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Sample records for rural northeast thailand

  1. The Impact of Visual Disability on the Quality of Life of Older Persons in Rural Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grow, Steven; Sudnongbua, Supaporn; Boddy, Julie

    2011-01-01

    A high rate of self-reported visual disability was found among a sample of persons aged 60 and older in the course of a study that assessed the impact of feelings of abandonment among older persons in a remote rural area in northeast Thailand (Sudnongbua, La Grow, & Boddy, 2010). This study assessed the impact of self-reported visual…

  2. Nutrient budgets, soil fertility management and livelihood analysis in Northeast Thailand: a basis for integrated rural development strategies in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoud, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:  Rainfed lowland rice-based systems, Northeast Thailand, nutrient balance analyses, sustainability assessment, sustainable natural resource management, integrated rural development strategies, livelihood

  3. Latent Profile Analysis of Good Citizenship of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siphai, Sunan; Srisa-ard, Boonchoom

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was 1) to develop good citizenship indicators of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand. 2) to classify latent profile of good citizenship of Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. The sample was 800 Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. Findings 1) there…

  4. Towards a Curriculum for the Thai Lao of Northeast Thailand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2015-01-01

    This article considers a fundamental issue in language planning, namely, whether or not to introduce a curriculum for the mother tongue (MT), in the wider context of a complex language planning situation in Thailand. It details recent moves in the consideration of this issue for the Thai Lao (Isan) of Northeast Thailand, Thailand's largest…

  5. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  6. Rural Poverty and Diversification of Farming Systems in Upper Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dufumier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Thailand, 85% of the farmers are smallholders who are unable to meet their basic needs from agricultural production only. These tiny farms survive thanks to non-farm income, which faces increased difficulties as other economic sectors ran out of steam during the recent economic crisis of the late 1990s. In this context, farmers have to rely more on their agricultural production activity and income. But how can this be made possible in a region well-known for its very constraining soil and climatic conditions? To answer this question, and to examine the whole complexity of agricultural development issues, this article proposes an analysis of recent agrarian transformations and an understanding of farmers’ current practices and strategies. A diagnostic analysis of a village agrarian system located in Khon Kaen Province in upper northeast Thailand was carried out in 2002 by using a combination of field observations, interviews with key witnesses of the local history, and a farm survey of 26 diverse households. The recent history illustrates that farmers have shown a high adaptability to rapid changes in their economic environment, such as changing market demand for agricultural products and labour. The differentiation among farming households has led to different types of farmers with different resources, practices, and strategies. Families belonging to the most frequent type have a very tiny holding and their members are permanently or seasonally involved in unskilled off-farm activities. Their low and unstable total cash income is often insufficient to meet the family’s basic needs and they become deeply indebted. As efforts to improve water availability are being made, many Isarn families could improve their living conditions by diversifying their agricultural production systems with more small-scale fruit, vegetable, fish, or livestock production to improve household food security and cash income, eventually combined with non

  7. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.

  8. Development of a capacity building program for village health volunteers to support self-management in a high risk population for diabetes in a rural community in northeast Thailand

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    Pakinee Srisarakham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other parts of the world, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the Asia-Pacific Region has rapidly increased during the last few decades. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility and the effects of a capacity building program for Village Health Volunteers (VHVs to support self-management in a T2DM high risk population from a rural subdistrict in Northeast Thailand. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using surveys, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed and used to develop a 12-week capacity building program for VHVs. This program was then implemented on 60 subjects at high risk of T2DM in the selected community. According to the paired t-test and Wilcoxon-signed rank test, VHVs had higher scores on knowledge and self-efficacy of T2DM prevention after a 12 week intervention (p = .03 and p = .02, respectively. Study participants at risk for T2DM also had a significant increase in T2DM knowledge and self-management (p < .001. Implementation of the capacity building program for VHVs in Northeast Thailand was feasible. The key successes were strong community bonding, community empowerment, and support from family and public health nurses. Effects of the program should be examined with those in other Asia-Pacific countries.

  9. Ethnobotanical investigation of 'wild' food plants used by rice farmers in Kalasin, Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Price, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Wild food plants are a critical component in the subsistence system of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. One of the important characteristics of wild plant foods among farming households is that the main collection locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems such as

  10. The introduction of oil palm in Northeast Thailand: a new cash crop for smallholders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somnuek, Siriluk; Slingerland, M.A.; Grünbühel, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Thai Government’s objective to increase energy security through biodiesel, oil palm was introduced to Northeast Thailand in 2005. Nong Khai Province was selected as a pilot project because of its suitable environmental conditions. This study assesses the acceptance of policy

  11. Ethnobotanical investigation of 'wild' food plants used by rice farmers in Kalasin, Northeast Thailand

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    Cruz-Garcia Gisella S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild food plants are a critical component in the subsistence system of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. One of the important characteristics of wild plant foods among farming households is that the main collection locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems such as agricultural areas rather than pristine ecosystems. This paper provides selected results from a study of wild food conducted in several villages in Northeast Thailand. A complete botanical inventory of wild food plants from these communities and surrounding areas is provided including their diversity of growth forms, the different anthropogenic locations were these species grow and the multiplicity of uses they have. Methods Data was collected using focus groups and key informant interviews with women locally recognized as knowledgeable about contemporarily gathered plants. Plant species were identified by local taxonomists. Results A total of 87 wild food plants, belonging to 47 families were reported, mainly trees, herbs (terrestrial and aquatic and climbers. Rice fields constitute the most important growth location where 70% of the plants are found, followed by secondary woody areas and home gardens. The majority of species (80% can be found in multiple growth locations, which is partly explained by villagers moving selected species from one place to another and engaging in different degrees of management. Wild food plants have multiple edible parts varying from reproductive structures to vegetative organs. More than two thirds of species are reported as having diverse additional uses and more than half of them are also regarded as medicine. Conclusions This study shows the remarkable importance of anthropogenic areas in providing wild food plants. This is reflected in the great diversity of species found, contributing to the food and nutritional security of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand.

  12. Dietary behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents in a remote rural area of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekul, Wirote; Viravathana, Nantaporn; Aimpun, Pote; Watthanakijthavongkul, Khanin; Khruacharooen, Jakkapong; Awaiwanont, Abhinant; Khumtuikhrua, Chaowanan; Silsrikul, Pichayen; Nilrat, Pawarid; Saksoong, Saksit; Watthanatham, Jirawat; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Sirimaneethum, Pornsirin; Meeprom, Natee; Somboonruangsri, Wuttiwong; Pongmanee, Koonphol; Rangsin, Ram

    2005-11-01

    Nutritional status among adolescents is an important health indicator. The up-to-date information about nutritional status and food consumption pattern in the remote rural area is required for the effective public health intervention in the rural area of the country. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of malnutrition, eating behavior and nutritional knowledge among secondary school students in a remote rural area in Thailand. Body weight and height data were collected from 298 secondary school students for nutritional status calculation using the Institute of Nutrition Research, Mahidol University, INMU-Thaigrowth program. Eating behavior and nutritional knowledge were observed by self-administrated questionnaires. The prevalence low height-for-age (instant noodles (64.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition was low among this population. The studied population had a fair knowledge about nutrition. The authoes found that regular consumption of highly commercialized snack products especially salted chips and instant noodles were at a high level in this remote rural area of Thailand. The pattern of nutritional problems in Thailand may have changed in which a public health program for children in rural areas of the country should recognize this transition.

  13. Wild plant food in agricultural environments: a study of occurrence, management, and gathering rights in Northeast Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the gathering of wild plant foods in agricultural environments and utilizes research conducted among rice cultivators in northeast Thailand as the case study. The management of wild food plants and gathering rights on agricultural land are closely linked to women's roles as

  14. Predicting prediabetes in a rural community: a survey among the Karen ethnic community, Thasongyang, Thailand

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    Lorga T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga1, Myo Nyein Aung1,2, Prissana Naunboonruang1, Payom Thinuan1, Nara Praipaksin3, Tida Deesakul3, Utumporn Inwan3, Tawatchai Yingtaweesak4, Pratumpan Manokulanan1, Srisomporn Suangkaew1, Apiradee Payaprom41Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Tak, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, Thasongyang, Tak, ThailandBackground: Diabetes is a growing epidemic in both urban and rural communities worldwide.Aim: We aimed to survey fasting plasma glucose (FPG status and awareness of diabetes in the rural Karen ethnic community. We investigated the predictors of impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG status, which would be easily applicable for prevention of diabetes in a rural community.Materials and methods: This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted at Thasongyang, the most north-western district in Thailand. A total of 299 Karen ethnic rural residents were included in the study. FPG, body mass index, and waist circumference were prospectively measured. We assessed the awareness of diabetes and lifestyle-related health behavior with closed questionnaires in a rural community setting.Results: On screening for FPG, 16.72% of the Karen ethnic residents had hyperglycemia: 3.68% in the diabetic range and 13.04% in the prediabetic range respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, waist circumference (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29–9.57, and having a diabetic blood relative (aOR 4.6, CI 1.81–11.71 are significant predictors of IFG status.Conclusion: It is necessary to promote awareness of diabetes among the Karen ethnic community. Application of simple evidence-based predictors of the prediabetic state may lead to timely and effective prevention of diabetes in rural settings.Keywords: diabetes, prediabetes, fasting plasma

  15. Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand

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    Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

    2013-06-01

    Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

  16. Rural Nonfarm Activities and Poverty in the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, FHG; Lanjouw, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper combines two complementary data sets to present a disaggregated spatial profile of poverty in the Brazilian Northeast, and to investigate the importance of nonagricultural activities for its rural dwellers. We present both univariate and multivariate profiles of nonagricultural employment

  17. Quality of Life, Mental Health and Educational Stress of High School Students in the Northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assana, Supat; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Rangseekajee, Poonsri

    2017-08-01

    Majority of high school students in Thailand aim to study at universities. Therefore, they spend a lot of time studying in both classrooms and tutorial classes, that could cause stress, health problems and deteriorate their Quality Of Life (QOL). However, there has been no study on these issues in Thai context. To describe the status of QOL, mental health, educational stress, well-being and determine factors associated with QOL among high school students in the Northeast of Thailand. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Northeast of Thailand among 1,112 students of grade 10 th , 11 th and 12 th . Multistage random sampling was used to select high schools in 5 provinces. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess QOL, educational stress, anxiety, depression and well-being. The association between the covariates was observed by using Generalized Linear Mixed (logistic regression) Model (GLMM). The prevalence of high level of QOL was 36% (95%CI: 32.30 to 41.69); whereas, 26.18% (95% CI: 16.72 to 35.63) had high level of educational stress and 16.41% (95% CI: 2.20 to 30.71) had severe anxiety. Prevalence of depression was 18.55% (95%CI: 9.86 to 27.23) and low level of well-being was 13.41% (95% CI: 0.18 to 27.14). The factors significantly associated with high QOL were; not having depression (Adj. OR= 3.07; 95%CI: (2.23 to 4.22); peducational stress and anxiety. Depression, anxiety and general well-being had influences on QOL of high school students.

  18. European Workshop on Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop is a part of the E.C. Thermie B project `Dissemination of Promising Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-Eastern Europe`. The presentations held in the workshop are collected in this publication. The subjects are: TEKES (Technology Development Centre) Boost Technology; Renewable Energy in Latvia; Rural Renewable energy (Prospects) in Estonia; Renewable energy from Rural Electrification; Techno-Economic Analysis published as a summary; Practical Experiences of Small-Scale Heat Generation from Fuelwood in Finland; Solar systems for Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Biomass for Energy: Small-Scale Technologies; Photovoltaic Applications for Rural Areas in the North-East Europe

  19. European Workshop on Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop is a part of the E.C. Thermie B project `Dissemination of Promising Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-Eastern Europe`. The presentations held in the workshop are collected in this publication. The subjects are: TEKES (Technology Development Centre) Boost Technology; Renewable Energy in Latvia; Rural Renewable energy (Prospects) in Estonia; Renewable energy from Rural Electrification; Techno-Economic Analysis published as a summary; Practical Experiences of Small-Scale Heat Generation from Fuelwood in Finland; Solar systems for Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Biomass for Energy: Small-Scale Technologies; Photovoltaic Applications for Rural Areas in the North-East Europe

  20. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  1. Micromapping of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in diferent regions of northeast Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Phollarp, Prachatip; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Schelp, Frank P

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in different regions of northeast (NE) Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic (PDR), a total of 1,809 blood samples were collected consecutively from individuals attending antenatal care services at 11 community hospitals in different regions of NE Thailand and three hospitals in Vientiane, Laos PDR, from May 2009 to April 2010. All individuals were investigated for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies using standard methods. For individuals from NE Thailand, the carrier frequencies were 41.7% for Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG], 5.8% for α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal), and 0.9% for β-thal. The THAI deletion type of α(0)-thal was found in one individual from an ethnic minority. From a group of pregnant Laotian women, 30.1% were Hb E carriers. The prevalence of α(0)-thal of 8.6% for the Laotian women was similar to that found in the upper northeastern part of Thailand. The frequency of β-thal was 2.3 %. The proportion of carriers of α(+)-thal and Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α142, Term→Gln (TAA>CAA in α2)] ) from Thailand and Laos was significantly different. The frequency of Hb Paksé [α142, Term→Tyr (TAA>TAT in α2)] was relatively low for Thailand as well as for Laos. The results indicate that thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are a significant health burden in the region and that a prevention and control program for severe thalassemia diseases should be established in Laos.

  2. The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand

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    Ratana Somrongthong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand.

  3. Breastfeeding and its relation to child nutrition in rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panpanich, Ratana; Vitsupakorn, Kannika; Brabin, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate current breastfeeding practices among a population in a remote rural area of Chiang Mai, Thailand. Three hundred and ninety-five women with children aged less than 36 months were studied. Mothers were interviewed and anthropometric status of children

  4. Can't see the forest for the rice: factors influencing spatial variations in the density of trees in paddy fields in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Moriaki; Vityakon, Patma; Rambo, A Terry

    2014-02-01

    The widespread presence of trees in paddy fields is a unique feature of Northeast Thailand's agricultural landscape. A survey of spatial variability in the density of trees in paddy fields in the Northeast Region was conducted utilizing high resolution satellite images and found that the mean density in the whole region was 12.1 trees/ha (varying from a high of 44.6 trees/ha to a low of 0.8 trees/ha). In general, tree densities are higher in the southeastern part of the region and much lower in the northern central part. Tree density was influenced by multiple factors including: (1) the history of land development, with more recently developed paddy fields having higher densities, (2) topography, with fields located at higher topographical positions having a higher mean density of trees, (3) access to natural forest resources, with fields in areas located close to natural forests having higher densities, (4) amount of annual rainfall, with fields in areas with higher average annual rainfall having higher tree densities, and (5) landholding size, with fields in areas with larger-sized landholdings having more trees. However, there is a considerable extent of co-variation among these factors. Although trees remain an important element of the paddy field landscape in the Northeast, it appears that their density has been declining in recent years. If this trend continues, then the vast "invisible forest" represented by trees in paddy fields may truly disappear, with negative consequences for the villagers' livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration in the rural ecosystem.

  5. An update on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its associated factors in rural northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shasha; Guo, Xiaofan; Yang, Hongmei; Zheng, Liqiang; Sun, Yingxian

    2014-08-26

    The last study reported the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in rural Northeast China was conducted approximately ten years ago. We aimed to update the data on the prevalence and epidemiological features of MetS in rural Northeast China. This survey was conducted from July 2012 to August 2013. In this study, a total of 11,496 residents from the rural Northeast China were randomly selected and examined. MetS was defined according to the ATPIII-modified criteria. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. The prevalence of MetS was 39.0% and was more prevalent in women than in men (45.6% vs. 31.4%, P 20,000 CNY per year, longer sleep duration (>9 h/d), chronic disease status, frequent consumption of beans or bean products and frequent tea drinking. Completion of education through middle school, moderate physical activity and smoking were correlated with lower rates of MetS. The prevalence of MetS was high in the rural areas of China, especially among females. In addition to some of the more conventional risk factors associated with MetS, including age, sex, annual income and educational status, we also found that having more than one child and frequent consumption of tea and beans were risk factors for MetS, while smoking was a common factor among those that did not have MetS in rural Northeast China.

  6. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1...

  7. Thailand: poverty, bright lights, dark alleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-06

    Some rural farmers in northern Thailand earn as little as 500 Bahts (US$20) per month, while a factory worker earns an average of 3500 Bahts (US$140) and a private sector executive up to 200,000 Bahts (US$8000) per month. Millions of rural poor individuals in Thailand and elsewhere in Asia are flocking to urban centers in search of survival and better lives. Many, however, wind up working as prostitutes. More than one million children work as prostitutes in Asia, with possibly as many as 200,000 in Thailand alone. These men, women, boys, and girls are at high risk of contracting HIV. An estimated 2.5 million Asians have tested seropositive for infection with HIV, and the World Health Organization estimates that by the year 2000, one-third of the projected HIV cases worldwide will be in Asia, with India and Thailand taking the lead. Existing social services cannot handle the current influx of rural poor to urban areas. In the process, huge tracts of agricultural land are being abandoned, levels of rural and urban poverty are increasing, the extent of homelessness is increasing, and the gap between urban and rural areas grows wider. Thailand has the most inequitable distribution of wealth on the Asian continent.

  8. From whom do older persons prefer support? The case of rural Thailand.

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    Rittirong, Jongjit; Prasartkul, Pramote; Rindfuss, Ronald R

    2014-12-01

    This study explores rural elderly preferences for support across a multi-dimensional measure of elderly care needs. Applying a framework developed in the U.S. to Thailand for the first time, five diverse types of support are considered: meal preparation, personal care, transportation, financial support, and emotional support. The emphasis is on preferences for care and not actual care received. The data are from focus group discussions conducted in seven villages in Nang Rong district, northeastern Thailand. Thailand and the study site represent the social and economic conditions faced by many rapidly industrializing places-where there has been a dramatic demographic transition (lowered fertility and substantial out-migration), growing numbers of older persons remaining in rural settings, and limited publically-financed elderly care or market-based elder care available for purchase. For this study, in each village, male and female older persons aged 60 and over participated in the focus group discussions. As part of the discussion, focus group participants were asked to rank their first four preferences by type of support. Male and female older persons' preferences were slightly different for genderized tasks. In addition, social closeness and geographical proximity mattered. Traditional matrilocal residence patterns contributed to the perceptions of the older persons. Neighbors were preferred when kin were not available. Preferences inform strategic choices by older persons given the context of available resources. Understanding preferences and strategic choices among the older persons can help policy makers tailor programs more effectively and efficiently, without jeopardizing elderly well-being. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Expected role of psychologists in rural extension in the Argentine Northeast

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    Fernando Pablo Landini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rural extension is a complex practice that involves the provision of technical assistance and advisory services to farmers and other rural actors with the aim of improving agricultural production as well as organizational and commercial dynamics. Thus, it is clear that rural extension as an interdisciplinary practice that requires contributions from different social sciences. In consequence, it can be argued that psycholog y has a great potential to contribute to rural extension. Nonetheless, it has been mentioned that its contributions to the topic have been scarce. Aiming to understand the potential role of psychologists in the context of rural extension, a qualitative, exploratory-descriptive research was conducted. A total of 40 extensionists from the Argentine northeast provinces were interviewed. Interviews were recorded and latter analyzed following grounded theory’s guidelines and using Atlas Ti software. The findings allow concluding that most rural extensionists consider that psycholog y could contribute to their practice, but without being able to clarify its specificities. Additionally, exten-sionists highlight potential contributions in the area of group dynamics, conflict management and the understanding of farmers’ behavior.

  10. Fruit and Vegetables Consumption: A Pointer for Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention in Northeast Thailand, the Highest Incidence Area in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by opisthorchiasis is a specific public health problem in the Greater Mekong subregional countries. The Northeast Thailand is considered a world's prime area of CCA. Many epidemiological studies found the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA, but their results were inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA prevention in the Northeast Thailand. The authors conducted a comprehensive search of scholarships on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS published during 1990 and 2015. Selected studies about fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA were analyzed. The fixed-effect model was used to estimate pool odds ratios for the consumption vs. nonconsumption. Based on a meta-analysis, consumption of mixed fruit [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96], mixed vegetables (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50-0.75), and combined fruit and vegetables (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57-0.80) was associated with the reduction of CCA risk statistically. These findings support that fruit and vegetables consumption is associated with CCA risk reduction. If implemented in a larger geographical area, the study will shed light on possibilities to future reduction of CCA. Educators can replicate the study to solve CCA or other types of cancer and discover the best practice.

  11. Increasing incidence of hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia in northeast Thailand: a multicenter surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliwan Hongsuwan

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in public hospitals in developing countries. We evaluated trends in incidence of hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB and healthcare-associated bacteremia (HCAB and associated mortality in a developing country using routinely available databases.Information from the microbiology and hospital databases of 10 provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand was linked with the national death registry for 2004-2010. Bacteremia was considered hospital-acquired if detected after the first two days of hospital admission, and healthcare-associated if detected within two days of hospital admission with a prior inpatient episode in the preceding 30 days.A total of 3,424 patients out of 1,069,443 at risk developed HAB and 2,184 out of 119,286 at risk had HCAB. Of these 1,559 (45.5% and 913 (41.8% died within 30 days, respectively. Between 2004 and 2010, the incidence rate of HAB increased from 0.6 to 0.8 per 1,000 patient-days at risk (p<0.001, and the cumulative incidence of HCAB increased from 1.2 to 2.0 per 100 readmissions (p<0.001. The most common causes of HAB were Acinetobacter spp. (16.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%, and Staphylococcus aureus (13.9%, while those of HCAB were Escherichia coli (26.3%, S. aureus (14.0%, and K. pneumoniae (9.7%. There was an overall increase over time in the proportions of ESBL-producing E. coli causing HAB and HCAB.This study demonstrates a high and increasing incidence of HAB and HCAB in provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand, increasing proportions of ESBL-producing isolates, and very high associated mortality.

  12. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin

    2015-05-01

    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care. © 2014 APJPH.

  13. Metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms among rural Northeast general population in China

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    Shasha Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous researches aiming to estimate the association between metabolic syndrome and depressive symptoms come out with inconsistent results. Besides, most of them are conducted in the developed areas. There is lack of the data from rural China. The aim of this study is to confirm whether gender difference exists among the relationship between MetS, metabolic components and depressive symptoms in the rural Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional analysis enrolled 11430 subjects’ aged ≥35 from rural Northeast China. Metabolic and anthropometric indicators were measured according to standard methods. Depressive symptoms were defined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 6% among rural Northeast general population and the prevalence of MetS and its components were 39.0% for MetS, 42.9% for abdominal obesity, 67.1% for elevated blood pressure, 47.1% for hyperglycemia, 32.1% for hypertriglyceridemia, 29.5% for low HDL-C. Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.05–1.46, P = 0.01 but not MetS (OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.94–1.30, P = 0.23. Moreover, depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.00–1.47, P = 0.05 in women only. But once adjusted for menopause status, depressive symptoms were no longer statically associated with triglyceride component (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.99–1.46, P = 0.07. Conclusions Depressive symptoms were associated with triglyceride component but not MetS in rural Chinese population. Routine lipid screening should be recommended among rural depressed residents especially among female.

  14. Factors influencing happiness of the grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Powwattana, Arpaporn

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 400 grandmothers, aged 50-79 years, who raised their grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected through a structured interview from April to July 2009 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Multiple regression analysis. Nearly half (46.8%) of grandmothers raising grandchildren had high level of happiness, followed by moderate level (40.4%) and low level (12.8%). The factors, which significantly influenced the happiness of the grandmothers, were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p-value happiness of the grandmothers by 48.1%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of happiness among grandmothers. The factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote happiness of grandmothers, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the grandmother's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  15. Melioidosis in Thailand: Present and Future

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    Soawapak Hinjoy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent modelling study estimated that there are 2800 deaths due to melioidosis in Thailand yearly. The Thailand Melioidosis Network (formed in 2012 has been working closely with the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH to investigate and reduce the burden of this disease. Based on updated data, the incidence of melioidosis is still high in Northeast Thailand. More than 2000 culture-confirmed cases of melioidosis are diagnosed in general hospitals with microbiology laboratories in this region each year. The mortality rate is around 35%. Melioidosis is endemic throughout Thailand, but it is still not uncommon that microbiological facilities misidentify Burkholderia pseudomallei as a contaminant or another organism. Disease awareness is low, and people in rural areas neither wear boots nor boil water before drinking to protect themselves from acquiring B. pseudomallei. Previously, about 10 melioidosis deaths were formally reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (Report 506 each year, thus limiting priority setting by the MoPH. In 2015, the formally reported number of melioidosis deaths rose to 112, solely because Sunpasithiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani province, reported its own data (n = 107. Melioidosis is truly an important cause of death in Thailand, and currently reported cases (Report 506 and cases diagnosed at research centers reflect the tip of the iceberg. Laboratory training and communication between clinicians and laboratory personnel are required to improve diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis countrywide. Implementation of rapid diagnostic tests, such as a lateral flow antigen detection assay, with high accuracy even in melioidosis-endemic countries such as Thailand, is critically needed. Reporting of all culture-confirmed melioidosis cases from every hospital with a microbiology laboratory, together with final outcome data, is mandated under the Communicable Diseases Act B.E.2558. By enforcing this

  16. Atherogenic Index of Plasma Predicts Hyperuricemia in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Guo, Xiaofan; Guo, Liang; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-09-02

    We aimed to determine the association of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) with hyperuricemia (HUA) in the rural population of northeast China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1104 participants (9.7%) suffered from HUA. Spearman rank test showed that AIP was positively correlated with uric acid in both sexes (r = 0.310 for men and r = 0.347 for women, both p 0.21) risk. The prevalence of HUA increased with AIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the low AIP group, participants in increased AIP group had a 2.536-fold risk for HUA (2.164-fold in male and 2.960-fold in female) after adjustment for covariates. Results of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (95% confidence intervals) was 0.686 (0.665-0.707) for male and 0.730 (0.706-0.755) for female. We indicated that increased AIP was associated with higher serum uric acid levels and could be identified as an independent risk factor of HUA in the rural population of northeast China.

  17. Atherogenic Index of Plasma Predicts Hyperuricemia in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China

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    Ye Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the association of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP with hyperuricemia (HUA in the rural population of northeast China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1104 participants (9.7% suffered from HUA. Spearman rank test showed that AIP was positively correlated with uric acid in both sexes (r = 0.310 for men and r = 0.347 for women, both p < 0.001. AIP was classified into three groups: the low (<0.11, the intermediate (0.11–0.21 and the increased (>0.21 risk. The prevalence of HUA increased with AIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the low AIP group, participants in increased AIP group had a 2.536-fold risk for HUA (2.164-fold in male and 2.960-fold in female after adjustment for covariates. Results of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (95% confidence intervals was 0.686 (0.665–0.707 for male and 0.730 (0.706–0.755 for female. We indicated that increased AIP was associated with higher serum uric acid levels and could be identified as an independent risk factor of HUA in the rural population of northeast China.

  18. Review and Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection at the Community Level in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn; Kompor, Ponthip; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Norkaew, Jun; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Rujirakul, Ratana; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Pholsripradit, Poowadol; Eksanti, Thawatchai; Phatisena, Tanida; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is remains a public health problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions which have the highest incidences of chonalgiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini causes the disease opithorchiasis, and its has been classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen. Humans, dogs, and cats become infected with O. viverrini by ingesting raw or undercooked fish containing infective metacercariae. The first human cases of O. viverrini infection were reported in Thailand 100 years ago, and it's still a problem at the community level. Based on data for the year 2009, more than 6 million people were infected with O. viverrini. Associated medical care and loss of wages in Thailand costs about $120 million annually. This review highlights the current status of O. viverrini infection in communities of Thailand through active surveillance for the five years period from 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 community-based surveys were conducted, most in the northeast region. Some 7 surveys demonstrated a high prevalence over 20%, and the highest was 45.7%. Most commonly infection was found in age group of 35 years and older, males, and agricultural workers. Although, the national prevalence may be decreasing but the results show that the O. viverrini infection is still high in communities of the northeast region. Therefore, the focus in populations living in northeast Thailand should be screening of infection and changing their eating behavior.

  19. The impact of overseas labour migration on rural Thailand: regional, community and individual dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H; Pardthaisong, T

    1999-01-01

    "This paper provides a case study of the impact at origin of recent labour migration from rural Thailand to East Asian destinations. It does so through survey information on 63 villages and detailed biographic interviews with recently returned workers. It is concluded that work abroad is regarded by migrants as a strategy of life support; it is sometimes life-enhancing, but only rarely life-changing." excerpt

  20. Report of the FAO/NACA Consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development: Chiang Rai, Thailand, 29-31 March 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development jointly organised by FAO and NACA in Chiang Rai, Thailand on 29-31 March 1999 to develop the detailed structure...

  1. Measuring and decomposing inequity in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand

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    Sidorenko Alexandra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, interest in the study of inequalities in health has not stopped at quantifying their magnitude; explaining the sources of inequalities has also become of great importance. This paper measures socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand, and the contributions of different population subgroups to those inequalities. Methods The Health and Welfare Survey 2003 conducted by the Thai National Statistical Office with 37,202 adult respondents is used for the analysis. The health outcomes of interest derive from three self-reported morbidity and two self-assessed health questions. Socioeconomic status is measured by adult-equivalent monthly income per household member. The concentration index (CI of ill health is used as a measure of socioeconomic health inequalities, and is subsequently decomposed into contributing factors. Results The CIs reveal inequality gradients disadvantageous to the poor for both self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand. The magnitudes of these inequalities were higher for the self-assessed health outcomes than for the self-reported morbidity outcomes. Age and sex played significant roles in accounting for the inequality in reported chronic illness (33.7 percent of the total inequality observed, hospital admission (27.8 percent, and self-assessed deterioration of health compared to a year ago (31.9 percent. The effect of being female and aged 60 years or older was by far the strongest demographic determinant of inequality across all five types of health outcome. Having a low socioeconomic status as measured by income quintile, education and work status were the main contributors disadvantaging the poor in self-rated health compared to a year ago (47.1 percent and self-assessed health compared to peers (47.4 percent. Residence in the rural Northeast and rural North were the main regional contributors to inequality in self

  2. Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure among elderly in rural Uttaradit Province, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Onwilasini; Yamarat, Khemika; Neeser, Karl J; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure. A cross-sectional survey of Buddhist religious practices and blood pressure was conducted with 160 Buddhist elderly in rural Uttaradit, northern Thailand. After controlling for the variables of gender, status, education, salary, underlying hypertension, exercise, salt intake, and taking antihypertensive medications, it was found that lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure is associated with the Buddhist religious practice of temple attendance. The Buddhist older people who regularly attended a temple every Buddhist Holy day (which occurs once a week) were found to have systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings lower than people who did not attend as regularly. It is recommended that nurses advocate for temple attendance in the care protocols for older Buddhist hypertensive patients both in Thailand and internationally. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012

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    Wilawan Thipmontree

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the changing trend of leptospirosis over time in Thailand using two prospective hospital-based studies conducted amongst adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUFI admitted to Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand between July 2001 to December 2002 and between July 2011 to December 2012. During the first period, leptospirosis (98 patients, 40% and scrub typhus (59 patients, 24.1% were the two major causes of AUFI. In the second period, scrub typhus (137 patients, 28.3% was found to be more common than leptospirosis (61 patients, 12.7%. Amongst patients with leptospirosis, the proportion of male patients and the median age were similar. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Autumnalis was the major infecting serogroup in both study periods. The case fatality rate of leptospirosis was significantly higher in 2011–2012 as compared with the case fatality rate in 2001–2002 (19.7% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001. In summary, we found that number of leptospirosis cases had decreased over time. This trend is similar to reportable data for leptospirosis complied from passive surveillance by the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. However, the case fatality rate of severe leptospirosis has increased. Severe lung hemorrhage associated with leptospirosis remained the major cause of death.

  4. Predicting prediabetes in a rural community: a survey among the Karen ethnic community, Thasongyang, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorga, Thaworn; Aung, Myo Nyein; Naunboonruang, Prissana; Thinuan, Payom; Praipaksin, Nara; Deesakul, Tida; Inwan, Utumporn; Yingtaweesak, Tawatchai; Manokulanan, Pratumpan; Suangkaew, Srisomporn; Payaprom, Apiradee

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing epidemic in both urban and rural communities worldwide. We aimed to survey fasting plasma glucose (FPG) status and awareness of diabetes in the rural Karen ethnic community. We investigated the predictors of impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) status, which would be easily applicable for prevention of diabetes in a rural community. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted at Thasongyang, the most north-western district in Thailand. A total of 299 Karen ethnic rural residents were included in the study. FPG, body mass index, and waist circumference were prospectively measured. We assessed the awareness of diabetes and lifestyle-related health behavior with closed questionnaires in a rural community setting. On screening for FPG, 16.72% of the Karen ethnic residents had hyperglycemia: 3.68% in the diabetic range and 13.04% in the prediabetic range respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, waist circumference (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-9.57), and having a diabetic blood relative (aOR 4.6, CI 1.81-11.71) are significant predictors of IFG status. It is necessary to promote awareness of diabetes among the Karen ethnic community. Application of simple evidence-based predictors of the prediabetic state may lead to timely and effective prevention of diabetes in rural settings.

  5. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand

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    Aung MN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Thaworn Lorga,2 Janthila Srikrajang,2 Nongluk Promtingkran,2 Suchart Kreuangchai,2 Wilawan Tonpanya,2 Phatchanan Vivarakanon,2 Puangpet Jaiin,2 Nara Praipaksin,3 Apiradee Payaprom41Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, ThailandBackground: Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk.Methods: This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured.Results: Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100–120 mmHg and 70 (range 60–80 mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.97 and those with primary

  6. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

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    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  7. Safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single-visit approach to cervical-cancer prevention in rural Thailand: a demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffikin, L; Blumenthal, P D; Emerson, M; Limpaphayom, K

    2003-03-08

    To increase screening and treatment coverage, innovative approaches to cervical-cancer prevention are being investigated in rural Thailand. We assessed the value of a single-visit approach combining visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid wash (VIA) and cryotherapy. 12 trained nurses provided services in mobile (village health centre-based) and static (hospital-based) teams in four districts of Roi-et Province, Thailand. Over 7 months, 5999 women were tested by VIA. If they tested positive, after counselling about the benefits, potential risks, and probable side-effects they were offered cryotherapy. Data measuring safety, acceptability, feasibility, and effort to implement the programme were gathered. The VIA test-positive rate was 13.3% (798/5999), and 98.5% (609/618) of those eligible accepted immediate treatment. Overall, 756 women received cryotherapy, 629 (83.2%) of whom returned for their first follow-up visit. No major complications were recorded, and 33 (4.4%) of those treated returned for a perceived problem. Only 17 (2.2%) of the treated women needed clinical management other than reassurance about side-effects. Both VIA and cryotherapy were highly acceptable to the patients (over 95% expressed satisfaction with their experience). At their 1-year visit, the squamocolumnar junction was visible to the nurses, and the VIA test-negative rate was 94.3%. A single-visit approach with VIA and cryotherapy seems to be safe, acceptable, and feasible in rural Thailand, and is a potentially efficient method of cervical-cancer prevention in such settings.

  8. Rice yield in response to climate trends and drought index in the Mun River Basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabnakom, S.; Maskey, S.; Suryadi, F.X.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Rice yields in Thailand are among the lowest in Asia. In northeast Thailand where about 90% of rice cultivation is rain-fed, climate variability and change affect rice yields. Understanding climate characteristics and their impacts on the rice yield is important for establishing proper adaptation

  9. Some Boletes of Thailand

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    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to collect and identify some Boletes of Thailand. Through periodical excursions in woodland area in the north, northeast and south of Thailand, and regular visits to markets inthe areas during 1995-2005, 20 species of Boletes were collected and identified. These were Boletellus ananas (M.A.Curtis Murrill, Boletellus emodensis (Berk. Singer, Boletellus sp. 1, Boletellus sp. 2, Boletellus sp. 3,Boletinus sp., Boletus griseipurpureus Corner, Boletus bicolor Peck, Boletus nanus (Massee. Singer, Boletus sp. 1, Boletus sp. 2, Boletus sp. 3, Heimiella retispora (Pat. & C.F. Baker Boedijn, Phlebopus colossus (R.Heim Singer, Phylloporus pelletieri (Lev. Quel., Pulveroboletus ravenelii (Berk. & M.A.Curtis Murrill, Pulveroboletus sp., Strobilomyces confusus Singer, Strobilomyces floccopus (Vahl P. Karst., and Tylopilusalbo - ater (Schwein Murrill.

  10. Thailand's unsung heroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treerutkuarkul, Apiradee

    2008-01-01

    The success of primary health care programmes in Thailand over the past three decades can be attributed not only to medical advances but to the role of community health volunteers. Buddhist monks and their temples have been strongly involved in health promotion and education, particularly in remote, rural communities.

  11. Epidemiology, microbiology and mortality associated with community-acquired bacteremia in northeast Thailand: a multicenter surveillance study.

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    Manas Kanoksil

    Full Text Available National statistics in developing countries are likely to underestimate deaths due to bacterial infections. Here, we calculated mortality associated with community-acquired bacteremia (CAB in a developing country using routinely available databases.Information was obtained from the microbiology and hospital database of 10 provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand, and compared with the national death registry from the Ministry of Interior, Thailand for the period between 2004 and 2010. CAB was defined in patients who had pathogenic organisms isolated from blood taken within 2 days of hospital admission without a prior inpatient episode in the preceding 30 days. A total of 15,251 CAB patients identified, of which 5,722 (37.5% died within 30 days of admission. The incidence rate of CAB between 2004 and 2010 increased from 16.7 to 38.1 per 100,000 people per year, and the mortality rate associated with CAB increased from 6.9 to 13.7 per 100,000 people per year. In 2010, the mortality rate associated with CAB was lower than that from respiratory tract infection, but higher than HIV disease or tuberculosis. The most common causes of CAB were Escherichia coli (23.1%, Burkholderia pseudomallei (19.3%, and Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%. There was an increase in the proportion of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae over time.This study has demonstrated that national statistics on causes of death in developing countries could be improved by integrating information from readily available databases. CAB is neglected as an important cause of death, and specific prevention and intervention is urgently required to reduce its incidence and mortality.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengradomkij, Chanya; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Wongpanit, Kannika; Wongnakphet, Sirichai; Mitchell, Thomas J; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Stich, Roger W

    2015-01-15

    Water buffalo are important draft animals for agriculture in resource-restricted areas worldwide. Water buffalo were shown to be experimentally susceptible to infection with Neospora caninum, potentially affected by neosporosis, and naturally exposed to the parasite in Asia. Although enzootic to Thailand, the distribution of N. caninum among Thai water buffalo is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum among water buffalo of northeast Thailand and to identify risk factors associated with their exposure to N. caninum. Sera from 628 water buffalo from 288 farms were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 57 samples from 48 herds contained antibodies to N. caninum, indicating overall seroprevalence of 9.1% and 16.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was highest in provinces located in the Khorat Basin in the southern part of the region tested. Host age was also associated with seroprevalence, with the greatest seroprevalence (16.1%) among buffalo over 10 years of age, followed by 5-10 years of age (13.4%), 3-5 years (9.2%), and less than 3 years (1.2%). These results collectively suggested that horizontal transmission from canine definitive hosts was an important route of water buffalo exposure to N. caninum. These results also verified the importance of risk factor analysis for effective bovine neosporosis control strategies at the local level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  14. Perceptions of northeast Thai breastfeeding mothers regarding facilitators and barriers to six-month exclusive breastfeeding: focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepha, Thiwawan; Marais, Debbie; Bell, Jacqueline; Muangpin, Somjit

    2018-01-01

    The 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rate in the Northeast region of Thailand has recently significantly decreased in contrast to all other regions in Thailand. The factors that have influenced this decrease remain unknown. Hence, it is suggested that an investigation into factors that could improve or hinder EBF for 6 months in Northeast Thailand may be required to inform the development of relevant interventions to improve this situation. This study aimed to identify perceived facilitators and barriers to providing exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in Northeast Thailand among breastfeeding mothers. Six focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 30 mothers aged 20 to 40 years who had children aged between 4 and 6 months and were currently breastfeeding or had breastfeeding experience. Participants were recruited through self-selection sampling from Khonkaen hospital (urban), Numphong hospital (peri-urban) and private hospitals (urban) in Khonkaen, Thailand. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data. Five main themes, with 10 sub-themes, were identified as either facilitators (+) or barriers (-), or in some cases, as both (+/-). Breastfeeding knowledge, perceptions, maternal circumstances, support, and traditional food were the main identified themes. Mother's breastfeeding knowledge, intention to breastfeed, and social media were perceived as facilitators. Perceptions, employment, and formula milk promotion were perceived as barriers. Family, healthcare, and traditional food were perceived as both facilitators and barriers. The perception that social media was a way to access breastfeeding knowledge and support mothers in Northeast Thailand emerged as a new facilitating factor that had not previously been identified in Thai literature relating to facilitators and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Intention to breastfeed, family support, healthcare support and traditional food were mentioned by all groups, whereas mothers from urban

  15. An assessment of electricity and income distributional trends following rural electrification in poor northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermaier, Martin; Szklo, Alexandre; La Rovere, Emilio Lèbre; Pinguelli Rosa, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Rural electrification is considered to be a key strategy for poverty alleviation and sustainable development. It should therefore include (1) expanding electricity access and (2) enable new consumers to increase their electricity consumption. In this paper we ask how Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts have managed to reach these objectives. A new method to measure energy and income equity is presented which uses estimations of non-parametric density curves for the analysis of energy and income distributional trends following electrification. By applying our method to a panel data set from two Brazilian states situated in the country’s poor northeast region we find that (1) rural consumers take up electricity consumption after electrification, and that (2) low consumption levels give way to higher electricity consumption levels after only a few years. This indicates immediate social benefits for households through consumption of electricity services. However, our analysis cannot verify a direct link between electricity use and rural income generation in the short term. The results emphasize the need for government and other actors to integrate rural electrification into broader rural development strategies in order to enable long-term welfare increases through electricity use. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive analysis of Brazil’s recent rural electrification efforts. ► New methodology to analyze energy and income equity trends ex post electrification. ► Analysis indicates immediate social benefits for electrified households. ► We cannot establish a direct link between electricity use and income in the short-run. ► Electrification thus should be integrated in long-term rural development strategies.

  16. Molecular discrimination of Opisthorchis-like eggs from residents in a rural community of central Thailand.

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    Saiwasan Buathong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a major public health problem in northern and northeastern Thailand. The chronic infection of O. viverrini is related to cholangiocarcinoma which causes high mortality in endemic areas. Therefore, the diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of O. viverrini infection are necessary. The morphology of the egg is very similar to that of other species of human liver flukes (Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis as well as that of small intestinal flukes in the family Heterophyidae. Thus, molecular characterization is crucially required to discriminate species of Opisthorchis-like eggs in fecal examination.We aimed to determine the prevalence of O. viverrini infection among villagers living in Sanamchaikate District, Chachoengsao Province, in central Thailand, where O. viverrini infection has previously been reported. A total of 2,609 fecal samples were examined for Opisthorchis-like eggs using microscopic examination. PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS2 region was used to discriminate Opisthorchis-like eggs. The genetic structure of O. viverrini infection was demonstrated using nucleotide sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1. Testing of evolutionary neutrality of the cox1 and nad1 sequences of O. viverrini was performed using Tajima's D tests and Fu's Fs tests. Moreover, the haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were constructed to study the relationships of O. viverrini isolated from different endemic areas. A high prevalence of O. viverrini infection is still observed in a rural community of Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. The overall prevalence of Opisthorchis-like eggs using microscopic examination was 16.8%. PCR-RFLP profiles showed the predominant infection of O. viverrini (9.6% including very low infections of other small intestinal flukes, Haplorchis taichui (0.08% and Euparyphium albuferensis (0.08%. The genetic structure of O

  17. Toward integrated opisthorchiasis control in northeast Thailand: the Lawa project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Mallory, Frank F; Smith, John F; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode is a significant public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand. Despite a long history of control programmes in Thailand and a nationwide reduction, O. viverrini infection prevalence remains high in the northeastern provinces. Therefore, a new strategy for controlling the liver fluke infection using the EcoHealth/One Health approach was introduced into the Lawa Lake area in Khon Kaen province where the liver fluke is endemic. A programme has been carried using anthelminthic treatment, novel intensive health education methods both in the communities and in schools, ecosystem monitoring and active community participation. As a result, the infection rate in the more than 10 villages surrounding the lake has declined to approximate one third of the average of 50% as estimated by a baseline survey. Strikingly, the Cyprinoid fish species in the lake, which are the intermediate host, now showed less than 1% prevalence compared to a maximum of 70% at baseline. This liver fluke control programme, named "Lawa model," is now recognised nationally and internationally, and being expanding to other parts of Thailand and neighbouring Mekong countries. Challenges to O. viverrini disease control, and lessons learned in developing an integrative control programme using a community-based, ecosystem approach, and scaling-up regionally based on Lawa as a model are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-cost engineering techniques in sustainable operation of a rural clean water plant in thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengchai, P.; Keawkhun, K.; Suwapaet, N.

    2012-01-01

    Problems of water supply in many rural regions of Thailand result from the lack of awareness and financial limitations. Payanghang Clean Water Plant is an example of the rural water plant that has been suffering from the poor operation since 2003. The objective of this study was to modify the operation processes of this water plant to achieve cleaner water and better financial condition. Low-cost engineering techniques, such as the use of floating switches in filtration ponds, the use of water drip system for alum dosing and the addition of Tamarindus indica Linn seed solution was applied. As a result, 76% of turbidity removal efficiency was derived. Although, the difference was not statistically significant at 95% confidence level, higher removal efficiency in comparison with the one before modification (65%) suggested better operation. In the view of financial aspect, l07 dollars (1 baht = 0.0326 U.S. dollar) benefit was obtained from 7 month-operation period. (author)

  19. Genetic heterogeneity of hemoglobin AEBart's disease: a large cohort data from a single referral center in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaibunruang, Attawut; Karnpean, Rossarin; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2014-04-01

    AEBart's disease is a thalassemia intermedia usually characterized by the interaction of α(0)-thalassemia with either deletional or non-deletional α(+)-thalassemia in Hb E heterozygote. Genotypic and phenotypic features are heterogeneous. We studied the hematologic and molecular characteristics of this disease in a cohort of 173 Thai patients encountered at our center in northeast Thailand. Hemoglobin and DNA analyses identified patients with deletional AEBart's disease (n=84), Hb Constant Spring AEBart's disease (n=81), Hb Paksé-AEBart's disease (n=5), AEBart's disease with codon 30 mutation (n=1) and two hitherto un-described forms of AEBart's disease due to interaction of Hb E heterozygote and α(0)-thalassemia with the -α(16.6)kb deletional α(+)-thalassemia (n=1) and Hb Q-Thailand (n=1). Different phenotypic expression of these AEBart's diseases with low Hb, Hct and MCV and increased RDW values with marked reduction in Hb E levels were observed. It was found that all these forms of AEBart's disease showed similar thalassemia intermedia phenotypes but those with non-deletional forms were relatively more anemic. Our data confirm that in such area with high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies such as Southeast Asia, identification of rare thalassemia alleles in a thalassemia intermedia patient should not be ignored. Careful consideration of different phenotypic expression may help in providing presumptive diagnosis of this disease where access to molecular testing is limited. However, molecular diagnostic is useful for predicting the clinical outcome and improving genetic counseling of these complex hemoglobinopathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge of communicable and noncommunicable diseases among Karen ethnic high school students in rural Thasongyang, the far northwest of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Prissana Naunboonruang,1 Piyatida Junlapeeya,1 Apiradee Payaprom31Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Thasongyang Hospital, Thasongyang, Tak, ThailandBackground: The double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCD is an increasing trend in low- and-middle income developing countries. Rural and minority populations are underserved and likely to be affected severely by these burdens. Knowledge among young people could provide immunity to such diseases within a community in the long term. In this study we aimed to assess the knowledge of several highly prevalent NCDs (diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and several highly incident communicable diseases (malaria and diarrheal diseases among Karen high school students in a rural district in far northwest of Thailand. The aim of the study is to explore information for devising life-course health education that will be strategically based in schools.Method: A cross-sectional survey approved by the ethics committee of Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand was conducted in Thasongyang, Tak province, from September 2011 to January 2012. Questionnaires for assessing knowledge regarding diabetes, hypertension, COPD, malaria, and diarrheal diseases were delivered to all 457 Karen high school students attending Thasongyang high school. A total of 371 students returned the questionnaires. Experts' validation and split-half reliability assessment was applied to the instrument.Results: Students' main sources of health information were their teachers (62%, health care workers (60%, television (59%, and parents (54%. Familial risk factors of diabetes and hypertension were not known to more than two thirds of the students. Except obesity and physical

  1. Examining how presumed media influence affects social norms and adolescents' attitudes and drinking behavior intentions in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Neo, Rachel L; Detenber, Benjamin H

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the influence of presumed media influence model as the theoretical framework to examine how perceived social norms (i.e., descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms) will mediate the influence of pro- and antidrinking media messages on adolescents' intention to consume alcohol in rural Thailand. Data collected from 1,028 high school students indicate that different mechanisms underlie drinking intentions between nondrinkers and those who have consumed alcohol or currently drink. Among nondrinkers, perceived peer attention to prodrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to consume alcohol through all three types of perceived social norms. Among drinkers, perceived peer attention to pro- and antidrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol through perceived subjective norm. The findings provide support for the extended influence of presumed media influence model and have practical implications for how antidrinking campaigns targeted at teenagers in Thailand might be designed.

  2. Survey of the Synanthropic Flies Associated with Human Habitations in Ubon Ratchathani Province of Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarinee Chaiwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic fly surveys were performed to determine the species composition and abundance in Ubon Ratchathani province in Northeast Thailand. Adult fly collections were conducted in various human habitations from two districts—Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap, at fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias, and rice paddy fields. Customized reconstructable funnel fly traps baited with 250 g of 1-day tainted beef were used for fly collections from September 2010–February 2011. A total of 3,262 flies were captured, primarily consisting of three families including: Calliphoridae (6 species, Muscidae (3 species, and Sarcophagidae (11 species. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, were the dominant species collected from both districts at all collection sites. C. megacephala was predominant in paddy fields, restaurants and garbage piles, while M. domestica was numerically dominant in fresh-food markets and school cafeterias. The current survey identified various species of synanthropic flies with close associations to humans and with the ability to transmit human pathogens in Ubon Ratchathani province; providing crucial information that may be used for developing control and sanitation management plans in this particular area.

  3. Buddhist monks as community health workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathirat, S

    1983-01-01

    In Thailand, Buddhist monks and temples are scattered throughout the country even in the rural poor. There are approximately one temple and four monks for every two villages of about 1000 people. If Buddhist monks are able to expand their roles to health care and education, Buddhist temples will automatically become community health posts and 'Health for All by The Year 2000' will be achieved within 5-10 years in Thailand. Therefore, a volunteer monk-training program has been carried out and about 2000 graduates have returned to their community to disseminate primary health care. However, a systematic and 'industrialized' approach is necessary to get some visible impact on the health of the rural Thai population.

  4. Physical and chemical analysis of glass beads and glassy slag from Iron Age sites in northeast Thailand : preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitowitz, S.J.; Reid, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Substantial numbers of glass beads have been found at the Iron Age site of Noen U-Loke (ca. 850 BC to AD 500) in northeast Thailand. Typological classification of the beads, using standardised procedures, together with specialized analytical data show that while distinctly different bead-making techniques were used to produce the beads, the chemical composition of the glass was very similar. This information suggests the possibility of multiple craftsmen, at varied levels of expertise, using glass made at a single source or using raw materials found within a specific region. These findings allow for more detailed physical and chemical analysis of the beads, so as to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of different bead types. A fragment of glassy slag, excavated at Noen U-Loke, was analysed to distinguish whether it could be associated with a glass making process. However, the results were unable to confirm whether it was used to make glass suitable for beads. (author). 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-04-04

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50-100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on Aedes aegypti infestation of water storage containers. A cross-sectional survey of 239 households in Laos (124 suburban and 115 rural), and 248 households in Thailand (127 suburban and 121 rural) was conducted. Entomological surveys alongside semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to obtain information on Ae. aegypti infestation, socio-demographic factors and water management. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to assess risk factors associated with Ae. aegypti pupal infestation. Household water management rather than socio-demographic factors were more likely to be associated with the infestation of water containers with Ae. aegypti pupae. Factors that was significantly associated with Ae. aegypti infestation were tanks, less frequent cleaning of containers, containers without lids, and containers located outdoors or in toilets/bathrooms. Associations between Ae. aegypti pupae infestation, household water management, and socio-demographic factors were found, with risk factors for Ae. aegypti infestation being specific to each study setting. Most of the containers did not have lids, larvicides, such as temephos was seldom used, and containers were not cleaned regularly; factors are facilitating dengue vector proliferation. It is recommended that, in Lao villages, health messages should promote proper use and maintenance of tightly fitted lids, and temephos in tanks, which were the most infested containers. Recommendations for Thailand are that small

  6. Labour Migration and the Economic Sustainability in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.

  7. The Thai Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD): a new dimension in rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M

    1990-04-01

    The Population and Community Development Association (PDA) promotes family planning (FP) throughout Thailand through a community-based approach. The Thai government actively supports rural development. In 1986, 80% of Thailand's people who lived below the poverty line were in rural areas. The poverty line in rural areas is an annual per capita income of 3823 baht, or US $153; in urban areas, it is more. Since 1984, Thailand's gross domestic product (GDP) has increased by more than 50%. Per capita GDP has risen dramatically, also, with the success of FP efforts. This economic achievement, however, has not been shared by most of the Thai population. Incomes in the agriculture sector are far below those in the nonagricultural sector. The government and the nonprofit organizations, however, do not have skills. The corporate sector does have these skills. The Thailand Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD) helps companies sponsor villages and aids them in developing business skills, whereupon income levels and local living standards are improved. Companies thus help in the employment transfer from agriculture to nonagriculture. There is a "one-company-one- village" formula. Company employees have the skills needed in the villages. They are directly involved. Since 1988, PDA has been working with companies in Thailand to help villages develop business skills. In Saraburi province, PDA and Volvo Swedish Motors have been aiding villagers to grow saplings and sell them to golf course and housing developers. In Ayutthaya Province, PDA and the same company are helping the residents with needlepoint and embroidery to supply a wedding dress manufacturing operation. These programs have succeeded. PDA wants to expand the program by September 1990, to include 50 companies. It is hoped that once the companies are comfortable with their relationship to the village, they will start associations with additional villages. PDA has established the "Ten Steps to Adopt a Village."

  8. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

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    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya J Kaewpitoon; Prasit Pengsaa; Chutigan Pilasri

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP) in prevention and control of liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand.METHODS:A descriptive KAP survey pertaining to liver fluke infection was carried out in June 2005 to October 2006 using structured questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaires consisting of general parameters,knowledge,attitude,practice,and a history of participation in the prevention and control of liver fluke infection.RESULTS:A total of 1077 persons who were interviewed and completed the questionnaires were enrolled in the study. The majority were females (69.5%) and many of them were 15-20 years of age (37.26%). The questionnaires revealed that information resources on Uver fluke infection included local public health volunteers (31.37%),public health officers (18.72%),televisions (14.38%),local heads of sub-districts (12.31%),doctors and nurses (9.18%),newspaper (5.72),internets (5.37%),and others (12.95%). Fifty-five point eleven percent of the population had a good level of liver fluke knowledge concerning the mode of disease transmission and 79.72% of the population had a good level of prevention and control knowledge with regards to defecation and consumption. The attitude and practice in liver fluke prevention and control were also at a good level with a positive awareness,participation,and satisfaction of 72.1% and 60.83% of the persons studied. However,good health behavior was found in 39.26% and 41.42% of the persons studied who had unhygienic defecation and ate raw cyprinoid's fish. Theresult also showed that 41.25% of the persons studied previously joined prevention and control campaigns.CONCLUSION:The persons studied have a high level of liver fluke knowledge and positive attitude. However,improvement is required regarding personal hygiene specifically with hygienic defecation and consumption of undercooked fish.

  10. Personal inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro-derivatives in rural residents in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakij, Walaiporn; Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Chuesaard, Thanyarat; Kaganoi, Yuichi; Uozaki, Waka; Homma, Chiharu; Boongla, Yaowatat; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-09-18

    A personal inhalation exposure and cancer risk assessment of rural residents in Lampang, Thailand, was conducted for the first time. This highlighted important factors that may be associated with the highest areal incidence of lung cancer. Personal exposure of rural residents to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs) through inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was investigated in addition to stationary air sampling in an urban area. The personal exposure of the subjects to PM 2.5 ranged from 44.4 to 316 μg/m 3 , and the concentrations of PAHs (4.2-224 ng/m 3 ) and NPAHs (120-1449 pg/m 3 ) were higher than those at the urban site, indicating that personal exposure was affected by microenvironments through individual activities. The smoking behaviors of the rural residents barely affected their exposure to PAHs and NPAHs compared to other sources. The most important factor concerning the exposure of rural populations to PAHs was cooking activity, especially the use of charcoal open fires. The emission sources for rural residents and urban air were evaluated using diagnostic ratios, 1-nitropyrene/pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene. Their analyses showed a significant contribution to emission from residents' personal activities in addition to the atmospheric environment. Furthermore, the personal inhalation cancer risks for all rural subjects exceeded the USEPA guideline value, suggesting that the residents have a potentially increased cancer risk. The use of open fires showed the highest cancer risk. A reduction in exposure to air pollutants for the residents could potentially be achieved by using clean fuel such as liquid petroleum gas or electricity for daily cooking.

  11. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  12. Knowledge and perceptions of the risks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among orthopaedic patients in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Phueanpinit, Pacharaporn; Pongwecharak, Juraporn; Krska, Janet; Jarernsiripornkul, Narumol

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a high incidence of adverse effects from non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Thailand, but patients’ perceptions and knowledge of NSAID risks is unknown. Objective This study aims to assess patients’ perceptions and knowledge of NSAID risks and factors affecting them. Setting University hospital in North-East of Thailand. Method A Cross-sectional study conducted over 4 months, using a self-administered questionnaire. Patients prescribed NSAIDs for at least one...

  13. Managing Tourism in the Greater Mekong Region (GMS: A Case Study of Chiang Khan Community, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawee Hanpachern

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine complex ‘sustainability’ aspects of the Community-based tourism concept in tourism and destination management in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS. This research is conceptualized in assessing the potential for Community-Based Tourism (CBT development in Chiang Khan, a small village by the Mekong River in the Northeast of Thailand. For collecting data, semi-interviews questions are designed. Focus-group discussion and indepth interviews are carried to include tourism stakeholders of the destination. This study argues that although a community may contain many tourism assets, it is not the only factor necessary for a ‘sustainable’ tourism to be developed in that community. Through a case study, its natural features, cultural activities, local lifestyle and the serene landscape of its location are exemplified as the important community-based tourism assets. However, a number of complex components and holistic approaches that worked well together Chiang Khan becoming a sustainable tourism destination. There elements and approaches that contribute to starting up Chiang Khan as a sustainable tourist destination include: its unique features of recreational activities and local businesses, knowledge and skills of the locals to develop tourism related businesses, and direct proper marketing strategies.

  14. Sub-Contracting in Rural Areas of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Donald C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an arrangement where a producer undertakes certain steps in the production process done by individuals working in their own homes in Thailand. The paper also provides a description of how this system operates in four different industries, presents survey data on people engaged in subcontracting work, evaluates the subcontracting system, and determines the advantages and disadvantages of its operation.

  15. Alternative Entrepreneurship in Thailand: Weavers and the Northeastern Handicraft and Women's Development Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeward, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    The crafts sector is a significant arena of rural nonfarm employment in Thailand. A handicrafts network focused on women's development helps rural women weavers not only with enterprise development and marketing but also environmental and health issues for appropriate and sustainable development. (SK)

  16. Effects of socio-demographic characteristics and household water management on Aedes aegypti production in suburban and rural villages in Laos and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Stenstr?m, Thor-Axel; Dada, Nsa; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease accounting for 50–100 million annual cases globally. Laos and Thailand are countries in south-east Asia where the disease is endemic in both urban and rural areas. Household water storage containers, which are favourable breeding sites for dengue mosquitoes, are common in these areas, due to intermittent or limited access to water supply. This study assessed the effect of household water management and socio-demographic risk factors on A...

  17. Stabilization of Upland Agriculture under El Nino-Induced Climate Risk: Impact Assessment and Mitigation Measures in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suwanabatr, Bhibhatra; Mekhora, Thamrong

    2002-01-01

    This study focused on the impacts on vulnerable areas in five provinces and five regions in Thailand. The findings indicated that events caused by El Nino induced weather changes had some impacts on the stabilization of upland agriculture in those vulnerable areas. Broadly speaking, severe drought and a long period of water shortages were experienced by some of the vulnerable areas in Northeast and Central Thailand. Some areas experienced a decrease of corn yield while others experienced comp...

  18. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  19. Healthy dietary habits, body mass index, and predictors among nursing students, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, R; Nanakorn, S; Sanseeha, L; Nagahiro, C; Kodama, N

    1999-03-01

    This study aimed to assess body mass index (BMI) of nursing students, and examine the links between health behavior in terms of healthy dietary habits, positive health habits, dieting and BMI. A structured questionnaire was used for obtaining information on dietary habits, positive health habits, demographic characteristic including body weight, and height by administering self-answering questionnaires to all of nursing students in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year-classes of the College of Nursing located in northeast Thailand. Three hundred and eleven female nursing students with an average age of 19.9 (SD = 1.4), had an average BMI of 20.3 kg/m2 (SD = 1.9). Most of the subjects (82.6%) were in the acceptable weight category (BMI > 18.5-24.99 kg/m2), 5.1% underweight (BMI or = 25.0 kg/m2). About half of them (50.8-66.2%) practiced healthy dietary habits in terms of avoiding eating fat/cholesterol, enriched fiber foods, while one-fourth practiced daily fruit consumption. Positive health habits in terms of having breakfast, and taking exercise over the last two weeks, were practiced by 49.5% and 59.8%, respectively. Persistent health problem occurred 13.5% amongst the subjects. The univariate analyses revealed significant associations between dieting with the BMI; perception of body size with the BMI; the enriched fiber food consumption with dieting; and the avoidance of fat/cholesterol with dieting. It suggests that the choice of food was predominantly attributable to dieting. Results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed that dietary belief, dieting, and exercise had effects on the strength of the association (p = 0.0191, 0.0024, 0.0165; Odds ratios = 0.97, 2.21, 1.87, respectively). The results and implications are discussed.

  20. Development of quality of life instrument for urban poor in the northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surit, Phrutthinun; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Schelp, Frank Perter

    2008-09-01

    Measuring the quality of life is important for evaluation and prediction of life and social care needs. To evaluate Quality of Life (QOL) in an urban poor population in northeast of Thailand, the Urban Poor Quality of Life (UPQOL) instrument was developed To develop an initial instrument to measure urban poor QOL. The development was started with literature review and investigated in urban poor communities. The results were transformed into the items required to build a structured questionnaire. Five hundred twenty three subjects, representatives of urban poor, were selected to test this instrument. Descriptive statistics described feature of items and the samples, exploratory factor analysis conducted the items score, and confirmatory factor analysis conducted the construct validity. The result found that the UPQOL instrument consisted of nine domains (education, income and employment, environment, health, infrastructure, security and safety, shelter and housing, civil society and political, and human rights domains) with egien value rank from 1.5 to 4.2 and 61 items with the factor loading rank from 0.41 to 0.82. The internal consistency was 0.92. The correlation between items to domain ranged from 0.30 to 0.72 and domains to overall QOL ranged from 0.27 to 0.84. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the structure fit all domains well. Domains and overall structure were good with CFI (> 0.95). The internal consistency value ranged from 0.73-0.93. UPQOL scores were able to discriminate groups of subjects with differences levels of QOL. The UPQOL instrument is conceptually valid. The results support good validity and reliability. It forms the basis for future testing and application in other settings.

  1. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated factors among the hypertensive population from rural Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Guo, Xiaofan; Zhang, Xingang; Zheng, Liqiang; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-11-21

    Our latest study reported the grim status of hypertension in rural China with the prevalence of hypertension reached 51.1%. However, we lack the latest data about the prevalence and epidemiological features of dyslipidemia among hypertensive residents in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2012 to August 2013 through a cluster multistage sampling to a resident group of 4048 individuals (2152 men, 2896 women) with hypertension, age ≥ 35 years, in the rural Northeast China. Serum lipids level were proposed by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Of the hypertension residents without antihypertension treatment, 34.5% had borderline high total cholesterol, 19.2% had high total cholesterol, 11.4% had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and 37.4% had high non HDL-C. The population with borderline high, high, and very high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 20.9, 6.7 and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, 14.3% had borderline high triglycerides, 17.4% had high TG and 2.4% had very high TG. The awareness rate of dyslipidemia among the study population was 5.9%. After adjusting for independent variables, fasting plasma glucose, body mass index, Han nationality, current drinking and smoking, higher annual income and classification of blood pressure were risk factors for dyslipidemia while moderate physical activity was protective factor for dyslipidemia. On the contrary, gender and current drinking decrease the risk of HDL-C. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was dramatically high and dyslipidemia screening was in-need in all diagnosed hypertensive individuals.

  2. Comprehensive Comparison between Empty Nest and Non-Empty Nest Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study among Rural Populations in Northeast China

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    Ye Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to comprehensively compare the general characteristics, lifestyles, serum parameters, ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG parameters, depression, quality of life, and various comorbidities between empty nest and non-empty nest elderly among rural populations in northeast China. This analysis was based on our previous study which was conducted from January 2012 to August 2013, using a multistage, stratified, random cluster sampling scheme. The final analyzed sample consisted of 3208 participants aged no less than 60 years, which was further classified into three groups: non-empty nest group, empty nest group (living as a couple, and empty nest group (living alone. More than half of the participants were empty nest elderly (60.5%. There were no significant statistical differences for serum parameters, UCG parameters, lifestyles, dietary pattern, and scores of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 and World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF among the three groups. Empty nest elderly showed no more risk for comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, left atrial enlargement (LAE, and stroke. Our study indicated that empty nest elderly showed no more risk for depression, low quality of life and comorbidities such as general obesity, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, diabetes, dyslipidemia, LAE, and stroke among rural populations in northeast China.

  3. Activities of daily living associated with acquisition of melioidosis in northeast Thailand: a matched case-control study.

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    Direk Limmathurotsakul

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is a serious infectious disease caused by the Category B select agent and environmental saprophyte, Burkholderia pseudomallei. Most cases of naturally acquired infection are assumed to result from skin inoculation after exposure to soil or water. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for inoculation, inhalation and ingestion as routes of infection, and develop preventive guidelines based on this evidence.A prospective hospital-based 1∶2 matched case-control study was conducted in Northeast Thailand. Cases were patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis, and controls were patients admitted with non-infectious conditions during the same period, matched for gender, age, and diabetes mellitus. Activities of daily living were recorded for the 30-day period before onset of symptoms, and home visits were performed to obtain drinking water and culture this for B. pseudomallei. Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis based on 286 cases and 512 controls showed that activities associated with a risk of melioidosis included working in a rice field (conditional odds ratio [cOR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-3.3, other activities associated with exposure to soil or water (cOR = 1.4; 95%CI 0.8-2.6, an open wound (cOR = 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.3, eating food contaminated with soil or dust (cOR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.0-2.2, drinking untreated water (cOR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.6, outdoor exposure to rain (cOR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2, water inhalation (cOR = 2.4; 95%CI 1.5-3.9, current smoking (cOR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.0-2.3 and steroid intake (cOR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.4-6.9. B. pseudomallei was detected in water source(s consumed by 7% of cases and 3% of controls (cOR = 2.2; 95%CI 0.8-5.8.We used these findings to develop the first evidence-based guidelines for the prevention of melioidosis. These are suitable for people in melioidosis-endemic areas, travelers and military personnel. Public health campaigns

  4. Lifestyle, Dwelling Conditions and Daily Routine as Qualitative Indicators of Infant Development: A Study of 0-3 Years Old Children from Rural Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    The developing child and his/her eco-social-cultural context is the focus of study of 28 children ages 0-3 years in the rural area of Cocal, Piaui in Northeast Brazil. Ethnographic methods, naturalistic observations and semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the physical context (the house and its surroundings), as well as maternal…

  5. Thailand's reproductive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, J

    1987-01-01

    Thailand has achieved a remarkable population revolution in the past 15 years, resulting in a fertility decline of 44%, the 3rd greatest decline of the major developing countries. Thailand is quite distinct from either China or South Korea, the leaders in fertility decline. It has neither China's authoritarian power system to enforce population control nor the highly developed, Westernized outlook of South Korea. Instead it achieved its astounding fertility drop through a noncoercive family planning program operating within a context of rapid social change and a cultural setting. Thailand's drop in population growth has touched almost all segments of Thai society. The preferred number of children among couples married less than 5 years has dropped in both rural and urban families at almost exactly the same rate, from about 3.2 in 1969 to 2.3 in 1984. Religious groups represent the only substantial difference in family size preference; Moslem women married less than 5 years stated a desired average of 3.1 children versus 2.3 for Buddhist women. The direct case of the fertility drop is a national increase in contraceptive use. In 1984, 65% of Thai women reported using contraception. The Thai population, however, was ripe for using contraception when it became available due to 1) mass media creating a desire for consumer goods, 2) the increased costs of education to parents, 3) the willingness of parents to trade off "parent repayment" from many children for a few quality children, 4) couples' autonomy in fertility decision making, 5) the high status of women in Thailand, and 6) the fact that Buddhism poses no barriers to contraception. Current trends show no immediate sign of change.

  6. Vietnamese Migrant Workers in Thailand - Implications for Leveraging Migration for Development

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    Nancy HUYEN NGUYEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A greater flow of people to and from each of the Mekong countries is catching the attention of the general public and academic researchers. As one of the fastest growing countries in the GMS, Thailand is attracting the majority of migrant workers from its neighbours. At a smaller scale, when compared with those from Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar, Vietnamese workers are also joining this increasing trend in immigration to Thailand. By analyzing information from secondary data sources, this research paper attempts to provide further insights into the social and economic impacts generated by the Vietnamese migrant workers in Thailand both at home and the host country. The study discovers that moving to Thailand for work has eased the pressures of rural unemployment and underemployment that have plagued Vietnam recently. Meanwhile, Vietnamese workers are helping soothe the stress caused by the increasing demand for unskilled and low skilled labourers in Thailand. The study further learns that the long-established community of Vietnamese migrants in Thailand is encouraging the increasing movement of Vietnamese workers to Thailand. The study findings suggest meaningful implications for future policies in leveraging labour migration for development.

  7. Knowledge of communicable and noncommunicable diseases among Karen ethnic high school students in rural Thasongyang, the far northwest of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorga, Thaworn; Aung, Myo Nyein; Naunboonruang, Prissana; Junlapeeya, Piyatida; Payaprom, Apiradee

    2013-01-01

    The double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCD) is an increasing trend in low- and-middle income developing countries. Rural and minority populations are underserved and likely to be affected severely by these burdens. Knowledge among young people could provide immunity to such diseases within a community in the long term. In this study we aimed to assess the knowledge of several highly prevalent NCDs (diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) and several highly incident communicable diseases (malaria and diarrheal diseases) among Karen high school students in a rural district in far northwest of Thailand. The aim of the study is to explore information for devising life-course health education that will be strategically based in schools. A cross-sectional survey approved by the ethics committee of Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP), Lampang, Thailand was conducted in Thasongyang, Tak province, from September 2011 to January 2012. Questionnaires for assessing knowledge regarding diabetes, hypertension, COPD, malaria, and diarrheal diseases were delivered to all 457 Karen high school students attending Thasongyang high school. A total of 371 students returned the questionnaires. Experts' validation and split-half reliability assessment was applied to the instrument. Students' main sources of health information were their teachers (62%), health care workers (60%), television (59%), and parents (54%). Familial risk factors of diabetes and hypertension were not known to more than two thirds of the students. Except obesity and physical inactivity, lifestyle-related risk factors were also not known to the students. Though living in a malaria-endemic area, many of the Karen students had poor knowledge about preventive behaviors. Half of the students could not give a correct answer about the malaria and hygienic practice, which might normally be traditionally relayed messages. Health education and

  8. Prevalence of hypertension and hypertension control rates among elderly adults during the cold season in rural Northeast China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nobuo; Zhang, Xiumin; Chiang, Chifa; Liu, Hongjian; Li, Jinghua; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2018-05-01

    Objective: The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in China, together with economic development and social changes. The prevalence of risk factors for NCDs, such as overweight/obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, is reported to be high even among poor residents of rural areas. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among elderly adults in rural Northeast China and the proportion with controlled hypertension among those on antihypertensive medication (hypertension control rate). We also aimed to examine the association of hypertension control with health facilities that provide treatment. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in six rural villages of Northeast China from February to early March, 2012. We interviewed 1593 adults aged 50-69 years and measured their blood pressure. We examined the differences in mean blood pressure between participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics and those who obtained medication from other sources, using analysis of covariance adjusted for several covariates. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among participants was as high as 63.3%, but the hypertension control rate was only 8.4%. Most villagers (98.1%) were not registered in the chronic disease treatment scheme of the public rural health insurance. The mean systolic blood pressure, adjusted for the covariates, of participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics was significantly lower than that of participants who obtained medication from township hospitals (by 16.5 mmHg) or from private pharmacies (by 7.3 mmHg). Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was high and the hypertension control rate low among elderly villagers during the cold season. As treatment at village clinics, which villagers can access during the cold season seems to be more effective than self-medication or treatment at distant hospitals, improving the quality of treatment

  9. Taeniasis, cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikagul, Jitra; Dekumyoy, Paron; Anantaphruti, Malinee T

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis is one of the major food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand. During the years 1957-1997, the prevalence was low in most parts of the country. Recent (2000-2005) country prevalence was lower than 1%. A high prevalence (5.9%) was found among 1450 villagers from 30 villages in the North, and among 1233 stool samples from 19 provinces in the Northeast (2.8%). Taenia saginata was the dominant species. Cysticercosis in Thailand is somewhat under-reported/recorded. During the period 1965-2005, diagnosis was based on techniques other than serodiagnosis, giving a total of cysticercosis cases of less than 500. However, an immunoblot technique using delipidized cyst antigen showed 314 positive cases out of 754 samples tested in 2000-2005. Reports of neurocysticercosis appeared more often than cutaneous cysticercosis. A total of 24 cases of echinococcosis, mostly hydatid cysts (only 2 cases of alveolar cysts), were recorded during 1936-2005. These records included 3 cases of foreigners seeking surgery in hospitals in Bangkok. Most Thai patients were migrant workers from the Middle East, and only a few cases were indigenous. The prevalence of cysticercosis and echinococcosis is increasing resulting from sensitive modern diagnostic tests. Taeniasis will persist in Thailand as the consumption of raw/half-cooked meat dishes is still a normal practice for Thai people.

  10. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Devojit K; Prakash, Anil; O'Loughlin, Samantha M; Bhattacharyya, Dibya R; Mohapatra, Pradumnya K; Bhattacharjee, Kanta; Das, Kanika; Singh, Sweta; Sarma, Nilanju P; Ahmed, Gias U; Walton, Catherine; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2012-03-20

    Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene. Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its epidemiological significance further

  11. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

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    Sarma Devojit K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be

  12. Influence of Favorite Place in House—Outdoor or Indoor—On Energy Consumption and Happiness in Rural Thailand

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    Zhang Yuxue

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the change in house styles in rural Thailand, the favorite place in the house and lifestyle of inhabitants has also altered. This causes an increase in energy use. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to clarify the influence on energy use of the house style, communication with the neighborhood, and happiness through the favorite place in the house and daily activities. The study identified that people who like to stay in the outside space, such as the open space beneath the house and the garden, showed higher happiness. Spending more time outside helped to communicate with the neighborhood and family, and also to use less the air conditioner and electric fan. Such a lifestyle contributes to the development of a low carbon society.

  13. The Role of Islamic Faith-Based Organization in Building Solidarity and Resilience among People of Different Faiths in Northeast Thailand: A Case Study of Foundation for Education and Development of Muslims in Northeast Thailand-FEDMIN

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    Mr.Imron Sohsan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper are to examine the role of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience between Muslims and Buddhists and to find a model of peaceful coexistence among people of different faiths in northeast Thailand called “Isan region”. The research area was focused on the peaceful coexistence between Muslims and Buddhist in particular in Ban Nong Muen Tao village, Mueang, Udon Thani province. The study found that there were four important roles of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience among people of different faiths. Firstly, demonstrating the real image of Islam and Muslims to the other people of different faiths through the FEDMIN leaders’ role and personality in practicing peaceful coexistence, FEDMIN’s Santhitham Wittaya School, Muslim village model, which were described as “an intellectual contribution of Muslim community for the public”, FEDMIN Muslim area as a field trip attraction to the Authorities. Secondly, encouraging Muslims and Buddhists to set up a suitable atmosphere of dialogue of action based on socially engaged Islam and Buddhism concept which was demonstrated by the faith-based community forum as “comfort space” in which a suitable atmosphere of dialogue of action can exist. Third, empowering religious institution to play a vital role in preaching the principles of peaceful coexistence to believers becoming citizen of the society through Islamic sermon- Khutbah, Islamic class, establishing Santhitham Wittaya school as a substantive contribution from Muslim community to the public, and Community Radio Station project as a positive media which supported to create an atmosphere of citizenship among people of different faiths in the village.

  14. Traditional ecological knowledge in Thailand: Mechanisms and contributions to food security

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    Ekarin Phungpracha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite worldwide advances in science and technology, human well-being of the rich and poor has been threatened by food insecurity. Due to socio-economic and environmental pressures on agriculture, developing countries have faced a shortage of food access and degraded quality of food resources. We argue that traditional ecological knowledge (TEK, when appropriately used and adapted could play a significant role in addressing food security for rural, smallholder farmers. Data were collected in two rural farming communities located in the drought-prone and poverty-stricken Northeast Region of Thailand. Both were situated in diverse ecological settings: one characterized as a subsistent, lowland rice farming community and the other, the upland, all of which were dominated by cash crops. We employed a combined data collection method including in-depth interviews, participant observations, and household surveys to examine household-based food acquisition patterns. We found that the lowland subsistence farming community was endowed with a higher level of TEK and showed a stronger indication of food security than the upland cash-crop focused community. Furthermore, under environmental change, local villagers drew upon TEK to support their way of life. TEK also helped villagers to adapt to new environmental and socio-economic changes, to sustain ecosystem services and agricultural activities, and to build a secure and safe food system. This finding suggests that over-promotion of export-oriented agriculture could leave smallholder farmers and disadvantaged populations in a vulnerable situation. Their food security could be enhanced by the conservation of community-based natural resources with respect given to the role of TEK.

  15. After the Forest: AIDS as Ecological Collapse in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Ann Danaiya

    1992-01-01

    The steady degradation of Thailand's forests is related to the emergence of AIDS in the same period. Environmental erosion and the unraveling of rural cultures founded on particular ecosystems are among the pressures that force young people to leave villages and enter the sex industry, exposing them to AIDS. (KS)

  16. Health informatics model for helminthiasis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithikathkul, C; Trevanich, A; Wongsaroj, T; Wongsawad, C; Reungsang, P

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of the new millennium, helminth infections continue to be prevalent, particularly among impoverished populations. This study attempts to create the first health informatics model of helminthiasis in Thailand. The authors investigate how a health informatics model could be used to predict the control and eradication in a national control campaign. Fish-borne helminthiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of South-East Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The epicentre of this disease is located in north-east Thailand, where high prevalence coexists with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA). The current report was conducted to determine a mathematical model of surveillance for helminthiasis while also using a geographic information system. The fish-borne helminthiasis model or the predicted equation was Y1 = 3.028 + 0.020 (elevation) - 2.098 (clay). For soil-transmitted helminthiasis, the mathematical model or the predicted equation was Y2 = -1.559 + 0.005 (rainfall) + 0.004 (elevation) - 2.198 (clay). The Ministry of Public Health has concluded that mass treatment for helminthiasis in the Thai population, targeting high-risk individuals, may be a cost-effective way to allocate limited funds. This type of approach, as well as further study on the correlation of clinical symptoms with environmental and geographic information, may offer a novel strategy to the helminth crisis.

  17. [Food insecurity in rural communities in Northeast Brazil: does belonging to a slave-descendent community make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Etna Kaliane Pereira da; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Sousa, Líllian de Almeida; Lima, Gislane Pereira; Rêgo, Maria Amanda Sousa; Silva, Tainan Oliveira da; Freire, Alessandra Silva; Silva, Fernanda Moitinho

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of food insecurity in a rural area of Northeast Brazil and investigate this outcome according to residence in quilombola communities (descendants of African slaves) versus non-quilombola communities. This was a cross-sectional study in 21 rural communities, 9 of which quilombolas, in 2014, using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA). Prevalence rates and prevalence ratios were estimated for food insecurity, and Poisson multiple regression analysis with robust variance was performed. Food insecurity was found in 52.1% of the families: 64.9% in quilombola communities and 42% in the others. Food insecurity was associated with belonging to a quilombola community (PR = 1.25), lower economic status (PR = 1.89; 2.98, and 3.22 for status C2, D, and E, respectively), beneficiaries of Bolsa Família program (PR = 1.52), and four or more household members (PR = 1.20). Food insecurity prevalence was high in the entire population, but it was even higher in quilombola communities, even though they belonged to the same coverage area. The results emphasize this population's vulnerability.

  18. Association between Opisthorchis viverrini and Leptospira spp. infection in endemic Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Chinh Dang; Doungchawee, Galayanee; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Arimatsu, Yuji; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-08-01

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is an important foodborne trematodiasis in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Interestingly, the opisthorchiasis endemic region overlaps with an area of leptospirosis emergence. Here we report an association between opisthorchiasis and leptospirosis in Thailand. Of 280 sera collected from villagers living around the Lawa wetland complex in Khon Kaen province, 199 (71%) were seropositive for leptospirosis by immunochromatography. Individuals with O. viverrini infection had a significantly higher rate of leptospirosis than those without (P=0.001). Significant higher leptospirosis prevalence was found in males than females (P=0.002). However, females but not males with O. viverrini infection showed a significantly higher seroprevalence of leptospirosis. Twenty-one of 35 environmental samples from the lake (water, mud and fish skin mucus) were positive for Leptospira spp. DNA sequencing, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic analysis of some positive nested PCR products revealed both pathogenic and intermediate pathogenic strains of Leptospira in the samples. Strikingly, O. viverrini metacercariae from the fish were positive for L. interrogans. These results suggest a close association between opisthorchiasis and leptospirosis. Contact with water, mud or eating raw fish harboring liver fluke metacercariae may be risk factors for Leptospira infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methamphetamine use is associated with high levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults in Rural Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMiceli, Lauren E; Sherman, Susan G; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sirirojn, Bangorn; Celentano, David D

    2016-02-19

    High levels of depressive symptoms often occur among individuals that use or that are dependent on methamphetamine (MA). Thailand is currently experiencing an epidemic of MA use among youth. Understanding the nature of the relationship between depressive symptoms and MA use and identifying those most at risk can further understanding of prevention and treatment options for youth who use MA and present with depressive symptoms. In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional epidemiologic study that examined associations between MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents and young adults aged 14-29 living in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. A combination of cluster and systematic sampling was conducted to obtain a study sample of participants actively recruited in Chiang Mai province. Depressive symptoms were measured using a Thai translation of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). The independent variables measured reported lifetime and recent MA use within the past 3 months. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess associations between MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms. Approximately 19% (n = 394) of the sample reported ever having consumed MA and 31% (n = 124) of lifetime users reported recent MA use within the past 3 months. Recent MA use was associated with high levels of depressive symptoms (aPOR recent use: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.20, 5.63). This is one of the first studies to examine the association between MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms in a general Thai population. The odds of having high levels of depressive symptoms was significantly greater among recent MA users compared to non-users. These findings support the need for policies, programs and interventions to prevent and treat depressive symptoms presenting among MA using Thai adolescents and young adults in rural Chiang Mai province, Thailand to aid in cessation of MA use. Furthermore, additional research is needed to

  20. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G; Bottomley, Christian; Ngugi, Anthony K; Ibinda, Fredrick; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R; Wagner, Ryan; Twine, Rhian; Connor, Myles; Collinson, Mark; Masanja, Honratio; Mathew, Alexander; Kakooza, Angelina; Pariyo, George; Peterson, Stefan; Ndyo-mughenyi, Donald; Odhiambo, Rachael; Chengo, Eddie; Chabi, Martin; Bauni, Evasius; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Odera, Victor Mung'ala; Mageto, James O; Ae-Ngibise, Ken; Akpalu, Bright; Akpalu, Albert; Agbokey, Francis; Adjei, Patrick; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Doku, Victor C K; Odermatt, Peter; Neville, Brian; Sander, Josemir W; White, Steve; Nutman, Thomas; Wilkins, Patricia; Noh, John

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package. The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0). Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5), with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4)), and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4)). The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  1. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Wagner

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease.A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package.The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0. Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5, with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4, and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4.The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa.

  2. Cultural resistance to fast-food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15–19 years w...

  3. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand

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    Lorga T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Kannapatch Srithong,1 Pratumpan Manokulanan,1 Thin Nyein Nyein Aung,2 Myo Nyein Aung1,31Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 3Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine Juntendo University, Tokyo, JapanBackground and purpose: The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community.Methods: Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand.Results: A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. Whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were “not sure”. Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males.Conclusion: The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.Keywords: health education, gender differences, ethnic minority, diabetes, Karen

  4. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  5. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Aurpibul

    Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  6. Social and Spatial Networks: Kinship Distance and Dwelling Unit Proximity in Rural Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdery, Ashton M.; Entwisle, Barbara; Faust, Katherine; Rindfuss, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    We address a long hypothesized relationship between the proximity of individuals' dwelling units and their kinship association. Better understanding this relationship is important because of its implications for contact and association among members of a society. In this paper, we use a unique dataset from Nang Rong, Thailand which contains dwelling unit locations (GPS) and saturated kinship networks of all individuals living in 51 agricultural villages. After presenting arguments for a relationship between individuals’ dwelling unit locations and their kinship relations as well as the particulars of our case study, we introduce the data and describe our analytic approach. We analyze how kinship - considered as both a system linking collections of individuals in an extended kinship network and as dyadic links between pairs of individuals -patterns the proximity of dwelling units in rural villages. The results show that in general, extended kin live closer to one another than do unrelated individuals. Further, the degree of relatedness between kin correlates with the distance between their dwelling units. Close kin are more likely to co-reside, a fact which drives much of the relationship between kinship relatedness and dwelling unit proximity within villages. There is nevertheless suggestive evidence of a relationship between kinship association and dwelling unit proximity among kin who do not live together. PMID:23956489

  7. Migration of children and impact on depression in older parents in rural Thailand, southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Melanie; Tangchonlatip, Kanchana; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Darawuttimaprakorn, Niphon; Prince, Martin; Flach, Clare

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Migration is feared to be associated with abandonment and depression in older parents "left behind" in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE To test for prospective associations between (1) out-migration of all children and subsequent depression in parents and (2) having a child move back and an improvement in parents' depression. DESIGN A cohort study with a 1-year follow-up. SETTING A population-based study nested in a demographic surveillance site of 100 villages in rural Thailand. Most out-migration is to the capital city. PARTICIPANTS A stratified random sample of 1111 parents 60 years and older (1 per household) drawn from all 100 villages, of whom 960 (86%) provided depression data at follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Scoring 6 or more on the Thai version of the EURO-D depression scale at follow-up. RESULTS Depression prevalence was 22%. At baseline, 155 (16%) had all their children migrated from the district and 806 (84%) had at least 1 child living in the district. Having all children out-migrated at baseline, compared with having none or some children out-migrated, predicted a smaller odds of depression, after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and health measures (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.92). Having a child move back in the study year was associated with greater odds of depression at follow-up when adjusted for baseline measures (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.04-2.94), although this was no longer significant after adjusting for changes in disability and marital status since baseline (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.99-2.98). CONCLUSIONS Contrary to our hypothesis, parents whose children are not migrants may be at greater risk of depression than those with migrant children. More understanding is needed about the risks for depression in older rural populations and about the effectiveness of interventions.

  8. Development Policy in Thailand: From Top-down to Grass Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Yutthaphonphinit, Phattaraphon; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Top-down industrial development strategies initially dominated the developing world after the second World War but were eventually found to produce inequitable economic growth. For a decade or more, governments and international development agencies have embraced the idea of participatory grass roots development as a potential solution. Here we review Thailand's experience with development strategies and we examine the current focus on participatory approaches. Thai government planning agencies have adopted "people centred development" and a "sufficiency economy", particularly emphasised since the disruptions caused by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. They aim to address the inequitable sharing of the benefits of decades of rapid growth that was particularly unfair for the rural poor. Thai policies aim to decentralise power to the local level, allowing civil society and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) more of a voice in national decision making and promoting sustainable farming practices aimed at enriching rural communities. An example of this change in Thai government policy is the Community Worker Accreditation Scheme which is aiming to develop human resources at the local level by training community based leaders and supporting networks of community organisations. This enables autonomous local development projects led by trained and accredited individuals and groups. The political tensions notable in Thailand at present are part of this modern transition driven by conflicting models of top-down (industrial) development and the bottom-up (participatory) development ideals described above. Once resolved, Thailand will have few obstacles to moving to a new economic level.

  9. Power games: The political use of solar technology in northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Donna Lisa

    This dissertation politicises and historically situates the transfer of an environmental technology to a less developed country, a transfer that has occurred under the rubric of sustainable development. The case study explores the social and political context of two solar battery charging station programmes selected to provide electrification in rural Northern Thailand beginning in the 1980s. It places these rural electrification programmes in the context of previous rural electrification policies in northern Thailand in the 1960s and 1970s which were driven by an explicitly state-serving agenda: an agenda that aimed to expand the centralised state's ability to pacify and control remote areas of the country. However, it is clear that the technology and implementation strategies selected for the new electrification programmes could not fulfil their community-serving objectives; furthermore, these systems could not meet the actual energy needs of the programmes' intended beneficiaries. I argue that we need to consider whether the objectives that motivated previous rural electrification programmes may be continuing to play a role in the promotion of these new rural electrification programmes, a motivation that would contradict the philosophy behind the choice of the solar battery charging stations. Specifically, I show how the new rural electrification strategy has been de-politicised through its framing within the sustainable development discourses. This thesis highlights how the rush to promote environmental technologies through the rubric of sustainable development may limit a proper consideration of the social and political dynamics that motivated these decisions, resulting in the uncritical justification of technology selection. Scholars have critiqued the social ramifications of, and the political motivations behind, earlier technocentric rural development strategies, showing how they can exacerbate social inequalities. I argue that in this situation, the

  10. Activist Forest Monks, Adult Learning and the Buddhist Environmental Movement in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In the tradition of grassroots environmental movements worldwide, activist Buddhist monks in rural Thailand have, since the late 1980s, led a popular movement to protect local forest, water and land resources while at the same time challenging dominant state and corporate "economist" development paradigms. Most famously, these…

  11. Methamphetamine use is associated with high levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults in Rural Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

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    Lauren E. DiMiceli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of depressive symptoms often occur among individuals that use or that are dependent on methamphetamine (MA. Thailand is currently experiencing an epidemic of MA use among youth. Understanding the nature of the relationship between depressive symptoms and MA use and identifying those most at risk can further understanding of prevention and treatment options for youth who use MA and present with depressive symptoms. Methods In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional epidemiologic study that examined associations between MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents and young adults aged 14–29 living in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. A combination of cluster and systematic sampling was conducted to obtain a study sample of participants actively recruited in Chiang Mai province. Depressive symptoms were measured using a Thai translation of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D. The independent variables measured reported lifetime and recent MA use within the past 3 months. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess associations between MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms. Results Approximately 19 % (n = 394 of the sample reported ever having consumed MA and 31 % (n = 124 of lifetime users reported recent MA use within the past 3 months. Recent MA use was associated with high levels of depressive symptoms (aPOR recent use: 2.60, 95 % CI: 1.20, 5.63. Conclusions This is one of the first studies to examine the association between MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms in a general Thai population. The odds of having high levels of depressive symptoms was significantly greater among recent MA users compared to non-users. These findings support the need for policies, programs and interventions to prevent and treat depressive symptoms presenting among MA using Thai adolescents and young adults in rural Chiang Mai province, Thailand to

  12. Measuring the impact of health problems among adults with limited mobility in Thailand: further validation of the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile

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    Manderson Lenore

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP was developed to provide a tool for measuring the impact of a health condition from the individual's perspective, using the ICF model as a framework. One of the aims of the ICF is to enable the comparison of data across countries, however, relatively little is known about the subjective experience of disability in middle and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP for use among adults with a disability in Thailand using Rasch analysis. Methods A total of 210 adults with mobility impairment from the urban, rural and remote areas of northeast Thailand completed the PIPP, which contains 23 items assessing both impact and distress across five key domains (Self-care, Mobility, Participation, Relationships, and Psychological Well-being. Rasch analysis, using RUMM2020, was conducted to assess the internal validity and psychometric properties of the PIPP Impact subscales. Validation of the PIPP Impact scales was conducted by comparing scores across the different response levels of the EQ5D items. Results Rasch analysis indicated that participants did not clearly differentiate between 'impact' and 'distress,' the two aspects assessed by the PIPP. Further analyses were therefore limited to the PIPP Impact subscales. These showed adequate psychometric properties, demonstrating fit to the Rasch model and good person separation reliability. Preliminary validity testing using the EQ5D items provided support for the PIPP Impact subscales. Conclusion The results provide further support for the psychometric properties of the PIPP Impact scales and indicate that it is a suitable tool for use among adults with a locomotor disability in Thailand. Further research is needed to validate the PIPP across different cultural contexts and health conditions and to assess the usefulness of separate Impact and Distress subscales.

  13. Measuring the impact of health problems among adults with limited mobility in Thailand: further validation of the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misajon, RoseAnne; Pallant, Julie F; Manderson, Lenore; Chirawatkul, Siriporn

    2008-01-01

    Background The Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP) was developed to provide a tool for measuring the impact of a health condition from the individual's perspective, using the ICF model as a framework. One of the aims of the ICF is to enable the comparison of data across countries, however, relatively little is known about the subjective experience of disability in middle and low-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the Perceived Impact of Problem Profile (PIPP) for use among adults with a disability in Thailand using Rasch analysis. Methods A total of 210 adults with mobility impairment from the urban, rural and remote areas of northeast Thailand completed the PIPP, which contains 23 items assessing both impact and distress across five key domains (Self-care, Mobility, Participation, Relationships, and Psychological Well-being). Rasch analysis, using RUMM2020, was conducted to assess the internal validity and psychometric properties of the PIPP Impact subscales. Validation of the PIPP Impact scales was conducted by comparing scores across the different response levels of the EQ5D items. Results Rasch analysis indicated that participants did not clearly differentiate between 'impact' and 'distress,' the two aspects assessed by the PIPP. Further analyses were therefore limited to the PIPP Impact subscales. These showed adequate psychometric properties, demonstrating fit to the Rasch model and good person separation reliability. Preliminary validity testing using the EQ5D items provided support for the PIPP Impact subscales. Conclusion The results provide further support for the psychometric properties of the PIPP Impact scales and indicate that it is a suitable tool for use among adults with a locomotor disability in Thailand. Further research is needed to validate the PIPP across different cultural contexts and health conditions and to assess the usefulness of separate Impact and Distress subscales. PMID:18208616

  14. Incidence, Remission and Mortality of Convulsive Epilepsy in Rural Northeast South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ryan G.; Bottomley, Christian; Ngugi, Anthony K.; Ibinda, Fredrick; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Newton, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions globally, estimated to constitute 0.75% of the global burden of disease, with the majority of this burden found in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Few studies from LMICs, including much of sub-Saharan Africa, have described the incidence, remission or mortality rates due to epilepsy, which are needed to quantify the burden and inform policy. This study investigates the epidemiological parameters of convulsive epilepsy within a context of high HIV prevalence and an emerging burden of cardiovascular disease. Methods A cross-sectional population survey of 82,818 individuals, in the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in rural northeast South Africa was conducted in 2008, from which 296 people were identified with active convulsive epilepsy. A follow-up survey was conducted in 2012. Incidence and mortality rates were estimated, with duration and remission rates calculated using the DISMOD II software package. Results The crude incidence for convulsive epilepsy was 17.4/100,000 per year (95%CI: 13.1-23.0). Remission was 4.6% and 3.9% per year for males and females, respectively. The standardized mortality ratio was 2.6 (95%CI: 1.7-3.5), with 33.3% of deaths directly related to epilepsy. Mortality was higher in men than women (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.4)), and was significantly associated with older ages (50+ years versus those 0-5 years old (RR 4.8 (95%CI: 0.6-36.4)). Conclusions The crude incidence was lower whilst mortality rates were similar to other African studies; however, this study found higher mortality amongst older males. Efforts aimed at further understanding what causes epilepsy in older people and developing interventions to reduce prolonged seizures are likely to reduce the overall burden of ACE in rural South Africa. PMID:26053071

  15. Turning Red Rural Landscapes Yellow? Sufficiency Economy and Royal Projects in the Hills of Nan Province, Northern Thailand

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    Amalia Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the efforts of the royal family to moralise the environmental behaviour of their subjects in the name of the Sufficiency Economy philosophy solicited by King Bhumibol since the 1990s in Thailand. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Nan province, Northern Thailand, in 2008 and 2009, I focus particularly on Royal Projects recently promoted to correct the rural practices of the ethnic minority groups living in the hills of Nan. In the past, many of these ethnic groups took part in the Maoist insurgency while at present, they represent a key basin of support- ers for the reformist Red Shirts movement which is currently threatening the role of the monarchy in Thai politics. The research suggests that the recently increased trend of staging new projects for sustainable agro-forestry management in a ‘red’ area as Nan does not only aim at improving the conditions of mountain peoples and of the environment, but simultaneously increases the political influence of the conservative forces over this ‘ungovernable’ territory in times of political crisis. ----- Dieser Artikel diskutiert die Bemühungen der königlichen Familie in Thailand seit den 1990-er Jahren, das Umweltverhalten ihrer Subjekte im Namen der Sufficiency Economy Philosophie von König Bhumibol zu moralisieren. Mit Bezug auf ethnografische Forschung in der Provinz Nan in Nordthailand in den Jahren 2008 und 2009 fokussiere ich insbesondere auf Royal Projects, die in letzter Zeit gefördert werden, um ländliche Praktiken ethnischer Minderheiten in den Bergen von Nan zu korrigieren. In der Vergangenheit waren viele dieser ethnischen Gruppen am maoistischen Aufstand beteiligt, während sie heute ein zentrales Auffangbecken für UnterstützerInnen der reformistischen Rothemden, die derzeit die Rolle der Monarchie in der thailändischen Politik in Frage stellen, darstellen. Die Forschung deutet an, dass der Trend zur Einführung von neuen Projekten f

  16. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand

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    Suwanvanichkij Voravit

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.

  17. Genetic diversity of Taenia saginata (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from Lao People's Democratic Republic and northeastern Thailand based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Maleewong, Wanchai; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-03-11

    Taenia saginata is a tapeworm found in cattle worldwide. Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographical populations of T. saginata not only helps to understand the origin, transmission and spread of this organism, but also to evaluate the selection pressures acting on T. saginata and how it is responding to them. However, there are few reports of the genetic variability of T. saginata populations in different regions of the world, including Lao PDR and Thailand. We report the genetic diversity of T. saginata populations in Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand together with sequences of T. saginata from other countries deposited in GenBank. Mitochondrial cox1 sequence analysis revealed that 15 and 8 haplotypes were identified in 30 and 21 T. saginata isolates from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand, respectively. Fifty-three haplotypes were identified from 98 sequences. Phylogenetic tree and haplotype network analyses revealed that global isolates of T. saginata were genetically divided into five groups (A, B, C1, C2 and D). Taenia saginata isolates from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand belonged to either Group A or B. Taenia saginata from western Thailand clustered in groups C1, C2 and D, and populations from the northeast and western Thailand were found to be genetically distinct. Taenia saginata isolates in Lao PDR and Thailand were also found to be genetically diverse but the degree of genetic differentiation was low. Taenia saginata populations from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand are genetically distinct from the population in western Thailand and it is proposed that T. saginata has been dispersed by different transmission routes in Southeast Asia.

  18. Incense and Joss Stick Making in Small Household Factories, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Siripanich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incense and joss stick are generally used in the world. Most products were made in small household factories. There are many environmental and occupational hazards in these factories. Objective: To evaluate the workplace environmental and occupational hazards in small household incense and joss stick factories in Roi-Et, Thailand. Methods: Nine small household factories in rural areas of Roi-Et, Thailand, were studied. Dust concentration and small aerosol particles were counted through real time exposure monitoring. The inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used for quantitative measurement of heavy metal residue in incense products. Results: Several heavy metals were found in dissolved dye and joss sticks. Those included barium, manganese, and lead. Rolling and shaking processes produced the highest concentration of dust and aerosols. Only 3.9 % of female workers used personal protection equipment. Conclusion: Dust and chemicals were major threats in small household incense and joss stick factories in Thailand. Increasing awareness towards using personal protection equipment and emphasis on elimination of environmental workplace hazards should be considered to help the workers of this industry.

  19. Feasibility of community-based careHPV for cervical cancer prevention in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, Lee A; Chumworathayi, Bandit; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the safety, acceptability and feasibility of primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for cervical cancer prevention at the community level in a low-resource setting. After training a technician to run specimens on the careHPV unit, the study team traveled to a different village each day in rural Roi-et Province, Thailand. Women were tested for HPV using self-swab, followed by careHPV testing. Those with positive result were assessed immediately by visual inspection with acetic acid. Women positive for HPV and visual inspection with acetic acid were offered cryotherapy. Safety was determined by monitoring adverse events. Exit surveys assessed acceptability and feasibility. Feasibility was also assessed by measuring testing and triage throughputs. Technician training required 2.5 days to achieve competency. A total of 431 women were screened in 14 days, with an average of 31 women screened daily. No adverse events were reported. Women deemed the program overwhelmingly acceptable: 90.5% reported that they would take the self-swab again, 71.3% preferred the self-swab to a clinician swab. The program was also feasible: 99.8% of eligible women agreed to testing, 94.8% returned for same-day follow-up, and women only spent 30 to 50 minutes of their total time with the program from screening to results. Cervical cancer prevention programs based on self-swab HPV testing could be safe, acceptable, feasible, and effective at the community level in low-resource settings.

  20. Relationship between Aedes aegypti production and occurrence of Escherichia coli in domestic water storage containers in rural and sub-urban villages in Thailand and Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Nsa; Vannavong, Nanthasane; Seidu, Razak; Lenhart, Audrey; Stenström, Thor Axel; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Overgaard, Hans J

    2013-06-01

    In a cross-sectional survey in one rural and one suburban village each in Thailand and Laos the relationship between Aedes aegypti production and Escherichia coli contamination in household water storage containers was investigated. Entomological and microbiological surveys were conducted in 250 and 239 houses in Thailand and Laos, respectively. Entomological indices across all four villages were high, indicating a high risk for dengue transmission. Significantly more Ae. aegypti pupae were produced in containers contaminated with E. coli as compared to those that were not, with the odds of Ae. aegypti infested containers being contaminated with E. coli ranging from two to five. The level of E. coli contamination varied across container classes but contamination levels were not significantly associated with the number of pupae produced. We conclude that the observed relationship between Ae. aegypti production and presence of E. coli in household water storage containers suggests a causal relationship between dengue and diarrheal disease at these sites. How this relationship can be exploited for the combined and cost-effective control of dengue and diarrheal diseases requires further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between temperature and mortality in tropical middle income Thailand from 1999 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsupa, Benjawan; Dear, Keith; Kjellstrom, Tord; Sleigh, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the association between tropical weather condition and age-sex adjusted death rates (ADR) in Thailand over a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008. Population, mortality, weather and air pollution data were obtained from four national databases. Alternating multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) regression and stepwise multivariable linear regression analysis were used to sequentially build models of the associations between temperature variable and deaths, adjusted for the effects and interactions of age, sex, weather (6 variables), and air pollution (10 variables). The associations are explored and compared among three seasons (cold, hot and wet months) and four weather zones of Thailand (the North, Northeast, Central, and South regions). We found statistically significant associations between temperature and mortality in Thailand. The maximum temperature is the most important variable in predicting mortality. Overall, the association is nonlinear U-shape and 31 °C is the minimum-mortality temperature in Thailand. The death rates increase when maximum temperature increase with the highest rates in the North and Central during hot months. The final equation used in this study allowed estimation of the impact of a 4 °C increase in temperature as projected for Thailand by 2100; this analysis revealed that the heat-related deaths will increase more than the cold-related deaths avoided in the hot and wet months, and overall the net increase in expected mortality by region ranges from 5 to 13 % unless preventive measures were adopted. Overall, these results are useful for health impact assessment for the present situation and future public health implication of global climate change for tropical Thailand.

  2. Spatial and seasonal diversity of wild food plants in home gardens of Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Wild food plants (WFPs) are major components of tropical home gardens, constituting an important resource for poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal diversity of WFPs was analyzed across multi-species spatial configurations occurring within home gardens in a rice farming village in northeast

  3. The needs of the science teachers of Shenyang area, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of this research was to survey those individuals teaching science in the middle schools of the Shenyang area, Northeast China. Specifically, the study attempted to differentiate between rural and nonrural teachers with respect to demographic differences, problem areas, instructional activities, and perceived needs. Procedure. A 100-item survey was used to collect data for this study. The sample consisted of 224 science teachers (Rural 114, nonrural 110) who taught at least science class in 1996--97 academic year in a middle school of Shenyang area, Northeast China. Frequencies and percentages presented the needs of the teachers. The differences between rural and nonrural groups were analyzed by Chi Square statistics. Findings. Almost three quarters (74.9%) of returns were younger than 41, and 43.9% of returns held no degree. Significant differences were fond between rural and nonrural groups according to age, classroom experience, school enrollment, lab activities, motivating students to learn science, using science test data bank, peer tutoring and evaluating your own instructional effectiveness as a science teacher. Rural and nonrural teachers shared 10 of 14 greatest needs. Conclusions. Teacher in-service program designers need to establish academic training programs which lead to entry level degrees and certificates and improve young teacher's instructional skills. Increased efforts should be given to meet the perceived needs addressed in this study in order to improve teachers' teaching and students' learning. Lack of person energy or motivation and program fail to meet teachers' needs were considered as barriers of attending inservice programs.

  4. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Lorga, Thaworn; Srikrajang, Janthila; Promtingkran, Nongluk; Kreuangchai, Suchart; Tonpanya, Wilawan; Vivarakanon, Phatchanan; Jaiin, Puangpet; Praipaksin, Nara; Payaprom, Apiradee

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk. This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100-120) mmHg and 70 (range 60-80) mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.97) and those with primary school education were more likely to be aware of hypertension than those who did not have a primary school education (OR 6.5, CI 1.9-22.24). Overall, our survey showed that less than half of the Karen community had such knowledge and awareness. It is urgently necessary to promote knowledge, awareness, and health literacy among the ethnic Karen tribes to prevent hypertension and associated CVDs.

  5. Performance of health product risk management and surveillance conducted by health personnel at sub-district health promotion hospitals in the northeast region of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjanarach, Tipaporn; Jaisa-ard, Raksaworn; Poonaovarat, Nantawan

    2014-01-01

    Tipaporn Kanjanarach,1,2 Raksaworn Jaisa-ard,1,2 Nantawan Poonaovarat3 1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Health Consumer Protection, Chaiyapum Health Provincial Office, Chaiyapum, Thailand Background: Health personnel at sub-district health promotion hospitals (SD-HPHs) are assigned to take responsibility for 15 activities related to health...

  6. Using Respondent Driven Sampling to Identify Malaria Risks and Occupational Networks among Migrant Workers in Ranong, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaporn Wangroongsarb

    Full Text Available Ranong Province in southern Thailand is one of the primary entry points for migrants entering Thailand from Myanmar, and borders Kawthaung Township in Myanmar where artemisinin resistance in malaria parasites has been detected. Areas of high population movement could increase the risk of spread of artemisinin resistance in this region and beyond.A respondent-driven sampling (RDS methodology was used to compare migrant populations coming from Myanmar in urban (Site 1 vs. rural (Site 2 settings in Ranong, Thailand. The RDS methodology collected information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices for malaria, travel and occupational histories, as well as social network size and structure. Individuals enrolled were screened for malaria by microscopy, Real Time-PCR, and serology.A total of 619 participants were recruited in Ranong City and 623 participants in Kraburi, a rural sub-district. By PCR, a total of 14 (1.1% samples were positive (2 P. falciparum in Site 1; 10 P. vivax, 1 Pf, and 1 P. malariae in Site 2. PCR analysis demonstrated an overall weighted prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI, 0-1.3% in the urban site and 1.0% (95% CI, 0.5-1.7% in the rural site for all parasite species. PCR positivity did not correlate with serological positivity; however, as expected there was a strong association between antibody prevalence and both age and exposure. Access to long-lasting insecticidal treated nets remains low despite relatively high reported traditional net use among these populations.The low malaria prevalence, relatively smaller networks among migrants in rural settings, and limited frequency of travel to and from other areas of malaria transmission in Myanmar, suggest that the risk for the spread of artemisinin resistance from this area may be limited in these networks currently but may have implications for regional malaria elimination efforts.

  7. Evidence for subclinical avian influenza virus infections among rural Thai villagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntirat, Benjawan P; Yoon, In-Kyu; Blair, Patrick J; Krueger, Whitney S; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Putnam, Shannon D; Supawat, Krongkaew; Gibbons, Robert V; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Heil, Gary L; Friary, John A; Capuano, Ana W; Gray, Gregory C

    2011-10-01

    Regions of Thailand reported sporadic outbreaks of A/H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) among poultry between 2004 and 2008. Kamphaeng Phet Province, in north-central Thailand had over 50 HPAI poultry outbreaks in 2004 alone, and 1 confirmed and 2 likely other human HPAI infections between 2004 and 2006. In 2008, we enrolled a cohort of 800 rural Thai adults living in 8 sites within Kamphaeng Phet Province in a prospective study of zoonotic influenza transmission. We studied participants' sera with serologic assays against 16 avian, 2 swine, and 8 human influenza viruses. Among participants (mean age 49.6 years and 58% female) 65% reported lifetime poultry exposure of at least 30 consecutive minutes. Enrollees had elevated antibodies by microneutralization assay against 3 avian viruses: A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), A/Thailand/676/2005(H5N1), and A/Thailand/384/2006(H5N1). Bivariate risk factor modeling demonstrated that male gender, lack of an indoor water source, and tobacco use were associated with elevated titers against avian H9N2 virus. Multivariate modeling suggested that increasing age, lack of an indoor water source, and chronic breathing problems were associated with infection with 1 or both HPAI H5N1 strains. Poultry exposure was not associated with positive serologic findings. These data suggest that people in rural central Thailand may have experienced subclinical avian influenza infections as a result of yet unidentified environmental exposures. Lack of an indoor water source may play a role in transmission.

  8. Depression and Quality of Life in Relation to Decreased Glomerular Filtration Rate Among Adults with Hypertension in Rural Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Guo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We aim to investigate the extent to which depression and quality of life might be associated with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR in a large hypertensive population in rural Northeast China. Methods: A total of 5566 hypertensive participants aged 35 years and older were screened with a stratified cluster multistage sampling scheme in rural areas of Liaoning Province during 2012-2013. Decreased GFR was defined as estimated GFR 2. Results: The overall prevalence of decreased GFR was 3.2%. In the multivariable regression model, participants with moderate or greater depression had a greater risk for having a decreased GFR (OR: 1.739, 95%CI: 1.004 to 3.014 after full adjustment. Every 1-point increase of all the domains in WHOQOL-BREF, except for physical and environment domains, was significantly related to a lower risk for decreased GFR adjusting for age, gender and race. However, after fully adjustment, only social relations remained significant (OR: 0.899, 95%CI: 0.820 to 0.985. Increasing in total scores of WHOQOL-BREF was a protective factor against decreased GFR after fully adjustment. Conclusion: We found that moderate or greater depression and lower quality of life were associated with higher risks for developing decreased GFR.

  9. Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongcheewin, B.; Chantaranotha, P.; Paton, A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand is revised in preparation for the Flora of Thailand treatment. Eight species are found in Thailand, three of which, E. blanda, E. kachinensis and E. pilosa, are lectotypified. Elsholtzia griffithii and E. penduliflora are recorded for Thailand for the first

  10. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorga, Thaworn; Srithong, Kannapatch; Manokulanan, Pratumpan; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Aung, Myo Nyein

    2012-01-01

    The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community. Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI) assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand. A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were "not sure". Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males. The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.

  11. Messages of distinction: the HIV/AIDS media campaign in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, C

    1996-03-01

    In predominantly rural Thailand, television is a primary source of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Since 1990, HIV/AIDS warning messages have been aired regularly and repeatedly on television as part of the national strategy to minimize transmission of HIV. The education and prevention messages chosen do more than suggest measures to avoid infection. Within a logic of risk, these messages also define characteristics of people who are signified as threatening agents of infection. In Thailand, prostitutes and drug users are portrayed as the feared Other. Because commercial sex is so widespread, the demarcation of prostitutes as a high risk group signals a diffuse threat not easily subject to conceptual distancing. It is the pervasive and often fear-based associations born of the media material that, in large part, establish the basis for emergent practice when thoughts or actions are triggered by consideration of HIV/AIDS.

  12. Future Extreme Event Vulnerability in the Rural Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J.; Bowen, F. L.; Partridge, T.; Chipman, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change impacts on humans will be determined by the convergence of evolving physical climate and socioeconomic systems. Of particular concern is the intersection of extreme events and vulnerable populations. Rural areas of the Northeastern United States have experienced increased temperature and precipitation extremes, especially over the past three decades, and face unique challenges due to their physical isolation, natural resources dependent economies, and high poverty rates. To explore the impacts of future extreme events on vulnerable, rural populations in the Northeast, we project extreme events and vulnerability indicators to identify where changes in extreme events and vulnerable populations coincide. Specifically, we analyze future (2046-2075) maximum annual daily temperature, minimum annual daily temperature, maximum annual daily precipitation, and maximum consecutive dry day length for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 using four global climate models (GCM) and a gridded observational dataset. We then overlay those projections with estimates of county-level population and relative income for 2060 to calculate changes in person-events from historical (1976-2005), with a focus on Northeast counties that have less than 250,000 people and are in the bottom income quartile. We find that across the rural Northeast for RCP4.5, heat person-events per year increase tenfold, far exceeding decreases in cold person-events and relatively small changes in precipitation and drought person-events. Counties in the bottom income quartile have historically (1976-2005) experienced a disproportionate number of heat events, and counties in the bottom two income quartiles are projected to experience a greater heat event increase by 2046-2075 than counties in the top two income quartiles. We further explore the relative contributions of event frequency, population, and income changes to the total and geographic distribution of climate change

  13. Water-contact patterns and schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural community in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mota

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of water-related human activities, contaminative behaviour, house location, education and socio-economic status on endemic Schistosoma mansoni infection. The study was conducted in a hilry non-irrigated area of rural northeast Brazil amongst a defined population of subsistence farmers, of whom 93% were infected by age 20. The area was mapped, water bodies were surveyed, and a detailed questionnaire was performed on each household. Infection was assessed by duplicate stool examinations using the sensitive Bell technique to quantify egg excretion. For each household, and index of intensity of infection was computed by grouping individual log-transformed egg counts as an age-sex adjusted Z score. Few households had a sanitary installation or a domestic water supply. However, neither water-contact nor contaminative behavior were indiscriminate. The people made considerable effort to defaecate far from a water source, to obtain household drinking water from the cleanest source, and to bathe only at certain sites where privacy is assured. Land ownership and literacy correlated poorly with the household index of intensity of infection. The key influence on infection status was the relative location of the house and snail-free or snail colonized water sources. In this area, a safe domestic water supply is the critical input needed to achieve definitive control of endemic Schistosomiasis.

  14. Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the Freshwater Cyprinid Fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in Northeast Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Pachanawan, A.; Kamchoo, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2013), s. 297-302 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Rhabdochona * Thailand Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2013

  15. Hemoglobin Q-Thailand and its combinations with other forms of thalassemia or hemoglobinopathies in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasai, Sitthichai; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2014-01-01

    There have been no reports for the frequency of Hb Q-Thailand [alpha 74(EF3)Asp --> His, GAC > CAC] and its combinations either with other forms of thalassemia or hemoglobinopathies in Northern Thailand. The aims of this study were to search for Hb Q-Thailand and its combinations in Northern Thai population and to analyze fractions of hemoglobin in Hb Q-Thailand and its combinations on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatograms and/or capillary electrophoresis (CE) electrophoregrams. Blood samples from public and private hospitals in 7 northern provinces of Thailand were analyzed for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy diagnoses using HPLC and/or CE and DNA analysis techniques at the Thalassemia Laboratory, Associated Medical Sciences Clinical Service Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Hb Q-Thailand was found in 13 of 13,596 (0.10%) samples; 6 were heterozygous Hb Q-Thailand, 4 were compound Hb Q-Thailand/alpha-thalassemia-1 Southeast Asian (SEA) type deletion and 3 with combinations of Hb Q-Thailand/beta(0)-thalassemia, Hb Q-Thailand/Hb E and Hb Q-Thailand/Hb E/alpha-thalassemia-1 SEA type deletion. The fractions of hemoglobin on HPLC chromatograms and CE electrophoregrams were observed based on types of combinations. Hb Q-Thailand and its combinations could be found in northern Thai population with the frequency of 0.10%. Thus, the better understanding of HPLC chromatogram and/or CE electrophoregram patterns of Hb Q-Thailand and its combination is essential for diagnosis and genetic counseling of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in this area.

  16. Estimation of microbial protein supply of lactating dairy cows under smallholder farms in north-east Thailand using urinary purine derivative technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpa, O.; Liang, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the potential of urinary purine derivative (PD) as a predictive index of microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock under farm conditions. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that diurnal variation in the PDC index ( [mmol/L PD]/[mmol/L creatinine] kgW 0.75 ) in spot urine samples of zebu cattle was small and highly correlated with the daily PD output, suggesting that spot urine samples could be used to derive an index for estimating microbial protein supply of cattle under farm conditions. However, the PDC index for buffaloes was poorly correlated to daily urinary PD output, therefore the use of spot urine samples appeared to be unsuitable for buffaloes. Based on the above results, spot urine samples were used to estimate the microbial protein supply of lactating dairy cows under farm conditions in a follow-up experiment. The study was conducted using 24 lactating cows in 6 smallholder dairy farms situated in Khon Kaen province of Northeast Thailand. The study was conducted over two climatic seasons (raining and dry), where the animals were fed 5 kg of farm-mixed concentrate feed supplemented either with green grass (cut or grazing) or rice straw as roughage source during the raining and dry seasons, respectively. The results indicated that microbial protein supply was not significantly different and therefore, the nutritional status of the lactating cows was not significantly different between the two seasons. The absence of differences in milk yield between seasons seems to support our findings. We conclude that urinary PD technique could be used to estimate rumen microbial protein production for dairy cattle under farm conditions. (author)

  17. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Rogério Pereira; Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira; Vital, Fernando Antonio Chaves; Rocha, Francisca Janaina Soares; Irmão, João Inácio; Calazans, Glícia Maria Torres

    2011-01-01

    Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities,...

  18. Incidence and Epidemiology of Hospitalized Influenza Cases in Rural Thailand during the Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Henry C.; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Prapasiri, Prabda; Naorat, Sathapana; Sawatwong, Pongpun; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Olsen, Sonja J.; Simmerman, James M.; Srisaengchai, Prasong; Chantra, Somrak; Peruski, Leonard F.; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Maloney, Susan A.; Akarasewi, Pasakorn

    2012-01-01

    Background Data on the burden of the 2009 influenza pandemic in Asia are limited. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was first reported in Thailand in May 2009. We assessed incidence and epidemiology of influenza-associated hospitalizations during 2009–2010. Methods We conducted active, population-based surveillance for hospitalized cases of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in all 20 hospitals in two rural provinces. ALRI patients were sampled 1∶2 for participation in an etiology study in which nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for influenza virus testing by PCR. Results Of 7,207 patients tested, 902 (12.5%) were influenza-positive, including 190 (7.8%) of 2,436 children aged incidence of hospitalized influenza cases was 136 per 100,000, highest in ages 75 years (407 per 100,000). The incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was 62 per 100,000 (214 per 100,000 in children <5 years). Eleven influenza-infected patients required mechanical ventilation, and four patients died, all adults with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (1) or H3N2 (3). Conclusions Influenza-associated hospitalization rates in Thailand during 2009–10 were substantial and exceeded rates described in western countries. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 predominated, but H3N2 also caused notable morbidity. Expanded influenza vaccination coverage could have considerable public health impact, especially in young children. PMID:23139802

  19. Thailand: Post-Crisis Rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Chalongphob Sussangkarn; Deunden Nikomborirak

    2012-01-01

    Since the Asian financial crisis in 1997, Thailand has become highly dependent on exports as the main engine of economic growth. In 2008, the ratio of export to GDP was about 76.5 percent. The global economic crisis triggered by the sub-prime loans debacle in the United States has prompted Thailand to rethink its high dependence on export. This paper examines the options for external and internal economic rebalancing strategies for Thailand. External rebalancing will require Thailand to rely ...

  20. U.S.-Thailand Relations: Analysis of U.S. Military Support to the Kingdom of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Chen, 1. 7 David K. Wyatt, Thailand: A Short History ( Chiang Mai , Thailand: Silkworm Books, 2003),278. 8 Wyatt, 277. 9 U.S. Department of State...westhawk.blogspot.com/2008/02/marine-corps-expeditionary-plan-is.html Wyatt, David K. Thailand: A Short History. Chiang Mai , Thailand: Silkworm Books

  1. Performance evaluation of a 2-mode PV grid connected system in Thailand -- Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jivacate, C.; Mongconvorawan, S.; Sinratanapukdee, E.; Limsawatt, W. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Nontha Buri (Thailand)

    1994-12-31

    A PV grid connected system with small battery bank has been set up in a rural district, North Thailand in order to demonstrate a 2-mode operation concept. The objective is to gain experience on the PV grid connected concept without battery storage. However, due to the evening peak demand and a rather weak distribution grid which is typical in rural areas, small battery bank is still required to enable the maximum energy transfer to grid for the time being before moving fully to the no battery mode. The analyzed data seems to indicate possible performance improvement by re-arranging the number of PV modules and battery in the string.

  2. Tawanchai Cleft Center quality of life outcomes: one of studies of patients with cleft lip and palate in Thailand and the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Pradaubwong, Suteera; Rongbutsri, Somchit; Mongkholthawornchai, Siriporn; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2012-11-01

    The needs and quality of life (QOL) of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) after being processed through the healthcare system are important in order to understand how to improve the standards of care. The Tawanchai Cleft Center of Thailand in collaboration with Cleft Lip and Palate Care Center of the Asia Pacific Region, conducted a number of studies on various aspects of treatment outcomes as an indication of its performance. This paper presents the outcome effects on QOL. To determine (a) the QOL of children with CLP in Northeast Thailand registered and followed-up at the Tawanchai Centre, (b) their ongoing care needs and (c) the mental health of their parents when the children reach 5 years of age. Using the Need, Satisfaction, QOL and GHQ-12 questionnaires, the authors evaluated 36 five-year-old children with CLP, living in Northeast Thailand, registered at birth for treatment at the Tawanchai Cleft Center. The aspects most needing attention were: dental, speech therapy and local healthcare service. The QOL was low in the economic, child relationships and psychological domains. The parents need more training on how to raise children with CLP most appropriately. According to the GHQ-12, none of the families identified any mental problems. Children with CLP at five years of age under the care of the Tawanchai Cleft Center by their own self-assessment have satisfactory outcomes in most domains. Notwithstanding, there is need to improve parent training and access to dental care, speech therapy and local healthcare services.

  3. Worlds apart 2: Thailand and the Philippines. Heroes and villains in an Asian population drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, G D

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of population growth was made for the Philippines and Thailand. Although both countries had 20 million population in 1950 and developed family planning (FP) in similar stages, Thailand had a contraceptive use rate of about 65% and total fertility of 2.1 and a population of 57 million, while the Philippines had 7.4 million more people and slower economic development. Environmental effects of this situation in the Philippines included the movement of people to marginal mountainous land and soil erosion and degradation. A major medical problem has been complications from illegal abortion. While Thailand is expected to reach replacement level by 1995, the Philippines will not reach replacement level until at least 2015, by which time the population will be 20 million more than in Thailand. Thailand is experiencing declines in school age population, and the Philippines is experiencing growth in its school enrollment and labor force. Although the Philippines has received more foreign FP assistance than Thailand, the demographic impact has been greater in Thailand. The Philippines made mistakes in centralizing its FP efforts in Manila and spending too much on communication programs and less on service delivery in rural areas. After 1978, the emphasis shifted and funds were diminished for all social services by the Marcos regime. Mrs. Aguino could not right the wrongs of the previous administration because of her strong commitment to Roman Catholicism. The new Fidel Ramos administration and Health Secretary Flavier are now dedicated to promotion of primary health care and FP. Unfortunately, past political and religious leaders abnegated their responsibility in promoting responsible parenthood and providing appropriate social services. Instead these parties achieved personal wealth at the expense of the masses and protected a "dubious morality."

  4. Renewable energy in Thailand; Renewable Energy in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morstadt, Till [Lorenz and Partners, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-01-15

    The following article should represent an overview of the situation of the energy sector in Thailand (I), in particular is referred to the recent Energy Plan 2036 (II.). The focus of this plan - and, accordingly, this paper - is on renewable energy. In addition to the general importance of renewable energy for Thailand the article should deal in detail with the various funding opportunities that the Thai government makes available to investors (III). In addition, under IV. the foreign Investors restrictions in force and possible exemptions thereof are discussed. Finally, it should, as far as possible, a view be given to future developments (V.). [German] Der nachfolgende Beitrag soll einen Ueberblick ueber die Situation des Energiesektors in Thailand darstellen (1.), wobei insbesondere Bezug genommen wird auf den kuerzlich veroeffentlichten Energieplan 2036 (II.). Der Fokus dieses Planes - und dementsprechend dieses Beitrages - liegt auf erneuerbaren Energien. Neben der allgemeinen Bedeutung erneuerbarer Energien fuer Thailand soll detailliert auf die einzelnen Foerdermoeglichkeiten eingegangen werden, die die thailaendische Regierung Investoren zur Verfuegung stellt (111.). Zudem werden unter IV. die fuer auslaendische Investoren geltenden Beschraenkungen und moegliche Befreiungen hiervon eroertert. Abschliessend soll, soweit moeglich, ein Ausblick auf zukuenftige.Entwicklungen gegeben werden (V.).

  5. Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2017-01-01

    While many important aspects of wild and farmed insects have been discussed by scholars, such as nutritional value, conservation and farming techniques, no study has addressed how insect farming contributes to rural livelihoods. Furthermore, the roles that interactions between insect farmers......, their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how...... capital. As such, further empirical data and case study analyses are needed in order to advance our understanding of this particular livelihood strategy....

  6. A developing chronology for prehistoric 'moated sites' in northeast Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.J.; Boyd, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Many mounded Iron Age occupation sites in the Mun River Valley,N.E. Thailand are characterised by distinctive encircling earthworks, these are commonly known as 'moated sites'. The first excavations of any significance within the moats themselves at six sites -Noen U-Loke, Non Muang Khao, Ban Non Khrua Chut, Ban Non Ngiu, Ban Makham Thae and Ban Non Wat - in the form of long trenches have been carried out to enable detailed examination of their structure. Significantly, the surficial morphology of the moats, and the notable regularity of shape and patterning of the moats in plan, usually does not accurately reflect the buried sectional morphology of incised channel features, which are in no way expressed on the surface. Buried channels beneath the edge of the mounds as well as the surrounding moat banks have also been revealed. Stratigraphic and geomorphic relationships of the buried features imply critical chronological relationships which need to be tested to allow full development of a model for the evolution of the archaeological sites. Extremely small quantities of charcoal and shells obtained from the buried features has necessitated the need for AMS dating to develop the chronology for the development, use and decline of the moated features and channels. The dating is an ongoing process, however, results thus far obtained supports the development of older channels towards the archaeological mounds, and yet older buried channels under the sites

  7. Implementation of Safeguards in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueanngoen, A.; Changkrueng, K.; Srijittawa, L.; Mungpayaban, H.; Wititteeranon, A.

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is a non-nuclear weapon state. The non-nuclear activities are mainly medical, agricultural, and industrial. Therefore, Thailand ratified the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) since 1972 and has been entry into force of the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC 241) since 1974. Based on the INFCIRC 153, Thailand established a system of accounting for and control of all nuclear material subject to safeguards under the Agreement. In order to ensure the peaceful use of nuclear in Thailand the Nuclear-Non- Proliferation Center of Office of Atoms for Peace (NPC, OAP) was established to act as State level Safeguards. NPC is responsible for keeping records and providing information under requirement of Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement. In addition, the strengthening of cooperation and good coordination between Thailand and IAEA are indeed important and necessary to implementation safeguards in country. Based on the report of IAEA safeguards statement, there is no indication of the diversion of nuclear materials or misuse of the facility or the items in Thailand. Up to present, nuclear activities in Thailand are peaceful without diversion of using. This paper reviews the current status of the implementation Safeguards in Thailand. (author)

  8. Migration and the epidemiological transition: insights from the Agincourt sub-district of northeast South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A.; White, Michael J.; Bocquier, Philippe; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Afolabi, Sulaimon A.; Clark, Samuel J.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Migration and urbanization are central to sustainable development and health, but data on temporal trends in defined populations are scarce. Healthy men and women migrate because opportunities for employment and betterment are not equally distributed geographically. The disruption can result in unhealthy exposures and environments and income returns for the origin household. Objectives The objectives of the paper are to describe the patterns, levels, and trends of temporary migration in rural northeast South Africa; the mortality trends by cause category over the period 2000–2011; and the associations between temporary migration and mortality by broad cause of death categories. Method Longitudinal, Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System data are used in a continuous, survival time, competing-risk model. Findings In rural, northeast South Africa, temporary migration, which involves migrants relocating mainly for work purposes and remaining linked to the rural household, is more important than age and sex in explaining variations in mortality, whatever the cause. In this setting, the changing relationship between temporary migration and communicable disease mortality is primarily affected by reduced exposure of the migrant to unhealthy conditions. The study suggests that the changing relationship between temporary migration and non-communicable disease mortality is mainly affected by increased livelihood benefits of longer duration migration. Conclusion Since temporary migration is not associated with communicable diseases only, public health policies should account for population mobility whatever the targeted health risk. There is a need to strengthen the rural health care system, because migrants tend to return to the rural households when they need health care. PMID:24848656

  9. Ruralidade e mulheres responsáveis por domicílios no Norte e no Nordeste Ruralness and Women Responsible for Households in the North and Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Parry Scott

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparação de mulheres como responsáveis de domicílios no Norte e no Nordeste revela efeitos de diferenciação de gênero e de histórias divergentes de migração. Como em todo o Brasil, essas mulheres têm mais instrução e menos renda que os homens responsáveis por domicílios. Fazem uso extensivo de ingressos da seguridade social, especialmente nas áreas rurais. Elas assumem mais a chefia ou quando são adolescentes, ou, muito mais, quando passam da idade de 45 anos. Recorrem mais intensivamente que homens às suas redes de relações ampliadas para inclusão de outros nas suas casas. No Norte, comparado com o Brasil e o Nordeste, com maior presença de imigração masculina, há menos mulheres chefes, em geral, e especialmente no campo. Relativamente, têm instrução superior à dos homens responsáveis. Nas suas casas há mais pessoas que nas de mulheres responsáveis em outras regiões. Só ocasionalmente moram sozinhas. No Nordeste, com uma história de emigração, as mulheres responsáveis são muito mais numerosas, em geral, com particular força no campo. A sua instrução não é tão superior à dos homens quanto à das mulheres no Norte. Elas residem sozinhas com mais freqüência e há pouca diferença no número de pessoas entre casas nas áreas urbanas e rurais.A comparison of women household heads in North and Northeast Brazil reveals effects of gender differentiation and divergent histories of migration. As in Brazil in general, women heads have more education and less income than male heads. They make extensive use of social security income, especially as a source of maintenance in rural areas. They take on headship either when adolescents, or, much more often, when over the age of 45. They include persons from their wider social networks much more than male heads do. Compared to Brazil in general and to the Northeast, the North, with a history of male immigration, has fewer women household heads in general, and

  10. Educating Physicians for Rural America: Validating Successes and Identifying Remaining Challenges With the Rural Medical Scholars Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, John R; Leeper, James D; Murphy, Shannon; Brandon, John E; Jackson, James R

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the Rural Medical Scholars (RMS) Program's effectiveness to produce rural physicians for Alabama. A nonrandomized intervention study compared RMS (1997-2002) with control groups in usual medical education (1991-2002) at the University of Alabama School of Medicine's main and regional campuses. Participants were RMS and others admitted to regular medical education, and the intervention was the RMS Program. Measures assessed the percentage of graduates practicing in rural areas. Odds ratios compared effectiveness of producing rural Alabama physicians. The RMS Program (N = 54), regional campuses (N = 182), and main campus (N = 649) produced 48.1% (odds ratio 6.4, P rural physicians, respectively. The RMS Program, contrasted to other local programs of medical education, was effective in producing rural physicians. These results were comparable to benchmark programs in the Northeast and Midwest USA on which the RMS Program was modeled, justifying the assumption that model programs can be replicated in different regions. However, this positive effect was not shared by a disparate rural minority population, suggesting that models for rural medical education must be adjusted to meet the challenge of such communities for physicians. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Predictors of depressive symptoms in older adults living in care homes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosangwarn, Suhathai; Clissett, Philip; Blake, Holly

    2018-02-01

    Thai culture traditionally abhors elders living in care homes due to the belief that this represents a dereliction of filial piety by their children, thus care homes are stigmatized as the domain of poor older adults with no family. This may impact negatively on psychological wellbeing of residents, although little is known about the key factors influencing depressive symptoms. Therefore, this study explores factors associated with depressive symptoms, internalised stigma, self-esteem, social support and coping strategies among older adults residing in care homes in Thailand. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted with 128 older residents recruited from two care homes in Northeast Thailand. Data were collected using the 15-Item Thai Geriatric Depression Scale, Internalised Stigma of Living in a Care Home Scale, Thai Version of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Thai Version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Coping Strategies Inventory Short-Form. Depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with internalised stigma, self-esteem and social support (r=0.563, -0.574 and -0.333) (pmedia collaboration, educational interventions in the care home setting and organising social activities for residents and their families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Traditional beliefs about pregnancy and child birth among women from Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Yimyam, Susanha; Parisunyakul, Sukanya; Baosoung, Chavee; Sansiriphun, Nantaporn

    2005-06-01

    To examine women's embodied knowledge of pregnancy and birth, women's explanations of precautions during pregnancy and birth and preparations for easy birth and the role of a traditional midwife in a Thai birthing care. In-depth interviews relating to traditional and changed beliefs and practices of pregnancy and childbirth with Thai women in Northern Thailand. Chiang Mai city and Mae On sub-district in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand. 30 Thai women living in Chiang Mai in Thailand. The social meaning of childbirth in Thai culture is part of the larger social system, which involves the woman, her family, the community, society and the supernatural world. Traditional beliefs and practices in Thai culture clearly aim to preserve the life and well-being of a new mother and her baby. It seems that traditional childbirth practices have not totally disappeared in northern Thailand, but have gradually diminished. Women's social backgrounds influence traditional beliefs and practices. The traditions are followed by most rural and some urban poor women in Chiang Mai. The findings of this study may assist health professionals to better understand women from different cultures. It is important to recognise many factors discussed in this paper within the context of Thai lives and traditions. This will prevent misunderstanding and, consequently, encourage more sensitive pregnancy and birthing care for pregnant women.

  13. Thailand; Thailande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Thailand: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, gas, electricity), energy supplies (gas reserves, oil, power production, coal, lignite, renewable energies), prices, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (energy consumption, power production, projects, contracts, agreements, investments). Economical data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  14. Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from Pisodonophis boro (Teleostei: Ophichthidae) in Thailand, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Proleptinae Schulz, 1927.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Taraschewski, Horst; Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Maipanich, Wanna; Laoprasert, Thitiporn

    2007-01-01

    Physalopterid nematodes identified as Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) were collected from the stomach of rice-paddy eels Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton) (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) from two brackish-water localities (mangroves) in Thailand: one in Phan-Nga Province, southwestern Thailand, northeast of Phuket Island, and one in Ranong Province, near the border with Myanmar. Study of the morphology of this hitherto insufficiently known nematode species, including its first SEM examination, enabled a detailed redescription of H. longissimum. Present taxonomic problems in the subfamily Proleptinae Schulz, 1927 are discussed, where a new delimitation of Proleptus Dujardin, 1845, Heliconema Travassos, 1919 and Paraleptus Wu, 1927 is proposed based on the cephalic dentation. H. minnanensis [sic] Damin & Heqing, 2001 is transferred to Paraleptus Wu, 1927 as P. minnanensis (Damin & Heqing, 2001) n. comb. and Paraleptus chiloscyllii Yin & Zhang, 1983 transferred by Damin & Heqing (2001) to Heliconema, is retained in Paraleptus. H. ahiri Karve, 1941 is considered a junior synonym of H. longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923). The present finding of H. longissimum in Pisodonophis boro represents the first host record and the first record of this nematode from Thailand.

  15. Lean assessment for manufacturing of small and medium enterprises (SMEs: A case study of electronics industry in the Northeast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Laoha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at assessing for manufacturing a small and medium enterprise of electronic industry case study in the Northeast of Thailand. Electronic industry produces integrated circuits products (IC. We use lean assessment tools with 14 lean technique and tools. The value of lean assessment are scoring system derived from the malcolm baldrige national quality award, the two-dimensioned scoring system composing of the process; approach, deployment, learning, and integration. There are reveal operations of each of lean techniques and tools, and the performance; the 0 - 4 level needed to be improved in depth and hence would reflect operations requiring sustainable outcomes. This lean assessment is a systematic approach, assessor come to sit, examine operations from a lean perspective and assessed the situation as prior. The purposes of this visit were to introduced to production or factory manager or window person of SMEs who gave assessor a tour of the plant. Assessor also got a chance to explain lean assessment criteria on the shop floor. Assessor selects a value streaming line that produce most goods or main production line to assess. Assessor takes 1 day to assess and discuss the lean assessment. As a result, the lean assessment survey should be adjusted to fit the systems adaptively. Three plants of electronic industries were leanness of 1.06 or 26%. Five plants of garment industry were leanness of 1.13 or 28%. Four plants of shoe industry were leanness of 1.39 or 34%. Shoe industry had high leanness all unless quick changeover and multi skill. The quick changeover and multi skill were high score on garment industry. Electronics industry has not the lead but second in visual management, 5s, operation base layout, quick changeover, multi skill, standard operation procedures, and policy deployment.

  16. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO 2 , for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  18. Regional and hemispheric influences on temporal variability in baseline carbon monoxide and ozone over the Northeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interannual variability in baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), defined as mixing ratios under minimal influence of recent and local emissions, was studied for seven rural sites in the Northeast US over 2001–2010. Annual baseline CO exhibited statistically signific...

  19. Admixed origin of the Kayah (Red Karen) in Northern Thailand revealed by biparental and paternal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Srikummool, Metawee; Pittayaporn, Pittayawat; Seielstad, Mark; Kangwanpong, Daoroong; Kumar, Vikrant; Prombanchachai, Thanawut; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) variation and the presence of Y chromosomal haplogroups from 44 individuals of the Kayah or Red Karen (KA) in Northern Thailand. The results based on autosomal STRs indicated that the KA exhibited closer genetic relatedness to populations from adjacent regions in Southeast Asia (SEA) than populations from Northeast Asia (NEA) and Tibet. Moreover, an admixed origin of the KA forming three population groups was observed: NEA, Southern China, and Northern Thailand. The NEA populations made a minor genetic contribution to the KA, while the rest came from populations speaking Sino-Tibetan (ST) languages from Southern China and Tai-Kadai (TK) speaking groups from Northern Thailand. The presence of six paternal haplogroups, composed of dual haplogroups prevalent in NEA (NO, N, and D1) and SEA (O2 and O3) as well as the intermediate genetic position of the KA between the SEA and NEA also indicated an admixed origin of male KA lineages. Our genetic results thus agree with findings in linguistics that Karenic languages are ST languages that became heavily influenced by TK during their southward spread. A result of the Mongol invasions during the 13th century A.D. is one possible explanation for genetic contribution of NEA to the KA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  20. Declining Trend of Hepatitis A Seroepidemiology in Association with Improved Public Health and Economic Status of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Posuwan, Nawarat; Vichaiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vuthitanachot, Viboonsak; Saelao, Siriporn; Foonoi, Monthana; Fakthongyoo, Apinya; Makaroon, Jamorn; Srisingh, Klaita; Asawarachun, Duangporn; Owatanapanich, Somchai; Wutthiratkowit, Norra; Tohtubtiang, Kraisorn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted via the fecal-oral route from contaminated food or water. As part of the most recent survey of viral hepatitis burden in Thailand, we analyzed the current seroprevalence of HAV in the country and compared with data dating back to 1971. From March to October, 2014, a total of 4,260 individuals between one month and 71 years of age from different geographical regions (North = 961; Central = 1,125; Northeast = 1,109; South = 1,065) were screened for anti-HAV IgG antibody using an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Overall, 34.53% (1,471/4,260) possessed anti-HAV IgG antibody, and the age-standardized seroprevalence was 48.6%. Seroprevalence rates were 27.3% (North), 30.8% (Central), 33.8% (Northeast) and 45.8% (South) and were markedly lower than in the past studies especially among younger age groups. The overall trend showed an increase in the age by which 50% of the population were anti-HAV IgG antibody: 4.48 years (1971-1972), 6 (1976), 12.49 (1990), 36.02 (2004) and 42.03 (2014).This suggests that Thailand is transitioning from low to very low HAV endemicity. Lower prevalence of HAV correlated with improved healthcare system as measured by decreased infant mortality rate and improved national economy based on increased GDP per capita. The aging HAV immuno-naïve population may be rendered susceptible to potential HAV outbreaks similar to those in industrialized countries and may benefit from targeted vaccination of high-risk groups.

  1. Declining Trend of Hepatitis A Seroepidemiology in Association with Improved Public Health and Economic Status of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattaratida Sa-nguanmoo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV is transmitted via the fecal-oral route from contaminated food or water. As part of the most recent survey of viral hepatitis burden in Thailand, we analyzed the current seroprevalence of HAV in the country and compared with data dating back to 1971. From March to October, 2014, a total of 4,260 individuals between one month and 71 years of age from different geographical regions (North = 961; Central = 1,125; Northeast = 1,109; South = 1,065 were screened for anti-HAV IgG antibody using an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Overall, 34.53% (1,471/4,260 possessed anti-HAV IgG antibody, and the age-standardized seroprevalence was 48.6%. Seroprevalence rates were 27.3% (North, 30.8% (Central, 33.8% (Northeast and 45.8% (South and were markedly lower than in the past studies especially among younger age groups. The overall trend showed an increase in the age by which 50% of the population were anti-HAV IgG antibody: 4.48 years (1971-1972, 6 (1976, 12.49 (1990, 36.02 (2004 and 42.03 (2014.This suggests that Thailand is transitioning from low to very low HAV endemicity. Lower prevalence of HAV correlated with improved healthcare system as measured by decreased infant mortality rate and improved national economy based on increased GDP per capita. The aging HAV immuno-naïve population may be rendered susceptible to potential HAV outbreaks similar to those in industrialized countries and may benefit from targeted vaccination of high-risk groups.

  2. Development and Application of Environmental Quality of Life Scale among People Residing near Three Types of Industrial Areas, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopsuk, Jirawan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Hasuwanakit, Supat

    2013-01-01

    To compare QOL among rural people living in three different industrial areas and one non-industrial area in southern Thailand. A questionnaire based on the WHOQOL-BREF with environmental assessment was initially developed. After consultation with experts and pilot study, it was tested to check internal reliability and further modified as…

  3. IDRC in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC support for research in Thailand began in 1971, and changed signifi- cantly as the country's economy grew. As Thailand became an upper- middle income country, IDRC shifted its emphasis toward supporting Thai institutions that serve as coordinators for regional research. One example is the forward-looking.

  4. Morphology, Composition, and Mixing State of Individual Aerosol Particles in Northeast China during Wintertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China is located in a high latitude area of the world and undergoes a cold season that lasts six months each year. Recently, regional haze episodes with high concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5 have frequently been occurring in Northeast China during the heating period, but little information has been available. Aerosol particles were collected in winter at a site in a suburban county town (T1 and a site in a background rural area (T2. Morphology, size, elemental composition, and mixing state of individual aerosol particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Aerosol particles were mainly composed of organic matter (OM and S-rich and certain amounts of soot and K-rich. OM represented the most abundant particles, accounting for 60.7% and 53.5% at the T1 and T2 sites, respectively. Abundant spherical OM particles were likely emitted directly from coal-burning stoves. Soot decreased from 16.9% at the T1 site to 4.6% at the T2 site and sulfate particles decrease from 35.9% at the T2 site to 15.7% at the T1 site, suggesting that long-range transport air masses experienced more aging processes and produced more secondary particles. Based on our investigations, we proposed that emissions from coal-burning stoves in most rural areas of the west part of Northeast China can induce regional haze episodes.

  5. Can glycated hemoglobin act as a reliable glycemic indicator in patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease? evidence from the Northeast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojib Bin Zaman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic kidney diseases (CKD is a common microvascular complication in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM which requires adequate glycemic control. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is a conventional biomarker to estimate glycemic status, but its role in diabetic CKD patients is unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether patients with high HbA1c are associated to develop diabetic CKD.Methods: Data were obtained from a clinical registry of diabetic patients who were treated in a district hospital in the Northeast of Thailand. CKD was defined according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements of the patient were taken by review of medical records. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the likelihood of the association between HbA1c and CKD.Results: Among 4,050 participants, 1,027 (25.3% developed diabetic CKD. Older age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 4.88, 95% confidence interval (CI: 3.71–6.42, p<0.05, female (AOR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.05–1.73, p<0.05, and hypertension (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.21–1.91, p<0.05 were found as the risk factors of diabetic CKD. However, patients with high HbA1c (>6.5% were negatively associated with diabetic CKD (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.51–0.86, p<0.05.Conclusion: This study found patients with higher HbA1c level were not associated with diabetic CKD. Therefore, using the conventional cut-off values of HbA1c in diabetic CKD patients may be problematic in the clinical settings. Enhanced detection of glycemic status in patients with diabetic CKD is warranted to improve the outcome.

  6. Why Thailand’s Military Stepped In

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    8 Craig J. Reynolds (ed.), National Identity and its Defenders: Thailand Today ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 2002). 9...and Authority in Thailand,” in National Identity and its Defenders: Thailand Today (rev. ed.), ed. Craig J. Reynolds ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 2002...Business of Politics in Thailand ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 2004), 230. 128 Ockey, “Thailand,” 199. 52 days of the military directly administering

  7. Medical pluralism among indigenous peoples in northeast India - implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Sandra; Nongrum, Melari; Webb, Emily L; Porter, John D H; Kharkongor, Glenn C

    2015-07-01

    The government of India is promoting and increasing investment in the traditional medicine systems of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the northeast region of India. But there are few empirical data that support this policy decision. This study estimates the awareness and use of the different medical systems in rural Meghalaya, a state in north-east India with a predominantly ethnic tribal population. We conducted a cross-sectional multistage random sample household survey across all districts of Meghalaya. To enable appropriate estimates for the whole of rural Meghalaya, the data were weighted to allow for the probability of selection of households at each stage of the sampling process. Both local tribal medicine and biomedicine were widely accepted and used, but the majority (68.7%, 95% CI: 51.9-81.7) had not heard of AYUSH and even fewer had used it. Tribal medicine was used (79.1%, 95% CI 66.3-88.0), thought to be effective (87.5%, 95% CI: 74.2-94.1) and given in a variety of disorders, including both minor and major diseases. In the 3 months prior to the survey, 46.2% (95% CI: 30.5-62.8) had used tribal medicine. Only 10.5% (95% CI: 6.1-17.6) reported ever using any of the AYUSH systems. Our comparative estimates of the awareness and use of tribal medicine, different systems of AYUSH and of biomedicine among indigenous populations of India question the basis on which AYUSH is promoted in the northeast region of India and in the state of Meghalaya in particular. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Foreigners’ wives: Cross-cultural marriage of rural Thai women in Isan, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaya Pomsema

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was twofold: 1 To study the background of cross-cultural marriage in Isan, Thailand; 2 To study cross-cultural marriage rituals of Isan women, Thailand. The study was carried out from February 2012 to February 2014 and was conducted in Khon Kaen, Udon Thani, and Nong Khai provinces. The research sample was composed of 80 individuals. The data collection tools were survey, interviews, observations and focus-group discussions. Results found that the main reason for Isan women marrying foreign men was poverty. They not only wanted to raise family income, but also reciprocate their parents for raising them. As for the foreign men, all had been married before. Some had divorced their former wives, some sons or daughters and some had health problems. Most foreign men were impressed by the good care provided by Isan women, who also had no debt burden. Prior to their marriage with foreign men, most Isan women in the research sample used to work in restaurants in Bangkok, Phuket or other tourist areas. The study found that most weddings followed Isan traditions. The parents, seniors, and relatives participating in the wedding ceremony were seen as witnesses. The bride’s parents received a dowry in cash. Most newly wedded Isan women went to live abroad with their husbands. Their children from previous marriages often went to live with their grandparents. Although many couples have successful marriages, some may experience problems later on. Further study should concern these problems.

  9. Parents' satisfaction with pediatric ambulatory anesthesia in northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmak, Suhattaya; Boonmak, Polpun; Pothiruk, Kittawan; Hoontanee, Nattakhan

    2009-12-01

    Study the satisfaction of parents with ambulatory anesthesia and associated factors, including characteristics of the patients and their parents. This was a prospective, descriptive, observation study. The authors included children who were scheduled for ambulatory anesthetic service between birth and 14 years of age and attended at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The authors excluded patients whose parents could not be reached by telephone. Before anesthesia, the authors recorded the patients and parents' characteristics, level of information perception (pre-, peri- and post-anesthesia and complications). After anesthesia, the anesthesia technique and any complications were recorded. The day after anesthesia, the authors made phone calls to the patients to record the parents' satisfaction score (viz, of overall, pre-, peri- and post-anesthesia care, and information about the level of patient care at home), and any anesthesia related complications. Ninety-two patients and their parents were included in the present study. Overall parents 'satisfaction with the anesthesia service was 96.7% (i.e., 89/92) (95% CI 90.8-99.3). Parents' satisfaction with pre- and peri-anesthesia care was 100% (95% CI 96.1-100) and 97.9% (95% CI 92.4-99.7), respectively. Parents' satisfaction with the PACU care and information of patient care at home was 96.7% (95% CI 90.8-99.3) and 91.3% (95% CI 83.6-96.2), respectively. Associated factors where parents were dissatisfied included PACU care satisfaction (i.e., relative risk 22.5 (95% CI 3.2-158)) and patient care information at home (i.e., relative risk 13.3 (95% CI 1.3-136.0)). The present study showed a high level of parents' satisfaction. Parents' dissatisfaction associated with PACU care and information about post anesthesia care at home. Additionally information on parents' characteristics provides invaluable data for improving pediatric ambulatory anesthesia in Srinagarind Hospital.

  10. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Primary School Children in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...

  11. Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in Phatthalung Province, Peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneenoon, Katesarin; Khuniad, Chuanchom; Teanuan, Yaowalak; Saedan, Nisachon; Prom-In, Supatra; Rukleng, Nitiphol; Kongpool, Watid; Pinsook, Phongsura; Wongwiwat, Winyu

    2015-05-30

    In rural communities of Thailand, traditional healers still play an important role in local health care systems even though modern medicine is easily accessible. Meanwhile, natural forests in Thailand which are important sources of materia medica are being greatly destroyed. This has led to an erosion of traditional Thai medicine. Furthermore, the concept of medicinal plant selection as medicine based on their tastes is still an important component of traditional Thai medicine, but no or little publications have been reported. Thus the aim of the present study is to collect ethnomedicinal data, medicinal plant tastes and relevant information from experienced traditional healers before they are lost. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information from nine experienced traditional healers on the utilization of medicinal plants in Phatthalung Province, Peninsular Thailand. Data were obtained using semi-structured interviews and participant observations. Plant specimens were also collected and identified according to the plant taxonomic method. A total of 151 medicinal plants were documented and 98 of these are reported in the study. Local names, medicinal uses, parts used, modes of preparation, and the relationship between ailments and tastes of medicinal plant species are presented. This research suggests that traditional healers are still considered important for public health among Thai communities and that many people trust the healing properties of medicinal plants. In the future, it is hoped that traditional Thai medicine will be promoted and therefore will help reduce national public health expense.

  12. Effectiveness of group-mediated lifestyle physical activity (glpa) program for health benefit in physical activity among elderly people at rural thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethisan, P.; Chapman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Elderly population is considered as a vulnerable group and prone to develop multiple medical problems. This aging population is rapidly increasing in developing countries especially in Thailand. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study to evaluate the effectiveness of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly people by using validated and reliable Global Physical Activity Questionnaire-GPAQv2. The study was conducted in Phranakhonsiayutthaya district, Ayutthaya province due to its population being the second highest elderly in the Central Region of Thailand. A total of 102 persons of age 60 and over who could read and write Thai language were selected purposively. However, 52 elderly were enrolled in the intervention group and 50 were enrolled for the control group. General Linear Model repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity (GLPA) program on change health benefit in physical activity among elderly. Results: Overall health benefit at baseline were similar between intervention and control group and found statistically non-significant with p-value 0.638 (>0.05). However, the mean score of health benefit was 23.21 ± 29.23 in intervention group and 20.74 ± 23.18 in control group. One third of participants of intervention group had not found health benefit due to physical activity while in control group this number was more than half. After elderly received Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program intervention for 6 month found significant statistical differences as compared with mean score at baseline (health benefit 6 month, intervention group =40.7 ± 34.28 and control group =4.56 ± 8.79). Conclusion: The effect of Group-Mediated Lifestyle Physical Activity program change intervention was statistically significant in health benefit after intervention program between intervention and control group. Our study

  13. Integrated strategies to tackle the inequitable distribution of doctors in Thailand: four decades of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpaibon Paichit

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inequitable distribution of doctors with high concentration in urban cities negatively affects the public health objective of Health for All. Thus it is one of the main concerns for most health policy makers, particularly in developing countries. This paper aims to summarize strategies to solve inequitable distribution of human resources for health (HRH between urban and rural areas, by using four decades of experience in Thailand as a case study for analysis.

  14. Data on prevalence and risk factors associated with Toxocara spp infection, atopy and asthma development in Northeast Brazilian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, we provide shortly, data on risk factors for acquiring Toxocara spp. infection and investigate possible associations between this infection with atopy and asthma in school children of a small town and its semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil. The data set are composed by demographic, social and home environment variables. The detection of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and specific IgE to aeroallergens was determined by ELISA and ImmunocAP/Phadiatrope systems, respectively. The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Risk factors for Toxocara spp. seroprevalence and its association with atopy and asthma phenotypes in school-age children in a small town and semi-rural areas of Northeast Brazil” (M.B. Silva, A.L. Amor, L.N. Santos, A.A. Galvão, A.V. Oviedo Vera, E.S. Silva et al., 2016 [1].

  15. Controlling dengue with vaccines in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis L Chao

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes.We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes, stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period.Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels.

  16. Controlling Dengue with Vaccines in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L.; Halstead, Scott B.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes), stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period. Conclusions/Significance Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels. PMID:23145197

  17. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  18. Ecosystem Resilience to Drought and Temperature Anomalies in the Mekong River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Na-U-Dom, T.; Garcia, Monica; Mo, X.

    2017-01-01

    to the temperate and wet/dry anomalies events than other regions in the basin. Drought reduced green biomass in north Laos, northeast Thailand and Myanmar, but in these tropical climate regions' the vegetation biomass was also more responsive by higher temperatures. Vegetation in northeast Thailand, Cambodia...

  19. A new PCR-based approach indicates the range of Clonorchis sinensis now extends to Central Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Traub

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for 'Opisthorchis-like' eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis-endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future

  20. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand

  1. Effectiveness of a Guided Self-help Manual in Strengthening Resilience in People Diagnosed with Moderate Depression and Their Family Caregivers in Thailand: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Songprakun, Wallapa; Stephenson, John

    2017-08-01

    The growing incidence of depression in developing countries, such as Thailand, is placing increasing pressure on public mental health services, and those living in rural areas have limited access to these services. Resilience is integral to the recovery of people with depression and to caregivers. This parallel-group randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a guided self-help manual in improving resilience in adults diagnosed with moderate depression and their primary caregivers in Thailand. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that the approach is an effective way of increasing resilience in adults with depression and their caregivers.

  2. Fire and the production of Astraeus odoratus (Basidiomycetes sporocarps in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forests of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan H. Kennedy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Astraeus (Diplocystidiaceae forms ectomycorrhizal associations with many tree species and is a common gasteromycete in tropical and temperate ecosystems worldwide. In Thailand, Astraeus is most prevalent in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forest (DOF in the north and north-east and its ecology is uniquely associated with fire. Rural villagers often burn the seasonally dry DOF ground vegetation causing significant environmental disturbance to promote the growth of Astraeus sporocraps—a local culinary delicacy and important source of household income. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the practice of burning DOF stimulates the production of Astraeus sporocarps in DOF. Burned and unburned Astraeus habitat was surveyed over two years at two sites in Chiang Mai province and one site in Mae Hong Son province. Changes in soil fungi after a fire as well as vascular vegetation growing with Astraeus were studied. All sporocarps collected were identified as Astraeus odoratus. Astraeus sporocarps were found in both burned and unburned areas in 2010. In 2011, an unusually wet year, no sporocarps were found in burned or unburned areas. The top 2 cm of soil experienced high temperatures which killed fungi, but lower depths were well insulated from the heat. A wide range of vascular flora grew in Astraeus habitat, the most common tree species being Dipterocarpus tuberculatus var. tuberculatus and Dipterocarpus obtusifolius var. obtusifolius. This study shows that Astraeus can produce sporocarps without fire and future work can focus on more environmentally benign methods of harvesting this popular mushroom.

  3. Commitment contracts and team incentives: a randomized controlled trial for smoking cessation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S; Dow, William H; Rungruanghiranya, Suthat

    2013-11-01

    Treatment for tobacco dependence is not available in many low-resource settings, especially in developing countries. To test the impact of a novel mix of monetary and social incentives on smoking abstinence in rural communities of Thailand. An RCT of commitment contracts and team incentives for rural smokers to quit smoking. Smokers were not blinded to treatment status, although the assessor of the biochemical urine test was. All adult smokers living in the study area were eligible to participate; 215 adult smokers from 42 villages in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand, participated. Fourteen smokers who lacked teammates were dropped. A total of 201 smokers were assigned to a two-person team, and then randomly assigned by team (in a 2:1 ratio) with computer-generated random numbers to receive smoking-cessation counseling (control group) or counseling plus offer of a commitment contract, team incentives, and text message reminders for smoking cessation at 3 months (intervention group). The primary outcome was biochemically verified 7-day abstinence at 6 months, assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes include study participation, biochemically verified abstinence at 3 months, self-reported abstinence at 14 months, and the incremental cost per quitter of the intervention, nicotine gum, and varenicline in Thailand. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyzed in 2012. The trial enrolled 215 (10.5%) of 2055 smokers. The abstinence rate was 46.2% (61/132) in the intervention group and 14.5% (10/69) in the control group (adjusted OR 7.5 [3.0-18.6]) at 3 months; 44.3% (58/131) and 18.8% (13/69) at the primary end point of 6 months (adjusted OR 4.2 [1.8-9.7]); and 42.0% (55/131) and 24.6% (17/69) at 14 months (adjusted OR 2.2 [1.0-4.8]). The purchasing power parity-adjusted incremental cost per quitter from the intervention is $281 (95% CI=$187, $562), less than for nicotine gum ($1780, 95% CI=$1414, $2401) or varenicline ($2073, 95% CI=$1357, $4388) in

  4. CDM Project Opportunities in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Interview on Channel 2 UBC Thailand Fysisk medie: .dat mpeg video file Tidspunkt for udsendelse: 2003/06/28......Interview on Channel 2 UBC Thailand Fysisk medie: .dat mpeg video file Tidspunkt for udsendelse: 2003/06/28...

  5. Thailand's solar white elephants: an analysis of 15 yr of solar battery charging programmes in northern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The use of decentralised renewable energy technologies to provide rural electrification in developing countries has been a common topic of analysis and policy debate for more than two decades. Unfortunately, a lack of empirical evidence about the field performance of these technologies is a significant barrier to making sound policy decisions about them. Compounded by minimal information sharing between stakeholders, this situation has frequently allowed duplication of inefficient policies. This issue is addressed here by providing empirical evidence gathered from field visits and interviews about the largest government subsidised solar battery charging programme in the world. This analysis highlights the different policies of departments responsible and discusses them with specific attention to their technical, social and economic components. Field study results from over 50 villages in the north of Thailand suggest about 60 per cent of these systems are no longer operational. Many of the technical failures observed are attributed to social factors, as well as flawed implementation strategies

  6. An assessment of dispersing pollutants from the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane in rural areas in the northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria Gabriela L.; Henríquez, Jorge R.; Costa, José A. P.; de Lira Junior, José C.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the Brazilian government has been applying several restrictions with regard to preventing environmental pollution. Although Brazilian legislation is becoming stricter as to the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane, this practice is frequently used in order to assist manual harvesting. In the northeast region of Brazil, sugarcane is an important crop, which accounts for about 15% of the national production in a total area of 1,060,660 ha, the average production being 51,119 kg per hectare. The pre-harvest burning of sugarcane generates smoke, which has a high concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (P.M. 2.5 and 10), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This article estimates the volume of CO, P.M. 2.5 and NOX generated and how they are dispersed in the atmosphere when this arises from the burning of sugarcane biomass in rural areas of Northeast Brazil, and does so by using AERMOD VIEW® simulation software. Using the characteristics of the emissions and environmental (meteorological and topographical) data, quality air profiles based on pollutant dispersion were obtained. Three studies were taken into account in order to determine the relationship between pollutant dispersion and some parameters of the burning process, such as those for the spatial distribution of resources, the duration of pre-harvest burning and the influence of undertaking burning in different months. As to spatial distribution, to divide an area into small lots contributes to decreasing the maximum concentration of pollutants by 53% compared to burning a single area of equivalent size. The study of the burning duration indicated that doing so gradually (using a lengthier procedure) could decrease the maximum concentration of the pollutants by an inverse relation. The harvesting period in this region is between November and April. The pollutants

  7. Thailand's growth rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Jitsuchon, Somchai; Sussangkarn, Chalongphob

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews Thailand's structural changes, the 1997 crisis experience, and recovery and lessons from the crisis. The paper then discusses the impacts of the subprime crisis on the Thai economy and the policy responses to date. The paper ends by discussing strategies to rebalance growth by reducing the dependence on exports as the main growth engine. The recovery from the 1997 crisis left Thailand more dependent than ever on exports as the main engine of growth, with the ratio of export...

  8. Thailand's cash crisis hits Asian hydro plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David

    1999-01-01

    This article highlights the impact of Thailand's economic crisis on the state run Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) hydroelectric power developments plans. The three economic scenarios (rapid, moderate, slow) used by EGAT, and the moderate recovery scenario that the Thai government has instructed EGAT to use are discussed. The predicted rising of energy consumption, the delay to EGAT power development programme, plans for constructing plants using renewable energy, the supply of electricity from Laos, and future developments are considered. The restructuring of Thailand's electricity sector is reviewed, and Thailand's decision to request the assistance of the International Monetary Fund is noted. Thailand's power capability is briefly explored, and a diagram showing the transmission system and existing and future hydroelectric power plants is presented. (UK)

  9. Community Health Policy Assessment of a Rural Northeast Missouri County using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s CHANGE Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitch Stewart

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to build a framework to address policy gaps and needs, community’s risk factors were identified and the extent to which current policies were in place to address the risk factors were compared. Methods: Face-to-face interviews, using the US Centers for Disease Con¬trol and Prevention’s CHANGE tool were conducted in a rural Northeast Missouri county possessing exceptionally high chronic disease rates to as¬sess the factor(s had the greatest influence on the rates in each sector of the community. Results: The Health Care Agency sector possessed the most factors cate¬gorized as environmental and policy assets, and the Community-at-Large and Business/Worksite sectors seemed to possess the least environmental and policy factors categorized as assets.Conclusions: Because organizational policies can strongly influence community health practices and behaviors, collaborative leadership from the Health Care Agency sector, comprehensive worksite health promotion programs in the Business/Worksite and Community In¬stitu¬tions/Organizations sectors, and tobacco-free school policies are recom¬mended. Multiple community sectors must work together to change not only behaviors but also environments in this county.

  10. The status of Thailand Y2K Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisanan, V.; Junlanan, M.; Malaivongs, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report divided into two parts deals with the general status of Y2K issues in Thailand and its effects in nuclear safeguards and physical protection and control of nuclear materials. It includes a description of safeguards in Thailand, Y2K action plan, contingency (emergency) plan, Thailand Y2K status report and the Thailand answer sheet about safeguards Y2K problem

  11. Environmental benefits of electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental perspective, electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia make sense. Cities in Northeast China, Mongolia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and the Republic of Korea (ROK) suffer from poor air quality due to the extensive use of coal-fired power generation. Rural communities suffer from a deficit of electricity, forcing reliance on coal and biofuels for cooking and heating in the home, which causes health-damaging indoor air pollution. Regional air pollution from acid rain and ozone is widespread. In addition, Japan is finding it hard to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, just across their borders in far eastern Russia are extensive, clean energy resources: hydroelectricity and natural gas, and (potentially) nuclear power and tidal power. It would be environmentally beneficial to generate electricity cleanly in far eastern Russia and transmit the electricity across the borders into China, Mongolia, the DPRK, the ROK, and Japan, thereby displacing coal-fired electricity generation. We estimate that currently planned projects could alleviate the problems of two to five Chinese cities, with the potential for much larger benefits in the future. (author)

  12. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.

  13. Slow pyrolysis for rural small biomass energy by joint project developments of Brazil and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampegowda, Rajesh; Chandayot, Pongchan [Asian University, Chonburi (Thailand)], email: rkempegowda@asianust.ac.th; Pannirselvam, Pagandai V.; Humberto, Maricy; Santos, Joao Matias [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEQ/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos], email: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The efficiency for carbonization by slow pyrolysis is still low in the current method studied using rice straw in Thailand and cashewnut shell in Brazil, however direct heating process yields better char yield of 17% as compared to indirect heating with 15% process using horizontal metal drum kiln.where as vertical kiln were mainly used in Brazil. Higher yield is made possible from Brasilian cashew nut shell to make oil and char. Carbon and energy balance was also carried out and the results were compared for the direct and indirect process. Burning by indirect draft gives better results like more char, faster process. Direct draft gives less char, but higher quality (higher C and H2). Also a lot of straw is left unburnt in the direct draft kiln, because of bad temperature distribution and flow inside. The kiln design is found to be more suitable for indirect draft rather than direct draft. Both methods still give rice straw charcoal that has low calorific value with an output char LHV of 4337 kcal/kg as compared to fresh rice straw of 3412 kcal/kg. In the direct heating method output char is enriched to 45% with a still unburnt rice straw left out as compared to indirect heating method with carbon enrichment of 39%. There is a loss of 13% of carbon through the ash in the both the methods. The carbon content in the condensate is in the order of 18.5% for the indirect process as compared to 13.9% in the direct process due to less exhaust and carbon enrichment inside the kiln. There is a loss of 43% of carbon in the exhaust from indirect heating process as compared to direct heating process which is reduced to 26%. The energy balance predicts a heat loss of 14% in exhaust gases. A practical small scale slow pyrolysis project was developed to meet rural energy and heat requirements. to make the clean energy from waste resources possible by the joint project. (author)

  14. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. The marginalization of "small is beautiful": Micro-hydroelectricity, common property, and the politics of rural electricity provision in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greacen, Christopher Edmund

    This study analyzes forces that constrain sustainable deployment of cost-effective renewable energy in a developing country. By many economic and social measures, community micro-hydro is a superior electrification option for remote mountainous communities in Thailand. Yet despite a 20 year government program, only 59 projects were built and of these less than half remain operating. By comparison, the national grid has extended to over 69,000 villages. Based on microeconomic, engineering, social barriers, common pool resource, and political economic theories, this study investigates first, why so few micro-hydro projects were built, and second, why so few remain operating. Drawing on historical information, site visits, interviews, surveys, and data logging, this study shows that the marginal status of micro-hydro arises from multiple linked factors spanning from village experiences to geopolitical concerns. The dominance of the parastatal rural electrification utility, the PEA, and its singular focus on grid extension are crucial in explaining why so few projects were built. Buffered from financial consequences by domestic and international subsidies, grid expansion proceeded without consideration of alternatives. High costs borne by villagers for micro-hydro discouraged village choice. PEA remains catalytic in explaining why few systems remain operating: grid expansion plans favor villages with existing loads and most villages abandon micro-hydro generators when the grid arrives. Village experiences are fundamental: most projects suffer blackouts, brownouts, and equipment failures due to poor equipment and collective over-consumption. Over-consumption is linked to mismatch between tariffs and generator technical characteristics. Opportunities to resolve problems languished as limited state support focused on building projects and immediate repairs rather than fundamentals. Despite frustrations, many remain proud of "their power plant". Interconnecting and selling

  16. The Ethnic Composition of Rural Youth in the United States: General Characteristics and Regional Comparisons. Information Report No. 73-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Luis A.

    Population characteristics of rural youth (persons under 25 years of age) living in the rural areas of the four national regions of North Central, Northeast, West, and South are presented. Emphasis is placed on describing the racial and ethnic variations shown by the target population; focus is on the regional distribution of ethnic minority…

  17. The AMS {sup 14}C dating of Iron Age rice chaff ceramic temper from Ban Non Wat, Thailand: First results and its interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higham, Charles F.W., E-mail: charles.higham@otago.ac.n [Department of Anthropology, Otago University, Dunedin (New Zealand); Kuzmin, Yaroslav V. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Koptuyg Ave. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Burr, G.S. [Arizona AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 0081 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Pottery tempered with rice chaff from the early Iron Age cemetery of Ban Non Wat site, northeast Thailand, has been subjected to direct AMS {sup 14}C dating, using low temperature combustion with oxygen as originally developed by authors. The carbon yield (0.2-0.5%) testifies the suitability of this pottery for dating. However, not all the results are in agreement with expected archaeological ages and other {sup 14}C dates from the studied site and neighboring site of Noen U-Loke. This calls for a thorough analysis and interpretation of pottery temper dates from the region.

  18. Public Sector Responses to Sustainable Haze Management in Upper Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyut Tiyapairat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on urban haze in Upper Northern Thailand (UNT, where smoke haze often produce impacts on human health, tourism, and transportation. The objective was to better understand how the public sector responded to the haze impacts in policy review interviews and analyses of compiled haze-related data during 2007-2011. Moreover, integration of haze adaptation policy and coherency was also explored. The results revealed that Thailand has mainly implemented three National Haze Action Plans since 1997, together with laws and regulations for haze management. Further examination of haze policy at all levels of governance disclosed only vertical integration, whereas cross-boundary integration was reported only with the data and budget. Practically, manpower and function have not yet brought satisfactory outcomes. Moreover, the extent of state responses has been centralized –not decentralized from their centralized political structure. Low participation of people living in both urban and rural areas and cooperative efforts were identified as the main factors contributing to failures in combating smoke haze. Therefore, individuals are of utmost importance for effective solutions. There is a continuous need for prevention campaigns to enhance local people's understanding and participation as well as local communities' networking for solutions to the haze problem.

  19. Ud eller over til Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Svar under rubrikken Sprogligheder på spørgsmål om brug af retningsadverbier i dansk ved Thailand og andre, fjernereliggende lokaliteter.......Svar under rubrikken Sprogligheder på spørgsmål om brug af retningsadverbier i dansk ved Thailand og andre, fjernereliggende lokaliteter....

  20. Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanlett-Avery, Emma

    2006-01-01

    U.S.-Thailand relations are of particular interest to Congress because of Thailand's status as a long-time military ally, a key country in the war against terrorism in Southeast Asia, and a significant...

  1. USING A DEA MANAGEMENT TOOLTHROUGH A NONPARAMETRIC APPROACH: AN EXAMINATION OF URBAN-RURAL EFFECTS ON THAI SCHOOL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANGCHAN KANTABUTRA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines urban-rural effects on public upper-secondary school efficiency in northern Thailand. In the study, efficiency was measured by a nonparametric technique, data envelopment analysis (DEA. Urban-rural effects were examined through a Mann-Whitney nonparametric statistical test. Results indicate that urban schools appear to have access to and practice different production technologies than rural schools, and rural institutions appear to operate less efficiently than their urban counterparts. In addition, a sensitivity analysis, conducted to ascertain the robustness of the analytical framework, revealed the stability of urban-rural effects on school efficiency. Policy to improve school eff iciency should thus take varying geographical area differences into account, viewing rural and urban schools as different from one another. Moreover, policymakers might consider shifting existing resources from urban schools to rural schools, provided that the increase in overall rural efficiency would be greater than the decrease, if any, in the city. Future research directions are discussed.

  2. Promoting Food Safety and Food Security in Rural Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikhiram N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at two villages, Ban Mae Kampong, Mae On, Chiang Mai and Ban Pa Miang, Muang, Lampang, Northern Thailand. This community is supported by Thai government tourism ministry to develop their skills in order to create and offer rural tourism. The study focus on community member groups who are involved with rural tourism activities; Homestay members, food preparation management members, tour guides, community leader groups, in order to assess the acceptance, collaboration and preparation of safety indigenous food menu and food security management where will support rural tourism community objectives. This study was carried out as in a participatory stage which included various seminars and workshops of rural tourism management concluded from homestay services, Thai herbs medication beneficiary, basic and applied nutrition concepts, indigenous healthy food productivity with standardized recipes, food safety handling and food security management for preparing food for themselves as well as suitable for tourism consumption. In addition of this useful vegetarian calendar information, which is highly appropriate serving as a tool for their daily meal management.

  3. Cultural resistance to fast-food consumption? A study of youth in North Eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yuthapornpinit, Pataraporn; Sleigh, Adrian

    2009-11-01

    Increased intake of saturated fat and refined sugars underlies much of the problem of emerging obesity all over the world. This includes middle-income countries like Thailand, which are subject to successful marketing of Western fast foods especially targeted at adolescents. In this study we explore the socio-cultural influences on fast-food intake for non-metropolitan (rural and urban) adolescents in North East Thailand (Isan). Our questionnaire sample included 634 persons aged 15-19 years who are in and out of formal schooling and who are randomly representing upper, central and lower Isan. All were asked about their knowledge of fast-food health risks and their attitudes towards, and consumption of, fast food and traditional food. As well, we used several focus groups to obtain qualitative data to complement the information derived from the questionnaire. Some three quarters of sampled youth were aware that fast food causes obesity and half knew of the link to heart disease. About half consumed fast food regularly, induced by the appeal of 'modern' lifestyles, social events and marketing, as well as by the convenience, speed and taste. Nearly two-thirds thought that local foods should be more popular and these beliefs were more likely to be found among children from educated and urban families. Local foods already constitute a cultural resistance to fast-food uptake. We propose several methods to boost this resistance and protect the youth of Thailand against fast food and its many adverse health consequences.

  4. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  5. Exposure to N-nitroso compounds in a population of high liver cancer regions in Thailand: volatile nitrosamine (VNA) levels in Thai food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitacek, E J; Brunnemann, K D; Suttajit, M; Martin, N; Limsila, T; Ohshima, H; Caplan, L S

    1999-04-01

    The recent case-control studies in Thailand indicate that a high incidence of liver cancer in Thailand has not been associated with common risk factors such as hepatitis B infection, aflatoxin intake and alcohol consumption. While the infestation by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) accounted for the high risk in north-east Thailand, there was no such exposure in the other regions of the country where the incidence of liver cancer is also high. Case-control studies suggest that exposure to exogenous and possibly endogenous nitrosamines in food or tobacco in betel nut and cigarettes may play a role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while OV infestation and chemical interaction of nitrosamines may also be aetiological factors in the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Over 1800 samples of fresh and preserved food were systematically collected and tested between 1988 and 1996. All the food items identified by anthropological studies to be consumed frequently in four major regions of Thailand were analysed for volatile nitrosamines using gas chromatography combined with a thermal energy analyser. Relatively high levels of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP) and N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) were detected in fermented fish ("Plasalid"). NDMA was also detected at levels ranging from trace amounts to 66.5 microg/kg in several salted and dried fish ("Larb-pla" and "Pla-siu"). NDMA and NPYR were frequently detected in several vegetables, particularly fermented beans ("Tau-chiau") at levels ranging between 1 and 95.1 microg/kg and 0-146 microg/kg, respectively. The possible role of nitrosamines in Thai food in the aetiology of liver cancer (HCC, CCA) is discussed.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of roll-your-own smoking in Thailand and Malaysia: Findings of the ITC-South East Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Ross, Hana; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Kin, Foong; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2008-05-01

    Roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette use has been subject to relatively limited research, particularly in developing countries. This paper seeks to describe RYO use in Thailand and Malaysia and relate RYO use to smokers' knowledge of the harmfulness of tobacco. Data come from face-to-face surveys with 4,004 adult smokers from Malaysia (N = 2,004) and Thailand (N = 2000), collected between January and March 2005. The prevalence of any use of RYO cigarettes varied greatly between Malaysia (17%) and Thailand (58%). In both countries, any RYO use was associated with living in rural areas, older average age, lower level of education, male gender, not being in paid work, slightly lower consumption of cigarettes, higher social acceptability of smoking, and positive attitudes toward tobacco regulation. Among RYO users, exclusive use of RYO cigarettes (compared with mixed use) was associated with older age, female gender (relatively), thinking about the enjoyment of smoking, and not making a special effort to buy cheaper cigarettes if the price goes up. Finally, exclusive RYO smokers were less aware of health warnings (RYO tobacco carries no health warnings), but even so, knowledge of the health effects of tobacco was equivalent.

  7. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  8. Rural retention of new medical graduates from the Collaborative Project to Increase Production of Rural Doctors (CPIRD): a 12-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techakehakij, Win; Arora, Rajin

    2017-07-01

    Physician scarcity in rural areas is a major obstacle to healthcare access, leading to health inequity worldwide. In Thailand, a special recruitment program of medical education [Collaborative Project to Increase Production of Rural Doctors (CPIRD)] was initiated with four different medical training tracks. No previous research has examined the rural retention of new medical graduates across the CPIRD tracks, compared with those receiving conventional medical education (Normal track). This study examines the public retention of rural physicians from different tracks of entry. A retrospective study was conducted in new medical graduates who entered Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) hospitals from January 2003 to October 2014, and followed up until June 2015, using administrative data from the Personnel Administration Division, MoPH. The CPIRD registry database was used to identify physicians' tracks of entry. Survival analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to compare the annual retention and the probability of 3-year retention of rural physicians. Results clearly demonstrated a high rural retention of CPIRD medical graduates, compared with their Normal track peers, regarding both lower annual resignation (HR 0.456, P rural retention were revealed across the different CPIRD tracks. Evidence from this study can be used as part of the information to reshape the physician production policy to reduce health inequity in rural areas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Biogas Application Options within Milk Dairy Cooperatives in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Sommart, Kritapon

    2016-01-01

    .g. reduced GHG emissions and better manure handling practices, which limits pollution of nitrogen to recipients. Suggestions are provided of how to retrofit the stables to facilitate manure collection, storage and transport to the biogas plant. Which type of biogas plant to implement, financial issues......By means of a case study conducted within a milk dairy cooperative in Tambon Ban Kor, a district in Khon Kaen Province, this paper analyze opportunities for implementing a biogas development ‘hub’ in Thailand for achieving bio-economic and environmental benefits within a local rural community...... cooperative, etc. The biogas plant substitutes the use of fossil fuels, and surplus electricity can be exported to the power grid and provide extra income. Local crop farmers and ago-industries could benefit economically from sale of biomass residues to the energy plant. The environment will benefit from e...

  10. Demographic Evolution of the Small Towns in the North-East Development Region in the Post-Communist Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL CAMARĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania's population has declined steadily from 23.2 million in 1990 to 21.5 million inhabitants in 2007. This overall decline in population is not entirely true for the towns and cities of the North-East Region, as during the same period they recorded both decreases and increases in population due to positive natural balance. The North-East Region (partially superimposed over the historic region of the western Moldova is considered the poorest region in the European Union and a disadvantaged area. The rural young population of Moldova is a reservoir which supplies urban areas and especially large cities. In these circumstances, the small towns of the North-East Region are seeking balance (demographic, economic, functional. This paper examines the demographic evolution of the small towns located in the area under analysis, in the post-communist period, illustrating the types of fluctuations in statistical methods as regards demographic changes and the risk of depopulation in the future, correlated with a lower overall population of Romania.

  11. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  12. Transmission dynamics of rabies virus in Thailand: Implications for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puanghat Apirom

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Thailand, rabies remains a neglected disease with authorities continuing to rely on human death statistics while ignoring the financial burden resulting from an enormous increase in post-exposure prophylaxis. Past attempts to conduct a mass dog vaccination and sterilization program have been limited to Bangkok city and have not been successful. We have used molecular epidemiology to define geographic localization of rabies virus phylogroups and their pattern of spread in Thailand. Methods We analyzed 239 nucleoprotein gene sequences from animal and human brain samples collected from all over Thailand between 1998 and 2002. We then reconstructed a phylogenetic tree correlating these data with geographical information. Results All sequences formed a monophyletic tree of 2 distinct phylogroups, TH1 and TH2. Three subgroups were identified in the TH1 subgroup and were distributed in the middle region of the country. Eight subgroups of TH2 viruses were identified widely distributed throughout the country overlapping the TH1 territory. There was a correlation between human-dependent transportation routes and the distribution of virus. Conclusion Inter-regional migration paths of the viruses might be correlated with translocation of dogs associated with humans. Interconnecting factors between human socioeconomic and population density might determine the transmission dynamics of virus in a rural-to-urban polarity. The presence of 2 or more rabies virus groups in a location might be indicative of a gene flow, reflecting a translocation of dogs within such region and adjacent areas. Different approaches may be required for rabies control based on the homo- or heterogeneity of the virus. Areas containing homogeneous virus populations should be targeted first. Control of dog movement associated with humans is essential.

  13. CDM Country Guide for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Thailand

  14. Northeast project/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Ribeiro, G.F.; Lima, J.O.V.; Dornelles, G.H.; Laborne, J.J.; Sakamoto, L.H.; Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1987-10-01

    The subprojects from the Northeast/CNEN project, that aims to disseminate the benefits of nuclear energy are described. Those subprojects are the following: food conservation, energy, health, hydric resources, mineral and agriculture, all of them have as goal to improve the socio-economical conditions of the northeast population in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Thailand. Radiation-Polymerization in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilubol, M.L. Anong; Greethong, Somkiart [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1968-10-15

    Wood-plastic composites produced by means of radiation-induced polymerization of monomers impregnated into the wood have been the subject of study in many laboratories throughout the world. In general the processes are similar, and the differences that occur are due to variations in technique applied to the particular species of wood available in each country. In Thailand, treatment to improve the quality of wood is being carried out by scientists at the Forest Products Research Division of the Royal Forest Department, Ministry of Agriculture, with the aim of obtaining products which can stand up to weathering and termite attack. On the basis of their experience, certain types of wood suitable for impregnation have been selected for our study. The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace began studying the impregnation-irradiation of certain types of Thai wood in the hope that it might result in better utilization of poor quality wood. The use of irradiated-impregnated wood in Thailand is not necessary at present, since many different varieties of hard wood are available. The production of plywood does not even meet the demand of the local market, thus the introduction of this new technique is not an attractive proposal for the time being.

  16. Role of nuclear energy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, Somporn

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy in Thailand can be highlighted when the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established since 1961 for taking role of nuclear safety regulation, conducting research and promotion for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Its main facilities were the 1 megawatt Thai Research Reactor-1 (TRR-1) and the Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiator. Since then there have been substantial progress made on utilization of nuclear energy in various institutions and in private sectors. Nowaday, there are around 500 units of nuclear energy users in Thailand, i.e. 100 units in medicine, 150 units in education and 250 units in industry. In terms of nuclear power for electricity generation, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has conducted the activities to support the nuclear power plant project since 1972 however, because there is widespread public concerned about nuclear safety, waste disposal and recently economic problems in Thailand, nuclear energy option is not put in immediate plan for alternative energy resource. Within the short future, increased in economical, demand fir electricity and safe operation of nuclear plants will likely be demonstrated and recognized. Nuclear energy should remain as an option in the long-term energy strategies for Thailand. (author)

  17. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijika Timsuksai

    Full Text Available Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.

  18. Transsexual emergence: gender variant identities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocha, Witchayanee

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to understanding of emergent gender/sexual identities in Thailand. Thailand has become a popular destination for sex change operations by providing the medical technology for a complete transformation, with relatively few procedures and satisfactory results at a reasonable price. Data were gathered from 24 transsexual male-to-female sex workers working in Pattaya and Patpong, well-known sex-tourism hot spots in Thailand. Findings suggest the emergence of new understandings of gender/sexual identity. Sex-tourism/sex work significantly illuminates the process through which gender is contested and re-imagined. The coming together of cultures in Thailand's sex industry, coupled with advances in medical technology, has resulted in the emergence of new concepts of gender.

  19. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  20. Climatology and Spatio-Temporal Variability of Wintertime Total and Extreme Rainfall in Thailand during 1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at examining wintertime (December-January-February; DJF climatology and spatio-temporal variability of Thailand’s total and extreme rainfall during 1970-2012. Analysis showed that the area along the Gulf of Thailand’s eastern coast not only received much amount of rainfall but also underwent great extremes and variances during the northeast monsoon (NEM winters. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis similarly revealed that the leading mode of each DJF total or extreme rainfall index was marked by maximum loadings concentrated at the stations located at the exposed area of the NEM flow. Correlation analysis indicated that the leading EOF mode of DJF total and extreme indices in Thailand tended to be higher (lower than normal during strong (weak East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM. On longer timescales, the recent decadal change observed in the leading EOF mode of all rainfall indices has been coincident with re-amplification of the EAWM taken place since the early/mid 2000. The leading EOF mode of DJF total and extreme rainfall indices in Thailand also exhibited strong correlations with the tropical-subtropical Pacific Ocean surface temperatures. It was characterized as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO/El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO-related boomerang-shaped spatial patterns, resembling the typical mature phases of the La Niña event and the PDO cool epoch. Based on our analysis, it is reasonable to believe that the anomalies of the NEM and other key EAWM-related circulations are likely to be the possible causes of DJF total and extreme rainfall variations in Thailand. In addition, the ENSO and PDO as the primary global atmospheric external forcing are likely to exert their influence on wintertime Thailand’s climate via modulating the EAWM/NEM-related circulations anomalies.

  1. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N

    2018-03-01

    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2009-10-01

    Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

  3. Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Thailand: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, gas, electricity), energy supplies (gas reserves, oil, power production, coal, lignite, renewable energies), prices, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (energy consumption, power production, projects, contracts, agreements, investments). Economical data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  4. Growth-corruption-health triaca and environmental degradation: empirical evidence from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impact of economic growth, corruption, health, and poverty on environmental degradation for three countries from ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand using annual data over the period of 1994-2014. The relationship between environmental degradation (pollution) by carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and economic growth is examined along with some other variables, namely health expenditure, poverty, agriculture value added growth, industrial value added growth, and corruption. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method is applied as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The empirical results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant at the 5% level of significance, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non-cointegration, indicating that all variables play an important role in affecting the environment across countries. Empirical results also indicate that economic growth has significant positive impact, while health expenditures show significantly negative impact on the environment. Corruption has significant positive effect on environment in the case of Malaysia; while in the case of Indonesia and Thailand, it has insignificant results. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the regression estimate suggests that economic growth has a significant positive relationship with environment for Indonesia, while it is found insignificantly negative and positive in the case of Malaysia and Thailand, respectively, during the period under the study. Empirical findings of the study suggest that policy-makers require to make technological-friendly environment sequentially to surmount unregulated pollution, steady population transfers from rural areas to urban areas are also important, and poverty alleviation and better health provision can also help to improve the environment.

  5. Supplementary data:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Acer

    Supplementary data: Table 1. Collection localities of C. mystaceus in Thailand. Pop. Code N. Province. District. Region. 1. BRk. 9. Buri Ram. Krasang. Northeast. 2. CPm. 5. Chaiyaphum. Mueang. Northeast. 3. KKk. 5. Khon Kaen. Kranuan. Northeast. 4. KKm. 5. Khon Kaen. Mueang. Northeast. 5. KKu. 4. Khon Kaen.

  6. Community participation for thalassemia prevention initiated by village health volunteers in northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopang, Yupin; Petchmark, Suthep; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Schelp, Frank Peter

    2015-03-01

    The study was conducted to assess the achievement of a thalassemia screening program at a community level supported by village health volunteers (VHVs) of 2 subdistricts in the northeast of Thailand. One subdistrict served as the intervention and the other as the control area. A training program was organized for the village health volunteers from the intervention area. Essential information about the risk and danger of thalassemia was given to the participants who wanted to have children in the community as well. Of the 206 individuals who wanted to have children living in the intervention area, 190 (92.2%) agreed to undergo screening. Of the 196 individuals within the control area, only 26 (13.3%) voluntarily participated in the screening tests. Attitude toward prevention and knowledge about the disease improved significantly in both areas, but the differences between the scores were statistically significantly higher for individuals living in the intervention area. © 2012 APJPH.

  7. Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Chinson, Pornpiroon; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Visser, Marjolein; Gaughan, Andrea E; Epprech, Michael; Robinson, Timothy P; Gilbert, Marius

    2016-10-06

    In Thailand, pig production intensified significantly during the last decade, with many economic, epidemiological and environmental implications. Strategies toward more sustainable future developments are currently investigated, and these could be informed by a detailed assessment of the main trends in the pig sector, and on how different production systems are geographically distributed. This study had two main objectives. First, we aimed to describe the main trends and geographic patterns of pig production systems in Thailand in terms of pig type (native, breeding, and fattening pigs), farm scales (smallholder and large-scale farming systems) and type of farming systems (farrow-to-finish, nursery, and finishing systems) based on a very detailed 2010 census. Second, we aimed to study the statistical spatial association between these different types of pig farming distribution and a set of spatial variables describing access to feed and markets. Over the last decades, pig population gradually increased, with a continuously increasing number of pigs per holder, suggesting a continuing intensification of the sector. The different pig-production systems showed very contrasted geographical distributions. The spatial distribution of large-scale pig farms corresponds with that of commercial pig breeds, and spatial analysis conducted using Random Forest distribution models indicated that these were concentrated in lowland urban or peri-urban areas, close to means of transportation, facilitating supply to major markets such as provincial capitals and the Bangkok Metropolitan region. Conversely the smallholders were distributed throughout the country, with higher densities located in highland, remote, and rural areas, where they supply local rural markets. A limitation of the study was that pig farming systems were defined from the number of animals per farm, resulting in their possible misclassification, but this should have a limited impact on the main patterns revealed

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Pcaries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (Pdental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120–3.754) with dental caries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

  9. Current manufactured cigarette smoking and roll-your-own cigarette smoking in Thailand: findings from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Sarunya; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Hsia, Jason; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Puckcharern, Hataichanok; Touchchai, Chitrlada; Lohtongmongkol, Areerat; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2013-03-27

    Current smoking prevalence in Thailand decreased from 1991 to 2004 and since that time the prevalence has remained flat. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that the prevalence of current smoking in Thailand has stopped decreasing is due to the use of RYO cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of users of manufactured and RYO cigarettes and dual users in Thailand, in order to determine whether there are differences in the characteristics of users of the different products. The 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS Thailand) provides detailed information on current smoking patterns. GATS Thailand used a nationally and regionally representative probability sample of 20,566 adults (ages 15 years and above) who were chosen through stratified three-stage cluster sampling and then interviewed face-to-face. The prevalence of current smoking among Thai adults was 45.6% for men and 3.1% for women. In all, 18.4% of men and 1.0% of women were current users of manufactured cigarettes only, while 15.8% of men and 1.7% of women were current users of RYO cigarettes only. 11.2% of men and 0.1% of women used both RYO and manufactured cigarettes. Users of manufactured cigarettes were younger and users of RYO were older. RYO smokers were more likely to live in rural areas. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes appeared to be more knowledgeable about the health risks of tobacco use. However, the difference was confounded with age and education; when demographic variables were controlled, the knowledge differences no longer remained. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes were more likely than dual users and those who used only RYO to report that they were planning on quitting in the next month. Users of RYO only appeared to be more addicted than the other two groups as measured by time to first cigarette. There appears to be a need for product targeted cessation and prevention efforts that are directed toward specific population subgroups in Thailand and

  10. The dynamics of condom use with regular and casual partners: analysis of the 2006 National Sexual Behavior Survey of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphichat Chamratrithirong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine factors associated with levels of condom use among heterosexual Thai males in sex with regular partners and in sex with casual partners. METHODS: The data used in this study are from the national probability sample of the 2006 National Sexual Behavior Study, the third nationally representative cross-sectional survey in Thailand. A subtotal of 2,281 men were analyzed in the study, including young (18-24 and older (25-59 adults who were residents of rural areas of Thailand, non-Bangkok urban areas, and Bangkok. Two outcomes of interest for this analysis are reported condom use in the past 12 months by males in relationships with the most recent regular and casual partners who were not sex workers. Chi-square statistics, bivariate regressions and the proportional odds regression models are used in the analysis. RESULTS: Condom use for men with their regular partner is revealed to be positively related to education, knowledge of condom effectiveness, and pro-condom strategy, and negatively related to non-professional employment, status of registered marriage, and short relationship duration. Condom use with casual partner is positively determined by education, condom knowledge, non-professional occupation, short relationship duration, and lack of history of paid sex. CONCLUSION: The national survey emphasized the importance of risk perceptions and condom motivations variables in explaining condom use among men in Thailand. These factors include not only education and knowledge of condom effectiveness and pro-condom strategy but also types of partners and their relationship context and characteristics. Program intervention to promote condom use in Thailand in this new era of predominant casual sex rather than sex with sex workers has to take into account more dynamic partner-based strategies than in the past history of the epidemics in Thailand.

  11. Mid-Tertiary paleoenvironments in Thailand: pollen evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sepulchre

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Only few well-dated records document the evolution of Southeast Asian paleoenvironments during the Cenozoic. Here we analyse continental pollen assemblages from Late Oligocene and Miocene fossil sites of Thailand. In agreement with previous studies, palynoflora from the Oligocene suggests warm temperate forested habitats at 24–26 Ma, whereas Middle Miocene assemblages are made of thermophilous taxa. This change can be linked to the major climate reorganization that brought warmer and wetter conditions over Southeast Asia around 22 Ma. This study also provides the first submillional records from the Middle Miocene of Thailand. Thirteen samples of lignite layers from the sivaladapid-bearing Mae Moh site, dated between 13.3 and 13.1 Ma, and six samples from the hominoid-bearing Chiang Muan deposit, dated between 12.4 and 12.2 Ma, document oscillations between tropical woodlands and grasslands in northern Thailand. These pollen records likely reflect climate variations linked to insolation variations. Late Miocene palynological assemblages from Khorat, northeastern Thailand, document fluviolacustrine paleoenvironments alternatively covered by thermophilous trees and grasslands. These records show that both sivaladapids and early hominoids from Thailand have evolved in tropical environments with high variability in the vegetation cover.

  12. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  13. Tourism Expenditures and Environment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Sompholkrang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities affect the environment of different destinations, which is influenced by different tourists’ consumption. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between inbound tourist expenditures and three main environmental dimensions, which are carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage, in Thailand. This paper employs Vector Autoregressive (VAR models to determine the relationship of variables. Data from Ministry of Energy, Bank of Thailand, Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority, National Statistical Office, Department of Tourism, and Tourism Authority of Thailand between 1988 and 2012 have been applied in the model. Note that, energy demand is represented by total electricity consumption of hotel and accommodation sector in Thailand, while water usage is represented by the total water consumption of tourists. This study found the relationships among tourists’ expenditures, carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage. Therefore, the policies recommendations may be essential to prepare the optimal schemes and budgets for encountering the environmental impacts from tourism business expansion.

  14. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  15. Notes on the Orchid Flora of Thailand (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Æ. Pedersen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three orchid species are newly recorded for the flora of Thailand. The discovery of Macodes petola in the southern part of Peninsular Thailand, adjacent to known occurrences across the Malaysian border, was expected. On the other hand, the find of Cheirostylis octodactyla in Thailand considerably extended the known range of this species to the west, as it was previously known only from the northern part of the Philippines, Taiwan and (through a single collection from northern Vietnam. The recent discovery of populations of Zeuxine bidupensis in Thailand suggests that this species, hitherto considered endemic to Vietnam, does not only have morphological, but also geographic affintities to the little known Z. pantlingii from West Bengal.

  16. Present and future of astronomy in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2018-05-01

    Investments in national astronomical facilities and human resources through the National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand have led to the rapid growth of astronomy in Thailand. Ongoing activities in key research areas, education and outreach will lead to further sustainable development.

  17. Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15

  18. The Association of Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Atherogenic Index of Plasma in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Guo, Xiaofan; Dai, Dongxue; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-10-19

    In 2010, the American Heart Association has proposed a new concept "ideal cardiovascular health" (CVH) based on seven CVH metrics: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. We aimed to determine the association of CVH with atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), a strong marker for atherosclerosis (AS). This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China and 11,113 middle-aged subjects were enrolled. Seven CVH metrics were classified into ideal, intermediate, and poor groups. AIP was calculated as log (TG/HDL) (triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). AIP > 0.21 was classified into the high AIP group and served as dependent variable. All seven CVH metrics were correlated with AIP. A gradient relationship between the number of poor CVH metrics and the prevalence of high AIP existed. Log binomial regression analysis showed that compared to those with five to seven ideal CVH metrics, individuals with four, three, two, one, and no ideal CVH metrics had 1.67, 2.66, 4.00, 5.30 and 6.50 times higher prevalence for high AIP. The subjects with poor CVH status had 2.73 times higher prevalence for high AIP. We found an inversely gradient relationship between the number of ideal CVH metrics and lower prevalence of high AIP.

  19. Characterizing Rural Food Access in Remote Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardenhagen, Chris J; Pinard, Courtney A; Pirog, Rich; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus

    2017-10-01

    Residents of rural areas may have limited access to healthy foods, leading to higher incidence of diet related health issues. Smaller grocers in rural areas experience challenges in maintaining fresh produce and other healthy foods available for customers. This study assessed the rural food environment in northeast Lower Michigan in order to inform healthy food financing projects such as the Michigan Good Food Fund. The area's retail food businesses were categorized using secondary licensing, business, and nutrition program databases. Twenty of these stores were visited in person to verify the validity of the categories created, and to assess the availability of healthy foods in their aisles. In-depth interviews with key informants were carried out with store owners, economic development personnel, and other food system stakeholders having knowledge about food access, in order to learn more about the specific challenges that the area faces. Out-shopping, seasonality, and economic challenges were found to affect healthy food availability. Mid-sized independent stores were generally found to have a larger selection of healthy foods, but smaller rural groceries also have potential to provide fresh produce and increase food access. Potential healthy food financing projects are described and areas in need of further research are identified.

  20. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Carioca, J.O.B.; Canafistula, F.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system.

  1. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano - IFSertao-PE, BR407, km 8, 56314-520 Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carioca, J.O.B. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Food Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Canafistula, F.J.F. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system. (author)

  2. E-Learning Readiness in the Academic Sector of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohajaratsang, Thanomporn

    2009-01-01

    As e-learning in the academic sector serves as a crucial driving force in the development of e-learning in Thailand, this article looks at e-learning readiness in Thailand with a focus on the academic sector. The article is divided into four parts: (1) a brief history of e-learning in Thailand; (2) the infrastructure related to e-learning…

  3. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  4. MODIS Hotspot Validation over Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerachai Tanpipat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure remote sensing MODIS hotspot (also known as active fire products or hotspots quality and precision in forest fire control and management in Thailand, an increased level of confidence is needed. Accuracy assessment of MODIS hotspots utilizing field survey data validation is described. A quantitative evaluation of MODIS hotspot products has been carried out since the 2007 forest fire season. The carefully chosen hotspots were scattered throughout the country and within the protected areas of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. Three areas were selected as test sites for validation guidelines. Both ground and aerial field surveys were also conducted in this study by the Forest Fire Control Division, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conversation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand. High accuracy of 91.84 %, 95.60% and 97.53% for the 2007, 2008 and 2009 fire seasons were observed, resulting in increased confidence in the use of MODIS hotspots for forest fire control and management in Thailand.

  5. Epidemiological investigation of Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Bangstrakulnonth, Aroon; Mikoleit, Matthew; Davies, Rob H; Aarestrup, Frank M; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes

    2011-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom. Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on selected Salmonella Kedougou strains causing infections in Thailand (n = 66), and compared to isolates from the United States (n = 5) and the United Kingdom (n = 20). Logistic analysis revealed season (hot/dry; p = 0.023), region (northern Thailand; p Thailand were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins: two harbored bla(CTX-M-63) and one bla(CMY-2). PFGE revealed 45 unique clusters. Isolates obtained from humans in Thailand and the United States presented identical PFGE profiles suggesting a travel association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, might pose problems for treatment of infections.

  6. Lexical Profiles of Thailand University Admission Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherngchawano, Wirun; Jaturapitakkul, Natjiree

    2014-01-01

    University Admission Tests in Thailand are important documents which reflect Thailand's education system. To study at a higher education level, all students generally need to take the University Admission Tests designed by the National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS). For the English test, vocabulary and reading comprehension is…

  7. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Ppopulation in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754) with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  8. Molecular variation in the Paragonimus heterotremus complex in Thailand and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Nawa, Yukifumi; Blair, David; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Of the 7 members of the genus known in Thailand until recently, only P. heterotremus has been confirmed as causing human disease. An 8th species, P. pseudoheterotremus, has recently been proposed from Thailand, and has been found in humans. Molecular data place this species as a sister species to P. heterotremus, and it is likely that P. pseudoheterotremus is not specifically distinct from P. heterotremus. In this study, we collected metacercariae of both nominal species (identification based on metacercarial morphology) from freshwater crabs from Phetchabun Province in northern Thailand, Saraburi Province in central Thailand, and Surat Thani Province in southern Thailand. In addition, we purchased freshwater crabs imported from Myanmar at Myawaddy Province, western Thailand, close to the Myanmar-Thailand border. The DNAs extracted from excysted metacercariae were PCR-amplified and sequenced for ITS2 and cox1 genes. The ITS2 sequences were nearly identical among all samples (99-100%). Phylogenies inferred from all available partial cox1 sequences contained several clusters. Sequences from Indian P. heterotremus formed a sister group to sequences from P. pseudoheterotremus-type metacercariae. Sequences of P. heterotremus from Thailand, Vietnam, and China formed a separate distinct clade. One metacercaria from Phitsanulok Province was distinct from all others. There is clearly considerable genetic variation in the P. heterotremus complex in Thailand and the form referred to as P. pseudoheterotremus is widely distributed in Thailand and the Thai-Myanmar border region.

  9. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  10. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  11. Northeast Asian economy cooperation: study on energy resource cooperation in Northeast Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.

  12. ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE-RICH EPISODES IN NORTHEAST PORTUGAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A.; Monteiro, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Tchepel, O.; Miranda, A.; Borrego, C.; Saavedra, S.; Souto, J. A.; Casares, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Each summer period extremely high ozone levels are registered at the rural background station of Lamas d’Olo, located in the Northeast of Portugal. In average, 30% of the total alert threshold registered in Portugal is detected at this site. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the atmospheric conditions that lead to the ozone-rich episodes. Synoptic patterns anomalies and back trajectories cluster analysis were performed for a period of 76 days where ozone maximum concentrations were above 200 µg.m-3. This analysis was performed for the period between 2004 and 2007. The obtained anomaly fields suggested that a positive temperature anomaly is visible above the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, a strong wind flow pattern from NE is visible in the North of Portugal and Galicia, in Spain. These two features may lead to an enhancement of the photochemical production and to the transport of pollutants from Spain to Portugal. In addition, the 3D mean back trajectories associated to the ozone episode days were analysed. A clustering method has been applied to the obtained back trajectories. Four main clusters of ozone-rich episodes were identified, with different frequencies of occurrence: north-westerly flows (11%); north-easterly flows (45%), southern flow (4%) and westerly flows (40%). Both analyses highlight the NE flow as a dominant pattern over the North of Portugal. The analysis of the ozone concentrations for each selected cluster indicates that this northeast circulation pattern, together with the southern flow, is responsible for the highest ozone peak episodes. This also suggests that long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants may be the main contributor to the ozone levels registered at Lamas d’Olo. This is also highlighted by the correlation of the ozone time series with the meteorological parameters analysed in the frequency domain.

  13. Human rhinovirus infections in rural Thailand: epidemiological evidence for rhinovirus as both pathogen and bystander.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Fry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe human rhinovirus (HRV detections in SaKaeo province, Thailand. METHODS: From September 1, 2003-August 31, 2005, we tested hospitalized patients with acute lower respiratory illness and outpatient controls without fever or respiratory symptoms for HRVs with polymerase chain reaction and molecularly-typed select HRVs. We compared HRV detection among hospitalized patients and controls and estimated enrollment adjusted incidence. RESULTS: HRVs were detected in 315 (16% of 1919 hospitalized patients and 27 (9.6% of 280 controls. Children had the highest frequency of HRV detections (hospitalized: <1 year: 29%, 1-4 year: 29%, ≥ 65 years: 9%; controls: <1 year: 24%, 1-4 year: 14%, ≥ 65 years: 2.8%. Enrollment adjusted hospitalized HRV detection rates were highest among persons aged <1 year (1038/100,000 persons/year, 1-4 years (457, and ≥ 65 years (71. All three HRV species were identified, HRV-A was the most common species in most age groups including children aged <1 year (61% and all adult age groups. HRV-C was the most common species in the 1-4 year (51% and 5-19 year age groups (54%. Compared to controls, hospitalized adults (≥ 19 years and children were more likely to have HRV detections (odds ratio [OR]: 4.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5, 15.8; OR: 2.0, CI: 1.2, 3.3, respectively and hospitalized children were more likely to have HRV-A (OR 1.7, CI: 0.8, 3.5 or HVR-C (OR 2.7, CI: 1.2, 5.9 detection. CONCLUSIONS: HRV rates were high among hospitalized children and the elderly but asymptomatic children also had substantial HRV detection. HRV (all species, and HRV-A and HRV-C detections were epidemiologically-associated with hospitalized illness. Treatment or prevention modalities effective against HRV could reduce hospitalizations due to HRV in Thailand.

  14. Oligarchy in Thailand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern conception of oligarchy, which can be housed under an authoritarian regime as easily as it can under a liberal democratic one, can affect our understanding of the potential national political repercussions of extreme inequalities of wealth. This article has two goals: (1 to conceptually analyse the meaning of oligarchy; and (2 to make a descriptive case for its use in the Thai context. The test case of contemporary Thailand shows what exactly an oligarch or oligarchy means under a military regime and the potential effects for national politics of an oligarchy based on material wealth. Utilizing Jeffrey A. Winters’ Aristotelian-grounded conception of oligarchy for the contemporary world, this article argues that some political outcomes in Thailand are inexplicable without recourse to a modern variant of oligarchic theory and analysis.

  15. Thailand and brain drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a source country. Fortunately, Thailand has never ranked highly in terms of brain drain when compared to other states in Asia and while it may not be a significant problem it nonetheless needs to be monitored. Thailand is also somewhat unique in that the migration that has occurred has been almost equally split between secondary and tertiary educated Thais. Thailand also ranks low in terms of tertiary educated population who have migrated when compared to other countries in the region. Globalisation is having a profound effect on the migration of skilled workers. As trade becomes increasingly free, barriers to the movement of services or people are also freed. As the better educated are encouraged to think globally, so too will they be inclined to move globally into the world community.This paper examines Thailand’s position with respect to brain drain, some of the lessons we have learned and some of the steps that are being taken to minimise the impact of the loss of skilled workers, with a particular focus on science and technology. The conclusion is that brain drain should not be viewed as an entirely negative development and that the positive outcomes should be recognised, encouraged and incorporated into policy.

  16. Thailand: gas import review takes on urgency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1992-01-01

    The potential market for natural gas imports in Thailand as a result of the downgrading of gas reserves in the Nan Phong field is examined. Proposed pipelines, plans for gas-fired power plants, and the effects that the downgrading has had on Thailand's long-term plans for the development of gas utilisation are discussed. (UK)

  17. Emerging Livelihood Vulnerabilities in an Urbanizing and Climate Uncertain Environment for the Case of a Secondary City in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrud Lea Beringer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing flood risks in Thailand are leading to new challenges for flood management and subsequently for livelihoods, which are still significantly agricultural. Policy makers prefer building flood protection infrastructure over utilizing non-structural measures like urban planning regulations to mitigate risks. We argue that unplanned urbanization intensifies flood risks and livelihood vulnerability and may even create new poverty patterns in peri-urban areas. However, urbanization can also strengthen the adaptive capacity of people in flood risk areas by providing more secure employment opportunities. We assess the livelihood vulnerability of Pra Lab, a peri-urban area of Khon Kaen City in Northeast Thailand, using a qualitative and quantitative analysis. The study relies on a vulnerability index developed from a household survey and rainfall statistics, complemented by household in-depth interviews. We further identified factors of unplanned urbanization in Khon Kaen City and Pra Lab through interviews with relevant local government offices. Our findings show that Pra Lab’s household livelihoods are moderately vulnerable to flood due to high financial (i.e., income, debts and physical vulnerability (i.e., housing, urban systems, infrastructure. Major factors of unplanned urbanization that contribute to flood risks are lack of land use regulations, inefficient monitoring of land and house elevations, reduced pervious surfaces, ineffective water governance and insufficient wastewater treatment.

  18. Tropical cyclone disasters in the Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphat Vongvisessomjai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The origin of tropical cyclones in the South China Sea is over a vast deep sea, southeast of the Philippines. The severetropical cyclones in summer with northerly tracks attack the Philippines, China, Korea and Japan, while the moderate ones inthe rainy season with northwesterly tracks pass Vietnam, Laos and northern Thailand. In October, November and December, the tropical cyclones are weakened and tracks shift to a lower latitude passing the Gulf of Thailand. Tropical cyclone disasters in the Gulf of Thailand due to strong winds causing storm surges and big waves or heavy rainfall over high mountains in causing floods and land slides result in moderate damages and casualties. Analyses are made of six decades of data of tropical cyclones from 1951-2006 having averaged numbers of 3 and 13 in Thailand and the South China Sea respectively. Detailed calculation of surges and wave heights of the 5 disastrous tropical cyclones in the Gulf of Thailand reveal that the Upper Gulf of Thailand with a limited fetch length of about 100 km in north/south direction and about 100 km width in the east/west direction, resulted in a limited maximum wave height of 2.3-2.5 m and maximum storm surge height of 1.2 m generated by Typhoon Vae (1952, while the east coast, with longer fetch lengthbut still limited by the existence of its shoreline, resulted in an increased maximum wave height of 4 m and maximum storm surge height of 0.6 m in the Upper Gulf of Thailand generated by Typhoon Linda (1997. These are the Probable Maximum Cyclones here.The southern shoreline, with unlimited fetch length on the east by tropical cyclones approaching from the South China Sea, generated maximum wave height of 6-11 m by Typhoon Gay (1989, resulting in more casualties and damages. Note that storm surges on the southern shorelines with steep slopes are small due to the short distance of shallow shorelines in receiving wind stresses for piling up sea levels. These disasters can be

  19. Thailand's Missing Marine Fisheries Catch (1950–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Derrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of marine resources has led to declining catches in many countries worldwide, and often also leads to fishing effort being exported to waters of neighboring countries or high seas areas. Thailand is currently under pressure to curb illegal fishing and human rights violations within its distant water fleets or face a European Union import ban. Simultaneously, Thailand is attempting to reduce fishing effort within its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Crucial to these endeavors is a comprehensive knowledge of total fisheries catches over time. A reconstruction of fisheries catches within Thailand's EEZ and by Thailand's fleet in neighboring countries' EEZs was undertaken for 1950–2014 to derive a comprehensive historical time series of total catches. This includes landings and discards that were not accounted for in official, reported statistics. Reconstructed Thai catches from within Thailand's EEZ increased from approximately 400,000 t·year−1 in 1950 to a peak of 2.6 million t·year−1 in 1987, before declining to around 1.7 million t·year−1 in 2014. Catches taken by Thai vessels outside their own EEZ increased from 52,000 t·year−1 in 1965 to a peak of 7.6 million t·year−1 in 1996, before declining to around 3.7 million t·year−1 by 2014. In total, reconstructed catches were estimated to be nearly three times larger than data reported by Thailand to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. Reconstructed Thai distant-water fleet catches were almost seven times higher than the comparable non-domestic catch deemed reported for Thailand. Thai landings from recreational fishing were conservatively estimated for the first time, and while they contributed less than 1% of current catch, they can be expected to grow in volume and importance with increasing tourism. As Thailand takes measures to reduce fishing effort within its EEZs and increases monitoring and enforcement of illegal and foreign

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block

  1. Bangkok as a magnet for rural labour: changing conditions, 1900-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyyanont, P

    1998-06-01

    This article describes labor force shifts, in Thailand, from rural areas to Bangkok during 1900-1970 and is a revision of a chapter from a doctoral thesis. Urban growth of Bangkok occurred primarily after World War II. Pre-war wages in rural areas were higher than coolie wages in Bangkok. Opportunity costs of changing occupations were high. Chinese immigration was the key to development of non-farm occupations. The Chinese from Siam were drawn to higher wages in Bangkok than were possible in South China ports. After the war, the Lewis-Fei and Ranis migration model fits a pattern of migration that adjusts the disequilibrium between urban and rural markets. There are shifts from low productivity rural sectors to urban high productivity sectors. Capital investment in commerce and industry raised urban labor productivity. The wage data suggest a growing gap between urban and rural sectors postwar. Rail travel during the 1950s brought higher wages for the unskilled in railroad construction. There was high agricultural productivity relative to labor input due to availability of land. Underpopulation meant little unemployment. After 1950, conditions changed. The population growth rate increased. More in rural areas lived below the poverty line. Low rice productivity constrained rural wages and incomes during the 1950s and 1960s. The more favored commercial crops needed less labor. Chinese immigration declined, and demand for labor increased in urban areas. Low urban wages due to cheap labor stimulated profits and growth. Major roads connected Bangkok to the south and the north. Bangkok was viewed as a magical and desirable place.

  2. Characteristics and composition of atmospheric aerosols in Phimai, central Thailand during BASE-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2013-10-01

    Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.183°N, 102.565°E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 ± 64 Mm-1; absorption: 15 ± 8 Mm-1; PM10 concentration: 33 ± 17 μg m-3), and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 ± 3.6 μg m-3; EC: 2.0 ± 2.3 μg m-3) and secondary species (SO42-: 6.4 ± 3.7 μg m-3, NH4+: 2.2 ± 1.3 μg m-3). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 ± 0.33 μg m-3). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 ± 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

  3. Undertreatment of pain in HIV+ adults in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Nathaniel M; Chaiklang, Kanokporn; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain remains prevalent in HIV+ adults despite widespread antiretroviral use. Pain continues to be underrecognized and undertreated in this population. In Thailand, similar to the West, HIV care is transitioning toward chronic disease management. Despite the importance of pain management in chronic HIV, the prevalence of pain and adequacy of pain management is unknown in HIV+ adults in Thailand. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pain, the burden of inadequate analgesia, and risk factors for chronic pain in HIV+ adults in Thailand. A total of 254 HIV+ adults were recruited from an outpatient clinic in Thailand. Interviewers obtained information on demographics, clinical data, and pain characteristics. The burden of inadequate analgesia was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Risk factors were identified with logistic regression analysis. Frequent pain was reported by 27% of participants; 22% reported chronic pain. Pain was significantly associated with education less than primary school, a positive depression screen, and the number of years on combined antiretroviral therapy. Eighty-six percent of patients with frequent pain were inadequately treated. Of 34 patients with moderate or severe pain, none received adequate analgesia. Inadequate analgesia was a significant risk factor for poorer quality of life. Despite widespread antiretroviral use, pain remains common and undertreated in HIV+ adults in Thailand. Undertreated pain negatively impacts quality of life. It is imperative that policy makers and HIV caregivers address this treatment gap to advance the care of people living with HIV in Thailand. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of a guided self-help manual in strengthening resilience in people diagnosed with moderate depression and their family caregivers in Thailand: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McCann, Terence; Songprakun, Wallapa; Stephenson, John

    2017-01-01

    The growing incidence of depression in developing countries, such as Thailand, is placing increasing pressure on public mental health services, and those living in rural areas have limited access to mental health services and specialised support. Resilience is integral to the recovery of people with depression and to caregivers. This parallel group randomised controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of a guided self-help manual in improving resilience in adults diagnosed with moderate dep...

  5. Solid waste management in Thailand: an overview and case study (Tha Khon Yang sub-district).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley Dawn; Ross, Kirstin Elizabeth

    2017-09-26

    Due to rapid urbanization, solid waste management (SWM) has become a significant issue in several developing countries including Thailand. Policies implemented by the Central Thai Government to manage SWM issues have had only limited success. This article reviews current municipal waste management plans in Thailand and examines municipal waste management at the local level, with focus on the Tha Khon Yang sub-district surrounding Mahasarakham University in Mahasarakham Province. Within two decades this area has been converted from a rural to an urban landscape featuring accommodation for over 45,000 university students and a range of business facilities. This development and influx of people has outpaced the government's ability to manage municipal solid waste (MSW). There are significant opportunities to improve local infrastructure and operational capacity; but there are few mechanisms to provide and distribute information to improve community participation in waste management. Many community-based waste management projects, such as waste recycling banks, the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle), and waste-to-biogas projects have been abandoned. Additionally, waste from Tha Kon Yang and its surrounding areas has been transferred to unsanitary landfills; there is also haphazard dumping and uncontrolled burning of waste, which exacerbate current pollution issues.

  6. Clostridium difficile infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putsathit, Papanin; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Ngamwongsatit, Puriya; Riley, Thomas V

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent in ca. 20% of cases of antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea in hospitalised adults. Diseases caused by this organism range from mild diarrhoea to occasional fatal pseudomembranous colitis. The epidemiology of C. difficile infection (CDI) has changed notably in the past decade, following epidemics in the early 2000s of PCR ribotype (RT) 027 infection in North America and Europe, where there was an increase in disease severity and mortality. Another major event has been the emergence of RT 078, initially as the predominant ribotype in production animals in the USA and Europe, and then in humans in Europe. Although there have been numerous investigations of the epidemiology of CDI in North America and Europe, limited studies have been undertaken elsewhere, particularly in Asia. Antimicrobial exposure remains the major risk factor for CDI. Given the high prevalence of indiscriminate and inappropriate use of antimicrobials in Asia, it is conceivable that CDI is relatively common among humans and animals. This review describes the level of knowledge in Thailand regarding C. difficile detection methods, prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile, as well as the clinical features of, treatment options for and outcomes of the disease. In addition, antimicrobial usage in livestock in Thailand will be reviewed. A literature search yielded 18 studies mentioning C. difficile in Thailand, a greater number than from any other Asian country. It is possible that the situation in Thailand in relation to CDI may mirror the situation in other developing Asians countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Atypical bulimia nervosa in a male patient of rural north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabendra Makhal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa rarely seem to manifest in males from non-Western cultures like India, but occur infrequently in milder forms with fewer symptoms as atypical bulimia nervosa. This report describes a male case of bulimia nervosa from rural area of India presenting with atypical features. He was treated successfully with fluoxetine and cognitive behavioural therapy.

  8. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonyanuwat, K. [Beef Cattle Research and Development Group, Division of Animal Husbandry, Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok (Thailand)], E-mail: kalayabo@yahoo.com; Sirisom, P [Tak Livestock Breeding and Research Center, Meung (Thailand); Putharatanung, A [Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Photharam (Thailand)

    2009-07-01

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  9. Princess of Thailand returns to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 17 November 2015, HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand visited CERN. Princess Sirindhorn was visiting the Laboratory for the fifth time, following her last visit in 2010.   Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (center) witnesses the signing of the collaboration agreement between CERN and SLRI, represented by Rolf Heuer (right) and Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn (left) respectively. The Princess was accompanied by a delegation that included the Director of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) in Thailand, Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn, and a large group of Thailand’s Diplomatic Representatives in Switzerland. Upon her arrival, Princess Sirindhorn was welcomed by CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Director-General Designate, Fabiola Gianotti. At CERN, the Princess was given a brief update on the Laboratory’s activities since her last visit, in April 2010. Later on, she witnessed the signature of the f...

  10. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  11. The recent status of nuclear technology development in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Sumitra, Tatchai; Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Chankow, Nares; Tiyapan, Kanokrat; Onjun, Thawatchai; Bhanthumnavin, Duangduen

    2016-01-01

    Thailand has started the peaceful utilization of nuclear program in 1961. The program has developed considerably in various aspects. Laws and regulations were established while applications in medical, agriculture, industry as well as research and education have been accomplished successfully in the country. As for the energy production, Thailand has realized the importance of nuclear power generation several years back. However, the implementation has been delayed. There are four main nuclear organizations namely The Thai Atomic Energy Commission - the country's policy holder, the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) - the nuclear regulatory bodies, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT: Public Organization) - the research and services provider in nuclear field and the Nuclear Society of Thailand the non-governmental organization. Major research in nuclear technology is actively carried out at TINT. Filed of research include medical and public health, agricultural, material and industrial, environmental and advanced technology like neutron scattering and nuclear fusion. Nuclear density gauge has been utilized in many industries including petrochemical production and refineries. TINT is also providing services on nuclear radiography to industrial and clients. Additionally, x-ray techniques have been utilized in many manufacturers for quality and process control. Nuclear applications for medical purpose have been utilized in Thailand several years back both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To ensure safe and peaceful use of nuclear technology and for the safety of the general public in Thailand, OAP has launched laws, regulations and ministerial announcements. Thailand has only one multi-purposes nuclear research reactor and no NPP. Yet we have realized the importance of nuclear power generation several years back. (N.T.)

  12. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  13. Supplement table 1 Collection localities of C. mystaceus in Thailand.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Acer

    . 2, CPm, 5, Chaiyaphum, Mueang, Northeast. 3, KKk, 5, KhonKaen, Kranuan, Northeast. 4, KKm, 5, KhonKaen, Mueang, Northeast. 5, KKu, 4, KhonKaen, Ubolratana, Northeast. 6, KSh, 3, Kalasin, HuaiMek, Northeast. 7, LEn, 1, Loei, NongHin ...

  14. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  15. “A Significant Part of an Insignificant Identity”: the Re-Articulation of North-East Scots between Tradition and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Барбара Лоестер

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Britain the conflict between the national standard and regional languages and varieties, or rather those perceived to be ‘only’ a dialect, is still going strong and Scots plays a peculiar role in it. It is recognised and afforded a certain level of protection and promotion under the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages (ECRML. While related to English, Scots has a number of regional varieties and it stands in competition with other varieties of English within Scotland. North-East Scots (NE Scots, also known as ‘the Doric’, in particular occupies a rather special place within the sphere of Scots. While research has often focused on the perceived status of urban versus rural Scots, this paper examines the attitudes towards NE Scots with regard to identity construction as displayed by its speakers in rural areas and small towns in the North-East. Another focal point is the use of the regional variety as a perceived act of resistance against the ostensible dominance of English. Within the mind of its speakers what kind of identity do they feel they have - a largely local/regional, a national Scottish, a British one or something entirely different? The analysis of interview data highlights that respondents’ statements and their actual linguistic behaviour reinforce the affirmation of their regional identity; the extent to which this occurs will also be investigated.

  16. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos with two new distribution records and lectotypifications for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum W. Saisorn, Chantar. & Balslev from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum DC. and D. laxiflorum DC. subsp. lacei (Schindl.) H. Ohashi, are reported as new for Thailand. Lectotypes of D. amoenum Wall. e...

  17. Role of socio-cultural and economic factors in cyprinid fish distribution networks and consumption in Lawa Lake region, Northeast Thailand: Novel perspectives on Opisthorchis viverrini transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina Sunyoung; Smith, John F; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Echaubard, Pierre; Wilcox, Bruce; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-06-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in depth interviews (IDIs) were used to explore socio-cultural determinants underlying raw fish consumption practices, and global positioning system (GPS) devices to map local fish distribution networks. Qualitative data affirmed major socio-cultural and dietary lifestyle transitions occurring consequent on recent decades of modernization policies and practices, but also the persistence of Isaan traditional raw-fish eating practices and incorrect beliefs about infection risk avoidance. Fish traders/middlemen purchase most of the catch at the lakeshore and play the dominant role in district market fish distribution networks, at least for the larger and less likely infected, fish species. The lower economic value of the small potentially-infected cyprinid fish means local fishermen typically distribute them free, or sell cheaply, to family and friends, effectively concentrating infection risk in already highly Ov infected villages. Our study confirmed the persistence of traditional Isaan raw-fish meal practices, despite major ongoing socio-cultural lifestyle transitions and decades of Ov infection health education programs. We contend that diffuse socio-cultural drivers underpin this practice, including its role as a valued cultural identity marker. A "fish economics" factor was also evident in the concentration of more likely infected fish back into local villages due to their low economic value at

  18. The practice of 'Dr' Paep: continuity and change in indigenous healing in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, D H

    1984-01-01

    Dr. Paep Plienphleng is an indigenous curer in a rural district in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, where he is numbered among the group of healers known as mqq mueang ('Northern doctors'). He specializes in curing saan or 'tumors' by combining several techniques: indigenous surgery, herbal curing and supernatural curing. Other aspects of Dr Paep's practice have been due to larger trends in indigenous healing that have affected him and other curers over past decades. This paper describes the practice of Dr Paep and some aspects of his healing, and examines the context of his practice by exploring other categories of indigenous healers found in this area of the North. It is concluded that Northern Thai healing is undergoing a transformation from a stress on general healing to an emphasis on the use of supernatural cures, more specialization among healers and efforts to adapt services to fit the plural system of care found in this rural Northern Thai environment. Thus, we find the skills of indigenous healers and the nature of indigenous Northern Thai medicine allow for creative adaptation to a changing medical environment.

  19. Microbiological quality of drinking rainwater in the inland region of Pajeú, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rogério Pereira; Siqueira, Leonardo Pereira; Vital, Fernando Antonio Chaves; Rocha, Francisca Janaina Soares; Irmão, João Inácio; Calazans, Glícia Maria Torres

    2011-01-01

    Despite all efforts to store and reduce its consumption, water is becoming less inexhaustible and its quality is falling faster. Considering that water is essential to animal life, it is necessary to adopt measures to ensure its sanitary conditions in order to be fit for consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological quality of drinking rainwater used by rural communities of Tuparetama, a small town located in Northeast Brazil. The study covered seven rural communities, totaling 66 households. In each household two samples were collected, one from a tank and the other from a clay pot located inside the home, resulting in 132 samples (tank plus clay pot). Approximately 90% of samples were below the standard recommended by the current legislation, being considered unfit for human consumption. Part of this high microbiological contamination of drinking rainwater could be related to the lack of sanitary education and of an adequate sewerage sanitation system.

  20. Dengue infections in non-immune travellers to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, E; Rocklov, J; Wilder-Smith, A

    2013-02-01

    Dengue is the most frequent arboviral disease and is expanding geographically. Dengue is also increasingly being reported in travellers, in particular in travellers to Thailand. However, data to quantify the risk of travellers acquiring dengue when travelling to Thailand are lacking. Using mathematical modelling, we set out to estimate the risk of non-immune persons acquiring dengue when travelling to Thailand. The model is deterministic with stochastic parameters and assumes a Poisson distribution for the mosquitoes' biting rate and a Gamma distribution for the probability of acquiring dengue from an infected mosquito. From the force of infection we calculated the risk of dengue acquisition for travellers to Thailand arriving in a typical year (averaged over a 17-year period) in the high season of transmission. A traveller arriving in the high season of transmission and remaining for 7 days has a risk of acquiring dengue of 0·2% (95% CI 0·16-0·23), whereas the risk for travel of 15 and 30 days' duration is 0·46% (95% CI 0·41-0·50) and 0·81% (95% CI 0·76-0·87), respectively. Our data highlight that the risk of non-immune travellers acquiring dengue in Thailand is substantial. The incidence of 0·81% after a 1-month stay is similar to that reported in prospective seroconversion studies in Israeli travellers to Thailand, highlighting that our models are consistent with actual data. Risk estimates based on mathematical modelling offer more detailed information depending on various travel scenarios, and will help the travel medicine provider give better evidence-based advice for travellers to dengue-endemic countries.

  1. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  2. High ozone levels in the northeast of Portugal: Analysis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A.; Monteiro, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Tchepel, O.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.; Saavedra, S.; Souto, J. A.; Casares, J. J.

    2010-03-01

    Each summer period extremely high ozone levels are registered at the rural background station of Lamas d'Olo, located in the Northeast of Portugal. In average, 30% of the total alert threshold registered in Portugal is detected at this site. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the atmospheric conditions that lead to the ozone-rich episodes at this site. Synoptic patterns anomalies and back trajectories cluster analysis were performed, for the period between 2004 and 2007, considering 76 days when ozone maximum hourly concentrations were above 200 μg m -3. The obtained atmospheric anomaly fields suggested that a positive temperature anomaly is visible above the Iberian Peninsula. A strong wind flow pattern from NE is observable in the North of Portugal and Galicia, in Spain. These two features may lead to an enhancement of the photochemical production and to the transport of pollutants from Spain to Portugal. In addition, the 3D mean back trajectories associated to the ozone episode days were analysed. A clustering method has been applied to the obtained back trajectories. Four main clusters of ozone-rich episodes were identified, with different frequencies of occurrence: north-westerly flows (11%); north-easterly flows (45%), southern flow (4%) and westerly flows (40%). Both analyses highlight the NE flow as a dominant pattern over the North of Portugal during summer. The analysis of the ozone concentrations for each selected cluster indicates that this northeast circulation pattern, together with the southern flow, are responsible for the highest ozone peak episodes. This also suggests that long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants is the main contributor to the ozone levels registered at Lamas d'Olo. This is also highlighted by the correlation of the ozone time-series with the meteorological parameters analysed in the frequency domain.

  3. Innovative ideas: Thailand 4.0 and the fourth industrial revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Jones

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand 4.0 is a new ‘buzzword’ for many things just now being defined. It also appears to mean many things to many people, but the majority of Thai citizens surveyed fail to grasp just what it is. In the simplest of terms, it seems to be a Thai government policy in which technology and innovation are proposed tools for boosting the quality of life. Thailand 4.0 is also targeted at 10 key economic sectors and their supporting research from US$1 billion in funding for 12,290 new PhDs. This research, therefore, investigated the legacy of proceeding Thailand 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0, the use of the S-curve to describe their implementations, educational objectives to support Thailand 4.0, the digital/e-commerce agenda, agribusiness and ‘smart farmers’, how to learn from unicorns, and what is meant by ‘next generation automotive’ under Thailand 4.0.

  4. A new order in northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region

  5. The Capacity Building in the Natural Disaster Management of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Eakarat Boonreang

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the natural disaster management of public s...

  6. Existing roles of traditional healers (mor baan) in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee; Rumbold, Bruce

    2011-06-01

    Traditional healers (mor baan) played an important role in Thai health long before the introduction of Western medicine. Although modern health professional play a key role of health care provider of Thai health care system, traditional healers and their practice still exist in most rural areas of Thailand. In this article, we address the roles and practices of traditional healers in southern Thailand. An ethnographic method was employed. This approach is the hallmark method used to describe the role and the practice of traditional healers and to grasp in-depth understanding of their everyday life. Participation observation and unstructured interview with 18 traditional healers were conducted. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. Most of the traditional healers chose their role because they were influenced by their ancestors, although a few others chose it because of individual interests and a desire to help ill people. All are trained in multiple skills, using supernatural spirits, ceremonies and natural plant products as resources for counteracting various health problems. They refer patients to modern hospitals or other healers if they cannot adequately manage illness themselves. Their service provision is flexible and based on a holistic approach that suits people's lifestyles and needs. The role of traditional healer tends not to attract the interest of younger generations, although traditional healers have contributed greatly to people's health. Their presence improves people's access to healthcare and offers an alternative to modern medicine, which often has a limited role. We conclude that the services of traditional healers should be incorporated into contemporary healthcare provision of Thai health care system.

  7. Nuclear data needs in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, S.

    1999-01-01

    The major nuclear facilities in Thailand are composed of nuclear research reactor, neutron generators, electron linear accelerators and 1 GeV Synchrotron facility, which is under construction. The other small facilities are radioisotope sources and X ray tubes for X ray diffraction and fluorescence studies. Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is the function arm for nuclear institutions in Thailand. Its major roles are nuclear regulatory, coordinating for nuclear affairs and foreign relations, R and D for nuclear science and technology and giving nuclear services. Nuclear data activities concerning Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) are for examples: neutronics and thermalhydraulics for reactor operation, neutron energy spectrum and neutron flux measurement for neutron activation analysis and isotope production, neutron and gamma doses, shielding and material testing for radiation safety, and neutron beam experiments. OAEP is taking part in the areas of regional cooperation on utilization of nuclear research reactors, education and training, sharing of research reactor experimental facilities, establishment of nuclear data program and information exchange. The nuclear data reports have been shared among institutions in Thailand through OAEP, which is served as a central nuclear data depository including e.g., INIS, IAEA-NDS, Joint Research Centre Commission of the European Communities and Japanese Nuclear Data Committee (JNDC). This report shows the nuclear facilities in Thailand, the roles of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace on nuclear data depository and nuclear power development program. The main activities at the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 concerning nuclear data needs for specific uses in both theoretical and experimental aspects are also described. (J.P.N.)

  8. Economic Restructuring and Capital Inflow: Thailand and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Bong Ro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available South Korea and Thailand which are receiving the financial support from IMF got similar international remarks on promoting the economic reform that has an exemplary effect. However, there are not only differences in the causes of the economic crisis, but also the status and effect of the economic reform. At present, Thailand gets a more ascendant status than South Korea in the "quo" status of attracting foreign investment. The reason is that the causes of the economic crisis in Thailand are relatively simple and the process of economic reform is also simple. Besides, Thailand is in the condition which made the effect came true easy. Meanwhile, since the procedures of firing the staff in Thailand are cut off, and the employees are easy to lose their jobs, it insures the flexibility of the labor market. Besides, the Thai government reduces the investment risk of foreigners by way of investing in stocks of the same value or remaining guarantee. South Korea also should insure the flexibility of the labor market and promote the flexibility of attracting foreign investment, which bases on the cooperation of the workers, employees and the government. If transfers the ill creditor’s rights to large bank, foreign investors should be encouraged by permitting an alternative of receiving the good asset or government warranty.

  9. A review of Thailand's strategies for global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonchalermkit, S.

    1994-01-01

    Thailand is greatly concerned about global climate change, which is caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and the release of chlorofluorocarbons. The country itself is not currently a major contributor to global climate change. However, as Thailand's economy expands and its burning of fossil fuels increases, the country's contribution to global climate change could increase. Thailand's use of primary energy supplies grew at an average rate of 13.4 percent per year in the period 1985 to 1990. The rapid, sustained growth was due to the overall pace of growth in the economy and the expansion of industrial, construction, and transportation activities. The primary energy demand was approximately 31,600 kilotons of oil equivalent (KTOE) in 1990. The transportation sector accounted for the largest proportion of energy demand at 30 percent. Within the next 15 years, the power sector is expected to overtake the transportation sector as the largest consumer of energy. Petroleum is currently the predominant source of energy in Thailand, accounting for 56 percent of the primary energy demand. Thailand recognizes that it has an important part to play in finding solutions to minimizing emissions of greenhouse gases and identifying viable response strategies. Thus, in this paper the authors will present several policy strategies relevant to climate change in Thailand and discuss how they have been implemented and enforced. Policies concerning forestry, energy, and environment are reviewed in detail in this paper

  10. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  11. Diversity and distribution of Brachionidae (Rotifera in Thailand, with a key to the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeephon Athibai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the diversity of brachionid rotifers in Thailand. Rotifers were collected from a wide range of habitat types (294 sites, 508 samples including canals, lakes, peat swamps, ponds, reservoirs, rice fields, rivers, swamps and temporary ponds from April 1998 to January 2004. Twenty-eight species including 11 infrasubspecific forms belonging to five genera were identified. The most frequently encountered species was Brachionus falcatus (50.7% of the sampling sites, followed by Keratella cochlearis (50%, B. angularis (49.7%, K. tropica (46.3% and B. forficula (45.9%. Less frequently encountered species were B. caudatus, B. durgae and B. urceolaris. These species were found in low abundances and only in a single site. Two sites in the Northeast – Nong Changpeuak and Bueng Srithat – recorded the greatest richness with 15 taxa, whereas no brachionid rotifers were found in 31 sites. On average, the species richness was five taxa per sampling site. A key to the genera and species of Thai brachionid rotifers is provided.

  12. The Northeast Greenland Shelf as a Potential Habitat for the Northeast Arctic Cod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti O. Strand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations (1978–1991 of distributions of pelagic juvenile Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L. show that up to 1/3 of the year class are dispersed off the continental shelf and into the deep Norwegian Sea while on the way from the spring-spawning areas along the Norwegian coast to the autumn-settlement areas in the Barents Sea. The fate of this variable fraction of pelagic juveniles off-shelf has been an open question ever since Johan Hjort's (1914 seminal work. We have examined both the mechanisms causing offspring off-shelf transport, and their subsequent destiny using an individual-based biophysical model applied to quantify growth and dispersal. Our results show, consistently with the observations, that total off-shelf transport is highly variable between years and may be up to 27.4%. Offspring from spawning grounds around Lofoten have a higher chance of being displaced off the shelf. The off-shelf transport is dominated by episodic events where frequencies and dates vary between years. Northeasterly wind conditions over a 3–7-day period prior to the off-shelf events are a good proxy for dispersal of offspring off the shelf. Offspring transported into the open ocean are on average carried along three following routes: back onto the adjacent eastern shelves and into the Barents Sea (36.9%, recirculating within the Lofoten Basin (60.7%, or drifting northwest to the northeast Greenland shelf (2.4%. For the latter fraction the transport may exceed 12% depending on year. Recent investigations have discovered distributions of young cod on the northeast Greenland shelf indicating that conditions may support survival for Northeast Arctic cod offspring.

  13. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOME ECTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI (RUSSULACEAE, FUNGI, BASIDIOMYCOTA IN FOREST HABITATS FROM THE NORTH-EAST REGION (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu COPOT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal macromycetes are, generally, an important ecological component for forest habitats, and a valuable resource in the context of sustainable development of rural communities in the North-East Region of Romania. The woody species distribution is an extremely important factor for the ECM macromycetes presence. The purpose of this study was to elaborate maps of potential distribution for some ECM edible macromycetes from Russula and Lactarius genera, based on chorological information, ICAS Forest Types Map, vegetation tables and bibliographical sources. These information allowed the elaboration of 15 potential maps of distribution for 15 edible species of Russula and Lactarius. The study was based entirely on the plant – fungal associations. The results highlighted that in the North-East Region of Romania there is a noteworthy potential for Russulaceae species. As expected, there is a large amplitude of species presence in the field depending on the fungal specificity for tree host and tree species distribution.

  14. Chemical composition, source, and process of urban aerosols during winter haze formation in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ren, Yong; Wang, Xin; Shi, Zongbo; Zhang, Daizhou; Che, Huizheng; Zhao, Hujia; Liu, Yanfei; Niu, Hongya; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Lingaswamy, A P; Wang, Zifa; Li, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of aerosol particles have been poorly evaluated even though haze episodes frequently occur in winter in Northeast China. OC/EC analysis, ion chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), and soluble ions in PM 2.5 and the mixing state of individual particles during a severe wintertime haze episode in Northeast China. The organic matter (OM), NH 4 + , SO 4 2- , and NO 3 - concentrations in PM 2.5 were 89.5 μg/m 3 , 24.2 μg/m 3 , 28.1 μg/m 3 , and 32.8 μg/m 3 on the haze days, respectively. TEM observations further showed that over 80% of the haze particles contained primary organic aerosols (POAs). Based on a comparison of the data obtained during the haze formation, we generate the following synthetic model of the process: (1) Stable synoptic meteorological conditions drove the haze formation. (2) The early stage of haze formation (light or moderate haze) was mainly caused by the enrichment of POAs from coal burning for household heating and cooking. (3) High levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), sulfates, and nitrates formation via heterogeneous reactions together with POAs accumulation promoted to the evolution from light or moderate to severe haze. Compared to the severe haze episodes over the North China Plain, the PM 2.5 in Northeast China analyzed in the present study contained similar sulfate, higher SOA, and lower nitrate contents. Our results suggest that most of the POAs and secondary particles were likely related to emissions from coal-burning residential stoves in rural outskirts and small boilers in urban areas. The inefficient burning of coal for household heating and cooking should be monitored during wintertime in Northeast China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear policies in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.

    1995-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, states have tried to enhance their security through unilateral means rather than cooperative ones. In this area, there is no regional multilateral security dialogue of significance. In the nuclear age, security is not something to be built for oneself irrespective of others. Security is something to be built together with one's opponents. The arms build-up in Northeast Asia is very substantial. Defence budgets are growing almost as fast as are the national economies. Still, there is no arms race, i.e. no interacting patterns of arms acquisitions and force deployments. There is a real risk, however, that the arms build-up might spill over into an arms race. Hence the case for cooperative policies - for confidence-building measures and arms control in particular - to prevent this from happening. The end of the Cold War has brought about profound changes in the international political and economic environment. There is a noticeable tendency towards political reconciliation and cooperation among states and an increasing interdependence and globalization. On the other hand, one cannot miss some worrisome phenomena, including the resurgence of nationalism, the multiplication of ethnic conflicts and the dangers associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This is particularly true of the Northeast Asian region. Although some changes in the regional security outlook are favourable, there are also sources of insecurity and uncertainty in Northeast Asia, not least being the disturbing trend towards a regional arms build-up. In today's Northeast Asia weapons proliferation is a source of growing concern. The major purpose of this volume is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dimensions of the various nuclear problems and their interrelationships in Northeast Asia. A second purpose is to explore practical approaches to regional non-proliferation, to see how they may be strengthened and made mutually supportive of the global non

  16. Molecular characterization of Nipah virus from Pteropus hypomelanus in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Samseeneam, Panumas; Phermpool, Mana; Kaewpom, Thongchai; Rodpan, Apaporn; Maneeorn, Pattarapol; Srongmongkol, Phimchanok; Kanchanasaka, Budsabong; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-03-25

    Nipah virus (NiV) first emerged in Malaysia in 1998, with two bat species (Pteropus hypomelanus and P. vampyrus) as the putative natural reservoirs. In 2002, NiV IgG antibodies were detected in these species from Thailand, but viral RNA could not be detected for strain characterization. Two strains of NiV (Malaysia and Bangladesh) have been found in P. lylei in central Thailand, although Bangladesh strain, the causative strain for the outbreak in Bangladesh since 2001, was dominant. To understand the diversity of NiV in Thailand, this study identified NiV strain, using molecular characterizations, from P. hypomelanus in southern Thailand. Pooled bat urine specimens were collected from plastic sheet underneath bat roosts in April 2010, and then monthly from December 2010 to May 2011 at an island in southern Thailand. Five in 184 specimens were positive for NiV, using duplex nested RT-PCR assay on partial nucleocapsid fragment (357 bp). Whole sequences of nucleocapsid gene from four bats were characterized. All 5 partial fragments and 4 whole nucleocapsid genes formed a monophyletic with NiV-MY. Our study showed that P. hypomelanus in southern Thailand and from Malaysia, a bordering country, harbored similar NiV. This finding indicates that NiV is not limited to central Thailand or P. lylei species, and it may be a source of inter-species transmission. This indicates a higher potential for a widespread NiV outbreak in Thailand. NiV surveillance in Pteropus bats, the major natural reservoirs, should be conducted continuously in countries or regions with high susceptibility to outbreaks.

  17. Equitable Prices of Single-Source Drugs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Chaiyakan, Kanokkan

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, total drug expenditure has grown rapidly. Recently, the Thai government has addressed the issue of drug pricing, but the prices of single-source drugs remain a major challenge. To examine equitable prices of single-source drugs in Thailand. A total of 98 single-source and high-expenditure drugs were examined. Unit prices from the Drug and Medical Supplies Information Center (DMSIC) and National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC) were used to represent drug prices at the provider level in Thailand and the U.S., respectively. Data for measuring drug affordability, e.g., dose and poverty line, were obtained from Micromedex online and the National Statistical Office (NSO). The U.S. drug prices were adjusted by the Human Development Index (HDI) to be equitable prices for Thailand. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) was used to convert US currency into Thai baht. All prices in this study were based on the year 2012. Catastrophic, Impoverishment, and WHO/Health Action International (HAI) approaches were used to determine Thai citizens' ability to afford the study drugs. Finally, uncertainty analyses were conducted. From all study drugs, 55 single-source drugs were priced higher than their equitable prices, ranging from 0.38 to 422.36% higher. Among these, 28 items were antineoplastic drugs. The prices of drugs outside the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM), as well as the country's newer drugs, tended to be higher than their calculated equitable prices. The majority of drugs in Thailand priced higher than equitable prices were unaffordable for most Thai citizens. The uncertainty analyses revealed that almost all results were relatively robust. Most single-source drug prices in Thailand were higher than their equitable prices, and were likely to be unaffordable to Thai citizens.

  18. Status and problem of radiation education in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramrattana, Manoon [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Vibhavadee Rangsit Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-09-01

    Knowledge of radiation and its application and protection have been routinely taught, discussed and transferred to end users and the public. Limited resource and a strategic plan are identified to be the major obstacle to fully implementation of radiation education in Thailand. Current strategic planning on radiation education in Thailand will be discussed. (author)

  19. Status and problem of radiation education in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramrattana, Manoon

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of radiation and its application and protection have been routinely taught, discussed and transferred to end users and the public. Limited resource and a strategic plan are identified to be the major obstacle to fully implementation of radiation education in Thailand. Current strategic planning on radiation education in Thailand will be discussed. (author)

  20. Ageing in the Bush: The Role of Rural Places in Maintaining Identity for Long Term Rural Residents and Retirement Migrants in North-East Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel; Warburton, Jeni

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of local population ageing, which is more pronounced in rural areas, the issue of maintaining a positive quality of life for rural older people is attracting significant attention. While environmental psychology theory has advocated the role of place identity in defining the self, there has been little applied research exploring…

  1. Rural recruitment and retention of health workers across cadres and types of contract in north-east India: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbangshi, Preety R; Nambiar, Devaki; Choudhury, Nandini; Rao, Krishna D

    2017-09-01

    Background Like many other low- and middle-income countries, India faces challenges of recruiting and retaining health workers in rural areas. Efforts have been made to address this through contractual appointment of health workers in rural areas. While this has helped to temporarily bridge the gaps in human resources, the overall impact on the experience of rural services across cadres has yet to be understood. This study sought to identify motivations for, and the challenges of, rural recruitment and retention of nurses, doctors and specialists across types of contract in rural and remote areas in India's largely rural north-eastern states of Meghalaya and Nagaland. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken, in which 71 semi-structured interviews were carried out with doctors (n = 32), nurses (n = 28) and specialists (n = 11). In addition, unstructured key informant interviews (n = 11) were undertaken, along with observations at health facilities and review of state policies. Data were analysed using Ritchie and Spencer's framework method and the World Health Organization's 2010 framework of factors affecting decisions to relocate to, stay in or leave rural areas. Results It was found that rural background and community attachment were strongly associated with health workers' decision to join rural service, regardless of cadre or contract. However, this aspiration was challenged by health-systems factors of poor working and living conditions; low salary and incentives; and lack of professional growth and recognition. Contractual health workers faced unique challenges (lack of pay parity, job insecurity), as did those with permanent positions (irrational postings and political interference). Conclusion This study establishes that the crisis in recruiting and retaining health workers in rural areas will persist until and unless health systems address the core basic requirements of health workers in rural areas, which are related to health-sector policies

  2. An illustrated key to powder post beetles (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae associated with rubberwood in Thailand, with new records and a checklist of species found in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Sittichaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to seventeen species of Bostrichidae recorded in association with rubberwood in Thailand is provided. A checklist is given of nine species infesting rubberwood sawn timber in sawmills in southern Thailand, with information on distribution, host trees and biology. Three species are recorded for the first time from Thailand: Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe, and Minthea reticulata Lesne.

  3. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand. ... method of preparation, route of administration and properties of plants. ... Keywords: Medicinal plant, Ethnobotany, Traditional medicine, Upper Songkhla Lake, Thailand ...

  4. Analisis determinan impor gula Indonesia dari Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sartika, Novia Reni; Amril, Amril; Artis, Dearmi

    2018-01-01

    The research aims to analyze the influence of national income, exchange rate, inflation and domestic sugar prices on Indonesia sugar import from Thailand. The data used in this research is time series data by using descriptive analysis method and quantitative analysis method.The results showed that simultaneously the variable of GDP, exchange rate, inflation, and domestic sugar prices together had significant effect on Indonesia sugar import from Thailand. While the partial variable of GDP an...

  5. Characteristics of surface O3 over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Zhao, Zhuzi; Dong, Jungang; Wang, Linqing; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Surface O 3 was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O 3 ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O 3 followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O 3 showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O 3 . It was found that O 3 was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO x in the ambient air, thus limiting O 3 formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O 3 levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O 3 and long range transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O 3 was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O 3 chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O 3 and transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this area

  6. The estimation of imported dengue virus from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polwiang, Sittisede

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is one of the important causes of illness among travelers returning from Thailand. The risk of infection depends on the length of stay, activities, and arrival time. Due to globalization, there is a concern that infected travelers may carry dengue virus (DENV) to their country of residence and cause an outbreak. To estimate the infective person-days of travelers returning from Thailand, we developed a model with the following parameters: the probability of travelers being infected, number of arrivals, length of stay of travelers, incubation period, and duration of the infective period. The data used in this study were the dengue incidences in Thailand during 2004-2013 and foreign traveler arrivals in 2013. We estimated the highest infective person-days for each country group. The highest value was from June to August during the rainy season in Thailand for all groups. Infective person-days ranged from 87 to 112 per 100,000 travelers each year. Our results provided a fundamental step toward estimation of the risk of the secondary transmission of DENV in non-epidemic countries via travelers, which can serve as an early warning of a dengue outbreak. The highest infective person-day is associated with the rainy season in Thailand. The increasing number of overseas travelers may increase the risk of global transmission of the DENV. Better understanding of the virus transmission dynamics will enable further quantitative predictions of epidemic risk. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  7. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  8. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-06-01

    During 2015-2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  9. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-01-01

    During 2015?2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  10. Visceral Adiposity Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Index: Two Alternate Body Indices to Identify Chronic Kidney Disease among the Rural Population in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the relative strength of the association between anthropometric obesity indices and chronic kidney disease (CKD. Another objective was to examine whether the visceral adiposity index (VAI and lipid accumulation product index (LAPI can identify CKD in the rural population of China. There were 5168 males and 6024 females involved in this cross-sectional study, and 237 participants (2.12% suffered from CKD. Obesity indices included body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, VAI and LAPI. VAI and LAPI were calculated with triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, BMI and WC. VAI = [WC/39.68 + (1.88 × BMI] × (TG /1.03 × (1.31/ HDL for males; VAI = [WC/36.58 + (1.89 × BMI] × (TG/0.81 × (1.52/HDL for females. LAPI = (WC-65 × TG for males, LAPI = (WC-58 × TG for females. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. The prevalence of CKD increased across quartiles for WHtR, VAI and LAPI. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the presence of CKD for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of each anthropometric measure showed that the VAI was the best predictor of CKD in females (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.09–8.47, p < 0.001. VAI showed the highest AUC for CKD (AUC: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.65–0.72 and LAPI came second (AUC: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.61–0.70 in females compared with BMI (both p-values < 0.001. However, compared with the traditional index of the BMI, the anthropometric measures VAI, LAPI, WC, and WHtR had no statistically significant capacity to predict CKD in males. Our results showed that both VAI and LAPI were significantly associated with CKD in the rural population of northeast China. Furthermore, VAI and LAPI were superior to BMI, WC and WHtR for predicting CKD only in females.

  11. Traditional, modern or mixed? Perspectives on social, economic, and health impacts of evolving food retail in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Sleigh, Adrian

    Transnational food retailers expanded to middle-income countries over recent decades responding to supply (liberalized foreign investment) and demand (rising incomes, urbanization, female workforce participation, and time poverty). Control in new markets diffuses along three axes: socio-economic (rich to poor), geographic (urban to rural), and product category (processed foods to fresh foods). We used a mixed method approach to study the progression of modern retail in Thailand on these three axes and consumer preferences for food retailing. In Thailand modern retail controls half the food sales but traditional fresh markets remain important. Quantitative questionnaires administered to members of a large national cohort study revealed around half of respondents were primarily traditional shoppers and half either utilized modern and traditional formats equally or primarily shopped at supermarkets. Fresh foods were mainly purchased at traditional retail formats and dry packaged foods at supermarkets. Qualitative interviews found price and quality of produce and availability of culturally important products to be significant reasons for continued support of fresh markets. Our results show socio-economic and geographic diffusion is already advanced with most respondents having access to and utilizing modern retail. Control of the fresh food sector by transnationals faces barriers in Thailand and may remain elusive. The short to mid-term outcome may be a bifurcated food system with modern and traditional retail each retaining market share, but fresh markets longer term survival may require government assistance as supermarkets become more established. Fresh markets supply affordable, healthy foods, and livelihoods for poorer Thais and are repositories of Thai food culture and social networks. If they survive they will confer cultural, social, economic, and health benefits.

  12. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  13. The Vietnamese in Thailand: a History of Work, Struggle and Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Vietnamese have been migrating to Thailand for many centuries, the situationwhich they faced in terms of living and working changed significantly in 1945. This resulted from theattempt by the French to recolonise the Indochina region, which led to many Vietnamese seeking toflee the fighting and oppression by moving to Thailand. The experiences of this generation of peopleand their activities in the labour market are the main focus of this paper. It is shown that thisgeneration of Yuon Op Pha Yop represents a unique set of people in Thailand. Their experiences areset against the labour market experiences of other sets of Vietnamese migrants in Thailand.

  14. The Dynamics of Avian Influenza: Individual-Based Model with Intervention Strategies in Traditional Trade Networks in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Wilasang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic to Southeast Asia. In Thailand, avian influenza viruses continue to cause large poultry stock losses. The spread of the disease has a serious impact on poultry production especially among rural households with backyard chickens. The movements and activities of chicken traders result in the spread of the disease through traditional trade networks. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of avian influenza in the traditional trade network in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. We also propose an individual-based model with intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. We found that the dynamics of the disease mainly depend on the transmission probability and the virus inactivation period. This study also illustrates the appropriate virus disinfection period and the target for intervention strategies on traditional trade network. The results suggest that good hygiene and cleanliness among household traders and trader of trader areas and ensuring that any equipment used is clean can lead to a decrease in transmission and final epidemic size. These results may be useful to epidemiologists, researchers, and relevant authorities in understanding the spread of avian influenza through traditional trade networks.

  15. Thailand through travel writings in English: An evaluation and representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soranat Tailanga

    2016-01-01

    The analytical research studied representation of Thailand in travel writings in English through a stylistic approach, discourse analysis, and conceptions of Orientalism. It found that the writings provide a socio-cultural overview of Thailand and details of tourist attractions. The otherness of “Thainess” is constructed through Thailand's exotic beauty, dangers, social problems, political instability, inadequate freedom of expression, and ‘other habitus’ of Thais. These conceptualizations construct the readers' or tourists' identities as quality travelers and highly knowledgeable and moral individuals.

  16. Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Yupin Suputtamongkol; Sutee Yoksan; Duncan R. Smith; Prasert Auewarakul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

  17. Improving Accessibility to Medical Services for Persons with Disabilities in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anpatcha Sakhornkhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This action research aimed at developing an action plan to improve the accessibility to home health care and assistive devices for persons with disabilities in a rural community, and to evaluate changes in the numbers of such persons who received appropriate home health care and assistive devices after a three-month implementation of the action plan.Method: The study was conducted at a sub-district of Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand. The main beneficiaries were 99 persons with disabilities (mean age55.4±18.7 years. Group meetings were organised for persons with disabilities, caregivers, and various community members. An action plan for improving the accessibility of persons with disabilities to home health care and assistive devices was collaboratively formulated and implemented for three months.Results: The main strategy for improving accessibility was to increase the competency of village health volunteers in providing home health care and assistive devices to persons with disabilities. After the three-month action plan implementation, the number of persons with disabilities who received appropriate home health care, i.e. at least once a month, significantly increased from 33.3% to 72.2% (Chi-square test, PConclusions: Under the supervision of physical therapists and/or other allied health professionals, the village health volunteer is likely to be a key person for improving the accessibility to home health care and assistive devices for persons with disabilities in a rural community.Limitations: The study was limited to only one sub-district. No comparable areas were studied. Further, since the study recruited persons with disabilities from a rural community, applicability of the findings to persons with disabilities in an urban community should be considered judiciously.

  18. Current and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda Kiatkamjornwong; Aran Hanseubsai

    1999-01-01

    Current status and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand were presented. Included number of printing houses, export, main export market and the role of radiation curing in printing and packaging industries of Thailand

  19. The prevalence and associated factors of new psychoactive substance use: A 2016 Thailand national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungsiya Wonguppa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Analyzing the situation and risk factors associated with using new psychoactive substances (NPS is essential for preventing and controlling health consequences. This study explored the prevalence and associated factors of NPS use in the Thai population. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in participants (N=30,411, mean age=42.4±13.4years, range=15–64years, 50.3% women from urban and rural areas of Thailand. The participants were chosen using multistage sampling for large populations. The data were collected in July–December 2016 and analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, multiple logistic regression, and odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: The prevalence of lifetime NPS use was 49.7% (95% CI, 49.1–51.3, past-year use was 31.3% (95% CI, 30.8–31.8, and current (past-month use was 14.9% (95% CI, 14.5–15.3. Among current users, 29.5% were habitual users (over 20days. The factors associated with current NPS use were sex (male/female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.145; 95% CI, 1.075–1.221; p<0.001, age group (25–64/15–24years (AOR=1.126; 95% CI, 1.090–1.358; p<0.001, educational attainment (elementary or secondary education and higher (AOR=1.634; 95% CI, 1.529–1.747; p<0.001, and employment status (AOR=1.842; 95% CI, 1.683–2.016; p<0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of NPS use in Thailand is high, which reflects abuse behavior that could potentially harm users. Understanding the prevalence and risk factors of NPS use could benefit policymakers. Keywords: Factor, New psychoactive substance, Prevalence, Thailand

  20. Innovative financing for rural surgical patients: Experience in mission hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanaraj Jesudian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In rural India most of the surgical patients become impoverished due to surgical treatment pushing several families below poverty line. We describe the various methods that we tried to help these patients pay for the surgical procedures without becoming impoverished. Some of them were successful and many of them were not so successful. The large turnover and innovative methods helped the mission hospitals to serve the poor and the marginalized. Some of these methods might not be relevant in areas other than Northeast India while many could be used in other areas.

  1. Evaluation of new hybrid brachiaria lines in Thailand. 1. Forage production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three new hybrid bracharia lines were evaluated for forage accumulation and nutritive value in Northeast Thailand from 2006 to 2011 in experiments at 2 sites, using Mulato II hybrid brachiaria as a standard for comparison. The parameters evaluated were wet and dry season dry matter (DM accumulation, leaf:stem ratio, crude protein (CP concentration and fiber level [acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF]. No lines consistently displayed superior dry season forage accumulation and leaf:stem ratio over Mulato II. In the wet seasons, 14 lines produced more DM than Mulato II but in only one wet season each. Mulato II produced forage with high leaf:stem ratio in all seasons. Many lines did have significantly higher CP concentrations and lower levels of ADF and NDF than Mulato II, but their forage accumulation and leaf:stem ratio were inferior. Four lines (BR02/1718, BR02/1752, BR02/1794 and BR02/0465 were granted Plant Variety Rights in 2011.Keywords: Cayman, Cobra, crude protein, dry matter yields, forage regrowth,  Mulato II.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(383-93 

  2. The potential micro-hydropower projects in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosa, Preeyaphorn; Chinkulkijniwat, Avirut; Horpibulsuk, Suksun; Kulworawanichpong, Thanatchai; Srivoramas, Rerkchai; Teaumroong, Neung

    2011-01-01

    At present, fossil fuel energy is commonly used in developing countries, including Thailand. The tendency to use fossil fuel energy is continuously increasing, and the price of fossil fuels is rising. Thus, renewable energy is of interest. Hydropower is one of the oldest renewable energy forms known and one of the best solutions for providing electricity to rural communities. The present paper aims to determine the potential micro-hydropower sites that could provide more than 50 kW but not over 10 MW in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Both reservoir and run-of-the-river schemes are considered for the assessment of potential micro-hydropower sites. For the reservoir scheme, the discharge in the reservoir is employed for generating micro-hydropower electricity. This installation can be carried out without major modifications to the dam. The run-of-the-river scheme diverts water flow from the river mainstream to the intake via a pressure pipe or an open canal, which is then conveyed to the turbine via a penstock to generate electricity. The results showed that there are 6 suitable projects for the reservoir scheme and 11 suitable projects for the run-of-the-river. The maximum power load was 6000 kW and 320 kW for the reservoir and the run-of-the-river schemes, respectively. Hydropower from the run-of-the-river scheme is more suitable than hydropower from the reservoir scheme because of the many mountains in this province. The designed head for the run-of-the-river scheme is thus generally higher than that for the reservoir scheme. Because stream flow during the dry season is very low, electricity can only be produced in the wet season. This research is a pilot study to determine the potential sites of micro-hydropower projects. (author)

  3. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampornrat, Pantip

    1999-01-01

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  4. Physical Fitness For Futsal Referee Of Football Association In Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweesub Koeipakvaen Acting Sub L., t.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the research to study physical fitness for futsal Referee of Football Association in Thailand and Compare of the Physical Fitness for first level, second and third futsal Referee of Football Association in Thailand. The population of first level, second and third level futsal Referee of Football Association in Thailand 107 person. The sample were futsal Referee of Football Association in Thailand 97 person. First level futsal Referee 22 person. Second level futsal Referee 11 person. Third level futsal Referee 64 person. The instrument used was futsal physical fitness test of Football Association in Thailand. Endurance Test (1,000 meter), Speed Test (4x10 meter) 2 time, and Agility Test (80 meter) 2 time. The statistic for data analysis were one way Anova, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation and F-test. The results were as the follow: (1) the result comparing F-test first level futsal referee with level second and first level futsal referee with third level. the statically significant different at the 0.05 level, and the result comparing Endurance as the follow the Physical Fitness for first level, second and third futsal Referee. the statically significant different at the 0.05 level.

  5. Country report of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonsuk, Manit

    2005-01-01

    At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF) of Chiang Mai University, the SURIYA project has been established in 2000 aiming to produce femtosecond electron pulses utilizing a combination of a S-band thermoionic rf-gun and an alpha-magnet as the buncher. The presently obtained results with the SURIYA project, the setup of a linear accelerator is reported. The research on hydrogel: (1) preparation of wound dressing of polyvinyl alcohol/silk fibroin hydrogel by gamma radiation, (2) water vapor permeability studies and bacterial growth suppression of irradiated PVA/SF blend hydrogels for wound-dressing, and (3) synthesis and characterization of PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels using gamma radiation, is introduced. Finally, the report describes the present situation of the air pollution problems in Thailand, including air pollution legislation, pollution emission amounts estimated, and sulfur oxides emission. Thailand has no plan of electron beam treatment of flue gas. (S. Ohno)

  6. Aerosol characteristics in Phimai, Thailand determined by continuous observation with a polarization sensitive Mie–Raman lidar and a sky radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Matsui, Ichiro; Jin, Yoshitaka; Khatri, Pradeep; Irie, Hitoshi; Takamura, Tamio; Aoki, Kazuma; Thana, Boossarasiri

    2015-01-01

    Distributions and optical characteristics of aerosols were continuously observed with a polarization-sensitive (532 nm), Mie-scattering (532 and 1064 nm) and Raman-scattering (607 nm) lidar and a sky radiometer in Phimai, Thailand. Polarization lidar measurements indicated that high concentration plumes of spherical aerosols considered as biomass burning smoke were often observed in the dry season. Plumes of non-spherical aerosols considered as long-range transported soil dust from Africa, the Middle East, or Northeast Asia were occasionally observed. Furthermore, low-concentration non-spherical aerosols were almost always observed in the atmospheric mixing layer. Extinction coefficient profiles of spherical aerosols and non-spherical dust exhibited different diurnal variations, and spherical aerosols including smoke were distributed in higher altitudes in the mixing layer and residual layer. The difference can be explained by hygroscopic growth of smoke particles and buoyancy of the smoke. Analysis of seasonal variations of optical properties derived from the Raman lidar and the sky radiometer confirmed that the lidar ratio, aerosol optical depth, and Angstrom exponent were higher in the dry season (October–May) and lower in the wet season (June–September). The single scattering albedo was lower in the dry season. These seasonal variations are explained by frequent biomass burning in the dry season consistent with previous studies in Southeast Asian region. At the same time, the present work confirmed that soil dust was a major aerosol component in Phimai, Thailand. (letter)

  7. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewkungwal Jaranit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98% with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77% and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99% and accessed public health services in Thailand (63% for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%. Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%, self-treated (11%, or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%. Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of

  8. Mathematical modeling of diphtheria transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornbundit, Kan; Triampo, Wannapong; Modchang, Charin

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a mathematical model for describing diphtheria transmission in Thailand is proposed. Based on the course of diphtheria infection, the population is divided into 8 epidemiological classes, namely, susceptible, symptomatic infectious, asymptomatic infectious, carrier with full natural-acquired immunity, carrier with partial natural-acquired immunity, individual with full vaccine-induced immunity, and individual with partial vaccine-induced immunity. Parameter values in the model were either directly obtained from the literature, estimated from available data, or estimated by means of sensitivity analysis. Numerical solutions show that our model can correctly describe the decreasing trend of diphtheria cases in Thailand during the years 1977-2014. Furthermore, despite Thailand having high DTP vaccine coverage, our model predicts that there will be diphtheria outbreaks after the year 2014 due to waning immunity. Our model also suggests that providing booster doses to some susceptible individuals and those with partial immunity every 10 years is a potential way to inhibit future diphtheria outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  10. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  11. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  12. Scaling-up Community-Based Program for Management of Child Malnutrition in Rural Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Despite efforts to address child malnutrition at scale since 1970s, management of child illnesses focused on treatment of common infections. In the fifth National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) (1982-1987), effective scaled-up child nutrition policy and program was implemented, through Primary Health Care (PHC) and Poverty Alleviation Plan (PAP). The PAP provided the mechanism to streamline government resources to poverty stricken areas. Almost 300 districts were identified and sectoral programs implemented in the same priority areas. Provincial planning is the key to allocate the government budget, while the district level implemented and supervised actions at the community level. PHC was implemented with the principle of self-help care and nutrition was one of the PHC elements. Community participation was strengthened through manpower mobilization and capacity building, village financing and organization. As a result, there is an alignment of national resource allocations and micro-level actions. Scaling-up of community-based nutrition program was implemented by adopting the PHC principle, using community participation strategy, namely, mobilization and capacity building of village health volunteers, financing and organization. Growth monitoring, promotion of infant and young child feeding and joint financing via a ‘nutrition fund’ was implemented in rural areas, particularly in the poorest areas of the northeast and north. Child malnutrition was strategically managed at the community level, whereby differential actions were taken according to the severity of malnutrition. Management of severe and moderate malnutrition was by monitoring growth monthly, with support of basic health services to manage infections and other curative needs. Food assistance for complementary feeding using appropriate technology for village level processing was an integral part of child malnutrition management. Children with mild malnutrition or normal were

  13. 76 FR 34139 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... 2] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal Advisory Committee... future date. DATES: The meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee scheduled to commence on...

  14. Rural-to-urban migration and its implications for poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1997-03-01

    This article examines rural-urban migration, its role in poverty alleviation in Thailand, and policy implications. The empirical research literature suggests that the poorest tend be left behind by wealthier migrants moving to urban areas. The youngest tend to migrate. The impact of remittances tends to appear more positive in international migration, but the impact of remittances among rural internal migrant families can also be substantial and be responsible for wealth differences within rural communities. Return migrants contribute to communities by bringing back new ideas and new attitudes toward family size. Migration can also produce negative impacts for sending communities, but the total analysis appears to favor positive impacts. The urban sector becomes another resource base for rural populations that can sustain rural populations during rapid change processes. The migrant population tends to be wealthier and better educated than rural populations, but poorer and less educated than urban populations. Informal sectors in urban areas may offer migrants flexible working hours, no taxes or deductions, less bureaucratic structures, and only 9% less income than the formal sector. Social networks reinforce migrant work in the informal sector and segmentation of the labor force. Social networks may be formalized into associations and help in securing migrant's housing and living. Migrants are integrated in a variety of ways into city life. Migrant communities are a source of energy, organizational skills, and talent. The incidence of poverty appears to be the greatest among women. Women migrants and women left behind by migrants must adjust to new conditions. Migration policies tend to focus on regulating the volume of migration. The author concludes that migration alleviates poverty and that policies should address city management, migrant adjustment processes, and training programs for nonmigrants.

  15. The taxation of wealth transfers in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rodthong, Ratichai

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis examines the case for a wealth transfer tax in Thailand, against the background, inter alia, of the failure of Thailand’s defunct tax law on estate and inheritance (the Estate and Inheritance Tax Act, 1933). Thailand has a significant problem with income and wealth distribution, with an increasing gulf between the rich and the poor—a root cause of the nation’s ongoing pol...

  16. REGIONAL SPECIALIZATION AND INDUSTRIAL CONCENTRATION IN THAILAND, 1996-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apisek Pansuwan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the changes in the industrial and spatial concentration that occurred in Thailand from 1996 to 2005. Based on the data from the Department of Industrial Work of the Ministry of Industry and using the Hirschman-Herfindahl index of concentration, the geographical concentration of industries in the study regions was measured. The Hirschman-Herfindahl index has the useful property of being decomposable into sources of changes in the concentration. Moreover, location quotient was also used to measure the regional specialization of the manufacturing industries in Thailand. Results of the analysis indicated that from 1996 to 2005, the decrease in the spatial concentration of manufacturing as well as in the regional specialization in manufacturing in Thailand remained stable to a lesser extent. The results have also indicated that most factories continue to be concentrated in Bangkok and its neighboring areas. It can therefore be best argued that in the case of Thailand, the effect of its trade liberalization policy has been more powerful than its industrial decentralization policy.

  17. Inherited metabolic disorders in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasant, Pornswan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Liammongkolkul, Somporn

    2002-08-01

    The study of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in Thailand is in its infancy. The majority are clinically diagnosed since there are only a handful of clinicians and scientists with expertise in inherited metabolic disorders, shortage of well-equipped laboratory facilities and lack of governmental financial support. Genetic metabolic disorders are usually not considered a priority due to prevalence of infectious diseases and congenital infections. From a retrospective study at the Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital; estimated pediatrics patients with suspected IEM were approximately 2-3 per cent of the total pediatric admissions of over 5,000 annually. After more than 10 years of research and accumulated clinical experiences, a genetic metabolic center is being established in collaboration with expert laboratories both in Bangkok (Chulabhorn Research Institute) and abroad (Japan and the United States). Numerous inherited metabolic disorders were identified--carbohydrate, amino acids, organic acids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal, mucopolysaccharidoses etc. This report includes the establishment of genetic metabolic center in Thailand, research and pilot studies in newborn screening in Thailand and a multicenter study from 5 institutions (Children's National Center, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Pramongkutklao Hospital, Ramathibodi and Siriraj Hospitals). Inherited metabolic disorders reported are fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, nonketotic hyperglycinemia, urea cycle defect (arginino succinate lyase deficiency, argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency), Menkes disease, propionic acidemia and mucopolysaccharidoses (Hurler, Hurler-Scheie).

  18. Past, present and perspectives of Manipur traditional medicine: A major health care system available for rural population in the North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Lokesh; Laishram, Surbala; Khumukcham, Nongalleima; Ningthoukhongjam, Dhaneshwor; Nameirakpam, Surjit Singh; Dey, Amitabha; Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Ningthoukhongjam, Tombi Raj

    2015-07-01

    Traditional health care practices are still being followed extensively in Manipur, North-East India. This is the major or the only medical facility available in some rural areas of Manipur. Cross cultural ethno-pharmacological survey was conducted to document traditional health care practices by Maiba-Maibi (male-female traditional health care practitioners of Manipur). All together 59 traditional practitioners belonging to 12 ethnic communities in nine districts of the Manipur state were interviewed. A predesigned questionnaire was used for interviews, which included queries for type of ailments treating, symptoms, bioresources used, method of preparation, dosage forms, formulation, unit doses. The entire interviews were done in the residence of respective Maiba-Maibi, their patient handing and preparation of medicinal formulations were documented in written and audio-visual format. The survey recorded traditional knowledge on 949 formulations used for 66 human ailments. Five hundred forty six plant products, 42 animal products and 22 organic/inorganic materials were found to be used in these 949 formulations. Five plant species - Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignonaceae), Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) and Allium sativum (Liliaceae) used by maximum number of Maiba and Maibi in maximum number of formulations. This particular method of documentation keeps traditional knowledge alive. The WHO estimated perspective of traditional medicine across the world. These observations support therapeutic worth of Manipur Traditional medicines (MTM). Having generated a large database in course of this survey, next focus targeted for the scientific justification of MTM with an aim to develop commercially viable products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intellectual Property Creation of Japanese Companies in China and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayasuki Kondo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalization, Japanese companies are globalizing their operations. They have recently been increasing the number of overseas R&D centers in Asia, especially in China and Thailand. Using the United States patent and industrial design data, the paper finds the following points quantitatively. Japanese companies are increasing the number of patents and industrial designs created in the two countries. They used local talents from the beginning in China for both patents and industrial designs. In Thailand, they used local talents for industrial designs from the beginning, while Japanese expertise in Thailand was used for patents in the beginning. In any case, the role of Japanese in Japan is important. Compared with multi-national companies (MNCs from other countries, the IP creation activities of Japanese companies are weak compared to their amount of foreign direct investment to China and Thailand.

  20. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  1. Oyster Fauna of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussarawit, Somchai; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe 16 species of true oysters from Thai waters. They are widely distributed on various intertidal and subtidal substrates in the Gulf of Thailand and in the Andaman Sea. The different species were identified on the basis of their shell morphology, and their characteristic features...

  2. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchint Simaraks

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/μl, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/μl, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous

  3. National data on stroke outcomes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongbunkiat, Kannikar; Kasemsap, Narongrit; Thepsuthammarat, Kaewjai; Tiamkao, Somsak; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-03-01

    Stroke is a major public health problem worldwide. There are limited data on national stroke prevalence and outcomes after the beginning of the thrombolytic therapy era in Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with mortality in stroke patients in Thailand using the national reimbursement databases. Clinical data retrieved included individuals under the universal coverage, social security, and civil servant benefit systems between 1 October 2009 and 30 September 2010. The stroke diagnosis code was based on the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision system including G45 (transient cerebral ischemic attacks and related syndromes), I61 (intracerebral hemorrhage), and I63 (cerebral infarction). The prevalence and stroke outcomes were calculated from these coded data. Factors associated with death were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. We found that the most frequent stroke subtype was cerebral infarction with a prevalence of 122 patients per 100,000 of population, an average length of hospital stay of 6.8 days, an average hospital charge of 20,740 baht (∼$USD 691), a mortality rate of 7%, and thrombolytic prescriptions of 1%. The significant factors associated with stroke mortality were septicemia, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, status epilepticus, and heart failure. In conclusion, the prevalence and outcomes of stroke in Thailand were comparable with other countries. The era of thrombolytic therapy has just begun in Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The genus Pothos (Araceae-Pothoideae-Potheae) of Thailand and Indochina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyce, Peter C.

    2000-01-01

    An account of Pothos for Thailand and Indochina [taken here to comprise Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao P.D.R, Vietnam, subtropical China (Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan)] and Taiwan is presented as a precursor of the forthcoming Flora of Thailand treatment. Fourteen

  5. Estimation of construction waste generation and management in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoworola, Oyeshola Femi; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2009-02-01

    This study examines construction waste generation and management in Thailand. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2005, an average of 1.1 million tons of construction waste was generated per year in Thailand. This constitutes about 7.7% of the total amount of waste disposed in both landfills and open dumpsites annually during the same period. Although construction waste constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling are yet to be effectively practiced in Thailand. Recently, the management of construction waste is being given attention due to its rapidly increasing unregulated dumping in undesignated areas, and recycling is being promoted as a method of managing this waste. If effectively implemented, its potential economic and social benefits are immense. It was estimated that between 70 and 4,000 jobs would have been created between 2002 and 2005, if all construction wastes in Thailand had been recycled. Additionally it would have contributed an average savings of about 3.0 x 10(5) GJ per year in the final energy consumed by the construction sector of the nation within the same period based on the recycling scenario analyzed. The current national integrated waste management plan could enhance the effective recycling of construction and demolition waste in Thailand when enforced. It is recommended that an inventory of all construction waste generated in the country be carried out in order to assess the feasibility of large scale recycling of construction and demolition waste.

  6. MARS and its applications at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) for Northeast Utilities Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) has been jointly developed by Northeast Utilities (NU) and Fauske ampersand Associates, Inc. (FAI). Millstone Unit 1 is a 2011-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)/3 with a Mark-I containment. MARS/MP1 is user-friendly computer software that is structured to provide Northeast Utilities management and engineering staff with key insights during actual or simulated accidents. Times to core uncovery, vessel failure, and containment failure are among the figures of merit that can be obtained from this system. MARS/MP1 can predict future conditions of the MP-1 plant based on current plant data and their trends (time-dependent plant data). The objective of this paper is to present the research and development effort of the MARS/MP1 software at Northeast Utilities

  7. Galeommatid bivalves from Phuket, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established. The spec......Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established...... crustacean, the remainder hide under shale, rocks and coral blocks, often in small intra- or interspecific family flocks. The behaviour was also noted for some of the species. It is presumed that galeommatid species go through a lengthy planktonic phase....

  8. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  9. The curer as cultural intermediary in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, L

    1984-01-01

    A glimpse at the life of an illustrious Buddhist monastic curer in Pattani, Thailand, reveals a significant multiethnic component of Southeast Asia's traditional medical systems. The prominence of this curer and the prosperity of his monastery derive in large part from his command of alien occult knowledge, which he uses to combat outside supernatural aggression. The paper concludes with a discussion of how centers of outside magical power are conceptualized among various groups in Thailand.

  10. Effect of outdoor activity on myopia onset and progression in school-aged children in northeast china: the sujiatun eye care study

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Ju-Xiang; Hua, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Ji-Wen; Gao, Guo-Peng; Fang, Yun; Pei, Chen-Lu; Wang, Song; Zhang, Jie-Zheng; Tao, Li-Ming; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to its high prevalence and associated sight-threatening pathologies, myopia has emerged as a major health issue in East Asia. The purpose was to test the impact on myopia development of a school-based intervention program aimed at increasing the time student spent outdoors. Methods A total of 3051 students of two primary (grades 1-5, aged 6-11) and two junior high schools (grades 7-8, aged 12-14) in both urban and rural Northeast China were enrolled. The intervention group (n?=...

  11. Airborne trace elements near a petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand assessed by the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex Nyl.) Hale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpeng, Chaiwat; Polyiam, Wetchasart; Sriviboon, Chutima; Sangiamdee, Duangkamon; Watthana, Santi; Nimis, Pier Luigi; Boonpragob, Kansri

    2017-05-01

    Several trace elements discharged by the petrochemical industry are toxic to humans and the ecosystem. In this study, we assessed airborne trace elements in the vicinity of the Map Ta Phut petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand by transplanting the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to eight industrial, two rural, and one clean air sites between October 2013 and June 2014. After 242 days, the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V, and Zn in lichens at most industrial sites were higher than those at the rural and the control sites; in particular, As, Cu, Mo, Sb, V, and Zn were significantly higher than at the control site (p industrial sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that most elements were associated with industry, with lesser contributions from traffic and agriculture. Based on the pollution load indexes (PLIs), two industrial sites were highly polluted, five were moderately polluted, and one had a low pollution level, whereas the pollution load at the rural sites was comparable to background levels. This study reinforces the utility of lichens as cost-effective biomonitors of airborne elements, suitable for use in developing countries, where adequate numbers of air monitoring instruments are unavailable due to financial, technical, and policy constraints.

  12. Physical therapy workforce shortage for aging and aged societies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiwong, Ratchanok; Vongsirinavarat, Mantana; Soonthorndhada, Kusol

    2014-07-01

    According to demographic changes, the size of the aging population has rapidly increased. Thailand has been facing the "aging society" since 2005 and the "aged society" has been projected to appear by the year 2025. Increased life expectancy is associated with health problems and risks, specifically chronic diseases and disability. Aging and aged societies and related specific conditions as stroke require the provision of services from health professionals. The shortage of the physical therapy workforce in Thailand has been reported. This study investigated the size of physical therapy workforce required for the approaching aging society of Thailand and estimated the number of needed physical therapists, specifically regarding stroke condition. Evidently, the issue of the physical therapy workforce to serve aging and aged societies in Thailand requires advocating and careful arranging.

  13. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The IURBP Orientation Phase Mission assesses the Speculative Uranium Resources in Thailand to be within the range of 1 500 to 38 500 tonnes U. Geological environments which are considered by the Mission to be favourable for uranium occurrences include the following: sandstones of Jurassic to Triassic age; Tertiary sedimentary basins (northern Thailand); Tertiary sedimentary basins (southern Thailand); associated with fluorite deposits; granitic rocks; black shales and graphitic slates of the Palaeozoic; associated with sedimentary phosphate deposits; and associated with monazite sands. Physical conditions in Thailand, including a wet tropical climate, dense forest growth and rugged terrain in some areas and relative inaccessibility, make exploration difficult and costly. There is currently no ready accessibility to detailed topographic and geological maps and other basic data. This lack of availability is a severe constraint to systematic exploration. The lack of skilled personnel experienced in uranium studies and the low level of technical support is a serious hindrance to exploration in Thailand. (author)

  14. Knowledge and perceptions of the risks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among orthopaedic patients in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phueanpinit, Pacharaporn; Pongwecharak, Juraporn; Krska, Janet; Jarernsiripornkul, Narumol

    2016-10-01

    Background There is a high incidence of adverse effects from non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Thailand, but patients' perceptions and knowledge of NSAID risks is unknown. Objective This study aims to assess patients' perceptions and knowledge of NSAID risks and factors affecting them. Setting University hospital in North-East of Thailand. Method A Cross-sectional study conducted over 4 months, using a self-administered questionnaire. Patients prescribed NSAIDs for at least one month duration from orthopaedic clinic were recruited using systematic random sampling. Main outcome measure Patients' perceptions on NSAID risks, knowledge on risk factors, and their associated factors. Results A total of 474 questionnaires were assessed. Overall perceptions of risks was low (scoring below five on a 0-10 visual analogue scale), with risks associated with the renal system scoring highest. Perceived risk of gastrointestinal problems differed between patients using non-selective and selective NSAIDs (3.47 ± 2.75 vs 2.06 ± 2.98; P information from a health professional was associated with higher risk perception. Most patients (80 %) identified high doses, renal disease and gastrointestinal ulcer increased risks of NSAIDs, but fewer than half recognized that use in the elderly, multiple NSAID use, drinking, hypertension and cardiovascular disease also increased risk of adverse events. Having underlying diseases and receiving side effect information were associated with 1.6-2.0 fold increased knowledge of NSAID risks. Conclusion Perceptions and knowledge concerning NSAID risks was generally low in Thai patients, but higher in those who had received side effect information. Risk-related information should be widely provided, especially in high-risk patients.

  15. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santaweesuk S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1 health education, 2 safety inspection, 3 safety communication, and 4 health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up. We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some

  16. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. The notice did not include the... bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of...

  17. International spillovers, productivity growth and openness in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Xinshen; Rattsø, Jørn; Stokke, Hildegunn Ekroll

    2002-01-01

    The present paper addresses the growth process of Thailand... After all the theoretical growth modeling and the cross-country growth regressions, we suggest to go back to the country level to understand the growth dynamics. The focus is on endogenous productivity growth in transition towards long run balanced growth. Thailand has had remarkable economic growth of about 6-7% and well above world averages for 40-50 years, in transformation from a ‘rice economy' to industrialization. Interesting...

  18. Mental Health of Muslim Nursing Students in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the mental health and well-being of Muslim nursing students in Thailand. Specifically, the study investigated the factors that impact anxiety and depression among Muslim nursing students. This cross-sectional research was conducted with a half sampling method of Muslim undergraduate students who were studying at a public nursing college in Thailand. From the 220 self-identified Muslim nursing students, 110 were sampled for this study, representing 1...

  19. An evaluation of So language vitality in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Tehan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the vitality and endangerment of So [sss] speech communities in Thailand. Beginning with a review of sociolinguistic survey results for five So communities in Thailand to ascertain the likely need for vernacular language development in So, additional data to cover the rest of the So community are provided. The language vitality of the So communities in Thailand is then assessed using Expanded GIDS and the Sustainable Use Model (SUM, Lewis & Simons 20152, an expansion of the Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS, Fishman 1991. This vitality model indicates that many So villages display vigorous language vitality whereas other villages are threatened by language shift. Some initial efforts at revitalization and language development show promise. Several additional activities are suggested to enhance the vitality of the language and help the So to resist the regional trend towards language shift to Northeastern Thai (Isaan.

  20. Energy and nuclear power planning study for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The present report describes the study conducted in co-operation with several agencies and organizations from Thailand and covers the energy and electricity requirements and the optimal expansion plans for the power generating system for this country up to year 2011. It is emphasized that the study was carried out by a team of experts from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), the National Energy Administration (NEA) and the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), who were fully responsible for all phases of the study, including the production of the present report. The IAEA's responsibility was to provide overall co-ordination and general guidance during the conduct of the study, as well as training and assistance in the implementation and use of the IAEA's computerized planning methodologies on the computer facilities of Thailand. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Nutrition transition, food retailing and health equity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. RESULTS: Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries.

  2. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  3. Present status of radiation utilization in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, S.

    1994-01-01

    Present development of radiation utilization in Thailand covers two main areas, i.e. (1) production and utilization of radioisotopes and (2) radiation processing and technology. Radioisotope production from 2 megawatts Thai Research Reactor (TRR1/M1) is being studied, directed toward expanding the varieties of radioisotopes, improvement of quality, and technological development on quantity producing to meet the total national needs. However a large amount of radioisotopes is also imported mainly for industrial and medical applications. Radioisotopes and radiations are utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy from 30 hospitals and institutions. X-ray photographing, X-ray computer tomography and others are typical use for medical examination purposes, while Co-60 gamma rays and electron beam are in used for curing. Since 1972, Thailand has been participated to the IAEA/RCA Industrial Project, through the liaison of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), and increases the awareness of industry to the economic benefits through the uses of nuclear technology. More than 60 companies are using radioisotopes for gauging, examination purposes and production controls, while these radioisotopes are mostly imported. Nuclear techniques in agriculture are addressed concerns with optimizing fertilizer application, determination soil-water-nitrogen fixation relationships, improving animal health and reproduction, measurement of toxic residues, appropriated food preservation techniques and breeding plant for better yield and disease resistance. The eradication of fruit flies by Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) with gamma rays has been successfully applied in northern and middle part of Thailand. The progress and present status of radiation utilization and processing in Thailand will be introduced. (author)

  4. SSDL for radiation protection of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanitsuksombut, W.

    1995-01-01

    In Thailand, the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted by the King in 1961, and Office of Atomic Energy for Peace was established to serve as the secretariat of the Atomic Energy for Peace Commission of Thailand. The import and export of radioactive materials, and the owners and users of radioactive materials must be licensed by the OAEP. The program for establishing the SSDL to calibrate radiation protection instruments started in 1981, and was completed in 1990. The calibration of survey meters and direct reading personnel dosimeters has been provided since 1986. The average number of the devices calibrated by the SSDL per month is shown. The categories of radiation utilization in Thailand are nucleonic gauging and control, nondestructive testing, oil and coal logging, radiation technology and research. The capability of the SSDL and the calibrated radiation measuring instruments for respective categories of utilization are reported. The number of the instruments used for radiography was 217, followed by 171 for nucleonic gauging and control. With the increasing use of radioactive materials, the work of radiation safety must be improved. Together with the license authority, the SSDL must expand its activity to assure the safe handling of radiation sources. (K.I.)

  5. Nationwide survey of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Gumnarai, Pornpen; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Mahachai, Varocha

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to survey the antibiotic-resistant pattern of Helicobacter pylori infection in different geographical locations in Thailand and to determine factors associated with antibiotic resistance. Dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from the Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern regions of Thailand between January 2004 and December 2012 were enrolled in this study. Two antral gastric biopsies were obtained for culture; susceptibility tests were performed using E-test. A total of 3964 were enrolled, and 1350 patients (34.1%) were infected with H. pylori as identified by rapid urease test. Cultures were positive in 619 isolates. E-test for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline were successful in 400 isolates and for levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in 208 isolates. Antibiotic resistance was present in 50.3% including amoxicillin 5.2%, tetracycline 1.7%, clarithromycin 3.7%, metronidazole 36%, ciprofloxacin 7.7%, levofloxacin 7.2%, and multi-drugs in 4.2%. Clarithromycin resistance was significantly more common in those older than 40 years (i.e., 100% versus 0%; P = 0.04). The prevalence of metronidazole resistant in Southern Thailand was significantly higher than in the Northeastern region (66.7% versus 33.3% P = 0.04). Metronidazole resistance remains the most common antibiotic resistant type of H. pylori in Thailand. The pattern of H. pylori antibiotic resistance over 9 years demonstrated a fall in clarithromycin resistance such that currently age >40 years is a predictor for clarithromycin resistance in Thailand. Quinolone resistance is a growing problem. © 2013.

  6. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in... China, Mexico, and Thailand. Accordingly, effective April 23, 2013, the Commission instituted...

  7. Article title - Potential evaluation of rolling stock manufacturing in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiprasit Koetniyom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the capital city of Thailand, the first electric railway system so called Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS has been established since 1999. And Thai Government has the master plan to develop the network for such mass transport system in order to reduce traffic congestion and pollution. However, experience and technology knowledge of the rolling stock are still unknown among Thai industries. Besides, the automotive industry in Thailand has shown robust growth despite the political conflict and economic situation. With contribution of component and material suppliers for automotive industry, Thailand has possibly high potential to develop and build the train with local contents based on the international railway industry standards, etc. For this reason, this research focuses on essential component structures for the train, international standards for railway industry and relevant technologies for product, production and testing. In addition, the questionnaire for the component and material suppliers in Thailand has been established under international standards and essential car train components. As a result, it reveals that there are high potential possibilities to support the rolling stock industries under the knowledge of relevant standards in some product modules of the body-strength-structure and auxiliary groups. However, the core knowledge and technologies for the product designs and testing in Thailand are the least in the least in the platformsuspension group.

  8. Solar radiation in the Brazilian northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiba, Chigueru [Federal University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The significant increase in recent years of the number of rural electrification systems (some thousands of them do exist) using photovoltaic technology installed in the Northeast of Brazil (1,500,000 km{sup 2}, approximately 42 million people) used for illumination or water pumping, calls for an improvement on the design procedures in order to reduce the burden of capital costs per unit of generated power. Such objective can be accomplished as long as a better knowledge about the solar resource is achieved, considering how much these applications depend on it. The sources of information on solar radiation in Brazil are quite varied at both institutional and publication level. At institutional Meteorology (INMET), State Departments of Agriculture, research institute, universities and electric power generation and distribution utilities. Progress reports or scientific and technical journals are the main publishing vehicles where this information can be found. This way, data quality varies considerably, showing, spatial and temporal discontinuities, in addition to the fact that measurement instruments and physical units of registered data are not standardized. The Solarimetric Atlas of Brazil was recently published and it contains that information, which is grouped, evaluated, qualified, and presented in a standardized way. It is one of the best currently existing sources of information, and in certainly consists of almost the entirety of the existing information on the solar resource (data on solar radiation and sunshine hours) in Brazil. By using this database, simultaneous records of solar radiation (measured with pyranoghaps or pyranometers) and sunshine hours with heliographs were obtained in 35 different places in the Northeast region. Coefficients a and b were calculated for those different places using Angstrom's correlation. Using the geostatistical interpolation method known as kriging, the values of a and b were placed on contour maps, the coverage of

  9. Some applications of solar energy in Thailand. Research report No. 61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Htun, M N; Aftab, M P; Ramachandran, P N

    1976-06-01

    Solar energy for process heat is identified as the application with potential for widescale use in rural areas rather than urban centres of Thailand. Three applications of solar energy, namely distillation, drying, and cooking are investigated. The units for the study are designed with low cost, flexibility and durability as the aim. The production efficiency of a conventional solar still is improved by the use of internal or external mirrors. To improve the production and efficiency of a solar still, a suspension of activated carbon particles is introduced into the still. However, the most significant improvement in efficiency and production occurs when the solar still is filled and operated with a static bed of burnt rice husk. The solar dryer, drying tapioca chips can reduce moisture content of around 71% down to 14% within 8 hours of operation. The solar dryer performs more efficiently and effectively than open floor drying. The solar cooker is inconvenient to use and operate and the potential for widescale use is concluded to be remote unless social habits change and the cooker made more comfortable to utilize.

  10. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet. Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainly quantitative, and did not consistently distinguish (cyber bullying from general aggression. Suggestions are made for future research in this area, in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

  11. Curing and sociocultural separatism in South Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, L

    1985-01-01

    In much of Thailand animistic curing practices have lost ground to great tradition herbal medicine and modern scientific medicine as more people achieve literacy. Especially in urbanizing areas, Buddhist and Muslim Thais hold in the highest esteem traditional curers whose knowledge derives from patient experimentation and the study of ancient texts. However, among Malay-speaking Muslims in south Thailand, the most respected therapeutic knowledge is revelatory in nature. Southern Muslim curers are generally mystics or spirit-mediums whose direct channels of communication with the supernatural convey remedies for afflictions but also provide guidelines for maintaining sociocultural separatism.

  12. 77 FR 3326 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    .... 3] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal...

  13. 76 FR 32391 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    .... 1] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announces the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a...

  14. Impacts of Decentralization on Environmental Management in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soparatana Jarusombat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process, institutional and legal framework within which the environmental management operates in Thailand. It specifically focuses on the decentralization within central and local government’s role in environmental management. The methods of this research use literature review. The aim of the paper is to examine how interface between the central and local loci of power have affected pieces of legislation relating to management of the environment by central and local government in Thailand.

  15. Ethnomedicinal plants used for digestive system disorders by the Karen of northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Sukkho, Treetip; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2015-04-09

    Digestive system disorders have a substantial effect on worldwide morbidity and mortality rates, including in Thailand, where the majority of the rural areas have a lack of proper sanitation and awareness about disease prevention. This has led to the prevalence of different types of digestive diseases. Karen people in Thailand still use medicinal plants as first aid remedies in treating these diseases. Therefore, this study aimed at documenting the plants used to cure and prevent different types of digestive system disorders by Karen people of Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Ethnomedicinal data were collected from six key informants and 172 non-specialist informants regarding their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. Quantitative approaches were used to determine Use Value (UV), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity Level (FL) values. The study revealed that 36 medicinal plant species belonging to 31 genera and 24 families were used to treat digestive system disorders. The most prevalent plant families were Zingiberaceae (6 species), Euphorbiaceae (4 species) and Fabaceae (4 species). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part accounting for 32.6% of the plants, followed by the bark (18.6%). About 60% of the administrations were given orally by potion (60%) and consumption as food was also indicated (14%). The highest ICF values were recorded for carminative disorders, stomachaches, geographic tongue, constipation, appetite stimulants and food poisoning (1.00 each) indicating the best agreement among the informants knowledge of medicinal plants that were used to treat aliments in these categories. The highest fidelity level values were recorded for Punica granatum (100.00), Psidium guajava (95.45), and Gymnopetalum integrifolium (90.91) showing conformity of knowledge on species with the best healing potential. Medicinal plants still play an important role among Karen culture. The present information on these medicinal plants, which have

  16. Characteristics of surface O{sub 3} over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxshen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Cao, Junji [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Leiming [Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Zhao, Zhuzi [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Dong, Jungang [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Wang, Linqing [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-12-01

    Surface O{sub 3} was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O{sub 3} ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O{sub 3} followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O{sub 3} showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O{sub 3}. It was found that O{sub 3} was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO{sub x} in the ambient air, thus limiting O{sub 3} formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O{sub 3} levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O{sub 3} and long range transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O{sub 3} was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O{sub 3} chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O{sub 3} and transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this area.

  17. 77 FR 20690 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    .... 4] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety... NECSC is made up of stakeholders operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC), and the purpose of the...

  18. Tourism destination development in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pongajarn, Chalermpat

    2017-01-01

    Informed by actor-network theory (ANT), this research aims at improving understanding of the nature of tourism destinations in Thailand and their development by investigating through three main notions: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. These notions enabled to study how tourism

  19. Characteristics and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Tongtawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection are genetic susceptibility and poor living conditions. This study aimed to investigate the Mdm2 gene, clarithromycin resistance, and possible risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods. Risk factors and clinical characteristics were analyzed, including patient demographic data, patient income, personal history, possible source of transmission, patient symptoms, endoscopic findings, patterns of clarithromycin resistance, and patterns of Mdm2 SNIP309. Results. Ingestion of pickled fish (OR = 11.27, 95% CI = 4.31–29.45, p<0.0001, salt crab (OR = 8.83, 95% CI = 1.99–39.14, p<0.001, and Papaya salad (OR = 8.73, 95% CI = 4.54–16.79, p<0.01. The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance was 56% (wild type, A2143/2142A, is 23.8%; mutation, A2143/2142CG, is 35.7%; wild type + mutation is 40.5%. The genetic polymorphisms of Mdm2 SNIP309 were SNIP309 T/T homozygous in 78%, SNIP309 G/T heterozygous in 19%, and SNIP309 G/G homozygous in 3%. Conclusion. Pickled fish, salt crab, and Papaya salad are positive risk factors. There was high prevalence of clarithromycin resistance. The Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G homozygous genotype might be a risk factor for gastric cancer and the fact that it is infrequent in Thailand.

  20. Buddhism on the Border: Shan Buddhism and Transborder Migration in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the transformation of Shan Buddhism in the border area of Northern Thailand. Shan and other ethnic groups have a long history of migration between Northern Thailand and the Shan State of Myanmar; the migration continued even after the border was demarcated at the end of the nineteenth century. Recently, the migration has become unidirectional--from Myanmar to Thailand-- and the number of migrants is growing steadily. An anomalous situation exists in this area: a fluid bord...

  1. Feminine transformations: gender reassignment surgical tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizura, Aren Z

    2010-10-01

    Every year, hundreds of transgendered people from the United States, Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia travel to Thailand to undergo cosmetic and gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). Many GRS clinics market themselves almost exclusively to non-Thai trans women (people assigned a male sex at birth who later identify as female). This article draws on ethnographic research with patients visiting Thailand for GRS to explore how trans women patients related their experience of medical care in Thailand to Thai cultural traditions, in particular "traditional" Thai femininity and Theravada Buddhist rituals and beliefs. Foreign patients in Thai hospital settings engage not only with medical practices but also with their perceptions of Thai cultural traditions--which inflect their feminine identifications. I draw on two patients' accounts of creating personal rituals to mark their gender reassignment surgery, placing these accounts within the context of biomedical globalization and debates about the touristic appropriation of non-"Western" cultural practices.

  2. An analysis of legal warnings after drug approval in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriphiromya, Pakawadee; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai

    2015-02-01

    Drug risk management has many tools for minimizing risk and black-boxed warnings (BBWs) are one of those tools. Some serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) emerge only after a drug is marketed and used in a larger population. In Thailand, additional legal warnings after drug approval, in the form of black-boxed warnings, may be applied. Review of their characteristics can assist in the development of effective risk mitigation. This study was a cross sectional review of all legal warnings imposed in Thailand after drug approval (2003-2012). Any boxed warnings for biological products and revised warnings which were not related to safety were excluded. Nine legal warnings were evaluated. Seven related to drugs classes and two to individual drugs. The warnings involved four main types of predictable ADRs: drug-disease interactions, side effects, overdose and drug-drug interactions. The average time from first ADRs reported to legal warnings implementation was 12 years. The triggers were from both safety signals in Thailand and regulatory measures in other countries outside Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The recent status of nuclear technology development in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Sumitra, Tatchai; Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Chankow, Nares; Tiyapan, Kanokrat; Onjun, Thawatchai; Bhanthumnavin, Duangduen

    2016-01-01

    Thailand has started the peaceful utilization of nuclear program in 1961. The program has developed considerably in various aspects. Laws and regulations were established while applications in medical, agriculture, industry as well as research and education have been accomplished successfully in the country. As for the energy production, Thailand has realized the importance of nuclear power generation several years back. However, the implementation has been delayed. (J.P.N.)

  4. The Evaluation of Feed-in Tariff Models for Photovoltaic System in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagulpongmalee Kangsadan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is targeted to reach 6,000 MW of total installed PV capacity by 2036. Feed-in tariff (FIT was one of the most successful PV mechanisms of Thailand for promoting PV generated electricity. The evaluation of the FIT models for PV in Thailand which was designed 3 models such as premium price FIT model (Adder in the first FIT policy to motivate attention on investment in PV power plant. After that used fixed price FIT model for PV ground-mounted and front-end loaded FIT model for solar rooftop. In addition to, Thailand has project-specific tariff design which FIT rates are differentiated tariff payment levels by technology, capacity size, and quality of the resource. As result of FIT policies, the PV installation is 1,287 MW of cumulative capacity in 2014. Furthermore, the financial evaluation of FIT for PV project in Thailand found that Net Present Value (NPV 32.97 million Baht, Internal Rate of Return (IRR 13.22%, payback period 8.86 years and B/C ratio was 1.66 which must be implemented in conjunction with other financial support measures such as low interest loans, tax benefits, etc. The several incentives to promote PV in Thailand especially FIT shown as PV projects are to be profitable and incentives to investors.

  5. Nuclear Power Project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namwong, Ratanachai

    2011-01-01

    The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the main power producer in Thailand, was first interested in nuclear power as an electricity option in 1967 when the electricity demand increased considerably for the first time as a result of the economic and industrial growth. Its viability had been assessed several times during the early seventies in relation to the changing factors. Finally in the late 1970s, the proceeding with nuclear option was suspended for a variety of reasons, for instance, public opposition, economic repercussion and the uncovering of the indigenous petroleum resources. Nonetheless, EGAT continued to maintain a core of nuclear expertise. During 1980s, faced with dwindling indigenous fossil fuel resources and restrictions on the use of further hydro as an energy source, EGAT had essentially reconsidered introducing nuclear power plants to provide a significant fraction to the long term future electricity demand. The studies on feasibility, siting and environmental impacts were conducted. However, the project was never implemented due to economics crisis in 1999 and strong opposition by environmentalists and activists groups. The 1986 Chernobyl disaster was an important cause. After a long dormant period, the nuclear power is now reviewed as one part of the solution for future energy supply in the country. Thailand currently relies on natural gas for 70 percent of its electricity, with the rest coming from oil, coal and hydro-power. One-third of the natural gas consumed in Thailand is imported, mainly from neighbouring Myanmar. According to Power Development Plan (PDP) 2007 rev.2, the total installed electricity capacity will increase from 28,530.3 MW in 2007 to 44,281 MW by the end of plan in 2021. Significantly increasing energy demand, concerns over climate change and dependence on overseas supplies of fossil fuels, all turn out in a favor of nuclear power. Under the current PDP (as revised in 2009), two 1,000- megawatt nuclear

  6. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  7. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  8. Macroeconomic impacts of Universal Health Coverage : Synthetic control evidence from Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rieger (Matthias); N. Wagner (Natascha); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe study the impact of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) on various macroeconomic outcomes in Thailand using synthetic control methods. Thailand is compared to a weighted average of control countries in terms of aggregate health and economic performance over the period 1995 to 2012. Our

  9. A new species of Lecanorchis (Orchidaceae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somran Suddee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lecanorchis betongensis, a new species from tropical rain forest in southern peninsular Thailand, is described and illustrated. The combination of semicircular column wings and a labellum with an odd number of major veins (but devoid of calli places the new species in sect. Lecanorchis. However, the lack of any fusion between the labellum and the column readily distinguishes L. betongensis from all other species of the genus. The new species seems morphologically closest to L. malaccensis from Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra.

  10. Broadening soybean genetic basis in the northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJinling

    1994-01-01

    The bottle neek of advancement of soybean breeding inthe Northeast of China is the lack of genetic diversity of the parents used in cross breeding.In order to overcome this constrained condition,under the sponsorship of China National Committe of Natural Science Fundation,a network project with the topic"Broadening and Improving of the Genetic Basis of the Northeast Soybeans" was established in 1990,and the Northeast agricultural University was apointed to take charge of the project.The project included the following four items:I.Breeding high yield and improved quality Northeast Soybeans,directed by Hcilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciencee .II.Development of new soybean gerplasms highly resistant to diseases epidemic in Northeast China directed by Northeast Agricultural University.Ⅲ.Exploitation of the potential of wild and semicultivated soybeans for broadening and improving the genetic basis of Northeast soybeans,directed by Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science.Ⅳ.Improving methods and technique for development of new soybean genetic resources.directed by Nanjing Agricultural University .Each item contained several research subjects conducted by research workers of different institutes of agricultural sicences.During the period 1991-1992.considerable promising new germplasms had been discovered or developed.The new germplasms not only possessed specific improved characters but also behaved with appropriate ecological types adapted to different conditions of Northeast.Among the numerous new germplasms developed.Gong Jio 8757-3 had a protein content of 49.41%,100 seed weight 16-17g,and acceptable agronomic characters,which was considered a very valuable new high protein content germplasm.Such developed new germplasma with enforced and imprved genetic basis will be used primarily as parents in soybean cross breeding.

  11. Country Demographic Profiles: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This profile of the population of Thailand contains 35 tables of selected demographic information, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality, beginning in 1950. An adjusted distribution of the population by age and sex is given for the latest census year, as well as for 1976. Projections of the number of women of…

  12. A Survey of Pharmacy Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakit, Teeraporn; Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire

    2014-11-15

    To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization's (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards' Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council's Quality Assessment (ONESQA). This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country's needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated.

  13. Inequity of healthcare utilization on mammography examination and Pap smear screening in Thailand: Analysis of a population-based household survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Chongthawonsatid

    Full Text Available Healthcare in Thailand is not equally distributed, and not all people can equally access healthcare resources even if they are covered by health insurance. To examine factors associated with the utilization of mammography examination for breast cancer and Pap smear screening for cervical cancer, data from the national reproductive health survey conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 2009 was examined. The survey was carried out on 15,074,126 women aged 30-59 years. The results showed that the wealthier respondents had more mammograms than did the lower-income groups. The concentration index was 0.144. The data on Pap smears for cervical cancer also showed that the wealthier respondents were more likely to have had a Pap smear than their lower-income counterparts. The concentration index was 0.054. Determinants of mammography examination were education, followed by health welfare and wealth index, whereas the determinants of Pap smear screening were wealth index, followed by health welfare and education. The government should support greater education for women because education was associated with socioeconomic status and wealth. There should be an increase in the number of screening campaigns, mobile clinics, and low-cost mammograms and continued support for accessibility to mammograms, especially in rural areas and low-income communities.

  14. Costs of injuries due to interpersonal and self-directed violence in Thailand, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Odton, Patarapan; Mugem, Suwanna; Phulkerd, Sirinya; Dhisayathikom, Kanjana; Brown, David W; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2008-06-01

    Violence, a serious public health problem in Thailand, remains largely unknown for its economic costs. This study is a national-level economic cost-estimates of injury from interpersonal and self-directed violence for Thailand during 2005 using the World Health Organization-US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines. Direct medical costs from self-directed violence totaled 569 million Baht (THB) while the cost of interpersonal violence was THB 1.3 billion. Productivity losses for injuries due to self-directed violence were estimated at THB 12.2 billion and those for interpersonal violence were THB 14.4 billion. The total direct medical cost, thus, accounted for about 4% of Thailand's total health budget while the productivity losses accounted for approximately 0.4% of Thailand s GDP In summary, interpersonal and self-directed violence caused a total loss of 33.8 billion baht for Thailand in 2005. More than 90% of the economic loss was incurred from productivity loss and about four-fifths came from men.

  15. Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Southern Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Albert R

    2005-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the history of southern Thailand, including the political factors behind the Malay-Muslim rebellions of the past, the roots of this rebellion back to the era of Patani Raya...

  16. The Effect of Household Debt on Consumption in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thitima Chucherd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the quantitative influence of household debt and wealth on total consumption in Thailand during the recession and recovery periods after the 1997 financial crisis. The analysis of the consumption function was based on the Life-Cycle and Permanent Income Hypotheses and used household survey data in Thailand. This empirical study found that debt positively influences consumption similar to wealth effect with greater impact of the latter. Moreover, positive debt effect can b...

  17. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of... China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...

  18. Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and the Lawa in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsongduang, Auemporn; Balslev, Henrik; Inta, Angkhana; Jampeetong, Arunothai; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2013-06-24

    Many ecosystem services provided by forests are important for the livelihoods of indigenous people. Sacred forests are used for traditional practices by the ethnic minorities in northern Thailand and they protect these forests that are important for their culture and daily life. Swidden fallow fields are a dominant feature of the agricultural farming landscapes in the region. In this study we evaluate and compare the importance of swidden fallow fields and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern Thailand. We made plant inventories in swidden fallow fields of three different ages (1-2, 3-4, 5-6 years old) and in sacred forests around two villages using a replicated stratified design of vegetation plots. Subsequently we interviewed the villagers, using semi-structured questionnaires, to assess the medicinal use of the species encountered in the vegetation survey. We registered a total of 365 species in 244 genera and 82 families. Of these 72(19%) species in 60(24%) genera and 32(39%) families had medicinal uses. Although the sacred forest overall housed more species than the swidden fallow fields, about equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means that a higher proportion (48% and 34%) of the species in the relatively species poor fallows were used for medicinal purposes than the proportion of medicinal plants from the sacred forest which accounted for 17-22%. Of the 32 medicinal plant families Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae had most used species in the Karen and Lawa villages respectively. Sacred forest are important for providing medicinal plant species to the Karen and Lawa communities in northern Thailand, but the swidden fallows around the villages are equally important in terms of absolute numbers of medicinal plant species, and more important if counted as proportion of the total number of species in a habitat. This points to the importance of

  19. Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Southern Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Albert R

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001, the Kingdom of Thailand has seen a resurgence of ethnic-religious (Malay-Muslim) violence that has killed approximately 800 people, causing obvious disruption within the nation and instability in the region...

  20. Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Southern Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001, the Kingdom of Thailand has seen a resurgence of ethno-religious (Malay-Muslim) violence that has killed approximately 800 people, causing obvious disruption within the nation and instability in the region...

  1. Peat swamp forest of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyomdham, C.; Urapeepatanapong, C.; Pitayakajornwute, P. [Pikoolthong Royal Development Study Center, Bangkok (Thailand). Royal Forest Department

    1996-12-31

    Peat swamp forest in Thailand occurs extensively along coastal flatlands in the central and southern parts of the country and some small patches of topogenous peatland are present locally on several mountain tops of the northern region. Many have been deteriorated by recent extensive development programs. However, one large area, about 347.04 km{sup 2}, of ombrogenous peatland is still left intact in the Pru Toh Dang area where conservation activities are being strictly enforced under one of the Royal Initiative Projects. Pru Toh Dang peat consists of 5 metres of fibrous organic soil overlying pyritic marine clay. Despite an inhospitable, submerged and unstable forest floor, the floristic composition of the peat swamp forest is extremely complicated, consisting of 124 families and 470 species of which 109 families and 437 species of flowering plants, and 15 families and 33 species of ferns recorded between 1983-1989 by a team from the Forest Herbarium of the Royal Forest Department of Thailand. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  2. Current status of Tc-99m production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Sakda

    2003-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the workhorse of nuclear medicine and currently accounts for over 80% of all in vivo diagnostic procedures. In Thailand, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) had experiences in production of Technetium-99m by solvent extraction process and alternative technology for Technetium-99m generator based on zirconium molybdate and titanium molybdate gel generators were also studied. The paper describes past experiences and future plan of Technetium-99m production in Thailand. (author)

  3. A survey of consumer’ opinion about consumption and health benefits of fermented plant beverages in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fermented beverages are widely used all over the country. Fermented plant beverages (FPB are prevalent in Thailand and FPBs are believed to cure and prevent many health oriented problems. The people of Thailand produce many varieties of FPBs in small scale or large scale and consume them in their daily lives. This study is a survey conducted among the representative consumers of FPBs in Thailand to know the consumer's opinion on FPBs, effects and benefits of FPBs, and real status of consumer satisfaction in Thailand. This study revealed that the rationale for the consumption of respective FPBs was to treat their health issues and for the betterment of their health. Most of the consumers of FPBs benefited in case of improving their physical and mental health. The current survey revealed the opinion of the FPBs consumers in Thailand. This study concluded that FPBs are health promoting drink that is affordable in the daily life of Thai people. The FPBs prepared in Thailand did not report any massive adverse effects in Thailand. Till now the preparation and consumption of FPBs are followed in Thailand and not influenced by adverse effects; FPBs are considered safe for human consumption.

  4. Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, Karl R. [Pace Energy and Climate Center Pace University School of Law

    2018-03-31

    The Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) brought together solar energy business associations and other stakeholders in the Northeast to harmonize regional solar energy policy and advance the solar energy market. The Coalition was managed by the Pace Energy and Climate Center, a project of the Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law. The NESEMC was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative as a cooperative agreement through 2017 as part of Solar Market Pathways.

  5. After the forest. AIDs as ecological collapse in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, A D

    1992-01-01

    Numerous parallels can be drawn between the systematic destruction of Thailand's forests and the emergence, in the same time period, of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as an irreversible societal crisis. Both the disintegration of the body's defense system implicit in AIDS and the erosion of Thailand's ecosystem provoked by deforestation policies are examples of assaults by capitalist economic policies on previously self-regulating systems. Centralization and industrial development have driven a substantial proportion of young Thai villagers to the cities, where they sell their labor as sex workers (there may be as many as 2 million prostitutes in Thailand) or become heroin users. Conservative estimates project 1.6 million AIDS-infected Thais by the end of 1995. Just as generally benign conditions such as the common cold can annihilate a body ravaged by the AIDS virus, Thailand's ecosystem, degraded by unregulated logging and state-subsidized, for-profit rubber planting, is no longer able to absorb natural occurrences such as heavy rainfall. The loss of forestland--the traditional source of food, shelter, tools, and medicine and the repository of cultural icons--has forced villagers to obtain cash to meet their needs, and Thailand's sex industry offers one of the highest rates of remuneration. Legislation enacted in response to AIDS and deforestation shares an emphasis on the victims (e.g., the prostitutes and not their clients or the owners of sex establishments, and impoverished forest squatters rather than plantation companies and land speculators). A powerful, combative environmental movement is successfully resisting government attempts to destroy living communities. Needed as well is resistance on the part of women growing up in the age of AIDS to societal definitions that polarize females (virgins and prostitutes) and uphold one-sided monogamy.

  6. Systematic approach to characterisation of NORM in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanyotha, S.; Kranrod, C.; Pengvanich, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information on the systematic approach that has been developed for the measurement of natural radiation exposure and the characterisation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in terms of occurrence and distribution in various industrial processes, including the produced waste from the mineral industries in Thailand. The approach can be adapted for various types of study areas. The importance of collaboration among research institutions is discussed. Some developments include 25 documents; the redesign of the field equipment, such as the gamma survey meter, for convenient access to conduct measurement in various study areas; the method to collect and analyse radon gas from a natural gas pipeline and the manganese dioxide fibre to adsorb radium on-site for laboratory analysis. The NORM project in Thailand has been carried out for more than 10 y to support the development of NORM regulation in Thailand. In the previous studies as well as current, international standards for action levels have been adopted for safety purpose. (authors)

  7. The present situations and perspectives on utilization of research reactors in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongkum, Somporn

    2002-01-01

    The Thai Research Reactor 1/Modification 1, a TRIGA Mark III reactor, went critical on November 7, 1977. It has been playing a central role in the development of both Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and nuclear application in Thailand. It has a maximum power of 2 MW (thermal) at steady state and a pulsing capacity of 2000 MW. The highest thermal neutron flux at a central thimber is 1×10 13 n/cm 2/s, which is extensively utilized for radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis and neutron beam experiments, i.e. neutron scattering, prompt gamma analysis and neutron radiography. Following the nuclear technological development, the OAEP is in the process of establishing the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC). The center is being built in Nakhon Nayok province, 60 km northeast of Bangkok. The centerpiece of the ONRC is a multipurpose 10 MW TRIGA research reactor. Facilities are included for the production of radioisotopes for medicine, industry and agriculture, neutron transmutation doping of silicon, and neutron capture therapy. The neutron beam facilities will also be utilized for applied research and technology development as well as training in reactor operations, performance of experiments and reactor physics. This paper describes a recent program of utilization as well as a new research reactor for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future.

  8. The social context of the emergence of HIV in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, N

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the developing pattern of HIV infection in Thailand with an introduction on basic principles of HIV transmission; a description of the emergence of HIV as a public health threat; a review of the social characteristics of HIV carriers in the context of the sexual culture in Thailand; and ends with a discussion of the dilemmas a developing country faces in dealing with HIV. Thailand is an example of a society where few people have many sex partners, a situation with a faster transmission of HIV than a case where most people have few partners. While Asia has lagged behind other regions in the spread of AIDS, in Thailand HIV has spread rapidly since 1988. Thailand has an illegal but tolerated commercial sex industry, with outlets very diverse in terms of STD control. This industry caters to tourists from other Asian countries, and is maintained by a strong male dominant culture, incomes averaging 25 times higher than other occupations pay, depression in outlying areas encouraging remittance of money back to families, and even status for sex workers in the marriage market. There is an entrenched subculture of intravenous drug injectors who also make up a nucleus of HIV carriers with high prevalence, 43% as of 1988. Some strategies open to the government to control spread of HIV include legalization and control of the sex industry, needle/syringe exchange and health care for drug injectors, social welfare for opium growers in the hills, and political solutions for the conflicts affecting drug traffic in Burma.

  9. Late stage and grave prognosis of esophageal cancer in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nun-Anan, Pongjarat; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the major health concerns in Southeast Asian countries, including Thailand. However, only a limited number of studies have been reported from this region. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics and survival rate of esophageal cancer in Thailand. Clinical information, histological features and endoscopic findings were collected from a tertiary care center in central region of Thailand between September 2011- November 2014 and reviewed. A total of 64 esophageal cancer patients including 58 men and 6 women with mean age of 62.6 years were enrolled. Common presenting symptoms were dysphagia (74%), dyspepsia (10%) and hematemesis (8%). Mean duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was 72 days. Esophageal stenosis with contact bleeding was the most common endoscopic finding (55.6%). The location of cancer was found in proximal (16%), middle (50%) and distal (34%) esophagus. Squamous cell carcinoma was far more common histology than adenocarcinoma (84.2% vs 10.5%). However, esophageal adenocarcinoma was significantly more common than squamous cell carcinoma in distal area of esophagus (100% vs 22.9%; p=0.0001, OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.1-2.2). Esophageal cancer stages 3 and 4 accounted for 35.2% and 59.3% respectively. Overall 2-year survival rate was 20% and only 16% in metastatic patients. Most esophageal cancer patients in Thailand have squamous cell carcinoma and nearly all present at advanced stage with a grave prognosis. Screening of high risk individuals and early detection might be important keys to improve the survival rate and treatment outcome in Thailand.

  10. Trends in the use of illicit substances in Thailand: Results from national household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkurawaranon, Chaisiri; Jiraporncharoen, Wichuda; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Thaikla, Kanittha; Kanato, Manop; Perngparn, Usaneya; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2018-02-27

    Thailand borders some of the world's largest methamphetamine and opioid producing countries and trafficking routes. Thailand's 'War on Drugs' campaign was launched in 2003. This study reports trends in illicit substance use in Thailand over the period 2001-2011. National Household surveys on illicit drug use were conducted in 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2011. A stratified multi-stage cluster random sampling technique was implemented for each survey. Provinces in four regions were systematically selected using a probability proportionate to the size of the targeted population. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires on their history of substance use. The prevalence of illicit drug use within the past drastically decreased from 4.5% in 2001 to 1.0% in 2003 (P survey. Other types of illicit drugs were less commonly used in Thailand. There was a decrease in prevalence of illicit drug use within the past year between 2001 and 2003 in Thailand. Since 2003, the past year prelavence of illicit drug use has remained relatively stable. From 2001 to 2011, cannabis, kratom and yaba have remained the three most commonly reported types of illicit drugs used in Thailand. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Derivatives Usage by Non-Financial Firms in Thailand; implications on the hedging strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Veerathep

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation is the result of the research carried out to investigate the derivatives usage in 65 non-financial companies across 8 specified industries in Thailand. The use of derivatives in Thailand is growing rapidly every year, our survey shows 75% of firms using derivatives in their hedging strategy. There is no significance in the use between Thai and Foreign companies in Thailand, while smaller firms do not use derivatives as much as larger firms, especially large listed companies....

  12. Northeast Asian Energy Corridor Initiative for Regional Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Hoon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore's AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an elFor historical and political reasons, South Korea (hereafter Korea, Japan and China have not achieved much progress in regional energy cooperation for decades. However, the rising importance of Northeast Asia (NEA in the world energy sphere, especially in the global oil market, is providing an opportunity to create an integrated oil market in the region. This study suggests the Northeast Asian Energy Corridor (NEAEC Initiative as an effective conduit for raising the possibility of the Northeast Asian oil hub project. The NEAEC Initiative combines the model of Europe's Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp (ARA with Singapore’s AsiaClear as a form of financial collaboration. The study suggests that an electronically integrated Over-the-Counter (OTC market clearing mechanism accompanied by other key financial instruments among Korea, Japan and China can be an effective means for promoting financial collaboration in the region.

  13. Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales new to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Thawthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae is a medicinal mushroom originally described from China and previously confused with G. lucidum. It has been widely used as traditional medicine in Asia since it has potential nutritional and therapeutic values. We collected 8 specimens of Ganoderma species from Thailand and show that they represent the first record of G. sichuanenese for Thailand. In this paper, we describe our specimens of Ganoderma sichuanense based on fresh basidiomes, and provide line drawings and photographs. The data from macro- and microscopic features are consistent with the characteristics of the species. Analysis of ITS sequence data indicates that the Thai collections cluster in same species clade as the epitype of G. sichuanense.

  14. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. We obtained 911,913 records of hospital visits, of which 324,906 came from 104,830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167,000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67,987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109,509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions - i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to - and apparently had no negative impacts on - the Thai health system and economy. We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system.

  15. Chain Migration through Social Networks: Case Study of Vietnamese Migrants in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tuan NGUYEN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the relationship between the recent increasingly pattern of Vietnamese migrants in Thailand and migration networks. By surveying 50 Vietnamese migrants in Bangkok, Thailand, the study confirms that migration networks have played a critical role in facilitating migration flows, especially irregular flows from Vietnam to Thailand over the years. It can be reflected by reducing the cost of migration, coping with new working environment and risks during working in Thailand and ensuring the return process for Vietnamese migrants. Moreover, forms of social networks includes personal networks (kinship and friendship networks, and community network (ngườidẫnđường’s network, social media has been also discussed. The study also implies that the người dẫn đường’s networks might contribute to recently emerging issues such as human trafficking and smugglings, which require further research.

  16. Cigarette Waste in Popular Beaches in Thailand: High Densities that Demand Environmental Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Hamann, Stephen L; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan; Mock, Jeremiah

    2018-03-29

    Thailand, like all nations, has a responsibility to initiate environmental actions to preserve marine environments. Low- and middle-income countries face difficulties implementing feasible strategies to fulfill this ambitious goal. To contribute to the revitalization of Thailand's marine ecosystems, we investigated the level of tobacco product waste (TPW) on Thailand's public beaches. We conducted a cross-sectional observational survey at two popular public beaches. Research staff collected cigarette butts over two eight-hour days walking over a one-kilometer stretch of beach. We also compiled and analyzed data on butts collected from sieved sand at 11 popular beaches throughout Thailand's coast, with 10 samples of sieved sand collected per beach. Our survey at two beaches yielded 3067 butts in lounge areas, resulting in a mean butt density of 0.44/m². At the 11 beaches, sieved sand samples yielded butt densities ranging from 0.25 to 13.3/m², with a mean butt density of 2.26/m² (SD = 3.78). These densities show that TPW has become a serious problem along Thailand's coastline. Our findings are comparable with those in other countries. We report on government and civil society initiatives in Thailand that are beginning to address marine TPW. The solution will only happen when responsible parties, especially and primarily tobacco companies, undertake actions to eliminate TPW.

  17. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  18. Genetic diversity of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus based on two hypervariable effector genes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttamuk, Thamrongjet; Zhou, Lijuan; Thaveechai, Niphone; Zhang, Shouan; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Las) being the most widely distributed around the world, and the only species detected in Thailand. To understand the genetic diversity of Las bacteria in Thailand, we evaluated two closely-related effector genes, lasAI and lasAII, found within the Las prophages from 239 infected citrus and 55 infected psyllid samples collected from different provinces in Thailand. The results indicated that most of the Las-infected samples collected from Thailand contained at least one prophage sequence with 48.29% containing prophage 1 (FP1), 63.26% containing prophage 2 (FP2), and 19.38% containing both prophages. Interestingly, FP2 was found to be the predominant population in Las-infected citrus samples while Las-infected psyllids contained primarily FP1. The multiple banding patterns that resulted from amplification of lasAI imply extensive variation exists within the full and partial repeat sequence while the single band from lasAII indicates a low amount of variation within the repeat sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of Las-infected samples from 22 provinces in Thailand suggested that the bacterial pathogen may have been introduced to Thailand from China and the Philippines. This is the first report evaluating the genetic variation of a large population of Ca. L. asiaticus infected samples in Thailand using the two effector genes from Las prophage regions.

  19. UK medical tourists in Thailand: they are not who you think they are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2014-05-06

    Travel for medical treatment is an aspect of globalization and health that is comparatively less understood. Little is known about volume, characteristic and motivation of medical tourists, limiting understanding of effects on health systems and patients. Thailand is amongst a handful of countries that have positioned themselves as medical tourism destination. This paper examines in unprecedented detail volume and characteristics of medical tourists who travel from the UK to Thailand for treatment. As part of a wider medical tourism study, authors gained access to over 4000 patient records from the five largest private hospitals in Thailand. These included information on country of origin, gender, age, arrival month, hospitalization, diagnosis, procedures, length of stay, medical expenditure and type of payment. Patient records were analysed to understand who travels and findings were triangulated with data from the UK International Passenger Survey (IPS). 104,830 medical tourists visited these hospitals in Thailand in 2010. While patients originate all over the world, UK medical tourists represent the largest group amongst Europeans. The majority UK medical tourists (60%) have comparatively small, elective procedures, costing less than USD 500. A significant minority of patients travel for more serious orthopedic and cardiothoracic procedures. Data of individual patient records from Thailand shows a higher number of UK patients traveled to Thailand than indicated by the IPS. Thailand is attracting a large number of medical tourists including larger numbers of UK patients than previously estimated. However, as many patients travel for comparatively minor procedures treatment may not be their primary motivation for travel. The small but significant proportion of older UK residents traveling for complex procedures may point to challenges within the NHS.

  20. Comparative Research on Human Settlements in Asian Rural Areas Based on Collaborative Construction Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sui; Chaoyang, Sun; Mo, Li

    2018-02-01

    Rural planning is perceived as a spatial planning centered on the human settlements and there are many activities for rural reconstruction and researches conducted from the perspective of active intervention, with fewer studies regarding the village as the main body for the establishment of self-built system. And the other-organization built by the rural areas is strongly oriented. In Asian countries like China, South Korea and Japan, there are farming traditions, in which the familial and small-scale farmland holding and agricultural production mode are deep-rooted. Traditional agriculture and rural areas are not fundamentally changed by industrialization and modernization process. And the small-scale peasant in the East is marked by the decentralized possession of farmland and management in the rural areas and a large number of farmers to be remained. But the rural population keeps decreasing. After analyzing the status quo of human settlements in China, Korea and Japan, the paper makes an analysis from the different ways of thinking and professional perspective and focuses on putting forward the solutions to the problems on macro level, with the feasibility of the practical significance and the landing researches still staying in the testing stage. In the context of increasingly missing regional and contextual features, the launching and researches of “co-constructed community” as the folk protection way to emerging rural heritage are just started, and the researches on rural construction in Northeast China from the perspective of catalyst are absent. The contact agent with the catalytic action mechanism of seeing big things through small ones fits the rural areas marked by vast territory and diversified aspect, which is applicable to the bottom-up operation mechanism autonomously built by the villagers.

  1. Travel motivations, behavior and requirements of European senior tourists to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranee Esichaikul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to examine the travel motivations and travel behavior of European senior tourists in Thailand, and to analyze the importance and satisfaction of their travel requirements regarding accommodation, accessibility, attractions, amenities and public services. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 430 European senior tourists aged over 55 years traveling in Thailand. Thirty-seven in-depth interviews were also conducted to gain the perspectives of many stakeholders from both public and private sectors. Besides quantitative and qualitative analysis, Importance-Performance Analysis was conducted. Research findings showed that the principal travel motivations of sampled senior European tourists were rest and relaxation. The majority of respondents had traveled to Thailand for the first time and intended to stay in Thailand for 15 days or more for leisure and sightseeing activities. Three major requirements of European senior tourists were safety of the destination, location of accommodation, and presence of natural attractions. The result of this research suggests potential policies and measures for public and private sector development.

  2. Rural and Urban Differences in Passenger-Vehicle-Occupant Deaths and Seat Belt Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Laurie F; Downs, Jonathan; Stevens, Mark R; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K

    2017-09-22

    Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in the United States. Compared with urban residents, rural residents are at an increased risk for death from crashes and are less likely to wear seat belts. These differences have not been well described by levels of rurality. 2014. Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths from motor-vehicle crashes and estimate the prevalence of seat belt use. FARS, a census of U.S. motor-vehicle crashes involving one or more deaths, was used to identify passenger-vehicle-occupant deaths among adults aged ≥18 years. Passenger-vehicle occupants were defined as persons driving or riding in passenger cars, light trucks, vans, or sport utility vehicles. Death rates per 100,000 population, age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population and the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash, were calculated. BRFSS, an annual, state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population aged ≥18 years, was used to estimate prevalence of seat belt use. FARS and BRFSS data were analyzed by a six-level rural-urban designation, based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2013 rural-urban continuum codes, and stratified by census region and type of state seat belt enforcement law (primary or secondary). Within each census region, age-adjusted passenger-vehicle-occupant death rates per 100,000 population increased with increasing rurality, from the most urban to the most rural counties: South, 6.8 to 29.2; Midwest, 5.3 to 25.8; West, 3.9 to 40.0; and Northeast, 3.5 to 10.8. (For the Northeast, data for the most rural counties were not reported because of suppression criteria; comparison is for the most urban to the second-most rural counties.) Similarly, the proportion of occupants who were unrestrained at the time of the fatal crash

  3. Obstetric ultrasound aids prompt referral of gestational trophoblastic disease in marginalized populations on the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kathryn; Myat Min, Aung; Karunkonkowit, Noaeni; Keereechareon, Suporn; Tyrosvoutis, Mary Ellen; Tun, Nay Win; Rijken, Marcus J; Hoogenboom, Gabie; Boel, Machteld; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2017-01-01

    The use of obstetric ultrasound in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in high-income settings is well established, leading to prompt management and high survival rates. Evidence from low-income settings suggests ultrasound is essential in identifying complicated pregnancies, but with limited studies reviewing specific conditions including GTD. The aim of this study is to review the role of ultrasound in diagnosis and management of GTD in a marginalized population on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Antenatal ultrasound became available in this rural setting in 2001 and care for women with GTD has been provided by Thailand public hospitals for 20 years. Retrospective record review. The incidence of GTD was 103 of 57,004 pregnancies in Karen and Burmese women on the Thailand-Myanmar border from 1993-2013. This equates to a rate of 1.8 (95% CI 1.5-2.2) per 1000 or 1 in 553 pregnancies. Of the 102 women with known outcomes, one (1.0%) died of haemorrhage at home. The median number of days between first antenatal clinic attendance and referral to hospital was reduced from 20 (IQR 5-35; range 1-155) to 2 (IQR 2-6; range 1-179) days (p = 0.002) after the introduction of ultrasound. The proportion of severe outcomes (death and total abdominal hysterectomy) was 25% (3/12) before ultrasound compared to 8.9% (8/90) with ultrasound (p = 0.119). A recurrence rate of 2.5% (2/80) was observed in the assessable population. The presence of malaria parasites in maternal blood was not associated with GTD. The rate of GTD in pregnancy in this population is comparable to rates previously reported within South-East Asia. Referral time for uterine evacuation was significantly shorter for those women who had an ultrasound. Ultrasound is an effective method to improve diagnosis of GTD in low-income settings and an effort to increase availability in marginalized populations is required.

  4. Energy and environmental market in industrial enterprises in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses markets related with energy conservation and environment preservation in industrial enterprises in Thailand. The present Thailand is not in a situation that investments are made into environmental businesses or energy saving businesses. However, the attitude of the government toward environment is that emphasis is placed on solving the environmental pollution problems. Laws and regulations are defined for assistance in environment preservation to corporations making efforts to increase export, resource protection and energy conservation. These measures lead to expectation on bright future in developing technologies and markets related to environment preservation and energy conservation. Control of wastes by using clean technologies and enhancement in productivity are very important issues for the export of Thailand partly because European countries and America set these requirements as a condition for transaction. The markets related to energy conservation and environment preservation are anticipated of participation from such businesses as consultants, device manufacturers, and inspection and analysis of environmental effects. (NEDO)

  5. An insight into rheumatology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that rheumatic diseases constitute a common health care problem in Thailand, improvements in rheumatology education, research and health care are still required. Low numbers of rheumatologists, their uneven distribution, lack of time to perform both clinical and basic research, lack of patient compliance and restricted access to effective medication comprise some of the barriers that need to be overcome to establish rheumatology education, research and care with a Western-country benchmark. The annual academic activities provided by the Thai Rheumatism Association for rheumatologists, general practitioners, allied health professionals and patients can advance only some forms of education and health care. Better cooperation between the Thai Rheumatism Association, the Royal College of Physicians of Thailand, the Ministry of Public Health and the Thai government is needed to improve rheumatology training, care and research in the country.

  6. 40 CFR 81.62 - Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.62 Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Northeast...

  7. 40 CFR 81.216 - Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.216 Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Indiana) consists of the territorial area...

  8. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  9. Spatial Patterns and the Regional Differences of Rural Settlements in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial patterns of rural settlements are important for understanding the drivers of land use change and the relationship between human activity and environmental processes. It has been suggested that the clustering of houses decreases the negative effects on the environment and promotes the development of the countryside, but few empirical studies have quantified the spatial distribution patterns of houses. Our aim was to explore the regional differences in rural settlement patterns and expand our understanding of their geographic associations, and thus contribute to land use planning and the implementation of the policy of “building a new countryside”. We used spatial statistical methods and indices of landscape metrics to investigate different settlement patterns in three typical counties within different environments in Jilin Province, Northeast China. The results indicated that rural settlements in these three counties were all clustered, but to a varied degree. Settlement density maps and landscape metrics displayed uniformity of the settlement distributions within plain, hill, and mountainous areas. Influenced by the physical environment, the scale, form, and degree of aggregation varied. Accordingly, three types of rural settlements were summarized: a low-density, large-scale and sparse type; a mass-like and point-scattered type; and a low-density and high cluster-like type. The spatial patterns of rural settlements are the result of anthropogenic and complex physical processes, and provide an important insight for the layout and management of the countryside.

  10. New paleomagnetic results from the Permian and Mesozoic rocks in central and northeast Thailand: their implications for the construction of the Indochina block in Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Yan, Y.; Huang, B.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of the Indochina block, aiming to reconstruct the paleogeography, have been undertaken for several decades. Since the Indochina block is lack of reliable paleomagnetic data to constraint its paleo-positions during the Middle Permian to Upper Triassic, the paleogeography reconstruction is still in debate between different models reported. Here we present new paleomagnetic data of Middle Permian to Upper Triassic sediment rocks from the Indochina block in Thailand, and recalculate paleomagnetic data reported by different authors. We collected the Permian samples in 20 sites distributed in the central Thailand, and Triassic samples from the Huai Hin Lat and Nam Phong formations in 13 sites in the northern Thailand.The magnetic directions of the 11 sites of Permian limestones are not significantly clustered after tilt correction which implying a remagnetized result. Remarkably, in geographic coordinate, the 11 sites were distributed along a circle showing a similar inclination which is 22.9° implying the paleolatitude to be about 12°. Totally, 13 sites from the Huai Hin Lat formation are included in the calculation of the formation mean direction Dg/Ig = 21.4°/38.1°, kg = 19.5, α95 = 9.6° before and Ds/Is = 43.0°/48.0°, ks = 47.4, α95 = 6.1°, N = 13 after bedding correction. A pre-folding characteristic magnetization is suggested by the positive fold test result derived from the Huai Hin Lat formation, and thus implies a primary remanence of the Norian Stage Upper Triassic rocks. A new Nam Phong formation mean direction derived from 11 sites is Dg/Ig = 36.5°/31.3°, kg = 14.7, α95 = 12.3°before and Ds/Is = 36.4°/37.8°, ks = 68.5, α95 = 5.6°, N = 11 after bedding correction. The two formation mean directions correspond to the magnetic pole positions , Plat./Plon=48.7°N/165.9°E, A95=7.2° and Plat./Plon=55.2°N/178.0°E, A95=5.9°, respectively. A remarkable tectonic movement (~8° southward) of the Indochina block from the age of

  11. 76 FR 5205 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United... Thailand. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant to..., Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  12. 75 FR 60814 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...)] Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand AGENCY: United... Thailand. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to section... Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant to section 751...

  13. 40 CFR 81.256 - Northeast Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.256 Section 81.256 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Quality Control Regions § 81.256 Northeast Iowa Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Iowa...

  14. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.237 Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  15. 40 CFR 81.139 - Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.139 Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  16. 40 CFR 81.251 - Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.251 Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  17. Menstrual hygiene management and school absenteeism among female adolescent students in Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Sisay, Mitike Molla

    2014-10-29

    Adolescence in girls has been recognized as a special period marked with the onset of menarche. Even though menstruation is a natural process, it is associated with misconceptions, malpractices and challenges among girls in developing countries. However, much is not documented; school-absenteeism and dropout are a common problem among girls in rural Ethiopia. Focusing among school girls, this study has examined knowledge about menstruation, determinants of menstrual management and its influence on school-attendance in Northeast Ethiopia. We conducted a mixed-method research combining quantitative and qualitative methods in Northeast Ethiopia. The quantitative study was conducted among 595 randomly selected adolescent school girls. Nine in-depth interviews; five school-dropout girls and four female teachers, and four focus group discussions among school girls were conducted in 2013. The mean age at menarche was 13.98 (±1.17) years. About 51% of girls had knowledge about menstruation and its management. Only a third of the girls used sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent during their last menstruation. Girls from urban areas, had mothers of secondary and above education and, families of higher monthly expenditure had more chance of using sanitary napkins than their counterparts. More than half of the girls reported to have been absent from school during their menstruation period. Those who did not use sanitary napkins were more likely to be absent from school [AOR-95% C.I: 5.37 (3.02 - 9.55)]. Fifty eight percent of girls reported that their school-performance had declined after they had menarche. In addition, the qualitative study indicated that school-dropout was common among girls who experienced teasing and humiliation by classmates when their clothes were stained with blood as they do not use sanitary napkins. Though there is an effort to increase girls' school enrollment, lack of basic needs, like sanitary napkins that facilitate routine activates of girls

  18. Overview of Botanical Status in EU, USA, and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Jiratchariyakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society. In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines. Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

  19. Sobriety checkpoints in Thailand: a review of effectiveness and developments over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsuwan, Vallop; Veerman, J Lennert; Bertram, Melanie; Vos, Theo

    2015-03-01

    This review describes the legal basis for and implementation of sobriety checkpoints in Thailand and identifies factors that influenced their historical development and effectiveness. The first alcohol and traffic injury control law in Thailand was implemented in 1934. The 0.05 g/100 mL blood alcohol concentration limit was set in 1994. Currently, 3 types of sobriety checkpoints are used: general police checkpoints, selective breath testing, and special event sobriety checkpoints. The authors found few reports on the strategies, frequencies, and outcomes for any of these types of checkpoints, despite Thailand having devoted many resources to their implementation. In Thailand and other low-middle income countries, it is necessary to address the country-specific barriers to successful enforcement (including political and logistical issues, lack of equipment, and absence of other supportive alcohol harm reduction measures) before sobriety checkpoints can be expected to be as effective as reported in high-income countries. © 2011 APJPH.

  20. Analysis of health promotion and prevention financing mechanisms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Akihito; Wongwatanakul, Weranuch; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Prakongsai, Phusit; Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-08-01

    In the transition to the post-2015 agenda, many countries are striving towards universal health coverage (UHC). Achieving this, governments need to shift from curative care to promotion and prevention services. This research analyses Thailand's financing system for health promotion and prevention, and assesses policy options for health financing reforms. The study employed a mixed-methods approach and integrates multiple sources of evidence, including scientific and grey literature, expenditure data, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Thailand. The analysis was underpinned by the use of a well-known health financing framework. In Thailand, three agencies plus local governments share major funding roles for health promotion and prevention services: the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), the National Health Security Office, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation and Tambon Health Insurance Funds. The total expenditure on prevention and public health in 2010 was 10.8% of the total health expenditure, greater than many middle-income countries that average 7.0-9.2%. MOPH was the largest contributor at 32.9%, the Universal Coverage scheme was the second at 23.1%, followed by the local governments and ThaiHealth at 22.8 and 7.3%, respectively. Thailand's health financing system for promotion and prevention is strategic and innovative due to the three complementary mechanisms in operation. There are several methodological limitations to determine the adequate level of spending. The health financing reforms in Thailand could usefully inform policymakers on ways to increase spending on promotion and prevention. Further comparative policy research is needed to generate evidence to support efforts towards UHC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Council-supported condom vending machines: are they acceptable to rural communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomnay, Jane E; Hatch, Beth

    2013-11-01

    Twenty-four hour access to condoms for young people living in rural Victoria is problematic for many reasons, including the fact that condom vending machines are often located in venues and places they cannot access. We partnered with three rural councils to install condom vending machines in locations that provided improved access to condoms for local young people. Councils regularly checked the machines, refilled the condoms and retrieved the money. They also managed the maintenance of the machine and provided monthly data. In total, 1153 condoms were purchased over 12 months, with 924 (80%) obtained from male toilets and 69% (801 out of 1153) purchased in the second half of the study. Revenue of $2626.10 (AUD) was generated and no negative feedback from residents was received by any council nor was there any negative reporting by local media. Vandalism, tampering or damage occurred at all sites; however, only two significant episodes of damage required a machine to be sent away for repairs. Condom vending machines installed in rural towns in north-east Victoria are accessible to young people after business hours, are cost-effective for councils and have not generated any complaints from residents. The machines have not suffered unrepairable damage and were used more frequently as the study progressed.

  2. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  3. Supernaturalist curers and sorcery accusations in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, L

    1988-01-01

    Thailand's supernaturalist practitioners are both respected for their curative powers and feared as potential sorcerers. When sorcery is diagnosed, exorcists generally implicate other practitioners as the source of the supernatural aggression. Given the often grave nature of such accusations, how have supernaturalist curers been spared from persecution during times of adversity? This paper examines three different sets of restraints that have evolved in three different regions of Thailand to protect supernaturalist curers from excessive accusations that could lead to harassment. The unique local character of each set of restraints is shown to be shaped by such factors as the availability of modern medical facilities, local methods of conflict resolution, local spirit beliefs, and the presence or absence of ethnic outgroup practitioners.

  4. An assessment of the positive partnership project in Thailand: key considerations for scaling-up microcredit loans for HIV-positive and negative pairs in other settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M; Wolf, R C; Guest, P

    2008-01-01

    Stigmatization and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), and their families, remains a barrier to participation in prevention and care programmes. This barrier takes on added significance as Thailand expands provision of free antiretroviral therapy (ART). This paper documents an innovative approach to improve quality of life for PLHA, while reducing levels of stigma and discrimination. The Population and Community Development Association (PDA) began implementing the Positive Partnership Project (PPP) in 2002. In this project, an HIV-negative person must team up with an HIV-positive person to become eligible for a loan for income-generating activities. The use of microcredit to explicitly reduce stigma and discrimination is a unique feature of the PPP. While the microcredit component of the project is an important dimension for improving the status of participating PLHA, the impacts of the project extend far beyond the PLHA who receive loans. Both directly and indirectly, it has contributed to improved quality of life and economic conditions for PLHA, while raising their visibility and acceptance in hundreds of communities throughout urban and rural Thailand. This paper identifies key features of the project and considerations for adapting its use in other settings.

  5. Large-scale hydrological modelling in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guentner, A

    2002-09-01

    Semi-arid areas are characterized by small water resources. An increasing water demand due to population growth and economic development as well as a possible decreasing water availability in the course of climate change may aggravate water scarcity in future in these areas. The quantitative assessment of the water resources is a prerequisite for the development of sustainable measures of water management. For this task, hydrological models within a dynamic integrated framework are indispensable tools. The main objective of this study is to develop a hydrological model for the quantification of water availability over a large geographic domain of semi-arid environments. The study area is the Federal State of Ceara in the semi-arid north-east of Brazil. Surface water from reservoirs provides the largest part of water supply. The area has recurrently been affected by droughts which caused serious economic losses and social impacts like migration from the rural regions. (orig.)

  6. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  7. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  8. Risk Factors for Cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand: A Systematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsa-ard, Siriporn; Kamsa-ard, Supot; Luvira, Vor; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Wiangnon, Surapon

    2018-03-27

    Background and objective: Cholangiocarcinoma remains a serious public health concern in Thailand. While many of the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in western countries are well-recognized, it remains unclear whether they are the same in Thailand. We set out to investigate the risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. Methods: Starting March 4, 2016, we reviewed studies found using pre-specified keywords on SCOPUS, Pro Quest Science Direct, PubMed, and online public access catalog of Khon Kaen University. Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the studied Risk of Bias. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools were used to assess the quality of included studies. The risk effects of factors were estimated as a pooled adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. The heterogeneity of results was considered using the I-square, Tau-square and Chi-square statistics. Results: A strong association was found between cholangiocarcinoma and age, Opisthorchis viverrini infection, eating raw cyprinoid fish, family history of cancer, liquor consumption, and taking praziquantel. There was only a mild association found between eating nitrite-containing foods, fresh vegetables, education, smoking behavior, and sex. No association was found between cholangiocarcinoma and eating fermented fish (Pla-ra), northeastern Thai or Chinese sausage, sticky rice, meat, chewing betel nut, or eating fruit. There were two protective factors including fresh vegetables consumption and education attainment. Conclusion: There are unique risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand, including age, Opisthorchis viverrini infection, eating raw cyprinoid fish, family history of cancer, liquor consumption, and taking praziquantel. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. Methods In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. Findings We obtained 911 913 records of hospital visits, of which 324 906 came from 104 830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167 000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67 987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109 509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions – i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to – and apparently had no negative impacts on – the Thai health system and economy. Conclusion We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system. PMID:26769994

  10. Systematic approach to characterisation of NORM in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyotha, S; Kranrod, C; Pengvanich, P

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information on the systematic approach that has been developed for the measurement of natural radiation exposure and the characterisation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in terms of occurrence and distribution in various industrial processes, including the produced waste from the mineral industries in Thailand. The approach can be adapted for various types of study areas. The importance of collaboration among research institutions is discussed. Some developments include 25 documents; the redesign of the field equipment, such as the gamma survey meter, for convenient access to conduct measurement in various study areas; the method to collect and analyse radon gas from a natural gas pipeline and the manganese dioxide fibre to adsorb radium on-site for laboratory analysis. The NORM project in Thailand has been carried out for more than 10 y to support the development of NORM regulation in Thailand. In the previous studies as well as current, international standards for action levels have been adopted for safety purpose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Fostering low-carbon growth initiatives in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Peytral, Pierre-Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Valadier, Cecile

    2012-02-01

    The current debate on climate strategy and low-carbon economy has increased in complexity: negotiations on the international scene are lacking clear prospects, while the world economic context, international governance and growth prospects remain highly uncertain. In spite of these difficulties, contributors to this study consider that there is a major opportunity for Thailand to address climate change mitigation as part of its overall development strategy, within the 11. NESDP (2012-2016). We strongly believe that Thailand could maximize the benefits of proactive strategies to address climate change adaptation and mitigation by strengthening and expanding already substantial efforts and existing policies. It is also considered that climate policy can be seen as a relevant component of both sustainable development strategy and promotion of national competitiveness. Several key points can be stressed here regarding climate change mitigation strategies and policies in Thailand: - A set of existing policies has already been implemented, mostly focused on the energy sector. - Substantial experience of government departments and agencies has built up over the past two decades in identifying options, coordinating exchanges of views and implementing targeted policies. - A national scientific potential is already established, with a diversity of expertise and a capacity for nationwide field work. Coordinated initiatives of the private sector have been diverse and substantial in major sectors of activity. - Growing awareness in civil society, which is nevertheless combined with entrenched attitudes, resistance to change in everyday life, as in most other countries, whether developed or developing. Recent policy debate, backed by a strong corpus of scientific analysis, considers that a national strategy for Green Economy, or Low-Carbon Economy, should comprise both cross-sector policies and targeted sector-oriented policies. A preliminary analysis of the existing policy mix

  12. Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucharin, Arom

    Systematics of Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), with emphasis on Thai species was studied by means of adult morphology and anatomy, ossicle morphology, and phylogenetic analysis (COI). Over 300 Apodida specimens of Apodida were found in different parts of Thailand. The order comprises 25...... locality. The genus Synaptula was found to live in symbiosis with sponges....

  13. A New Chronology for the Bronze Age of Northeastern Thailand and Its Implications for Southeast Asian Prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Charles F W; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F G

    2015-01-01

    There are two models for the origins and timing of the Bronze Age in Southeast Asia. The first centres on the sites of Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha in Northeast Thailand. It places the first evidence for bronze technology in about 2000 B.C., and identifies the origin by means of direct contact with specialists of the Seima Turbino metallurgical tradition of Central Eurasia. The second is based on the site of Ban Non Wat, 280 km southwest of Ban Chiang, where extensive radiocarbon dating places the transition into the Bronze Age in the 11th century B.C. with likely origins in a southward expansion of technological expertise rooted in the early states of the Yellow and Yangtze valleys, China. We have redated Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha, as well as the sites of Ban Na Di and Ban Lum Khao, and here present 105 radiocarbon determinations that strongly support the latter model. The statistical analysis of the results using a Bayesian approach allows us to examine the data at a regional level, elucidate the timing of arrival of copper base technology in Southeast Asia and consider its social impact.

  14. Sea Snake Harvest in the Gulf of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human–snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest...... years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further...... address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation....

  15. A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS: AN APPLICATION TO INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUKIAT CHAIBOONSRI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sought to find the long-run relationships between international tourist arrivals in Thailand and economic variables such as GDP, transportation cost and exchange rates during period of 1986 to 2007. Also this paper used five standard panel unit root tests such as LLC (2002 panel unit root test, Breitung (2000 panel unit root test, IPS (2003 panel unit root test, Maddala and Wu (1999 and Choi (2001 panel unit root test and Handri (1999 panel unit root test. Moreover, the panel cointegration test based on Pedroni residual cointegration tests, Kao residual cointegration tests and Johansen fisher panel cointegration test were used to test in panel among the variables. The OLS estimator, DOLS estimator and FMOLS estimator were used to find the long-run relationship of the international tourism demand model for Thailand.The long-run results indicated that growth in income (GDP of Thai’s Asia major tourist source markets (Malaysia, Japan, Korea, China, Singapore and Taiwan have a positive impact on international tourists arrival to Thailand. In addition, the transportation cost of these countries has negative impact on the number of international tourist arrivals to Thailand. Finally Thailand’s currency has positive impact on the number of international tourist arrivals to Thailand. Most of findings from this study were consistent with economic theory and the implications of the model can be use for policy making.

  16. Unexpected diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in tourist caves in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukantamala, Jedsada; Sing, Kong-Wah; Jaturas, Narong; Polseela, Raxsina; Wilson, John-James

    2017-11-01

    Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes have been used for the identification of sandflies in Thailand. We collected sandflies using CDC light trap from four tourist caves in Northern Thailand. Female sandflies were provisionally sorted into 13 morphospecies and 19 unidentified specimens. DNA was extracted from the thorax and legs of sandflies and the DNA barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I mtDNA amplified and sequenced. The specimens were sorted into 22 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on the 145 DNA barcodes, which is significantly more than the morphospecies. Several of the taxa thought to be present in multiple caves, based on morphospecies sorting, split into cave-specific MOTU which likely represent cryptic species. Several MOTU reported in an earlier study from Wihan Cave, Thailand, were also found in these caves. This supports the use of DNA barcodes to investigate species diversity of sandflies and their useful role in surveillance of sandflies in Thailand.

  17. Diphtheria outbreak in Thailand, 2012; seroprevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults and its implications for immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Tharmaphornpilas, Piyanit; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-09-01

    An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand. The diphtheria outbreak in northeastern Thailand occurred among adults aged > or =15 years; sporadic cases occurred among children from upper southern Thailand. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 890 Thai adults from 4 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years) in 7 different geographical areas of Thailand (Chiang Mai, Ratchaburi, Chon Buri, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phitsanulok, Khon Kaen and Songkhla). Diptheria toxin antibody levels were measured with a commercially available ELISA test. The seroprotection rate ranged from 83% to 99%, with the highest in eastern Thailand (Chon Buri, 99%) and the lowest in northern Thailand (Chiang Mai, 83%). Diphtheria antibodies declined with increasing age. We recommend one doseof diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (dT) vaccine once after 20 years of age in order to boost the antibody and revaccinations every 10 years to prevent future outbreaks.

  18. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  19. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive patients aged less than 25 years, in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Pasomsub, Ekawat; Chantratita, Wasun

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) is a concern after global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). World Health Organization had developed threshold survey method for surveillance of TDR in resource-limited countries. ART in Thailand has been scaling up for >10 years. To evaluate the current TDR in Thailand, a cross-sectional study was conducted among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients aged Thailand after a decade of rapid scale-up of ART. Interventions to prevent TDR at the population level are essentially needed in Thailand. Surveillance for TDR in Thailand has to be regularly performed.

  20. 78 FR 23815 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    .... 6] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee (NECSC) Meeting. [[Page 23816

  1. Trends in child immunization across geographical regions in India: focus on urban-rural and gender differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Although child immunization is regarded as a highly cost-effective lifesaver, about fifty percent of the eligible children aged 12-23 months in India are without essential immunization coverage. Despite several programmatic initiatives, urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization pose an intimidating challenge to India's public health agenda. This study assesses the urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization coverage during 1992-2006 across six major geographical regions in India. Three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06 were analyzed. Bivariate analyses, urban-rural and gender inequality ratios, and the multivariate-pooled logistic regression model were applied to examine the trends and patterns of inequalities over time. The analysis of change over one and half decades (1992-2006) shows considerable variations in child immunization coverage across six geographical regions in India. Despite a decline in urban-rural and gender differences over time, children residing in rural areas and girls remained disadvantaged. Moreover, northeast, west and south regions, which had the lowest gender inequality in 1992 observed an increase in gender difference over time. Similarly, urban-rural inequality increased in the west region during 1992-2006. This study suggests periodic evaluation of the health care system is vital to assess the between and within group difference beyond average improvement. It is essential to integrate strong immunization systems with broad health systems and coordinate with other primary health care delivery programs to augment immunization coverage.

  2. Future oil supply to the Northeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronheim, H.

    1976-06-01

    The Northeast consumed some 4.6 million bbls/day of petroleum products in 1972. Nearly 63 percent of that supply was of foreign origin, making the Northeast the single largest oil-importing region in the nation. The remainder of its supply originated mainly in states on the Gulf of Mexico. The phasing out of coal as a major utility boiler fuel and curtailment of natural gas sales to the Northeast have led to the rapid increase in the use of petroleum products. Nationwide oil production reached a peak of 11.3 million bbls/day in 1970 and has been declining yearly ever since. The Northeast in particular has led the movement to foreign imports because of its coastal location, its distance from domestic sources, the competitive pricing of foreign oils, and because of environmental considerations. Under various assumptions of total U.S. reserves of oil (discovered and undiscovered) coupled to alternate schedules of national resource development, projections of crude oil production were made for the years 1985 and 2000. The projections indicate that even under optimistic conditions crude oil production will be declining in the post-1985 period, if not earlier. The scenarios consistently indicate that the Northeast's regional share will be heavily constrained by 1985, and rapidly declining thereafter. On the other hand, production of oil worldwide will concentrate further in the hands of the Arab OPEC nations who are likely to exercise growing control over pricing and the international supply of crude oil.

  3. Nuclear legislation system and nuclear program outlook in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensri, Apisara; Morev, Mikhail N.; Imazu, Hidenori; Kosako, Toshiso; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, radioactive materials are widely used for the industry, medicine, research and development fields. Reported here are background and recent developments in the national nuclear legislation system, including regulation of radiation safety and current status of nuclear program in Thailand. Under the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, the Thai Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) is authorized to approve regulations respecting, the conversion, enrichment, processing, reprocessing, possession, import, export, use, packaging, transport, management and storage of nuclear materials. The most recent developments are related to the New Ministerial Regulation on Licensing Requirements Procedures and Nuclear Material, By-Product or Atomic Energy Processing B. E 2550 (A. D. 2007) issued under the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, B. E. 2504 (A. D. 1961). Currently, the Thai Cabinet is discussing the draft new Atomic Energy for Peace Act which is to revise the Act. The draft Act is to sets forth criteria for protecting individuals, society and the environment from radiation hazards with the perspective for anticipated nuclear power sector development in Thailand. (author)

  4. 78 FR 41772 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Proposed Rule To Allow Northeast Multispecies Sector Vessels.... ADDRESSES: A copy of the accompanying environmental assessment is available from the NMFS Northeast Regional.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Amendment 16 to the Northeast Multispecies Fisheries Management Plan...

  5. Groundwater-derived nutrient inputs to the Upper Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, William C.; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Taniguchi, Makoto; Dulaiova, Henrieta; Sojisuporn, Pramot; Rungsupa, Sompop; Ishitobi, Tomotoshi

    2007-01-01

    We report here the first direct measurements of nutrient fluxes via groundwater discharge into the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Nutrient and standard oceanographic surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons along the Chao Phraya River, Estuary and out into the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Additional measurements in selected near-shore regions of the Gulf included manual and automatic seepage meter deployments, as well as nutrient evaluations of seepage and coastal waters. The river transects characterized the distribution of biogeochemical parameters in this highly contaminated urban environment. Seepage flux measurements together with nutrient analyses of seepage fluids were used to estimate nutrient fluxes via groundwater pathways for comparison to riverine fluxes. Our findings show that disseminated seepage of nutrient-rich mostly saline groundwater into the Upper Gulf of Thailand is significant. Estimated fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) supplied via groundwater discharge were 40-50% of that delivered by the Chao Phraya River, inorganic phosphate was 60-70%, and silica was 15-40%. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and phosphorus (DOP) groundwater fluxes were also high at 30-40% and 30-130% of the river inputs, respectively. These observations are especially impressive since the comparison is being made to the river that is the largest source of fresh water into the Gulf of Thailand and flows directly through the megacity of Bangkok with high nutrient loadings from industrial and domestic sources.

  6. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isipradit, Saichin; Sirimaharaj, Maytinee; Charukamnoetkanok, Puwat; Thonginnetra, Oraorn; Wongsawad, Warapat; Sathornsumetee, Busaba; Somboonthanakij, Sudawadee; Soomsawasdi, Piriya; Jitawatanarat, Umapond; Taweebanjongsin, Wongsiri; Arayangkoon, Eakkachai; Arame, Punyawee; Kobkoonthon, Chinsuchee; Pangputhipong, Pannet

    2014-01-01

    The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) study in Thailand. A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA) blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  7. Life-long battle: Perceptions of type 2 diabetes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparee, Nitima; McGee, Paula; Khan, Salim; Pinyopasakul, Wanpen

    2015-03-01

    The number of people in Thailand who have Type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically making it one of the country's major health problems. The rising prevalence of diabetes in Thailand is associated with dietary changes, reduced physical activity and health education. Although there is much research about health education programmes, the most effective methods for promoting sustainability and adherence to self-management among diabetics remains unclear. To examine the perceptions of participants in Thailand regarding Type 2 diabetes and to utilize the findings to formulate a model for patient education. A grounded theory approach was selected and semi-structured face to face interviews and focus group were used to gather data from 33 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Five explanatory categories emerged from the data: causing lifelong stress and worry, finding their own ways, after a while, still cannot and wanting a normal life. A new approach to patient education about Type 2 diabetes in Thailand is needed to give patients a better understanding, provide recommendations that they can apply to their daily lives, and include information about alternative medication. The Buddhist way of thinking and effective strategies enhancing self-efficacy should be applied to patient education to promote sustainability and adherence to self-management. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. 78 FR 76077 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Final Rule To Allow Northeast Multispecies Sector... allows fishing access for Northeast multispecies sectors to two portions of the Southern New England... of the accompanying environmental assessment is available from the NMFS Northeast Regional Office...

  9. 75 FR 69519 - 2010 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Reviews of the Philippines and Thailand: Identification of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Philippines and Thailand: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974: Request for... Philippines and Thailand. USTR requests written submissions from the public concerning any act, policy, or practice that is relevant to the decision regarding whether the Philippines and Thailand should be...

  10. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China... prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and Thailand: Initiation...

  11. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... antidumping duty orders on polyethylene retail carrier bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand would be likely... Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045 (Review). By... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045 (Review)] Polyethylene Retail...

  12. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  13. Neuropsychological profiles of breast cancer and brain tumor cohorts in Northeast Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Matias; Collins, Mark William Glister

    2018-05-17

    As developments in cancer treatment have improved outcomes, research has increasingly focused on the role of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in quality of life for cancer survivors. Impairment profiles have been heterogeneous across studies, necessitating the study of these effects across different cohorts. The purpose of this preliminary study is to compare the memory profiles of Northeast Ontario breast and CNS cancer patients, as there is no literature which exists for profiling CRCI within this largely rural region. Sixty-three outpatients with breast cancer (n = 32) or CNS tumors (n = 30) at the Northeast Cancer Centre in Sudbury, Canada, were administered a neuropsychological test battery as part of their clinical examination. Domains measured within this study included attention and concentration, processing speed, motor function, language skills, verbal and visual memory, and executive functioning. Participants with brain tumors scored poorer on most neuropsychological measures than participants with breast cancer. Initial verbal memory for individuals with breast cancer was lower than delayed recall and recognition trials. Trial 1 performance for this group was also negatively correlated with self-reported anxiety scores. Consistent with the literature, participants with breast cancer obtained higher scores on most test measures than participants with CNC tumors. Breast cancer participants had lower verbal memory scores on initial trials compared to delayed recall, potentially due to relationships with anxiety and attention. Further research into this cohort will strive to gain greater understanding of the patterns of deficits experienced and how these may inform individuals with cancer in other regions.

  14. Visit of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Thailand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (left) visiting DELPHI with Spokesman, Tiziano Camporesi, and Prapol Assavavirulhakarn, Pattaratorn Chirapravati, Claude Détraz, CERN Director for Fixed Target andFuture Programmes and Richard Breedon, University of California. No. 05: Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Daniel Treille, former spokesman of Delphi. No. 31: in Delphi experiment. No. 35: H.E. Mr. Virasakdi Futrakul, Ambassador, Permanent Representative ofThailand, Geneva with H.E. Dr. Ronarong Nopakun, Ambassador of the Thai Embassy in Bern

  15. Rural placement experiences in dental education and the impact on professional intentions and employment outcomes-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G; Wright, F C; Foster, K; Blinkhorn, A

    2017-11-23

    The availability of clinical dental services in rural locations is a major concern for many countries as dental care professionals gravitate to work in metropolitan areas. This systematic review examines the literature on Rural Placement Programs within dentistry and their impact on workforce intentions and employment outcomes. The review provides a detailed analysis of the methodological characteristics of the literature, considers the quality of the evidence and compares the outcomes within an international context. The systematic review identified published literature between 2005 and 2016 from databases including EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, NursingOVID and Cochrane. The PRISMA protocol was adopted for the development of the study, and the Health Gains Notation Framework was implemented to assess the quality of the selected research papers. Eleven studies considering Rural Clinical Placement Programs met the inclusion criteria. The studies were from Australia, South Africa, United States, Thailand and India. The evidence in this review indicates that well-designed, financially supported programmes that provide a perceived valuable clinical experience, good supervision and professional support in a rural environment can lead to dental students stating increased intentions to working in a rural location. However, there was a lack of evidence and research into whether these rural intentions result in positive action to take up employment in a rural location. The evidence suggests that well-prepared rural clinical placements, which have experienced clinical supervisors, good professional student support from the dental school, provide a valuable clinical experience and are sufficiently funded, can increase intentions to work in a rural location upon graduation. However, there is a lack of evidence in dentistry into whether intentions translate into practitioners taking clinical positions in a rural location. Future research should be planned, which will undertake

  16. 78 FR 72628 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... from Thailand on November 3, 2011.\\3\\ Both Thai Plastic Bags Industries Co., Ltd. and Polyethylene.../exporter margin (percent) Thai Plastic Bags Industries Company 35.79 Landblue (Thailand) Co., Ltd 25.60 In... Bags From Thailand: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final Results of Administrative Review...

  17. 76 FR 66893 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...] Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from India, Thailand, and Turkey, pursuant to section 751(c..., Thailand, and Turkey. See Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from...

  18. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purivirojkul, Watchara; Vithayatherarat, Pradab [Pathumthani Rice Research Center (Thailand)

    2001-03-01

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  19. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purivirojkul, Watchara; Vithayatherarat, Pradab

    2001-01-01

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  20. An assessment of Thailand's biofuel development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, S.; Salam, P. Abdul; Shrestha, Pujan

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues-environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects. The pol......The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues-environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects...... to land and water use and food security are important considerations to be addressed for its large scale application. Second generation biofuels derived from agricultural residues perform favorably on environmental and social sustainability issues in comparison to first generation biofuel sources...... as transportation fuel. Alternatively, the same amount of residue could provide 0.8-2.1 billion liters per year of diesel (biomass to Fischer-Tropsch diesel) to potentially offset 6%-15% of national diesel consumption in the transportation sector....

  1. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis of the record... reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe, provided... contained in USITC Publication 4413 (July 2013), entitled Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe from Malaysia...

  2. Promoting and developing a trail network across suburban, rural, and urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schasberger, Michele G; Hussa, Carol S; Polgar, Michael F; McMonagle, Julie A; Burke, Sharon J; Gegaris, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The Wyoming Valley Wellness Trails Partnership received an Active Living by Design grant late in 2003 for a project centered on a growing trail network linking urban, suburban, and rural communities in northeast Pennsylvania, a former coal region, in order to increase physical activity among residents. The partnership conducted research, collected information, created promotional documents, worked with partners on events and programs, and participated in trail planning. Local trail organizations continued planning and construction toward developing a trail network. Other partners spearheaded policy change in schools and worksites and worked toward downtown revitalization. The partnership assisted these efforts by providing a forum in which organizations could meet. The partnership became a central resource for information about local parks, trails, and outdoor recreational activities. The partnership increased awareness and use of recreational facilities. Trail partners constructed 22 miles of walking and biking trails. The partnership took advantage of an allied effort that created organizational capacity for wellness in schools and worksites. Messages promoting social and entertainment benefits of physical activity were more successful than those promoting health benefits. The existence of multiple small, independent trail organizations can help advance trail development through concurrent development efforts. Urban, suburban, and rural residents' conceptions of walkability may differ. Trails provide options for recreational and transportation-related physical activity across urban, suburban, and rural landscapes that are supported by all constituents. Trail builders can be strong allies in bringing active living to suburban and rural places.

  3. 78 FR 16252 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, and Thailand: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Indonesia P.T. Krakatau Steel 10.21 All Others 10.21 Thailand Sahaviriya Steel Industries Public Company...] Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, and Thailand: Final Results of... products (``HR steel'') from India, Indonesia, and Thailand pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of...

  4. Northeast U.S. update: price and demand issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucy, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The issues affecting natural gas prices in the northeast United States were discussed. The supply of natural gas is high because of new pipeline projects and new market entrants. The demand for natural gas is also high because of nuclear plant closings, new electric plants, the clean air act, and economic growth. The supply of natural gas is expected to grow in the Northeast by 27 per cent by the year 2000. Future pipeline projects from Western Canada to Chicago, New York and Boston were examined and their effect on supply and pricing were analyzed. As another variable that affects the pricing of natural gas, a list of the nuclear plants that have closed and which may soon close in the northeast United States was provided, along with a list of new gas fired plants. Other factors affecting winter market prices in the northeast United States for 1997-1998 include El Nino, warm weather forecasts, NYMEX forecasts, natural gas demand, and low oil prices, were also reviewed. Cultivating long term comprehensive relationships, and focusing on customer service were considered the key to successful Canadian export growth. 7 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Gynostemma (Cucurbitaceae) in Thailand and Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Gynostemma is represented in Thailand and Malesia by four species of which the extremely variable G. pentaphyllum is widespread covering the whole area. Seven forms are recognized in G. pentaphyllum, of which three are new: forma fasciculare W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, forma grandiflorum W.J.

  6. How applicable is even-aged silviculture in the northeast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph H. Griffin

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of even-aged silviculture in the management of forest stands in the Northeast is examined through consideration of the forest stand, stand development, intermediate cuttings, and regeneration methods. It is concluded that even-aged silviculture is quite applicable in the management of forest stands in the Northeast.

  7. Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — While the Fujita and Saffir-Simpson Scales characterize tornadoes and hurricanes respectively, there is no widely used scale to classify snowstorms. The Northeast...

  8. 77 FR 73734 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    .... 5] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of a Northeast Corridor Safety... Committee is made up of stakeholders operating on the [[Page 73735

  9. 75 FR 75454 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of the Antidumping Duty... preliminary results of review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  10. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (P<0.05). Different habitats had different snail diversity and species evenness, with high B.s. goniomphalos snail abundance at rice paddy habitats. The differences in snail abundance might be due to the distinct sets of abiotic water qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the

  11. Potential impact of climate change on groundwater resources in the Central Huai Luang Basin, Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholkern, Kewaree; Saraphirom, Phayom; Srisuk, Kriengsak

    2018-08-15

    The Central Huai Luang Basin is one of the important rice producing areas of Udon Thani Province in Northeastern Thailand. The basin is underlain by the rock salt layers of the Maha Sarakham Formation and is the source of saline groundwater and soil salinity. The regional and local groundwater flow systems are the major mechanisms responsible for spreading saline groundwater and saline soils in this basin. Climate change may have an impact on groundwater recharge, on water table depth and the consequences of waterlogging, and on the distribution of soil salinity in this basin. Six future climate conditions from the SEACAM and CanESM2 models were downscaled to investigate the potential impact of future climate conditions on groundwater quantity and quality in this basin. The potential impact was investigated by using a set of numerical models, namely HELP3 and SEAWAT, to estimate the groundwater recharge and flow and the salt transport of groundwater simulation, respectively. The results revealed that within next 30years (2045), the future average annual temperature is projected to increase by 3.1°C and 2.2°C under SEACAM and CanESM2 models, respectively, while the future precipitation is projected to decrease by 20.85% under SEACAM and increase by 18.35% under the CanESM2. Groundwater recharge is projected to increase under the CanESM2 model and to slightly decrease under the SEACAM model. Moreover, for all future climate conditions, the depths of the groundwater water table are projected to continuously increase. The results showed the impact of climate change on salinity distribution for both the deep and shallow groundwater systems. The salinity distribution areas are projected to increase by about 8.08% and 56.92% in the deep and shallow groundwater systems, respectively. The waterlogging areas are also projected to expand by about 63.65% from the baseline period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity and uses of Zingiberaceae in Nam Nao National Park, Chaiyaphum and Phetchabun provinces, Thailand, with a new record for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapon Saensouk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three tribes, 12 genera and 38 species of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae along five routes in Nam Nao National Park were surveyed between January 2012 and December 2013 to determine their diversity, ecological data, phenology, uses and conservation status. The highest diversity was found in the tribe Zingibereae (6 genera and 21 species, of which the genera Curcuma and Zingiber comprised the highest number species (eight species each. A species key was constructed based on morphology. The ginger family was found in four forest-types—deciduous dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest and pine forest. The most flowering bloom of the ginger family in Nam Nao National Park was during March to August and the most fruiting bloom was during June to September. The popular uses of Zingiberaceae were as a food, spice, in medicine, as ornamentation and in rituals. Eight species have been evaluated as of least concern and are presented in the IUCN Red List, while two rare species were reported in Thailand Red Data: Plants, while six rare Zingiberaceae species were identified based on the evaluation criteria of Saensouk (2011. Four species were endemic to Thailand. Moreover, Etlingera yunnanensis (T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen R. M. Smith was a new record for Thailand.

  13. Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya virus antibody prevalence among captive monkey (Macaca nemestrina) colonies of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakgoi, Khajornpong; Nitatpattana, Narong; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Kaewchot, Supakarn; Yoksan, Sutee; Siripolwat, Voravit; Souris, Marc; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of macaque Macaca nemestrina leonina in Thailand to be infected by endemic arboviruses was assessed. The prevalence of antibodies of three arboviruses actively circulating in Thailand was determined by Plaque Reduction Neutralization assay procedures using samples from captive colonies in Northern Thailand. Out of 38 macaques, 9 (24%) presented reacting antibodies against dengue virus, 5 (13%) against Japanese encephalitis virus, and 4 (10%) against Chikungunya virus. Our results indicate that the northern pig-tailed macaque in Thailand can be infected by these arboviruses, inferring therefore that their virus specific vectors have bitten them. Given that, northern pig-tailed macaque represents an abundant population, living in close range to human or in peridomestic setting, they could play a role as potential reservoir host for arboviruses circulating in Thailand. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Regional and International Networking to Support the Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavansiri, Direk; Bull, Trevor

    2010-09-15

    The Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand is a new regulatory agency. The structure of the energy sector; the tradition of administration; and, the lack of access to experienced personnel in Thailand all pose particular challenges. The Commission is meeting these challenges through regional and international networking to assist in developing policies and procedures that allow it to meet international benchmarks.

  15. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1207-1209 (Preliminary)] Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of antidumping duty..., by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand...

  16. Development of intelligent semantic search system for rubber research data in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonma, Nattapong; Panawong, Jirapong; Pianhanuruk, Ekkawit; Buranarach, Marut

    2017-10-01

    The rubber production of Thailand increased not only by strong demand from the world market, but was also stimulated strongly through the replanting program of the Thai Government from 1961 onwards. With the continuous growth of rubber research data volume on the Web, the search for information has become a challenging task. Ontologies are used to improve the accuracy of information retrieval from the web by incorporating a degree of semantic analysis during the search. In this context, we propose an intelligent semantic search system for rubber research data in Thailand. The research methods included 1) analyzing domain knowledge, 2) ontologies development, and 3) intelligent semantic search system development to curate research data in trusted digital repositories may be shared among the wider Thailand rubber research community.

  17. National and Subnational Population-Based Incidence of Cancer in Thailand: Assessing Cancers with the Highest Burdens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shama Virani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, five cancer types—breast, cervical, colorectal, liver and lung cancer—contribute to over half of the cancer burden. The magnitude of these cancers must be quantified over time to assess previous health policies and highlight future trajectories for targeted prevention efforts. We provide a comprehensive assessment of these five cancers nationally and subnationally, with trend analysis, projections, and number of cases expected for the year 2025 using cancer registry data. We found that breast (average annual percent change (AAPC: 3.1% and colorectal cancer (female AAPC: 3.3%, male AAPC: 4.1% are increasing while cervical cancer (AAPC: −4.4% is decreasing nationwide. However, liver and lung cancers exhibit disproportionately higher burdens in the northeast and north regions, respectively. Lung cancer increased significantly in northeastern and southern women, despite low smoking rates. Liver cancers are expected to increase in the northern males and females. Liver cancer increased in the south, despite the absence of the liver fluke, a known factor, in this region. Our findings are presented in the context of health policy, population dynamics and serve to provide evidence for future prevention strategies. Our subnational estimates provide a basis for understanding variations in region-specific risk factor profiles that contribute to incidence trends over time.

  18. Education in Thailand: An OECD-UNESCO Perspective. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Thailand's education system stands at a crossroads. Significant investment has widened access to education and the country performs relatively well in international assessments compared with its peers. But the benefits have not been universally distributed and Thailand has not received the return on its spending on education that it might have…

  19. English Language Development Policy: Foreign Teachers, Hegemony, and Inequality of Education in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannachotphawate, Wilaiwan

    2015-01-01

    Thailand's Participation as a member of the ASEAN Community forces her government to accelerate improvement of her citizens' competency of the English language. The continuing wave by Thai governments to develop and modernize the quality of education has influenced Thai society. Within Thailand, English proficiency has been reported as being…

  20. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waree, Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…