that the poverty occurred in villages with plain topography (Goa Village, terrain topography (Maluk Village, wave topography (Belo Village, and hilly topography (Sekongkang Bawah Village. The poverties occurred in all the villages were mostly affected by powerlessness with t values of 3.489, 13.921, 11.828, and 6.504, respectively. This condition was due to minimum access and communication by local communities to local government and the gold mining company of PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara

  13. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized

  14. Wealth and poverty in European rural societies from the Sixteenth to Nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.J.; Broad, J.

    2014-01-01

    This book sheds new light on old problems of wealth, poverty and material culture in rural societies. Much of the debate has concentrated on north-west Europe and the Atlantic world. This volume widens the geographic range to compare less well known areas, with case studies on the Mediterranean

  15. Careers Education: An Effective Tool for Poverty Reduction | Okafor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Careers Education: An Effective Tool for Poverty Reduction. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... The research was carried out based mainly on the secondary source of data. Among other things, the study ...

  16. Model of urban poverty alleviation through the development of entrepreneurial spirit and business competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaningsih, NN; Irianto, Kt; Marsa Arsana, Md; Juli Suarbawa, Kt

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increased of urban population can not be controlled by the city government. This will have an impact on the emergence of new poverty in urban areas, due to inadequate of the job opportunities and skills. Government programs for poverty alleviation can reduce some rural poverty, but have not been able to overcome poverty in urban areas. The diversity of urban issues and needs is greater than in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the research with the aim to build urban poverty reduction model through the development of entrepreneurship spirit and business competence. This research was conducted by investigation method, and questionnaire. Questionnaires are arranged with rating scale measurements. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested by factor analysis. Model construction is constructed from various informant analyzes and descriptive statistical analysis. The results show that poverty alleviation model is very effective done by developing spirit of entrepreneurship and business competence.

  17. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development Public Expenditure Review 1997/98–2005/06

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...

  18. Human Capital Formation And Poverty Reduction Strategies In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study articulates the development thrust of the Nigerian government, (1999 – 2003), in the area of human capital information and poverty reduction. The policies to achieve its objectives and the gains of such policies to the common man in Nigeria. To achieve its objectives, the government emphasized, macroeconomic ...

  19. Short-term poverty dynamics of rural households: Evidence from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schwarze

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of poverty dynamics is crucial for the design of appropriate poverty reduction strategies. Taking the case of Central Sulawesi, we investigate the determinants of both chronic and transitory poverty using data from 264 randomly selected households interviewed in 2005 and 2007. Regarding the US 1$/day poverty line, the headcount index declined from 19.3% in 2005 to 18.2% in 2007. However, we observed an increasing number of people living on less than US 2$/day expressed in purchasing power parity (PPP. The results of the estimated multinomial logit model applied in this study indicate that a lack of non-agricultural employment opportunities and low endowment of social capital are major determinants of chronic as well as transitory poverty in this province of Indonesia. These results are used to draw policy conclusions with respect to the alleviation of transitory and chronic poverty in Central Sulawesi.

  20. Case Study of Leadership Practices and School-Community Interrelationships in High-Performing, High-Poverty, Rural California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Marcia; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Many rural California high schools are impacted by the disadvantages of poverty, non-English speaking students, limited resources, changing demographics, and challenges of the rural context. Focusing on contemporary leadership theories and school-community interrelationships, this qualitative study examines the practices of educational leaders in…

  1. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiga Housseima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.

  2. Potential Impact of the REDD+ Program on Poverty Reduction in Nghe An Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Tien

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The REDD+ program provides a mechanism for providing financial rewards to forest owners and users who contribute to the reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This paper determines the potential impact of the REDD+ program on poverty reduction by comparing income and poverty rate between two household groups that were willing to participate in this study, but that will not participate in the REDD+. The results showed that carbon payment from forests is a significant contributor to the increase in household income of poor people. The average income of households participating in the program is VND 20.68 million in contrast to those not participating whose average income is VND 14.72 million. Results showed that the REDD+ program intervention helped reduce the poverty rate in the two communes by 6.40% (from 39.4% to 33%. The paper recommends that the REDD+ program should facilitate the distribution of land titles to provide security of tenure for individual households that are participating in the program. While the program can contribute to poverty reduction, the program payments can increase income inequality and conflicts between those involved and those not involved in the program and legal ownership of the lands. In addition, a comprehensive research study on the impact of the program on forest conservation and poverty reduction is necessary. Stakeholders of the program should recognize and acknowledge the trade-offs between conservation and economic development or poverty reduction. A comprehensive trade-off analysis of program implementation and a business-as-usual option of commodity production is needed, which could reveal the indirect economic, political, and social costs and benefits of the program.

  3. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development : Public Expenditure Review for 1997-98 and 2005-06

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...

  4. Governance or Poverty Reduction? Assessing Budget Support in Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ General Budget Support (GBS) is assumed to lead to more effective poverty reduction through non-earmarking of the money and through recipient country ownership. A second and more hidden objective of GBS, however, is to influence policies and governance of

  5. Poverty reduction and coverage extension of social programs in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Soto Iguarán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia today, poverty affects one individual out of three. Employment does not seem to guarantee that households’ income is above the poverty line. In this context and considering the current framework of the social protection system, where assistance and promotion are increasingly important, strategies for extending social protection programs play an important role. The analysis considers the characteristics of social protection regime and the factors that block the universalization of social insurance, in particular, the mechanisms targeted at workers who are difficult to cover, such as domestic workers, and those aimed at improving savings of informal workers are analyzed. The effects of these strategies are too marginal to reach universal social protection and significant reduction of poverty.

  6. Rwanda; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    Rwanda’s Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) covers the period 2008–12 and provides a medium-term framework for achieving the country’s long-term development aspirations as embodied in Rwanda Vision 2020, the seven-year Government of Rwanda (GoR) program, and the Millennium Development Goals. The economic cluster covers the macroeconomic and financial sector (energy, transport, information and communication technology (ICT) and Science, Technology and Innovation (STI),...

  7. Information and Communication Technologies and Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries : the Case of Sub Saharan Africa countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lot Tcheeko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs to support poverty reduction efforts and strategies in the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. These interest ended up revealing how much the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs of many african nations have underestimated the importance of ICTs as a development tool. The fact that so little was mentionned about the use of ICTs for poverty alleviation and creation of employment highlighted the confusion, and uncertainty of decision makers. At the country level, ICT is still to be effectively integrated into national poverty alleviation and development strategies. The question then is how ICTs can help achieve those objectives. How can ICTs be used as tools to fight against poverty? Poverty is widely recognized as multidimensional, encompassing food security, health, education, rights, security and dignity, amongst others as stressed by Bachelor and al in a model showing the intricate linkages between ICTs and most PRSP goals. The link between ICTs and poverty reduction strategy is therefore not that obvious. Although, researchers and development partners involved in poverty alleviation recognize more easily the linkage between ICT and poverty reduction strategies. In any case, it is a prerequisite to have a conducive environment and country readiness for ICTs implementation. Unfortunately, in many Sub-Saharan Africa countries, there is not yet a clear and effective policy and strategy for the use of ICT.

  8. Agricultural Education and the Challenges of Poverty Reduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the paper argues for a far-reaching revision of higher agricultural education core curriculum and concludes that a more virile and realistic agricultural education system (incorporating formal and non-formal sub-systems) is imperative for the attainment of significant poverty reduction and sustainable development in Nigeria ...

  9. Mean consumption, poverty and inequality in rural India in the 60th round of the National Sample Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Raghbendra; Gaiha, Raghav; Sharma, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on mean consumption, poverty (all three FGT measures) and inequality during 2004 for rural India using National Sample Survey (NSS) data for the 60th Round. Mean consumption at the national level is much higher than the poverty line. However, the Gini coefficient is higher than in recent earlier rounds. The headcount ratio is 22.9 per cent. Mean consumption, all three measures of poverty and the Gini coefficient are computed at the level of 20 states and 63 agro-climatic zones in these 20 states. It is surmised that despite impressive growth rates deprivation is pervasive, pockets of severe poverty persist, and inequality is rampant.

  10. Rural communities’ vulnerability to farmland poverty in varied ecological settings of northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menberu Teshome

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and climate changes are among the serious threats to the world’s land resources in the 21st Century. Particularly, in the developing countries the impact inevitably goes as the continuing toll on agricultural production, human lives, and properties. It is also a driving force of poverty and impediment of overall economic development in many less developed nations, like Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper assesses the rural communities’ vulnerability to farmland poverty in different ecological settings of northwest Ethiopia. Data were collected from 525 randomly selected farming households using questionnaire. Meteorological data were collected from Global Weather Data for soil and water assessment tool (SWAT from 1979 to 2010. Rainfall and temperature trends were characterized using simple linear regression model. Rural communities’ vulnerability to farmland poverty was determined using livelihood vulnerability index (LVI. Indices were constructed using simple and weighted average approaches to measure farmlands’ exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Overall communities’ levels of vulnerability to farmlands poverty were found to be 0.76 in the lowland, 0.57 in the flat highland and 0.51 in the midland areas. In almost all indicators the lowland (Abay Valley is more vulnerable to farmland-related troubles as the biophysical and socio-economic contexts were found to be the worst there. Communities and government and non-government officials have observed significant negative impacts of drought and extreme weather events on farmlands, pasturelands with declining availability, productivity and quality of farmlands. This study suggests education and research interventions for enhancing community-based participatory integrated watershed management approach supported with best indigenous knowledge and farmers’ practices. Adaptation interventions should also consider local communities’ resource capacity (low

  11. The Prospect of Horticultural Organic Farming as Sustainable Agricultural Practice for Reducing Poverty: The Case in Bengkulu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh Adiprasetyo; Sukisno Sukisno; Nanik Setyowati; Sempurna Ginting; Merakati Handajaningsih

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is still an insistent problem which when confronted by humanity requires a systemic, comprehensive and synchronized approach to alleviate it.  The concentration of urban and rural poverty in developing countries underpins the importance of agriculture as a poverty reduction strategy since most of the poor people depend on agriculture.  Thus, improving agricultural productivity, competitiveness and sustainability may reduce poverty.   This study was intended to (1) find out if sustaina...

  12. Poverty and Health in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines health conditions in the rural areas of Central Argentina, the country’s main region for soy-bean production and export. Health conditions are analyzed through the concepts of emerging and re-emerging diseases in a context of increasing poverty. Data on poverty and health was obtained from both primary sources (trade union, government officials, rural doctors and the South Watch/FA/FODEPAL/UNR working group and secondary sources (IPEC/INDEC, IDESA, Consultora Equis, the Argentine Ministry of Employment, ILO, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment, toxicology centers and rural doctors. Analysis of rural health conditions gives cause for concern. There is evidence of deterioration in the social determinants of health such as an increase in rural and urban poverty associated with informal employment and child labor. At the same time lack of government epidemiological and toxicological data appears to hide or distort the reality of health conditions.

  13. The Wasteland Auction Policy in Northwest China: Solving Environmental Degradation and Rural Poverty? / Rural Development in Transitional China: A Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P.P.S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to relieve rural poverty and solve the problem of soil and water erosion on marginal land, various provinces and regions throughout China proclaimed a new policy in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This 'Four Wastelands Auction Policy' attempts to boost the development of land of low

  14. Environmental resources reduce income inequality and the prevalence, depth and severity of poverty in rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Bir Bahadur Khanal; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic importance of environmental income to rural households in Nepal and how environmental income influences poverty and inequality measures. Qualitative contextual information was collected from two village development committees in middle Gorkha District followed...

  15. Poverty and Inequality Reduction in Brazil – A Parenthesis in History or the Road Ahead?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Paiva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Between 1992 and 2013, and especially since 2003, Brazil experienced an unprecedented reduction in poverty and income inequality, a process common to several Latin American countries. The objective of this study is to identify the drivers of the social changes that we observed along this period in Brazil, in comparison with other Latin American countries, and to discuss the prospects for the near future. Aspects such as the demographic transition, the reduction in earnings inequality, the country’s sustained economic growth and a set of employment and social policies are relevant to understand the process of reduction in overall poverty and inequality over the last two decades in Brazil. Although demographic changes should continue to play an important role towards poverty reduction in the future, the recent economic downturn puts a question mark over future prospects, at least in the short term. Job creation has already been overtaken by increasing unemployment rates, tax revenues are falling and the resulting fiscal crisis will limit any increase in expenditures with social policies. In the short-term, the country will face the challenge of staying its course regarding the reduction of poverty and inequality in light of a much more adverse economic scenario.

  16. Has Rural Banking Developed Rural Nigeria? | Amadasu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is problem of rural development in Nigeria because of increasing poverty in the rural areas where about 70% of the people live. Reducing poverty means increasing income. Increasing income means increasing bank loans and advances for efficient application to agricultural and industrial activities in the rural Nigeria ...

  17. Production interdependencies and poverty reduction across ethnic groups in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, M. Yusof; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Production sectors are interdependent and the benefits of output growth for poverty reduction therefore spread over the economy. The role of such interdependencies is explicitly studied in this paper. A social accounting matrix for Malaysia that distinguishes between the major ethnic groups in

  18. SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRIX APPLIED TO RURAL POPULATIONS (MCSAP TO ANALYZE THE FIGHT AGAINST POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador González Andrade

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a multisectors approach, this document set upaggregated restricted social accounting matrix of 10villages in Mexico. This paper, analyze the effects of anexogenous increase in the product equivalent to 100 pesosper capita onto the rural households’ income and reducingpoverty. Furthermore migration and the salaried work therural households perform five productivity activities:commercial agriculture, livestock, staple crops, forestry andfirewood gathering, and commerce and services. On thebasis of three simulations we are to obtain that the impacton the income and reduction of poverty of the ruralhouseholds of an external injection depends of the activityto which it is applied; the dimension of the accountingmultipliers depends on the participation and of the linkagesof each activity on the local and external economy. The results show that the commerce and services (1.75 to 2.28, staple crops (1.36 to 2.21, and livestock (1.36 to 1.84present the largest multiplier effects.

  19. Below the poverty line and non-communicable diseases in Kerala: The Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas (ENDIRA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Jaideep; Vijayakumar, N; Joseph, Joseph K; David, P C; Menon, M N; Mukundan, Shyam; Dorphy, P D; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    India carries the greatest burden of global non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Poverty is strongly associated with NCDs but there are few prevalence studies which have measured poverty in India, particularly in rural settings. In Kerala, India, a population of 113,462 individuals was identified. The "Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases in Rural Areas" (ENDIRA) study was conducted via ASHAs (Accredited Social Health Activists). Standardised questionnaires were used in household interviews of individuals ≥18years during 2012 to gather sociodemographic, lifestyle and medical data for this population. The Government of Kerala definition of "the poverty line" was used. The association between below poverty line (BPL) status, NCDs and risk factors was analysed in multivariable regression models. 84,456 adults were included in the analyses (25.4% below the poverty line). The prevalence of NCDs was relatively common: myocardial infarction (MI) 1.4%, stroke 0.3%, respiratory diseases 5.0%, and cancer 1.1%. BPL status was not associated with age (p=0.96) or gender (p=0.26). Compared with those above the poverty line (APL), the BPL group was less likely to have diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidaemia (ppoverty line status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social networks, social participation, and health among youth living in extreme poverty in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Amelia; Barrington, Clare; Abdoulayi, Sara; Tsoka, Maxton; Mvula, Peter; Handa, Sudhanshu

    2016-12-01

    Extensive research documents that social network characteristics affect health, but knowledge of peer networks of youth in Malawi and sub-Saharan Africa is limited. We examine the networks and social participation of youth living in extreme poverty in rural Malawi, using in-depth interviews with 32 youth and caregivers. We describe youth's peer networks and assess how gender and the context of extreme poverty influence their networks and participation, and how their networks influence health. In-school youth had larger, more interactive, and more supportive networks than out-of-school youth, and girls described less social participation and more isolation than boys. Youth exchanged social support and influence within their networks that helped cope with poverty-induced stress and sadness, and encouraged protective sexual health practices. However, poverty hampered their involvement in school, religious schools, and community organizations, directly by denying them required material means, and indirectly by reducing time and emotional resources and creating shame and stigma. Poverty alleviation policy holds promise for improving youth's social wellbeing and mental and physical health by increasing their opportunities to form networks, receive social support, and experience positive influence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Albania; Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates Albania’s Request for a Three-Year Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Sound financial policies under the previous PRGF-supported program helped stabilize the economy and restore high growth, but poverty remains widespread. The authorities’ medium-term strategy aims to promote inclusive growth, as the country continues to be plagued by poverty. The proposed PRGF arrangement is justified by the authorities’ commendable performance under the ...

  2. Elite perceptions of poverty and Nigeria's poverty reduction research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The way the elite perceive poverty and the poor in any society constitutes a very important dimension of poverty research. This is because normally there are several areas of interrelationship and interdependence between the poor and the elite, and these form part of the basis for social life in all societies. Perceptions of the ...

  3. Agriculture in sustainable rural development : effects of the growth and poverty reduction strategy 11 (GRPS 11) on livelihoods and coping strategies of smallholder farming households: context of the Ejisu-Juaben municipality in the Ashanti region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng, Peter Kojo

    2011-01-01

    Master thesis in development management- University of Agder 2011 The Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) approach championed by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund lies at the centre of development assistance, debt relief, and development planning in many developing countries, including Ghana. Ghana has implemented a PRS (Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy I, 2003-2005) and a second generation of PRS (Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy II, 2006-2009) had just pass...

  4. Impact of Government Anti-Poverty Programme on Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Government Anti-Poverty Programme on Development of Rural Areas of ... of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) among rural population in ... different statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics among others.

  5. Linking Environmental Protection and Poverty Reduction in Africa: An Analysis of the Regional Legal Responses to Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poverty has been identified as the main cause and consequence of environmental degradation in Africa . It follows that if poverty is the main cause of environmental degradation in Africa , then policies, programmes and legal provisions designed to protect the environment in the region will be unsuccessful without a significant improvement in the living standards, wellbeing and livelihoods of the poor. In the same breath, since poverty is a consequence of environmental degradation, then the protection of the environment is critical to the achievement of poverty reduction initiatives such as the Millennium Development Goals in Africa . Hence, it can be argued that there is a mutual relationship between the achievement of environmental protection and reduction of poverty in Africa . This article therefore examines the extent to which the various regional legal instruments for the protection of the environment in Africa recognise this mutual linkage by providing for the promotion of poverty reduction and socio-economic development as integral aspect of their objective of ensuring the protection of the environment in the region.

  6. A Human Rights-Based Approach to Poverty Reduction: The Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Human Rights-Based Approach to Poverty Reduction: The Role of the Right of ... remain among the greatest challenges faced by today's developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimates that about one-third of the world's ...

  7. Optimal taxation and public provision for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kanbur, Ravi; Paukkeri, Tuuli; Pirttilä, Jukka; Tuomala, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The existing literature on optimal taxation typically assumes there exists a capacity to implement complex tax schemes, which is not necessarily the case for many developing countries. We examine the determinants of optimal redistributive policies in the context of a developing country that can only implement linear tax policies due to administrative reasons. Further, the reduction of poverty is typically the expressed goal of such countries, and this feature is also taken into account in our...

  8. Djibouti; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Annual Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    The modern economy of the Republic of Djibouti is based on rents directly or indirectly originating from the international port of Djibouti and from the country’s strategic position. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper discusses that the growth recorded over the last five years is essentially driven by the increase in foreign direct investment—but especially by the activities of the Port of Djibouti. The informal economy constitutes a major proportion of the economic activities of Djibouti a...

  9. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with partial edentulism when compared to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates of full edentulism are also rural (Urban, 4.3%, High-Poverty Rural 10.5%, Other Rural, 8.2%). ( Mitchell, ...

  10. Interactive Development-oriented Poverty Reduction Model for Bijie Experimental Region under the Guidance of Scientific Outlook on Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faliang; YU; Lisong; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Bijie Experimental Region takes the ecological construction as the guarantee and takes population control as the key,to promote development-oriented poverty reduction and explore benign interaction between development-oriented poverty reduction and ecological construction and population control.Development-oriented poverty reduction model includes combination of raising crops and livestock,coordinated development of multiple wealth sources,transferring labor,and partner assistance;ecological construction model includes"Five sons passed imperial examinations",desertification control,agricultural circular economy,and project promotion;population control models includes human-land linkage,combination of favorable policies and propaganda and education,and combination of ambition arousing and education promotion.

  11. Does Inequality Matter for Poverty Reduction? Evidence from Pakistan’s Poverty Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamal

    2006-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between poverty, growth and inequality in the context of Pakistan. Time series macro data are used for the period 1979 to 2002. Consistent poverty and inequality measures are interpolated to facilitate the estimation of poverty elasticity with respect to growth and inequality in a multivariate regression framework. The paper also attempts to find out macroeconomic and structural correlates of inequality. The empirical findings—high poverty elasticity with respe...

  12. Land Degradation is The Instinctive Source of Poverty in Rural Areas of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L. L.; Koondhar, M. A.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zeng, W. Z.

    2017-10-01

    This review paper focused on the correlation between land degradation and poverty. Pakistan is an agricultural country and agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan`s economy. For the rapid growth of population food security should be under guarantee as well as the food production. In that farmers overused agrarian inputs, such as fertilizer, pesticide and water, environment and farmers were affected from the perspective of contamination and disease increase respectively. Due to over-exploitation of fertilizer and irrigation, ground water was contaminated, soil fertility weakening,salinity increasing and waterlogged. Consequently, soil was hard to be cultivated. In Pakistan 70% of people live in rural areas who are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture. As a result of land degradation farmers can not gain much benefit from agricultural activities and they are also unable to feed their children. Many of them became criminals, therefore, poverty deepened day after day. In order to alleviate poverty, Pakistan government should subsidize farmers on environmentally friendly inputs and; government should also open agricultural training schools to engage farmers in modern methods of cultivation, and provide modern technologies with subsidy rate. When the farmers are aware of how to increase the fertility of soil by employing modern methods, they can gain higher production, and obvious higher production is critical for living a better life and reducing poverty.

  13. Education, poverty and the 'missing link': The limits of human capital theory as a paradigm for poverty reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonal, X.; Mundy, K.; Green, A.; Lingard, R.; Verger, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main areas where human capital theory has been especially influential is in the relationship between investment in education and poverty reduction. However, up to now, little success can be reported, with huge differences between the average levels of education globally achieved and the

  14. New Thinking on Poverty: Implications for Globalisation and Poverty Reduction Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Shaffer

    2008-01-01

    Three main changes in thinking about poverty have gained increasing currency over the past decade. First, the concept of poverty has broadened, with increasing attention to issues of vulnerability, inequality and human rights. Second, the causal structure has broadened to include causal variables, such as social, political, cultural, coercive and environmental capital. Third, the causal structure has deepened to focus on flows of individuals into and out of poverty, rather than on changes in ...

  15. Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 1 in northern rural Nicaragua: findings from a health and demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Wilton; Blandón, Elmer Zelaya; Persson, Lars-Åke; Peña, Rodolfo; Källestål, Carina

    2012-08-15

    Millennium Development Goal 1 encourages local initiatives for the eradication of extreme poverty. However, monitoring is indispensable to insure that actions performed at higher policy levels attain success. Poverty in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries remains chronic. Nevertheless, a rural area (Cuatro Santos) in northern Nicaragua has made substantial progress toward poverty eradication by 2015. We examined the level of poverty there and described interventions aimed at reducing it. Household data collected from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was used to analyze poverty and the transition out of it, as well as background information on family members. In the follow-up, information about specific interventions (i.e., installation of piped drinking water, latrines, access to microcredit, home gardening, and technical education) linked them to the demographic data. A propensity score was used to measure the association between the interventions and the resulting transition from poverty. Between 2004 and 2009, poverty was reduced as a number of interventions increased. Although microcredit was inequitably distributed across the population, combined with home gardening and technical training, it resulted in significant poverty reduction in this rural area. Sustainable interventions reduced poverty in the rural areas studied by about one-third.

  16. Risky Business? Rural Entrepreneurship in Subsistence Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cieslik, Katarzyna; D’Aoust, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Present-day development theory and practice highlight the potential of micro-entrepreneurship for poverty reduction in rural Africa. At the same time, subsequent studies show that entrepreneurial propensity is not often exhibited by subsistence farmers. Basing our analysis on a cross-section

  17. Spatial variations in US poverty: beyond metropolitan and non-metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Kleit, Rachel Garshick; Cover, Jane; Fowler, Christopher S

    2012-01-01

    Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise. Given the number and concentration of poor people living in mixed-rural and rural counties in metropolitan regions, researchers and policy-makers need to pay more nuanced attention to the opportunities and constraints such individuals face. A cross-classification of the Office of Management and Budget’s metro system with a nuanced RUDC scheme is the most effective for revealing the geographical complexities of poverty within metropolitan areas.

  18. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  19. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J; Haider, L Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-05-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to "push" the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges.

  20. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J.; Haider, L. Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-01-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to “push” the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges. PMID:28508077

  1. Female sex, poverty and globalization as determinants of obesity among rural South African type 2 diabetics: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ter Goon, Daniel

    2015-03-27

    Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have recently been experiencing increases in the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other non-communicable diseases in both urban and rural areas. Despite their growing influence on population health in the region, there is a paucity of epidemiological studies on the twin epidemic of obesity and T2DM, particularly in the rural communities in South Africa. We investigated the prevalence and the determinants of overall obesity among patients with T2DM in rural and semi-urban areas surrounding the town of Mthatha, South Africa. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with T2DM attending the outpatient department at Mthatha General Hospital, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Data were obtained from 327 participants using standardized questionnaires that included items on sex, age, level of education, type of residence, employment status, smoking status, physical activity, diet and alcohol intake. After taking measurements of height and weight, participants were defined as obese if their body mass index exceeded 30 kg/m(2). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the determinants of obesity in our sample population. We found that 60.2% of our sample population were defined as obese. In our univariate analyses, female sex (p rural residence (p poverty reduction and public education are urgently needed to address the growing obesity epidemic in rural areas of South Africa.

  2. Tourism Contribution to Poverty Alleviation in Kenya: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoya, Eric Tchouamou; Seetaram, Neelu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the claim that tourism development can be the engine for poverty reduction in Kenya using a dynamic, microsimulation computable general equilibrium model. The article improves on the common practice in the literature by using the more comprehensive Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index to measure poverty instead of headcount ratios only. Simulations results from previous studies confirm that expansion of the tourism industry will benefit different sectors unevenly and will only marginally improve poverty headcount. This is mainly due to the contraction of the agricultural sector caused the appreciation of the real exchange rates. This article demonstrates that the effect on poverty gap and poverty severity is, nevertheless, significant for both rural and urban areas with higher impact in the urban areas. Tourism expansion enables poorer households to move closer to the poverty line. It is concluded that the tourism industry is pro-poor.

  3. Poverty Reduction and Shared Prosperity in Moldova : Progress and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Moldova has experienced rapid economic growth in the past decade, which has been accompanied by reductions in poverty and good performance in shared prosperity. Nonetheless, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe and faces challenges in sustaining the progress. The challenges for progress include spatial and cross-group inequalities, particularly because of unequal access t...

  4. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  5. Contributions of Rural Women Entrepreneurs in Non–Farm and Off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The study assessed the contributions of rural women entrepreneurs in non–farm and off–farm enterprises to household poverty reduction in. Abia State .... It has been asserted that about 70 % of Nigerian's poor live in rural areas and are .... Percentage (%) n = 120. Age in Years. 20 - 30. 11.11. 31 - 40. 22.22. 41 - 50. 27.77.

  6. Poverty and Health: Defeating poverty by going to the roots

    OpenAIRE

    Anirudh Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is dynamic in nature: even as some people move out of poverty, other people simultaneously fall into poverty. The poverty pool is being simultaneously both depleted and refilled. Anirudh Krishna argues that efforts for poverty reduction tend to focus exclusively on raising people out of poverty, and therefore will not be very successful unless poverty creation is also addressed. Ill health and high healthcare expenses are the principal reasons associated with falling into poverty; the...

  7. Can AIDS stigma be reduced to poverty stigma? Exploring Zimbabwean children's representations of poverty and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Mupambireyi, Z; Madanhire, C; Robertson, L; Nyamukapa, C A; Gregson, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective We use children's drawings to investigate social stigmatization of AIDS-affected and poverty-affected children by their peers, in the light of suggestions that the stigmatization of AIDS-affected children might derive more from the poverty experienced by these children than from their association with AIDS. Methods A qualitative study, in rural Zimbabwe, used draw-and-write techniques to elicit children's (10–12 years) representations of AIDS-affected children (n= 30) and poverty-affected children (n= 33) in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Results Representations of children affected by AIDS and by poverty differed significantly. The main problems facing AIDS-affected children were said to be the psychosocial humiliations of AIDS stigma and children's distress about sick relatives. Contrastingly, poverty-affected children were depicted as suffering from physical and material neglect and deprivation. Children affected by AIDS were described as caregivers of parents whom illness prevented from working. This translated into admiration and respect for children's active contribution to household survival. Poverty-affected children were often portrayed as more passive victims of their guardians' inability or unwillingness to work or to prioritize their children's needs, with these children having fewer opportunities to exercise agency in response to their plight. Conclusions The nature of children's stigmatization of their AIDS-affected peers may often be quite distinct from poverty stigma, in relation to the nature of suffering (primarily psychosocial and material respectively), the opportunities for agency offered by each affliction, and the opportunities each condition offers for affected children to earn the respect of their peers and community. We conclude that the particular nature of AIDS stigma offers greater opportunities for stigma reduction than poverty stigma. PMID:21985490

  8. Can AIDS stigma be reduced to poverty stigma? Exploring Zimbabwean children's representations of poverty and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Mupambireyi, Z; Madanhire, C; Robertson, L; Nyamukapa, C A; Gregson, S

    2012-09-01

    We use children's drawings to investigate social stigmatization of AIDS-affected and poverty-affected children by their peers, in the light of suggestions that the stigmatization of AIDS-affected children might derive more from the poverty experienced by these children than from their association with AIDS. A qualitative study, in rural Zimbabwe, used draw-and-write techniques to elicit children's (10-12 years) representations of AIDS-affected children (n= 30) and poverty-affected children (n= 33) in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Representations of children affected by AIDS and by poverty differed significantly. The main problems facing AIDS-affected children were said to be the psychosocial humiliations of AIDS stigma and children's distress about sick relatives. Contrastingly, poverty-affected children were depicted as suffering from physical and material neglect and deprivation. Children affected by AIDS were described as caregivers of parents whom illness prevented from working. This translated into admiration and respect for children's active contribution to household survival. Poverty-affected children were often portrayed as more passive victims of their guardians' inability or unwillingness to work or to prioritize their children's needs, with these children having fewer opportunities to exercise agency in response to their plight. The nature of children's stigmatization of their AIDS-affected peers may often be quite distinct from poverty stigma, in relation to the nature of suffering (primarily psychosocial and material respectively), the opportunities for agency offered by each affliction, and the opportunities each condition offers for affected children to earn the respect of their peers and community. We conclude that the particular nature of AIDS stigma offers greater opportunities for stigma reduction than poverty stigma. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. DESIGNING E-LEARNING PROGRAMS FOR RURAL SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION AND POVERTY REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. H. N.MURTHY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWhile the conventional education system with different forms of E-learning and rigid academic instructive curriculum could not bring desired changes in specified timeframe work at rural level in the targeted communities and groups, a multipronged sociological approach with a sociable and flexible curriculum in new E-Learning programs becomes need of hour. The impact of socializing influence of these E-Learning programs should be properly exploited to motivate and inspire the rural target groups. The benefits of E-learning then become extensive and soon integrate with the needs of the lower strata of the society in order for achieving a rapid social transformation in the lives of the farmers, vocational groups, artisans and small income self help groups comprising women, girls and physically challenged. The paper suggests a number of new generation E-Learning programs as strategies of development communication with a promise of high returns for the industry for its investment in these programs with socially relevant messages and media convergence.

  10. Relationships between poverty and AIDS Illness in South Africa: an investigation of urban and rural households in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Janina Isabel; Cluver, Lucie; Melendez-Torres, G J; Herrero Romero, Rocio

    2017-09-01

    The association between poverty and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa remains contested. A better understanding of the relationship between the prevalence of poverty and the disease is essential for addressing prevention, treatment, and care. The present study interrogates this relationship, using a cross-sectional survey of 2477 households in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Structural equation modelling was employed to estimate the correlations between poverty and AIDS illness. The analysis revealed a correlation of r pb  = 0.23, denoting that a higher level of household poverty was associated with a higher likelihood of being AIDS-unwell. Post hoc t-test showed that receipt of a disability grant by AIDS-affected households was associated with significantly lower poverty, compared to AIDS-affected households not receiving the grant, t(654) = 3.67, p poverty and AIDS was decreased to r pb  = 0.15 (p poverty through economic interventions, and those that alleviate the impoverishing effects of AIDS illness for affected households.

  11. Tourism Contribution to Poverty Alleviation in Kenya: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoya, Eric Tchouamou; Seetaram, Neelu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the claim that tourism development can be the engine for poverty reduction in Kenya using a dynamic, microsimulation computable general equilibrium model. The article improves on the common practice in the literature by using the more comprehensive Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index to measure poverty instead of headcount ratios only. Simulations results from previous studies confirm that expansion of the tourism industry will benefit different sectors unevenly and will only marginally improve poverty headcount. This is mainly due to the contraction of the agricultural sector caused the appreciation of the real exchange rates. This article demonstrates that the effect on poverty gap and poverty severity is, nevertheless, significant for both rural and urban areas with higher impact in the urban areas. Tourism expansion enables poorer households to move closer to the poverty line. It is concluded that the tourism industry is pro-poor. PMID:29595836

  12. Designing E-Learning Programs for Rural Social Transformation and Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C. S. H. N.; Mathur, Gaurav

    2008-01-01

    While the conventional education system with different forms of E-learning and rigid academic instructive curriculum could not bring desired changes in specified timeframe work at rural level in the targeted communities and groups, a multipronged sociological approach with a sociable and flexible curriculum in new E-Learning programs becomes need…

  13. A warmer policy for a colder climate: Can China both reduce poverty and cap carbon emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan; Aamaas, Borgar; Lund, Marianne T.; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing global carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions is often thought to be at odds with economic growth and poverty reduction. Using an integrated assessment modeling approach, we find that China can cap CO_2 emissions at 2015 level while sustaining economic growth and reducing the urban-rural income gap by a third by 2030. As a result, the Chinese economy becomes less dependent on exports and investments, as household consumption emerges as a driver behind economic growth, in line with current policy priorities. The resulting accumulated greenhouse gas emissions reduction 2016–2030 is about 60 billion ton (60 Mg) CO_2e. A CO_2 tax combined with income re-distribution initially leads to a modest warming due to reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO_2) emissions. However, the net effect is eventually cooling when the effect of reduced CO_2 emissions dominates due to the long-lasting climate response of CO_2. The net reduction in global temperature for the remaining part of this century is about 0.03 ± 0.02 °C, corresponding in magnitude to the cooling from avoiding one year of global CO_2 emissions. - Highlights: • China can cap CO_2-emissions at 2015 level without harming economic growth. • Poverty reduction is compatible with policy to cap CO_2 emissions. • Rural poverty reduction financed by CO_2 tax revenue increases domestic consumption. • One year of the global emissions is avoided. • The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.03 (± 0.02) °C.

  14. Mental health, well-being, and poverty: A study in urban and rural communities in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Bárbara Barbosa; Cardoso, Antonio Alan Vieira; Ximenes, Verônica Morais; Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Leite, Jáder Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the relations between mental health and well-being in urban and rural contexts marked by poverty. The analysis takes as its basis a quantitative research conducted with 417 adult inhabitants of two communities, one rural and the other urban, in Northeastern Brazil. The data were constructed using questionnaires composed of sociodemographic data, the Personal Wellbeing Index and Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) scales. We found significant differences between the inhabitants of the rural and urban communities regarding well-being and the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD), with a higher average well-being score in the rural context; the urban sample had a higher average regarding the prevalence of CMD. The variable income significantly influenced the SRQ-20 average scores; the same was not observed with well-being scores. Besides, it was observed that there is a negative correlation with well-being and CMD.

  15. Republic of Armenia; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates Armenia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) Progress Report covering August 2003–December 2004. The developments in 2003–04 are rather reassuring. The resulting pattern, overall, is more favorable than what was foreseen by the PRSP development scenario. Particularly, the economy grew twice as rapidly as the projected rate, and the government continues to implement a public expenditure policy that is focused on social sectors and infrastructure development. As a resu...

  16. The poverty elasticity of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    How much does economic growth contribute to poverty reduction? I discuss analytical and empirical approches to assess the poverty elasticity of growth, and emphasize that the relationship between growth and poverty change is non-constant. For a given poverty measure, it depends on initial inequality and on the location of the poverty line relative to mean income. In most cases, growth is more important for poverty reduction than changes in inequality, but this does not tender inequality unimp...

  17. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 246

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Working Paper is to broaden the debate on "pro-poor growth". An exclusive focus on the income dimension of poverty has neglected the non-income dimensions. After an examination of prominent views on the linkages between economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction this paper discusses the proper definition and…

  18. Polycentrism and Poverty: Experiences of Rural Water Supply Reform in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Falk

    2009-02-01

    This paper investigates how polycentric rural water supply reform impacts on natural resource management and water users’ livelihoods in three communal areas of Namibia. The analysis takes into account the effects of historic discriminative policies and the resulting low financial, human and social capital of rural communities. We conclude that the devolution of institutional and financial responsibility for water supply to users has had a positive impact on rural water management. However, the introduction of cost recovery principles conflicts with the objectives of the Namibian government to alleviate poverty and inequality. The high level of inequality within the country as a whole and also within communities impedes the development of fair fee systems. Polycentrism faces the major challenge of building on existing structures without replicating historic injustices. It allows, however, for the state to mitigate any negative impact on livelihoods. While the reform is in the process of full implementation, the government is discussing various options of how the poor can be guaranteed access to water without diminishing their development opportunities. The Namibian experience demonstrates the difficulties in developing effective incentive mechanisms without undermining major social objectives. Our analyses show that, compared to naive monocentric governance approaches, polycentrism offers much broader opportunities for achieving multidimensional objectives. Nonetheless, a reform does not become successful simply because it is polycentric.

  19. Analysis of Food Poverty of Rural Women in Villages of Central district of Boyer-Ahmad County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The findings revealed that about 31 percent of women were below and 69% were above the food poverty line. Comparison of averages of some variables including education status, employment (head of household, income, banking facilities such as credit and loans, property and assets, savings, economic skills, economic participation, government supports, husband's attitude, self-confidence, self-esteem, physical and mental healths showed that there are significant differences between poor and non-poor rural women. The discriminant analysis indicated that variables like husband attitude, self-confidence, and self-essteem correctly classified about 87.7 percent of rural women as poor or non-poor. Due to the husband's attitude had a significant role in differentiation of the two groups, the social and cultural education of rural men are recommended. Furthermore, the supporting sterategies that includes the distribution of food commodities, unemployment insurance and pensions, medical insurance and development of educational services for rural women is suggested.

  20. Urban growth and poverty in India, 1983–2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku

    2010-01-01

    Although poverty in India remains disproportionately rural at the aggregate level, urban poverty is growing in importance. Efforts to address urban poverty should note its spatial distribution. This paper shows that the incidence of poverty in India’s small towns is markedly higher than in large

  1. Kosovo : Poverty assessment, Volume 1. Accelerating Inclusive Growth to Reduce Widespread Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Kosovo is widespread and has remained persistent in the first half of this decade. The evidence suggests that poverty is higher among those who live in families that are large, have many unemployed members, and have low education levels. The poor are also geographically concentrated in rural areas and a few regions. The main message of this report is that the slow and volatile g...

  2. Reducing Poverty and Inequality in India: Has Liberalization Helped?

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Raghbendra

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the empirical relationship among inequality, poverty and economic growth in India. Using data on consumption from the 13th to the 55th Rounds of the National Sample Survey, the author computes, for both rural and urban sectors, the Gini coefficient and three popular measures of poverty. The observed changes in inequality and poverty are explained in terms of the behaviour of key macroeconomic aggregates. A sharp rise in rural and, particularly, urban inequality and only a ...

  3. The Protective Role of Religious Coping in Adolescents' Responses to Poverty and Sexual Decision-Making in Rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S.; Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual…

  4. Indonesia Poverty Reduction Strategies: Shifting policies to promote employment in the poorest four deciles

    OpenAIRE

    Ardi Adji; Sri Hartini Rachmad

    2018-01-01

    This paper observes the working status and conditions of people who fall into the poorest four deciles in Indonesia. The research aims to provoke policy shifts in the drive to accelerate poverty reduction in Indonesia, taking a longer view of people being more employable and less dependent; also identifying the dominant factors preventing people from moving out of poverty and improving their life quality. By comparing elements of gender, age, education and health against employment status and...

  5. The contribution of veterinary medicine to public health and poverty reduction in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, John B; Mwacalimba, Kennedy K; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Matope, Gift; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Siamudaala, Victor; Mweene, Aaron S; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions.

  6. The contribution of veterinary medicine to public health and poverty reduction in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Muma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions.

  7. A warmer policy for a colder climate: Can China both reduce poverty and cap carbon emissions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan, E-mail: taoyuan.wei@cicero.uio.no; Aamaas, Borgar; Lund, Marianne T.; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-10-15

    Reducing global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is often thought to be at odds with economic growth and poverty reduction. Using an integrated assessment modeling approach, we find that China can cap CO{sub 2} emissions at 2015 level while sustaining economic growth and reducing the urban-rural income gap by a third by 2030. As a result, the Chinese economy becomes less dependent on exports and investments, as household consumption emerges as a driver behind economic growth, in line with current policy priorities. The resulting accumulated greenhouse gas emissions reduction 2016–2030 is about 60 billion ton (60 Mg) CO{sub 2}e. A CO{sub 2} tax combined with income re-distribution initially leads to a modest warming due to reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. However, the net effect is eventually cooling when the effect of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions dominates due to the long-lasting climate response of CO{sub 2}. The net reduction in global temperature for the remaining part of this century is about 0.03 ± 0.02 °C, corresponding in magnitude to the cooling from avoiding one year of global CO{sub 2} emissions. - Highlights: • China can cap CO{sub 2}-emissions at 2015 level without harming economic growth. • Poverty reduction is compatible with policy to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. • Rural poverty reduction financed by CO{sub 2} tax revenue increases domestic consumption. • One year of the global emissions is avoided. • The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.03 (± 0.02) °C.

  8. The role of poverty reduction strategies in achieving the millennium development goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Eggen, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    We provide a literature overview of the linkages between Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) and use novel data to examine their relation. We find that introduction of a PRSP is associated with progress in four of the nine MDG indicators we study.

  9. The environmental impact of poverty: evidence from firewood collection in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baland, Jean-Marie; Bardhan, Pranab; Das, Sanghamitra; Mookherjee, Dilip; Sarkar, Rinki

    2010-01-01

    We investigate determinants of household firewood collection in rural Nepal, using 1995-96 and 2002-3 World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data. We incorporate village fixed effects, endogenous censoring, measurement error in living standards and heterogeneous effects of different household assets. We find no evidence in favor of the poverty-environment hypothesis. The evidence for the environmental Kuznets curve depends on the precise measure of living standards and time period studied. Firewood collections fall with a transition to modern occupations and rise with increasing population and household division. The local interhousehold collection externality is negligible, indicating that policy interventions are justified only by ecological considerations or nonlocal spillovers.

  10. Poverty reduction through entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalla, Rachel; Carney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Microcredit strategies combine the logic of business, progressive approaches to learning from experience and the key aim to reduce poverty, especially amongst women. The focus in such interventions on the independent, entrepreneurial citizen suggests not only new ways to generate economic growth...

  11. The internet of things in agriculture for sustainable rural development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available these issues. The intention of this research is to investigate the potential contributions of internet of things technologies (IoT) towards poverty reduction in these rural areas, in line with the needs identified in these communities and with emphasis...

  12. Understanding Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jerneck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies and strategies to fight global environmental degradation, gender inequality, and poverty are often inadequate, ineffective, or insufficient. In response, this article seeks potential synergies and leverage points between three significant interrelated discourses that are often treated separately—development, gender, and environment. Proceeding from a brief history of development thinking and poverty definitions, I describe indicators, strategies, and approaches to poverty reduction and gender equality. Second, I analyze how targeting, mainstreaming, and market-based initiatives all fail both to distinguish empirical from analytical gender and to incorporate environment and gender into development policy and action—despite their key role in meeting the normative goal of poverty reduction. Third, through a political-ecology lens, I suggest an integrated approach to poverty, inequality, and socioenvironmental challenges that arise at the intersections of development, gender, and environment, and for that, I draw examples from research on social and environmental change and action in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Targeting poverty : lessons from monitoring Ireland's National Anti-Poverty Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Layte, Richard; Nolan, Brian; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 the Irish government adopted the National Anti-Poverty Strategy (NAPS), a global target for the reduction of poverty which illuminates a range of issues relating to official poverty targets. The Irish target is framed in terms of a relative poverty measure incorporating both relative income and direct measures of deprivation based on data on the extent of poverty from 1994. Since 1994 Ireland has experienced an unprecedented period of economic growth that makes it particularly importa...

  14. Community Awareness and Participation in Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poverty policies and strategies. Consistent with this, the government of Tanzania is determined to encourage bottom-up participatory planning with focus on the objectives of poverty alleviation. Despite the importance of community participation ...

  15. The relationship between poverty and fertility in Peninsular Malaysia: a district analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo Cheok Chin, P

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the poverty-fertility association in Peninsular Malaysia indicates that the decision to replace the 1970 New Economic Policy, aimed at redistributing income, with a policy based on economic growth through foreign investment may create serious demographic problems for the country. Although the country's crude birth rate fell from 40/1000 in 1950 to 30.3/1000 in 1975, the Malays (55%) of the population experienced only a 3% decline in this period and rural-urban differentials in fertility remained. Data from the 1980 Malaysian census on variables related to absolute and relative poverty confirm the serious nature of Malay rural poverty. Stepwise regression models for the urban-rural and Malay-Chinese factors used the following variables: % Malay, household possession dissimilarity index, ratio of Malay to non-Malay workers who are self-employed and unpaid family workers, ratio of Malay to non-Malay who own their housing, education dissimilarity index, employment rate dissimilarity, households with sanitation, households with electricity, households with piped water, per capita expenditures for basic needs, per capita expenditure for redistributing wealth, average education, median age at marriage, female labor force participation, % of child workers, % married, % rural, and % in agriculture. The partial correlation of the Malay-Chinese component with fertility was 0.42 while the urban-rural correlation was 0.33, suggesting that the ethnic factor is operable even in conditions of rural poverty. Urban poverty can be ameliorated by the provision of infrastructural facilities and Chinese poverty is reduced by the level of modernization, while Malay poverty is responsive to income redistribution. Unless the government reconsiders its policy, the high fertility rates in the impoverished, largely Malay, rural northwest, northeast, central, and east parts will persist.

  16. Voluntary resettlement in China : policy and outcomes of government-organised poverty reduction projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The primary concern of this research is the justice of using government resources for poverty reduction, in other words investigating whether or not such investment has served its claimed purpose. My central argument is that government organized resettlement projects have

  17. Policy Implementation Of Poverty Reduction In The District Kutai Kartanegara In East Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the implementation of poverty reduction policies of Kutai Kartanegara regency factual research communication in the form of co-ordination Unit SKPD with the Local Government and Regional Work Unit is not maximized so that the Governments poverty reduction of Kutai Kartanegara Regency gives not optimal result as a concept in policy implementation by Goggin 1990 the similarity perception in implementing the policy is an essential condition for the successful implementation of the policy along with the division of functions and roles in the bureaucratic structure that implements public policy should be run and the executor implementor implementation of government policies either parallel or multilevel should make shapes patterns of certain communications in order to facilitate in making the relationship of the parties involved in the implementation of government policy.

  18. Economic Programmes and Poverty Reduction: NGO Experiences from Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    D Rajasekhar; P Shobana

    2000-01-01

    The impact of economic programmes of SHARE, an NGO from Tamil Nadu, on poverty reduction is analysed with the help of data from 84 hosueholds. The economic programmes contributed to savings and income increase, and enhanced the leadership qualities, awareness and knowledge. The member group is not significantly different from the comparison group in terms of control over income and decision-making. This suggests that the NGO economic programmes have limitation is bringing about non-economic b...

  19. Parasites and poverty: the case of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles H

    2010-02-01

    Simultaneous and sequential transmission of multiple parasites, and their resultant overlapping chronic infections, are facts of life in many underdeveloped rural areas. These represent significant but often poorly measured health and economic burdens for affected populations. For example, the chronic inflammatory process associated with long-term schistosomiasis contributes to anaemia and undernutrition, which, in turn, can lead to growth stunting, poor school performance, poor work productivity, and continued poverty. To date, most national and international programs aimed at parasite control have not considered the varied economic and ecological factors underlying multi-parasite transmission, but some are beginning to provide a coordinated approach to control. In addition, interest is emerging in new studies for the re-evaluation and recalibration of the health burden of helminthic parasite infection. Their results should highlight the strong potential of integrated parasite control in efforts for poverty reduction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amerindian Livelihoods, Outside Interventions, and Poverty Traps in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Thomas K.; Katan, Tuntiak; Horowitz, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to explain the persistence of rural poverty have made frequent use of the concept of poverty traps, understood as self-reinforcing poverty. The dynamic dimension of the poverty trap concept makes it a potentially useful tool for understanding conditions of persistent poverty, especially in circumstances where outside interventions…

  1. Productive inclusion, family livestock situation of rural women of brazil without poverty program in a municipality of the rs - context a little-known reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Julia Marques Lopes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyze sociodemographic characteristics of rural women working in family livestock, inserted in Brazil without Poverty Plan in Encruzilhada do Sul. This type of work is culturally defined as masculine as well, the question is how women in it operate. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southern half has in beef cattle the main productive activity which alludes to a supposed production homogeneity. This condition challenges and boost research that shows the multiplicity of experiences of livestock rural families. Thus, the motivation of this article also is based on the problem of discussion little debated on family livestock, for example, the sexual division of labor and women's participation in the activity. So it was found the presence of women in family livestock and their inclusion in the Brazil without Poverty Program. The information analyzed shows that 92.31% of ownership in the program are women, 6.59% of men and 1.10% for both. This reality leads the female role of idea in action, however it is necessary to consider other issues that contribute to other explanatory possibilities of this condition. The trajectory and the sexual division of labor "earmarking" women to the most precarious jobs, it may be a potential answer. Thus, the recognition of women's work is hindered in social practices and intra-family and sexual division of labor is reaffirmed by the notions of what is "man of affairs and women's things". The issues that emerge interrelate livestock, poverty and gender, since most of the families of the Brazil without Poverty is also included in the livestock. We question the extent to which livestock is male activity and poverty would be a "parameter" to characterize rural activities, including livestock, as female?

  2. Values-Based Business Education for Empowerment, Self-Reliance and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoru, Titus Amodu

    2013-01-01

    This study centered on values-based business education for empowerment, self-reliance and poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study identified 30 critical values business education students need to possess. 192 questionnaire items were constructed after careful review of literature (Njoku, 2007 and Living Values Education, 2013) and administered…

  3. Halving Poverty in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Auwalin, Ilmiawan

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the literature on relationship between economic growth, income inequalities, and poverty reduction. We discuss poverty reduction, using the case ofIndonesia, as one of the Millennium Development Goals declared by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2000. Using provincial level data of Indonesia from 1993 to 2000, we examine the required conditions in order to halve the poverty in Indonesia by2015. The result of analysis shows that Indonesia would need to achiev...

  4. Brazil: from reduction of poverty to a commitment to eradicate extreme poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lavinas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to summarise certain positive results achieved by the Lula government in the sphere of social policy and to highlight the new challenges taken on by President Dilma Rousseff in terms of eradicating extreme poverty, after her first year in government. After Lula’s success with social policy, Rousseff has committed herself to eradicating extreme poverty over the short term (the four years of her mandate in a federation that is marked by weak links in cooperation, a distinct heterogeneity within the federated bodies and profound socio-economic inequality among citizens. Under Lula’s government, the factors that most helped to reduce poverty and inequality were the recovery of the minimum salary’s real value in rates higher than that of inflation, as well as an increase in formal employment, with the creation of approximately 12,000,000 jobs in eight years. For Dilma’s term of office, which began with a downturn in economic growth rates, an even bigger challenge lies ahead. In light of this, the article evaluates the prospects for success of Dilma’s government in terms of eradicating extreme poverty in Brazil.

  5. Indonesia Poverty Reduction Strategies: Shifting policies to promote employment in the poorest four deciles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Adji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper observes the working status and conditions of people who fall into the poorest four deciles in Indonesia. The research aims to provoke policy shifts in the drive to accelerate poverty reduction in Indonesia, taking a longer view of people being more employable and less dependent; also identifying the dominant factors preventing people from moving out of poverty and improving their life quality. By comparing elements of gender, age, education and health against employment status and opportunities. Simultaneously social assistance and protection programs are evaluated in relation to their stated target groups to determine their suitability and their impact.

  6. Financial Development and Poverty Reduction Nexus: A Co-Integration and Causality Analysis in Selected Arabic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Hicham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts the dynamic causal relationship between poverty reduction measured as consumption per capita and financial development measured as Kaopen and Milesi-Ferreti proxies, trade openness measured measured by the sum of total exports and total imports as a percentage of GDP at 2005 constant prices and economic growth as measured by GDP per capita for 14 selected Arabic countries within the panel co-integration techniques and TYDL Granger causality approach (1996, the results show that the poor people in Arabic countries (the selected countries did not benefit from liberalization systems and economic growth for the period because both of finance-led poverty and trade-led poverty seem to be rejected. The study, therefore, recommends that policy makers should stop the financial braking and adopt new financial policies that allow reducing poverty rates.

  7. Impacts of Electricity Access to Rural Enterprises in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Annemarije; Clancy, Joy S.

    2010-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence to underpin strategies of poverty reduction through income generation in small scale rural enterprises through supplying energy. This paper reports on research findings from a three country study in Bolivia, Tanzania and Vietnam which aimed to provide insights into

  8. Rural community perception of poverty and devleopment strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty usually conjures terrifying and sometimes confusing images which are imposed mostly form outside. Ideally, images of poverty should be ethnographically constructed within particular cultures by particular people. It is the discovery of these images, the underlying processes and reasons for their creation that pose ...

  9. a human rights-based approach to poverty reduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    poverty, stands in contraposition with poverty alleviation, which only temporarily ...... water and adequate sanitation facilities, hospitals, clinics and other ..... goals serve as benchmarks for the assessment of progress and each goal is linked to.

  10. Growth and Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Leyaro, Vincent; Mahrt, Kristi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter considers the evolution of welfare of the Tanzanian population using a multi-dimensional approach. It also employs a detailed economy-wide model of the Tanzanian economy to explore growth and monetary poverty reduction scenarios from 2007 to 2015. This approach permits assessment...... of the coherence of observed trends in macroeconomic variables and projects consumption poverty outcomes to 2015. In the multi-dimensional approach, we find that real gains have been achieved. On monetary poverty, our model broadly reproduces key macroeconomic features of the past eight years. We find...... that published consumption poverty reductions for 2007 to 2011/12 from the most recent assessment fall within a reasonable to optimistic range. And, the simulations generate broader based growth across the income distribution compared with the recent assessment. Looking forward, the simulations from 2012 to 2105...

  11. Quantification of rural livelihood dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    role in lifting poor out poverty which could be due to restricted access to more remunerative environmental resources, (ii) the developed approach for livelihood clustering (combining household income and asset variables using regression models) outperform both existing income and asset approaches (iii......Improved understanding of rural livelihoods is required to reduce rural poverty faster. To that end, this PhD study quantified rural livelihood dynamics emphasizing (i) the role of environmental resources use in helping rural households to escape poverty, (ii) development of a new approach...... households. Two groups of attrite households were identified: ‘movers’ (households that left their original location) and ‘non-movers’ (households that still resided in the same location but were not interviewed for different reasons). The findings revealed that (i) total environmental income had a limited...

  12. Urban Poverty and Gender Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitullah, W.V.

    1999-01-01

    Poverty continues to be a global concern. In Kenya at independence poverty was identified as one of the three main enemies of development; the other two being disease and ignorance. Although there has been deliberate efforts to address disease and ignorance, poverty seem to have overwhelmed the GoK. This is depicted in the fact that 46 per cent of the country's rural population live below poverty line whereas in urban areas incidence of poverty is about 30 per cent. Further Kenya has one of the lowest per-capita incomes in the world and ranks high among world countries that have very high levels of inequality (Kenya and UNICEF, 1992). Overall, 13 million Kenyans have no access to safe water, 6 million have no access to health facilities and 14 million have no access to sanitation (Ikiara and Tostensen, 1995). Many households and individuals are added to the 'poverty space' on daily basis

  13. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  14. Cambodia: Country Poverty Analysis 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia’s new national poverty lines show higher historical poverty rates and a dramatic decline in poverty during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. With 18.9% of the population being poor in 2012, Cambodia now counts among the countries with the most rapid poverty reduction in the world. However, many people moved only slightly above the poverty line—remaining highly vulnerable—and poverty is increasing both in urban areas and according to the international poverty line of $2 per day. ...

  15. The Role of Language in Adult Education and Poverty Reduction in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the role of language in reducing poverty in Botswana through adult-education programs. Because language is the medium through which human beings communicate and grow intellectually and socially, it should form the basis of any discussion involving the relation between development and education. In order best to respond to societal changes and bridge the gap between the less privileged and the more privileged, adult-education programs should be guided by language policies that are sensitive to this pivotal role that language plays. Language is important in any discussion of poverty reduction because it determines who has access to educational, political and economic resources. The author recommends that adult-education programs in Botswana take account of the multilingual nature of society and so allow learners to participate freely, make use of their indigenous knowledge, and enhance their self-esteem and identity.

  16. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  17. The rise and fall of tourism for poverty reduction within SNV Netherlands Development Organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Although development organizations have been involved in tourism for poverty reduction for more than 30 years, their role remains contested. In my study, I examined the rise and fall of tourism within SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in the period 1993–2013. Here, I show how and why

  18. Tracking Poverty Reduction in Bhutan: Income Deprivation Alongside Deprivation in Other Sources of Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses poverty reduction in Bhutan between two points in time--2003 and 2007--from a multidimensional perspective. The measures estimated include consumption expenditure as well as other indicators which are directly (when possible) or indirectly associated to valuable functionings, namely, health, education, access to electricity,…

  19. The invisibility of children's paid and unpaid work: implications for Ethiopia's national poverty reduction policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Tefera, B.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a

  20. Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities ... Learn more about what drives DRC's urban violence and how it is linked to poverty ... ​Youth violence and the shift of land disputes from rural communities into ...

  1. The concept of community poverty reduction in coastal area of Surabaya based on sustainable livelihood approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, A. M.; Soewarni, I.; M, M., Sir

    2018-04-01

    Multidimensional poverty becomes a trademark of fisherman community including the community in Surabaya. The fishermen in Surabaya belong to a society with quite apprehensive welfare in all aspects covering economy, social, and environment. Therefore, this research aims to organize poverty reduction concept in coastal area of Surabaya based on sustainable livelihood which assesses poverty through 5 (five) livelihood assets i.e. human asset, natural asset, social asset, physical asset, and financial asset. This research is a qualitative research using rationalistic approach with explorative, descriptive, and perspective nature. Primary data collected using Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA) and secondary data collected through agency and literature survey. Purposive sampling was employed in getting the sample. Then, the data were analyzed using content analysis, statistics descriptive analysis, and delphi analysis. The results show that sustainable livelihood level in coastal area of Surabaya indicates the human asset is 65% at the SLA level and the lowest is social asset which is 20%, and financial asset is the most affecting factors of poverty in coastal area of Surabaya since the expense for fuel cannot be compared to the fish catched. Community empowerment is the concept proposed to overcome the poverty problems in coastal area of Surabaya.

  2. Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    a logistic regression model to identify determinants of wellbeing of the household ... interest of researchers, public authorities and international organizations. The ... have to understand the determinants of poverty in rural and urban Ethiopia.

  3. The small goat holders to face food security, poverty and environmental challenges: conditions for experiencing successful projects : Lessons from a comparative analysis in different regions of the world (governance, markets, production systems)

    OpenAIRE

    Dubeuf, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Farming and agri-food systems have to face urgent social and environmental issues linked between them within the Millennium Development Goals firmed by the International Community. Poverty reduction and food safety is considered as a major challenge as at least 800 million people are suffering hunger and extreme poverty particularly in rural areas. The development of livestock for small holders is often seen as a solution to reduce poverty To explore and document the operational articulation ...

  4. The Effect of Infrastructure Access and Quality on Non-farm Employment and Income in Rural Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia, Susan; Gibson, John

    2008-01-01

    There is growing interest in the rural non-farm sector in developing countries as a contributor to economic growth, employment generation, livelihood diversification and poverty reduction. Access to infrastructure is identified in some studies as a factor that affects non-farm rural employment and income but less attention has been paid to the constraints imposed by poor quality infrastructure. In this paper we use data from 4000 households in rural Indonesia to show that the quality of two k...

  5. Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Amjad; A.R. Kemal

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides a consistent time-series of poverty estimates for the period 1963- 64 to 1992-93 for both the rural as well as the urban areas, examines the influence of macroeconomic policies on the poverty levels, analyses the impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes on the levels of poverty, and suggests a strategy for poverty alleviation in Pakistan. The paper explores in particular the influence on poverty of such factors as economic growth, agricultural growth, terms of trade for t...

  6. Savings and Loans Program, The Revenue of Small Micro Enterprises and Poverty Reduction among Women Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zahrotun Nihayah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the micro small medium business income both before and after receiving the program, to find out the number of poverty reduction, and to see the application of Islamic economic values on the women’s saving and loans program.The population of this research are members of the women’s saving and loans program, which is 215 people in total and scattered in 16 business group. Using random sampling techniques, there are 70 people that was taken into consideration. The method analysis used in in this research is using Wilcoxon rank test analysis, the poverty reduction analysis, and the Islamic economics values. Based on data analysis is(1 founded that the women’s saving and loans program affecting the micro small medium enterprises income. (2 Due to the women’s saving and loans program there are decreasing number of poverty rate about 20 percent. (3 It is realized that there are some applications of Islamic economics values upon the women’s saving and loans program, they are time extensions, fine replacement, social activities, and the improvement of society welfare.

  7. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen

    2012-03-01

    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty.

  8. Delivery Models for Decentralised Rural Electrification Case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel

    2012-06-15

    Access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is fundamental for poverty reduction and sustainable development; without it, the Millennium Development Goals cannot be achieved. Electrification, along with access to modern cooking fuels and mechanical power, is a catalyst for improvements in the fields of poverty reduction, food security, health, education and gender equality. Nevertheless, 1.3 billion people still lack access to electricity, over 95 per cent living in sub-Saharan Africa or developing Asia and 84 per cent of them living in rural areas. There are many different ways to electrify rural areas, not only with regard to the different technologies used, but also to the types of delivery models applied. Common rural electrification technologies include grid extension, community mini-grids, stand-alone household systems, multifunctional platforms, and central charging stations with battery banks. This report will focus on the delivery models used for community mini-grids, as there is evidence to show that mini-grids can be one of the cheaper forms of electrification (on a per unit basis, calculated over the system's lifetime) and also potentially offer a 24 hour AC service that can power a wide range of appliances.

  9. Poverty and inequality issues in Albania: trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Myftaraj (Tomori) Elena

    2010-01-01

    Poverty and inequality are complex and widespread phenomena. Poverty is an indicator and the main factor of inequality, so reduction of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for economic and social consolidation of a country. There are different concepts of poverty, in this paper we are focused on the concept of absolute poverty. The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the trends of poverty and inequality indicators, as well as an analysis on the reduction of poverty ...

  10. IFC Jobs Study : Assessing Private Sector Contributions to Job Creation and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This report is the result of an open-source study to assess the direct and indirect effects of private sector activity on job creation. The report examines how and under what conditions the private sector can best contribute to job creation and poverty reduction. The private sector, which provides some 90 percent of jobs in developing countries, must be at the core of any response to this ...

  11. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  12. Energy-microfinance intervention for below poverty line households in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra; Miller, Jeffrey B.; Wang, Young Doo; Byrne, John B.

    2009-01-01

    More than 72% of India's population resides in rural India and it also has a high concentration of people living under abject poverty. Of the total rural population 27.1-28.3% lives below the poverty line (BPL). A lack of energy-finance options is hampering the 'quality of life' of the BPL community. The members of this disadvantaged household which forms 27.1% and 23.6% of the India's rural and urban population has no ready access to mainstream finance or know-how of sustainable energy products nor do they have access to energy service providing agency. This lack of energy-finance options has provided the marginalized population little means to break the conventional energy paradigm and the corresponding poverty cycle. Considering the afore-mentioned problem we propose an energy-microfinance intervention or a model that encompasses two independent entities. One has an energy expertise and the other possesses finance management skills. Alternately, we also propose a special purpose entity that comprises of these two entities. This entity fosters different institutional, technical and financial engineering approaches to the provision of energy, finance and infrastructure services necessary for poverty alleviation.

  13. Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, G M; Laxmaiah, A

    2008-08-01

    Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. Extreme poverty is concentrated in rural areas of northern States while income growth has been dynamic in southern States and urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in HDI, human poverty index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, the socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. The variations in socio-economic, demographic and dietary indicators by grades of HDI were studied. The trends in poverty and nutrition were also studied. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to analyse data. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. Human poverty has not reduced considerably as per the HPI values. The undernutrition among preschool children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas. The time trends in nutritional status of pre-school children showed that, even though, there is an improvement in stunting over the years, the trend in wasting and underweight has not improved much. Proper nutrition and health awareness are important to tackle the health hazards of developmental transition. Despite several national nutrition programmes in operation, we could not make a significant dent in the area of health and nutrition. The changing dietary practices of the urban population, especially the middle class, are of concern. Further studies are needed to measure the human development and poverty situation of different sections of the population in India using an index, which includes both income indicators and non income

  14. IMPACT OF THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON POVERTY REDUCTION IN ALBANIA AS A COUNTRY IN TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina BAZINI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fighting poverty is a major challenge for Albania, in which tourism can make a significant contribution. However, it is important to analyze the basic concepts behind specific policies and actions that would allow tourism to be effective, like the possibilities offered by micro-credit. In fact, tourism development must be properly managed, avoiding anarchic, speculative development, so that it can be transformed into benefits for the local people and their environment. This paper will list seven areas of action through which tourism development in Albania as a Mediterranean country could fight poverty, with several of them relating to the possibilities created by micro-credit. After analyzing each of these approaches, a methodology must be drawn up for selecting the most effective projects from two points of view – interest for tourism and impact on poverty reduction.

  15. Nexus of Poverty, Energy Balance and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification

  16. Nexus of poverty, energy balance and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C P Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years, 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%, having main occupation of family as business (55.3%, and highest per capita income group (57.1% with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0% in SC/ST category and least (65.7% in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd′s Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56, not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56, belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh

  17. Economics of poverty, environment and natural-resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of poverty is a tremendous and persistent challenge for the global community. Given that the livelihood of millions is at stake, there is an urgent need to reconsider the causes of and the remedies for poverty. Poverty and its reduction are closely linked to the natural-resources base. The

  18. Livelihoods and climate change : combining disaster risk reduction, natural resource management and climate change adaptation in a new approach to the reduction of vulnerability and poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, I.; Soussan, J.; Hammill, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for researchers and policy-makers that are taking action on climate change adaptation. It presents innovative and sustainable ways to respond to the changing global climate. It focuses, in particular, on international research and policy initiatives on climate change, vulnerable communities and adaptation. The international and multi-disciplinary task force that put the framework together includes experts from the fields of disaster risk reduction, climate change, conservation and poverty reduction. The report emphasizes that successful climate change adaptation should be accomplished through actions that reduce the vulnerabilities of poor people and poor countries because people's livelihoods shape poverty and their ability to move out of poverty. The task force identifies the need to integrate a climate change adaptation approach based on the livelihoods of vulnerable communities in different parts of the world. The examples cited in this report include: (1) mangrove rehabilitation in Vietnam, (2) community-based rang eland rehabilitation for carbon sequestration in Sudan, (3) agro-ecological roots of resilience in Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala, and (4) watershed restoration and development in Maharashtra State, India. refs., figs

  19. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  20. Examining Success Factors for Sustainable Rural Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This collaborative project will examine the role the Integrated Co-operative Model can play in reducing poverty and promoting development in rural African communities. Specifically, it aims to add to the knowledge of how to improve livelihoods and reduce poverty in a sustainable way in rural communities. It will strive to: ...

  1. Cutting edge: how community forest enterprises lead the way on poverty reduction and avoided deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2007-12-15

    Avoided deforestation has re-emerged as a tool to curb climate change. But how does paying poor countries to keep their forests intact tally with poverty reduction? Doing both at the same time is a challenge, but a necessary one. Forests are not just crucial in keeping the global environment stable; they are also a lifeline for hundreds of millions of the world's poor. Fortunately, a solution to both aims is already in place. Community forest enterprises, if run sustainably and democratically, can both avoid deforestation and pull people out of poverty. Large industrial concessions, on the other hand, generally do neither. The challenge is to overcome vested interests and pave the way for greater political support.

  2. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  3. Poverty and Social Transfers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Šuæur

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of poverty in Croatia are still insufficiently well researched. Not only is there no knowledge about how long Croatian citizens remain poor, but there are also some disagreements about the actual number of the poor and the choice of the national poverty line. Nor has there been any precise evaluation of the effects of the individual anti-poverty policy measures. The objective of this paper was to analyse the basic indicators of the scope and distribution of poverty, the risk groups and the structure of the population of the poor and to investigate the role of social transfers in the reduction of poverty. The paper consists of four parts and an introduction. In Part 1 there is an analysis of the trends in the numbers of the poor in Croatia at the beginning of the millennium and the profile of poverty. The second part deals with the policy for the reduction or elimination of poverty, while in Part 3 the author deals with the problem of selecting the official poverty line and the role of the minimum income in Croatia. Part 4 contains the conclusions. Using the official EU poverty line, a comparative analysis shows that the rates of relative poverty in Croatia do not deviate greatly from the EU mean, although Croatia does have a somewhat higher rate of poverty than most of the countries in the Union. Most at risk of falling below the poverty line are the elderly, the retired and the unemployed, single-person households, single-parent families and families with three or more children. The total system of social transfers is not less effective than the transfer systems of most of the countries of the EU. If we exclude old age and survivor pensions from the social transfers, in fact, Croatia has the most effective social transfers of any of the countries observed. However, on the other hand, the poverty rate reduction due to old age and survivor pensions is one of the lowest in the countriescompared.

  4. The Significance Of Experience Of West Bengal For Poverty Alleviation In Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Nemova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes socio-economic problems and ways of eliminating poverty in Bangladesh. The focal point of the research is poverty among rural population which is the most vulnerable one. The author’s assumption is that the main reason for rural poverty is historical inequality of land property distribution in Bangladesh. The existing measures of poverty alleviation in Bangladesh (micro crediting among others have made the country a role model for development. However, due to the limited potential of micro crediting a broader program of socio-economic reforms is required for any country striving to provide inclusive development. Using comparative-historical method the article compares the experience of Bangladesh and Indian state of West Bengal in implementing agricultural reforms aimed at improving life of the poor. West Bengal under the CPM rule is considered as a state with strong government whereas Bangladesh is considered as a state with weak government but rather strong non-governmental actors (NGOs. The article makes a conclusion that a weak institutional power of Bangladesh is one of the main reasons why agricultural reforms have not been adopted in this country and that poverty elimination there requires structural reforms to redistribute land property and to guarantee rural population legal and economic equality.

  5. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.

  6. INVESTMENTS AND SERVICES ON THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article started with the modern connection observed between sectors in EU -primary, secondary and tertiary- on rural areas, where agriculture becomes essential. First, this connection is manifested in Romania under the impact of the main directions of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP during 2014-2020, namely: a more market-oriented production, but also related to the public, promoting food security, while considering environmental issues and, in addition, achieve cooperation and alignment to the European Economic Area, including equality in European funding. Secondly, there is a dedicated rural development policy, which is supported by a series of investments, but imposed a number of directions that will lead to the expansion of tertiary sector measures, marketing, tourism, ecology, and promoting social inclusion, poverty reduction and economic development in rural areas. Other influences are generated by foreign direct investments-FDI in rural areas. The conclusion is based on the fragility of the rural sector in Romania, compared to other European countries and highlights specific areas of interest of stakeholders for the following issues: improving policies and decisions, access to markets, infrastructure development, access to financial services, access to knowledge, services innovation and risk reduction.

  7. Poverty and Economic Growth in Swaziland: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique G. Nindi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between poverty reduction and economic growth in Swaziland during the period 1980–2011. Unlike some of the previous studies, the current study uses the newly developed ARDL-bounds testing approach to co-integration, and the ECM-based Granger causality method to examine this linkage. The study also incorporates financial development as a third variable affecting both poverty reduction and economic growth – thereby leading to a trivariate model. The results of this study show that economic growth does not Granger cause poverty reduction in Swaziland – either in the short run or in the long run. Instead, the study finds a causal flow from poverty reduction to economic growth in the short run. These findings, however, are not surprising, given the high level of income inequality in Swaziland. Studies have shown that when the level of income inequality is too high, economic growth alone may not necessarily lead to poverty reduction.

  8. Some Consequences of the 1994–1995 Coffee Boom for Growth and Poverty Reduction in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chant, L.J.; McDonald, S.; Verschoor, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a computable general equilibrium analysis that explores the consequences of the 1994–1995 increase in the international price of coffee for Uganda’s economy. Evidence is found for a small effect on both medium-term growth and poverty reduction. Aid dependence is among the reasons

  9. Credit for aileviation of rural poverty : The Grameen Bank in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain, M.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grameen Bank is a specialized financial institution in Bangladesh that was established to provide credit to the rural poor for the purpose of improving their economic conditions with the hypothesis that if the poor are supplied with working capital they can generate productive self-employment without external assistance. Loans from the Grameen Bank are used primarily for undertaking noncrop activities. The loan repayment performance is excellent. Only 0.5 percent of loans to 975 borrowers surveyed were overdue beyond one year, and overdue weekly installments (before the expiration of the one-year repayment period were only 3.3 percent of the total amount borrowed. The Grameen Bank concept of credit without collateral should work in other countries with widespread poverty and underemployment. But elements like taking the bank to the people and intensive interaction of bank staff with borrowers may be inappropriate and highly expensive for sparsely settled areas with underdeveloped transport systems. For such environments, an appropriate delivery mechanism has to be worked out.

  10. The Doha Round Declaration on Cotton: A Catalyst for Poverty Reduction in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Lorea Barron; Devadoss, Stephen; Stodick, Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Cotton plays a strategic role in the development policies and poverty reduction programs of a number of African countries. Several African countries have introduced reforms in the cotton sector to improve its quality and competitiveness. The impact of these reforms has to date been virtually nullified by the fact that certain WTO Members continue to apply support measures and subsidies that distort global market prices. These are the arguments behind the Cotton Initiative raised in 2003 in th...

  11. Chinese rural development and agricultural technology extension in Hunan province : analysis based on value chain and farmer participation perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bin; Herman, Joost; Zhao, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    As the Chinese rural development has made remarkable achievements in the past forty years, which is shown in agricultural productivity increase and poverty reduction, the administrative agricultural technology extension system is an important factor for those outcomes. However, in recent years, the

  12. The role for low carbon electrification technologies in poverty reduction and climate change strategies: A focus on renewable energy mini-grids with case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadoo, Annabel; Cruickshank, Heather

    2012-01-01

    As a potential poverty reduction and climate change strategy, this paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy technologies for rural electrification in developing countries. Although each case must be considered independently, given a reliable fuel source, renewable energy mini-grids powered by biomass gasifiers or micro-hydro plants appear to be the favoured option due to their lower levelised costs, provision of AC power, potential to provide a 24 h service and ability to host larger capacity systems that can power a wide range of electricity uses. Sustainability indicators are applied to three case studies in order to explore the extent to which sustainable welfare benefits can be created by renewable energy mini-grids. Policy work should focus on raising awareness about renewable energy mini-grids, improving institutional, technical and regulatory frameworks and developing innovative financing mechanisms to encourage private sector investments. Establishing joint technology and community engagement training centres should also be encouraged. - Highlights: ► Renewable mini-grids are a valuable climate change and poverty reduction strategy. ► They can be cheaper than diesel on a levelized basis and offer grid level service. ► Awareness about mini-grids should be raised and institutional frameworks improved. ► Financing mechanisms should be developed to encourage private sector investments. ► Joint technology and community engagement training centres should be established.

  13. The Relationship between Social Factors and the Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada Global

    2008-10-14

    Oct 14, 2008 ... the determinants of poverty among rural farming households in the area. ... and agro processing account for 30 – 60 percent of GDP ... female household heads, the aged, infirm and children ... sustaining 70 to 90 percent of the rural and total labour ... (Ikpa Ibom and Ibiaku) out of the four clans that make up.

  14. Rural tourism development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BarneyM

    Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation ..... intellectual springboard for development of goods and services, crafts, local foods, music, dance, ..... established tourism market as well as the positive attitude of the respondents ... improve the congruence between the rural destination image and the visitor.

  15. Interpretive Structural Analysis of Interrelationships among the Elements of Characteristic Agriculture Development in Chinese Rural Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Eradicating poverty is a strategic priority in the pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals. This study intends to identify and quantify the elements affecting the Characteristic Agriculture Development (CAD project implemented in area of Chinese poverty and reveals the interrelationships between those elements. First-hand data for the structural modeling were collected through semi-structured interviews with a group of selected experts. As a result, this study has identified seventeen representative elements, and the interrelationships between them have been examined based on the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM method. Furthermore, these elements were further categorized into four categories depending on their driving power and dependence power by using the cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC analysis. The combination result of the elements identification, ISM modeling and MICMAC analysis provide a conceptual framework for designing, implementing, and managing CAD projects conducted in rural China. Finally, we suggest that an appropriate approach should be applied to empower the poor, promote target group participation, optimize the regional agriculture structure, and increase the agro value chain competiveness in CAD project implementation.

  16. IMPACT OF ANTI-POVERTY PROGRAMME ON DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-08

    Jan 8, 2013 ... Abstract. The study investigated the impact of National Poverty Eradication .... Major factors hindering the success of government ... rural poor, women, youth and children in Nigeria ..... develop a tangible business is absent.

  17. Determinants of Urban Poverty: The Case of Medium Sized City in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Sarwar Awan; Nasir Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Urban poverty, which is distinct from rural poverty due to demographic, economic and political aspects remain hitherto unexplored, at the city level in Pakistan. We have examined the determinants of urban poverty in Sargodha, a medium-size city of Pakistan. The analysis is based on the survey of 330 households. Results suggest that employment in public sector, investment in human capital and access to public amenities reduce poverty while employment in informal sector, greater household size ...

  18. Micro water harvesting for climate change mitigation: Trade-offs between health and poverty reduction in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitsum, H.; Mekonen, Y.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.; Mulugeta, A.; Girmay, G.; Zenebe, A.

    2006-01-01

    Water harvesting is an important tool for mitigating the adverse effects of climate change. This report investigates the trade-offs between health and poverty reduction by considering the impacts of water harvesting on health in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. In particular, we assess the

  19. Women Left Behind? Poverty and Headship in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Annamaria; van de Walle, Dominique

    2017-06-01

    Two stylized facts about poverty in Africa motivate this article: female-headed households tend to be poorer, and poverty has been falling in the aggregate since the 1990s. These facts raise two questions. First, how have female-headed households fared? Second, what role have they played in Africa's impressive recent aggregate growth and poverty reduction? Using data covering the entire region, we reexamine the current prevalence and characteristics of female-headed households and ask whether their prevalence has been rising, what factors have been associated with such changes since the mid-1990s, and whether poverty has fallen equiproportionately for male- and female-headed households. Lower female headship is associated with higher gross domestic product. However, other subtle transformations occurring across Africa-changes in marriage behavior, family formation, health, and education-are positively related to female headship, resulting in a growing share of female-headed households. This shift has been happening alongside declining aggregate poverty incidence. However, rather than being left behind, female-headed households have generally seen faster poverty reduction. As a whole, this group has contributed substantially to the reduction in poverty despite their smaller share in the population.

  20. Lessons from Uganda on strategies to fight poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Mackinnon, John; Reinikka, Ritva

    2000-01-01

    Countries receiving debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative will be among the first to benefit from the new World Bank -- International Monetary Fund approach to strengthening the impact on poverty of concessional assistance in low-income countries. The new approach features a more inclusive and participatory process for helping recipient countries develop poverty reduction strategies. From these strategies, joint Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) will bring t...

  1. Do responsible business practices contribute to poverty reduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesenia Polanco Pantoja

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today organizations are pressured by different types of audiences to show responsibility in their actions towards society. The goal of the company must be an end to reconcile economic social and environmental elements in order to avoidinequalities that globalization is generating. This paper presents a theoretical review that examines the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR and poverty in order to determine whether socially responsible practices can be a means to alleviate poverty in Latin America. It analyzes the successful experience of four companies in the region.

  2. Distance Learning as a Tool for Poverty Reduction and Economic Development: A Focus on China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard C.; Murray, M. Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses case studies to focus on distance learning in developing countries as an enabler for economic development and poverty reduction. To provide perspective, we first review the history of telecottages, local technology-equipped facilities to foster community-based learning, which have evolved into "telecenters" or…

  3. How countries become rich and reduce poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of less developed countries, it is time to adjust the discussion of international development assistance on poverty reduction. This article attempts to do so by reviewing new and old literature explaining why some countries are rich and others are poor. History has repeatedly shown...... that building up capabilities in manufacturing and improving the productivity of agriculture are the keys to wealth creation and long-term sustained poverty reduction. Furthermore, industrialisation and increased agricultural productivity are interdependent processes. Discussion about ending world poverty needs...

  4. Making basic health care accessible to rural communities: a case study of Kiang West district in rural Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanneh, Edward Saja; Hu, Allen H; Njai, Modou; Ceesay, Omar Malleh; Manjang, Buba

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on lack of access to basic health care, which is one of the hindrances to the development of the poor, and subjects them to the poverty penalty. It also focuses on contributing to the Bottom of the Pyramid in a general sense, in addition to meeting the health needs of communities where people live on less than $1 a day. Strengthened multistakeholder responses and better-targeted, low-cost prevention, and care strategies within health systems are suggested to address the health burdens of poverty-stricken communities. In this study, a multistakeholder model which includes the government, World Health Organization, United Nations Children Emergency Fund, and the Medical Research Council was created to highlight the collaborative approach in rural Gambia. The result shows infant immunization and antenatal care coverage were greatly improved which contributes to the reduction in mortality. This case study also finds that strategies addressing health problems in rural communities are required to achieve 'Millennium Development Goals'. In particular, actual community visits to satellite villages within a district (area of study) are extremely vital to making health care accessible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Trade, Growth, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Dollar, David; Kraay, Aart

    2001-01-01

    The evidence from individual cases and from cross-country analysis supports the view that globalization leads to faster growth and poverty reduction in poor countries. To determine the effect of globalization on growth, poverty, and inequality, the authors first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. China, India, and several other large coun...

  6. The Role Of The Natural Resource Sector And Government Spending For Education Towards Poverty Reduction In East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarlan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available East Kalimantan Province is one of the rich provinces in natural resources such as coal mining oil and gas. Utilization of the natural resources is expected to be used optimally to improve the welfare of the community. The purpose of this research is to find out how big the influence of natural resources sector which the consist of mining and quarrying sector and processing industry sector and government expenditure for education against poverty alleviation in East Kalimantan Province. This research uses explanatory method with time-series and cross-section data and applying multiple regression model with Ordinary Least Square OLS method. The results of this study show that a the natural resource sector and government spending on education have no effect on per capita income growth b economic growth as measured by per capita income growth positively affects on poverty and government spending on education is not significantly influential to poverty reduction and c the natural resource sector has no significant effect on the poverty headcount in East Kalimantan.

  7. Social capital dimensions and its implications on poverty status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of social capital dimensions on poverty status of rural farm households in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204) rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data ...

  8. Decomposition of Changes in Poverty Measures: Sectoral and Institutional Considerations for the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Aliya H. Khan; Ali Shan Azhar

    2003-01-01

    Two extremely significant empirical questions on the relationship between growth, distribution and poverty have remained the focus of attention for researchers and academicians. First, how does a change in aggregate poverty reflect intrasectoral gains/losses versus intersectoral shifts in population? Second, how much of an observed change in poverty can be attributed to the changes in the distribution of income, as distinct from growth in average incomes? Standard inequality measures like the...

  9. Poverty and development thinking:synthesis or uneasy compromise?

    OpenAIRE

    David Hulme

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines how the concept of poverty has waxed and waned within development thought and how these fluctuations have shaped development policy and action towards, or away from, direct goals of poverty reduction or eradication. It provides an overview of poverty in social thought; examines the contestations over how poverty analysis is positioned in development theory; charts the conceptual contestations around poverty; presents a brief history of poverty in development thoug...

  10. Local Agenda 21 and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Palmans, Eva; Marysse, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    Poverty, the increasing urbanisation of poverty and the environmental degradation are major problems facing the actual world. This is reflected in international conferences and agendas, such as Local Agenda 21. This agenda is responding to the current problems by promoting sustainable development through local action and by using participatory methods. Our major concern is to reflect on the impact of the Local Agenda 21 on the reduction of poverty in a Third World context.

  11. Presentation of Topic 1: Economic Convergence and Poverty ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    4 nov. 2010 ... Please find below in PDF format all submitted presentations during the first session on Tuesday 8 December : Economic Convergence and Poverty ReductionNote de cadrage (Scope of study):1 - Economic Convergence and Poverty Reduction – M. Diery SECK, Director of CREPOLScientific ...

  12. Causes of poverty: Voices of the rural poor from Oyo State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that poverty is multidimensional in nature and that its causes are multifaceted and extremely complex. It contends that poor people's own views of their descent into poverty are fundamental to understanding the complexity of poverty and to devising appropriate policy interventions that may lead to ...

  13. Setting up an index for the appropriatness of energy sources for rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari, S K

    1979-07-01

    In India, widespread poverty is noticed specially in the rural section, the poverty being attributed to a variety of reasons. Rural development comprises the development of basic necessities like water, power, etc. Availability of energy is therefore a major pre-requisite for rural development. The author discusses a model with which various alternate sources can be evaluated with the rural context in picture.

  14. Monitoring Progress in Child Poverty Reduction: Methodological Insights and Illustration to the Case Study of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Important steps have been taken at international summits to set up goals and targets to improve the wellbeing of children worldwide. Now the world also has more and better data to monitor progress. This paper presents a new approach to monitoring progress in child poverty reduction based on the Alkire and Foster adjusted headcount ratio and an…

  15. Social Welfare in Rural Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucksmith, Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Literature review on social exclusion and disadvantage in rural Europe suggests that rural poverty arises from unemployment, low wages, and, most significantly, inadequate income in old age. Discusses difficulties in identifying rural incidence of exclusion and disadvantage, as well as the need for such research in light of major ongoing social…

  16. GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Wang, Yingjie; Yan, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Geographically, poverty status is not only related with social-economic factors but also strongly affected by geographical environment. In the paper, GIS-based poverty and population distribution analysis method is introduced for revealing their regional differences. More than 100000 poor villages and 592 national key poor counties are chosen for the analysis. The results show that poverty distribution tends to concentrate in most of west China and mountainous rural areas of mid China. Furthermore, the fifth census data are overlaid to those poor areas in order to gain its internal diversity of social-economic characteristics. By overlaying poverty related social-economic parameters, such as sex ratio, illiteracy, education level, percentage of ethnic minorities, family composition, finding shows that poverty distribution is strongly correlated with high illiteracy rate, high percentage minorities, and larger family member.

  17. The Effectiveness Of National Root Crop Research Institute Nrcri Selected Technologies In Poverty Alleviation Among Rural Households In Abia State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKRINGBO

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of National Root Crop Research Institute NRCRI selected technologies in poverty alleviation among rural households in Abia state Nigeria. Purposive and multi-stage sampling techniques were used in selection of Umuahia agricultural zone which is the host zone to NRCRI and sixty 60 rural farmers from the study area were selected. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics poverty gap analysis and one sample Z-test and ANOVA. The result shows that farmers identified yam of mini sett 2.07 as an improved yam technology provision of improved technology of cocoyam 4.23 provision of improved technology of sweet potatoes 6.52 advisory services on other improved technologies 8.32 agro-processing improvement services 10.77 and advisory service on stem cutting and planting pattern 0.62 were the various technologies provided by NRCRI. NRCRI technologies were effective in reducing the cost of purchasing root and tuber crops 3.2 producing disease resistance early maturing and large yield root and tuber crops 3.4 were effective means to alleviate poverty by NRCRI. The study further shows that improved cassava varieties TMS 2.7 and NR 2.6 were adopted by farmers and improved varieties yam Dioscorea rotundata 3.0 was adopted. The results of the one sample z-test showed that there were significant difference between the mean scores response of the respondents on the various questions raised on the NRCRI technologies effectiveness in alleviating poverty were significant at 1 respectively . The result showed that the mean score on the level of adoption of improved variety TMS in the study were 1.00.000b and 1.30.070b was at the same level of adoption while mean scores NR were 1.15.154a 2.11.048a and 3.00.000a respectively and the Duncan multiple range test used as mean separation technique show that there is a significant difference F-ratio 3.295 among the level of adoption. The

  18. Urban IDPs and Poverty: Analysis of the Effect of Mass Forced Displacement on Urban Poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Nermin Oruc

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of mass forced displacement on urban poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The process of displacement in Bosnia and Herzegovina involved “forced evictions”, implying no choice in displacement decision, meaning that this type of rural-urban migration was not a rational decision driven by economic motives. Consequently, this can possibly lead to a larger incidence of poverty among displaced people. The paper starts with a discussion of the specific features of the process of forced displacement and their possibly different effect on urban poverty compared to voluntary migration, based on qualitative evidence collected through interviews with people who experienced forced displacement during the conflict in the 1990s. Then, the probit model of determinants of poverty, based on the Living Standards Measurement Survey data, was estimated in order to provide empirical evidence of the effect of mass forced displacement on urban poverty, as well as the difference in the poverty incidence among displaced people compared to voluntary migrants. The results suggest that consumption is significantly lower among displaced households, while incidence of poverty is not affected by displacement status. The evidence also contributes to the migration literature by providing specific results about the relationship between mass forced displacement and urban poverty.

  19. Energy poverty reduction by fuel switching. Impact evaluation of the LPG conversion program in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andadari, Roos Kities; Mulder, Peter; Rietveld, Piet

    2014-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) can be an attractive alternative to the widespread use of traditional kerosene. Not only is LPG a relatively clean, safe and cost-effective fuel for households, its large-scale adoption also reduces the heavy burden of kerosene consumption subsidies on government budgets. Against this background, we evaluate the impact of a large government program to substitute LPG for kerosene in Indonesia. Using a household survey across urban, suburban and rural regions we find that this program was very effective in causing a large scale shift from kerosene to LPG. This shift was positively influenced by level of education, household size and household income. Contradicting the energy-ladder model, the LPG program, reinforced by an increase in the price of kerosene, led to increased stacking of fuels, including increasing consumption of both electricity and traditional biomass. In addition, our analysis shows that the LPG program failed to substantially reduce the overall number of energy-poor people, but it has been effective in alleviating extreme energy-poverty. Finally, we find that medium and higher income households in suburban areas benefitted most from the LPG program. - Highlights: • Impact evaluation of a government program to substitute LPG for kerosene in Indonesia. • The program caused a large scale shift from kerosene to LPG. • Contradicting the energy-ladder model, the program led to increased stacking of fuels. • The program did not substantially reduce overall energy poverty, but alleviated extreme energy-poverty. • Medium and higher income households in suburban areas benefitted most from the LPG program

  20. South African Universities and Human Development: Towards a Theorisation and Operationalisation of Professional Capabilities for Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie; McLean, Monica; Dison, Arona; Peppin-Vaughan, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project investigating the role of universities in South Africa in contributing to poverty reduction through the quality of their professional education programmes. The focus here is on theorising and the early operationalisation of multi-layered, multi-dimensional transformation based on ideas from Amartya Sen's…

  1. A robust poverty profile for Brazil using multiple data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Francisco H. G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a poverty profile for Brazil, based on three different sources of household data for 1996. We use PPV consumption data to estimate poverty and indigence lines. ''Contagem'' data is used to allow for an unprecedented refinement of the country's poverty map. Poverty measures and shares are also presented for a wide range of population subgroups, based on the PNAD 1996, with new adjustments for imputed rents and spatial differences in cost of living. Robustness of the profile is verified with respect to different poverty lines, spatial price deflators, and equivalence scales. Overall poverty incidence ranges from 23% with respect to an indigence line to 45% with respect to a more generous poverty line. More importantly, however, poverty is found to vary significantly across regions and city sizes, with rural areas, small and medium towns and the metropolitan peripheries of the North and Northeast regions being poorest.

  2. Geoinformatics for the Mapping of Nexus Between Poverty and Land Degradation in Drylands of Thar Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Mahesh

    2012-07-01

    Poverty and land degradation are major problems in majority of world dry lands, where meagre vegetative coverage (of forests and trees) contribute significantly to rural livelihoods. In order to eradicate poverty in the dry lands, it is important to protect the land from deforestation, fragmentation, degradation, drought and sometimes flash floods. Satellite remote sensing is a critical need for India - for spatial and temporal inter-linking of poverty and land degradation nexus and its prioritization. Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) is often used to generate and apply knowledge in the complex local context. Connecting natural resources and ecosystem services with attributes of poverty is amenable through Remote Sensing and GIS. Such linkages in a typical local context are important to recognize while building rural assets and natural resources conservation leading to poverty alleviation. A large proportion of the poor in the Rajasthan state live in resource poor western region who lack productive assets (especially land) and also lack adequate livelihoods skills or capacities due to illiteracy. People are inadequately organized to assert their rights and utilize available resources and services. The state also continues to be plagued by high levels of gender and caste discrimination (World Bank, 2007). Incidence of Poverty: The number of population below poverty line in Rajasthan in 2004-05 were 22.1 percent. The corresponding figures for rural areas are 18.7 percent. In urban areas, the number of poor people are 32.9 percent. Rural poverty situation is significantly better than urban poverty. (HDR, 2008) Despite the fact that poverty rates in Rajasthan are lower than the national average, the incidence of poverty in Western Rajasthan is nevertheless high. The incidence of poverty varies between 11.2% in Jodhpur to as much as 35.2% in Jalore. The poor households suffer from both lack of resources and the means to access them, which

  3. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  4. Academic Success of Adolescents in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar-Lever, Joaquina; Victorio-Estrada, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    This study identified significant predictors of important academic results such as academic performance and school desertion by adolescent students living in poverty in both urban and rural settings. The results indicate the relative importance of individual, family, educational and social variables reported by the young people, and the…

  5. Poverty concentration and determinants in China's urban low-income neighbourhoods and social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shenjing; Wu, Fulong; Webster, Chris; Liu, Yuting

    2010-01-01

    Based on a large-scale household survey conducted in 2007, this article reports on poverty concentration and determinants in China's low-income neighbourhoods and social groups. Three types of neighbourhood are recognized: dilapidated inner-city neighbourhoods, declining workers' villages and urban villages. Respondents are grouped into four categories: working, laid-off/unemployed and retired urban residents, together with rural migrants. We first measure poverty concentration across different types of neighbourhood and different groups. The highest concentrations are found in dilapidated inner-city neighbourhoods and among the laid-off/unemployed. Mismatches are found between actual hardships, sense of deprivation and distribution of social welfare provision. Second, we examine poverty determinants. Variations in institutional protection and market remuneration are becoming equally important in predicting poverty generation, but are differently associated with it in the different neighbourhoods and groups. As China's urban economy is increasingly shaped by markets, the mechanism of market remuneration is becoming a more important determinant of poverty patterns, especially for people who are excluded from state institutions, notably laid-off workers and rural migrants.

  6. Can Funding for University Partnerships between Africa and the US Contribute to Social Development and Poverty Reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores US funding for university partnerships between the US and Africa. The primary objective was to study how funds are facilitated through partnerships to promote social development and poverty reduction. Findings include the innovative and resilient nature of the 11 projects included in the study as well as pitfalls in the…

  7. Income Convergence and the Flow out of Poverty in India, 1994-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos; Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    This paper explores the dynamics of income and poverty of rural Indian households, 1994-2005. The estimation strategy consists of convergence analysis to test whether poor households are catching-up in terms of income, followed by transition analysis to test whether poor households are more likely...... to exit poverty than to remain poor. The identification strategy explicitly addresses issues pertaining to the potential endogeneity and measurement error of initial income and poverty. We find evidence of income convergence and a higher probability of exiting poverty than of remaining poor. The key...

  8. PENGARUH PROGRAM SIMPAN PINJAM KELOMPOK PEREMPUAN TERHADAP PENDAPATAN USAHAMIKRO KECIL DAN POVERTY REDUCTION DALAM PERSPEKTIF EKONOMI ISLAM (Studi Kasus PNPM Mandiri Perdesaan Kecamatan Bangilan, Tuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zahrotun Nihayah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The  national  community  empowerment  program  (PNPM  Self-sufficient Rural is a program set up by the Government with the aim of alleviating poverty and improving the well-being of the community. Save Loan group of women is a program of the PNPM with the goal of providing capital for the housewife who has a productive effort. This  research  aims  to  (1  know  the  income  of  micro  small  and  medium enterprises before and after a program,  (2 to knowing the decline in poverty, and (3 to see the economic values of Islam on the Save program Loan group of women. The  population  of  this research  is  a  member  of  save  the loan  group  of  women which  amounted  to  215  people  scattered  in  16  groups.  Samples  taken  as  many  as  70 people with random sampling techniques. Data analysis using the method analysis of test of  wilcoxon  sign  rank,  the  analysis  of  poverty  reduction  and  analysis  of  the  economic values of Islam in the program. Based on the analysis of the data found that (1 the Save program loan group of women  provides  increased  revenues  against  the  small  micro  enterprises,  (2  the  Save program Loan due to women's groups can decrease the poverty rate of 20 persen, and (3 Economic  values  of  Islam  in  the  Save  Program  Loan  group  of  women  which  is  extra time, is not subject to fines, there are social activities, improvement of the well -being of the community.

  9. Data poverty: A global evaluation for 2009 to 2013 - implications for sustainable development and disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M.; Gibson, Andrew D.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents a time series (2009-2013) analysis for a new version of the ;Digital Divide; concept that developed in the 1990s. Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. The Data Poverty Index (DPI) provides an open-source means of annually evaluating global access to data and information. The DPI can be used to monitor aspects of data and information availability at global and national levels, with potential application at local (district) levels. Access to data and information is a major factor in disaster risk reduction, increased resilience to disaster and improved adaptation to climate change. In that context, the DPI could be a useful tool for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. Unlike many other indices, the DPI is underpinned by datasets that are consistently provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be downloaded without restriction or cost.

  10. Mainstreaming Children into National Poverty Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    The purpose of this paper is to assess how the needs of children are incorporated into Ethiopia¿s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)¿known as the Ethiopian Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme 2002-2005 (SDRDP) ¿and to develop policy recommendations for the second PRSP based...... on a comparative content analysis with other countries¿ PRSPs. The paper begins by identifying the key ingredients of a child-centred PRSP, including: consideration of childhood poverty in the document¿s poverty analysis; spaces for consultation with children; childspecific policies and programmes as well as child...... with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) principles of child survival, development, protection, equal treatment and participation. The paper concludes by drawing on the best practices of PRSPs in other countries and outlining how a child-focused PRSP could more effectively address...

  11. Including health insurance in poverty measurement: The impact of Massachusetts health reform on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K

    2016-12-01

    We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Updating peasant competencies to mitigate poverty in the Chorti community, Copan (Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rivas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Copan department of Honduras has a low Human Development Index (HDI 0.56 but it is very rich in hydric resources, all ranges in temperature, ecosystems, agricultural and livestock biodiversity, and rural knowledge because its original Mayan ethnic groups (Chorti and Lencas, and mixed race peasants. This article analyzes and evaluates the strategies used in the components of rural production and management of the basin of the Project 'Local Self-managed Development for Poverty Reduction in North Copán, Honduras' (NCP that worked with the Multifunctional Agriculture (MFA approach between 2003 and 2007. The main results were: To promote agro-ecological management innovations, creation of two funds to improve the farmers production, environmental protection of the basins, to consider the hydric and eco-systemic services in the management of the territory, to reassess social learning systems as the extension methodology “farmer to farmer”

  13. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  14. [An end to poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, P

    1994-10-01

    The African continent is distinguished by a much higher fertility rate than other regions. Fertility in Africa has remained almost constant at slightly over six children per woman on average, while important declines have occurred elsewhere over the past 25 years. High fertility in Africa is often attributed to poor diffusion of family planning, early marriage, and low female educational attainment, but other cultural and economic factors are involved. The significant decline of infant mortality over the past several decades has produced growth rates never before observed. Africa's very young populations may be at the origin of uncontrollable political disorder, as young persons with bleak prospects fall easy prey to ethnic, religious, and political extremism. Demographic growth has become an additional barrier to development. High fertility is tolerated or encouraged as constituting a cultural trait, but the resulting population growth is not a cultural trait. Demographic pressure has increased environmental problems in many regions. It is estimated that over ten million rural residents of the Sahel have been affected by soil degradation. The per capita availability of arable land fell from one-half to one-third hectare between 1965 and 1987. Shortages of firewood and water have become more common. The relationship between demographic growth, environmental crisis, and poverty in the countryside depends on other factors such as production techniques, modes of access to land and water, and the degree of security of land tenure. Population pressure was not the initial factor that disturbed the balance of the traditional societies, but it exacerbated the effects of other forces such as the introduction of cash crops and monetarization of the economy. Rural exodus and accelerated urban migration have been prompted in large part by the higher incomes and greater availability of services of all types in the cities. Achieving control of fertility in Africa will require

  15. The Poverty of Population and its Impact on Formation of Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pchelianska Halyna O.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the causes of poverty, its negative manifestations, identifying the impact of poverty, determining its impact on food security, and finding ways to overcome it. It has been determined that the structural causes of poverty are considered to be the general macroeconomic and political living conditions of population. The individual approach implies that human poverty is influenced by both the subjective (family, education, skills, job availability or absence and the institutional factors. The author characterizes the economic, social, and political consequences of poverty, their impact on food security. The impact of structural factors on the level of poverty in Ukraine was analyzed. The article explores the level of poverty in different categories of households, i.e.: households in rural and urban areas, with and without children. It has been proven that the level of poverty affects the formation of household food security. The main directions for overcoming poverty and improving food security have been proposed.

  16. Gender, Poverty and Employment in India

    OpenAIRE

    V. Gayathri

    2005-01-01

    Development theories recognise that employment is central to the alleviation of poverty and the enhancement of well-being. This means that at the practical level, it is understood that labour-intensive growth and greater labour-force participation by women are necessary elements for poverty reduction. At the level of discursive practice, the gender and poverty debates treat labour as an abstract category. In recognition of this lacuna, this paper attempts to address two principal questions: a...

  17. A Linked Hydro-Economic Model to Examine the Effects of Water Policy on Rural Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Torres, M.; Vosti, S. A.; Wallender, W. W.; Howitt, R.; Rodrigues, L. N.; Bassoi, L. H.; Pfeiffer, L.; Young, J.

    2006-12-01

    The sustainable intensification of small-scale agriculture is a necessary condition for reducing rural poverty in developing countries. Increasing the amount of irrigated cropland and the economic efficiency of irrigation are two key components of most intensification strategies. Improved access to water generally increases farm income but richer farmers use a disproportionate share of the available water, decreasing the chances of poor farmers to meet their water needs. Furthermore, water and poverty have strong spatial components that have so far been neglected in water planning. In that sense, too little is known about the short and long term hydrological effects, especially the externality effects of changes in on-farm water use and its implications to nearby farmers. To address this gap in knowledge, a spatially distributed and transient description of changes in surface and groundwater allocation under different agricultural management scenarios is needed. We propose a hydro-economic model providing a realistic spatio-temporal description of the linkages between the economic and hydrologic subsystems. This hydro-economic model is composed of a basin-level 3D spatially distributed transient hydrologic model (MOD-HMS) and a farm-level, spatially distributed agricultural production model. Both models are explicitly linked through the boundary conditions of the hydrologic model. The linkage will account for the spatial and temporal impact of different crop mixes, irrigation techniques and groundwater pumpage on water availability at farm level to assess the effects of policy action on the hydro-economic components of the system.

  18. Human Rights and National Poverty Reduction Strategies: Conceptual framework for human rights analysis of poverty reduction strategies and reviews of Guatemala, Liberia and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sakiko Fukuda-Parr

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is an important human rights concern. Human rights are claims that people have for social arrangements to guarantee their substantive freedoms; poverty reflects failures in these social arrangements and in the actions of duty bearers. It is the poorest people in society --- those with low incomes, education, insecure health, and political power --- who are most vulnerable to severe abuse of their human rights in multiple areas. At the same time, it is lack of human rights protection t...

  19. Vietnam's evolving poverty map : patterns and implications for policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lanjouw, Peter; Marra, Marleen; Nguyen, Cuong

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses small area estimation techniques to update Vietnam's province and district-level poverty map to 2009. It finds that poverty rates continue to be highest in the northern and central mountainous regions, where ethnic minorities make up a large fraction of the population. Poverty has fallen in most provinces and districts over this decade, but the pace of poverty reduction has...

  20. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  1. Reconciling work and poverty reduction: how successful are European welfare states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantillon, B.; Vandenbroucke, F.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the great recession, poverty has, not unexpectedly, increased in many Member States of the European Union. More worrying in view of its structural implications is the observation that in the years before the financial crisis, in most European countries poverty rates for the

  2. Widening rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from major causes of death in the USA, 1969-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    This study examined trends in rural-urban disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA between 1969 and 2009. A rural-urban continuum measure was linked to county-level mortality data. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by sex, race, cause-of-death, area-poverty, and urbanization level for 13 time periods between 1969 and 2009. Cause-of-death decomposition and log-linear and Poisson regression were used to analyze rural-urban differentials. Mortality rates increased with increasing levels of rurality overall and for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Despite the declining mortality trends, mortality risks for both males and females and for blacks and whites have been increasingly higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas, particularly since 1990. In 2005-2009, mortality rates varied from 391.9 per 100,000 population for Asians/Pacific Islanders in rural areas to 1,063.2 for blacks in small-urban towns. Poverty gradients were steeper in rural areas, which maintained higher mortality than urban areas after adjustment for poverty level. Poor blacks in non-metropolitan areas experienced two to three times higher all-cause and premature mortality risks than affluent blacks and whites in metropolitan areas. Disparities widened over time; excess mortality from all causes combined and from several major causes of death in non-metropolitan areas was greater in 2005-2009 than in 1990-1992. Causes of death contributing most to the increasing rural-urban disparity and higher rural mortality include heart disease, unintentional injuries, COPD, lung cancer, stroke, suicide, diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Residents in metropolitan areas experienced larger mortality reductions during the past four decades than non-metropolitan residents, contributing to the widening gap.

  3. Alleviating Poverty Through Vocational Education: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes that well-articulated vocational education policy and programmes will assist in employment generations and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Keywords: Alleviating Poverty, Vocational Education, Nigerian Experience Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 10 (2) 2005: pp. 10-14 ...

  4. Violence, Grants, Poverty, Inequality, Unemployment and Hope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notwithstanding the impressive achievements recorded in poverty reduction, extraordinarily high levels of violent rebellion and strikes are encountered, unexpected after 20 years of democratic transition. This paper locates the drivers of this socio-political instability in poverty, inequality and unemployment: the consequence ...

  5. Incidence of Poverty and the Role of Non-Farm Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, A.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of poverty, poverty gap and the severity of poverty for the nine agro-climatic zones of the country (rice/wheat Punjab, mixed Punjab, cotton/wheat Punjab, low intensity Punjab, Barani Punjab, cotton/wheat Sindh, rice other Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan) were calculated for farming and non-farming households. The indices of poverty were also measured for households that only did farming, undertook farming and non-farm activities and those that did no farming in the various agro-climatic zones. Finally, incidence and severity of poverty as well as the spread of income among the poor for non-farm wage earners, farm wage earners, non-farm self-employed and the crop cultivators in the nine agro-climatic zones of rural Pakistan was also carried out. The relationship between incidence of poverty and non-farm activities is ambivalent with non-farm households being better off in regions that are less fertile. The incidence of poverty was highest amongst farm wage workers, followed by non-farm wage workers, non-farm self-employed and lastly crop cultivators. (author)

  6. From rural Colombia to urban alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valencia Arias

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between poverty, inequality and conflict exacerbateyouth migration from rural areas. Policymakers need to consider anumber of areas where efforts are needed to address the impact onyoung people – both in the cities and in the rural areas.

  7. Rural development in Nigera: Problems and remedies | Eteng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural development in Nigeria constitutes a fundamental problem. Over the years, rural development has been neglected. Rural areas are regarded as abodes of diseases, superstition, poverty, lethargy, low income and low productivity. This problem, which is primarily due to government non sustainable policy action ...

  8. Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2013-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (≤ 6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ≤ 6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils.

  9. The TERRA framework: conceptualizing rural environmental health inequities through an environmental justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The deleterious consequences of environmentally associated diseases are expressed differentially by income, race, and geography. Scientists are just beginning to understand the consequences of environmental exposures under conditions of poverty, marginalization, and geographic isolation. In this context, we developed the TERRA (translational environmental research in rural areas) framework to explicate environmental health risks experienced by the rural poor. Central to the TERRA framework is the premise that risks exist within physical-spatial, economic-resources, and cultural-ideologic contexts. In the face of scientific and political uncertainty, a precautionary risk reduction approach has the greatest potential to protect health. Conceptual and technical advances will both be needed to achieve environmental justice.

  10. Emotional confidence levels and success of tourism development for poverty reduction: The South African Kwam eMakana home-stay project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwaramba, H.M.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge; Louw, L.; Chipumuro, J.

    2012-01-01

    Poverty reduction is a central component of South African government local economic development (LED) programmes. The Grahamstown Kwame Makana pilot project for promotion of tourism homestays aims to assist disadvantaged women to become self-reliant entrepreneurs. However the project has only met

  11. Open entrepreneurship centers in Brazil: To promote sustainable development and poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2009-01-01

    Degen introduced the teaching of entrepreneurship in Brazil in 1980 and wrote the first Portuguese language textbook on entrepreneurship in 1989. The purpose was to raise awareness of the country?s poverty among students, motivate them to become entrepreneurs, and promote the sustainable development necessary to eliminate the country?s extreme poverty. After almost 30 years extreme poverty continues to be the greatest challenge for the sustainable development of Brazil. Without solving this p...

  12. A new systems paradigm for the rural electrification program, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roxas, Fernando; Santiago, Andrea

    2010-09-15

    The Philippines has pushed rural electrification for two decades. Recently, the government achieved 100% electrification at the village level. Despite the significant recent economic growth, poverty has increased in some areas. These are usually agricultural and have many un-electrified areas. The multilaterals have launched programs that couple electricity with livelihood projects. The authors argue this is insufficient to guarantee sustainability. A systems view of rural poverty suggests that several components must be designed to work together. In addition to the electricity and livelihood, skills, attitudes, management and markets must be incorporated to make a lasting impact on poverty.

  13. Determinants of Welfare Dynamics in Rural Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of poverty movements in rural Nicaragua by introducing a bivariate probate model, making it possible to treat the initial state of poverty as endogenous and thus avoiding introducing selection bias. The results indicate that this is relevant when exploring...... welfare dynamics in rural Nicaragua, as initially poor households face a higher probability of being poor in the subsequent period compared with non-poor households. It is also found that household composition, access to non-agriculture wage income and ownership of productive assets are important factors...

  14. Geographical targeting of poverty alleviation programs : methodology and applications in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigman, D.; Srinivasan, P.V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for mapping poverty within national borders at the level of relatively small geographical areas and illustrates this methodology for India. Poverty alleviation programs in India are presently targeted only at the level of the state. All states includes, however, many

  15. Inculcating home economics based life skills in rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inculcating home economics based life skills in rural women in Anambra state ... Poverty among rural women in Nigeria hinders the economic and social ... could be inculcated among the rural women using a range of networking approaches.

  16. Epilepsy, poverty and early under-nutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Nidhi; Fekadu, Sintayehu; Alemu, Shitaye; Dessie, Abere; Wabe, Genale; Phillips, David I W; Parry, Eldryd H O; Prevett, Martin

    2012-11-01

    The incidence of epilepsy in Ethiopia is high compared with industrialised countries, but in most cases the cause of epilepsy is unknown. Childhood malnutrition remains widespread. We performed a case-control study to determine whether epilepsy is associated with poverty and markers of early under-nutrition. Patients with epilepsy (n=112), aged 18-45years, were recruited from epilepsy clinics in and around two towns in Ethiopia. Controls with a similar age and gender distribution (n=149) were recruited from patients and relatives attending general outpatient clinics. We administered a questionnaire to define the medical and social history of cases and controls, and then performed a series of anthropometric measurements. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate adjusted odds ratios. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate adjusted case-control differences for continuously distributed outcomes. Epilepsy was associated with illiteracy/low levels of education, odds ratio=3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.6), subsistence farming, odds ratio=2.6 (1.2-5.6) and markers of poverty including poorer access to sanitation (p=0.009), greater overcrowding (p=0.008) and fewer possessions (ppoor education and markers of poverty. Patients with epilepsy also had evidence of stunting and disproportionate skeletal growth, raising the possibility of a link between early under-nutrition and epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    India, particularly among vulnerable women and children. The research ... This approach will improve the quality of life for farmers, and is part of a long-term solution to rural poverty in India. ... Traditional grains boost nutrition in rural India.

  18. Protective Prevention Effects on the Association of Poverty With Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Gray, Joshua C; Yu, Tianyi; Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Galván, Adrianna; MacKillop, James; Windle, Michael; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether a preventive intervention focused on enhancing supportive parenting could ameliorate the association between exposure to poverty and brain development in low socioeconomic status African American individuals from the rural South. To determine whether participation in an efficacious prevention program designed to enhance supportive parenting for rural African American children will ameliorate the association between living in poverty and reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volumes in adulthood. In the rural southeastern United States, African American parents and their 11-year-old children were assigned randomly to the Strong African American Families randomized prevention trial or to a control condition. Parents provided data used to calculate income-to-needs ratios when children were aged 11 to 13 years and 16 to 18 years. When the participants were aged 25 years, hippocampal and amygdalar volumes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Household poverty was measured by income-to-needs ratios. Young adults' whole hippocampal, dentate gyrus, and CA3 hippocampal subfields as well as amygdalar volumes were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 667 participants in the Strong African American Families randomized prevention trial, 119 right-handed African American individuals aged 25 years living in rural areas were recruited. Years lived in poverty across ages 11 to 18 years forecasted diminished left dentate gyrus (simple slope, -14.20; standard error, 5.22; P = .008) and CA3 (simple slope, -6.42; standard error, 2.42; P = .009) hippocampal subfields and left amygdalar (simple slope, -34.62; standard error, 12.74; P = .008) volumes among young adults in the control condition (mean [SD] time, 2.04 [1.88] years) but not among those who participated in the Strong African American Families program (mean [SD] time, 2.61 [1.77] years). In this study, we described how participation in a randomized

  19. an empirical study of poverty in calabar and its environs.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF POVERTY IN CALABAR AND ITS. ENVIRONS. ... one of the poorest nations in the world (CBN, 2001). Specifically, these .... rural development in poor regions, inadequate access to education ...

  20. Haiti; Request for Extension of the Arrangement Under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility: Staff Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    According to the fifth review of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) arrangement, the Haitian authorities remain committed to macroeconomic stability under the program. On completion of the fifth review of the PRGF, they requested a new three-year Extended Credit Facility (ECF) arrangement to help sustain economic growth and to preserve macroeconomic stability. The IMF Board approved a three-year arrangement for Haiti under the PRGF. This will help ensure that endorsement of poli...

  1. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballara, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

  2. THE CONCEPTION OF POVERTY IN OBUBRA RURAL, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2010-04-14

    Apr 14, 2010 ... When one of the determining factors is changed, a ripple of repercursions sets in which has the potentiality to influence others (Jayaramau and Lanjouw, 1999). In other words, poverty is dynamic and a man who ... overlooked when the decision whether one is poor or not is based on indices computed with ...

  3. Rural households’ social capital and welfare: A case study of Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd James Segun Baiyegunhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a household or nations production system, social capital has been recognized as an input having major implications for project design as well as policy development. Using a structured questionnaire, household level data was obtained from a representative sample of 300 rural households in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. This study employed the conventional household economic behaviour model under constrained utility maximisation to examine the effect of social capital on the welfare of household, testing the hypothesis that the possession of social capital improves household welfare. The result shows that social capital endowments have a statistically significant positive effect on household welfare, in addition to the some household’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study concluded that, access to social capital among other factors, is very crucial for improved rural household welfare and poverty reduction. It is therefore important for government to have knowledge of existing social groups and networks as this will improve the effectiveness of the present strategies aimed at reducing poverty.

  4. Appreciation of the renminbi and urban-rural income disparity

    OpenAIRE

    Ping HUA; Sylviane GUILLAUMONT JEANNENEY

    2008-01-01

    Although poverty has been significantly decreased in China over the last twenty years, this decrease has been highly unequal across the provinces and has brought increased disparity in urban and rural per capita income. We studied the impact of exchange rate policy on urban-rural per capita income, which was marked by strong real depreciation before 1994 followed by moderate appreciation before stabilizing. We concluded that in the inland provinces where poverty is hardest, real appreciation ...

  5. Can Maquila Booms Reduce Poverty? Evidence from Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos, Rafael E.; Bussolo, Maurizio; Nunez, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and estimates the strength of the reduction in poverty linked to improved opportunities for women in the expanding maquila sector. A simulation exercise shows that, at a given point in time, poverty in Honduras would have been 1.5 percentage points higher had the maquila sector not existed. Of this increase in poverty, 0.35 percentage points is attributable to the wag...

  6. An integration programme of poverty alleviation and development with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The State Council (the central government) recently issued a Circular for Speeding Up the Integration of Poverty Alleviation and Development with the Family Planning Programme during the Ninth Five-year Plan (1996-2000). The Circular was jointly submitted by the State Family Planning Commission and the Leading Group for Poverty Alleviation and Development. The document sets the two major tasks as solving the basic needs for food and clothing of the rural destitute and the control of over-rapid growth of China's population. Practice indicates that a close Integration Programme is the best way for impoverished farmers to alleviate poverty and become better-off. Overpopulation and low educational attainments and poor health quality of population in backward areas are the major factors retarding socioeconomic development. Therefore, it is inevitable to integrate poverty alleviation with family planning. It is a path with Chinese characteristics for a balanced population and sustainable socioeconomic development. The targets of the Integration Programme are as follows: The first is that preferential policies should be worked out to guarantee family planning acceptors, especially households with an only daughter or two daughters, are the first to be helped to eradicate poverty and become well-off. They should become good examples for other rural poor in practicing fewer but healthier births, and generating family income. The second target is that the population plans for the poor counties identified by the central government and provincial governments must be fulfilled. This should contribute to breaking the vicious circle of poverty leading to more children, in turn generating more poverty. The circular demands that more efforts should focus on the training of cadres for the Integrated Programme and on services for poor family planning acceptors. full text

  7. An analytical framework for linking biodiversity to poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Meijerink, G.W.; Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Bindraban, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    This report aims to develop a framework linking poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation in order to identify research questions and to contribute to improved policy formulation. A general overview of the subject, definitions and concepts of poverty and biodiversity are described.

  8. Mapping poverty using mobile phone and satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jessica E; Sundsøy, Pål Roe; Pezzulo, Carla; Alegana, Victor A; Bird, Tomas J; Blumenstock, Joshua; Bjelland, Johannes; Engø-Monsen, Kenth; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Iqbal, Asif M; Hadiuzzaman, Khandakar N; Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Tatem, Andrew J; Bengtsson, Linus

    2017-02-01

    Poverty is one of the most important determinants of adverse health outcomes globally, a major cause of societal instability and one of the largest causes of lost human potential. Traditional approaches to measuring and targeting poverty rely heavily on census data, which in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are unavailable or out-of-date. Alternate measures are needed to complement and update estimates between censuses. This study demonstrates how public and private data sources that are commonly available for LMICs can be used to provide novel insight into the spatial distribution of poverty. We evaluate the relative value of modelling three traditional poverty measures using aggregate data from mobile operators and widely available geospatial data. Taken together, models combining these data sources provide the best predictive power (highest r 2 = 0.78) and lowest error, but generally models employing mobile data only yield comparable results, offering the potential to measure poverty more frequently and at finer granularity. Stratifying models into urban and rural areas highlights the advantage of using mobile data in urban areas and different data in different contexts. The findings indicate the possibility to estimate and continually monitor poverty rates at high spatial resolution in countries with limited capacity to support traditional methods of data collection. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Economic Relationship between Access to Land and Rural Poverty in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Bahadur Adhikar; Trond Bjorndal

    2014-01-01

    In the present socio-economic structure of Nepal, land is the main source of income and consumption for the majority of Nepalese. This study analyses the economic relationship between access to land and poverty in Nepal by establishing the link between land and consumption as well as land and income. A generalised additive model (GAM) and ordinary least squares (OLS) demonstrate that greater access to land increases income and consumption of the household and thereby reduces poverty. The sign...

  10. Provincial Poverty Dynamics in Lao PDR: A Case Study of Savannakhet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Andriesse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the average poverty level in Lao PDR has declined substantially since the beginning of economic reforms in 1986, sub-national dynamics give rise to a discussion of the trends and issues that determine and sustain provincial poverty and the variegated processes of rural transition. It appears that migration to core areas does not always generate better living standards, as migration to Vientiane Capital and Vientiane Province also results in a relocation of poverty from peripheral to core areas. This article sheds light on these problems and discusses the implications for the spatial dimensions of poverty in core provinces located on emerging Greater Mekong Subregion corridors and peripheral provinces. A case study of Savannakhet, located along the East West Economic Corridor, shows how rural households cope with the pressures arising from increasing market forces and regionalization. Based on in-depth fieldwork in the village of Ban Gnang Pho Sy, the results indicate that a shift occurred among the rural poor, in which their livelihoods changed from being based purely on subsistence agriculture to being focused increasingly upon pluriactive (commercial farming, livelihood diversification and labour migration to Thailand. Provinces located along emerging corridors experience a complex mosaic of impacts of integration due to fragmented ethnic-linguistic geographies and the varying relevance of pull versus push factors: imports versus exports, inward versus outward investments, and in- versus out-migration. In sum, rather than the neoliberal promise of a flatter socioeconomic landscape, the human geography of the Greater Mekong Subregion remains rough, due to politicization of foreign direct investments, complex land dealings and landlessness, migration patterns and rising inequality.

  11. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  12. Rebuilding common property management : a case study of community-based natural resource management in rural Guizhou, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Qiu

    2007-01-01

    Environmental degradation and rural poverty are inter-related problems of great concern to developing countries. The poor mostly live in environmentally fragile regions and rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihood subsistence. Unfortunately, environmental degradation and rural poverty

  13. Community Psychology and Psychosocial Expressions of Poverty: Contributions for Public Policy Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Morais Ximenes, Verônica; Universidade Federal do Ceará; Camurça Cidade, Elívia; Universidade Federal do Ceará.; Barbosa Nepomuceno, Bárbara; Universidade Federal do Ceará.

    2016-01-01

    The purposeis to analyze, from Community Psychology’s perspective, psychosocial expressions of poverty and their contributions for intervention in public policy. Community Psychology accents the critique about the factors that maintain those material and symbolic aspects that interfere with the subjective constitution of the poor. Exploratory research, quantitative and qualitative, was conducted with 417 adult subjects of a rural and urban community in Brazil. Poverty involves moral explanati...

  14. The role of credit facilities and Investment practices in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Small urban settlements or small towns in rural areas represent the fastest urban growth in most of the African continent. Along with a renewed political interest in African agriculture, the role of urban settlements has gained a prominent position in poverty reduction in rural areas...... and as an alternative to out-migration. Based on data collected between 2010 and 2012 covering more than 60 business operators in two emerging urban centres (EUCs) and their rural hinterlands, the article explores development trajectories in two EUCs in Tanzania, both of which have experienced rapid population growth...... and attracted new investments in business by both migrants and the indigenous population in an effort to exploit new opportunities in the centres. The initial urbanization has not been driven by the state or by new institutional interventions such as microfinance but rather by ‘the market’. This paper argues...

  15. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T; McClure, Leslie A; Zaitchik, Ben F; Gohlke, Julia M

    2013-06-10

    Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban-rural status. Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991-2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching

  16. Income inequality, poverty and socioeconomic development in Bangladesh: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, I; Khan, H

    1986-06-01

    By analyzing the data for 1963-1964 through 1976-1977, this paper studies the pattern of income distribution and poverty in Bangladesh, and it also compares the socioeconomic status of the country in the mid-1970s with other developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. There has been a drastic increase in inequality and poverty in recent years, and this disturbing finding is reinforced by the fact that Bangladesh occupies the lowest position in the Third World in terms of a composite social index. The very poor within the poverty population suffered most, and the increase in the extent of poverty was most noticeable in the rural sector. The broad policy recommendation is that relatively more attention should be given to the social sectors white allocating resources for the country's future development.

  17. Poverty reduction strategies and policies in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Povery is a multi-faceted concept. Various meanings can be ascribed to it. In relative terms, people are poor when their living conditions fall radically below the community average. In absolute terms, poverty refers to insufficient or total lack of basic necessities like food, housing, safe water, healthcare services and income to ...

  18. Moderating Poverty: The Role of Remittances from Migration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    the remittances do not have a significant moderating effect on poverty in .... also indicates that migration is selective by access to wealth (Gubert 2002). Here, the ... lowest-income rural households received the most remittance because they .... observed, educated African women have considerable ability to remit materially.

  19. The Relationship Among Poverty, Economic Growth, and Inequality Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lonnie K. Stevans; David N. Sessions

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown in prior research that increased economic growth reduces poverty. Authors have also found that the effect of growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on poverty growth has either diminished or remained unchanged over time, and economic expansion in the 1980s in the United States had no affect on poverty. Using a formal error-correction model, we find that increases in economic growth are significantly related to reductions in the poverty rate for all families. Specifically, GD...

  20. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY, FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive relationship between financial development and economic growth in short-run and long-run. Financial development is beneficial to the reduction of poverty. But the financial instability which accompanies financial development is is costly for the poor and reduces the positive effect of financial development on the reduction of poverty. The paper aims to analyze in detail the relationship and the (direct and indirect effects between these variables, taking into account their economic and social importance. It is also highlighted the correlation between the financial economy and the real economy, emphasizing the impact on social welfare involved by the interaction of the above mentioned variables.

  1. Poverty and Information and Communication Technology Systems in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Experiment Study - Tanzania: Role of ICTs on Poverty Reduction Among Micro and Small Entrepreneurs (MSEs) In Urban Njombe and Makambako, Tanzania. 49583. Études. Commission for Science and Technology: An Overview of PICTURE-Africa. 49394. Études. Digital and other poverties : exploring the connection in ...

  2. Partnership for Self-Reliant Change: Institute for Integrated Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancey, John

    1994-01-01

    The Institute for Integrated Rural Development in the Maharashtra State of India seeks to break the cycle of poverty through sustainable rural development. It works closely with rural women on health and nutrition education and in other community partnerships based on horizontal structures. (SK)

  3. Poverty Profile of Rural Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Olabisi Onabanjo ... and more severe among households whose heads were female, having low educational ... Evidence in the Millennium Development Goals ... In departure from several poverty studies (e.g .... gender of the household head (1 if female ; 0.

  4. Implications of rural irrigation schemes on household economy. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and quality of life as measured through the use of standardised HDI. In light of the above, there is a need to fund and develop more rural irrigation schemes so as to ensure livelihood security and rural development in Zimbabwe. Keywords: Rural livelihood, Poverty, Climate change, Irrigation, Lower Gweru, Extension.

  5. Access to Productive Resources: The Catalyst to Rural Women's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, rural women in post-apartheid South Africa are experiencing hardships in laying hold of such resources. The pertinent questions the article seeks to interrogate are: who should determine the resource needs of rural women? Are the one size fit all programmes ideal for alleviating rural women's poverty. This article ...

  6. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  7. Design framework for developing ict products and services for rural development : A persuasive health information system for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parmar, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Information poverty cannot be addressed by simply giving away computers and installing internet connections in rural areas. What is really needed is to offer rural users relevant, personalized information that enables them to make positive changes in their daily lives, rather than give them the type

  8. Policy Analysis of Poverty Alleviation in Semarang City Using Spatial and Sectoral Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiali, M.

    2018-02-01

    Poverty is a multidimensional problem. Therefore, poverty reduction policy is not only related to the increase of income, but also various other dimensions such as improvement of education, health, quality of life, access to electricity, access to sanitation and water supply. Semarang City Government in 2012 initiated a policy of poverty reduction synergy program called “Gerdu Kempling”. Gerdu Kempling is an integrated policy which gives priority to addressing poverty in each village and sub-district in Semarang based on aspects of health, economy, education, infrastructure, and environment. Based on the results of Budget Allocation Analysis and Analysis of Geographic Information Systems (Poverty Mapping), it can be concluded that the program and budget allocation for poverty alleviation in Semarang City are not synchronized either spatially or sectorally.

  9. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  10. Remittances, inequality and poverty in Pakistan: macro and microeconomic Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar Yasin MUGHAL; Amar Iqbal ANWAR

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of remittance incidence on inequality and poverty in Pakistan. Using the 2005-06 and 2007-08 Household Integrated Economic Survey data, we find that remittances substantially lower the poverty headcount, as well as the depth and severity of poverty. Foreign remittances have also a beneficial effect on economic inequality in Pakistan. The contribution of foreign remittances in poverty alleviation and inequality reduction is much stronger than that of internal remi...

  11. Pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... among rural dwellers: Case of women pastoralists in ... The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ... production, storage or trade but also and perhaps more ... overall rural development and poverty eradication, ... panying pressures to raise productivity and efficiency and.

  12. Exports, Gender Wage Gaps and Poverty in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos, Rafael E.; Bussolo, Maurizio; Núñez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies and estimates the reduction in poverty attributable to the improved opportunities that international trade integration offered to women in Honduras. The expansion of the export-oriented maquila sector has brought gender equality both in terms of employment and labour earnings. A simulation exercise shows that, at a given point in time, poverty in Honduras would have been 1.5 percentage points higher had the maquila sector not existed. Of this increase in poverty, 0.35 pe...

  13. Poverty, energy, and resource use in developing countries: focus on Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M; Kirubi, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Energy poverty affects poor communities and poor nations far more severely, and more directly, than in developed nations. Poor rural communities are particularly vulnerable, and the poor globally spend by far the largest percentage of income on energy. To make matters worse, record-high oil prices combined with sharp decline in foreign exchange earnings are key processes influencing the energy sector in Africa. These increases cause tremendous local hardships, but can be used to steer development decisions toward renewable energy technologies. At the same time, breaking up of public monopolies and liberalizing generation and distribution provides an opportunity for a new approach to rural electrification. Given the right incentives and institutional framework, a new set of players (e.g., private entrepreneurs, cooperatives, nongovernmental organizations, and communities) are likely to emerge and dominate reformed rural electricity markets in the future. Through technological and institutional "leap-frogging," Africa stands to gain significantly by augmenting current initiatives with experience and lessons recently gained in South Asia and Latin America. In these regions, a number of remarkable recent strides to seed and grow rural electricity markets while stimulating and encouraging private investments. Examples of innovative regulatory tools to address poverty include licensing, standards and guidelines, metering, tariffs, transmission charges, and performance-based contracting for energy services.

  14. Reducing poverty through tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Bolwell, Dain; Weinz, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Outlines the background to poverty reduction approaches and how the ILO is involved within the context of Decent Work and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Recent developments in tourism and a vision for an inclusive, pro-poor tourism industry are summarized.

  15. Constraints to livelihood diversification among rural households in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low farm productivity due to environmental degradation had made rural dwellers in Nigeria to diversify into other business besides agricultural production so as to liberate them from poverty. However, there are various challenges to livelihood diversification among the rural dwellers. This study therefore, identifies ...

  16. Appreciation of the Renminbi and Urban-Rural Income Disparity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Sylviane Guillaumont Jeanneney; Ping Hua

    2008-01-01

    Although poverty has been significantly decreasing in China over the last twenty years, this decrease has been highly unequal across the provinces and has brought increased disparity in urban and rural per capita income. We studied the impact of exchange rate policy on urban-rural per capita income, which was marked by strong real depreciation before 1994, followed by moderate appreciation before stabilizing. We concluded that in the inland provinces where poverty is hardest, real appreciatio...

  17. Urban-rural differences in excess mortality among high-poverty populations: evidence from the Harlem Household Survey and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A

    2006-08-01

    Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.

  18. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  19. THE REFLECTION OF RURAL POPULATION’S OCCUPATIONAL SITUATION AT ITS REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga SÂRBU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, living conditions in rural communities in Moldova were poorer than those of urban areas. Rural areas have lagged behind urban areas in terms of major indicators of economic welfare, recording lower incomes, higher poverty rates, low employment and lower indicators on health and education. Low productivity of agricultural activities is given by the large number of farms with small surfaces, small-scale use of modern technologies and the overemployment of rural population in agriculture. In these conditions, between employment in agriculture and poverty it is creating a vicious circle from which the rural population can not get out but only through the development of small industries in rural areas and traditional agricultural restructuring.

  20. Dynamics of Poverty and Land Degradation in the Sahel (West Africa)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will attempt to breach this knowledge gap. ... will endeavor to understand the dynamics of poverty and land degradation, identify promising ... Studies. Rôle de la migration dans les stratégies de survie des populations rurales : cas ...

  1. Different Impact Channels of Education on Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Zuluaga Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes both the monetary and non-monetary effects of the education level of the head of the household on poverty. We propose that schooling returns should not be thought as a single number - usually the schooling coefficient in an income equation - but as a set of elements whose length depends on the number of identified poverty dimensions. The monetary analysis employs the Quantile Regression technique, very helpful especially when one is interested in extremes of the income distribution function. Our results show differences across quantiles of the returns. We also found interesting dissimilarities by gender and urban-rural location. Exploring the non-pecuniary returns, we found that the education of the head positively influences family health and housing conditions.

  2. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-12-01

    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  3. Time poverty in Brazil: measurement and analysis of its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Lopes Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes well-being on an individual level, through the allocation of work hours done by adults and children and thus it measures time poverty in Brazil. In order to achieve such measurement, poverty indicators such as Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT were adapted into a time poverty mode. Additionally, an analysis of its determinants was also conducted. Among other findings, the fact that women (either children and adult ones are the time-poorest individuals in urban or rural areas. Another unfortunate finding is that the high rate of time poverty among children, numerically 16,1% is not far from the adult rate which is of 19,7%. The overall composite time poor individual profile is of an African-Brazilian adult woman of little education, not necessarily income poor and residing in an urban area of the northeast region, living in a household of few people, she is the mother of children who are younger than 14 years old.

  4. Rural Earnings Holding Steady in the Early 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Current Population Survey data indicate an overall decline in the rural-urban pay gap during the early 1990s (due to declining urban wages, not rising rural wages). In 1993, the earnings of 30 percent of rural full-time workers were below the poverty level. Compares low-income workers by gender, age group, education, and race/ethnicity. (LP)

  5. Government as Anti-Poverty Facilitator in the USA: Static Inequality Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores issues of persistent poverty and income inequality. The major focus is that of the alleviation of poverty. Is there a framework that delineates the roles for government, market forces and self-reliance that can effect a reduction in the level of poverty? The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act…

  6. Economic growth, employment and poverty in the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Messkoub (Mahmood)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper  provides an assessment of economic growth, employment and poverty reduction in the Arab MENA region. Considering the high rate of unemployment (especially the youth unemployment) and poverty in most countries in the region employment and poverty impacts of growth are of

  7. CASE STUDY: China — Young researchers battle poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... CASE STUDY: China — Young researchers battle poverty and bureaucracy in rural China ... And the “three pig rule” is just one example of the problems the local people ... Revenues were applied to system maintenance and all financial ... The researchers, of course, were trained in science, fieldwork, and ...

  8. Gender Differences in Time Poverty in Rural Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Diksha Arora

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the nature and extent of time poverty experienced by men and women in subsistence households in Mozambique. Gender roles, shaped by patriarchal norms, place heavy work obligations on women. Time-use data from a primary household survey in Mozambique is used for this analysis. The main findings suggest that women’s labor allocation to economic activities is comparable to that of men. Household chores and care work are women’s responsibility, which they perform with minimal ...

  9. Assessing the Effects of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme on Alleviating the Health Payment-Induced Poverty in Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianmin; Zhou, Zhongliang; Yan, Jue; Lai, Sha; Xu, Yongjian; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease has become one of the key causes of falling into poverty in rural China. The poor households are even more likely to suffer. The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) has been implemented to provide rural residents financial protection against health risks. This study aims to assess the effect of the NCMS on alleviating health payment-induced poverty in the Shaanxi Province of China. Methods The data was drawn from the 5th National Health Service Survey of Shaanxi Province, conducted in 2013. In total, 41,037 individuals covered by NCMS were selected. Poverty headcount ratio (HCR), poverty gap and mean positive poverty gap were used for measuring the incidence, depth and intensity of poverty, respectively. The differences on poverty measures pre- and post- insurance reimbursement indicate the effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty under NCMS. Results For the general insured, 5.81% of households fell below the national poverty line owing to the health payment; this HCR dropped to 4.84% after insurance reimbursement. The poverty HCRs for the insured that had hospitalization in the past year dropped from 7.50% to 2.09% after reimbursement. With the NCMS compensation, the poverty gap declined from 42.90 Yuan to 34.49 Yuan (19.60% decreased) for the general insured and from 57.48 Yuan to 10.01 Yuan (82.59% decreased) for the hospital admission insured. The mean positive poverty gap declined 3.56% and 37.40% for two samples, respectively. Conclusion The NCMS could alleviate the health payment-induced poverty. The effectiveness of alleviating health payment-induced poverty is greater for hospital admission insured than for general insured, mainly because NCMS compensates for serious diseases. Our study suggests that a more comprehensive insurance benefit package design could further improve the effectiveness of poverty alleviation. PMID:27380417

  10. Waging War on Poverty: Poverty Trends Using a Historical Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Liana E.; Wimer, Christopher; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the March Current Population Survey, we provide poverty estimates for 1967 to 2012 based on a historical Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). During this period, poverty, as officially measured, has stagnated. However, the official poverty measure (OPM) does not account for the effect of near-cash transfers on the financial resources available to families, an important omission since such transfers have become an increasingly important part of government anti-poverty policy. Applying the historical SPM, which does count such transfers, we find that trends in poverty have been more favorable than the OPM suggests and that government policies have played an important and growing role in reducing poverty—a role that is not evident when the OPM is used to assess poverty. We also find that government programs have played a particularly important role in alleviating child poverty and deep poverty, especially during economic downturns. PMID:26347369

  11. The policy relevance of absolute and relative poverty headcounts: What's in a number?

    OpenAIRE

    Notten, Geranda; de Neubourg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Financial poverty indicators still play an important role in policymaking and evaluation. Countries such as the USA and the EU member states use one or several ‘official’ poverty indicators on which success of poverty reduction policy is regularly monitored. Whereas the US poverty indicator is based on an absolute concept of poverty, the EU Laeken indicator is based on a relative concept. But the consequences of such a decision are considerable. As absolute and relative poverty indicators ref...

  12. Innovating Rural Tourism Targeting Poverty Alleviation through a Multi-Industries Integration Network: the Case of Zhuanshui Village, Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanping Feng

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For an impoverished area to employ rural tourism (RT as an avenue of poverty alleviation, there are two main challenges: building competitiveness with a very limited endowed resource base, and targeting the poor who generally lack financial capital or key capabilities as the main beneficiaries. With a case of Zhuanshui in China, an impoverished village without prominent tourism resource endowment, this paper has shown that the two challenges can be met through an innovation to construct a multi-industries integration network. This paper explores the development of the network, examines its characteristics, and analyzes its operation mechanisms. Results indicate that (1 the common objective of poverty alleviation and the same fundamental resource, combine RT and its extension industries tightly into an integration network; (2 sufficient evidence has been found for the embeddedness, endogeneity and empowerment of the network, but for empowerment, the poor’s participation is just the first stage to make appropriate decisions about the development due to their inadequate capabilities; and (3 vision developing, demonstration driving and centralized decentralization governance are three vital operational mechanisms to encourage the participation and collaboration of stakeholders. We also discussed the possible challenges for sustainability, being replicability of established competitive advantages, temporality of the major leader, and potential environmental degradation.

  13. RETHINKING POVERTY: THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J MUGUMBATE

    KEY TERMS: Chaos Theory, inequalities, poverty reduction, international organizations, Social Choice Theory, grassroots development a Assistant .... in isolated communities to identify intangible community capital such as, valuable skills that ...

  14. Poverty and Climate Change. Part 1. Reducing the Vulnerability of the Poor through Adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeygunawardena, P. [Asian Development Bank ADB, Tokyo (Japan); Vyas, Y. [African Development Bank AfDB, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire); Knill, P. [Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development BMZ, Bonn (Germany); Foy, T.; Harrold, M.; Steele, P.; Tanner, T. [Department for International Developmen DFID, London (United Kingdom); Hirsch, D.; Oosterman, M.; Rooimans, J. [Development Cooperation DGIS, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Den Haag (Netherlands); Debois, M.; Lamin, M. [Directorate-General for Development, European Commission EC, Brussels (Belgium); Liptow, H.; Mausolf, E.; Verheyen, R. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ, Eschborn (Germany); Agrawala, S.; Caspary, G.; Paris, R. [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Kashyap, A. [United Nations Development Programme UNDP, New York, NY (United States); Sharma, R. [United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Nairobi (Kenya); Mathur, A.; Sharma, M.; Sperling, F. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Despite international efforts, poverty has become more widespread in many countries in the last decade, making poverty reduction the core challenge for development in the 21st century. In the Millennium Declaration, 189 nations have resolved to halve extreme poverty by 2015 and all agencies involved in this paper are committed to contribute to this aim. However, climate change is a serious risk to poverty reduction and threatens to undo decades of development efforts. This paper focuses on the impacts of climate change on poverty reduction efforts in the context of sustaining progress towards the Millennium Development Goals and beyond. It discusses ways of mainstreaming and integrating adaptation to climate change into poverty reduction and sustainable development efforts. The chief messages emerging from this paper are: Climate change is happening and will increasingly affect the poor; and Adaptation is necessary and there is a need to integrate responses to climate change and adaptation measures into strategies for poverty reduction to ensure sustainable development. This decision to focus on adaptation is deliberate and is taken with the understanding that adaptation cannot replace mitigation efforts. The magnitude and rate of climate change will strongly depend on efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. The higher the concentrations of GHGs, the higher the likelihood of irreversible and grave damage to human and biological systems. Therefore, adaptation is only one part of the solution. Mitigation of climate change by limiting greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere is the indispensable other part.

  15. Analysis of profitability and poverty reduction of yoghurt processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the profitability of yoghurt processing with a view of determining its potentials for reducing poverty in Maiduguri Metropolitan Area. Data were collected from a survey of 10 yoghurt processing firms in Maiduguri and analysed using profit model and descriptive statistics. Results revealed that yoghurt ...

  16. Understanding Structure of Poverty Dimensions in East Java: Bicluster Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Yuniarto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is still become a main problem for Indonesia, where recently, the view point of poverty is not just from income or consumption, but it’s defined multidimensionally. The understanding of the structure of multidimensional poverty is essential to government to develop policies for poverty reduction. This paper aims to describe the structure of poverty in East Java by using variables forming the dimensions of poverty and to investigate any clustering patterns in the region of East Java with considering the poverty variables using biclustering method. Biclustering is an unsupervised technique in data mining where we are grouping scalars from the two-dimensional matrix. Using bicluster analysis, we found two bicluster where each bicluster has different characteristics.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.4769

  17. Thailand: poverty, bright lights, dark alleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-06

    Some rural farmers in northern Thailand earn as little as 500 Bahts (US$20) per month, while a factory worker earns an average of 3500 Bahts (US$140) and a private sector executive up to 200,000 Bahts (US$8000) per month. Millions of rural poor individuals in Thailand and elsewhere in Asia are flocking to urban centers in search of survival and better lives. Many, however, wind up working as prostitutes. More than one million children work as prostitutes in Asia, with possibly as many as 200,000 in Thailand alone. These men, women, boys, and girls are at high risk of contracting HIV. An estimated 2.5 million Asians have tested seropositive for infection with HIV, and the World Health Organization estimates that by the year 2000, one-third of the projected HIV cases worldwide will be in Asia, with India and Thailand taking the lead. Existing social services cannot handle the current influx of rural poor to urban areas. In the process, huge tracts of agricultural land are being abandoned, levels of rural and urban poverty are increasing, the extent of homelessness is increasing, and the gap between urban and rural areas grows wider. Thailand has the most inequitable distribution of wealth on the Asian continent.

  18. World Bank agricultural policies, poverty and income inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Stein

    2010-01-01

    The original logic underlying the World Bank's structural adjustment policies in Africa was that the removal of state-created distortions would not only improve efficiency in the operation of markets but also enhance income equality and reduce poverty. The paper explores the linkage between adjustment and the deteriorating income distribution and rising poverty in sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on the rural sector where most of the population earns its livelihoods. The pattern observed is a ...

  19. Prevalence of osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D in postmenopausal women living in a rural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-Tejada Romero, María-Jesús; Navarro Rodríguez, María-del-Carmen; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Quesada Gómez, José-Manuel; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; Sosa Henríquez, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    First, to study the difference between two groups of postmenopausal women living in different population centres (rural vs urban) in the prevalence of osteoporosis, fragility fractures and factors which may influence them: hypovitaminosis D, bone mineral density, coexistence of other diseases which predispose to their appearance; secondly, to observe the influence of low socioeconomic status, categorised as poverty. 1229 postmenopausal women were studied, of whom 390 (31.7%), were living in rural areas and 839 (68.3%), in urban areas. Data regarding risk factors related to osteoporosis were obtained, and, among other biochemical measures, 25 hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were determined. Bone densitometry was carried out in the lumbar spine and proximal femur, as well as lateral X-rays of the dorsal and lumbar spine. The women who lived in rural areas were older, shorter, heavier and had a higher body mass index than those from urban areas. Among the women from rural areas there was a higher prevalence of poverty, and higher levels of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were observed, as well as a higher prevalence of densitometric osteoporosis. The rural women had lower values of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and hypovitaminosis D. The variables which were associated independently with living in rural areas were poverty, obesity, vertebral fractures, BMD in the lumbar spine and levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D. In our study, postmenopausal women who live in rural populations have more poverty, lower values of vitamin D, lower BMD in the lumbar spine and a higher prevalence of vertebral fractures and of osteoporosis. The higher prevalence of obesity, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus observed in these women may be adjuvant factors, all fostered by their socioeconomic state of poverty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Impact of Remittances on Economic Growth and Poverty: Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qayyum, Abdul; Javid, Muhammad; Arif, Umaima

    2008-01-01

    The study focused on the importance of remittances inflow and its implication for economic growth and poverty reduction in Pakistan. By using ARDL approach we analyze the impact of remittances inflow on economic growth and poverty in Pakistan for the period 1973-2007. The district wise analysis of poverty suggest that overseas migration contributes to poverty alleviation in the districts of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan however NWFP is not portraying a clear picture. The empirical ev...

  1. The University and Purposive Social Change: Selected Issues and Analysis of an Anti-Poverty Effort. Paths Out of Poverty -- Working Paper Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Jerry D.

    Experience with the 1970 Chenango Development Project (CDP), a rural anti-poverty project initiated by the New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell, led to concern with development and testing of purposive social change models, the role of action oriented social scientists, and the involvement of social science departments, colleges, and…

  2. Pobreza e o sistema de seguridade social rural no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de dados em painel para as regiões rurais dos estados brasileiros no período 1995-2005, analisa-se o impacto das aposentadorias da seguridade social na pobreza. Essa análise é realizada controlandose por outros determinantes da pobreza como o produto agropecuário per capita, a concentração de renda rural medida pelo coeficiente de GINI, os anos médios de estudo e o número de pessoas desocupadas com mais de dez anos de idade. Neste sentido, especifica-se um modelo econométrico dinâmico que é estimado pelo Método dos Momentos Generalizado-sistema (MMG-sistema desenvolvido por Arellano e Bover (1995 e Blundell e Bond (1998. Os resultados do modelo permitem concluir que os benefícios da aposentadoria per capita não impactaram a pobreza rural no Brasil. Os fatores que contribuíram para a diminuição da pobreza rural foram os anos médios de estudo e o produto agropecuário per capita com a predominância do primeiro. Por sua vez, o número de pessoas desocupadas influenciou de maneira positiva a pobreza enquanto a concentração de renda rural não a afetou em nenhuma direção.This work aims at measuring the impact of the monetary benefits from social security retirement on poverty using panel data for the rural regions of the Brazilian states in the 1995-2005 period. The analysis is performed by controlling for other poverty determinants, such as the per capita agricultural product, income distribution, measured by the GINI index, the average of school years and the number of unemployed people over 10 years of age. The method of analysis relies on a dynamic econometric model which is estimated by the Generalized Method of Moments system, developed by Arellano e Bond (1991 and Blundell e Bond (1998. The results suggest that the retirement benefits have no direct impact on rural poverty in Brazil, whereas the average of school years and the per capita agricultural product are relevant factors for reducing rural poverty. On

  3. The Impact of Trade Openness on Poverty via Agricultural TFP in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    The importance of trade openness in the reduction of poverty has been debated over the ... by which trade openness influences poverty: Farm household; distribution channel .... But these channels can be classified as static effect and dynamic.

  4. Trade reforms, market access, and poverty in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2003-01-01

    Much of the literature that studies the relationship between trade and poverty in developing countries focuses on the effects of national trade reforms, such as own tariff reductions. In contrast, the World Trade Organization negotiations at the Doha Round were more concerned with the poverty effects on low-income countries, and of foreign reforms, such as the elimination of agricultural s...

  5. How Do Microfinance Programs Contribute to Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    areas have experienced statistically higher incidents of crime tied to class conflict.90 Land tax systems under the British were also responsible for...countries.173 This low delinquency rate is credited to the lack of alternative opportunities that are available to the poor.174 According to Muhammad...TOTAL: 909 54.6 60.2 55 Figure 2. Program Duration and Objective Poverty.197 The statistical analysis conducted by Chowdhury, Gosh and Wright finds

  6. Inequality, Poverty, and Material Deprivation in New and Old Members of European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Teo; Šućur, Zoran; Zrinščak, Siniša

    2007-01-01

    Aim To analyze the main indicators of income inequality, objective and subjective poverty, material deprivation, and the role of public social transfers in the reduction of poverty in 15 old and 10 new member states of the European Union (EU), undergoing post-communist socio-economic transition, as well as in Croatia, a candidate EU country. Method Objective poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, poverty thresholds in purchasing power standards (PPS), total social expenditure, inequality indicators, and risks of poverty according to demographics were calculated using the data from the Eurostat databases (in particular, Household Budget Survey). For Croatia, Central Bureau of Statistics first releases on poverty indicators were used, as well as database of the Ministry of Finance (social expenditure). Subjective poverty rates and non-monetary deprivation index were calculated using the European Quality of Life Survey, which was carried out in 2003 in EU countries and in 2006 in Croatia. Results According to the indicators of income inequality and objective poverty, there was a divide among old EU member states (EU15), with UK, Ireland and South European countries having higher and Continental and Nordic countries lower indicators of inequality and poverty. Among new member states (NMS10), Baltic countries and Poland had the highest and Slovenia and the Czech Republic the lowest indicators of inequality and poverty. In all EU15 countries, except Greece, subjective poverty rates were lower than objective ones, whereas in all NMS10 countries the levels of subjective poverty were much higher than those of objective poverty. With some exceptions, NMS10 countries had low or even decreasing social expenditures. The share of respondents who were deprived of more than 50% of items was 6 times higher in the NMS10 than in the EU15 countries. When standard of living was measured by income inequality, relative poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, total social protection

  7. Rural community sustainable development portal - towards sustainable knowledge management and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available prime rural and development knowledge and solutions resource site for Africa and the developing world. This should ultimately facilitate the development of projects and programmes that transform rural spaces, cultures and people from poverty...

  8. Confronting Challenges at the Intersection of Rurality, Place, and Teacher Preparation: Improving Efforts in Teacher Education to Staff Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azano, Amy Price; Stewart, Trevor Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining highly qualified teachers in rural schools is a persistent struggle in many countries, including the U.S. Salient challenges related to poverty, geographic isolation, low teacher salaries, and a lack of community amenities seem to trump perks of living in rural communities. Recognizing this issue as a complex and hard to…

  9. Multidimensional Poverty in China: Findings Based on the CHNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiantuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates multidimensional poverty in China by applying the Alkire-Foster methodology to the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2000-2009 data. Five dimensions are included: income, living standard, education, health and social security. Results suggest that rapid economic growth has resulted not only in a reduction in income poverty but…

  10. Re-Imagining the (Un)Familiar: Feminist Pedagogy in Rural Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been directed towards post-secondary education in rural spaces, instead conceptualising university study primarily as an urban phenomenon. Challenging dominant conceptions of rural areas as backwards, conservative, poverty stricken and isolated, this article investigates the unique opportunities associated with rural…

  11. Rural development NGOS and service delivery to the very poor: An empirical analysis of a training center in rural Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Balgah Roland Azibo; Emmanuel Yenshu Vubo; Innocent Ndoh Mbue; Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi

    2015-01-01

    The role of development nongovernmental organizations (DNGOs) in driving change, servicing the very poor and reducing poverty especially in rural areas in developing countries has been generally affirmed in the rural economics literature. This romantic image accounts to a large extent for the exponential numeric growth observed in the sector, and for burgeoning research on the subject by rural development economists. However, not enough empirical evidence exists on the extent to which such or...

  12. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajuruchukwu Obi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN. Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the percentage share of people living below poverty line has now decreased from 11.3 per cent in 2000 to 4.0 per cent in 2011. However, these reports are not reflecting the exact poor’s experiences because at household level there is still an outright poverty. Therefore, if the national poverty report gives a good picture about South African poverty status whereas there is still prevalence of poverty at household level, there are high chances that wrong policies in regard to poverty reduction strategies will be wrought. Hence this paper focuses on the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The sole aim of this paper is to assess the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The reviewed literature on determinants of poverty in South Africa would enable policy makers to see the effect of demographic characteristics on poverty in South Africa. Thus, strategies and policies aimed at alleviating poverty in South Africa can be directed to the discussed factors.

  13. Social factors of poverty in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Akchurin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the article due to the fact that poverty and low income, along with their attendant high levels of social inequality, continued to be one of the most acute social problems of modern Russian society. The article analyses the main factors of the low level of living standards of a considerable number of Russians, specifics of Russian poverty, and suggests ways of reduction of this social phenomenon.

  14. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  15. Poverty reduction program in Georgia: facts and policy measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Shatberashvili

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the capability of the social assistance programme in Georgia to reach its goal and examines its potential to enable the targeted poor to meet their needs and improve their social functioning. The method used for present - ing data includes a literature review, an analysis of reports and the use of the official statistics in the country. The main finding shows that the impact of the benefit varies across the population groups, with children remaining at the highest risk of poverty. Poverty rates vary across regions too, with mountainous regions being in the highest risk group. In June 2013, almost one-third of registered households in the database of socially unprotected families received a targeted Social Assistance Cash benefit. However, we can conclude that according to most benchmarks the programme has suc - ceeded in terms of targeting disadvantaged groups, while as concerns the programme’s efficiency and effectiveness there are areas for improvement regarding the coverage, the size and form of the benefit

  16. Land Right Registration and Property Development for Poverty Eradication and Slum Clearance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Olaopin Olanrele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to unfold the implication of non-registration of land rights on the achievement of the poverty eradication and slum clearance targets of the United Nation's Millennium development goals in Nigeria. The paper is based on empirical survey of land holding in the outskirts of Ibadan city and the rural areas in Oyo State, of Nigeria. A case study research method was adopted and data were collected with the use of questionnaire survey and secondary data was also extracted from the state land registry office in respect of total cost of documentation of subsequent transaction on titled/registered land. The study found that ignorance and government insensitivity in addition to high cost and delay are among major constraints to land titling. Only a few opportune people can afford the land right formalization process and they do so when it becomes necessary. These unequivocally militate against the achievement of the poverty and slum eradication goals of the UN. The paper suggested simplification of the titling procedure, cost reduction, computerization and public enlightenment on the benefits of registered land right to facilitate efficient land right registration towards adequate housing for the citizenry.

  17. The Linkages between Growth, Poverty and Inequality in Vietnam: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi Quoc Le

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how initial inequality and poverty rate are related to subsequent economic growth in the provincial level of Vietnam. The results show a robust negative relationship between initial poverty rate and subsequent economic growth. However, there is no link between initial inequality and subsequent economic growth. The results also show that lower inequality leads to lower poverty rate and poverty reduction could help to reduce inequality. Other determinants of inequality and p...

  18. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.This study provides a conceptual framework toanalysethe impact of rural infrastructure investment on market development for the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in ruralPeru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the c...

  19. Quality Education in Idaho: A Case Study of Academic Achievement in Three High-Poverty Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this research is bridging the achievement gap for students living in poverty through quality education. Such a study is important because the percentage of students affected by poverty is increasing and the persistent gap in achievement evidences that the right to quality education for students in poverty is not being met. This is…

  20. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decentralised Local Governance and Poverty Reduction in Post-1991 Ethiopia: A Political Economy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshtila Wondemeneh Bekele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After 1991, Ethiopia has introduced an ethnic federal governance system constituting nine regional states and two autonomous city administrations, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. The restructuring of the state seemingly led to the decentralisation of power to the regions and Woreda (district authority levels local governance structure in 1995 and 2002 respectively. The purpose of this article is to examine the practices of decentralised local governance in Ethiopia in general and the local governance performance at the level of peasant association (Kebele in particular. The article also analyses the link between the local governance and poverty based on three indicators: decentralisation and self-rule (DSR, local capacity for planning (LCP, and effectiveness of local governance system (ELGS. Data was collected from eight selected Kebeles of three different regional states through household survey, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions. The study shows that while the power and control of the central government is well established, the Kebeles lack the capacity and resources to deliver development. The LCP at Kebele level is weak because of organisational incapacity and institutional constraints related to DSR. The ELGS is also poor since Kebeles do not have any fiscal rights and administrative power for the reasons associated with DSR and LCP. The government has been implementing poverty reduction strategies using productive safety net programmes and farmer training centres. These, however, have not had the desired outcome due to organisational and institutional incapacitation of Kebele administrations.

  2. A poverty -adaptation -mitigation window within the Green Climate Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The stakes for poverty alleviation and the measures required to avoid unbridled climate change are inextricably linked: climate change will slow down and may even reverse trends in poverty reduction while trajectories consistent with a 2 deg. C limitation of climate warming require that strategies for poverty alleviation integrate the constraint of low carbon development. Until now, existing climate funds have failed in targeting poverty alleviation as a high priority strategy for adaptation or as a component of low carbon development. The article proposes the creation of a financing window within the Green Climate Fund focusing on synergies between poverty alleviation, adaptation and mitigation. This financial mechanism is based on indicators of satisfaction of basic needs. It could offer an answer to developing countries that consider poverty alleviation as their first priority

  3. Poverty, economic growth, deprivation, and water: the cases of Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varis, Olli

    2008-05-01

    Poverty reduction decorates all development agendas, but the complexity of the poverty issue is too often hidden behind simplistic indicators and development goals. Here, a closer look is taken at the concepts of "deprivation" and "vulnerability" as outcomes of poverty. Deprivation leads typically to social exclusion and marginalization; such groups are particularly weak in getting themselves out of poverty by "self-help," and economic growth does not trickle down to these people. When looking at the connections between poverty reduction and economic growth, special emphasis should be put on the differences between modern and more traditional sectors: development of the modern sector should not marginalize and exclude those dependent on more traditional livelihoods. Two case studies--The Tonle Sap area, Cambodia, and the Mekong Delta, Vietnam--reveal that investment in education, empowerment of small-scale entrepreneurship and other means of microeconomic environment, along with good governance, infrastructure, and income distribution can ensure that economic growth includes the poorer echelons of society.

  4. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  5. What is food poverty? A conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Niamh; Farag, K.W.; Baines, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Recently, food poverty has been subject to much academic, political and media attention following the recent reduction in consumer purchasing power as a result of food and energy price volatility. Yet the lack of consensus related to food poverty terminology acts as an inhibitor in both identifying and addressing the issue in the UK, specifically as a separate problem to that of food insecurity. Misunderstanding of terminology is an impediment to identifying similarities and differe...

  6. Energy, environment and sustainable rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, G [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1992-12-01

    This paper addresses the energy needs of the three quarters of the World's population living in the rural populations of many developing countries whose daily struggle to obtain the energy needed for survival is unaffected by international energy politics. It aims to identify energy-related actions in certain policy and technical areas which may contribute to ending rural poverty. The mutual benefits of a transition to modern technologies is stressed both for rural and urban groups, especially in terms of a more efficient use of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources such as biomass or solar power. Recommendations for sustainable rural and agricultural development are made. (UK)

  7. Dismantling Rural Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, James A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The natural beauty that surrounds many rural schools hides the troubling realities that students in these schools frequently live in poverty and the schools struggle to give these students the education they need. James A. Bryant believes that one source of the problem is the fact that so many school reforms are designed with urban schools in…

  8. Inequality, poverty, and material deprivation in new and old members of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Teo; Sucur, Zoran; Zrinscak, Sinsa

    2007-10-01

    To analyze the main indicators of income inequality, objective and subjective poverty, material deprivation, and the role of public social transfers in the reduction of poverty in 15 old and 10 new member states of the European Union (EU), undergoing post-communist socio-economic transition, as well as in Croatia, a candidate EU country. Objective poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, poverty thresholds in purchasing power standards (PPS), total social expenditure, inequality indicators, and risks of poverty according to demographics were calculated using the data from the Eurostat databases, in particular, Household Budget Survey. For Croatia, Central Bureau of Statistics first releases on poverty indicators were used, as well as database of the Ministry of Finance (social expenditure). Subjective poverty rates and non-monetary deprivation index were calculated using the European Quality of Life Survey, which was carried out in 2003 in EU countries and in 2006 in Croatia. According to the indicators of income inequality and objective poverty, there was a divide among old EU member states (EU15), with UK, Ireland and South European countries having higher and Continental and Nordic countries lower indicators of inequality and poverty. Among new member states (NMS10), Baltic countries and Poland had the highest and Slovenia and the Czech Republic the lowest indicators of inequality and poverty. In all EU15 countries, except Greece, subjective poverty rates were lower than objective ones, whereas in all NMS10 countries the levels of subjective poverty were much higher than those of objective poverty. With some exceptions, NMS10 countries had low or even decreasing social expenditures. The share of respondents who were deprived of more than 50% of items was 6 times higher in the NMS10 than in the EU15 countries. When standard of living was measured by income inequality, relative poverty rates, poverty reduction rates, total social protection expenditures, and non

  9. Measuring Poverty and Wellbeing in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys—income, co......Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys......—income, consumption, health, demographics, labour force, household enterprise, and others. And the information base in developing countries with respect to poverty and wellbeing has improved dramatically. Nevertheless, appropriate measurement of poverty remains complex and controversial; this chapter lays out...... for the reader the issues and challenges. This is particularly true in developing countries where (i) the stakes with respect to poverty reduction are high; (ii) the determinants of living standards are often volatile; and (iii) related information bases, while much improved, are often characterized...

  10. Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication? | Kritzinger | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...

  11. Access to energy and fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A first part addresses the issue of access to a modern and sustainable energy in developing countries, notably in rural areas of Africa and Asia. Some experiments are evoked like, for example, the financing and support of an Indonesian NGO for the construction of hydroelectric micro power plants. In this respect, decentralized solutions seem to be the most promising, but also the use of new technologies for lighting equipment using 3 energy sources (electric grid, solar energy, rechargeable battery). The Lighting Africa program is evoked. The second part addresses the issue of fuel poverty, notably in France but also in other European countries (data are provided which indicate the numbers of households unable to pay for a proper heating, or with bad quality housing). The authors outline that fuel poverty is a complex problem which requires both emergency measures and prevention programs on a medium and long term: improvement of energy efficiency in the housing sector in order to reduce consumption, implementation of new and innovating technologies (housing rehabilitation with local and green materials, R and D efforts, and development of smart meters). The economic and social dimensions of this problem of fuel poverty are outlined by members of associations

  12. HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

  13. Comparing and contrasting poverty reduction performance of social welfare programs across jurisdictions in Canada using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA): an exploratory study of the era of devolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim N; Fan, Lida

    2010-11-01

    In the mid-1990s, the responsibilities to design, implement, and evaluate social welfare programs were transferred from federal to local jurisdictions in many countries of North America and Europe through devolution processes. Devolution has caused the need for a technique to measure and compare the performances of social welfare programs across multiple jurisdictions. This paper utilizes Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for a comparison of poverty reduction performances of jurisdictional social welfare programs across Canadian provinces. From the theoretical perspective, findings of this paper demonstrates that DEA is a promising method to evaluate, compare, and benchmark poverty reduction performance across multiple jurisdictions using multiple inputs and outputs. This paper demonstrates that DEA generates easy to comprehend composite rankings of provincial performances, identifies appropriate benchmarks for each inefficient province, and estimates sources and amounts of improvement needed to make the provinces efficient. From a practical perspective the empirical results presented in this paper indicate that Newfoundland, Prince Edwards Island, and Alberta achieve better efficiency in poverty reduction than other provinces. Policy makers and social administrators of the ineffective provinces across Canada may find benefit in selecting one of the effective provinces as a benchmark for improving their own performance based on similar size and structure of population, size of the budget for social programs, and traditions with administering particular types of social programs. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J.; Morley, David W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. Methods In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. Results This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. Conclusions These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. PMID:25733559

  15. Universalism under siege? Exploring the association between targeting, child benefits and child poverty across 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker, Wim; Van Mechelen, Natascha

    2015-03-01

    The long-standing wisdom that universally designed benefits outperform targeted benefits in terms of poverty reduction has come under siege. Recent empirical studies tend to find that targeting is not necessarily associated anymore with lower levels of poverty reduction. In this study, we investigate for a broad set of European countries (1) the relationship between child benefits and child poverty reduction; (2) whether a universal or targeted approach is more effective in reducing child poverty; and (3) the causal mechanisms explaining the link between (1) and (2). In doing so, we take into account the general characteristics of the child benefit system, the size of the redistributive budget and the generosity of benefit levels. In contrast to previous studies, we construct an indicator of targeting that captures the design instead of the outcomes of child benefit systems. We find that targeting towards lower incomes is associated with higher levels of child poverty reduction, conditional on the direction of targeting and the characteristics of the benefit system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Analysis of Changes in the Level of Poverty and the Main Characteristics of the Poor in the South of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Stepanovna Oleynik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The poverty is a multifaceted and diverse phenomenon, it varies in time and space. In the economic literature, various approaches are used to measuring poverty. The article deals with the methods of measuring poverty in the Russian Federation. When analyzing the changes in the level of poverty and the main characteristics of the poor in Southern Russia, the authors relied on official statistical information published in editions of the Federal State statistics service. Poverty trends are revealed for the period of four years (2011-2014 in the dynamics and by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, within the Southern and North Caucasus Federal Districts. The authors identified poverty ratio changes in various Southern subjects of the Russian Federation. The level of well-being of the population and the poverty ratio fluctuations in the Southern regions of the Russian Federation are estimated. It is shown that the Southern regions are characterized by a low level of material well-being. The analysis revealed a trend of increasing the proportion of poor households in rural areas. Rural populations are the most vulnerable to the risk of poverty, mainly because of the high concentration of poor households and minimal income levels which increases the vulnerability of households. The analysis of the distribution of poor households according to their composition, revealed a high proportion of households consisting of three or more people. It is determined that the hallmark of Russian poverty is high “child poverty”. It is substantiated that the socio-economic indicators of poverty let identify the general trends in poverty levels of the subjects of Southern and North Caucasus Federal districts. The outcome of the present study consists in the withdrawal of the main priorities for combating poverty in the South of Russia.

  17. Utilization of maternal health services in rural primary health centers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of maternal health services in rural primary health centers in Sub- Saharan Africa. ... their pregnancies were normal during antenatal care visits, hostile attitude of health workers, poverty and mode of payment. Majority of the PHCs provided antenatal, normal delivery, and post natal services. Rural mothers lacked ...

  18. The politics of defining and alleviating poverty: State strategies and their impacts in rural Kerala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.; Thampi, B.V.; Narayana, D.; Nandigama, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a relational approach to the study of poverty (Mosse, 2010), and uses this to critically evaluate state strategies for identifying and alleviating poverty in Kerala, India. It traces these from national planning documents through to their point of implementation, drawing on

  19. Rural energy - ODA`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolnough, D.

    1997-12-01

    The Overseas Development Administration has as a goal `to improve the quality of life of people in poorer countries by contributing to sustainable development and reducing poverty and suffering.` Rural energy fits into this goal as a means to an end. The emphasis is firmly on the service provided, with the aim being provision of basic needs as a part of rural development. ODA plays a role in this task on a number of fronts: research and development; support for NGO`s; aid in a bilateral or multilateral form. The view of ODA is that even rural energy projects must emphasize the service provided and must be economically sustainable. Within its sphere of influence, there is a clearly growing position for the employment of rural energy programs.

  20. Poverty reduction in India through palliative care: A pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Ratcliff

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Holistic palliative care can reduce the desperate poverty driven by life-limiting illness, and can do so systematically, on a large-scale, in-depth, especially if started early in the illness. Home-based care also frees up hospitals to serve more patients with treatable conditions.