Ozer, Emily J; Fernald, Lia C H
We investigated the contributions of individual, family, and community-level factors for explaining alcohol use and smoking among rural Mexican adolescents. As part of a national survey, 3922 adolescents and their mothers from 333 poor, rural communities in seven Mexican states provided cross-sectional data on family-level, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors, and individual-level data on substance use and psychological symptoms. Community standard of living was also assessed. Generalized linear models adjusted for sampling design indicated that adolescents' use of alcohol was associated with being male, older, employment, and having a mother who used alcohol. Being from an indigenous family living in a majority-indigenous community was associated with less alcohol use. Family income, family size, and community standard of living were not directly associated with adolescents' alcohol use. Current smoking was associated with being male, older, and more anxious, having a mother who smoked, and having a mother with higher educational attainment. Further analyses indicated patterns in which adolescents' alcohol use was moderated by gender and ethnicity. Beyond the contribution of male gender and age as risk factors, maternal substance use uniquely explained variability in alcohol and cigarette use among Mexican adolescents from rural communities. Indigenous ethnicity and living in majority-indigenous community settings appeared to confer protective benefits with respect to alcohol. These findings extend prior research in Mexico and in other countries that identify the combined importance of developmental contexts and individual-level factors for adolescent health.
Birch, Troy C.; Ferrin, Scott Ellis
Investigated the participation of rural Mexican American parents in their children's elementary schools. Interviews with Mexican and Anglo American parents indicated that both groups considered their participation in their children's education very important, though the two groups had different worldviews and backgrounds, different types of school…
Schaefer, Sara E; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa; Martinez, Lisa; Sadeghi, Banafsheh; German, J Bruce; de la Torre, Adela
California's rural agricultural communities face an increased burden of obesity and metabolic disease. The present objective is to define the social and environmental influences to child obesity and physical activity within Mexican-origin communities in California's Central Valley. A range of data (anthropometric, socioeconomic, demographic, cultural and environmental) were collected on more than 650 children enrolled in Niños Sanos, Familia Sana. Physical activity data were gathered from a subsample of children 4-7 years of age (n = 148) via accelerometer. Cross sectional analyses explored the relationship between BMI and physical activity and the influence of numerous social and environmental variables. In this sample 45 % of children were determined to be overweight or obese. Boys had a higher daily average moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than girls (p = 0.008). Chi square analyses showed weight status was associated with activity level in girls (p = 0.03) but not boys. Multivariate regression revealed several social and environmental indicators influenced BMI and physical activity (p = 0.004). In this population of school-age children of Mexican-origin, girls may benefit more from targeted efforts to increase MVPA. Family and community support systems may also boost child participation in physical activities.
Chaudhari, Lisa S; Begay, R C; Schulz, Leslie O
Indigenous populations worldwide who are shifting to a westernized lifestyle experience high rates of type 2 diabetes and obesity. These conditions are commonly the result of genetic predisposition and environmental factors that promote excess energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the food environment, specifically looking at retail and subsistence-food availability, and food-acquisition behaviors in the rural Mexican town of Maycoba and surrounding communities between 1995 and 2010. The population in this area includes indigenous Pima, genetically-related to the Pima Indians in Arizona who have the highest documented rates of diabetes, and non-Pima Mexican (ie non indigenous and other indigenous). An initial study in 1995 compared the prevalence of diabetes and obesity in the Maycoba population with that of Pima Indians of Arizona and found a dramatically lower type 2 diabetes prevalence in the Maycoba region due to the protective effect of a traditional lifestyle despite a genetic predisposition to diabetes. The 2010 follow-up study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes as well as to examine lifestyle changes over the 15 year time span, following changes to housing and the local environment. This study focused on the food environment, examining changes in food acquisition behaviors in the retail and subsistence aspects. The study included a household survey (n=71), two focus group discussions, and participant-observation. To determine changes in retail food availability, seven stores throughout the study region were audited. The main findings were an increasing presence and use of retail stores for food: an expansion in the selection of processed foods, their prominent placement, and refrigeration allowing more perishable foods to be available to the local population. Subsistence activities remained significant, although some aspects of specific subsistence
Hanbury, Meagan M; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa; Kaiser, Lucia; Sadeghi, Banafsheh; de la Torre, Adela
Recent recommendations for US food assistance programs are intended to ensure foods provided through these programs help households consume a varied, healthful diet. From a policy viewpoint, it is important to examine the impact of economic incentives to purchase healthy foods across subpopulations, particularly low-income Latinos, who comprise 40% of the WIC program nationwide. Our aim was to determine how rural, Mexican-heritage households (N = 227) residing in California's Central Valley distributed fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher spending among F/V subgroups and specific items over a 1-year period. Households contained at least one child who was between 3 and 8 years old at baseline and had a parent of Mexican-heritage. F/V voucher purchase data were collected via grocery store scanners. Expenditure and frequency shares of subgroups and individual items were analyzed to determine purchasing habits. Fruits were the most commonly purchased subgroup, representing 55% of spending and 45% of frequency. Households allocated low percentages of their voucher to dark green and red/orange vegetables-7 and 9% respectively. Approximately 20% of purchases were good potassium sources and 30% of purchases were good fiber sources. Many of the most frequently purchased items were of cultural significance (tomatillo, chayote, chili/jalapeño pepper, and Mexican squash). This study suggests that economic incentives can contribute important nutrients to participants' diets and targeted vouchers provided by food assistance programs should continue to include culturally important foods and be aware of the cultural values of their participants.
Huerta, M; Avila, R; Jiménez, H I; Díaz, R; Díaz, J; Díaz Huerta, M E; Hernández, M; Martinez, J J; Garate, T; Gómez, E; Abad, T; Fragoso, G; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E
High neurocysticercosis (NC) prevalence was recently determined by a computed tomography (CT) scan study in the community of Tepetzitzintla, State of Puebla, Mexico. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the magnitude of fecal and parasite contamination by Taenia spp. in the soil of households of this community during the four seasons of the year. The toilet, backyard, kitchen, washboard, water containers and corrals of 14 to 26 households were sampled during each season. High Taenia spp. egg intensity was found in 24.2% of the sampled areas. The highest percentage was detected in Spring and the lowest in Summer. Significantly higher levels of Taenia spp. eggs were present in kitchen soil samples. A significant correlation was found between the presence of Taenia spp. eggs in household soil during the Summer, and NC diagnoses of the inhabitants by CT scan. Coproparasitological examinations and anti-cysticercal antibodies were determined in a cohort of inhabitants of the sampled households. Antibody levels and coproparasitological results were not associated with NC. Overall, these results illustrate the high degree of fecal contamination of potential risk to human health in rural communities and could be of use for control programmes.
Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Romo, Laura F.
In this study, 69 Mexican American elementary school girls in Grades 3 through 6 (age 8-13 years) from an agricultural community were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the frequency of communication with their mothers about education and their interaction with their teachers. The authors examined how these variables were associated with…
Parrini, Rodrigo; Amuchástegui, Ana; Garibi, Cecilia
In Tomatlán, a small city on the Mexican Pacific Coast there is a tolerance zone in which a group of sex workers, separated from the rest of the city by a garbage dump, offer their services to local men. The women present themselves materially and symbolically as agents of regulation with respect to male sexuality, itself constructed as overwhelming and insatiable, which, were it not for services provided by the sex workers, would threaten the family-based social order. Through in-depth interviews with 19 sex workers and 5 municipal officials, this paper discusses how the sex gender system results in a series of borders that are both geographical and subjective. Such borders have to do with periphery and control, body and intimacy, and the boundaries of animality.
Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Smith, David D; Rojo-Castillo, Maria Patricia; Hurria, Arti; Pavas-Vivas, Alba Milena; Gitler-Weingarten, Rina; Mohar, Alejandro; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin
Rural women have limited access to breast cancer education, which partially contributes to late diagnosis and treatment. In this pilot study, we tested the feasibility of implementing a school-based breast cancer educational program for adolescents in a rural Mexican community. We hypothesized that the adolescents' knowledge on breast cancer would increase as a result of the program, and that there would be intergenerational transmission of that knowledge to their older female relatives. Female adolescents from a rural middle school received the educational program. The program would be considered feasible and acceptable if more than 75% reported being satisfied with its contents. Changes in knowledge in the students and their relatives were evaluated using baseline and 4 months follow-up questionnaires. One hundred twenty-six students were enrolled. The program was considered acceptable by 96% of the participants. The students' knowledge regarding breast cancer increased significantly from baseline to 4 months follow-up (63% to 82%). One hundred ninety-four female relatives completed the initial knowledge questionnaires. The relatives' knowledge regarding breast cancer showed a significant increase from baseline to 4 months follow-up (55% to 61%). Implementing breast cancer educational programs for adolescents in rural communities is feasible and acceptable. The program increased the adolescents' knowledge on breast cancer, and promoted the intergenerational transmission of that knowledge to their female relatives. Intergenerational transmission of knowledge represents a potential method for providing population-based health awareness education globally. In limited-resource settings, education is a valuable tool for achieving early detection and downstaging of breast cancer. Unfortunately, rural women lack access to educational opportunities and information about breast cancer, which is a factor contributing to late diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we
Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; González de Cosío, Teresa
Inadequate complementary feeding partially explains micronutrient deficiencies in the first 2 y of life. To prevent malnutrition, the Mexican government implemented the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which transferred either food baskets containing micronutrient-fortified milk and animal food products or cash to beneficiary families along with educational sessions. This study evaluated the impact of PAL on 2 indicators of complementary feeding: minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods in children aged 6-23 mo. A secondary analysis of the original PAL evaluation design was conducted through a randomized community trial implemented with 3 intervention groups (food basket with education, food basket without education, and cash transfer with education) and a control. The impact of PAL after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in 2 cross-sectional groups of children aged 6-23 mo at baseline and at follow-up in a panel of 145 communities by using difference-in-difference models. Only children who lived in households and communities that were similar between treatment groups at baseline were included in the analysis. These children were identified by using a propensity score. Of the 3 intervention groups, when compared with the control, only the food basket without education group component increased the consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods by 31.2 percentage points (PP) (P food baskets that include fortified complementary foods may be more effective than cash transfers. The fact that the 2 food basket groups differed in the observed impact does not allow for more convincing conclusions to be made about the education component of the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01304888. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Hancock, Tina U.
Increasing numbers of poor Mexican immigrant families are settling in the rural southeastern United States. Most of these families are from isolated agrarian communities in Mexico and are headed by unskilled laborers or displaced farm workers with little education. Child welfare workers and other service providers in rural communities may be…
Morales, J; Vargas, F; Cassís, L; Sánchez, E; Villalpando, S
As part of the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia (IDA), the Mexican Federal program PROGRESA distributes complementary foods to toddlers and pregnant women living in extreme poverty. Complementary foods were originally fortified with hydrogen-reduced iron, which proved a limited efficacy. The supplement was reformulated to provide higher iron bioavailability. This investigation aims to assess the sensory changes and the acceptance of new versions of the complementary foods fortified with either reduced iron, ferrous fumarate, or ferrous sulfate, stored at room temperature for 2, 4, and 6 mo. Complementary foods were presented without flavor (plain) or flavored with either chocolate or vanilla. The complementary foods were evaluated in toddlers and their mothers using a hedonic scale. The percentage of overall acceptance for the baby foods was higher in toddlers (80% to 88%) than in their mothers (63% to 68%). The complementary foods with a better acceptance were those fortified with reduced iron (63% to 68%) and ferrous fumarate (61% to 80%) independently of the flavoring added. The acceptance of the beverage intended for women was better for those fortified with reduced iron (52% to 63%) or ferrous fumarate (44% to 63%) in their vanilla-flavored version. For women, the most accepted sources of iron were reduced iron (50% to 60%) and ferrous fumarate (50% to 58%).
Thompson, M; Curry, M A; Burton, D
This quasi-experimental, retrospective study used birth certificate and medical record data to evaluate the effectiveness of the Rural Oregon Minority Prenatal Program (ROMPP) in improving patterns of prenatal care utilization by rural-dwelling, low-income, Mexican-American women at risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. The ROMPP intervention provided nursing case management services and peer outreach to pregnant Mexican-American women in a rural Oregon community. The intervention group had more prenatal visits in months 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 than the comparison group (P cultural competency and sharpen their clinical focus on advocacy, marketing, facilitation of relationships between community groups, and community organizing.
... Guide Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Oral Health in Rural Communities Adequate access to oral healthcare ... about oral health programs in my area? What oral health disparities are present in rural America? According to ...
Paradise, Ruth; Robles, Adriana
This article presents an ethnographic description of parents' and other community members' participation in the everyday life of two rural schools in indigenous Mexican communities. Adults and children, together with school authorities, transform their schools by introducing a collective orientation that contrasts with the emphasis on individual…
The diaspores of the 50 most important maize field weed species (agrestals) in a traditional maize-growing area of south-central Mexico (region of Puebla and Tlaxcala) were analyzed for morphological adaptations to long-distance dispersal. Adaptations to wind-dispersal were absent and to endozoochory were minimal. Most species had no visible adaptations and are presumably transported with mud. However, about one-quarter of the taxa, particularly the tall and dominant ones, relied at least partially on burrs with hooks or awns. The possible vectors for these exo- or epizoochorous species are discussed: the most likely regular dispersers are humans (epianthropochory). Interviews with farmers confirm this conclusion. Using humans as vectors allows the plant to transport relatively large seeds to favorable habitats (directed dispersal). The importance of this relatively rare dispersal adaptation in Mexican maize field weeds leads to questions on the origin and evolution of these agrestals.
Giraldo Mario A
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1995, a study was conducted to identify the effects of traditional and westernized environments on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians (Pimas in Mexico and the United States. The study concluded that the more traditional lifestyle in Mexico had a protective effect against this metabolic disorder. In the ensuing 15 years, the environmental circumstances of the Mexican Pimas changed, and a follow-up study was conducted to determine the role environmental change plays in the development of diabetes in this genetically susceptible population. A major element of environmental transition relates to land-use and land-cover (LULC changes that could affect physical activity and promote an obesogenic environment. This study examined changes in the region’s LULC to determine whether there have been transitions in agricultural land use and urbanization that would be consistent with a more sedentary lifestyle. Changes were assessed from 1994 aerial photographs and 2007 satellite images. Results The land-cover analysis showed that mixed vegetation and dense trees cover most of the study area. It suggested a rural environment that includes a low percentage of impermeable areas, and it indicated that the area experiencing human intervention covers 7% of the total area. The land-use-change findings showed a decrease or no change in agricultural or ranching areas and a decrease in farmland due to reforestation or revegetation. Three variables from the land-use-change analysis were examined as proxies for lifestyle change: urban development, dwelling-unit density, and variation in the road network. Two of the measures –the amount of urbanization and the number and density of dwelling units—showed increases, most notably in the town of Maycoba. There were only minor changes in the road network: most of the road segments are short and concentrated in Maycoba where most of the buildings, points of interest (e.g., church
Ozer, Emily J; Fernald, Lia C H; Roberts, Sarah C
We investigated the contributions of individual, family, and community-level factors for explaining anxiety symptoms among rural adolescents in Mexico. As part of a large-scale survey, 3,553 adolescents and their mothers from 333 poor, rural communities in seven Mexican states provided cross-sectional data on family level, socio-economic and psychosocial factors, and individual-level data on anxiety symptoms. Community standard of living indicators were also gathered. Linear regressions adjusted for sampling design indicated that adolescents' anxiety symptoms were uniquely predicted by mothers' depressive symptoms, maternal perceived stress, larger family size, and lower maternal and adolescent educational attainment. Family income and community standard of living were not directly associated with adolescent symptoms. Adolescent females reported more symptoms than males, but gender did not moderate the relationship between the predictors and adolescents' symptoms. We found that maternal mental health was a key factor in adolescent children's psychological wellbeing; this finding extends prior research in economically developed countries that emphasizes the importance of maternal functioning for child mental health. Family size, gender, and the educational attainment of mothers and adolescents also uniquely contributed to adolescents' anxiety symptoms in these rural Mexican communities.
Salinas, Jennifer J.; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos; Ray, Laura A.; Angel, Ronald J.
Context: Mexico. Purpose: Using the health care service utilization model as a framework, this paper will analyze the differences in health care service use among older Mexicans living in urban and rural areas in Mexico. Methods: The Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS) data were used to test the applicability of Andersen's "model of health…
patient.”27 With the emergence of the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) in 1994, the problem would only get worse. Without a safety net to...guide rural Mexicans through the liberalization of their economy, the further opening of markets brought on by NAFTA jeopardized additional...implementation of NAFTA , Mexican corn prices fell 25 percent in 1994 alone, plummeting to 50 percent of its pre- NAFTA value by 2000 (See Figure 2
Rural communities of Zimbabwe have long been marginalised as evidenced by a large development gap between them and urban communities. The idea of linking lack of development in rural areas with participation in policy making process is vital for many policy makers. This research focused on assessing the roles ...
Cornelius, Wayne A.; Martin, Philip L.
Argues that it is easy to overestimate the additional emigration from rural Mexico that could occur as a result of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) related economic restructuring in Mexico. Four major reasons why Mexican emigration may not increase dramatically are suggested. Phase-in recommendations related to implementation are…
Abstracted by: EBSCOhost, Electronic Journals Service (EJS),. Vol. 20 (1) June, 2016. Google Scholar ... participation to rural community development projects. This will go a long way in helping them know the ... The rural areas are usually grossly neglected as far as development projects and infrastructure are concerned ...
Apr 14, 2016 ... supply has been a central issue in Kenya with priority on low-income rural communities and underdeveloped areas with poor water resources. This has forced many rural communities to embrace community management model in rural water systems. Community participation in rural water management is ...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3... PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN TRAINING GRANT PROGRAM § 5a.3 Definition of Underserved Rural Community. Underserved Rural Community means a community: (a) Located in: (1) A non-Metropolitan County or Micropolitan...
EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... setting a competitive framework for local development. Rural municipalities are challenged due to demographic changes and population decline and consequently need to adjust municipal services. In this respect it is stressed that service provision need be linked to strategic planning based on urban...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....
Chronic illness is a complex and ever-growing phenomenon that is affecting millions of Americans every day, and it is disproportionately experienced by Latinos of Mexican origin. In this quantitative study, the specific aims were to evaluate perceptions of chronic illness(es), locus of control (health and God), health status, and cultural orientation of rural-dwelling Latinos of Mexican origin in Colorado who have one or more chronic illnesses and to explore the relationships existing between these concepts. A sample of 102 varied from overall national statistics for this population in the United States by gender, mean annual income, and education completed. As Latinos of Mexican origin move toward becoming the largest minority population in the United States, it is important to improve the body of nursing science that targets this population. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Mexican migrants in the United States are still widely assumed to be an ethnically homogeneous population. Historically, most Mexican migrants did share many common characteristics, coming primarily from rural communities in the central-western part of the country. Over the last two decades, however, the Mexican migrant population has diversified dramatically, both socially and geographically.
A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…
Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; Moreno-Tamayo, Karla; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Avila-Funes, José Alberto
To estimate the prevalence of frailty in a sample of rural elderly living in socially vulnerable circumstances as well as to determine its correlates. Cross-sectional study of 558 rural elderly participating in a prospective study conducted in Mexico. Frailty was defined using the Fried criteria. Ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the correlates of frailty levels. Prevalence of frailty was 8.6%. Disability in basic activities of daily living and illiteracy increase the probability of being pre-frail and/or frail (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72, p social vulnerability of rural elderly is associated with frailty status. These findings highlight the health needs of socially and economically vulnerable elderly population. © The Author(s) 2015.
Phillips, Ruthellen; Harper, Stacey; Gamble, Susan
During the past several decades, child poverty rates have been higher in rural than in urban areas, and now 2.5 million children live in deep poverty in rural America. Studies indicate that poor children are most affected by the typical "summer slide." Summer programming has the ability to address the issues of academic loss, nutritional loss, and the lack of safe and constructive enrichment activities. However, poor rural communities face three major challenges in implementing summer programming: community resources, human capital, and accessibility. The success of Energy Express, a statewide award-winning six-week summer reading and nutrition program in West Virginia, documents strategies for overcoming the challenges faced by poor, rural communities in providing summer programs. Energy Express (1) uses community collaboration to augment resources and develop community ownership, (2) builds human capital and reverses the acknowledged brain drain by engaging college students and community volunteers in meaningful service, and (3) increases accessibility through creative transportation strategies. West Virginia University Extension Service, the outreach arm of the land-grant institution, partners with AmeriCorps, a national service program, and various state and local agencies and organizations to implement a program that produces robust results.
Fabio Alberto Pachon Ariza
Full Text Available Abstract: The analytical framework “heritage and patrimony of the peasantry” and its recommended implementation theoretically provide an enhancement over previous methodologies to examine rural development. The current paper measures rural development indicators in six Mexican rural territories, and analyses their interaction in the heritages and patrimonies of the peasantry. The principal indicators that affect the patrimonies in these regions were recognised as Pluriactivity, Social Acknowledgment, Biodiversity and Recycling. Based on these outcomes, the indicators that belong to the Human Patrimony define it as the lowest of all the heritages of the Mexican peasantry. The analysis of the results remarks on the fact that the emphasis of public policies on productive concerns has left out complicated social problems such as the loss of identity, diversity and culture. These matters are becoming the strongest threat affecting the Mexican peasantry to improve their quality of life while respecting their human rights.
Larimer, Karen A; Gulanick, Meg; Penckofer, Sue
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Hispanic Americans. Social and physical determinants of health unique to this community must be understood before interventions can be designed and implemented. This article describes a CVD risk assessment conducted in a primarily Mexican American community, using Healthy People 2020 as a model. Social (language, culture, awareness of CVD, and socio-economic status) and physical (presence and use of recreation areas, presence of grocery stores, public transportation, and environmental pollution) determinants of health as well as access to health services were assessed. Fifteen community leaders were interviewed using guided interviews. Database searches and direct observations were conducted. Using these methods provided comprehensive assessment of social and physical determinants of health, and access issues that were unique to the community studied. Findings demonstrated greater awareness of diabetes than CVD as a health problem, with little knowledge of CVD risk factors. Lack of access to health services (lack of insurance, lack of a medical home) and presence of cultural and socioeconomic barriers such as language, unemployment, low income, and lack of insurance were identified. The physical determinants such as environment presented fewer barriers, with adequate access to fruits and vegetables, transportation, and parks. Results revealed target areas for intervention.
Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource Management in Cambodia. Cambodia has a long history of migration, dislocation and forced resettlement. Years of strife and turmoil, rapid population growth, and agricultural development have led to a situation where most irrigated and flood-fed land is under ...
Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource Management in Cambodia ... grant will allow researchers at the Royal University of Phnom Penh to examine the relationship between labour mobility and distress migration, and natural resource management. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.
E-mail: Edwin.firstname.lastname@example.org. Phone: 08034261915. Iwuchukwu, Juliana. Chinasa. Dept. of Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture,. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. E-mail: email@example.com. Phone: 08063276459. Abstract. This study examined constraints to gender participation in rural community ...
The paper examines popular participation in rural community development project in Kwara State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected from 120 randomly selected respondents from the study area. Data analysis was by frequency, percentage and multiple regression. Findings of the study revealed that respondents ...
These include five radio strategies and other factors that aid rural broadcasting for development. Furthermore, the paper emphasizes the development Media theory as a new communication initiative by New World Information order that indicates the need for a propound restructuring of community patters and strategies that ...
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L
To report a retrospective analysis of data routinely collected in the course of healthcare services at a rural health clinic and to assess obesity incidence and associated interventions among rural Mexican-American adolescents. Two hundred and twelve charts reviewed; 98 (46.2%) males and 114 (53.8%) females. Data extracted included Medicaid exams conducted at the clinic within 5 years. Equal overweight or obese (n = 105, 49.5%), versus normal BMI categorizations (n = 107, 50.5%) documented overall and by gender. Female obesity higher (25.4%) than national norms (17.4%); male rates (25.5%) were within national norm. Interventions provided by nurse practitioners (94%) for 34.8%-80% of overweight/obese had limited follow-up (4%). Obesity incidence markedly increased between 13 and 18 years of age without associated interventions; 51.4%-75.6% without interventions. Obesity is a healthcare problem among rural Mexican-American adolescents accessing care at the rural health clinic. Obesity intervention and follow-up was suboptimal within this setting. Rural and ethnic minority adolescents experience health disparities concerning obesity prevalence and remote healthcare access. Obesity prevention and treatment during adolescence is a national health priority given physiologic and psychological tolls on health and potential for obesity into adulthood. Obesity assessment and translation of evidence-based interventions for rural Mexican-American adolescents at rural health clinics is implicated. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Waterson, Robert A.; Moffa, Eric D.
To assist rural teachers in fostering students' democratic skills and dispositions, this article examines the convergence of literature on citizenship education, rural communities, and rural education and extrapolates the challenges and possibilities of rural citizenship education for proactive democratic life. Four assertions are elicited from a…
McManus, Phil; Walmsley, Jim; Argent, Neil; Baum, Scott; Bourke, Lisa; Martin, John; Pritchard, Bill; Sorensen, Tony
Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of rural decline in parts of the developed world, summarised as a loss in agricultural employment leading to a decline in the number and size of rural settlements. This study of small towns in part of Australia's inland rural "heartland" employs the concepts of interactional rural community of…
Graham, Richard; And Others
The following lectures are included in this volume: Needed: "Turned on" Teachers; The Most Important Advantage; HILT: High Intensity Language Training; The Education Gap: Why Mexican American Children Fail in School; The Mexican American Heritage; The Invisible Poor: The World of the Migrant; and Emergence of the Mexican American. The…
Talbot, Jean A; Ziller, Erika C; Szlosek, Donald A
Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), an early intervention training program for general audiences, has been promoted as a means for improving population-level behavioral health (BH) in rural communities by encouraging treatment-seeking. This study examined MHFA's appropriateness and impacts in rural contexts. We used a mixed-methods approach to study MHFA trainings conducted from November 2012 through September 2013 in rural communities across the country. (a) posttraining questionnaires completed by 44,273 MHFA participants at 2,651 rural and urban trainings in 50 US states; (b) administrative data on these trainings; and (c) interviews with 16 key informants who had taught, sponsored, or participated in rural MHFA. Measure of Rurality: Rural-Urban Commuting Area Codes. Chi-square tests were conducted on questionnaire data. Structural, descriptive, and pattern coding techniques were used to analyze interview data. MHFA appears aligned with some key rural needs. MHFA may help to reduce unmet need for BH treatment in rural communities by raising awareness of BH issues and mitigating stigma, thereby promoting appropriate treatment-seeking. However, rural infrastructure deficits may limit some communities' ability to meet new demand generated by MHFA. MHFA may help motivate rural communities to develop initiatives for strengthening infrastructure, but additional tools and consultation may be needed. This study provides preliminary evidence that MHFA holds promise for improving rural BH. MHFA alone cannot compensate for weaknesses in rural BH infrastructure. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.
Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Riosmena, Fernando; Hunter, Lori M
Environmental and climatic changes have shaped human mobility for thousands of years and research on the migration-environment connection has proliferated in the past several years. Even so, little work has focused on Latin America or on international movement. Given rural Mexico's dependency on primary sector activities involving various natural resources, and the existence of well-established transnational migrant networks, we investigate the association between rainfall patterns and U.S.-bound migration from rural locales, a topic of increasing policy relevance. The New Economics of Labor Migration (NELM) theory provides background, positing that migration represents a household-level risk management strategy. We use data from the year 2000 Mexican census for rural localities and socioeconomic and state-level precipitation data provided by the Mexican National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Multilevel models assess the impact of rainfall change on household-level international out-migration while controlling for relevant sociodemographic and economic factors. A decrease in precipitation is significantly associated with U.S.-bound migration, but only for dry Mexican states. This finding suggests that programs and policies aimed at reducing Mexico-U.S. migration should seek to diminish the climate/weather vulnerability of rural Mexican households, for example by supporting sustainable irrigation systems and subsidizing drought-resistant crops.
This in-depth case shows how five Mexican-American community college students use their "pedagogies of survival" to build resistance and navigate through the barriers of community colleges. Pedagogies of survival emanate from social, cultural, economic, and historical struggles of the students, their families, and their communities which…
Cynthia K. Perry
Conclusions: These four rural towns have some policies, programming and infrastructure in place that support active living. The information from the RALA can be used to inform program and policy development to enhance physical activity in these rural communities.
Community participation in rural water management is purportedly a key element for community water projects to be sustainable. ... community livelihoods by providing constant access to adequate water for domestic, agricultural uses, construction, reducing time wastage, general development and catchment management.
Gonyea, Jennifer L J; Wright, David W; Earl-Kulkosky, Terri
The literature examining dual relationships in rural communities is limited, and existing ethical guidelines lack guidelines about how to navigate these complex relationships. This study uses grounded theory to explore rural therapists' perceptions of dual relationship issues, the perceived impact of minority and/or religious affiliation on the likelihood of dual relationships, and the ways rural therapists handle inevitable dual relationship situations. All of the therapists who participated in the study practiced in small communities and encountered dual relationship situations with regularity. The overarching theme that emerged from the data was that of using professional judgment in engaging in the relationship, despite the fact that impairment of professional judgment is the main objection to dual relationships. This overall theme contained three areas where participants felt they most needed to use their judgment: the level of benefit or detriment to the client, the context, and the nature of the dual relationship. Surprisingly, supervision and/or consultation were not mentioned by the participants as strategies for handling dual relationships. The results of this study are compared with established ethical decision-making models, and implications for the ethical guidelines and appropriate ethical training are suggested. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Letamendi, Andrea M.; Ayers, Catherine R.; Ruberg, Joshua L.; Singley, Daniel B.; Wilson, Jacqueline; Chavira, Denise; Palinkas, Lawrence; Wetherell, Julie Loebach
Background Research on barriers and utilization of mental health services in older ethnic minorities has been productive. However, little is known about the characterization and beliefs about anxiety and depression symptoms among older Mexican-Americans. Exploration of these conceptualizations will lead to better detection and provision of care to this large, yet underserved group. Method The present study used a mixed methods approach to explore conceptualizations of anxiety and depression in a group of rural older Mexican-Americans. Twenty-five Spanish-speaking participants (mean age 71.2) responded to flyers that solicited individuals who felt “tense or depressed.” Participants completed a structured diagnostic interview as well as self-report questionnaires about medical health, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and cognitive functioning. Qualitative interviews included questions about how participants describe, conceptualize, and cope with anxiety and depression symptoms. Results Sixty-eight percent of the sample met criteria for at least one anxiety or mood disorder with high comorbidity rates. Self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization were below clinical ranges for all participants. Medical illness, cognitive impairment, age, education, and acculturation were not associated with distress. Qualitative analyses revealed that nearly half of the terms used by the sample to describe distress phenomena deviated from Western labels traditionally used to indicate anxious and depressive symptomatology. Discussion Multiple methods of symptom endorsement demonstrated that older Mexican-Americans may report distress differently than detected by traditional self-report measures or common Western terminology. Understanding these additional illness conceptualizations may have implications for improving the detection of mental illness and increasing service use among this growing population. PMID:24077906
Aguirre, Trina M; Kuster, James T; Koehler, Ann E
We used Spearman's rho correlations and descriptive statistics (α = 0.05) to explore relationships between maternal eating behaviors (disinhibition, cognitive restraint, and susceptibility to hunger) and frequency of consumption of specific food groups (dairy, fruits, vegetables, meats) in a rural Mexican-American population. Analyses were based on the mothers' responses to the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and Willett's Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cognitive restraint was associated with greater frequency of consumption of vegetables, whereas disinhibition was associated with less frequent consumption of fruit. Susceptibility to hunger may have indirectly influenced the latter by enhancing the level of disinhibition. Mean frequency of consumption of vegetables (1-3 times per month) and fruits (once per week) was less than Healthy People 2020 targets. Additional research is needed to better understand factors contributing to these eating behaviors and patterns. To do so will require developing diet assessment tools that reflect foods typically consumed by this population.
Blue, A V; Kern, D H; Chessman, A W; Garr, D R; Fowler, S D; Lamar, S; Kammermann, S K; Baxley, E G; Lahoz, M R; White, A W; Bellack, J P; West, V T; Faulkner, L R; McCurdy, L
The Deans' Rural Primary Care Clerkship was developed through the collaborative efforts of South Carolina's two medical schools. The clerkship provides students an innovative learning experience in rural community medicine through the unique combination of learning opportunities with community-oriented primary care, continuous quality improvement, interdisciplinary health care teams, and cultural competency. Much of students' learning addresses current directives for population health training. The positive experience students are having in these rural, underserved South Carolina communities will help them better understand the rewards and challenges of rural, community-responsive health care.
Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.
Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study…
Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero
Full Text Available This paper examined the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria. Data were obtained using mixed methods approach comprising questionnaire surveys and key informant interviews. Six rural local government areas (LGAs were selected based on population size and spatial equity from two states of Southeastern Nigeria. From each of the rural LGAs, fifty migrant-sending households were sampled for the study. Multiple regression and hierarchical cluster analyses were used to estimate and categorize the effects of rural-urban migration due to remittances and community projects executed by the rural-urban migrants, respectively. In addition, the Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were utilized in prioritizing areas for development interventions in the rural communities. The regression analysis shows that rural-urban migration contributes significantly towards the development of their rural communities through monetary remittances and the involvement of the rural-urban migrants in community development projects. Based on the findings, recommendations such as initiation of development projects based on the identified needs of each of the rural communities to augment the effects of migration in the study area are made.
Primary production activity and environmental resources hold the key to rural development. The range of activities in primary production forms the basis with which rural communities relate with the environment and carry out rural development activities. This study examined the interactions in manenvironment system and ...
The rise in mobile telephony has continued to bridge the wide disparity between urban and rural dwellers, although there are suggestions that mobile phones have not been optimally utilized by rural dwellers. In view of this, the main aim of this study was to examine mobile phone usage in rural communities of Kwara State, ...
...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, EPA gives notice... Administrator on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural... programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. DATES: The Farm, Ranch, and Rural...
Braak, Willem J.; Lewin, Paul A.
Rural wealth creation and local entrepreneurship are emerging economic development approaches that bring back a sense of self-determination to rural communities. However, their potential is often greatly diminished by preconceived and opposing notions within the community on what drives economic growth. The Dollar Game is an innovative curriculum…
The paper seeks to re-echo and strengthen the usefulness of ethnographic understanding in poverty research and poverty alleviation in rural communities of the developing world. Keywords: ethnography, perception, poverty, rural community, wealth, immigrants, development. Global Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 4(1&2) ...
Indigenous knowledge of rural communities in Malawi on socio-economic use, propagation, biology, biodiversity and ecology of Uapaca kirkiana Muell. ... the main non-timber products that contribute to demand for domestication and the attributes preferred by the rural communities for improvement are mainly related to fruit ...
Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Y Aliyu, E Camble. Abstract. The study surveyed the provision of information services to rural communities in Nguro-Soye district of Bama Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Objective of the study include ...
Mathis, William J.
A meeting of education finance scholars discussed finance issues relevant to rural schools and communities. This paper summarizes major themes that emerged during the meeting. Notions of efficiency and economies of scale have contributed to widespread consolidation of rural schools and school districts. The value of community is not easily…
Jamieson, Shirley; Wendt, Sarah
This paper outlines the findings of an exploratory study conducted in a small rural community in South Australia in 2006. Human service providers, experienced in working with victims and/or perpetrators of domestic violence, were asked about their experiences and perceptions of perpetrator programs in small rural communities. Specifically,…
Raich, Michael John
A qualitative study involving six rural community college presidents was conducted with the intended purpose of understanding what dimensions of leadership emerge from rural community college presidents during times of sustained financial distress. Unexpectedly, the presidents pointed the study's discussions to insights much broader than the issue…
... October 22, 2012. Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92463, EPA gives notice of... environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities. The purpose of... and engage agriculture and rural communities. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alicia Kaiser...
...). ] ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, EPA... agriculture and rural communities. The purpose of this teleconference is to discuss specific topics of... environmental policies and programs that affect and engage agriculture and rural communities. DATES: Monday...
Wokoma F.S, Alasia D.D - Blood Pressure Pattern in a rural Community. It is on this background that this blood pressure survey in. Barako, a rural community in Gokana local government area of Rivers State was carried out with the objective of determining the prevalence and pattern of blood pressure elevation and ...
verty and social deprivation prevalent in the rural communities pose enormous challenges for rapid ... heads was sampled per community using proportional representation and systematic random sampling ... rural areas farming if rudimentary with the use of simple tools and implement. Farming practices where the hoe and ...
The future of in-school rural youth in many Nigerian communities appears bleak despite the vast natural in their immediate. This study investigated the strategies for utilizing community resources for in-school rural youth development in Agriculture in Imo-State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 200 youth instructors randomly ...
Charlier, Hara Dracon
As rural community colleges face mounting fiscal pressure, the ability to attract adjunct faculty members to support the institutional mission becomes increasingly important. Although the professional literature documents differences between rural, suburban, and urban community colleges, the effect of this institutional diversity on the role and…
The focused on participation in community development activities, constraints to and benefits derived from participation. It compared rural and urban youth participation in community development activities in Ido local government area of Oyo State. Proportionate random sampling was used to select 2 rural, 1 urban ...
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Capacity Building for Community... organizations with expertise in rural housing and community development to enhance the capacity and ability of local governments, Indian tribes, housing development organizations, rural community development...
Although social scientists have taken up the study of medication use in both developing and developed nations, the medication practices of immigrants remain largely unstudied. In this study, qualitative research was employed in order to describe and compare self-medication practices in two California Mexican immigrant groups: families living along the border near Tijuana, Mexico, and migrant farm worker families residing in illegal encampments and substandard housing in San Diego's North County. Medication and health seeking practices were found to vary according to the specific political-economic, sociocultural, and geographic contexts in which different subpopulations of California Mexicans live. The California-Mexico border area was examined as an important context for considering self-medication behaviors, since it permits border-crossing into Tijuana for the purpose of buying Mexican pharmaceuticals at low cost without a prescription. The popularity of injections among California Mexicans and the cross-border purchasing of injectable antibiotics and vitamins are discussed as issues of particular relevance for immigrants living along the border.
Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S; Mangione, Carol M.
Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic–community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study methodology to categorize recruitment methods, examine community partnerships, and calculate study costs. Results: We employed several recruitment methods to...
Mendez-Luck, CA; Trejo, L.; Miranda, J; Jimenez, E.; Quiter, ES; Mangione, CM
Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study methodology to categorize recruitment methods, examine community partnerships, and calculate study costs.Results: We employed several recruitment methods to ...
Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie
Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…
Baral, Kedar; Allison, Jill; Upadhyay, Shambu; Bhandary, Shital; Shrestha, Shrijana; Renouf, Tia
Nepal is a low-income, landlocked country located on the Indian subcontinent between China and India. The challenge of finding human resources for rural community health care settings is not unique to Nepal. In spite of the challenges, the health sector has made significant improvement in national health indices over the past half century. However, in terms of access to and quality of health services and impact, there remains a gross urban-rural disparity. The Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has adopted a community-based education model, termed "community based learning and education" (CBLE), as one of the principal strategies and pedagogic methods. This method is linked to the PAHS mission of improving rural health in Nepal by training medical students through real-life experience in rural areas and developing a positive attitude among its graduates towards working in rural areas. This article outlines the PAHS approach of ruralizing the academy, which aligns with the concept of community engagement in health professional education. We describe how PAHS has embedded medical education in rural community settings, encouraging the learning context to be rural, fostering opportunities for community and peripheral health workers to participate in teaching-learning as well as evaluation of medical students, and involving community people in curriculum design and implementation.
McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M
Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.
Nguhiu, P N; Kariuki, H C; Magambo, J K; Kimani, G; Mwatha, J K; Muchiri, E; Dunne, D W; Vennervald, B J; Mkoji, G M
Polyparasitism seems to be a common feature in human populations in sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little is known about its epidemiological significance, its long term impact on human health or the types of interactions that occur between the different parasite species involved. To determine the prevalence and co-occurrence of intestinal parasites in a rural community in the Kibwezi, Makueni district, Kenya. A cross sectional study. Kiteng'ei village, Kibwezi, Makueni district, between May and September 2006. One thousand and forty five who comprised of 263 adult males, 271 adult females > 15 years of age and 232 boys, and 279 girls body weight) for Schistosomiasis and Albendazole (600 mg) for soil transmitted helminths. A total of ten intestinal parasite species (five protozoan and five helminth parasite species) were present in this community and polyparasitsm was common in individuals 5-24 years of age with no gendar related differences. Most of the infections were mild. The protozoan parasites of public health significance present were Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia with prevalence of 12.6% and 4.2%, respectively. The helminth parasites of public health significance in the locality were Schistosoma mansoni with a prevalence of 28%, and hookworms prevalence of 10%. About 53% of the study population harboured intestinal parasite infections, with 31% of the infected population carrying single parasite species infections, and 22% harbouring two or more intestinal parasite species per individual. Significant positive associations (p values <0.05) were observed between S. mansoni and hookworms, hookworms and Hymenolepis. nana and Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba coli. Intestinal polyparasitism was common in the Kiteng'ei community, particularly in individuals aged of 5-24 years old. An integrated control programme of approach would be recommended for the control of S. mansoni, hookworms and Entamoeba histolytica for this community.
Wilhelm, Susan L; Aguirre, Trina M; Koehler, Ann E; Rodehorst, T Kim
Although most Hispanic/Latino-American mothers initiate breastfeeding, duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding remain low. We explored whether a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention could help rural Mexican-American mothers continue breastfeeding. We used a two-group (MI intervention n = 26, attention control [AC] n = 27) repeated measures experimental design. Assessments and interventions occurred at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum (time points when mothers are particularly vulnerable to discontinuing breastfeeding), with a final phone assessment at 6 months postpartum. We collected demographic data and measured intent to breastfeed for 6 months (intent question), self-efficacy (Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form), and collected breastfeeding information (breastfeeding assessment questionnaire). Independent t-tests and Mann Whitney U non-parametric tests were used to evaluate group differences (α = 0.05). High levels of attrition by week 6 impaired our ability to evaluate the potential of our MI intervention. No significant differences were found between groups for any of the outcome variables (intent to breastfeed for 6 months, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and duration of breastfeeding). Though the mothers intended to breastfeed for 6 months and were confident in their ability to do so, most did not breastfeed for 6 months. At 6 months, mothers receiving the MI intervention had breastfed an average of 90 days compared to 82 days for those receiving the AC sessions and 22% of the mothers in each group were still breastfeeding at some level. Because of the impact of attrition during this study, we discuss factors that contributed to attrition and approaches to lessen this problem in future studies. Such efforts may require a greater investment of time and resources and should be budgeted accordingly. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to help rural Mexican-American mothers meet their breastfeeding goals, thus
Tucker, Christine M.; Torres-Pereda, Pilar; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio A.
We explored migration decisions using in-depth, semistructured interviews with male and female youth ages 14 to 24 (n = 47) from two Mexican communities, one with high and one with low U.S. migration density. Half were return migrants and half were nonmigrants with relatives in the United States. Migrant and nonmigrant youth expressed different…
Morrow, M H; Hemingway, D; Grant, J; Jamer, B
Since the late 1980s, British Columbia (BC) Canada has been undergoing a process of regionalization of health services which includes decentralization and the demand for self-sufficiency with respect to caring for people with mental health issues. In BC, regionalization has meant the continued downsizing of its one large provincial psychiatric hospital Riverview, which has resulted in relocating patients from this hospital to cities and towns throughout BC, and the establishment and/or renovation of psychiatric tertiary-care facilities to treat local community members who experience mental ill health. In the context of the relocation of psychiatric tertiary care, communities in northern BC face the specific challenge of having to provide these specialized services in remote settings, not only for people transferred from Riverview, but also for the increasing number of people 'aging-in-place' in a region that has the fastest growth of older adults in BC. Little is known about the capacity of these remote communities to manage change, develop broader models of care, and integrate people with psychogeriatric mental health issues with residents at existing facilities. This study employed a qualitative research design which involved field research in the rural community where people were transferred, and interviews and focus groups with key people involved in the transfer process. In the analysis of the data a gender-based lens was applied to clarify the differing needs and concerns of male and female patients and to attend to possible needs relating to culture and ethnicity. The findings illustrate persistent 'hinterland-metropolis' and 'front-line versus administrative staff' tensions, with respect to resource distribution and top-down governance, and demonstrate the need for more transparent and comprehensive planning by health authorities with respect to instituting mental health reforms in a northern context, as well as improved communication between administrative
Caffrey, Rosalie A
Rural elderly individuals are an underserved population with limited access to health care. There is an increasing need for independent community care nurses to provide assistance to home-based elderly individuals with chronic illnesses to prevent unnecessary medical and placement decisions and, thus, allow them to maintain independence and quality of life. This article describes the rural setting and why community care nurses are needed, and explores strategies for implementing the role of the independent nurse entrepreneur in caring for community-based elderly individuals in rural settings.
Antonio Mártir Mendoza
Full Text Available SUMMARYAquaculture is one of the worldwide economic activities which has grown in the last 30 years at an annual rate of 9-10.0 %. Poultry, pork, lamb and beef meat production have increased only at an annual rate of 3.0 % in the same period, and in the last five years has decreased due to aviar fever and other viral difficulties. While aquaculture growth takes place in far away countries as China near by countries as Costa Rica, Honduras, Brazil and Chile keeps the same tendency. As far as Mexico´s aquaculture is concerned, it has grown steadily, missing, even its way out. On the one hand fish catches do not grow since the middle of the 80´s when fish production reached 1.5 million tones. On the other hand aquaculture in fresh waters and in sea waters are almost staging due to the loss of authority and governmental management capacity to make decisions. The recently elected federal government which will take office next December 1st, has on its hands the opportunity to favor aquaculture production and doing so, to develop Mexican coastal and rural areas.
ben Omar, Nabil; Ampe, Frédéric
The dynamics of the microbial community responsible for the traditional fermentation of maize in the production of Mexican pozol was investigated by using a polyphasic approach combining (i) microbial enumerations with culture media, (ii) denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of total community DNA with bacterial and eukaryotic primers and sequencing of partial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, (iii) quantification of rRNAs from dominant microbial taxa by using phylogene...
Castro, Erin L.; Cortez, Edén
This qualitative study examines the experiences of six Mexican community college transfer students attending a research-intensive institution in the Pacific Northwest. Using semi-structured interviews, the objectives of this study were to 1) understand how Mexican students made meaning of their transfer experiences and 2) how those experiences…
Keating, Norah; Eales, Jacquie; Phillips, Judith E
The literature on age-friendly communities is predominantly focused on a model of urban aging, thereby failing to reflect the diversity of rural communities. In this article, we address that gap by focusing on the concept of community in a rural context and asking what makes a good fi t between older people and their environment. We do this through (a) autobiographical and biographical accounts of two very different geographical living environments: bucolic and bypassed communities; and through (b) analysis of the different needs and resources of two groups of people: marginalized and community-active older adults, who live in those two different rural communities. We argue that the original 2007 Health Organization definition of age friendly should be reconceptualized to explicitly accommodate different community needs and resources, to be more inclusive as well as more interactive and dynamic, incorporating changes that have occurred over time in people and place.
Kenny, Amanda; Farmer, Jane; Dickson-Swift, Virginia; Hyett, Nerida
Internationally, community participation is highlighted in health policy reform as good for rural communities. Implicit in this policy is the message that the complexities of the rural environment are too difficult for easy solutions and that community participation will somehow build resilient, self-determining communities capable of dealing with complex rural access and equity issues and poorer health outcomes. The underpinning proposition is that by giving decision-making powers to community members, health care will be locally responsive, costs will be contained, and health outcomes will improve. What happens in the practice of enacting community participation in health-care decision making is less clear. Despite the growing body of work that documents different levels and models of community participation, significant gaps that outline the practical challenges inherent in rural community participation remain. In this article, we draw on a body of literature to outline the practical considerations in implementing community participation policy in health settings in rural areas. Through a critical review, we aim to stimulate debate, progress ideas and provide a conceptual representation of the somewhat 'messy' nature of rural community participation at a grass-roots organizational level. Based on our analysis of the current literature, we provide a summary of challenges and practical strategies that might mitigate some of these challenges. Our review highlights that despite policymakers suggesting that community participation is good for rural communities, policy enactment must move beyond mandated tokenism for there to be a recognition that meaningful participation is neither easy nor linear. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Parrado, Emilio A; Flippen, Chenoa A
The reconstruction of sexuality after migration is a central dimension of immigrant health and an integral part of the process of adaptation and incorporation. Despite its significance there is little quantitative information measuring the changes in sexual behavior accompanying migration. This paper contributes to the literature connecting immigrant adaptation and health risks by comparing sexual practices and attitudes among Mexicans in Durham, NC and Mexican sending communities. Consistent with a social constructivist approach to sexuality we show that compared to non-migrants, Mexicans residing in the U.S. exhibit heightened exposure to risk, including casual and, among men, commercial partners. The enhanced risks associated with migration vary systematically by gender and marital status and are accompanied by variation in attitudes towards sexuality, with the U.S. context associated with higher tolerance for infidelity and biological explanations of sexuality. We discuss the implications for immigrant adaptation and health policies in the U.S. and abroad.
Mason, Lee L.; Perales, Jessica; Gallegos, Eric
In this paper, we address the shortage of behavior analysts serving rural communities and outline a model of service delivery for rural students with autism spectrum disorders. The model involves the use of pre-service behavior analysts to provide behavioral intervention to students with ASD in exchange for district-supported training and…
The Rural Community College Initiative challenges colleges in economically distressed regions to become catalysts for economic and community development and improved access to education. Led by college-community teams, the 24 sites have experimented with strategic approaches that include leadership development, entrepreneurship education, small…
de Micheli-Serra, A
Mexican physicians, faithful to their tradition of honor and patriotism, were present in the military and political events of the great Revolution, the began in 1910 and ended triumphantly in 1917. In the first phase, a Madero supporter and opposed to presidential reelection was doctor Francisco Vázquez Gómez, a specialist in otorhinolaryngology, Professor at the National Medical School and past President of our Academy of Medicine. The second phase of this Revolution, characterized by the struggle against the Huerta dictatorship and then by combats among revolutionary factions, also saw the intervention of many physicians and surgeons, such as senator Belisario Domínguez of Chiapas, a victim of dictatorial oppression. Among them were distinguished academicians such as doctors Rafael Silva of Mexico and Francisco Castillo Nájera of Durango. Likewise devoted nurses were in Carranza's group, while medical students enlisted in Zapata's forces. The last phase of the Revolution was dominated by the activities of the Constituent Congress in Querétaro, which promulgated the New Mexican Constitution. Among 223 elected representatives, 20 were physicians and two pharmacists (10%), who had an excellent participation in the different sessions. The new Constitution, sworn and signed on February 5, 1917, added social guarantees to individual guarantees already established by the Constitution of 1857.
exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of conventional .... formal medical practice should be considered12. .... writing process, literature was used to support the.
Community, social group, and individual level correlates of rural Malawian men's and women's reproductive health intentions and practices. Valerie A Paz-Soldan, Thomas Bisika, Joseph deGraft-Johnson, Amy O Tsui ...
Hamilton, Erin R; Villarreal, Andrés; Hummer, Robert A
This study explores rural and urban differences in the relationship between U.S. migration experience measured at the individual, household, and community levels and individual-level infant mortality outcomes in a national sample of recent births in Mexico. Using 2000 Mexican Census data and multi-level regression models, we find that women's own U.S. migration experience is associated with lower odds of infant mortality in both rural and urban Mexico, possibly reflecting a process of healthy migrant selectivity. Household migration has mixed blessings for infant health in rural places: remittances are beneficial for infant survival, but recent out-migration is disruptive. Recent community-level migration experience is not significantly associated with infant mortality overall, although in rural places, there is some evidence that higher levels of community migration are associated with lower infant mortality. Household- and community-level migration have no relationship with infant mortality in urban places. Thus, international migration is associated with infant outcomes in Mexico in fairly complex ways, and the relationships are expressed most profoundly in rural areas of Mexico.
Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Weaver, Addie; Schommer, Kathryn
Social support protects women from various negative consequences, yet we have little understanding of how rural women acquire and utilize social support. Using interviews of 24 women in a North Dakota community, this research sought to understand how rural women were supported as new mothers. One, familial women and partners were vital supports to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for
Background Major health inequities between urban and rural populations have resulted in rural health as a reform priority across a number of countries. However, while there is some commonality between rural areas, there is increasing recognition that a one size fits all approach to rural health is ineffective as it fails to align healthcare with local population need. Community participation is proposed as a strategy to engage communities in developing locally responsive healthcare. Current policy in several countries reflects a desire for meaningful, high level community participation, similar to Arnstein’s definition of citizen power. There is a significant gap in understanding how higher level community participation is best enacted in the rural context. The aim of our study was to identify examples, in the international literature, of higher level community participation in rural healthcare. Methods A scoping review was designed to map the existing evidence base on higher level community participation in rural healthcare planning, design, management and evaluation. Key search terms were developed and mapped. Selected databases and internet search engines were used that identified 99 relevant studies. Results We identified six articles that most closely demonstrated higher level community participation; Arnstein’s notion of citizen power. While the identified studies reflected key elements for effective higher level participation, little detail was provided about how groups were established and how the community was represented. The need for strong partnerships was reiterated, with some studies identifying the impact of relational interactions and social ties. In all studies, outcomes from community participation were not rigorously measured. Conclusions In an environment characterised by increasing interest in community participation in healthcare, greater understanding of the purpose, process and outcomes is a priority for research, policy and practice
Barbosa-Cortes, Lourdes; Villasis-Keever, Miguel Angel; Del Prado-Manriquez, Martha; Lopez-Alarcon, Mardia
The study of the incidence of overweight and obesity as well as body composition and insulin resistance in children from rural communities is scarce. The aims of the study were a) to characterize the adiposity and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in school-age children from a rural community and b) to determine factors associated with fat mass and HOMA-IR in this population. A total of 41 school-aged children (15 males and 26 females; 9.9 ± 2.5 years old) from a Mexican rural community was studied. Trained observers had previously assessed the children's nutritional status during the first 6 months of life. Anthropometry, energy intake, physical activity, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 7.3%. The mean energy intake of children was below international recommendations (1,235 ± 400 kcal/day). A higher percentage of fat mass was observed in females (20.3 ± 8.5) than in males (14.1 ± 5.1) (p = 0.006). There were seven children with IR, but we did not observe a correlation between HOMA and BMI percentiles (Pearson's r = 0.09, p = 0.57). In a regression model, gender (females) was the primary factor associated with the percentage of fat mass. The growth velocity during the first 6 months of life was associated with HOMA-IR. There is a low frequency of overweight and obesity in children from rural communities in Mexico. However, these children appear to have increased risk of adiposity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a "National Deworming Campaign" and b "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b high rates of intestinal parasitism, c little access to medical examination, and d a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child. Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52% and protozoan infections (65%. The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53% than in those from Sinaloa (33% (p Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively. Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3
Quihui, Luis; Valencia, Mauro E; Crompton, David W T; Phillips, Stephen; Hagan, Paul; Morales, Gloria; Díaz-Camacho, Silvia P
Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a) "National Deworming Campaign" and b) "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a) presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b) high rates of intestinal parasitism, c) little access to medical examination, and d) a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years) were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child). Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52%) and protozoan infections (65%). The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53%) than in those from Sinaloa (33%) (p Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR) 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5-8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.4 respectively). Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0-3.0). Intestinal parasitism remains an important public health problem in Sinaloa (north-western Mexico) and Oaxaca (south-eastern Mexico). Lower income, defecation in open areas
Hernández-Rosete, Daniel; García, Olivia Maya; Bernal, Enrique; Castañeda, Xóchitl; Lemp, George
To evaluate the vulnerability for STI/HIV among Mexican indigenous women in common law marriage with men who practice sex without condom. Ethnography study undertaken in indigenous villages of Michoacán and Oaxaca, Mexico, in February 2004 and December 2005. These rural communities are characterized by high migration rates, extreme poverty and HIV/AIDS cases. An in-depth interview was applied to transient migrants (24), indigenous women (33), local authorities (20) and health providers (14). Rural propagation of STI/HIV is associated to sexual female initiation and mostly to migrants' fear their concubines will have extramarital sex during their absence. Impregnating their wives and the resulting childcare is one of the men's resources for controlling their concubines. Return migration implies vulnerability for indigenous women in the rural communities studied whose sexuality has a strong reproductive profile. It is necessary to develop prevention campaigns against STI/HIV taking into account male sexual identities to improve women rights to sexual and reproductive health.
Christensen, Dirk Lund; Alcala-Sanchez, Imelda; Leal-Berumen, Irene
Objectives: To study the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) with key metabolic traits and anthropometric measures in the Tarahumara of Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in five rural communities in Chihuahua......, Me´xico including 64 adult Tarahumara, mean (SD) age 40.7 (12.9) years. Using a combined accelerometer and heart rate sensor, PAEE was measured over three consecutive days and nights and a sub-maximal step test was carried out in order to (1) calibrate heart rate at the individual level and (2...
Antonio Bustos Jiménez
Full Text Available In the paper the notions of participation and community empowerment in rural schools are analysed through reflection on experiences conducted in different countries. Reference is made to ducational models of participatory development which, from the viewpoint of excellence, result in increasing educational outcomes and higher rates of satisfaction among the targeted rural populations. Taking as point of departure agents which are considered potential generators of knowledge in rural areas, we examine the process of incorporating the wealth of the rural context. The difficulties that the community group usually faces for its legitimacy as a source of input in rural areas are also shown. Finally, we discuss how the teaching staff can positively contribute to their process of joining the school life.
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Pierce, Sherrie; Collins, Jennifer L
Obesity impacts the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents, and is a risk factor for development of episodic and chronic illness. Rural Mexican-American adolescents are at risk for obesity and associated chronic illnesses.The study used a retrospective chart review of data collected routinely in a rural health clinic setting from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 to assess incidence of overweight/obesity status and episodic or chronic illness among Mexican-American adolescents aged 12-18 years. Analyses included body mass index, age, gender, and episodic or chronic illness diagnoses. Two hundred twelve charts were audited; women (n = 114, 53.8%), men (n = 98 46.2%); normal (n = 105, 49.5%), overweight/obese (n = 107, 50.5%). There were more female normal (n = 61, 53.5%) vs. overweight/obese (n = 53, 46.5%). More male overweight/obese (n = 54, 55.1%) than normal weight (n = 44, 44.9%). Age at first documented overweight/obesity status occurred in early adolescence (median = 13 years, mode = 12 years). Chronic illness incidence was higher among men than women, and overweight/obese vs. normal weight adolescents and in sub-categorizations by weight and specific illness. Incidence of episodic illness was higher among women than men, with variation by weight and specific illness. Disproportionately high incidence of episodic or chronic illness and overweight/obesity identified among rural Mexican-American adolescents compels intervention modification to improve effectiveness. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Providing access to remote rural areas presents a unique set of technical and non-technical challenges. These challenges are key issues that arise when deploying wireless networks to remote rural areas in developing countries; long distances between...
Phillips, Ruthellen; Harper, Stacey; Gamble, Susan
During the past several decades, child poverty rates have been higher in rural than in urban areas, and now 2.5 million children live in deep poverty in rural America. Studies indicate that poor children are most affected by the typical "summer slide." Summer programming has the ability to address the issues of academic loss, nutritional…
Johnson, Michael; Edwards, Rufus; Alatorre Frenk, Claudio; Masera, Omar
The majority of estimates of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with changes from traditional to improved cookstoves in developing countries come from water-boiling tests (WBTs) conducted in simulated kitchens. Little is known about the bias in these estimates relative to typical stove use by residents in rural communities. To assess this bias, the reductions in emissions as a result of installation of an improved wood-burning "Patsari" stove were quantified in both simulated kitchens and field conditions in eight homes with open fire stoves and 13 homes with Patsari stoves in Purépecha communities of Michoacán, Mexico. The results demonstrate that nominal combustion efficiencies (NCEs) of open fire cookstoves were significantly lower ( pproducts on incomplete combustion (PICs) emitted. Since emissions from the rural residential sector are important in the modeling of atmospheric trace greenhouse gas concentrations in areas that rely on solid fuel use for primary energy provision, if these open fires reflect conditions in other areas of the world, substantial underestimation of emissions from open fires may be present in current emission databases. Conversely, NCEs for the improved Patsari stoves were significantly higher ( p<0.01) in rural homes during daily cooking activities (92.3±1.3%) compared to during WBTs in simulated kitchens (87.2±4.3%), as WBTs do not reflect cooking activities in rural homes. Thus the Patsari emits 25% less PICs per kg fuelwood used than the open fire, and carbon emission reductions of Patsari and similar improved stoves are also likely underestimated. Finally, in addition to a reduction in overall particulate emissions for rural homes during daily activities, the ratio of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) within the aerosol fraction decreased between the open fire and improved Patsari stoves. While the overall EC contribution for the brick Patsari was reduced, the fraction of EC increased relative to OC, which makes
Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Kim Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary
The aim of this study was to explore how a rural African American faith community would address depression within their congregations and the community as a whole. A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 24 participants representing pastors, parishioners interested in health, and African American men who had experienced symptoms of depression in a community in the Arkansas Delta. The primary data sources for this qualitative research study were focus groups. Participants identified three key players in the rural African American faith community who can combat depression: the Church, the Pastor/Clergy, and the Layperson. The roles of each were identified and recommendations for each to address depression disparities in rural African Americans. The recommendations can be used to develop faith-based interventions for depression targeting the African American faith community. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.
de la Torre, Adela; Sadeghi, Banafsheh; Green, Richard D; Kaiser, Lucia L; Flores, Yvette G; Jackson, Carlos F; Shaikh, Ulfat; Whent, Linda; Schaefer, Sara E
Overweight and obese children are likely to develop serious health problems. Among children in the U.S., Latino children are affected disproportionally by the obesity epidemic. Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family) is a five-year, multi-faceted intervention study to decrease the rate of BMI growth in Mexican origin children in California's Central Valley. This paper describes the methodology applied to develop and launch the study. Investigators use a community-based participatory research approach to develop a quasi-experimental intervention consisting of four main components including nutrition, physical activity, economic and art-community engagement. Each component's definition, method of delivery, data collection and evaluation are described. Strategies to maintain engagement of the comparison community are reported as well. We present a study methodology for an obesity prevention intervention in communities with unique environmental conditions due to rural and isolated location, limited infrastructure capacity and limited resources. This combined with numerous cultural considerations and an unstable population with limited exposure to researcher expectations necessitates reassessment and adaptation of recruitment strategies, intervention delivery and data collection methods. Trial registration # NCT01900613. NCT01900613.
McGrail, Matthew R; Wingrove, Peter M; Petterson, Stephen M; Humphreys, John S; Russell, Deborah J; Bazemore, Andrew W
Many rural communities continue to experience an undersupply of primary care doctor services. While key professional factors relating to difficulties of recruitment and retention of rural primary care doctors are widely identified, less attention has been given to the role of community and place aspects on supply. Place-related attributes contribute to a community's overall amenity or attractiveness, which arguably influence both rural recruitment and retention relocation decisions of doctors. This bi-national study of Australia and the USA, two developed nations with similar geographic and rural access profiles, investigates the extent to which variations in community amenity indicators are associated with spatial variations in the supply of rural primary care doctors. Measures from two dimensions of community amenity: geographic location, specifically isolation/proximity; and economics and sociodemographics were included in this study, along with a proxy measure (jurisdiction) of a third dimension, environmental amenity. Data were chiefly collated from the American Community Survey and the Australian Census of Population and Housing, with additional calculated proximity measures. Rural primary care supply was measured using provider-to-population ratios in 1949 US rural counties and in 370 Australian rural local government areas. Additionally, the more sophisticated two-step floating catchment area method was used to measure Australian rural primary care supply in 1116 rural towns, with population sizes ranging from 500 to 50 000. Associations between supply and community amenity indicators were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients and ordinary least squares multiple linear regression models. It was found that increased population size, having a hospital in the county, increased house prices and affluence, and a more educated and older population were all significantly associated with increased workforce supply across rural areas of both countries
This article reports the findings of a study exploring the effects of using videoconferencing (VC) to deliver dance instruction to rural communities. The context of the study is a university community partnership run through blended live and VC instruction with elementary and middle school students in Eloy, Arizona. This research is part of a…
impossible in many developing coun- tries 1to provide enough technical and financial assistance to meet all the social and economic development which are needed in many local communities (Milson, 1973). Many of such improvements must depend on the self-help rural community efforts by mobilizing their manpower.
Adoption of improved cassava varieties in six rural communities in Anambra State, Nigeria. AE Agwu, CL Anyaeche. Abstract. A survey of 118 randomly selected cassava farmers was conducted in Ukpor, Amichi, Osumenyi, Ezinifite, Ekwulummili and Ebenator, communities in Nnewi South Local Government Area of ...
Stearns, Robert David
Examines the use of "directed ethnography," a collaborative ethnographic approach, found to improve the work of Ladino teachers in rural Yucatan community schools. The participating teachers analyze the collected community data and modify their teaching style/curriculum materials to reflect the experience of their Maya Grade 3 students.…
Congregations in rural communities and their leadership cannot escape these changes that affect their functioning and existence. The key research question is thus: What is the congregational leadership's opinion and argument about leadership in both the congregation and the community? The research indicated that a ...
Rural communities' right to choose: “Carefully considered and principally discouraged” ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ... Although the Constitutional Court has confirmed the right of communities in the former bantustans to choose how communal land is governed, government policy ...
... in the specialization field of Adult Education and could serve as an example of a planned integrated approach to community engagement. The initiative was implemented in the rural community of Darling in the Western Cape Province of South Africa who experience challenges associated with poverty and unemployment.
Background: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative community led drive to set up pit latrines in rural Kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. It's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy.
Boggs, Sharon A. C.; And Others
A survey of 130 rural community pharmacists in Washington State found 70% in towns with five or fewer pharmacies; almost all provided nutrition information to their communities though only 20% had taken a nutrition course during pharmacy training. Most common questions concerned supplements and weight loss. Respondents relied on pharmacy journals,…
Methods: A cross-sectional house-to-house survey was conducted in a rural community in Edo State, Nigeria. The community has two readily accessible vaccination posts. Using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, data on the vaccination status of. 12-to-59 month-old children and other variables related to the child ...
Hosler, Akiko S.
Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…
Collins, Jennifer L; Owen, Donna C; Champion, Jane Dimmitt
To describe the meaning of body weight among rural Mexican-American adolescents (RMAA) and an influential person (IP) of their social network. This is qualitative descriptive study. Convenience sampling was used to recruit RMAA seeking care at a rural primary care-based clinic. Content analysis was used to identify categories and subcategories. Fifteen male adolescents and 14 IPs were interviewed (n = 29). Individual interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Participants described body weight through family norms, body size, and history of heart disease or diabetes. Cultural scripts were used to describe weight gain, judgment of size, and resource limitations. Health care providers must evaluate cultural scripts associated with body size to develop interventions that are derived from the meaning ascribed to weight status rather than simply based on evidence-based standards. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01387646. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Godoy, Rodrigo Vera
The document provides educators with data and information regarding the utilization of alternative educational processes in Latin American rural communities. Many communities exist at social and economic poverty levels and are isolated from urban centers. Documents compiled for use at alternative education conferences, held in Paipa, Colombia in…
Leung, Janni; Smith, Annetta; Atherton, Iain; McLaughlin, Deirdre
Patients have a right to privacy in a health care setting. This involves conversational discretion, security of medical records and physical privacy of remaining unnoticed or unidentified when using health care services other than by those who need to know or whom the patient wishes to know. However, the privacy of cancer patients who live in rural areas is more difficult to protect due to the characteristics of rural communities. The purpose of this article is to reflect on concerns relating to the lack of privacy experienced by cancer patients and health care professionals in the rural health care setting. In addition, this article suggests future research directions to provide much needed evidence for educating health care providers and guiding health care policies that can lead to better protection of privacy among cancer patients living in rural communities.
Charlery, Lindy Callen
Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods....... This has led to the following question being asked: Are forests and environmental resources able to help poor households escape poverty? Empirically, answering this question is important if the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction, contributing to the first Millennium Development Goal......, is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing...
In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.
Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.
Paulette Kershenovich Schuster
Full Text Available Food is the cultural expression of society food as a marker of class, ethnic, and religious identity. What happens when the location changes? Does food continue to play such an important role or do other cultural nodes take over? Do layers of traditions, adaptation and cultural blends emerge? This seems to be the case with third and fourth generation Mexican Jews who have moved to Israel. Not only have they brought their spiritual and cultural connections from Mexico, their birth country; they have also brought the food experiences of their great-grandparents and grandparents who were they themselves immigrants. Jewish Mexicans have transplanted their sense of community to Israel and in doing so they have also brought overlooked cultural interactions and unique food experiences. Are these simply by-products of religious and migration patterns? Or are there other elements that have affected this cultural hybridity?
Full Text Available to electricity in their homes with 590 million of these people living in sub-Saharan Africa. An estimated 80% of these people live in rural areas; most have scant prospects of gaining access to electricity in the near future, unless innovative and robust ways...
Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim
The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.
Call, Vaughn R A; Erickson, Lance D; Dailey, Nancy K; Hicken, Bret L; Rupper, Randall; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Bair, Byron
The rate of telemedicine adoption using interactive video between patient and provider has not met expectations. Technology, regulations, and physician buy-in are cited reasons, but patient acceptance has not received much consideration. We examine attitudes regarding telemedicine to better understand the subjective definitions of its acceptability and utility that shape patients' willingness to use telemedicine. Using the Montana Health Matters study (a random, statewide survey [n=3,512]), we use latent class analysis to identify groups with similar patterns of attitudes toward telemedicine followed by multinomial logistic regression to estimate predictors of group membership. Although only 5% are amenable to telemedicine regardless of circumstance, 23% would be comfortable if it could be convenient, whereas 29% would be situationally amenable but uncomfortable using telemedicine. Still, a substantial percentage (43%) is unequivocally averse to telemedicine despite the inconvenience of in-person visits. Educational attainment, prior Internet use, and rural residence are main predictors that increase the likelihood of being in an amenable group. From the patient's perspective, the advantages of reduced travel and convenience are recognized, but questions remain about the equivalence to physician visits. Many people are averse to telemedicine, indicating a perceived incompatibility with patient needs. Only 1.7% of the respondents reported using telemedicine in the previous year; about half were veterans. Hence, few have used telemedicine, and key innovation adoption criteria-trialability and observability-are low. Increased attention to public awareness in the adoption process is needed to increase willingness to embrace telemedicine as a convenient way to obtain quality healthcare services.
Vandale-Toney, S; Rivera-Pasquel, M E; Kageyama-Escobar M de la, L; Tirado-Gómez, L L; López-Cervantes, M
To determine the prevalence of lactation, the use of industrialized milk and weaning, and the factors related to lack of breast-feeding and early weaning in young infants of rural communities. Transversal study performed by last year medical students doing Social Service in 222 rural communities in Mexico who applied structured interviews to 5,409 families with children younger than 1 year of age. The percentages of children who were never breast-fed were: in the north (N) 21.4%, in the center (C) 7.6% and in the south (S) 5.3%. Children who were still being breast-fed, either exclusively or with mixed feeding by the third trimester were 35.6% (N), 67.6% (C) and 77.5% (S); in the second trimester, 67.2% (N), 40.9% (C) and 51.6% (S) had been weaned. In the N region it was observed that lack of breast-feeding was associated to the health personnel who attended delivery, mothers with six or more years of education and less than four children, dwellings with permanent material floors, two or more household commodities and a head of the family different from the father. Early weaning was essentially associated to the same factors; additionally, to the child being taken care of by someone different from the mother, artificial lactation by parental decision or due to medical recommendation and the use of health services provided by social security or private physicians. Artificial lactation and early weaning are typical of small families, with high educational level of the mother, better living conditions and contact with medical personnel, especially in the N of the country. Children are weaned before the second semester of life and it is therefore deemed necessary to implement health programs which promote breast-feeding and gradual weaning after the sixth month of life among the infant population of Mexican rural communities.
... the Under Secretary for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and... Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, to be exercised only during the absence or... may hereafter be delegated to the Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development. ...
de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia
This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…
Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka
, priorities and systems of meanings. Research limitations/implications – The notion of community participation at school can be seen to be better aligned with a socio-ecological health promotion perspective to include the community agenda too. The participatory HPS approach needs to consider that community...... participation can include the possibility of the community challenging the social order at school, and the educational policies and practices. When addressing community participation, counter-participating and non-participating can be also considered as legitimate forms of participating. Originality...... communities and schools in Ecuador, the study examines community participation related to the implementation of the School Feeding Program in rural schools in Ecuador. The conceptual framework for the study is shaped by the concepts of student and community participation within the Health Promoting School...
Whitehead, Kevin A.; Kriel, Anita J.; Richter, Linda M.
In the face of extreme poverty and inequality in South Africa, community mobilization interventions represent an important way in which people can be empowered to improve their life. Successfully conducting community mobilization interventions in rural South African communities requires anticipating and addressing a number of potential barriers in…
Martinez, Melissa Ann
Utilizing the notion of community cultural wealth, this study focuses on the various forms of capital that Mexican American students from the South Texas Border draw upon within their community to navigate the college choice process. Findings indicate that neighbors, church members, and in one case, a physician, served as sources of social…
Walsh, B. M.
Much of the research on the social sustainability of renewable technologies has focused on local acceptance issues, community benefits from exogenous developments, and matters related to the planning and development process. Grassroots-initiated wind energy schemes as a form of rural enterprise have received less attention, especially in the Irish context. Using a case study approach, this paper analyses the challenges and opportunities faced in progressing community wind energy projects in r...
Stoddard, Pamela; Handley, Margaret A; Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Schillinger, Dean
In many high-income countries, indigenous populations bear a higher burden of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous populations. Less is known about these patterns in lower- and middle-income countries. We assessed the hypothesis that obesity and diabetes were less prevalent among indigenous than non-indigenous adults in Mexico, home to the largest indigenous population in Latin America. We investigated socioeconomic explanations for differences. In a related line of inquiry, we examine whether adults in communities with higher versus lower percentages of indigenous residents were buffered against these conditions. We assessed whether differences were partially explained by lower development in higher-indigenous communities. Obesity was based on measured height and weight, and diabetes on a diagnosis from a healthcare professional. The analysis for obesity included 19 577 adults aged 20 and older from the Mexican Family Life Survey (2002), a nationally representative survey of Mexican households and communities; for diabetes, we restricted analysis to adults with health insurance. We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity and diabetes by indigenous status and community percent indigenous. Results suggest that indigenous adults had significantly lower odds of obesity and diabetes than non-indigenous adults. This advantage was not explained by the lower socioeconomic status of indigenous individuals. A higher percentage of indigenous individuals in communities provided protection against obesity, although not for diabetes. Differences for obesity were not accounted for by community development. Findings suggest that an opportunity may exist to prevent disparities in obesity and diabetes from developing by indigenous characteristics in Mexico. Identifying the sources of protective effects of individual and community indigenous characteristics relative to these health conditions should be a priority, given global implications for
This study examined constraints to gender participation in rural community development in Abia State. A multistage sampling procedure was used in the selection of 120 households for the study. Data was analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 50.5 ...
Income-generating projects in rural communities: from theory to practice - a personal report .... approach as far as motivational theories were con- cerned. From a .... The members assumed responsibility and owner- ship for the project. The group became known to the outside world, and this enhanced promotion. Opening.
Scott, Shanda; Miller, Michael T.; Morris, Adam A.
Rural community college students face unique difficulties in higher education for many reasons, including the resources they typically have access to, their collective histories, and in many cases, the preparation they received in high school. These challenges might be low-performing secondary schools, a lack of tradition and precedence in…
the high rate of population growth that it is presently experiencing. However, the adoption rate of the family planning method is still low 16, 17. About 70% of Nigeria's population live and work in the rural communities with a very high fertility rate 18. The introduction and acceptance of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) ...
Abstract. At present there is under utilization of maternity service provision in Nigeria, with only a third of childbearing women electing to deliver in ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... participants criticised personal attributes of some.
The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Ikpeshi, a rural community of Edo State, Nigeria showed that 195(65%) out of 300 volunteers harboured Schistosoma haematobium ova in their urine. Eosinophiluria was markedly significant > 5 eosinophilic leucocyturia/hpf and reported among 250 (83.3%) inhabitants. Of these ...
Aim: To investigate the determinants of teenage pregnancies in a rural community. Method: A household survey was conducted; 359 girls aged 10- 19 years, were randomly selected, and using the WHO/EPI cluster sampling method for immunization coverage, were interviewed using interviewer-administered ...
This study therefore examines the factors influencing household food security in a rural community in North Central Nigeria. Using Multistage sampling technique, 235 households were sampled. Interviewer administered structured questionnaires were used to gather data which were collated and analyzed using Epi Info ...
The study investigated awareness and usage of the Baobab plant in rural communities in Kwara State, Nigeria. It examined the determinants of the plant's usage as well as constraints to its usage in the State. A three stage random sampling procedure produced the 200 respondents from which primary data used for the ...
The other causes of bilateral blindness were optic atrophy (16.7%), bilateral corneal opacity (8.3%) and age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) (8.3%). Conclusion: Visual impairment and blindness are common in the Okoboh rural community. Cataracts, glaucoma, corneal opacity and age- related macular degeneration ...
Effectiveness of a community intervention on malaria in rural Tanzania - a randomised controlled trial. ... Fever and reported fever decreased significantly and the mean body weight of the children increased significantly over the study period in both control and intervention groups. Conclusion: The decrease in anaemia was ...
Much of the research on the social sustainability of renewable technologies has focused on local acceptance issues, community benefits from exogenous developments, and matters related to the planning and development process. Grassroots-initiated wind energy schemes as a form of rural enterprise have
This paper argues that the term 'empowerment' is too complex a concept to be simply 'inserted' into development project designs without prior and precise conceptualization. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 2010/2011 and using Ghana's Community-Based Rural Development Projects (CBRDP) as a case ...
An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors to tungiasis amongst 1,030 randomly selected individuals in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Hands, feet, elbows and other parts of the body were examined for the presence of clinical signs of ...
Andersson, N; Morales, A; Nava, E; Martinez, E; Rodriguez, I; Young, P; Howard, M K; Miles, M A
The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse 4372 blood samples from residents of 978 households in 20 representative communities in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Seventy-five individuals had very high titres of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. Samples with intermediate optical density values, despite overlapping values with several control positives on a single-well test, did not sustain their positivity at high dilutions. 'Intermediate positives' had a different distribution among the 20 communities to samples sustaining reactivity at high dilutions, indicating possible cross-reactivity with another infectious agent. The finding of seropositive children under the age of 10 years in the Costa Chica, Acapulco and the Tierra Caliente regions, with family clustering of putative cases, indicates that recent transmission must be considered. Very few people interviewed in the 20 communities knew the triatomine bug could transmit a disease.
Li, Y.-H.; Liao, W.-T.; Tung, C.-P.
The purpose of this study is to develop several water resources simulation models for residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms and then integrate these models for a rural community. Domestic and irrigation water uses are the major water demand in rural community. To build up a model estimating domestic water demand for residence houses, the average water use per person per day should be accounted first, including water uses of kitchen, bathroom, toilet and laundry. On the other hand, rice is the major crop in the study region, and its productive efficiency sometimes depends on the quantity of irrigation water. The water demand can be estimated by crop water use, field leakage and water distribution loss. Irrigation water comes from rainfall, water supply system and reclaimed water which treated by constructed wetland. In recent years, constructed wetlands play an important role in water resources recycle. They can purify domestic wastewater for water recycling and reuse. After treating from constructed wetlands, the reclaimed water can be reused in washing toilets, watering gardens and irrigating farms. Constructed wetland is one of highly economic benefits for treating wastewater through imitating the processing mechanism of natural wetlands. In general, the treatment efficiency of constructed wetlands is determined by evapotranspiration, inflow, and water temperature. This study uses system dynamics modeling to develop models for different water resource components in a rural community. Furthermore, these models are integrated into a whole system. The model not only is utilized to simulate how water moves through different components, including residence houses, constructed wetlands and farms, but also evaluates the efficiency of water use. By analyzing the flow of water, the water resource simulation model can optimizes water resource distribution under different scenarios, and the result can provide suggestions for designing water resource system of a
Miller, Michael T.; Deggs, David
Rural community colleges have an often understated impact on the communities they serve, especially in regard to their role in developing the identity of individuals. The ability of the rural community college to influence individual identity development is often exasperated due to the challenges associated with rural American life. The role of…
Leonard, Olen; Loomis, C. P.
Located on the Pecos River in San Miguel County, El Cerrito (New Mexico) was a culturally stable rural community. Almost a cultural island, its inhabitants were of native or Spanish American stock, descendants of conquistadores who mixed their blood with that of the indigenous population. Religion and the Catholic church had a profound influence…
Keshuai Xu; Jin Zhang; Fengjun Tian
.... Based on leadership theories and the literature on community leadership and tourism development, this study developed a framework for community leadership in rural tourism development and used...
Pseudocyesis is uncommon and probably under reported among the African population. To document the incidence and presentation of false pregnancies in a Nigerian rural population. This involved a review of prospectively collected data on all patients who were diagnosed with pseudocyesis over a four-year period in a Mission hospital. Pseudocyesis occurred at a frequency of 1 in 344 pregnancies. The mean age was 33.6 years and the condition was found more commonly among poorly educated women. Amenorrhea was common among the subjects and 54% claimed they felt fetal movement. Ultrasound studies confirmed the absence of pregnancies in all cases. Management included counseling and referral to specialist clinical psychologists. Pseudocyesis is more common among the African population than in developed countries. Gynaecologists in these regions should have a high index of suspicion to diagnose this and assess the mental status of the subject and the precipitating factors.
Van Laerhoven, Christa L.
Canada is very large geographically, so many rural communities are very far from major centers. People in such communities are at a severe disadvantage when it comes to in-person interaction with science or scientists because resources tend to be directed at large population centers, where more people can be reached for the same amount of effort. While this geographic distance can be mitigated by doing outreach over the internet, there is at some level no substitute for showing up in person with e.g. meteorites in hand. Due to where various members of my family are located, I have occasion to visit Whitehorse, YT and Andrew, AB (~1.5 hour drive north-east of Edmonton) and have taken advantage of trips to these locations to do astronomy outreach in both schools and public libraries. I will discuss how I arranged school and library visits and general observations from my experience doing outreach in rural Canadian communities.
Seguin, Rebecca A; Lo, Brian K; Sriram, Urshila; Connor, Leah M; Totta, Alison
Rural populations face unique challenges to physical activity that are largely driven by environmental conditions. However, research on rural built environments and physical activity is limited by a paucity of rural-specific environmental assessment tools. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a rural assessment tool: Inventories for Community Health Assessment in Rural Towns (iCHART). The iCHART tool was developed in 2013 through a multistep process consisting of an extensive literature search to identify existing tools, an expert panel review, and pilot testing in five rural US communities. Tool items represent rural built environment features that influence active living and physical activity: community design, transportation infrastructure, safety, aesthetics, and recreational facilities. To assess reliability, field testing was performed in 26 rural communities across five states between July and November of 2014. Reliability between the research team and community testers was high among all testing communities (average percent agreement = 77%). Agreement was also high for intra-rater reliability (average kappa = 0.72) and inter-rater reliability (average percent agreement = 84%) among community testers. Findings suggest that the iCHART tool provides a reliable assessment of rural built environment features and can be used to inform the development of contextually-appropriate physical activity opportunities in rural communities.
Rebecca A. Seguin
Full Text Available Rural populations face unique challenges to physical activity that are largely driven by environmental conditions. However, research on rural built environments and physical activity is limited by a paucity of rural-specific environmental assessment tools. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a rural assessment tool: Inventories for Community Health Assessment in Rural Towns (iCHART. The iCHART tool was developed in 2013 through a multistep process consisting of an extensive literature search to identify existing tools, an expert panel review, and pilot testing in five rural US communities. Tool items represent rural built environment features that influence active living and physical activity: community design, transportation infrastructure, safety, aesthetics, and recreational facilities. To assess reliability, field testing was performed in 26 rural communities across five states between July and November of 2014. Reliability between the research team and community testers was high among all testing communities (average percent agreement = 77%. Agreement was also high for intra-rater reliability (average kappa = 0.72 and inter-rater reliability (average percent agreement = 84% among community testers. Findings suggest that the iCHART tool provides a reliable assessment of rural built environment features and can be used to inform the development of contextually-appropriate physical activity opportunities in rural communities.
This essay examines how the social construction of community may influence faculty perceptions, roles, and actions in rural community development outreach. Special attention is given to the social construction of rural communities and how disciplinary perspective and popular culture influence these perceptions of community. The essay considers how…
Sep 30, 2012 ... due to high levels of illiteracy, non-adaptability of library services to local environment needs and poor library ... most common among them is the high degree of illiteracy (Erine, 1986). .... Tugbiyele (1977) saw libraries as not just a centre to keep and read the books but a place to be used as community.
Harris, Thomas R.
The paper addresses the importance of developing a rural community's commercial sector for economic development by providing some analytical tools. Procedures are outlined to estimate commercial sector activity in a community, to estimate commercial sector activity for various counties within a state (Nevada is used as an example), and to develop…
Baquet, Claudia R; Bromwell, Jeanne L; Hall, Margruetta B; Frego, Jacob F
A rural community-academic partnership was developed in 1997 between the Eastern Shore Area Health Education Center (ESAHEC) and the University of Maryland School of Medicine's (UMSOM) Office of Policy and Planning (OPP). The model supports partnered research, bidirectional interactions, and community and health professional education. The primary aim was to develop a sustainable community-academic partnership that addressed health and social issues on the rural Eastern Shore. Mutual respect and trust led to sustained, bidirectional interactions and communication. Community and academic partner empowerment were supported by shared grant funds. Continual refinement of the partnership and programs occurred in response to community input and qualitative and quantitative research. The partnership led to community empowerment, increased willingness to participate in clinical trials and biospecimen donation, leveraged grant funds, partnered research, and policies to support health and social interventions. This partnership model has significant benefits and demonstrates its relevance for addressing complex rural health issues. Innovative aspects of the model include shared university grants, community inclusion on research protocols, bidirectional research planning and research ethics training of partners and communities. The model is replicable in other rural areas of the United States.
Heather A. Knauer
Full Text Available Parenting may be influenced by ethnicity; marginalization; education; and poverty. A critical but unexamined question is how these factors may interact to compromise or support parenting practices in ethnic minority communities. This analysis examined associations between mothers’ stimulating parenting practices and a range of child-level (age; sex; and cognitive and socio-emotional development; household-level (indigenous ethnicity; poverty; and parental education; and community-level (economic marginalization and majority indigenous population variables among 1893 children ages 4–18 months in poor; rural communities in Mexico. We also explored modifiers of associations between living in an indigenous community and parenting. Key findings were that stimulating parenting was negatively associated with living in an indigenous community or family self-identification as indigenous (β = −4.25; SE (Standard Error = 0.98; β = −1.58; SE = 0.83 respectively. However; living in an indigenous community was associated with significantly more stimulating parenting among indigenous families than living in a non-indigenous community (β = 2.96; SE = 1.25. Maternal education was positively associated with stimulating parenting only in indigenous communities; and household crowding was negatively associated with stimulating parenting only in non-indigenous communities. Mothers’ parenting practices were not associated with child sex; father’s residential status; education; or community marginalization. Our findings demonstrate that despite greater community marginalization; living in an indigenous community is protective for stimulating parenting practices of indigenous mothers.
Full Text Available Contemporary rural museums perform not only the traditional tasks but are also the places where both the visitors and the local community members have chances for entertainment and attractive leisure time. Consequently one can find in museums numerous catering offers such as cafes, bistros, snack bars, restaurants, pubs and wine bars. The material presented is the result of theoretical and field studies carried out in the selected open air museums in Poland and focused on newly introduced commercial activities (as catering. Our research results show that the development of sustainable cultural tourism as a generator of income in the open air rural museums is important in the challenging economic time. Museums having catering services of different character could easier overcome financial struggle. Moreover there is no doubt that the introduction of an interesting and ambitious cuisine in the restaurants located in the rural open air museum is of great importance also in other terms: popularization of the food culture, rural tradition of region, healthy diet and lifestyle, chance to increase the museum attractiveness, important economic support to the museum and the local community and the improvement of living quality.
This is a case study about how teacher education might better prepare rural teacher candidates for rural schools. Parents, teachers, community members, and students associated with a rural school described what is important in the preparation of teachers for today's rural schools. Their goals and wishes for their children's school and community…
Marvan, Maria Luisa; Trujillo, Paulina
Women living in rural and urban areas of Mexico answered a questionnaire about what they were told at home about menstruation before their menarche (first menstruation), and answered the Beliefs About and Attitudes Toward Menstruation Questionnaire. Around half of both urban and rural women were told that they were going to experience negative perimenstrual changes. There were fewer urban than rural women who were advised to do or not to do certain activities while menstruating. Menstrual socialization affected the beliefs and attitudes concerning menstruation held by women as adults. These findings are discussed in light of the sociocultural background of the participants.
7 Benin-Ct)», Edo State Nigeria. ABSTRACT _. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Udo, a rural community in Ovia South-west LGA of Edo State to assess the level of awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment .... Variables Frequency Percentage. Age(vears). 15-24 250 42.4. 25-34 160 27.1. 35-44 96 16.3.
Maley, Moira A; Lockyer-Stevens, Vanessa L; Playford, Denese E
This reflective work considered the journey of rural doctors from diverse backgrounds as teachers and academics during the establishment and rapid expansion of an Australian rural clinical school. The observed social and academic processes are analysed in the context of social learning theory. The extent to which the theoretical social processes match observations during a period of transformational change indicates how social learning processes contributed to the outcome. Ten areas of thematic teacher concerns were identified during teachers' professional development and the strategies used to address these declared. Despite the concurrent evolution of both the overall organisation (teacher environment) and teachers' task (curriculum approach), a community of rural educational practice (CREP) formed and thrived. It adopted a culture of sharing experiences which enabled ongoing knowledge brokering, engaged experts and transformed members. Critical reflection resulting from engagement in mutual activity and a supporting culture of enablement driven by senior leadership was central to success. A generic framework for building a successful CREP includes, leadership that 'enables' its members to flourish, a rural academic identity with a 'Community of Practice' governance, internal benchmarking by members to measure and refine practice, critical reflection 'in' and 'on' academic practice, vertical and horizontal mentoring.
McCormack, Sherry L.; Zieman, Stuart
Hopkinsville Community College's Technological Education for the Rural Community (TERC) project is funded through the National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education (NSF ATE) division. It is advancing innovative educational pathways for technological education promoted at the community college level serving rural communities to fill…
Helbok, Craig M
The practice of psychology in rural areas offers unique challenges for psychologists as they try to provide optimal care, often with a minimum of resources. Psychologists are frequently required to be creative and flexible in order to provide effective services to a wide range of clients. However, these unique challenges often confront psychologists with ethical dilemmas and problems for which their urban-based training has not prepared them. The author examines how certain characteristics of rural communities may lead to specific ethical dilemmas. By being a part of a small community, psychologists will inevitably face multiple relationship dilemmas. Confidentiality is harder to maintain in a small town, particularly with its informal information-sharing network. To provide services to meet community needs, with a limited number of referral options, psychologists typically need to be generalists. This may lead to concerns about scope of practice, training, and experience with diverse populations. Psychologists also face other competency issues, such as a lack of supervision and consultation resources. Other concerns addressed include the psychologist's personal life, and the blurring of professional and personal roles. Suggestions are made for coping with each of these ethical issues, although more quantitative research and discussion are needed on the practice of psychology in rural areas.
Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny
The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Zaman, Tariq; Jensen, Kasper Løvborg
In this paper we explore the opportunities of mobile technologies in three of our own development endeavors with rural communities, promoting the preservation of indigenous knowledge. We reflect upon and recognize the fact that the representation of indigenous knowledge will be transformed within...... the digitalization process under the limitations and capabilities of the tools. We believe that a continuation of local appropriation and co-design of tools will lead to an integrated, intuitive and non-intrusive indigenous knowledge preservation process within the local communities....
Shannon, C Ken; Price, Shelia S; Jackson, Jodie
Community-based clinical rotations in rural areas expose dental students to diverse patient populations, practice models, and career opportunities as well as rural culture. The aims of this study at West Virginia University were to determine the best predictors of rural practice, assess the predictive validity of students' intention to practice in a rural area before and after their rural rotations, and evaluate the relationship between students' intention to practice in a rural area and intention to provide care for indigent patients. Online survey data were submitted pre- and post-rural clinical rotation by 432 of 489 dental students over the study period 2001-12, yielding an 88% response rate. In 2013, practice addresses from the West Virginia Board of Dentistry were added to the student database. The results showed that significant predictors of rural practice site were intended rural practice choice, rural hometown, and projected greater practice accessibility for indigent patients. The likelihood of students' predicting they would choose a rural practice increased after completion of their rural rotations. After the rotations, students predicted providing greater accessibility to indigent patients; these changes occurred for those who changed their predictions to rural practice choice after the rotations and those who subsequently entered rural practice. The dental students with a rural background or a greater service orientation were also more likely to expect to enter a rural practice and actually to do so after graduation. These findings suggest that dental school curricula that include rural rotations may increase students' sensitivity to issues of indigent patients and increase students' likelihood of rural practice choice.
Ludden, Alison Bryant
Involvement in civic and community activities is a core part of positive youth development. Adolescents involved in voluntary civic activities have greater academic engagement, enhanced well-being, less involvement in problem behaviors, and they are more likely to value connections to their community than those who are not involved. The current research examined involvement in school and community civic activities as well as religious youth groups among 8th and 9th graders (N = 679, 61.7% female, 85.9% White) from small, rural schools in the Midwest U.S. and linked involvement to religiosity, well-being, problem behavior, academic engagement, and perceptions of parents and peers. Half of the adolescents in the sample reported involvement in civic activities or, more commonly, in religious youth groups. Adolescents who participated in religious youth groups reported more extracurriculars, less problem behavior, higher grades and motivation, and more support from parents and friends than adolescents who did not. The most frequently reported school civic activities were student council and Future Farmers of America, and 4-H was the most popular community civic activity. Those who were involved in school- and community-based civic activities reported more religiosity, academic engagement, and positive perceptions of parents and peers than uninvolved youth. The results support and extend research on rural youth by documenting civic activities across contexts and examining how involvement is associated with positive youth development.
Intervention research in rural health disparities communities presents challenges for study design, implementation, and evaluation, thus threatening scientific rigor, reducing response rates, and confounding study results. A multisite nutrition intervention was conducted in the rural Lower Mississip...
O'Connor, Kathleen; Vizcaino, Maricarmen; Ibarra, Jorge M.; Balcazar, Hector; Perez, Eduardo; Flores, Luis; Anders, Robert L.
The aims of this article are: 1) to examine the associations between health provider-diagnosed depression and multimorbidity, the condition of suffering from more than two chronic illnesses; 2) to assess the unique contribution of chronic illness in the prediction of depression; and 3) to suggest practice changes that would address risk of depression among individuals with chronic illnesses. Data collected in a cross-sectional community health study among adult Mexicans (n= 274) living in a low income neighborhood (colonia) in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, were examined. We tested the hypotheses that individuals who reported suffering chronic illnesses would also report higher rates of depression than healthy individuals; and having that two or more chronic illnesses further increased the risk of depression. PMID:26640817
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential impact of distance education on a small, rural, Canadian island community. Presently, the population of small, rural island communities on the west coast of Canada are facing numerous challenges to retain and to attract permanent residents and families and to provide support and direction for those residents who wish to pursue K-12 accreditation, post-secondary education, vocational/trades training and up-grading or life-long learning. A unique set of considerations confront many of these isolated communities if they wish to engage in distance education and training. This set ranges from internet access to excessive travel by secondary students to the lack of centralized facility. For this study, a group of 48 participants were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the potential for distance education to impact on the community's educational, both academic and vocational, life-long learning and economic needs. The results indicated that there were four general areas of purported benefit: academic advancement, an improved quality of life, support for young families and a stabilizing affect on the local economy. Suggestions for the implementation of a suitable distance education resource are noted.
Kanyamurwa, J M; Ampek, G T
AIDS has been reported in Africa to push households into poverty and chronic food insecurity. At the same time there are reports of significant household resilience to AIDS. This study explored how a mature epidemic in rural Uganda has affected rural farming households. It focused on gender differences in the experience of AIDS and, in particular, household capabilities to sustain livelihoods. The study compared the vulnerability of male- and female-headed households in relation to their ability to mitigate human resource losses, as well as their access to natural and physical resources, to social networks and to finance capital for production. The findings suggest that when rural households are affected by AIDS, depleting productive resources and directing resources towards immediate needs, there are gender differences in responses to, and in impacts of, the epidemic due to the different resources available to male- and female- headed households. Female-headed households were found to be more vulnerable to AIDS than male-headed counterparts. Women's remarriage opportunities were lower than men's, they faced greater risk of losing control over land and livestock and they accessed less state and private sector support. Women-headed households were more dependent on livelihood support from non-governmental organizations, which were found to provide both welfare and credit support to female-headed households affected by AIDS. Women were found to play an important role in social networks and resources at community level but themselves received little support from many formal community networks and services.
Full Text Available Kelechi O Enwereji,1 Maduaburochukwu C Nwosu,1 Adesola Ogunniyi,2 Paul O Nwani,1 Azuoma L Asomugha,1 Ezinna E Enwereji3 1Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University College Hospital Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine/Nursing Sciences, College of Medicine, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria Background: The prevalence and incidence of stroke vary from community to community worldwide. Nonetheless, not much is known about the current epidemiology of stroke in rural Nigeria and indeed Africa. Methods: We carried out a two-phase door-to-door survey in a rural, predominantly low-income, community in Anambra, Southeastern Nigeria. We used a modified World Health Organization (WHO protocol for detecting neurological diseases in the first phase, and a stroke-specific questionnaire and neurological examination in the second phase. An equal number of sex- and age-matched stroke-negative subjects were examined. Results: We identified ten stroke subjects in the study. The crude prevalence of stroke in rural Nigeria was 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78–3.00 per 1,000 population. The crude prevalence of stroke in males was 1.99 (95% CI 0.73–4.33 per 1,000, while that for females was 1.28 (95% CI 0.35–3.28 per 1,000 population. The peak age-specific prevalence of stroke was 12.08 (95% CI 3.92–28.19 per 1,000, while after adjustment to WHO world population, the peak was 1.0 (95% CI 0.33–2.33 per 1,000. Conclusion: The prevalence of stroke was found to be higher than previously documented in rural Nigeria, with a slightly higher prevalence in males than females. This is, however, comparable to data from rural Africa. Keywords: Africa, developing country, prevalence
Full Text Available The satisfaction of the rights of victims in the repair processes of serious violations of international human rights and international humanitarian law, involves the obligation to adopt criteria that take into account the perspective of the victims, why which the rationale, form and objectives of such remedies must be based on the construction and collective discussion of the people and communities involved. In this context, it is necessary to respond to what has been called a "failure to recognize" the peasantry from the adequacy of the various versions of justice, preventing compensation regulations and guarantee of rights, rural development policies and land reform. To develop such a purpose are explained four realities: first, the conflict is characterized rural, in a second time, precision and relate the properties of each of the positions of the concept of justice in the conflict, in third, is investigated by regulatory and case law concerning the rights of peasant communities and finally, fourth, will address the complementarity of justice and political participation in the context of justice and economic efficiency, recognizing the imminent inclusion of community peasant in the neoliberal economic model, for the foundation of adequate reparation policies.
Ferreira, Efigênia F; Vargas, Andréa Maria D; Castilho, Lia S; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M; Fantinel, Lucia M; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G
The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5-with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4-with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07-6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01-1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.
Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu
Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.
S K Garg
Full Text Available A significant new knowledge acquired in the last decade on the aetiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunology and treatment of acute diarrhoea provided a solid basis for the immediate attack on the problem. Although acute diarrlioeal disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children yet only few studies on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality are available. An attempt was Made in the present study to determine the magnitude of the problem of diarrhoea among preschool children and prevailing health practices so as to plan the action for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among preschool children in rural community.
Beech, Bettina M; Bruce, Marino A; Gamble, Abigail; Brunson, Claude; Jones, Michael L
The purpose of this paper is to describe an extant theoretical model framing Mississippi Healthy Linkages, a successful academic-community partnership undergirding an emergency department (ED) diversion program. The partnership between the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Mississippi State Department of Health, and Federally Qualified Health Centers is grounded in the Structuration Model of Collaboration and utilizes collective action to support an organized system of care linking academic and community care settings to address health disparities, particularly for rural and vulnerable populations. Partners identified three interconnected segments of an integrated patient referral system to improve patient-level care, including galvanization of primary care services for ED patients, connection of primary care patients to specialty care, and linking ED patients with aftercare services. This academic-community partnership has significant benefits for linking health care and public health systems to address remote and vulnerable population health issues and serves as a model to be replicated in other areas of the United States, particularly in the Southeast and in rural areas.
This paper explores the relationships between population density, social interaction patterns, and morale in rural communities. It tests two apparently competing hypotheses concerning rural population density, social interaction patterns and overall levels of morale: one, that low (and rapidly declining) rural densities lead to feelings of…
Uche, Judith N; Ezegwui, Ifeoma R; Uche, Enoch; Onwasigwe, Ernest N; Umeh, Rich E; Onwasigwe, Chika N
When presbyopia (loss of accommodation of the crystalline lens with increasing age) sets in, doing near work becomes associated with headache and eye strain. Reading and writing become a challenge. Literacy levels may be low in rural communities; nevertheless some work other than reading, like sewing, sorting stone from grain and operating mobile phones, is done with dissatisfaction. This study aims to determine the prevalence of presbyopia, the unmet presbyopia need and the presbyopia correction coverage in a rural African community. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural population aged 35 years and greater, selected by cluster random sampling. Information was sought on biodata of the participants and they were subsequently examined. Distance visual acuity for each participant was determined. Anterior and posterior segments of the eyes were examined. Objective refraction with subjective refinement was done on all subjects with distant visual acuity less than 6/6. Near visual acuity was assessed at 40 cm with distant correction in place if required. Presbyopia was defined as inability to read N8 at 40 cm or requiring an addition of at least +1.00DS to improve near vision to at least N8. Questionnaires were administered to those identified as presbyopic on source of procurement of spectacles (if they had one) and on reasons for non-procurement of presbyopic spectacles. They were also asked to rate their difficulty with various listed near work. Data entry and analysis were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences v16.0 and Program for Epidemiologist v4.01 software. A total of 585 subjects (participation rate 81.1%) aged 35 years and greater were interviewed and examined. The prevalence of presbyopia was 63.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 62.6-64.2%). There was increasing prevalence with increasing age. The met presbyopia need was 17.6%, unmet need was 45.8% and presbyopic correction coverage was 27.8%. The commonest
During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention.
Mohammed, Eman Sameh; Ewis, Ashraf Abdel Azim; Mahfouz, Eman Mohammed
Estimating the burden of child labor in a rural community of El-Minia governorate, Egypt and exploring its determinants and health impact. One hundred and ninety nine children randomly participated from a randomly selected village; 147 (73.9%) males and 52 (26.1%) females, whose ages ranged from 6 to 17 years (mean age 12.1 ± 2.9). All children were subjected to interview questionnaire, and medical examination. Ninety (45.2%) of the children reported that they are engaged in a work. The working children belonged to 65.6 and 85.6% of illiterate fathers and mothers, respectively. The majority of the working children were engaged in jobs at quarries (58.9%), followed by farming (21.1%), then small proportions of children were working in other jobs. Poverty, big families and insufficient family's income were the most frequently reported reasons for starting to work (80%). There was a significant higher prevalence of the reported health complaints among working children. Working children are at high risk of many health problems. Poverty, parents' illiteracy, large family size and fathers' absence are the driving force for child labor in the rural community of Eastern Minia.
Montgomery, Jim C., Ed.; Kitchenham, Andrew D., Ed.
This proceedings of a conference held in May 2000 at Malaspina University-College (British Columbia) contains approximately 63 conference papers, abstracts of papers, and keynote speeches. The conference examined issues affecting rural communities, with major themes being rural education, health, human services, families, and the sustainability of…
Menec, Verena; Bell, Sheri; Novek, Sheila; Minnigaleeva, Gulnara A; Morales, Ernesto; Ouma, Titus; Parodi, Jose F; Winterton, Rachel
With the growing interest worldwide in making communities more age-friendly, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the factors that help or hinder communities in attaining this goal. In this article, we focus on rural and remote communities and present perspectives of 42 experts in the areas of aging, rural and remote issues, and policy who participated in a consensus conference on age-friendly rural and remote communities. Discussions highlighted that strengths in rural and remote communities, such as easy access to local leaders and existing partnerships, can help to further age-friendly goals; however, addressing major challenges, such as lack of infrastructure and limited availability of social and health services, requires regional or national government buy-in and funding opportunities. Age-friendly work in rural and remote communities is, therefore, ideally embedded in larger age-friendly initiatives and supported by regional or national policies, programs, and funding sources.
Dean Wesley R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA. The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are
Background Food insecurity is a critical problem in the United States and throughout the world. There is little published data that provides insights regarding the extent and severity of food insecurity among the hard-to-reach Mexican-origin families who reside in the growing colonias along the Texas border with Mexico. Considering that culture, economics, and elements of the environment may increase the risk for food insecurity and adverse health outcomes, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between household and community characteristics and food insecurity. Methods The study used data from the 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA). The data included 610 face-to-face interviews conducted in Spanish by promotoras (indigenous community health workers) in forty-four randomly-identified colonias near the towns of Progreso and La Feria in Hidalgo and Cameron counties along the Texas border with Mexico. C-HCFRA included demographic characteristics, health characteristics, food access and mobility, food cost, federal and community food and nutrition assistance programs, perceived quality of the food environment, food security, eating behaviors, and alternative food sources. Results 78% of participants experienced food insecurity at the level of household, adult, or child. The most severe - child food insecurity was reported by 49% of all households and 61.8% of households with children. Increasing levels of food insecurity was associated with being born in Mexico, increasing household composition, decreasing household income, and employment. Participation in federal food assistance programs was associated with reduced severity of food insecurity. Greater distance to their food store and perceived quality of the community food environment increased the odds for food insecurity. Conclusions The Mexican-origin population is rapidly expanding; record numbers of individuals and families are experiencing food insecurity; and
Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott
, vulnerability, and preparedness in LMIC communities. The current study established that selected communities near Trujillo, Peru recognize a high disaster impact from earthquakes and infection, but are not adequately prepared for potential future disasters. By identifying high-risk demographics, targeted public health interventions are needed to prepare vulnerable communities in the following areas: emergency food supplies, emergency water plan, medical supplies at home, and establishing evacuation plans. Stewart M , Grahmann B , Fillmore A , Benson LS . Rural community disaster preparedness and risk perception in Trujillo, Peru. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):387-392.
Full Text Available Introduction Rural Development in Cambodia in Transition With nearly 85 percent of its population living in rural communities, it is obvious that rural development issues occupy a prominent place in the overall development of Cambodia. As the country’s population rapidly increases, people in rural areas depend upon agriculture as their means of subsistence. In parallel, agriculture must meet the growing and diversifying urban food demand, while generating resources for export. The complex pro...
Duke, Michael R; Gómez Carpinteiro, Francisco J
Although the financial remittances sent by male Mexican migrant workers residing in the United States can result in higher standards of living for their families and home communities, out-migration may lead to increased migrant problem drinking and sexual risk behaviors, which may in turn impact these same communities of origin. Based on semi-structured interviewing (n=60) and participant observation in a migrant sending community in central Mexico and a receiving community in the Northeastern United States, this paper explores the effects of out-migration on HIV risk and problem drinking among United States-based migrants from a small agricultural community in the Mexican state of Puebla. We argue that problem drinking and risky sexual behaviors among these migrant workers have had significant consequences for their home community in terms of diminished remittances, the introduction of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and loss of husbands or kinsmen to automobile accidents. Moreover, although rumor and gossip between the two communities serve as a form of social control, they may also contribute to increased problem drinking and sexual risk.
Farmer, Jane; Prior, Maria; Taylor, Judy
Study and opinion suggest that health services play a significant role in supporting the social fabric of fragile rural communities. We draw on empirical evidence about the added-value contributions of health services to communities and unite it with theory of capitals to propose a theoretical model depicting how rural health services contribute to community sustainability. While providing an analytical framework, the paper also points to construction of a measurement tool for enabling planners to measure the contributions of diverse sectors to community sustainability and predict or measure the impact of changes to models of service delivery on the future of rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pérez, R L
To explore the traditional Mexican religious fiesta as a primary locus for community-based excessive drinking and violence against women. The research argues that the pattern of drinking and violence cannot be placed within explanations that tie a breakdown in social norms to drinking nor drinking to a breakdown in social norms. The data were gathered over 14 continuous months of participant observation in 1995 and 1996, followed by two summer research projects in 1997 and 1998. The researcher documented the activities of the participants at each fiesta and followed-up each event with interviews of the parties involved in violent confrontations. In addition, life stories and archival data on violence were conducted and used to situate current findings against historical data. All data were collected in the community of Santa Maria Atzompa. Atzompa is a cabécera or municipal seat, for six colonias (large neighborhoods), and three ranchos (agriculturally based communities) and has a population of just over 5200. The main community of Atzompa, where most of the research was conducted, has a population of 2700+. Over 1000 individuals participated in community religious fiestas that the researcher attended. More than half of these were men, and almost all the men present participated in the binge drinking. Sixteen religious fiestas and 13 non-religious fiestas were documented through participant observation and photographs. In every religious-based fiesta, violence erupted and was directed primarily against women. Husband and wife abuse accounted for 10 of the 16 violent disruptions (63%) while male/male abuse accounted for six (38%). The perpetuation of binge drinking and violence are part of a historic cycle of male dominance that dates back to the introduction of alcohol distillation during colonization by the Spaniards in the 16th century, compounded today by frustration over their inability to control the economic and political aspects of their households and
Genandt, James D.
The traditional role of workforce training by community colleges in support of regional economic development is insufficient to help rural areas survive in a global economy. Rural community colleges are uniquely positioned to provide enhanced economic development support through entrepreneurship and small business development programs. Using…
Thorpe, Joshua M.; Van Houtven, Courtney H.; Sleath, Betsy L.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.
Context: Alzheimer's patients living in rural communities may face significant barriers to effective outpatient medical care. Purpose: We sought to examine rural-urban differences in risk for ambulatory care sensitive hospitalizations (ACSH), an indicator of access to outpatient care, in community-dwelling veterans with dementia. Methods: Medicare…
Stokes, Helen; Wyn, Johanna
Young people growing up in rural and isolated areas of Australia face particular challenges because structural change to the rural economy has dramatically affected their communities. Structural challenges include limited transportation, health and community services that are difficult to access and not confidential, scarcity of affordable…
This paper examines the performance of rural community development projects in relation to the work ethic, gender and the level of participation in the process of rural development among the Nandi people of western Kenya. Data for the study were obtained from a survey of 25 randomly-selected community development ...
Often considered harmonious places, rural communities are in reality spaces often fragmented along class lines, with political factions promoting competing values and interests regarding the purpose of schooling. Using an exemplar case, this study affords us a new interpretation of rural school-community relations in times of conflict. It…
Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David
Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…
Di Gropello, Emanuela; Marshall, Jeffery H.
We analyze the effectiveness of the Programa Hondureno de Educacion Comunitaria (PROHECO) community school program in rural Honduras. The data include standardized tests and extensive information on school, teacher, classroom and community features for 120 rural schools drawn from 15 states. Using academic achievement decompositions we find that…
This study examines the relationship between academic undermatch theory and the college-going decisions, experiences, and aspirations of first-generation, rural Hispanic community college students in the new destination meatpacking town of Winstead, Kansas. Ethnographic data from rural high school guidance counselors, community college faculty,…
Background: The incidence and prevalence of poor vision and blindness in the world, especially among the rural communities in developing countries is on the increase. This had led to the WHO/IAPB-driven “Vision2020 right to sight: ”global initiative against blindness in rural communities, aimed at reducing global ...
Alleman, Nathan F.; Holly, L. Neal
Formal and informal partnerships between rural schools and their communities can provide a wide range of supports for all students, but particularly those from low-income families. In this analysis of six small rural school districts in Virginia we show how the broad participation of community groups and individuals supports academic achievement…
Tseloni, Andromachi; Zissi, Anastasia; Skapinakis, Petros
Which facets of social capital affect mental health in rural settings? This study explores the association between different aspects of social capital and psychiatric morbidity in rural communities of the Greek North Aegean islands. A large number of individual and community characteristics that may influence psychiatric morbidity are concurrently…
Sánchez-Boiso, Adriana; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Castro-Sierra, Eduardo; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Buentello-Malo, Leonora; Sánchez-Urbina, Rocío; Ortiz-de-luna, Rosa I; Rodríguez-Espino, Benjamín A; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio A; Flores-Ayón, Martha P; Salamanca-Vargas, Teresita; Aguirre-Hernández, Jesús; Cerón-Vázquez, Elsa; López-Castillejos, Juanita; Morán-Barroso, Verónica F
The goals of this population genetics study were to describe mtDNA haplogroups and ABO and Rh blood group systems of 3 Native Mexican populations, to determine their genetic variability, and to compare their haplogroups with those of 13 Native Mexican populations previously reported. The three communities under analysis were a Tepehua-speaking community from Huehuetla (Hidalgo state), an Otomi-speaking community from San Antonio el Grande (Hidalgo state), and a Zapotec-speaking community from Juchitán (Oaxaca state). Every subject studied in each community had four grandparents who were born in the same community and spoke the same language. The four Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C and D) were studied by restriction analysis and gel electrophoresis. Regarding the blood groups, the O group was the most frequent in the three populations (97.2, 94.7, and 86.2%, respectively), as well as the Rh+ group (100, 100, 84%). The three populations analyzed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In respect to the mtDNA haplogroups, A, B, C and D, their percentage was 33.3, 36.1, 13.9 and 5.6 % in Huehuetla; 39.5, 13.2, 39.5 and 2.6 % in San Antonio el Grande, and 55.3, 21.0, 7.9 and 5.2 % in Juchitán. Between 5 and 11% of the haplogroups were of non-Amerindian origin, probably due to admixture with Caucasian and African populations, as has been reported in the past. No statistically-significant differences were found among the three populations studied or between them and 13 previously reported Native Mexican populations.
Newell, Steve M; Logan, Henrietta L; Guo, Yi; Marks, John G; Shepperd, James A
Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants' responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer. We recruited a sample of low-income community members living in the rural southern United States. Participants were 170 residents (black = 49%; white = 36%; other races and missing data = 15%) drawn from 2 counties meeting Florida's state statutory definition of rural with 100 persons or fewer per square mile. We randomly assigned participants to complete scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and Regulatory Focus Questionnaire) along with survey format usability ratings via paper-and-pencil or tablet computer. All participants rated a series of previously validated posters using a tablet computer. Finally, participants completed comparisons of the survey formats and reported survey format preferences. Participants preferred using the tablet computer and showed no significant differences between formats in mean responses, scale reliabilities, or in participants' usability ratings. Overall, participants reported similar scales responses and usability ratings between formats. However, participants reported both preferring and enjoying responding via tablet computer more. Collectively, these findings are among the first data to show that tablet computers represent a suitable substitute among an underrepresented rural sample for paper-and-pencil methodology in survey research. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Full Text Available Background: We formed a self-funded hypertension treatment group in a resource-poor community in rural Honduras. After training community health workers and creating protocols for standardized treatment, we used group membership fees to maintain the group, purchase generic medications in bulk on the local market, and hire a physician to manage treatment. We then assessed whether participation in the group improved treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control. Design: This is a program evaluation using quasi-experimental design and no control group. Using data from the 86 members of the hypertension treatment group, we analyzed baseline and follow-up surveys of members, along with 30 months of clinical records of treatment, medication adherence, and blood pressure readings. Results: Our initial hypertension needs assessment revealed that at baseline, community hypertensives relied on the local Ministry of Health clinic as their source of anti-hypertensive medications and reported that irregular supply interfered with medication adherence. At baseline, hypertension group members were mainly female, overweight or obese, physically active, non-smoking, and non-drinking. After 30 months of managing the treatment group, we found a significant increase in medication adherence, from 54.8 to 76.2% (p<0.01, and hypertension control (<140/90 mmHg, from 31.4 to 54.7% (p<0.01. We also found a mean monthly decrease of 0.39 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (p<0.01. At the end of the 30-month observation period, the local Ministry of Health system had increased provision of low-cost anti-hypertensive medications and adopted the hypertension treatment group's treatment protocols. Conclusions: Formation of a self-funded, community-based hypertension treatment group in a rural, resource-poor community is feasible, and group participation may improve treatment, medication adherence, and hypertension control and can serve as a political driver for
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate, utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being
Rachel J. C. Chen
Full Text Available Since the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC was founded in 1965, various reports have been presented to summarize the progress in terms of economic development, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats among studied communities in the Appalachian region. The purposes of this study were to investigate (1 the condition and usage of facilities and services in the studied communities; (2 what factors contribute to local growth in improving areas; and (3 what barriers deter growth in the studied communities based on the perceptions of study participants. Ten studied counties were categorized based on their topography, demographics, and economics. Each sub-region has two selected counties (non-distressed and distressed to represent and compare their similar topography and various stages of demographic opportunities and economic development and challenges. Location is recognized as one of the significant factors that affect communities’ development. Counties perform better when they are adjacent to urban areas, own major transportation corridors, and have more supplies of natural resources than those located in more rural areas with fewer resources. This study noted the need to improve communication infrastructure (such as Internet access, broadband, and mobile communications that impact local development opportunities and public safety.
Telecenters is one of the promising models recognized by the United Nations (UN) to achieve the global access of ICTs. This paper provides insight in the role and usages of Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) projects with a specific focus of telecenters in developing...... the policy and actual practices of rural community with respect of ICT development.......Telecenters is one of the promising models recognized by the United Nations (UN) to achieve the global access of ICTs. This paper provides insight in the role and usages of Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) projects with a specific focus of telecenters in developing...... country Bangladesh. This study covers four aspects of the functioning of telecenters grounded in social, economical and action resources: ‘situated success’, ‘information culture and tradition’, ‘typology of resources’ and ‘functioning’. The study contributes to the theory and practice of ICT...
Ana Rita Marinho Machado
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To describe the stages of the empowerment process of a group of seniors in a rural community. METHOD Convergent care research whose foundation is to use the scope of practice. Conducted with the proposal to change the practice of 21 seniors and nine health professionals, with the aim of health promotion empowerment. Data were collected during 22 meetings, and group interviews at the end of the intervention. RESULTS Showed that despite the initial impact of the change, the group was able to welcome the new change, taking advantage of the space to express anxieties, share joys, and build new knowledge, which led to the incorporation of changes that reflected in the development of healthy habits and improvements in interpersonal relationships. CONCLUSION The convergent care research consisted of strategy that changed the group's lives, empowering them with health promoting actions.
Ofori, Mf; Ansah, E; Agyepong, I
OBJECTIVES: Pregnant women in malaria-endemic communities are susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum infections, with adverse consequences including maternal anaemia, placental malaria parasitaemia and infant low birth weight (LBW). We sought to assess the prevalence, incidence, and clinical markers...... of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) in a rural district of Ghana. METHODS: A total of 294 pregnant women were enrolled and followed passively and actively, monthly and weekly until delivery. Haemoglobin levels, malaria parasitaemia and Hb electrophoresis were done from peripheral blood samples. At delivery......, placental smears were examined for malaria parasites. RESULTS: Prevalence of peripheral blood P. falciparum parasitaemia at enrolment was 19.7% and related to parity. Incidence rate of parasitaemia was 0.06 infections/ person/month [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04 to 0.08]. Symptomatic infections rose...
Alistair G Auffret
Full Text Available Humans are known for their capacity to disperse organisms long distances. Long-distance dispersal can be important for species threatened by habitat destruction, but research into human-mediated dispersal is often focused upon few and/or invasive species. Here we use citizen science to identify the capacity for humans to disperse seeds on their clothes and footwear from a known species pool in a valuable habitat, allowing for an assessment of the fraction and types of species dispersed by humans in an alternative context. We collected material from volunteers cutting 48 species-rich meadows throughout Sweden. We counted 24,354 seeds of 197 species, representing 34% of the available species pool, including several rare and protected species. However, 71 species (36% are considered invasive elsewhere in the world. Trait analysis showed that seeds with hooks or other appendages were more likely to be dispersed by humans, as well as those with a persistent seed bank. More activity in a meadow resulted in more dispersal, both in terms of species and representation of the source communities. Average potential dispersal distances were measured at 13 km. We consider humans capable seed dispersers, transporting a significant proportion of the plant communities in which they are active, just like more traditional vectors such as livestock. When rural populations were larger, people might have been regular and effective seed dispersers, and the net rural-urban migration resulting in a reduction in humans in the landscape may have exacerbated the dispersal failure evident in declining plant populations today. With the fragmentation of habitat and changes in land use resulting from agricultural change, and the increased mobility of humans worldwide, the dispersal role of humans may have shifted from providers of regular local and landscape dispersal to providers of much rarer long-distance and regional dispersal, and international invasion.
Narahari, S R; Ryan, T J; Mahadevan, P E; Bose, K S; Prasanna, K S
The Global Alliance for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF) has recommended exploring local health traditions of skin care and a low cost treatment paradigm for rural communities has been proposed by Vaqas and Ryan. Our case study incorporates these promising treatments for use in treating filariasis in rural communities. Patients having lymphedema of one or both lower limbs (skin: normal, thickened or with trophic/warty changes) received treatment components from ayurveda, yoga and biomedicine simultaneously: including soap wash, phanta soaking, Indian manual lymph drainage (IMLD), pre- and post-IMLD yoga exercises, and compression using bandages for 194 days, along with diet restrictions and oral herbal medicines indicated for "elephantiasis" in Ayurveda. Entry points when infected were treated with biomedical drugs. The study was conducted in the reverse pharmacology design. 112 patients and 149 lower limbs completed 194 days of treatment during 2003-2006. Significant improvements were observed in the limb circumference measurements and the frequency of acute dermatolymphangioadenitis, use of preventive antibiotics, and reduction in the number of entry points were also improved. The objective to obtain significant benefit for a common problem using locally available, sustainable and affordable means has been achieved. It has not been our purpose to show that the regimen employed is better than another but the results do pose the question--"Are there components of Ayurvedic medicine that deserve further study?" It is important to understand that the regimen has been delivered mostly at home and that participants we have treated, representing a population suffering from a common problem, have not had access to effective conservative therapy that is culturally acceptable, safe, and efficacious.
Cosgrave, Catherine; Hussain, Rafat; Maple, Myfanwy
This paper aims to contribute to the development of a more sustainable Australian rural community mental health workforce by comparing the findings from a literature search investigating impacting factors on retention with the experiences of community mental health service managers running services in rural Australia. Semi-structured interviews. Public health sector, rural New South Wales. Five community mental health managers, running services in rural Australia. Interviews were undertaken as a pilot for a broader qualitative study investigating factors influencing the decision to stay or leave among community mental health professionals working in rural positions. The purpose of undertaking this pilot study was to test for validity and relevance of the retention phenomena and help inform the research design for the main study. Three key retention focussed themes were identified: (i) Staffing is a persistent challenge; (ii) Small remote towns pose the biggest challenge; and (iii) The decision to stay or leave is complex and multifactorial. The findings of this pilot study support previous research and contribute to the understanding of influences on retention among health professionals working in rural community mental health services. Importantly, those who have worked for several years in rural positions hold important information through which to explore factors that impact retention in rural and remote regions. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.
Morrison, J; Colbourn, T; Budhathoki, B; Sen, A; Adhikari, D; Bamjan, J; Pathak, S; Basnet, A; Trani, J F; Costello, A; Manandhar, D; Groce, N
There is strong evidence that participatory approaches to health and participatory women's groups hold great potential to improve the health of women and children in resource poor settings. It is important to consider if interventions are reaching the most marginalized, and therefore we examined disabled women's participation in women's groups and other community groups in rural Nepal. People with disabilities constitute 15% of the world's population and face high levels of poverty, stigma, social marginalization and unequal access to health resources, and therefore their access to women's groups is particularly important. We used a mixed methods approach to describe attendance in groups among disabled and non-disabled women, considering different types and severities of disability. We found no significant differences in the percentage of women that had ever attended at least one of our women's groups, between non-disabled and disabled women. This was true for women with all severities and types of disability, except physically disabled women who were slightly less likely to have attended. Barriers such as poverty, lack of family support, lack of self-confidence and attendance in many groups prevented women from attending groups. Our findings are particularly significant because disabled people's participation in broader community groups, not focused on disability, has been little studied. We conclude that women's groups are an important way to reach disabled women in resource poor communities. We recommend that disabled persons organizations help to increase awareness of disability issues among organizations running community groups to further increase their effectiveness in reaching disabled women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
Petrin, Robert A; Farmer, Thomas W; Meece, Judith L; Byun, Soo-Yong
Adolescents who grow-up in rural areas often experience a tension between their attachment to the rural lifestyle afforded by their home community and a competing desire to gain educational, social, and occupational experiences that are only available in metropolitan areas. While these diverging pressures are well-documented, there is little information about linkages between rural high school students' views of their communities, their postsecondary aspirations, and their school adjustment. To address this issue, this study examined perceptions of community and residential aspirations in an ethnically diverse sample of 8,754 rural adolescents (51.5% female) in relationship to their competence and risk status in high school. Participants were from 73 rural high schools across 34 states. In addition, ratings on participants' school adjustment were provided by teachers (n = 667). High competence students (i.e., those in configurations of high positive and low negative teacher-rated characteristics) expressed positive perceptions of their rural lifestyle and many, particularly girls, indicated an interest in staying in or returning to their home community. Low competence youth (i.e., those in configurations of low positive and high negative teacher-rated characteristics) appeared to be less connected to their community and were more likely to express their intent to leave and not return. These results appear to qualify current concerns about "rural brain drain" and also suggest that the lack of attachment to the community may be a compounding risk factor for rural adolescents who have significant school adjustment problems.
Valmir Cristiano Marques Arruda
Full Text Available There is a growing competition among the various sectors of society in the world for the use of water where agriculture stands out as a major consumer. Since it is carried out in a controlled manner, irrigation with effluents from a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP is a very attractive practice, as it allows a greater supply of water for nobler purposes. This work had the general objective of evaluating the perception of a rural community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Pernambuco, Brasil, in terms of consumption and production of products cultivated with the practice of agricultural reuse. The local population showed acceptance for the cultivation and consumption of products through agricultural reuse, above all, with reliable information on the appropriate quality of the effluents used for irrigation. In the estimated data, the same community had a potential of production of corn, beans and cotton in the order of 19.8 tons, 3.4 tons and 7.7 tons respectively, with the use of treated sewage in irrigation.
Ramirez, Manuel; Argueta, Nanci L; Castro, Yessenia; Perez, Ricardo; Dawson, Darius B
This paper reports the findings of research investigating the relationship of spill-over fears related to drug trafficking and of cultural identity to Mexican Americans' attitudes toward recent immigrants from Mexico in five non-metropolitan communities in the US-Mexico borderlands of South Texas. A mixed methods design was used to collect data from 91 participants (30 intact families with two parents and at least one young adult). Quantitative findings showed that the majority of participants expressed the view that most people in their communities believed that newcomers were involved in drug trafficking and in defrauding welfare programs. A significant interaction indicated that Mexican cultural identity buffered the negative effects of drug trafficking fears as related to the view that the newcomers were creating problems in the communities and region. Qualitative data yielded positive and negative themes, with those that were negative being significantly more numerous. The findings have implications for intra-ethnic relations in borderlands communities as well as for immigration policy.
ELYANA,Fatin Nur; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Dawaki, Salwa; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M; Abd-Basher, Mohamad Hafiz; Al-Areeqi, Mona A.; Sady, Hany; Subramaniam, Lahvanya R.; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Lau, Yee Ling; Moktar, Norhayati; Surin, Johari
Background Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still major health problems in many developing countries including Malaysia, particularly in the poor and socioeconomically deprived rural and remote communities in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs and to identify the key factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism as well as to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on IPIs among rural Orang Asli and Malay communities in...
Bernhard, M C; Evans, M B; Kent, S T; Johnson, E; Threadgill, S L; Tyson, S; Becker, S M; Gohlke, J M
Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members' concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities: defined the term environment; their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health; specific priorities in their communities; and differences in urban versus rural populations. A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included: defining the term environment; how the environment may affect health; and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study, understand and effectively address environmental issues
Martin Misener, Ruth; MacLeod, Martha L P; Banks, Kathy; Morton, A Michel; Vogt, Carolyn; Bentham, Donna
Nursing practice in remote northern communities is highly complex, with unique challenges created by isolation, geography and cultural dynamics. This paper, the second of two focusing on the advice offered by nurses interviewed in the national study, The Nature of Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada, considers suggestions from outpost nurses. Their advice to new nurses was: know what you are getting into; consider whether your personal qualities are suited for northern practice; learn to listen and listen to learn; expect a steep learning curve, even if you are experienced; and take action to prevent burnout. Recommendations for educators were to offer programs that prepare nurses for the realities of outpost nursing and provide opportunities for accessible, flexible, relevant continuing education. The outpost nurses in this study counselled administrators to stay in contact with and listen to the perspectives of nurses at the "grassroots," and not merely to fill positions but instead to recruit outpost nurses effectively and remunerate them fairly. The study findings highlighted the multiple interrelated strategies that nurses, educators and administrators can use to optimize practice in remote northern communities.
Pellegrin, Karen L; Barbato, Anna; Holuby, R Scott; Ciarleglio, Anita E; Taniguchi, Ronald
Three strategies designed to maximize attendance at educational sessions on chronic disease medication safety in older adults in rural areas were implemented sequentially and compared for cost-effectiveness: 1) existing community groups and events, 2) formal advertisement, and 3) employer-based outreach. Cost-effectiveness was measured by comparing overall cost per attendee recruited and number of attendees per event. The overall cost per attendee was substantially higher for the formal advertising strategy, which produced the lowest number of attendees per event. Leveraging existing community events and employers in rural areas was more cost-effective than formal advertisement for recruiting rural community members.
This research aims to critically examine how the complexity of the ongoing process of "coming out" in small towns and rural spaces in Croatia undermines the imagined hierarchical distinction between rural/urban spaces. The narratives of LGBQ individuals living in these spaces subvert imaginaries of their communities as homogeneously hostile and threatening. Some participants did, however, perceive other spaces as either "gay-friendly" or "deeply homophobic." As Croatia is transnationally perceived to be a part of a larger "homophobic region," the construction of the rural/urban hierarchical distinction is (re)produced and (re)configured within discourses that signify Western countries and so-called more developed regions within Croatia as "more open and liberal" as opposed to "more homophobic and backward" spaces. These distinctions between countries, regions, and the rural/urban spaces come into contradiction with each other and are undermined by my interviewees' own incongruous experiences.
Mello, Maria P.; Urbano, Richard C.; Goldman, Samantha E.; Hodapp, Robert M.
This study compared service use for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who live in rural vs. non-rural areas. Participants were 415 caregivers of children with ASD, of whom 101 (23.7%) lived in rural areas of a southeastern state. Participants completed an online survey regarding access and quality of different services. For…
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in four rural communities of northeastern Trinidad to determine the microbial quality of water supply to households and that quality's relationship to source and storage device. Of the 167 household water samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 132 of the samples (79.0%, fecal coliforms in 102 (61.1%, and E. coli in 111 (66.5%. There were significant differences among the towns in the proportion of the samples contaminated with coliforms (P < 0.001 and E. coli (P < 0.001. Of 253 strains of E. coli studied, 4 (1.6% were mucoid, 9 (3.6% were hemolytic, and 37 (14.6% were nonsorbitol fermenters. Of 69 isolates of E. coli tested, 10 (14.5% were verocytotoxigenic. Twenty-eight (14.0% of 200 E. coli isolates tested belonged to enteropathogenic serogroups. Standpipe, the most common water source, was utilized by 57 (34.1% of the 167 households. Treated water (pipeborne in homes, standpipes, or truckborne was supplied to 119 households (71.3%, while 48 households (28.7% used water from untreated sources (rain, river/stream, or well as their primary water supply. The type of household storage device was associated with coli-form contamination. Water stored in drums, barrels, or buckets was more likely to harbor fecal coliforms (74.2% of samples than was water stored in tanks (53.3% of samples, even after controlling for water source (P = 0.04. Compared with water from other sources, water piped into homes was significantly less likely to be contaminated with total coliforms (56.9% versus 88.8%, P < 0.001 and fecal coliforms (41.2% versus 69.8%, P < 0.01, even when the type of storage device was taken into account. However, fecal contamination was not associated with whether the water came from a treated or untreated source. We concluded that the drinking water in rural communities in Trinidad was grossly unfit for human consumption, due both to contamination of various water sources and during household
Full Text Available Digital divide is a reality in developing nations. Most of the technological advancements are available only in urban areas and rural community is still deprived of communication technology even in 21 st century. To ensure the availability of Internet, TV (Television and other high data-rate services to the rural community; use of high power ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical band broadcast should be of interest. The aim of this research work is to design a WiFi based broadcast network that provides broadband access to remote areas and to study the propagation characteristics of this network in a typical rural community in the plains of Pakistan. This paper uses extensive measurements in indoor and outdoor environments of village ?Lower Kot Ratta? to develop a WiFi broadband broadcast propagation model for rural areas of Pakistan. The proposed model is simple, flexible and more suitable for rural areas as compared to existing models
Davis, Sally M; Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Kozoll, Richard; Page-Reeves, Janet
A tri-ethnic rural community with limited resources and a university Prevention Research Center (PRC) developed a partnership to promote evidence-based physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a community-university partnership can disseminate and implement ἀe Commu nity Guide's recommendations for increasing physical activity and create a model for other under-resourced communities experiencing high rates of chronic disease. Qualitative data collected through 47 semistructured interviews, meeting minutes, and local newspaper articles were coded for themes and analyzed for patterns across the data. Implementation resulted in the creation of new paths and trails, increased walkability throughout the community, local park enhancements, and a community-wide campaign. Lessons learned included the importance of community-defined goals and outcomes, leadership, volunteerism, mutually beneficial goals, synergy, and having nontraditional partners. This research provides a community-university partnership model for implementing evidence-based strategies to increase physical activity in rural communities.
Vincent, Deborah; McEwen, Marylyn M; Hepworth, Joseph T; Stump, Craig S
This article reports the results of a community-based, culturally tailored diabetes prevention program for overweight Mexican American adults on weight loss, waist circumference, diet and physical activity self-efficacy, and diet behaviors. The intervention used content from the Diabetes Prevention Program but culturally tailored the delivery methods into a community-based program for Spanish-speaking adults of Mexican descent. The design was a randomized controlled trial (N = 58) comparing the effects of a 5-month educational intervention with an attention control group. The primary study outcome was weight loss. Secondary outcomes included change in waist circumference, body mass index, diet self-efficacy, and physical activity self-efficacy. There were significant intervention effects for weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and diet self-efficacy, with the intervention group doing better than the control group. These effects did not change over time. Findings support the conclusion that a community-based, culturally tailored intervention is effective in reducing diabetes risk factors in a 5-month program.
Kozhimannil, Katy B; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini
Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15-19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota's 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n = 66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study.
Full Text Available The main focus of the research was to analyse the role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of local rural communities in Shurugwi District in Zimbabwe. Descriptive survey design was used in this mixed method approach to the study. A questionnaire, interviews and observation methods were employed as the main research instruments. Purposive sampling technique was adopted and data were collected from government officials and from members of the six cooperatives in Shurugwi District. A total of 50 research participants were involved in the study. It was found that cooperatives were established as a strategy to sustain livelihoods of rural communities. With the adoption of cooperatives, people in the rural communities managed to generate employment, boost food production, empower the marginalised, especially women, and promote social cohesion and integration, thereby improving their livelihoods and reducing poverty. Most cooperatives face a number of challenges that include lack of financial support, poor management and lack of management skills, and lack of competitive markets to sell their produce. The study recommends that the government and the banking sector render financial support to cooperatives in rural communities to allow them to expand and diversify their business operations; constant training on leadership and management skills is provided to cooperatives’ members. There is also a need for cooperatives, especially those in the agricultural sector, to form some producer associations so as to easily market their produce. Lastly, the study recommends that future research should focus on investigating issues that hinder the growth of the cooperative movement in rural communities of Zimbabwe. It is hoped that policy-makers, the academia and communities would benefit from the study.
Full Text Available On-line and distance professional learning communities provides teachers with increased access and flexibility as well as the combination of work and education. It also provides a more learner-centered approach, enrichment and new ways of interacting with teachers in isolated rural areas. For educational administrators, on-line learning offers high quality and usually cost-effective professional development for teachers. It allows upgrading of skills, increased productivity and development of a new learning culture. At the same time, it means sharing of costs, of training time, increased portability of training, and the exchange of creativity, information, and dialogue.
Horton Sarah B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Latino children experience a higher prevalence of caries than do children in any other racial/ethnic group in the US. This paper examines the intersections among four societal sectors or contexts of care which contribute to oral health disparities for low-income, preschool Latino1 children in rural California. Methods Findings are reported from an ethnographic investigation, conducted in 2005–2006, of family, community, professional/dental and policy/regulatory sectors or contexts of care that play central roles in creating or sustaining low income, rural children's poor oral health status. The study community of around 9,000 people, predominantly of Mexican-American origin, was located in California's agricultural Central Valley. Observations in homes, community facilities, and dental offices within the region were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 30 key informants (such as dental professionals, health educators, child welfare agents, clinic administrators and regulatory agents and 47 primary caregivers (mothers of children at least one of whom was under 6 years of age. Results Caregivers did not always recognize visible signs of caries among their children, nor respond quickly unless children also complained of pain. Fluctuating seasonal eligibility for public health insurance intersected with limited community infrastructure and civic amenities, including lack of public transportation, to create difficulties in access to care. The non-fluoridated municipal water supply is not widely consumed because of fears about pesticide pollution. If the dentist brought children into the clinic for multiple visits, this caused the accompanying parent hardship and occasionally resulted in the loss of his or her job. Few general dentists had received specific training in how to handle young patients. Children's dental fear and poor provider-parent communication were exacerbated by a scarcity of dentists willing to serve rural
Fink, M.; Lang, R..; Harms, Rainer
In this article, we investigate into local economic restructuring in rural areas that are affected by disruptive technologies. Drawing on an institutionalist framework we apply systematic theory-informed case study analysis of two rural communities in Austria and identify practices that are crucial
Zimmermann, Kristine; Khare, Manorama M.; Huber, Rachel; Moehring, Patricia A.; Koch, Abby; Geller, Stacie E.
Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Rural women have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to both behavioral and environmental factors. Models of prevention that are tailored to community needs and build on existing resources are essential for effective outreach to rural women.…
This book is intended to help people better understand how wood energy is helping to revitalize rural Alaskan communities by reducing energy costs, creating jobs, and helping to educate the next generation. The village of Koyukuk shows how modern wood energy systems can meet the challenges of remote rural Alaska. To fully succeed, however, these...
Slack, Marion K.; Cummings, Doyle M.; Borrego, Matthew E.; Fuller, Kathi; Cook, Sherrie
Describes strategies used by five U.S. rural interdisciplinary training grant programs (mainly based in academic institutions) to respond to local needs and promote recruitment in rural communities. Programs provide training to 17 health care disciplines and serve diverse disadvantaged populations. Services are provided through individual clinical…
This study investigates the impact of self-help initiatives on rural development in Ibesikpo community of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Self help initiatives were defined in terms of provision of employment, education and health-care. A sample size of 369 rural dwellers was drawn and data were analyzed using simple regression ...
Sheridan, Susan M.; Holmes, Shannon R.; Coutts, Michael J.; Smith, Tyler E.
Families in rural communities are often poorly connected to schools due to challenges associated with geographic isolation, poverty, inexperienced staff, inadequate resources, scheduling challenges, and low parental education. This creates problems with the access, availability, and acceptability of services. Teachers in rural schools often have…
Francis, J.; Dube, B.; Mokganyetji, T.; Chitapa, T.
Children, youth, women, the elderly, men and their leaders are integral components of rural communities. It is important to ensure that their unique needs and perceptions shape development programming. However, despite having various policies and legal frameworks introduced to deepen democracy in South Africa, current rural development programming…
Malek, Jalaluddin Abdul; Razaq Ahmad, Abdul; Mahzan Awang, Mohd; Alfitri
Telecentres in the 21st century may be able to improve standard of living, quality of life, and stability of knowledge for the rural population. The role of telecentres is widely increasing in developing political and management awareness, economic, socio-culture, technology, education and regulation awareness in rural communities. Telecentres in…
Atkinson, Nancy L.; Desmond, Sharon M.; Saperstein, Sandra L.; Billing, Amy S.; Gold, Robert S.; Tournas-Hardt, Amy
Objective: To examine assets of and challenges to getting adequate nutrition and physical activity among low-income rural residents, and the potential for technology to provide health education. Methods: Environmental scans and community stakeholder interviews were conducted in 5 rural counties in Maryland. During environmental scans, stakeholders…
Chang, Jen Jen; Salas, Joanne; Habicht, Katherine; Pien, Grace W.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Brownson, Ross C.
Purpose: To determine the association between sleep duration and depressive symptoms in a rural setting. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Wave 3 of the Walk the Ozarks to Wellness Project including 12 rural communities in Missouri, Arkansas, and Tennessee (N = 1,204). Sleep duration was defined based on average…
Vergara Camus, Leandro
Examination of the politicization of landless people in the encampments and settlements of the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra (Landless Rural Workers' Movement-MST) in Brazil suggests that the movement's success rest on the fact that it generates relatively autonomous rural communities
Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.
The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…
Communities, schools, their music programs, and the individuals who participate in these groups are tied to the social, cultural, and political contexts in which they reside. Schools are often connected to their communities, and are often deeply cherished in rural communities. School music programs hold the potential to influence a small…
Clay, Daniel C.; Price, Michael L.
The recent, widespread trend toward rural migration can create disturbances in the organization of the host community by overloading community services and by creating conflict between oldtimers and newcomers. To obtain information about community disturbances and migration in Michigan, questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 21,792…
Henness, Steven A.; Ball, Anna L.; Moncheski, MaryJo
Using 4-H and FFA case study findings, this article explores how community service-learning supports the building of social capital between rural youth and adults and the positive effects on community viability. Key elements of practice form a community development approach to service-learning, which opens up doorways for youth to partner with…
Tuan M. Ha
Full Text Available Various failures of the traditional approach in community development in developing countries have led to the development of a more appropriate and holistic approach to address complex development issues. Systems approaches and cutting-edge tools have recently been embraced to deal with such complexities under contexts of interwoven relationships amongst social economic political cultural and environmental factors. This paper provides reflections on practical value of the Evolutionary Learning Laboratory ELLab through a case study on improving the quality of life for women farmers in northern Vietnam where gender-bias labour hardship and poor living-standard are evident. The first five steps of the participatory systems-based ELLab were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. Our study finds that the context-based results reshaped the original project goal. The approach and framework helped to identify and engage right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools to develop a big picture systems model of the current situation defining levers for systemic interventions. The ELLab helps to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitates true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders triggering transformative learning. Contributions to action research and an innovative mechanism for sharing reflections and lessons at both local and global levels via the online Think2ImpactTM are discussed.
Full Text Available Global climate changes are undoubtedly course of the increasing frequency of extreme whether events all over the world. Rural communities belong to the “group of victims” which is greatly jeopardized by consequences of the extreme weather events. Having in mind limited capacities for the preparedness, response and recovery after any kind of emergency it is clear that the rural community mostly needs external help. That is the point of this paper: to make new insights about this important issue, and to discuss: “how to provide adequate help in the rural communities and build adequate adaptive and response capacities”. In many countries agriculture and rural tourism are main economic activities in the rural area and its interruption could be the obstacle for implementation of sustainable development. Various stakeholders omit to be aware of this issue. Emergency agencies and many others have to make the comprehensive plan for rural communities (having in mind all its limitations. In the Republic of Serbia rural communities do not have enough capacity for recovery and usually it takes many years after an event. A minimum of an economic recovery standard has to be created for the rural community. It also has to be a specific contingency plan in the future reorganizations of emergency services in Serbia and at the Western Balkan region. It should be one of the priority issues for stakeholders in the near future in disaster risk reduction. Providing equal access to resources to population in the rural community after the extreme weather event has to be the priority task for policy makers and all actors in emergency management.
Full Text Available As an ardent cancer researcher, Dr. Smita Asthana has a vision to create wider awareness on cancer and its prevention, and aims to work on translational research to benefit the general public through the implementation of evidence-based research. “I have been associated with the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO since November 2004 and have progressed over a period of time from being a staff scientist to the current role of a senior scientist,” says Dr. Asthana, who is presently with NICPR’s Biostatistics and Epidemiology division.“I have been working in various positions that deal with the design, execution, and evaluation of medical projects. Recently, we have concluded two major cervical cancer screening projects and conducted a screening of 10,000 women in rural areas,” she tells AMOR. One project, funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, was carried out 100 km west of New Delhi in the rural town of Dadri “as part of an operational research to see the implementation of VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol's iodine screenings with the help of existing healthcare infrastructure,” she explains.As a leading researcher in cervical cancer screening, she completed an Indo-US collaborative project on the clinical performance of a human papillomavirus (HPV test, used as a strategy for screening cervical cancer in rural communities, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation via the international non-profit global health organization PATH. “The primary objective of the project was to observe the performance of careHPV, a new diagnostic kit, in a rural setup,” she says.CareHPV is a highly sensitive DNA test, which detects 14 different types of the human papillomavirus that cause cervical cancer, providing results more rapidly than other DNA tests and is designed especially for use in clinics
Van Gelderen, Stacey A; Krumwiede, Kelly A; Krumwiede, Norma K; Fenske, Candace
To describe the application of the Community-Based Collaborative Action Research (CBCAR) framework to uplift rural community voices while conducting a community health needs assessment (CHNA) by formulating a partnership between a critical access hospital, public health agency, school of nursing, and community members to improve societal health of this rural community. This prospective explorative study used the CBCAR framework in the design, collection, and analysis of the data. The framework phases include: Partnership, dialogue, pattern recognition, dialogue on meaning of pattern, insight into action, and reflecting on evolving pattern. Hospital and public health agency leaders learned how to use the CBCAR framework when conducting a CHNA to meet Affordable Care Act federal requirements. Closing the community engagement gap helped ensure all voices were heard, maximized intellectual capital, synergized efforts, improved communication by establishing trust, aligned resources with initiatives, and diminished power struggles regarding rural health. The CBCAR framework facilitated community engagement and promoted critical dialogue where community voices were heard. A sustainable community-based collaborative was formed. The project increased the critical access hospital's capacity to conduct a CHNA. The collaborative's decision-making capacity was challenged and ultimately strengthened as efforts continue to be made to address rural health.
When India became independent, primary education in the state of Rajasthan was made the responsibility of the Panchayats (Village Councils), and a number of village schools were opened. However they only drew around 40 per cent of the 6-11 age group, and the curricula, text books, and even the teachers themselves, recruited from the cities, were out of touch with the needs of the rural communities. A study conducted in 1974 showed that, to improve the situation, it would be necessary to make the school more relevant to village life, to involve the parents in planning, and to run it at times when the children could be spared from domestic or farm work; to select the teachers from village residents; and to adapt the curricula and teaching methods to the environment. An appropriate programme was worked out and introduced in three villages in 1975. It provided for morning classes for the regular pupils and evening school for children who worked during the day. The emphasis in the curricula was to be on agriculture and animal husbandry, and teaching methods were to be closely in keeping with the life of the village. Suitable local people were found and trained as teachers. The author describes the implementation of this programme in detail. It proved a success and has now been extended to ten villages with a total attendance at the schools of more than five hundred children.
Full Text Available Background: Good oral health is a key for ensuring overall well-being. Dental caries and periodontitis may also be linked to different systemic diseases. Good oral health practices are the clue for preventing the diseases of the oral cavity. Objectives: To assess the oral health knowledge and oral health practice of the people in a rural community. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state. Sample population has been selected based on systematic random sampling. Study has included 798 participants above 3 years of age. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentage. Results: Study results have shown poorest oral health status amongst population below 19 years of age. Constant pain in teeth/ gums was also reported maximum in this age group. Habit of having sticky food was reported maximum in 3-10 years age group with poorest practice of brushing teeth (daily brushing was reported by only 67% population and twice a day was reported by only 2.4%.. Discussion: Study results have shown that perception of having good oral health is high in this population but oral health practices are not satisfactory. Conclusion: Study finding recommends that oral health awareness needs to be increased in the area especially focusing young children. Awareness programs should be supplemented with primary care services for better oral health and hygiene.
Salawu, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B
To assess the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis among pregnant women in rural communities of southwestern Nigeria. The present cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of urogenital schistosomiasis was conducted during 2010-2011 among pregnant women in Yewa North Local Government, Ogun State, Nigeria. The women were microscopically screened for infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Of 313 volunteer participants, 20.8% tested positive for S. haematobium infection. The prevalence of infection was highest (31.5%) among women aged 20-24years. The infection intensity did not differ significantly between age groups (t=1.848, P=0.71). Primigravidae and women in the first trimester of pregnancy had the highest intensity of infection with 33.1 and 27.7 eggs/10mL of urine, respectively. There was an association between disease prevalence and parasite intensity across the age groups (χ(2)=68.82, P=0.02). The prevalence of S. haematobium was not associated with age or pregnancy trimester (P=0.06), but associations existed between intensity of infection and gravidity (P=0.001). The prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis among pregnant women in Nigeria was high, with younger women and primigravidae at the greatest risk. These data can be used to develop a schistosomiasis control program among pregnant women in the study area. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arceneaux, Grace; Knaster, Meri
Grace Palacio Arceneaux, a Mexican-American resident of Watsonville, California, was interviewed in 1977 by Meri Knaster, an editor at the Regional History Project, as part of a series of oral histories documenting local agricultural and ethnic history. Arceneaux was born in San Martin de Bolaños, Jalisco, Mexico, in March 1920. She came with her family to San Juan Bautista, California, in 1923 during the havoc of the Mexican Revolution. The family lived on a little ranch and eked ou...
Kornelsen, Jude; Grzybowski, Stefan
To investigate rural parturient women's experiences of obstetric care in the context of the social and economic realities of life in rural, remote, and small urban communities. Data collection for this exploratory qualitative study was carried out in 7 rural communities chosen to represent diversity of size, distance to hospital with Caesarean section capability and distance to secondary hospital, usual conditions for transport and access, and cultural and ethnic subpopulations. We interviewed 44 women who had given birth up to 24 months before the study began. When asked about their experiences of giving birth in rural communities, many participants spoke of unmet needs and their associated anxieties. Self-identified needs were largely congruent with the deficit categories of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which recognizes the contingency and interdependence of physiological needs, the need for safety and security, the need for community and belonging, self-esteem needs, and the need for self-actualization. For many women, community was critical to meeting psychosocial needs, and women from communities that currently have (or have recently had) access to local maternity care said that being able to give birth in their own community or in a nearby community was necessary if their obstetric needs were to be met. Removing maternity care from a community creates significant psychosocial consequences that are imperfectly understood but that probably have physiological implications for women, babies, and families. Further research into rural women's maternity care that considers the loss of local maternity care from multiple perspectives is needed.
Zalilah Mohd. Shariff; Geok Lin Khor
This cross-sectional study assessed household food insecurity among low-income rural communities and examined its association with demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as coping strategies...
Semyonov, Moshe; Scott, Richard Ira
Examines the tie between community characteristics and race-linked occupational differentiation in 40 rural southern locations. Indicates exact opposite of conventional theoretical expectations. Shows educational level of races, spatial location, and industrial structure manifest substantial effects on opportunities. (AH)
Meidinger, E.; Tysiachniouk, M.S.
The rapid globalization of forest products markets has placed many rural forest-based communities under considerable pressure to rapidly exploit forest resources. To counter, transnational environmental organizations have promoted programs for forest certification, seeking to use global market
Ojeda, Victoria D.; Burgos, José Luis; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Artamonova, Irina; Rodriguez, Carlos Magis
Background Circular migration and injection drug use increase the risk of HIV transmission in sending communities. We describe female sex workers who are injection drug users’ (FSW-IDUs) circular migration and drug use behaviors. Methods Between 2008-2010, 258 migrant FSW-IDUs residing in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico responded to questionnaires. Results 24% of FSW-IDUs were circular migrants. HIV prevalence was 3.3% in circular migrants and 6.1% in non-circular migrants; 50% of circular and 82% of non-circular migrants were unaware of their HIV infection. Among circular migrants, 44% (n=27) consumed illicit drugs in their birthplace; 70% of these (n=20) injected drugs and one-half of injectors shared injection equipment in their birthplace. Women reporting active social relationships were significantly more likely to return home. Discussion Circular migrant FSW-IDUs exhibit multiple HIV risks and opportunities for bridging populations. Regular HIV testing and treatment and access to substance use services is critical for FSW-IDUs and their sexual/drug-using contacts. PMID:21833727
Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee
Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in K...
Nestel D; Gray K; Simmons M; Pritchard SA; Islam R; Eng WQ; Ng A; Dornan T
Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in pl...
Liou, Yiing-Mei; Wang, Chia-Wen; Hung, Wen-Jing; Lin, Yu-Chi
Taiwan's high population density frequently blurs the administrative boundaries between communities, leading to indistinct community identifications among the population. The authors used the Helvie energy theory to assess different communities in Taiwan, employing a core (population), four internal energies (chemical, physical, biological, and psychiatric) and nine environment subsystems (transportation, health, education, entertainment, economy, politics, communication, culture, and welfare) in an analysis of urban and rural community samples. Authors found significantly different influences on community health due to different environments and energy exchange factors between the two samples. Urban and rural communities have advantages and requirements that are distinct from one another. The community health nurse (CHN) should consider the specific demands of each community and develop professional roles to incorporate the three degrees of prevention. Authors hope that this article can inspire CHNs to define the critical health problems in their communities, facilitate the development of advanced professional roles, and serve as reference in implementing health plans.
Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of disastrous flooding events and the mounting losses in both life and property values in Zimbabwe have drawn attention to the flooding situation in the country, especially the rural areas. This article explores the resilience of vulnerable rural communities to flood risks associated within increasingly frequent and severe events linked to climate change. Starting by reviewing the current literature on rural livelihoods, resilience and vulnerability research, the paper argues for a coordinated teamwork approach in flood risk mitigation in rural areas. The paper concludes with several recommendations for enhanced resilience to flood hazards.
Rodriguez-Brown, Flora V.; Mulhern, Margaret M.
A family literacy project serving Mexican immigrants taught parents how to encourage literacy development of their children aged three through five and fostered parents' critical literacy by first meeting their needs for functional literacy. Parent participants increased the time spent reading to their children, provided more reading materials at…
Riley, Ben; Smith, David; Oakes, Jane
Rural South Australia contains a higher share of electronic gaming machines and gambling expenditure per capita than metropolitan areas, raising concerns about the risk of problem gambling in these communities. This paper describes the implementation and outcomes of an outreach behavioural psychotherapy (exposure therapy) program for problem gambling in rural South Australia. A retrospective cohort study design was used for 551 adult treatment-seeking problem gamblers who presented to the Statewide Gambling Therapy Service in South Australia. Fifty-one gamblers were from rural areas and participated in the outreach program. Outcomes were compared between gamblers who participated in either the metropolitan-based or rural outreach program. Outcome measures used: South Oaks Gambling Screen, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and hours gambled the previous month. Sixty-one per cent of clients (n = 551) completed treatment. There was no significant association between service location and number of treatment completers. Significant improvements were recorded across all outcome measures for both groups with small to large effect sizes, and there were no significant differences in outcomes at post-treatment between the groups while controlling for baseline scores. Both metropolitan and rural clients reported significant clinical improvement. Given the risk of problem gambling in rural communities, these early outcomes are encouraging. These findings will inform future treatment planning and service delivery for rural clients, and guide further research into the effectiveness of exposure therapy for problem gambling. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Full Text Available The occurrence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD of unknown etiology in autochthonous child populations residing along the Lake Chapala lakeshore is endemic (Jalisco, México. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of albuminuria in the pediatric population and to measure the glomerular filtration rate in children with two positive albuminuria tests. Urinary albumin was measured in 394 children. Subjects with two or more positive albuminuria test donated blood samples for the determination of serum biomarkers. From a rural community with 565 children under the age of 17 years, 394 (69.7% participated with first morning urine samples. A total of 180 children were positive (with two or more positive albuminuria tests. The prevalence of albuminuria among the children participating in the study was 45.7%. Of the 180 children with persistent albuminuria, 160 (88.9% were tested for serum creatinine, urea, and cystatin C. The 68.1% of the children studied, were found in stages 3a and 3b of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO classification (mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR 51.9 and 38.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 respectively. The lowest frequencies were for classifications 1 and 4. None of the subjects was classified as grade 5. The prevalence of albuminuria in children from this rural community is 3–5 times higher than reported in international literature. Regarding GFR, more than 50% of children studied are under 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. It is a priority to find the causes of albuminuria and CKD in this Mexican region.
Jul 31, 2012 ... Although the proportion of hungry people in the world is slowly decreasing, there are presently 852 million people worldwide who are chronically undernourished; mostly rural dwellers in the lower socio-economic strata. This study therefore examines the factors influencing household food security in a rural ...
The quantity of water collected per day in each of five rural sources was inadequate (> 6 buckets or Ca 90 litres). Besides, all the traditional sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternatives supplies. Only 4.4% of the rural water users subjected them to any further treatment such ...
Jan 24, 2012 ... increase in their personal income from rural employment, but mainly from occasional remittances from family members living within and outside. Nigeria and few retired civil servants who opted to finally settle in their villages. In fact, the policy on rural sanitation generally lacks clarity and focus; and today ...
Full Text Available water needs. It is further estimated that about 80% of South Africa’s rural communities depend on groundwater sources for survival. Rural communities regard springs as a sustainable and reliable means of obtaining water compared to formal water supply...
Reininger, Belinda M.; Barroso, Cristina S.; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Cantu, Ethel; Fernandez, Maria E.; Gonzalez, Dora Alicia; Chavez, Marge; Freeberg, Diamantina; McAlister, Alfred
Background and Methods To address obesity and related morbidities, community-based participatory research (CBPR) strategies were employed to design / evaluate a Spanish language media campaign promoting physical activity and healthful food choices among Mexican Americans. Qualitative evaluation strategies including content analyses on types and focus of media messages were conducted. Focus groups assessed appeal and trustworthiness of messages. Results All media campaign products feature role models and experts. Campaign messages primarily (98%) appear in TV morning show segments. Newsletters present individual and family role model stories. Majority of newsletters (68%) are distributed through churches and “promotora” outreach efforts. Conclusions CBPR lends itself to the selection and tailoring of evidence-based media campaigns. Moreover, CBPR guidance resulted in media messages that are credible and appealing to audience. Process evaluation strategies that gather information from the community provide solid evidence for how to modify the campaign to best meet audience expectations. PMID:19131541
Zuk, Miriam; Rojas, Leonora; Blanco, Salvador; Serrano, Paulina; Cruz, Jephte; Angeles, Felipe; Tzintzun, Guadalupe; Armendariz, Cynthia; Edwards, Rufus D; Johnson, Michael; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Masera, Omar
To evaluate the impact of improved wood burning stoves on indoor air pollution, 53 homes in a rural town in Michoacán, Mexico, were selected from a health intervention study and monitored before and after receiving improved wood-burning stoves. Fine particulate matter--particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5))--concentrations were measured in the central plaza of the community and in three microenvironments in the home (next to the stove, in the kitchen away from the stove, and outdoor patio). Forty-eight hour mean PM(2.5) concentrations in homes that burned wood in open fires were 693 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 246-1338) near the stove, 658 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 67-1448) in the kitchen away from the stove, and 94 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 36-236) on the patio. Mean ambient 24-h concentrations in the main plaza of the community were 59 microg/m(3) (95% CI: 29-92). Paired measurements before and after the installation of the Patsari improved wood-burning stove indicate a median 71% reduction in PM(2.5) concentrations near the stove and 58% reductions in kitchen concentrations, whereas patio and main plaza concentrations remain unaffected. Only 44% of participants reported to use their Patsari stoves exclusively during the transition period. Even with the predominant mixed use of the Patsari stove with open fires, estimated daily average personal exposures to PM(2.5) were reduced by 50%.
Sanders, Scott R; Erickson, Lance D; Call, Vaughn R A; McKnight, Matthew L; Hedges, Dawson W
(1) To assess the prevalence of rural primary care physician (PCP) bypass, a behavior in which residents travel farther than necessary to obtain health care, (2) To examine the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass behavior, and (3) To analyze spatial bypass patterns to determine which rural communities are most affected by bypass. Data came from the Montana Health Matters survey, which gathered self-reported information from Montana residents on their health care utilization, satisfaction with health care services, and community and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression and spatial analysis were used to examine the probability and spatial patterns of bypass. Overall, 39% of respondents bypass local health care. Similar to previous studies, dissatisfaction with local health care was found to increase the likelihood of bypass. Dissatisfaction with local shopping also increases the likelihood of bypass, while the number of friends in a community, and commonality with community reduce the likelihood of bypass. Other significant factors associated with bypass include age, income, health, and living in a highly rural community or one with high commuting flows. Our results suggest that outshopping theory, in which patients bundle services and shopping for added convenience, extends to primary health care selection. This implies that rural health care selection is multifaceted, and that in addition to perceived satisfaction with local health care, the quality of local shopping and levels of community attachment also influence bypass behavior. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.
World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.
The challenges of making rural schools more effective vary with different types of rural conditions. But typically these challenges might include any of the following: teacher shortages, lack of facilities, isolation, HIV/AIDS and related social stigma, war crises and displaced populations, multigrade and shift teaching, administration of small…
Medves, Jennifer; Paterson, Margo; Chapman, Christine Y; Young, John H; Tata, Elizabeth; Bowes, Denise; Hobbs, Neil; McAndrews, Brian; O'Riordan, Anne
The 'Professionals in Rural Practice' course was developed with the aim of preparing students enrolled in professional programs in Canada to become better equipped for the possible eventuality of professional work in a rural setting. To match the reality of living and working in a rural community, which by nature is interprofessional, the course designers were an interprofessional teaching team. In order to promote group cohesiveness the course included the participation of an interprofessional group of students and instructors from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, teacher education, and theology. The format of the course included three-hour classes over an eight-week period and a two-day field experience in a rural community. The course utilized various experiential and interactive teaching and learning methods, along with a variety of assessment methods. Data were collected from student participants over two iterations of the course using a mixed methods approach. Results demonstrate that students value the interprofessional and experiential approach to learning and viewed this course as indispensable for gaining knowledge of other professions and preparation for rural practice. The data reveal important organizational and pedagogical considerations specific to interprofessional education, community based action research, and the unique interprofessional nature of training for life and work in a rural community. This study also indicates the potential value of further longitudinal study of participants in this course. Key words: Canada, community based action research, education, interdisciplinary, interprofessional.
Full Text Available Una parte significativa de la población mexicana es sorda. Esta discapacidad restringe sus habilidades de interacción social con personas que no tienen dicha discapacidad y viceversa. En este artículo presentamos nuestros avances hacia el desarrollo de un traductor Voz-a-Lenguaje-de-Señas del español mexicano para asistir a personas sin discapacidad a interactuarcon personas sordas. La metodología de diseño propuesta considera limitados recursos para(1 el desarrollo del Reconocedor Automático del Habla (RAH mexicano, el cual es el módulo principal del traductor, y (2 el vocabulario del Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano (LSM disponible para representar las oraciones reconocidas. La traducción Voz-a-Lenguaje-de-Señas fue lograda con un nivel de precisión mayor al 97% para usuarios de prueba diferentes de aquellos seleccionados para el entrenamiento del RAH.A significant population of Mexican people are deaf. This disorder restricts their social interac-tion skills with people who don't have such disorder and viceversa. In this paper we presentour advances towards the development of a Mexican Speech-to-Sign-Language translator toassist normal people to interact with deaf people. The proposed design methodology considerslimited resources for (1 the development of the Mexican Automatic Speech Recogniser (ASRsystem, which is the main module in the translator, and (2 the Mexican Sign Language(MSL vocabulary available to represent the decoded speech. Speech-to-MSL translation wasaccomplished with an accuracy level over 97% for test speakers different from those selectedfor ASR training.
Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Enns, Eva; Blauer-Peterson, Cori; Farris, Jill; Kahn, Judith; Kulasingam, Shalini
Purpose Identifying co-occurring community risk factors, specific to rural communities, may suggest new strategies and partnerships for addressing sexual health issues among rural youth. We conducted an ecological analysis to identify the county-level correlates of pregnancy and chlamydia rates among adolescents in rural (nonmetropolitan) counties in Minnesota. Methods Pregnancy and chlamydia infection rates among 15–19 year-old females were compared across Minnesota’s 87 counties, stratified by rural/urban designations. Regression models for rural counties (n=66) in Minnesota were developed based on publicly available, county-level information on behaviors and risk exposures to identify associations with teen pregnancy and chlamydia rates in rural settings. Findings Adolescent pregnancy rates were higher in rural counties than in urban counties. Among rural counties, factors independently associated with elevated county-level rates of teen pregnancy included inconsistent contraceptive use by 12th-grade males, fewer 12th graders reporting feeling safe in their neighborhoods, more 9th graders reporting feeling overweight, fewer 12th graders reporting 30 min of physical activity daily, high county rates of single parenthood, and higher age-adjusted mortality (P < .05 for all associations). Factors associated with higher county level rates of chlamydia among rural counties were inconsistent condom use reported by 12th-grade males, more 12th graders reporting feeling overweight, and more 12th graders skipping school in the past month because they felt unsafe. Conclusions This ecologic analysis suggests that programmatic approaches focusing on behavior change among male adolescents, self-esteem, and community health and safety may be complementary to interventions addressing teen sexual health in rural areas; such approaches warrant further study. PMID:25344773
Community health centers (CHCs) are primary care clinics that serve mostly low-income patients in rural and urban areas. They are required to be governed by a consumer majority. What little is known about the structure and function of these boards in practice suggests that CHC boards in rural areas may look and act differently from CHC boards in urban areas. To identify differences in the structure and function of consumer governance at CHCs in rural and urban areas. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 30 CHC board members from 14 different states. Questions focused on board members' perceptions of board composition and the role of consumers on the board. CHCs in rural areas are more likely to have representative boards, are better able to convey confidence in the organization, and are better able to assess community needs than CHCs in urban areas. However, CHCs in rural areas often have problems achieving objective decision-making, and they may have fewer means for objectively evaluating quality of care due to the lack of patient board member anonymity. Consumer governance is implemented differently in rural and urban communities, and the advantages and disadvantages in each setting are unique. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.
MBCM) among rural dwellers in Imo State Nigeria. Three hundred and sixty households were randomly selected and data were obtained from them with the use of questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion. The results showed that only 30% of ...
Full Text Available The hydraulic potential in Morocco is limited, droughts are more frequent, resulting of climate change, and increasing water demand relating to the population growth and socio-economic development. Morocco has invested in the urban sanitation sector through the establishment of the National Liquid Sanitation Program. In rural Area, the intervention in this sector remains limited due to various constraints. In order to support the efforts of establishment of the National Rural Assainissment Program (PNAR, we conducted a case study that recommended the treatment of wastewater by an innovative process used for the first time in Morocco. We realized, first, a pilot experiment at the douar (Unstructured Village Talat Marghen within the rural Municipality of Aghouatim a few km from Marrakech. The innovative aspect of the project is managerial proposes covering the different technical aspects, management and institutional innovation, to meet the various constraints that characterize the rural areas.
Cramer, Mary; Duncan, Kathleen; Megel, Mary; Pitkin, Steve
The registered nurse (RN) shortage threatens rural health care quality and economic vitality. Educational institutions have the opportunity to collaborate with rural communities in building pipelines for a more highly educated, sustainable nursing workforce. Leaders from 19 Midwestern rural counties approached a university about their regional nurse workforce issues and a desire to locate a nursing campus in their community. This article describes the partnership between a university and a rural community and the process for addressing their concerns and determining program feasibility. A Task Force of faculty and community leaders used the Determining Program Feasibility model to frame data collection and analysis. The Task Force met regularly with a Community Advisory Board for problem-solving and formative feedback. The sound methodology and transparent process facilitated a successful collaboration and resulted in a final report outlining the significant opportunities and challenges to overcome. Plans are underway for a new rural nursing campus and the community has raised monies for the new facility. The state legislature will address needed start-up funds.
Skariah, Joe M; Rasmussen, Carl; Hollander-Rodriguez, Joyce; Carney, Patricia A; Dexter, Eve; Waller, Elaine; Eiff, M Patrice
The optimal curriculum for training family physicians for rural practice within a traditional urban-based residency is not defined. We used the scope of practice among recent family medicine graduates of residencies associated with Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4), practicing in small communities, to identify rural curriculum components. We surveyed graduates 18 months after residency between 2007 and 2014. The survey measured self-reported practice characteristics, including community size, and scope of practice. We compared the subgroups according to practice community size. Compared to graduates in larger communities, those practicing in small communities were more likely to report a broader scope of clinical practice including: adult hospital care (59% vs 35%), vaginal deliveries (23% vs 12%), C sections as primary surgeon (14% vs 5%) and assistant (21% vs 8%), newborn hospital care (45% vs 24%), and procedures such as endometrial biopsy (46% vs 33%), joint injections and aspirations (89% vs 79%), and fracture care (58% vs 42%). Graduates in small communities were also more often engaged in assessing community health needs (78% vs 64%) and developing community interventions (67% vs 51%) compared to graduates in larger communities. In contrast, graduates in small communities were less likely to have integrated behavioral health (26% vs 46%) and case management support (37% vs 52%). A rural practice curriculum should include training toward a broad medical scope of practice as well as skills in community-oriented primary care and integrated behavioral health.
Gouveia, Lourdes; Stull, Donald D.
In 1988, IBP, the world's largest meat processing firm, announced it would open a beefpacking plant in Lexington, Nebraska. This was part of the latest wave of meatpacking restructuring which moved plants away from urban centers and union strongholds to rural communities. This paper examines community changes accompanying the opening of a large…
Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Ehlers, Cindy L.
This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results…
Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…
Sherbini, Jaleh T.
The purpose of this study was to examine institution-based leadership development programs in rural community colleges in Illinois, and the impact of these programs in supporting and preparing future community college leaders. The study also explored the efficacy of these programs and whether their implementation aligns with the institutions'…
Torres, Irene; Simovska, Venka
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate concerning community participation in school-based health education and health promotion, with regard to food and nutrition. Design/methodology/approach: Based on empirical data generated over the course of one year of fieldwork in three rural communities and schools in Ecuador, the…
Houghton, Ruth M.
Identifies social policy issues for rural communities affected by major development projects. Advocates increased attention in legislation by community workers and fuller recognition of social policy as a planning and development priority. Concludes that economics is still the major concern for development projects, rather than social policy. (BR)
Nestel, Debra; Gray, Katherine; Simmons, Margaret; Pritchard, Shane A; Islam, Rumana; Eng, Wan Q; Ng, Adrian; Dornan, Tim
BACKGROUND: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient
Neck pain (NP) is a common health problem which exerts significant stress on physical functioning, work, productivity and health costs. However, there is a dearth of published studies on community prevalence of neck pain in rural communities in Nigeria. This study aimed at finding out the prevalence of NP among people ...
Acute health effects of a crude oil spill in a rural community in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. B Ordinioha, W Sawyer. Abstract. In May 2000, there was a breach in the crude oil pipeline belonging to a major oil company in Etiama Nembe, in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This study is to investigate if the residents in the affected community ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring... affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in
Van Dormael, Monique; Dugas, Sylvie; Kone, Yacouba; Coulibaly, Seydou; Sy, Mansour; Marchal, Bruno; Desplats, Dominique
While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. The programme consisted of four classroom modules--clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills--and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring...) affecting job satisfaction. Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed
Fox, Jonathan A
One of each eight adult Mexicans resides in the United States. The rural-rural component of this migrationary process explains a growing ruralization of the Mexican population in the United States. It could be surmised that the migrants have opted to exit rather than use their voice; nevertheless many of them are exercising their voice from what might be termed the â€˜migrant civil societyâ€™ via (i) community-based social organizations; (ii) civil organizations controlled or influenced by mi...
van der Hoeven, Marinka; Kruger, Annamarie; Greeff, Minrie
The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health and (access to) health care was collected. The results clearly illustrated differences in socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health, and health care utilisation. In general, inhabitants of urban communities rated their health significantly better than rural participants. Although most urban and rural participants consider their access to health care as sufficient, they still experienced difficulties in receiving the requested care. The difference in employment rate between urban and rural communities in this study indicated that participants of urban communities were more likely to be employed. Consequently, participants from rural communities had a significantly lower available weekly budget, not only for health care itself, but also for transport to the health care facility. Urban participants were more than 5 times more likely to prefer a medical doctor in private practice (OR:5.29, 95% CI 2.83-988). Recommendations are formulated for infrastructure investments in rural communities, quality of health care and its perception, improvement of household socio-economical status and further research on the consequences of delay in health care seeking behaviour.
van der Hoeven Marinka
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. Design A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health and (access to health care was collected. Results The results clearly illustrated differences in socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health, and health care utilisation. In general, inhabitants of urban communities rated their health significantly better than rural participants. Although most urban and rural participants consider their access to health care as sufficient, they still experienced difficulties in receiving the requested care. The difference in employment rate between urban and rural communities in this study indicated that participants of urban communities were more likely to be employed. Consequently, participants from rural communities had a significantly lower available weekly budget, not only for health care itself, but also for transport to the health care facility. Urban participants were more than 5 times more likely to prefer a medical doctor in private practice (OR:5.29, 95% CI 2.83-988. Conclusion Recommendations are formulated for infrastructure investments in rural communities, quality of health care and its perception, improvement of household socio-economical status and further research on the consequences of delay in health care seeking behaviour.
Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.
Full Text Available Context: Childhood vaccinations are one of the most cost-effective means of reducing negative child health outcomes. Despite the benefits of immunisation, inequities persist both between and within rural-urban areas in Nigeria. Objectives: To assess the role of community contexts on rural-urban inequities in full immunisation uptake amongst children 12 months of age and older.Methods: Data from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey including 6029 live born children from 3725 women aged 15–49 years were examined using multilevel regression analysis.Results: Rural children were disadvantaged both in the proportion receiving full immunisation and individual vaccines. Contextual or community-level factors such as community prenatal care by doctor, community hospital delivery, and region of residence accounted for significant rural-urban inequities in full immunisation.Conclusion: This study stresses the need for community-level interventions aimed at closing rural-urban inequities in the provision of maternal and child health care services.
Kafatos, A G; Tsitoura, S; Pantelakis, S N; Doxiadis, S A
Educational intervention programs in Florin, Greece, a mountainous rural area with a low (15-20%) attendance at prenatal clinics, were conducted to reduce perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality and to promote physical and psychomotor development. Prior community diagnostic surveys had identified low income, poor living conditions, and illiteracy as very closely linked with poor hygiene, poor nutrition, nonutilization of services, frequent infections and high perinatal and infant mortality. The objectives of the intervention were to assess the effects of health education on breast feeding practices and use of available medical services. 300 pregnant women participants were randomly identified by the clinic as the intervention group and 200 as controls. Both groups were similar with predominantly low socioeconomic status (69-73%) and peasant farmers. There were few basic housing amenities (13.1 with interventions and 12.7 for controls). 70% of the women lived in extended families. The intervention involved home visits on nutrition, general hygiene, breast feeding, and newborn care. Visits were scheduled every 2 weeks in the 1st 2 months of pregnancy and every month until the infant was 12 months old. It was found that nutrition counseling was positively associated with maternal weight between interventions and controls (11.33 vs. 10.30 p.05) but not on low birth weight. Prematurity was reduced (3.7% intervention vs. 8.3% controls, p.04). The perinatal mortality was 31% for interventions vs. 41% for controls, but there were a significantly higher number of fetal deaths (28 weeks) for interventions. There was no discernible impact on breast feeding practices except for demand feeding (61% interventions vs. 38% controls) perhaps because both groups considered breast milk the best. Overfeeding was affected by health counseling, but was reflected only after the 1st year (12.1% control vs. 6.7% intervention in the 90th percentile). The presence of anemia followed a
helps to strengthen community mobilization and aids in galvanizing the human resources which are in abundance within the community to effectively take part in the processes leading to community action. The focus of this paper therefore, is on the dynamic role of traditional leaders, community based individuals in ensuring ...
Hay, M; Mercer, A M; Lichtwark, I; Tran, S; Hodgson, W C; Aretz, H T; Armstrong, E G; Gorman, D
An undersupply of generalists doctors in rural communities globally led to widening participation (WP) initiatives to increase the proportion of rural origin medical students. In 2002 the Australian Government mandated that 25% of commencing Australian medical students be of rural origin. Meeting this target has largely been achieved through reduced standards of entry for rural relative to urban applicants. This initiative is based on the assumption that rural origin students will succeed during training, and return to practice in rural locations. One aim of this study was to determine the relationships between student geographical origin (rural or urban), selection scores, and future practice intentions of medical students at course entry and course exit. Two multicentre databases containing selection and future practice preferences (location and specialisation) were combined (5862), representing 54% of undergraduate medical students commencing from 2006 to 2013 across nine Australian medical schools. A second aim was to determine course performance of rural origin students selected on lower scores than their urban peers. Selection and course performance data for rural (461) and urban (1431) origin students commencing 2006-2014 from one medical school was used. For Aim 1, a third (33.7%) of rural origin students indicated a preference for future rural practice at course exit, and even fewer (6.7%) urban origin students made this preference. Results from logistic regression analyses showed significant independent predictors were rural origin (OR 4.0), lower Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank (ATAR) (OR 2.1), or lower Undergraduate Medical and Health Sciences Admissions Test Section 3 (non-verbal reasoning) (OR 1.3). Less than a fifth (17.6%) of rural origin students indicated a preference for future generalist practice at course exit. Significant predictors were female gender (OR 1.7) or lower ATAR (OR 1.2), but not rural origin. Fewer (10.5%) urban origin
Blessing U. Mberu
Full Text Available Background: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design: We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results: In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to
Mberu, Blessing U; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C
It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality outcomes. They bear a disproportionately
Patten, Emma; O'Meara, Peter; Dickson-Swift, Virginia
Few studies have considered the impact of rural migration on rural community engagement. The objective of this research was to undertake a scoping review about the inclusion and exclusion of newcomers in rural community participation to inform design of inclusive participation processes. The scoping review used the six stages of Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework. Narrative analysis of the articles was structured using three themes of inclusion and exclusion derived from the literature: interpersonal, socio-cultural norms, and structural and organisational processes. Inclusion and exclusion at the interpersonal level is intricate and often represents broader social rules and tensions that newcomers must navigate in order to become involved. Social norms, such as fear of outsiders and difference, can exclude newcomers from participating in a rural community. Newcomer's awareness of these issues means they are mindful of how they contribute and give respect to the social position of existing residents. Despite this, resistance to change is experienced by newcomers when contributing in organisational contexts. Formal participation processes can harness the practice and value of rural hospitality that newcomers experience as inclusionary. Deliberately designing group processes and operational norms for inclusion can reduce tensions when change occurs and prevent group loss due to exclusionary practices. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Full Text Available Concerns about the appropriate use of EBP with ethnic minority clients and the ability of community agencies to implement and sustain EBP persist and emphasize the need for community-academic research partnerships that can be used to develop, adapt, and test culturally responsive EBP in community settings. In this paper, we describe the processes of developing a community-academic partnership that implemented and pilot tested an evidence-based telephone cognitive behavioral therapy program. Originally demonstrated to be effective for urban, middle-income, English-speaking primary care patients with major depression, the program was adapted and pilot tested for use with rural, uninsured, low-income, Latino (primarily Spanish-speaking primary care patients with major depressive disorder in a primary care site in a community health center in rural Eastern Washington. The values of community-based participatory research and community-partnered participatory research informed each phase of this randomized clinical trial and the development of a community-academic partnership. Information regarding this partnership may guide future community practice, research, implementation, and workforce development efforts to address mental health disparities by implementing culturally tailored EBP in underserved communities.
Spina, John; Menec, Verena H
Age-friendly initiatives are increasingly promoted as a policy solution to healthy aging, The primary objective of this article was to examine older adults' and key stakeholders' perceptions of the factors that either help or hinder a community from becoming age-friendly in the context of rural Manitoba, a Canadian prairie province. Twenty-four older adults and 17 key informants completed a qualitative interview. The findings show that contextual factors including size, location, demographic composition, ability to secure investments, and leadership influence rural communities' ability to become age-friendly. Government must consider the challenges these communities face in becoming more age-friendly and develop strategies to support communities. © The Author(s) 2013.
Affonso, Dyanne D; Mayberry, Linda; Shibuya, June Y; Archambeau, Olga G; Correa, Mary; Deliramich, Aimee N; Frueh, B Christopher
Escalation of youth violence within a large geographic school-complex area in southeastern rural Hawaii became a major problem in 2006. How cultural forces impact the problem was an impetus to examine youth violence from perspectives of adults and children in rural communities. Gathering these data was an essential first step toward school-based youth violence prevention program development. Eight focus groups involving 86 community stakeholders included 51 adults (parent, teachers, school staff, community leaders) and 35 children aged 8-15 years old (3rd- to 10-th grade). Qualitative narrative analysis elicited major themes. Five themes emerged: (1) School-community violence takes on many forms that become entrenched in local culture. (2) Disintegration of community resources and a sense of learned helplessness underlie the escalation of youth violence. (3) Inadequate role modeling coupled with behavioral ambivalence among adults has sustained a climate of local cultural acceptance with youth violence. (4) Connection to cultural values has diminished, leading to a sense of loss in cultural identity among students. (5) Cultural values and practices are potential strategies for youth violence prevention. Cultural and community contextual factors contributed to youth violence in rural Hawaiian communities. Study implications include the need to further investigate the impact of vigilant, community involvement of stakeholders in school-based youth violence prevention program development. Cultural revitalization at family, school, and community levels may be critical success factors of such programs.
Full Text Available An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.
Kaasalainen, Sharon; Brazil, Kevin; Wilson, Donna M; Willison, Kathleen; Marshall, Denise; Taniguchi, Alan; Williams, Allison
Nurses have key roles in the coordination and delivery of community-based palliative care. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between rural and urban community nurses' delivery of palliative care services. A survey was distributed to 277 nurses employed by a community agency in Ontario, Canada, and a 60% response rate was obtained. Nurses reported spending 27% of their time providing palliative care. Rural and urban nurses had similar roles in palliative care but rural nurses spent more time travelling and were more confident in their ability to provide palliative care. Both groups of nurses reported moderate job satisfaction and moderate satisfaction with the level of interdisciplinary collaboration in their practice. Several barriers to and facilitators of optimal palliative care provision were identified. The study results provide information about the needs of nurses that practise in these settings and may provide a basis for the development of strategies to address these needs.
Н. В. Морозюк
Full Text Available Purpose is development of practical offers of increase of efficiency of use of resource potential of rural territories for formation of self-sufficiency of territorial communities.Methodology is system approach of scientific knowledge. In thе research were used such methods аs: monographic, generalizations, comparisons, abstract and logical modeling and others.Results. The natural and resource potential of rural ter-ritories of Ukraine and Russia is considered in the article. The conclusion is drawn that at its uniqueness rural communities remain subsidized and people below the poverty line. Result of research is offered development of such directions of use of natural resources: for satisfaction of needs of a community; processing and further realization to locals or outside a community; export out of community limits. The advantages from a position of formation of self-sufficiency of rural communities are considered for each of directions, offers on improvement of the organizational and economic mechanism of their realization are developed.Practical implications. Conclusions of the research can be used in practical activities of public authorities and local government.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now
Baquet, Claudia R.; Bromwell, Jeanne L.; Hall, Margruetta B.; Frego, Jacob F.
Background: A rural community–academic partnership was developed in 1997 between the Eastern Shore Area Health Education Center (ESAHEC) and the University of Maryland School of Medicine’s (UMSOM) Office of Policy and Planning (OPP). The model supports partnered research, bidirectional interactions, and community and health professional education. Objectives: The primary aim was to develop a sustainable community–academic partnership that addressed health and social issues on the rural Eastern Shore. Lessons Learned: Mutual respect and trust led to sustained, bidirectional interactions and communication. Community and academic partner empowerment were supported by shared grant funds. Continual refinement of the partnership and programs occurred in response to community input and qualitative and quantitative research. Results: The partnership led to community empowerment, increased willingness to participate in clinical trials and biospecimen donation, leveraged grant funds, partnered research, and policies to support health and social interventions. Conclusions: This partnership model has significant benefits and demonstrates its relevance for addressing complex rural health issues. Innovative aspects of the model include shared university grants, community inclusion on research protocols, bidirectional research planning and research ethics training of partners and communities. The model is replicable in other rural areas of the United States. PMID:24056510
The familiar advertising slogan, "Up here it's different," used to attract visitors to the rugged beauty of County Donegal, was correct in highlighting that things are different in Donegal, although not for the reasons one might connect with tourism. For many, Donegal evokes nostalgic images of old, rural Ireland such as close community…
ABSTRACT. Background. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is primarily the consequence of excess central adiposity but can also result from low grade systemic inflammation inducing insulin resistance. There is a global increase in the prevalence of MS; it is on this background that evaluation of the prevalence of MS in a poor rural ...
The paper notes the complementary relationship between good access roads, promotion of opportunities, empowerment and security in driving rural development; and recommends strategic measures for improving the road network and promoting social and economic well-being of inhabitants of Abia State.
The importance of emotional wellness for rural older adults is a topic of growing significance. Older adults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression. Emotional…
Bird, Sharon R.; Sapp, Stephen G.; Lee, Motoko Y.
Supporting a "structural relational" view of small business success, data from 423 small business owners in Iowa suggest that links between owner characteristics, social relational processes, business structure, and success operate differently depending on urban-rural location and owner sex. Female owners had more professional training…
This article discusses a conceptual framework developed from a case study of the Human Rights, Democracy and Development (HRDD) project, an adult education and development project in rural KwaZulu-Natal. The framework presents key features of the micro and macro environments of the project, while discussion of ...
Despite the large number of people needing ear surgery on the African continent, otologic (ear) surgeries are few. However, safe and effective otologic surgeries are attainable via rural Ethiopian otologic surgical camps which also provide training to Ethiopian surgeons: Operations and operative results: A total of 137 ...
The result indicated that only three percent (3%) of the people have access to clean and safe pipe-borne water while the remaining 97% relied on streams, rain water, wells and springs for their domestic uses. Only 26% of the people had water supply within their houses while 47% of the rural dwellers trek for over an hour to ...
Dec 12, 2001 ... Objective: To estimate the rate of and risk factors associated with child mortality in rural ... child to die in the neonatal period than in the first year of life. ..... couples. The proportion of deaths reduced after six or more years of mothers education. Single mother families also had a higher mortality rate than ...
Objective: To determine the peri-natal mortality rate (PMR), still birth rate (SBR) and early neonatal death rate (ENDR) in Igueben Local Government Area (LGA) of Edo State. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Igueben LGA is a rural governmental unit in mid-western Nigeria. Subjects: All women of ...
Background: Helminthic infections are occupationally-related diseases which potentially undermine farmers' work capacity, productivity and life expectancy. These infections are usually under-reported among this group particularly in the rural areas. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, pattern and factors ...
...: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, EPA gives notice... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural... agriculture such as effective approaches to addressing water quality issues associated with agricultural...
...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, EPA gives notice... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural... agriculture, such as approaches to addressing agricultural non-point source pollution, complex agricultural...
...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, EPA gives notice... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural... agriculture such as effective approaches to addressing water quality issues associated with agricultural...
...: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: Under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, EPA gives notice... on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural... agriculture such as effective approaches to addressing water quality issues associated with agricultural...
The article also addresses the type research and development activities using plant genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in the context of Cameroon, the current laws regulating such activities and the extent to which these activities and laws affect and/or protect the customary biodiversity rights of rural ...
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is primarily the consequence of excess central adiposity but can also result from low grade systemic inflammation inducing insulin resistance. There is a global increase in the prevalence of MS; it is on this background that evaluation of the prevalence of MS in a poor rural farming ...
Conclusion: There is a prevalence of refractive error of. 1.97% among students of this rural girls' secondary school .... Only 1.2% of the young adults (those aged > 16 years) had refractive errors, and myopia was the only refractive error found in them. Discussion. Poor vision can have detrimental effects on a child's ca-.
Hagen, Janet W.; Skenandore, Alice H.; Scow, Beverly M.; Schanen, Jennifer G.; Clary, Frieda Hugo
Nationally, the United States has a higher rate of teen pregnancy than any other industrialized nation. Native American youth have a higher birth rate than the national rate. A full-year healthy relationship program, based on Native American teachings, traditions, and cultural norms, was delivered to all eighth-grade students at a rural tribal…
led drive to set up pit latrines in rural kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. it's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy. the. Ministry of Health introduced the CLTS campaign in 2007 and the first road map to.
Background: Addressing the nutritional needs of adolescents could be an important step towards breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. Objective: Assess nutritional status of rural adolescent girls. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometric and socio-demographic information from 211 ...
Background: Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease of childhood; however, not much attention has been given to studies on this among the rural Nigerian children. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with dental caries in secondary school children residing in the ...
Mitchell, Jane; Hunter, Jane; Mockler, Nicole
This paper reports on the uses of interactive whiteboards in "connected classrooms" in rural New South Wales, Australia. The research specifically focuses on the e[superscript 2] program, a senior school initiative among five schools that seeks to extend the range of curriculum options available for students by connecting classrooms…
Rayens, Mary Kay; York, Nancy L; Adkins, Sarah M; Kaufman, Erin L; Hahn, Ellen J
The purpose was to determine factors associated with rural communities' political readiness to enact smoke-free laws. Data from baseline assessment of a longitudinal intervention study to promote smoke-free policy in rural Kentucky communities; key informants (n = 144) and elected officials (n = 83) from 29 counties participated in cross-sectional telephone interviews. Controlling for population size and county-level smoking rate, the following factors predicted elected officials' perception of the likelihood of a local smoke-free law passing in the next 12 months: (1) support from the local board of health; (2) support from local leaders; and (3) smoke-free hospitals. Communities with lower adult smoking prevalence were more ready for smoke-free laws. Rural health advocates can increase political readiness for smoke-free laws by educating and engaging Board of Health members and local leaders, promoting the voluntary adoption of smoke-free policies in rural hospitals, and investing in effective population-based approaches to evidence-based tobacco treatment in rural communities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Ample evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Evidence is beginning to emerge linking PA to the physical environment but little is known about the relationship between remote rural environments and PA involvement in Aboriginal peoples. This study's purpose was to investigate the relationship between perceptions of the environment and PA and walking patterns in Aboriginal adults in order to inform the planning and implementation of community-relevant PA interventions. Methods Two hundred and sixty three residents (133 women, mean age = 35.6 years, SD = 12.3 and 130 men, mean age = 37.2 years, SD = 13.1 from Moose Factory, Ontario were asked about environmental factors related to walking and PA involvement. Survey items were drawn from standardized, validated questionnaires. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, percentages were calculated. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to determine associations between walking and overall PA with perceived environmental variables. Results Hierarchical multiple regression to predict walking revealed significant associations between walking and perceived safety and aesthetics. Owning home exercise equipment predicted strenuous PA. Different aspects of the physical environment appear to influence different types of physical activities. The significant amount of variance in behaviour accounted for by perceived environmental variables (5.3% walking included safety, aesthetics, convenience, owning home exercise equipment and comfortable shoes for walking. Conclusion Results suggest that a supportive physical environment is important for PA involvement and that walking and activities of different intensity appear to be mediated by different perceived environmental variables. Implications for PA
Full Text Available Background: Interventions by community care workers within the context of communitybased integrated management of childhood illness (CIMCI may have a positive effect on child health if the health workers have adequate knowledge about key family practices.Setting: The study was conducted in rural areas of the West Coast district in the Western Cape, South Africa.Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of community care workers about five of the 16 key family practices of CIMCI.Methods: A descriptive survey collected a self-administered questionnaire from 257 community care workers out of a possible total of 270 (95.2% response rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied.Results: Only 25 of the respondents (10% obtained a score higher than 70% on the knowledgebased items of the questionnaire. Less than 25% of respondents answered questions in these key areas correctly (pneumonia [17%], tuberculosis [13%], HIV/AIDS [9%] immunisation [3%] and recommendations for a child with fever [21%]. Statistically significant correlations were found between the total score a respondent achieved and the highest level of education obtained (p < 0.01, the level of in-service training (p < 0.01, attendance of a CIMCI five-day training course (p < 0.01, and completing a subsequent refresher course (p < 0.01.Conclusion: The knowledge of CCWs was inadequate to provide safe, quality CIMCI. CIMCI refresher courses should be offered annually to improve CCWs’ knowledge and the quality of care that they render. Regular update courses could contribute to building competence.
Raul Olalde Font
Full Text Available This investigation is framed in the analysis of impacts in the local development starting from the taking of decisions on projects of rural energy in Cuban communities that have as economic main activity the agricultural sector, illustrated the results of a case study where the technological most viable options are selected under the optics of the improvement of indicators of community resources. The methods and used materials are characteristic of a field work with application model are characterized for the taking of decisions in the energy area and their sources SURE, as geographical region the community isolated rural “Manantiales” linked to the agrarian sector in the republic of Cuba and the present period review in the thematic one approached. The main indicators are sketched in each resource of the rural community under the optics of the SURE in their version 3.0, as well the characterization of the prediction of the impacts at each technological option on the resources, is exhibited a mean of impacts and the classification of the technologies according to the level of achievements contribute to the indicators of community resources, obtaining as a result that the hydro energy technology is the most viable option with a value of 100 points in the scale from 0 to 100, followed by the GRID with 91.11 and of the photovoltaic systems based on silicon panels with 90.57, in this case all technologies contribute a significant level of achievements to the local community development.
Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen
The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.
Oliva Muwanga-Zake; Marlien Herselman
Background: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how a virtual community of practice can be delivered via a mobile social networking framework to support rural community media in the Eastern...
Yeung, Wesley; Leong, Wei-Yee; Khoun, Kimsong; Ong, Warren; Sambi, Sundesh; Lim, Su-Min; Bieber, Bill; Wilder-Smith, Annelies
Alcohol misuse is increasing in Southeast Asia. We investigated the extent of and risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and heavy episodic drinking (HED) in a rural community in Cambodia. We also attempted to explore the communities' perception of alcohol misuse and elicited potential community-based strategies to address the alcohol problem. A mixed-methods study design was used, combining a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with qualitative interviews (focus group discussions and key informant interviews). AUD and HED were measured using the AUDs Identification Test Alcohol Consumption questionnaire. The prevalence of AUD and HED was high: 25% and 31%, respectively. Male sex, younger age, and increasing income were significant risk factors. The communities were well aware of the harmful effects of alcohol, expressed the importance of implementing community-based measures, and proposed various community-led solutions. Evidence-based strategies that are culturally appropriate, accepted, and driven by communities are urgently needed. © 2015 APJPH.
Majee, Wilson; Jooste, Karien; Aziato, Lydia; Anakwe, Adaobi
Given the emerging global youth disengagement epidemic, anticipated population growth, and the threat of continued rural-urban migration among young adults, recent research has focused on community leadership practice and the factors that influence youth engagement at the local level. Studying these practices and factors can elicit interventions that can improve youth engagement and youth health. This study engaged South African rural community leaders in interviews to collect perceptions and experiences on community leadership and factors that influence youth engagement and their health behaviors. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Emergent themes are categorized into four domains: conceptualizations of leadership, current youth behaviors, barriers to youth engagement, and youth leadership opportunities and potential solutions. Findings demonstrate a clear grasp of the concept of community leadership among community leaders, and an awareness of the complex interplay of social, economic and environmental factors on youth disengagement and the potential interventions to promote more youth participation.
Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie
Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. The faith-based "Trinity Life Management" stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress-distress-depression continuum.
Full Text Available This paper illustrates institutional approaches of emigrant states toward emigrants abroad, and how these approaches can change over time. These can range from absolute exclusion and non-communication, over fractional collaboration in specific matters, to even permanent institutional inclusion, for instance, through representation of migrants in home parliaments or governments. The approach for institutional incorporation can not only take place on the national, but also on the subnational level. This is the case in Mexico, a federal state in which many member states conduct their own emigrant policy, partially in accord with federal efforts, and partially independently or contrary to the national attempt to address the emigrant community abroad. To highlight these different approaches, I would like to take a look at the Southern Mexican states of Oaxaca and Chiapas. Although these states show similar political and social structures, and hold relatively large emigrant populations in the United States of America, the institutional approaches toward their emigrants changed in two different ways: while the institutional opening in Oaxaca goes back to various initiatives by the Oaxacan migrant community in the United States of America, the policy change in Chiapas toward more inclusion of the emigrant community was actively promoted by the government of Chiapas.
This study examined the community self-help projects' implementation procedures in Ekiti South West Local Government Area of Ondo State. The study was carried out in 10 communities randomly selected out of 21 communities in the area. A sample of 41 farmers who had participated in self-help projects were purposively ...
Mary Neth's 1995 book, "Preserving the Family Farm: Women, Community, and the Foundations of Agribusiness in the Midwest, 1900-1940," made a major contribution to the analysis of the connections between gender and the political economy that shaped farm women's lives and fueled farmers' resistance to the transformation of rural life wrought by agribusiness. Focusing on the processes of negotiation between women and men in farming families and rural communities, Neth illuminated the relationship between women's work and their power. Tracing the dense networks that connected farm families, she also showed how cooperation in work generated and sustained radical farm movements.
Curtis, Alexa C.; Waters, Catherine M.; Brindis, Claire
Context: Adolescence is a pivotal developmental period for the establishment of positive health and health practices. However, developmentally propelled risk behaviors coinciding with barriers to health services may increase the propensity for untoward health outcomes in adolescence. In addition, the sociocultural context of the rural environment…
Hunter, Lori M; Murray, Sheena; Riosmena, Fernando
In many rural regions of developing countries, natural resource dependency means changes in climate patterns hold tremendous potential to impact livelihoods. When environmentally-based livelihood options are constrained, migration can become an important adaptive strategy. Using data from the Mexican Migration Project, we model U.S. emigration from rural communities as related to community, household and climate factors. The results suggest that households subjected to recent drought conditions are far more likely to send a U.S. migrant, but only in communities with strong migration histories. In regions lacking such social networks, rainfall deficits actually reduce migration propensities, perhaps reflecting constraints in the ability to engage in migration as a coping strategy. Policy implications emphasize diversification of rural Mexican livelihoods in the face of contemporary climate change.
Omolola A. Adedokun
Full Text Available The study reported in this paper examines the effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement. Specifically, the paper explored the direct effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement and the indirect effects via self-esteem and delinquency. The method of structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a nationally representative panel study of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade. The results make a compelling case that communities are conduits for boosting self-esteem, facilitating normative behaviors and academic performance in rural adolescents.
study done in Doumen-county, the rural area of southern. China, which was 33.01% in subjects aged 50 years and above (1). In other similar study conducted on residents of a tropiCal island in Indonesia, the overall prevalence rate of pterygium was found to be 17% (4), higher than. (8.8%) found in Meskan district which is ...
The implementation of strategies for national and global outcomes has in some instances left rural community resources and practices devalued and disturbed and rural people demoralised with the result that local community sustainability has been compromised. Formal education in Australia is about many things, but is rarely sympathetic towards…
Spence Cagle, Carolyn; Wells, Jo Nell
Culturally sensitive interventions are needed to assist Mexican American (MA) patients with cancer and their family members in managing their care, navigating the healthcare system, and decreasing disparities in healthcare outcomes for Hispanics with cancer. The objectives of this study were to understand the meaning of culturally sensitive care for oncology clinic healthcare providers and to assess the usefulness and feasibility of the role of a promotora de salud to meet caregiver needs. This study involved focus groups of 18 diverse providers who provided data for qualitative analyses. The findings (themes) defined the facilitators of and barriers to culturally sensitive care and the perceived role of a promotora de salud to support the healthcare team and improve cancer care provided by MA caregivers. In addition, promotoras de salud can help reduce health costs by decreasing patient clinic visits.
Harshal Ramesh Salve
Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.
Dibartolo, M C; McCrone, S
The significant increase in the number of older adults in the USA, particularly in rural areas, has signaled the need for more research to address the health care needs of this complex, heterogeneous, and vulnerable population. However, accessing older adults in rural areas presents an especially difficult challenge for gerontological researchers. Barriers can include the normal physiological changes that accompany aging, prevalence of chronic illness and medication use, lower literacy rates, transportation issues, and a distrust of 'outsiders' and research in general. Specific strategies that may facilitate participation include the use of gatekeepers to gain entry, increased personal contact by researchers sensitive to the unique needs of older adults, and other media approaches tailored to the rural community. Understanding the characteristics of rural older adults, along with careful planning of recruitment strategies, is crucial to obtaining adequate participation and the acceptance of future research efforts.
Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Richardson, Julie; Wilkins, Seanne; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris
The impact of living with arthritis in a rural Mexican Mayan community along with the barriers encountered by people living with this chronic condition were investigated in this study. The community needs around this health issue were investigated by conducting an ethnographic study using data obtained during two time periods (August 2012-April 2013 and December 2013-December 2014). During the first period, fieldwork observations and interviews with 65 individuals, which included people with arthritis, health professionals, traditional health providers, and community leaders were undertaken. During the second period, 46 community meetings were conducted to identify the needs associated with arthritis in the municipality. Data were analyzed following a modified version of the Framework approach. The results show that arthritis reduces the health-related quality of life of the people in Chankom through a process of disablement, conditioning a need to access culturally sensitive healthcare. Availability, attainability, and acceptability barriers prevent access to this type of healthcare and result from power imbalance between indigenous and non-indigenous people. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive rehabilitation services for people living with arthritis in Chankom. Mayan people should be involved in the design and implementation of these services. Moreover, it is important to improve our understanding of the processes behind the healthcare access inequities identified in this study by attending to the historical generation of current social, economical, cultural, and political structures.
Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Riggall, Ann Josie; Meinen, Amy M; Malecki, Kristen; Escaron, Anne L; Hall, Bev; Menzies, Anne; Garske, Gary; Nieto, F Javier; Nitzke, Susan
Research suggests that the food environment influences individual eating practices. To date, little is known about effective interventions to improve the food environment of restaurants and food stores and promote healthy eating in rural communities. We tested "Waupaca Eating Smart " (WES), a pilot intervention to improve the food environment and promote healthy eating in restaurants and supermarkets of a rural community. WES focused on labeling, promoting, and increasing the availability of healthy foods. We conducted a randomized community trial, with two Midwestern U.S. communities randomly assigned to serve as intervention or control site. We collected process and outcome data using baseline and posttest owner and customer surveys and direct observation methods. The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation and organize the results. Seven of nine restaurants and two of three food stores invited to participate in WES adopted the intervention. On a 0-4 scale, the average level of satisfaction with WES was 3.14 (SD=0.69) for restaurant managers and 3 (SD=0.0) for store managers. On average, 6.3 (SD=1.1) out of 10 possible intervention activities were implemented in restaurants and 9.0 (SD=0.0) out of 12 possible activities were implemented in food stores. One month after the end of the pilot implementation period, 5.4 (SD=1.6) and 7.5 (SD=0.7) activities were still in place at restaurants and food stores, respectively. The intervention reached 60% of customers in participating food outlets. Restaurant food environment scores improved from 13.4 to 24.1 (p restaurant-and food store-based interventions in rural communities. Pilot outcome data indicated very modest levels of effectiveness, but additional research adequately powered to test the impact of this intervention on food environment scores and customer behaviors needs to be conducted in order to identify its potential to promote healthy eating in rural community settings.
Lee, Marshala; Newton, Helen; Smith, Tracey; Crawford, Malena; Kepley, Hayden; Regenstein, Marsha; Chen, Candice
Rural communities disproportionately face preventable chronic diseases and death from treatable conditions. Health workforce shortages contribute to limited health care access and health disparities. Efforts to address workforce shortages have included establishing graduate medical education programs with the goal of recruiting and retaining physicians in the communities in which they train. However, rural communities face a number of challenges in developing and maintaining successful residency programs, including concerns over financial sustainability and the integration of resident trainees into existing clinical practices. Despite these challenges, rural communities are increasingly interested in investing in residency programs; those that are successful see additional benefits in workforce recruitment, access, and quality of care that have immediate and direct impact on the health of rural communities. This commentary examines the challenges and benefits of rural residency programs, drawing from lessons learned from the Health Resources and Services Administration's Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education program.
Full Text Available Many rural communities that depend on smallholder farming face food insecurity induced by climate-related disasters. In response, some communities are taking the initiative to cope and adapt to climate-related disasters. Using case study material from the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe, this article examines how traditional institutions are enhancing resilience to food insecurity in rural areas. The data were collected through interviews and focus groups involving traditional leaders, ward councillors, village civil protection members and villagers selected in the valley. The findings point to how the Zunde raMambo informal safety net, nhimbe form of collective work and the practice of share-rearing arrangement to access draught power help save lives and alleviate food insecurity induced by flood or drought disasters. The study concludes that the three schemes are evidence of community reorganisation or change in response to food insecurity. They are a form of absorptive capacities enabling the community to cope with food insecurity.
Skubby, David; Bonfine, Natalie; Novisky, Meghan; Munetz, Mark R; Ritter, Christian
The Crisis Intervention Teams model (CIT) was originally developed as an urban model for police officers responding to calls about persons experiencing a mental illness crisis. Literature suggests that there is reason to believe that there may be unique challenges to adapting this model in rural settings. This study attempts to better understand these unique challenges. Thematic analysis of focus group interviews revealed that there were both external and internal barriers to developing CIT in their respective communities. Some of these barriers were a consequence of working in small communities and working within small police departments. Participants actively overcame these barriers through the realization that CIT was needed in their community, through collaborative efforts across disciplines, and through the involvement of mental health advocacy groups. These results indicate that CIT can be successfully implemented in rural communities.
Full Text Available The community of Las Calles, located in Traslasierra Valley, in the westof CórdobaProvince, Argentina, is characterised by a unique combination of rural and touristiclife anda largeurban to rural migration movement. In this sense, a diversity of cultural groups and identities coexist in thiscommunity. These cultural groups are part of “culture” as a strategic arena for the understanding of the tensions that tear apart and reconcile the “being together”continuum.This paper analyses social representations and interactions among actors from emergingand existing cultures (hippies and paisas, respectively in this rural community, as well as the emergence of newcodesand citizenshippractices. Citizenship interactions and practices demand the review and redesign of the “current” sociocultural integration and management policies. Here is where strategic communication can and must contribute to the promotion of this community’s territorial and local development.
Pawit Muhammad Yusup
Full Text Available The problem of poverty in rural areas cannot be separated from the following aspects: poverty, lack of education facilities, low level of entrepreneurial skills, health, lack of learning facilities, population distribution, infrastructure and facilities are inadequate, access to information, and other aspects that are still limited. The Village Library and Community Library as part of the affordable infrastructure and learning facilities are, not yet available in every village. This study tried to introduce pilot models Appropriate Technology Implementation Services Book through Rural Libraries and the community library to a number of poor people in the village. The result could contribute in improving the skills of a number of rural poor in entrepreneurship-based reading. This service models can be applied in other similar villages.
Noor, S K M; Bushara, S O E; Sulaiman, A A; Elmadhoun, W M Y; Ahmed, M H
Undiagnosed diabetes constitutes a challenge for health providers, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance among adults in rural communities in River Nile State, north Sudan. In a cross-sectional community-based study, blood glucose, anthropometric, demographic and clinical history data were obtained from 1111 individuals from 35 villages. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 2.6% (29 individuals); glucose intolerance was detected in 1.3% (14 individuals). Classic symptoms (polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss) were present in around half of the participants but were not more prevalent in those with diabetes. Lower educational level, increasing age, hypertension and unexplained weight loss were significant risk factors for diabetes. Other variables (obesity, sex, occupation, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) were not significant risk factors. There is a low prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and glucose intolerance in the rural population of River Nile State.
Abstract. The public library is an institution of inestimable value supported by public fund for the benefit of the society. The use of public libraries is not restricted to any class of persons in the community but it is freely available to all. This article reviews the purpose and role of public libraries in any community. The problems ...
The paper reports an investigation on how community-based tourism can be used as a development strategy for the efficient and sustainable use of tourist resources in seventeen (17) communities within the Hippopotamus (hippo) Sanctuary of the Wa West District of the Upper West Region of Ghana. Specifically, it explores ...
Other goals include improved governance through building stronger community institutions and increased community capacity, empowerment and voice, which can in turn provide a vehicle for strengthening local governance in other spheres of social and economic development. Thus, participation has now become an ...
ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 41, 2013. Exploring adult education and community development ... The social ecological model proposed by. Bronfenbrenner (1979) has underpinned .... HRDD site, gender and length of participation. This allowed for specific community factors and.
University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal ... Community leaders seek information to resolve and manage conflicts; information on market demands and availability of commodities drive community business activities; and quite often, quick communication of information is essential among family members on the state of ...
Background: Rwanda is moving towards malaria pre-elimination phase by the year 2017 and the role of the community will be critical. However, there is limited information about community perspective of the malaria elimination strategy. A study was thus designed to explore that. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study ...
Mindy S. Crandall; Jane L. Harrison; Claire A. Montgomery
As part of the Integrated Landscape Assessment Project, we developed a methodology for managers to include potential community benefits when considering forest management treatments. To do this, we created a watershed impact score that scores each watershed (potential source of wood material) with respect to the communities that are likely to benefit from increased...
Abstract. Introduction: Integrated community case management (iCCM) involves assessment and treatment of common childhood ill- nesses by community health workers (CHWs). Evaluation of a new Ugandan iCCM program is needed. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess if iCCM by lay volunteer CHWs ...
Full Text Available Background: Injuries account for approximately 11% of all hospital admissions in Sri Lanka. However, no published data are available with regard to the community incidence of injuries in Sri Lanka. Objectives: To determine the community incidence of major intentional and unintentional physical injuries in a rural community in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods: A rural community consisting of 225 families with 1029 inhabitants was studied. Data on major injuries for a period of one year were collected retrospectively. Results: There were 85 major injuries in the community during the year of study. This gives a major injury incidence of 82.6 per 1000 person years. This is three times the incidence based on hospital-derived data. Animal bites being the most common cause of injury was noted in 2.3% of the population followed by falls in 1.6%, contact with objects in 1.5%, cut injuries in 1% and road trauma in 1%. Conclusions: This study shows a higher incidence of major physical injuries (both intentional and unintentional in the community than figures derived from hospital data. The prevention of injuries in a community such as the one studied here should be aimed at animal bites, falls, contacts with objects, cut injuries and road trauma.
Huboyo, Haryono Setiyo
Two rural communities using fuel wood energy in mountainous and coastal areas of Java island in Indonesia have been surveyed to know their household characteristics and the related potential indoor air pollution issues. By random sampling, we characterized fuel wood users only. The fuel wood use was mainly due to economic reason since some of the users were categorized as low-income families. Communities in the mountainous area were exposed to higher risk of indoor air pollution than those in...
Yasminda García-Del Valle; María Consuelo Escobar-Ocampo; Emilio I. Romero-Berny; Karina González-Bocanegra
The use of wild vertebrates was analyzed for rural communities in Catazajá and La Libertad municipalities, Chiapas state. From interviews (n=190) and two workshops (January 2007-December 2008) applied to four communities (Playas, Punta Arena, Morelos and La Libertad), species, uses, sites and hunting seasons were recorder. A total of 24 species were recognized by local people as resources for food, sale, pet, craft and traditional medicine. Jicotea tortoise (Trachemys scripta), nine banded ar...
Longenecker, Randall L; Schmitz, David
This article chronicles the rise, decline, and recent resurgence of rural training track residency programs (RTTs) in the USA over the past 30 years and the emergence of a healthy community of practice in rural medical education. This has occurred during a time in the USA when federal and state funding of graduate medical education has been relatively stagnant and the rules around finance and accreditation of rural programs have been challenging. Many of the early family residency programs developed in the 1970s included a curricular focus on rural practice. However, by the 1980s, these programs were not yet producing the desired numbers of rural physicians. In response, in 1986, Maudlin and others at the family medicine residency in Spokane developed the first 1-2 RTT in Colville, Washington. In the 1990s, and by 2000, early news of success led to a peak of 35 active programs. However, over the next decade these programs experienced significant hardship due to a lack of funding and a general decline in student interest in family medicine. By 2010, only 25 programs remained. In 2010, in an effort to sustain the 1-2 RTT as a national strategy in training physicians for rural practice, a federally funded consortium of individuals and programs established the RTT Technical Assistance program (RTT TA). Building on the pattern of peer support and collaboration set by earlier groups, the RTT TA consortium expanded the existing community of practice in rural medical education in support of RTTs. In-person meetings, peer consultation and visitation, coordinated efforts at student recruitment, and collaborative rural medical education research were all elements of the consortium's strategy. Rather than anchoring its efforts in medical schools or hospitals, this consortium engaged as partners a wider variety of stakeholders. This included physician educators still living and practicing in rural communities ('local experts'), rural medical educator peers, program directors
Benavides-Vaello, Sandra; Strode, Anne; Sheeran, Beth C
Rural communities face tremendous challenges in accessing mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Some of the most promising advancements in the delivery of rural health care services have been in the area of telecommunication technology. These applications have the potential to reduce the disparities in the delivery of substance abuse and mental health services between urban and rural communities. The purpose of this inquiry was to explore the advances and uses of telecommunications technology, and related issues, in the delivery of mental health and substance abuse treatment services within rural areas. A review of the academic literature and other relevant works was conducted and the content was organized into four major themes: (a) advantages of telehealth and applications to rural practice, (b) barriers to implementation in rural practice, (c) utilization in rural areas, and (d) areas for further research.
Biola, Holly; Pathman, Donald E.
Purpose: To assess whether people in the rural Southeast perceive that there is an adequate number of physicians in their communities, assess how these perceptions relate to county physician-to-population (PtP) ratios, and identify other factors associated with the perception that there are enough local physicians. Methods: Adults (n = 4,879) from…
van Rensburg, JFJ
Full Text Available The authors wish to share some of their current learning in the creation of social enterprises to act as primary support mechanisms for Infopreneurs (“creative capitalists”) in the rural African communities. The objective is to attract interested...
May 31, 2012 ... Although Nigeria is referred to as the giant of Africa, her nutritional status remains a major public health challenge especially amongst children. Therefore, to achieve her vision 2020, the nutritional status of children in rural communities must be improved. Keywords: Children, Malnutrition, Growth, Nigeria.
Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn
At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…
McCrary, Donna; Lechtenberger, Deann; Wang, Eugene
This study describes the 1st-year effects of a Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support on four schools in impoverished communities in rural west Texas. The authors present pre- and postdescriptive data that demonstrate the positive effect upon decreasing discipline referrals, lowering in school suspension rates, and reducing failure rates. The…
R. Andrews (Rhys)
textabstractReligious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline
School leadership is an exciting although challenging job. Principals of schools located in rural and remote communities, particular small schools, experience and encounter many challenges that their counterparts in suburban and urban areas do not experience. Concerns over staffing, the quality and availability of materials, facilities,…
Huang, Haigen; Placier, Peggy
Our study sought to understand changes in gender inequality in education across four generations of rural Chinese women's educational experiences in a small community in southern China. The 24 interviews and numerous informal conversations with 12 women showed that gender-based favouritism for men and against women undergirded family expectations,…
Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel
and methods are contextualized to a given settings. To this end, we discuss the implication of considering local (rural community) culture of participation practices, and propose a procedure to be followed in the early phases of information system development process. Finally we argue that, such adaption...
In this short contribution the author, a Masters in Environmental Education student, introduces his research into a rural community's knowledge about, attitudes towards and extensive use of plants which grow wild in their locality, with specific reference to their diet. Taking an ethnographic approach to the study of people's ...
This study explores the appropriateness of the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT) as an instrument of assessing English-language arts (ELA) teacher candidates' effectiveness in a rural border community. Eight -candidates participated in the study. The findings call into question the adequacy of PACT to assess the candidates'…
Reynolds, Richard Kent
Hallsburg ISD is a small, rural, K-6 school district struggling to sustain its operations due to reduced funding from the state, decreased enrollment, and a decrease in the local tax base. This Problem in Practice Record of Study examines the sustainability issues associated with this school district and its importance to the community. Key…
Sangodoyin, A. Y.
Samples from five water sources (spring, borehole, pond, stream, and well) in rural Nigerian communities were tested. Results include source reliabilities in terms of water quality and quantity, pollution effects upon water quality, epidemiological effects related to water quantity and waste disposal, and impact of water quality improvement upon…
Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy. Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River ...
Raffaelli, Marcela; Tran, Steve P.; Wiley, Angela R.; Galarza-Heras, Maria; Lazarevic, Vanja
Immigrants from Latin America are increasingly settling in rural U.S. communities that welcome them as workers but are often unprepared to address their needs and promote their well-being. Building on recent descriptive studies, we examined factors associated with individual and family well-being in a sample of 112 immigrant Latina mothers (mean…
Okamoto, Scott K.; Po'a-Kekuawela, Ka'ohinani; Chin, Coralee I. H.; Nebre, La Risa H.; Helm, Susana
This qualitative study examined the drug resistance strategies of Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities in Hawai'i. Forty seven youth participated in 14 focus groups which focused on the social and environmental context of drug use for these youth. The findings indicated that there were 47 references to resistance strategies used in drug…
Conclusion: Son preference exists in the rural and urban community in Enugu State however a balanced preference is also common especially in the urban area. Recommendation: Family education especially on gender equality and sensitivity was recommended. Keywords: Son preference, balanced preference, Urban, ...
This article is essentially written as two linked parts. The first part considers how space, spatiality and history can contribute to understanding and "doing something about" the sustainability of rural communities. This is done by extensive reference to Soja's (1989 & 1996) space and spatial theorising and selective perspectives of…
Reyes, Maria Eugenia Peña; Chavez, Guillermo Bali; Little, Bertis B; Malina, Robert M
To evaluate the relationship between community well-being based on an index of marginalization and growth status of indigenous rural school children in Oaxaca. Heights and weights of a cross-sectional sample of 11,454 children, 6-14 years, from schools for indigenous rural children (escuelas albergue) in 158 municipios in Oaxaca were measured in 2007. Tertiles of an index of marginalization were used to classify the 158 municipios into three categories of community well-being: lowest (highest marginalization), low, and moderate (lowest marginalization). Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for age, relative isolation and population size, was used to compare body size of children by category of community well-being. Contributions of marginalization, isolation and population size to variation in body size were estimated with sex-specific linear regression. Children from municipios lowest in well-being were shorter and lighter than children from municipios low and moderate in well-being. Marginalization and relative isolation accounted for 23% (boys) and 21% (girls) of the variance in height and for 21% of the variance in weight of girls. Marginalization was the predictor of weight in boys (23%). Community well-being was reflected in the growth status of rural indigenous school children. Compromised growth status was consistent with poor health and nutritional conditions that were and are characteristic of rural areas in the state of Oaxaca. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mueller, Tracy G.; Brewer, Robin D.
In this manuscript the authors propose a professional development model for teachers of students with autism spectrum disorder who are served in rural communities. The components of this four-tiered model include: (a) education through ongoing workshops, (b) coaching, (c) parent information meetings, and (d) ongoing data collection. After…
Chaminuka, P.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Selomane, A.O.; Ierland, van E.C.
This paper analyses the potential for development of ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We determine preferences of tourists, according to origin and income levels, for ecotourism and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for three ecotourism
Baquet, Claudia R.; Bromwell, Jeanne L.; Hall, Margruetta B.; Frego, Jacob F.
Background: A rural community–academic partnership was developed in 1997 between the Eastern Shore Area Health Education Center (ESAHEC) and the University of Maryland School of Medicine’s (UMSOM) Office of Policy and Planning (OPP). The model supports partnered research, bidirectional interactions, and community and health professional education.
WILLIAMS, J. EARL
SUBSTANTIAL POVERTY IN RURAL AREAS HAS BEEN CAUSED BY UNEMPLOYMENT DUE TO THE TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION WHICH HAS MECHANIZED AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN THE EXCLUSIVE DOMAIN OF THE FARM LABORER. A WELL-ORGANIZED COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAM PROVIDES A MEANS OF EFFECTIVELY COMBATING THE RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT WHICH IS ESPECIALLY HIGH AMONG…
Senile cataract and anterior segment eye infection were the two eye diseases most frequently seen in Giwa community. The lack of trachoma seems to indicate that the rural water supplies were relatively clean and safe. The majority of eye problems were age-related, and preventable. Objective: The aim of the study was to ...
Nagaoka, Chizuko; Karki, Manohar
This paper examines the literacy and post-literacy needs of rural women in Nepal, describes a pilot study in using community radio to supplement a classroom-based post-literacy programme for these women, analyses the findings of this intervention and considers the implications for similar programmes in other settings.
This article explores an ongoing project that promotes science education in rural communities of western Nepal by using affordable technology. With the advent of inexpensive technology and multimedia resources, teaching materials for science education can be accessed with a much smaller budget than was previously possible. A preliminary survey…
Small, rural communities typically do not have adequate water purification systems to sustain their life quality and residents are exposed to pathogens present in drinking water. In Puerto Rico (PR), approximately 4% of the population does not have access to drinking water provi...
Essential drugs program is invaluable in cost-effective healthcare, especially in resource limited settings. It ensures the availability of limited range of affordable, effective and rational drugs to meet basic health needs of the population. An evaluation of access to essential drugs was carried out in a rural community in ...
Harsini, Somayeh Bakhtiari; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Delbari, Ahmad; Sahaf, Robab
Studies have shown that the quality of elderly care is substantially influenced by the attitudes of healthcare staff. The present study aimed to assess the attitude of rural community health workers towards elderly people. A cross-sectional design was employed in this study, which was conducted among all health workers of Harsin city (province of Kermanshah - Iran). The Kogan's Attitudes towards Older People Scale (KOPS) was used to measure data. The statistical program SPSS, version 22 was used to perform the data analysis. The mean age of the participated health workers was 37.59 ± 4.48, about 85% were married and 76% were diploma holders. The average score of attitude was 150.60 ±15.31. About 15% of rural community health workers had negative attitude towards older adults. No significant relationships were observed between age, gender, marital status, work experience and educational status with attitudes toward aging. The findings of this study showed that rural community health workers do not have strong positive attitude towards the elderly. Therefore, it is imperative to develop efforts to improve positive attitudes of rural community health workers towards older adults and aging process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
E. Van de Poel (Ellen); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)
textabstractThe rural-urban gap in infant mortality rates is explained using a new decomposition method that permits identification of the ontribution of unobserved heterogeneity at the household and the community level. Using Demographic and Health Survey data for six Francophone countries in
Categories of age-related disabilities are described. The goal of rehabilitation is to enable elderly individuals to continue living at home with some independence. In rural areas, this goal can be attained through rehabilitation in the community by nurses, volunteers, the elderly themselves, and family members; provision of appropriate assistive…
Hartman, Sara L.; Stotts, Jenny; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Miller, Rebecca
Challenging conditions put young children at risk for maltreatment around the world, including in rural, southeastern Ohio. To combat these situations, several strategies are helpful in facilitating positive outcomes for young children. Specifically, when community entities and local school professionals work together, there is a greater…
The results indicate that communities expected direct benefits from the 2010 FIFA World Cup which were generally not realised. However, there was also generally overwhelming support for South Africa hosting the FIFA World Cup and future mega events. This suggests that even in rural areas people support countries ...
Full Text Available This paper reports on a study to determine the information requirements of communities in deep rural areas on government services and how this information can be made available to them. The study then proposes an e-government theoretical framework...
Full Text Available This paper reports on a research to assess the readiness of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) to deliver e-government services to deep rural communities through information dissemination by the SMMEs. This research was conducted as a case...
MacLeod, Martha L P; Stewart, Norma J; Kulig, Judith C; Anguish, Penny; Andrews, Mary Ellen; Banner, Davina; Garraway, Leana; Hanlon, Neil; Karunanayake, Chandima; Kilpatrick, Kelley; Koren, Irene; Kosteniuk, Julie; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Mix, Nadine; Moffitt, Pertice; Olynick, Janna; Penz, Kelly; Sluggett, Larine; Van Pelt, Linda; Wilson, Erin; Zimmer, Lela
In Canada, as in other parts of the world, there is geographic maldistribution of the nursing workforce, and insufficient attention is paid to the strengths and needs of those providing care in rural and remote settings. In order to inform workforce planning, a national study, Nursing Practice in Rural and Remote Canada II, was conducted with the rural and remote regulated nursing workforce (registered nurses, nurse practitioners, licensed or registered practical nurses, and registered psychiatric nurses) with the intent of informing policy and planning about improving nursing services and access to care. In this article, the study methods are described along with an examination of the characteristics of the rural and remote nursing workforce with a focus on important variations among nurse types and regions. A cross-sectional survey used a mailed questionnaire with persistent follow-up to achieve a stratified systematic sample of 3822 regulated nurses from all provinces and territories, living outside of the commuting zones of large urban centers and in the north of Canada. Rural workforce characteristics reported here suggest the persistence of key characteristics noted in a previous Canada-wide survey of rural registered nurses (2001-2002), namely the aging of the rural nursing workforce, the growth in baccalaureate education for registered nurses, and increasing casualization. Two thirds of the nurses grew up in a community of under 10 000 people. While nurses' levels of satisfaction with their nursing practice and community are generally high, significant variations were noted by nurse type. Nurses reported coming to rural communities to work for reasons of location, interest in the practice setting, and income, and staying for similar reasons. Important variations were noted by nurse type and region. The proportion of the rural nursing workforce in Canada is continuing to decline in relation to the proportion of the Canadian population in rural and remote
Full Text Available The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in the community in Ghana was never investigated prior to this study. The aims of the study were: i to assess prevalence of nasal S. aureus carriage in Ghanaian people living in an urban and a rural area, and ii to identify phenotypic and genotypic traits of strains isolated from the two communities. Nasal swabs were collected from healthy individuals living in an urban community situated in the suburb of the capital city, Accra (n = 353 and in a rural community situated in the Dangme-West district (n = 234. The overall prevalence of nasal carriage was 21% with a significantly higher prevalence in the urban (28% than in the rural community (11% (p<0.0001. The levels of antimicrobial resistance were generally low (<5% except for penicillin (91% and tetracycline (25%. The only two (0.3% MRSA carriers were individuals living in the urban area and had been exposed to hospitals within the last 12 months prior to sampling. Resistance to tetracycline (p = 0.0009 and presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL gene (p = 0.02 were significantly higher among isolates from the rural community compared to isolates from the urban community. Eleven MLST clonal complexes (CC were detected based on spa typing of the 124 S. aureus isolates from the two communities: CC8 (n = 36, CC152 (n = 21, CC45 (n = 21, CC15 (n = 18, CC121 (n = 6, CC97 (n = 6, CC30 (n = 5, CC5 (n = 5, CC508 (n = 4, CC9 (n = 1, and CC707 (n = 1. CC8 and CC45 were less frequent in the rural area than in the urban area (p = 0.02. These results reveal remarkable differences regarding carriage prevalence, tetracycline resistance, PVL content and clonal distribution of S. aureus in the two study populations. Future research may be required to establish whether such differences in nasal S. aureus carriage are linked to socio-economic differences between urban and rural communities in this
Sabin, Allison V; Levin, Pamela F
The Affordable Care Act requires nonprofit hospitals to collaborate with public health agencies and community stakeholders to identify and address community health needs. As a rural organization, Wabash County (Indiana) Hospital pursued new approaches to achieve these revised requirements of the community benefit mandate. Using a case study approach, the authors provide a historical review of governmental relationships with nonprofit community hospitals, offer a case study application for implementing legislative mandates and community benefit requirements, share the insights they garnered on their journey to meet the mandates, and conclude that drawing upon the existing resources in the community and using current community assets in novel ways can help conserve time, and also financial, material, and human resources in meeting legislative mandates.
Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Meneses-Navarro, Sergio; Ruelas-González, María Guadalupe; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra; Taboada, Arianna
From an ethno-gerontological perspective, new models are needed to fulfill the health needs of the indigenous older adult population in Mexico. In this paper we developed a comprehensive healthcare model, interculturally appropriate, designed to meet the needs of Mexican indigenous older adults. The model was constructed using a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews of older adults, health providers, and available health resources in three Mexican indigenous regions. An ethnographical review was carried out to contextually characterize these communities. At the same time, a comprehensive bibliographic revision was made to identify socio-demographic markers. Results pointed out that Mexican indigenous older adults are not covered by any type of social health insurance program. Their health problems tend in large part to be chronic in nature due to the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. There is a need for trained human resources in the field of gerontology encompassing the sociocultural context of the indigenous groups. The geographical location of these communities limits the permanent presence of healthcare givers and thus limits access to continuous care. Traditional healthcare givers, able to speak the native language, are a great asset allowing the invaluable possibility of direct verbal communication. Based upon the data gathered from indigenous older adults and service providers, in tandem with evidence from the literature, we identified key elements for successful intervention and designed an intervention model. We concluded that indigenous older adults are a more vulnerable group, given that aside from being elderly in a country where the health needs of these populations exceed the capacity of existing healthcare services, their ethnicity serves as an added barrier preventing their access to the limited available healthcare resources. To achieve uniformity in providing health care, today's health systems need to address intercultural and
Agricultural activities mainly occur in rural areas; recently, ecological conservation and biological diversity are being emphasized in rural communities to promote sustainable development for rural communities, especially for rural communities in Taiwan. Therefore, since 2005, many rural communities in Taiwan have compiled their own development strategies in order to create their own unique characteristics to attract people to visit and stay in rural communities. By implementing these strategies, young people can stay in their own rural communities and the rural communities are rejuvenated. However, some rural communities introduce artificial construction into the community such that the ecological and biological environments are significantly degraded. The strategies need to be efficiently monitored because up to 67 rural communities have proposed rejuvenation projects. In 2015, up to 440 rural communities were estimated to be involved in rural community rejuvenations. How to monitor the changes occurring in those rural communities participating in rural community rejuvenation such that ecological conservation and ecological diversity can be satisfied is an important issue in rural community management. Remote sensing provides an efficient and rapid method to achieve this issue. Segmentation plays a fundamental role in human perception. In this respect, segmentation can be used as the process of transforming the collection of pixels of an image into a group of regions or objects with meaning. This paper proposed an algorithm based on the multiphase approach to segment the normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI, of the rural communities into several sub-regions, and to have the NDVI distribution in each sub-region be homogeneous. Those regions whose values of NDVI are close will be merged into the same class. In doing so, a complex NDVI map can be simplified into two groups: the high and low values of NDVI. The class with low NDVI values corresponds to those
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol represents a major public health challenge in South Africa, however little is known about the correlates of alcohol use among rural adolescents. This article examines community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in a rural region of South Africa. Method A total of 1600 high school adolescents between 11 and 16 years of age participated in this study. Seven hundred and forty (46.3% were female and 795 (49.7% were male. Data on gender were missing for 65 students (4.0% of the sample. The age range was 11–29 years (mean age 16.4 years; Standard deviation = 2.79. A survey questionnaire on adolescent risk behavior that examined adolescents’ use of alcohol and various potential community influences on alcohol use was administered. Factor analysis was used to group community-level variables into factors. Multiple logistic regression techniques were then used to examine associations between these community factors and adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol. Results The factor analysis yielded five community-level factors that accounted for almost two-thirds of the variance in home-brewed alcohol use. These factors related to subjective adult norms around substance use in the community, negative opinions about one’s neighborhood, perceived levels of adult antisocial behavior in the community, community affirmations of adolescents, and perceived levels of crime and violence in the community (derelict neighborhood. In the logistic regression model, community affirmation was negatively associated with the use of home-brew, whereas higher scores on “derelict neighborhood” and “adult antisocial behavior” were associated with greater odds of drinking home-brew. Conclusion Findings highlight community influences on alcohol use among rural adolescents in South Africa. Feeling affirmed and valued by the broader community appears to protect adolescents against early alcohol use. In
Onya, Hans; Tessera, Abebe; Myers, Bronwyn; Flisher, Alan
Alcohol represents a major public health challenge in South Africa, however little is known about the correlates of alcohol use among rural adolescents. This article examines community influences on adolescents' use of home-brewed alcohol in a rural region of South Africa. A total of 1600 high school adolescents between 11 and 16 years of age participated in this study. Seven hundred and forty (46.3%) were female and 795 (49.7%) were male. Data on gender were missing for 65 students (4.0% of the sample). The age range was 11-29 years (mean age 16.4 years; Standard deviation = 2.79). A survey questionnaire on adolescent risk behavior that examined adolescents' use of alcohol and various potential community influences on alcohol use was administered. Factor analysis was used to group community-level variables into factors. Multiple logistic regression techniques were then used to examine associations between these community factors and adolescents' use of home-brewed alcohol. The factor analysis yielded five community-level factors that accounted for almost two-thirds of the variance in home-brewed alcohol use. These factors related to subjective adult norms around substance use in the community, negative opinions about one's neighborhood, perceived levels of adult antisocial behavior in the community, community affirmations of adolescents, and perceived levels of crime and violence in the community (derelict neighborhood). In the logistic regression model, community affirmation was negatively associated with the use of home-brew, whereas higher scores on "derelict neighborhood" and "adult antisocial behavior" were associated with greater odds of drinking home-brew. Findings highlight community influences on alcohol use among rural adolescents in South Africa. Feeling affirmed and valued by the broader community appears to protect adolescents against early alcohol use. In contrast, perceptions of high levels of adult anti-social behavior and crime and
Constable, Sophie; Dixon, Roselyn; Dixon, Robert
As part of strategies to improve dog and community health in rural and remote Indigenous communities, this study investigated preferences and impacts of dog health education programs. Semistructured interviews with 63 residents from five communities explored learning preferences. Though each community differed, on average yarning was preferred by…
Bhandari, Dilip P; Wollen, Terry S; Lohani, Mahendra N
Poultry is an integral part of the rural livelihoods in Cambodia, with more than half of the households keeping poultry in their small-scale, traditional, and extensive backyards. More than 20 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks have been reported since 2004 with deaths of over 21,000 birds. During the HPAI outbreaks, some of the flocks in the rural areas were culled without compensation and producers were not allowed to sell outside of the community. Heifer International worked with 2,000 rural families through local project partners in the target communities to develop an effective intervention mechanism to mitigate the impact of the HPAI crisis. Heifer International provided training, public education, and networking as well as promoting model farms based on improved scavenging poultry management. Each community selected one farm family to serve as a model farm. They were trained in Heifer's working approach and committed to practicing integrated farming systems based on scavenging poultry management. One Village Animal Health Worker (VAHW) in each community participated during the project implementation, playing a key role in the information exchange and the interaction between the communities and the avian influenza experts. Formal and informal trainings were conducted for all project partners and project recipients through experts and VAHWs, respectively. There have been no outbreaks reported in the communities in the project areas. Farmers have started using appropriate techniques to maintain biosecurity. They are passing on the knowledge and the skills to the surrounding communities. This participatory approach in educating rural farmers can serve as a model to mitigate HPAI in the developing countries around the world.
Faber, Mieke; Kruger, H Salomé
This narrative review focuses on ethics related to nutrition-specific community-based research, within the framework of science for society, and focusing on the rights and well-being of fieldworkers and research participants. In addition to generally accepted conditions of scientific validity, such as adequate sample size, unbiased measurement outcome and suitable study population, research needs to be appropriate and feasible within the local context. Communities' suspicions about research can be overcome through community participation and clear dialogue. Recruitment of fieldworkers and research participants should be transparent and guided by project-specific selection criteria. Fieldworkers need to be adequately trained, their daily schedules and remuneration must be realistic, and their inputs to the study must be recognized. Fieldworkers may be negatively affected emotionally, financially and physically. Benefits to research participants may include physical and psychological benefits, minimal economic benefit, and health education; while risks may be of a physical, psychological, social, or economic nature. Targeting individuals in high-risk groups may result in social stigmatization. The time burden to the research participant can be minimized by careful attention to study procedures and questionnaire design. Potential benefits to the community, fieldworkers and research participants and anticipated knowledge to be gained should outweigh and justify the potential risks. Researchers should have an exit strategy for study participants. For effective dissemination of results to individual research participants, the host community and nutrition community, the language, format and level of presentation need to be appropriate for the target audience. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kruger, Tina M; Swanson, Mark; Davis, Rian E; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Katie; Schoenberg, Nancy E
Despite the well-established benefits of physical activity (PA), most Americans, especially those in rural, traditionally underserved areas, engage in considerably less PA than recommended. This study examines perceived barriers to and facilitators of PA and promising organized PA programs among rural Appalachians. Eight focus groups and seven group key informant interviews were conducted. This study was conducted in eastern Kentucky, in central Appalachia. One hundred and fourteen rural Appalachian residents (74% female, 91% white) participated. Open-ended, semistructured, and structured questions regarding perceptions of, barriers to/facilitators of, and examples of successful/failed PA programs were asked. Qualitative data analysis was conducted, including codebook development and steps taken to ensure rigor and transferability. Interrater reliability was over 94%. In addition to barriers that are consistent with those found in other populations, rural Appalachian residents indicated that travel time, family commitments, and inadequate community resources undermine PA. Suggested avenues to increase PA include partnership with churches and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Cooperative Extension Service; programs that include families, are well advertised, and focus on health rather than appearance; and, underlying all suggestions, culturally relevant yet nonstereotyping activities. When developing PA interventions in rural Appalachia, it is important to employ community-based participatory approaches that leverage unique assets of the population and show potential in overcoming challenges to PA.
Full Text Available Introduction: Management of stroke in the remote rural areas in India faces major challenges because of lack of awareness. Stroke care services can be optimally implemented only if the communities have an understanding of the disease. Method: A population based, cross sectional survey of an adult general population sample between the ages of 31-60 years in a rural block in Tamil Nadu, India was carried out to study their knowledge, attitude, beliefs about cause, signs and symptoms, preventive measures and treatment options of stroke. Results: Of the 174 subjects studied only 69% were aware of the term stroke and 63% were able to list the symptoms. Only a little more than half the participants (58% were aware that diabetes, smoking and hypertension are risk factors for stroke. None of the participants were aware of the endovascular thrombolysis injection for better recovery from stroke. About quarter (23% of the participants did not think that the stroke is an emergency condition and they need to take the patient urgently to the hospital. Only 56% of the participants had checked their blood pressure and 49% for diabetes. A history of having either hypertension or diabetes and stroke in the family was the only factor that was significantly associated with better awareness (p=<0.001 independent of other potential facilitating factors including age, occupation, education and gender. Conclusion: There is a need to educate the rural communities about the risk factors, how to recognize the onset, the preventive measures and optimum care of stroke to reduce the burden.
Kasun, G. Sue
Background/Context: Transnational Mexican-origin youth comprise a large and increasing number of students in U.S. schools, yet their teachers have often misunderstood their backgrounds and the conditions related to their transnational movement over borders. With such a large number of immigrant/transnational youth in the U.S. of Mexican origin, it…
Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill; Herman, Patricia M; Carvajal, Scott C
Mexican American farmworkers experience high rates of mental health conditions; however, it is difficult for them to access care. Patient-centred care is a systems-wide approach to improving the delivery of services for diverse populations in the primary care setting. We describe the application of community-based participatory research methods to assess and address gaps in perceptions of mental health care between providers and migrant workers living in a US-Mexico Border community. A federally qualified health centre (FQHC) serving a community of approximately 60 000 agricultural workers who live in Yuma County and harvest vegetables during the winter season. We conducted patient focus groups (n = 64) and FQHC staff interviews (n = 16) to explore attributes and dimensions of patient-centred mental health care. Patients and staff both prioritized increased access to mental health care and patient-centred care, while patients were more concerned with interpersonal care and providers with coordination of care. All participants stressed the relationship between life events and mental health and the centrality of family in care. Patients also emphasized the importance of a good attitude, the ability to solve problems, positive family relationships and reliance on faith. Patients suggested that the FQHC inform patients about mental health resources, provide community informational talks to address stigma, and offer support groups. The participatory approach of this qualitative study resulted in a wealth of data regarding patient preferences that will enable the FQHC to develop protocols and training to provide patient-centred mental health-care services for their community. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Melby, G.; Grubert, E.; Brandt, A. R.
Shale gas development in Pennsylvania has been shown to have a large impact on nearby rural communities, but almost no research has been done on how development of the Marcellus Shale affects urban residents in neighboring cities. The goal of this project is to examine how the social and environmental priorities of urban and rural communities differ and to determine how well informed urban residents are on shale gas development. An anonymous web survey was used to survey 250 residents of Pennsylvania's largest cities on topics like how respondents prioritize different environmental and social factors and how well informed they feel about shale gas development. The results of this survey were compared to findings of previous surveys on rural communities located near energy development. In terms of environmental priorities, urban residents are more concerned about climate change and air pollution than rural residents. Both urban and rural respondents agreed that healthcare and education were their top social concerns, but urban respondents also prioritized housing and employment. Most urban respondents said that they were unfamiliar with shale gas development, although many were still concerned about what its environmental impacts might be. We also found that our results displayed two well known demographic trends: first, Democrats are far more likely to self identify as environmentalists than those who vote Republican, and second, that people of color are far less likely to identify as environmentalists than white respondents. As a result, there are disproportionately fewer self-identifying environmentalists in urban and largely Democrat-leaning areas with racially diverse populations. Our data displayed known trends in urban populations as well as new information on how urban residents differ from their rural counterparts in their views on shale gas development and their broader social and environmental priorities.
Wiersma, Elaine C; Denton, Alison
Dementia-friendly communities, as communities that enable people with dementia to remain involved and active and have control over their lives for as long as possible, centrally involve social support and social networks for people living with dementia. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand the context of dementia in rural northern communities in Ontario with an emphasis on understanding how dementia friendly the communities were. Using qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with a total of 71 participants, including 37 health service providers, 15 care partners, 2 people living with dementia and 17 other community members such as local business owners, volunteers, local leaders, friends and neighbours. The strong social networks and informal social support that were available to people living with dementia, and the strong commitment by community members, families and health care providers to support people with dementia, were considered a significant asset to the community. A culture of care and looking out for each other contributed to the social support provided. In particular, the familiarity with others provided a supportive community environment. People with dementia were looked out for by community members, and continued to remain connected in their communities. The social support provided in these communities demonstrated that although fragile, this type of support offered somewhat of a safety net for individuals living with dementia. This work provides important insights into the landscape of dementia in rural northern Ontario communities, and the strong social supports that sustain people with dementia remaining in the communities. © The Author(s) 2013.
Rodolfo Talledo; Julia Castro
Para validar la influencia que tiene la infección por Enterobius vermicularis en el rendimiento escolar, se tomó una muestra de 123 niños cuyas edades oscilaban de 3 a 6 años y que constituían toda la población escolar de 6 Centros de Educación Inicial, ubicados en las comunidades rurales de Carabayllo y Santa Rosa de Quives, en Lima, Perú. El estudio comprendió, además del examen parasitológico, la determinación del estado nutricional de los niños, utilizando la técnica de Graham modificada ...
José Ángel Vera Noriega
Full Text Available Con el objeto de presentar el escenario del aula multigrado en la zona rural en pobreza extrema se emplea una estrategia de clasificación estadística con el procedimiento por conglomerados. La muestra poblacional fue de 206 docentes que se clasificaron en base a datos de observación y reporte verbal de estrategias didácticas, control de grupo, planeación, evaluación y apoyo al aprendizaje, identificándose 5 tipos en la práctica docente. Los grupos se contrastan con los resultados en competencias académicas básicas de sus alumnos. Se señala la importancia de la diversidad en las estrategias didácticas y de manejo grupal, así como la variedad de elementos que los docentes emplean en su planificación y evaluación como la característica que permite identificar la diferencia entre los resultados de los alumnos. En la perspectiva de la política educativa vigente se analiza el impacto de los mecanismos de incentivos y capacitación docente como elementos para promover habilidades cognitivas sobre el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje. Se resaltan las condiciones de la enseñanza multigrado en zona rural como elemento primordial para mediar la regulación de estrategias de control disciplinario y planeación de la práctica docente. Se crítica los sistemas actuales de compensación por la preponderancia de una visión administrativa de la enseñanza. Finalmente se enfatiza la utilidad de la clasificación de la práctica docente para posteriores acciones de capacitación específica a las condiciones de la zona rural, así como a distintos niveles de pericia de los profesores.With the purpose of presenting a view of the multigrade classes in a rural area of extreme poverty, a statistical classification strategy is employed here proceeding by clusters. The sample population was made of 206 teachers, which were classified on the basis of data observed and verbal reporting of didactic strategies, group control, planning, and evaluation and
Gillman, Lawrence M; Vergis, Ashley
Rural/community surgery presents unique challenges to general surgeons. Not only are they required to perform "classic" general surgery procedures, but they are also often expected to be competent in other surgical disciplines. Final-year Canadian-trained residents in general surgery were asked to complete the survey. The survey explored chief residents' career plans for the following year and whether or not they would independently perform various procedures, some general surgical, and others now considered within the domain of the subspecialties. Sixty-four residents (71%) completed the survey. Twenty percent planned to undertake a rural surgical practice, 17% an urban community practice, and 55% had confirmed fellowships. Most residents (>90%) expressed comfort with basic general surgical procedures. However, residents were less comfortable with subspecialty procedures that are still performed by general surgeons in many rural practices. More than half of graduating general surgery residents are choosing subspecialty fellowship training over proceeding directly to practice. Those choosing a rural or community practice are likely to feel ill prepared to replace existing surgeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Loreni Elena Baciu
Full Text Available The article reports on a qualitative study of Roma employability in Romania. Being the largest ethnic minority group in Europe, the Roma population is the object of profound marginalization in most of the countries where they reside, by measures such as spatial segregation and exclusion from the formal labour market. This article focuses particularly on the Roma living in rural segregated communities. Inspired by institutional ethnography, the aim is to explore the social organization of rural Roma employability from the standpoint of the Roma themselves. The main obstacles to employment, as they are known and shared by our interviewees, are a lack of available jobs within reach, their own lack of education and a rejection by employers on the grounds of them being Roma. As the analyses show, these obstacles, and the individual’s experiences and knowledge about them, are shaped and maintained by extended translocal relations of administration and governance, thus making the rural Roma dependent on a precarious secondary labour market of low-paid day work for neighbouring farmers. The uncertainty of this work, and the organization and work of everyday life it implies for the people inhabiting these communities, further increases the distance to formal employment. It is this complex set of relations coordinating people’s doings that produce the employability of Roma inhabiting the rural segregated communities.
José Ángel Vera Noriega; Rosario Leticia Domínguez Guedea
Con el objeto de presentar el escenario del aula multigrado en la zona rural en pobreza extrema se emplea una estrategia de clasificación estadística con el procedimiento por conglomerados. La muestra poblacional fue de 206 docentes que se clasificaron en base a datos de observación y reporte verbal de estrategias didácticas, control de grupo, planeación, evaluación y apoyo al aprendizaje, identificándose 5 tipos en la práctica docente. Los grupos se contrastan con los resultados en competenc...
La Rue, Asenath; Felten, Kristen; Duschene, Kathie; MacFarlane, Dana; Price, Susan; Zimmerman, Suanne; Hafez, Stephanie
Interventions that stimulate and engage individuals with dementia physically, cognitively, and socially offer promise for improving health and well-being and for potentially slowing functional losses with disease progression. We describe a volunteer-based intervention that combines physical exercise, cognitive-linguistic stimulation, and social outings for older persons living with dementia in rural communities. One-year follow-up data, although clearly preliminary (n = 8), suggest stability in global cognition, mood, and aspects of physical fitness. Challenges to implementing dementia interventions in rural areas are discussed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Full Text Available Regional development is a new concept whose opportunities are enhancing and diversifying economic activities, enhancing investments in the private sector, contributing to unemployment reduction, and last but not least improving the standard of living. To assure the development policies in economy, agriculture, forestry, tourism, regional planning, infrastructure, and education etc., it is needed to take into account the specific conditions of the rural regions, Romanian villages and to observe the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity. In this context, the paper aimed to point out the opportunities for the development of rural communities through regional development.
Sampson, Gretchen; Miner Gearin, Kim J; Boe, Mary
In mid-2012, the Polk County Health Department initiated a community health needs assessment process with the 3 medical centers serving this rural Wisconsin county of 45 000 residents. The collaborative process drew on primary and secondary data, including clinical data pooled from health care organizations, to assess population health. Community health assessment ultimately engaged more than 1800 county residents through coordinated surveys and community forums. Although the Polk County Health Department has a long history of collaboration with the local health care community, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, coupled with meaningful use requirements for health care providers, sharply increased engagement, contributed to shared priorities, and brought this relationship to a new level. Partners have now convened community-based workgroups around the top 3 health focus areas selected from the assessment process. Community health assessment emphasized the social determinants of health as a step toward a more "upstream" orientation to population health goals.
Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Okundia, Patrick Otamere
The African region of the world is experiencing a double epidemic of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among adult residents of rural communities in southern Nigeria. A community based descriptive cross-sectional study. Adults aged 18 years and above residing in the rural communities who attended a free medical outreach programme were screened for hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Of the 845 participants, 349 (41.3%) were aged 50-69 years, 263 (31.1%) were males, and 305 (36.1%) were farmers. Overweight and obesity were found in 184 (21.8%) and 90 (10.6%) of them respectively. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 37.6% (males 43.7%, females 35.1%, p = 0.018) while that of diabetes mellitus was 4.6% (males 1.9%, females 5.8%, p = 0.012). Predictors of hypertension were age ≥ 40 years (OR = 5.04, CI: 2.99 - 8.48), overweight/obesity (OR = 1.56, CI: 1.15 - 2.13) while females are less likely to develop hypertension (OR = 0.72, CI: 0.53 - 0.98). The significant predictor of diabetes mellitus was overweight/obesity (OR = 3.53, CI: 1.78 - 6.98). The rising prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus is assuming an epidemic level in rural communities in southern Nigeria. There is an urgent need for intensive health education and community surveillance programmes targeted at rural communities in order to achieve prevention and control of these non-communicable diseases in Nigeria.
menor costo fueron razones frecuentemente aducidas para estas elecciones. Conclusiones. Esta información puede resultar útil para mejorar la comunicación con las madres.Objective. To identify the terms used by mothers to refer to diseases, signs and symptoms related to acute respiratory illnesses (ARI, alarming signs which should motivate them to seek medical attention, and to describe common home practices of disease care and treatment. Material and methods. An ethnographic study was performed in six rural communities of the Mexican central highlands. Interviews were collected from 12 key informers, six mothers of children who had died from ARI and 24 mothers of children younger than five years of age, with several ethnographic techniques to complement information ("triangulation". Results. The most commonly identified diseases were cold, sore throat, cough, bronchitis, pneumonia and "broncomonía". Key signs to establish diagnosis included nasal discharge, sore throat, cough, head and body ache, fever, "bubbling" chest, general malaise and shortness of breath. Tachypnea was referred to as "b breathing", "much breathing", "rapid breathing" or "sizzle"; intercostal depression as "the chest sinks", stridor as "chest moan or chest snore", sibilance as "chest snore" and cyanosis as "he turns purple". Home treatments include herbal teas, lemon, green or red tomato or potato applied to the throat externally, as well as creams applied to chest or back. Antibiotic prescription was not common, contrary to antipiretics. Most mothers recognized mild illnesses: severe illnesses were recognized less frequently. When faced with a severe ARI, mothers sought attention firstly at the project clinic, second in frequency with a private physician in the capital of the province and then at the Health Ministry of the district. The reasons to choose these possibilities were mainly proximity and lower costs. Conclusions. This information can be useful to improve communication with mothers.
Available in English or Spanish, this resource guide aims to help rural schools and communities learn ways of supporting each other so that both can thrive. Background information and basic tools are provided for starting a joint school-community development effort. Chapters contain: (1) outline of the guide and statement of beliefs about…
Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna
The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…
Objective: The Nigerian Midwives Service Scheme (MSS) was designed to address the scarcity of skilled birth attendants at primary health care levels. Although, Nigeria has a rich population of trained Midwives, their deployment and retention at communities in critical need for their skills remains a huge challenge.
Suggested strategies to reduce fuelwood scarcity in area include: promotion of on farm tree planting activities (agroforestry) and energy saving technologies, availing alternative energy sources such as electricity, enhancing family planning methods, skilling of communities on income generation enterprises especially girls.
Stokowski, Patricia A.
Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…
Apr 27, 2016 ... But with support from IDRC, researchers from Makerere University studied the impact of social and environmental changes on the health of pastoralist communities around Lake Mburo National Park. They assessed the impact of zoonotic diseases (those of animal origin) on animal and human health, and ...
Jul 18, 2008 ... considerably to livelihood as a food supplement and for income generation among local communities. However, U. kirkiana trees are not widely ... In Malawi, food shortage period. (October to February) precedes the ... important in order to fulfil aims of conservation and satisfy claims of utilization by the local ...
The aim of the study was to identify and appraise the participation of women in household and community decision-making and its implications for their empowerment. Test samples were selected through a multi–stage random sampling technique. A total of ninety respondents were chosen from the five sampled wards, and ...
Tyson, C. Benjamin; Westa, Susan P.; Broderick, Stephen H.
A learning needs assessment survey was conducted by the Green Valley Institute in the Quinebaug Shetucket National Heritage Corridor in Connecticut and Massachusetts. This survey was designed to assess educational interests, perceived knowledge, and importance relating to land use, community planning and design, and natural resources. Findings…
Conclusion: This study shows that the COLNISA strategy has a positive impact on basic social, health and nutritional indices and engenders community participation. A controlled trial is however advocated before its wholesale application. Key Words: COLNISA, underweight, stunted, wasted, nutrition, information. Annals of ...
Muñoz, Susana M.
This study examines the stress factors associated with college persistence among a sample of four undocumented Mexican immigrant women from a small rural community in the Rocky Mountain region. Using Chicana feminist epistemological techniques to analyze data collected from in-depth interviews, this study yielded four major findings that include:…
Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Nanda, Geeta; Ramírez, Luis F; Chen, Mario
In Guatemala, especially in rural areas, gender norms contribute to high fertility and closely spaced births by discouraging contraceptive use and constraining women from making decisions regarding the timing of their pregnancies and the size of their families. Community workshops for men, women and couples were conducted in 30 rural communities in Guatemala to test the hypothesis that the promotion of gender equity in the context of reproductive health will contribute to gender-equitable attitudes and strengthen the practice of family planning. Communities were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Pre/post surveys were conducted. Odds ratios estimated with mixed effect models to account for community-level randomization and repeated measures per participant were compared. The analyses showed statistically significant effects of the intervention on two of the three outcomes examined: gender attitudes and contraceptive knowledge. Findings regarding contraceptive use were suggestive but not significant. The results suggest that it is possible to influence both inequitable gender norms and reproductive health knowledge and, potentially, behaviours in a short span of time using appropriately designed communications interventions that engage communities in re-thinking the inequitable gender norms that act as barriers to health.
B S Chavan
Full Text Available Background: Lack of awareness about mental illness prevents patients from getting appropriate mental health care. This is more so in places where there is dearth of adequate mental health professionals. These factors highlight the importance of conducting research to assess public knowledge and attitudes toward mental illness. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the prevailing concept of depression in the community. Methods: Two villages in the periphery of Chandigarh were selected and local “Panchayat” of the villages were told to select the local members in the community who were regarded as socially responsible. A total of 48 members were selected and a workshop was conducted by the experts in mental health and the cohort was asked about prevailing concept of depression in the local community. The whole workshop was videotaped and the verbatim of the same was recorded. Results: It was found that majority had beliefs that depression is caused by stressful circumstances or substance use and the depressed individual has decreased interaction, fights and sleeps less. It was also noted that the prevalence was perceived to be low. The first treatment preferences were religious/faith healers or the local practitioners. Reasons for treatment gap were cited as ignorance and misguidance in the community. Conclusions: It was interpreted that depression is mainly linked with stressful events and symptoms being behavioural only. The understanding of somatic and biological symptoms was lacking along with the endogenous risk factors and its causes. Treatment gap exists at the grass root level and reasons such as ignorance and misguidance emerged during the discussion with the community leaders.
Full Text Available Researchers are paying increasing attention to questions of community leadership and rural tourism development. Based on leadership theories and the literature on community leadership and tourism development, this study developed a framework for community leadership in rural tourism development and used it to examine two ancient Chinese villages. We used the longitudinal case study method to collect data, and we used textual analysis to analyze these data. The results show that the rebel leadership characteristic of confrontational actions played an important role in starting the tourism industry in both villages. However, this leadership was difficult to maintain because community leaders and residents had limited power compared to that of outsiders. Losing control of tourism development in the two villages led to banal management, which prevented the emergence of strong community leadership. In the future, we argue that resilient community leadership should be nurtured in the two villages to address more complex problems occurring in tourism development, such as those characterized by vision tensions and conflicts of interest among the stakeholders affected by tourism development. Finally, we suggest that, based on the longitudinal method, future research can focus on the relationship between resilient leadership and the resilience of tourism communities.
Larson, Kim L; Ballard, Sharon M; Nuncio, Brenda J; Swanson, Melvin
Regions of the US with growing Latino populations are in need of culturally sensitive sexual risk reduction programs. A Latino community, a public school district, and a university in eastern North Carolina collaborated to test the feasibility of ¡Cuídate!, a culturally tailored, evidence-based sexual risk reduction program, with Mexican and Central American youth. Ten male and 10 female adolescents, ages 13-17 years, participated in the ¡Cuídate! program and post-program focus groups. Early adolescent boys and girls (ages 13-15) gained the most from this program. A safe environment facilitated healthy sexual communication, and condom skills-building provided a context for shared partner responsibility. Grade-level and gender differences were significant. Analysis of the focus group data identified three important messages: Everybody needs sex education, We like this program better because it is hands-on, and I'm going to make better decisions about sex. The findings of this study support the need for community-based interventions that ensure cultural respect, trust, and a safe environment in which to discuss sexual issues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kaye, Lenard W; Crittenden, Jennifer A; Kelly, Nancy; Boylan, Deirdre
The Rural Caregiver Network Project in Eastern Maine is a prime example of indigenous coalition-building in a region struggling to ensure that vulnerable older adults can age-in-place and manage with scarce resources. Through this innovative initiative, a range of elder caregiver interventions were mobilized, coordinated, and sustained in a rural two-county region in Maine, including navigator services, adult day care, information and referral, caregiver support groups, a caregiver resource center, and caregiver skills-building workshops. The endorsement of participatory research, evaluation, and programming principles enabled undergraduate and graduate social work students to assume major roles in all aspects of project planning, implementation, and assessment while remaining grounded in the realities of rural life. Competence in such a generalist gerontological social work practice perspective is critical in small towns and nonmetropolitan communities.
Smith, Michael T; Goebel, Jessica Schroenn; Blignaut, James N
Given the persistence of systemic poverty in, most notably, the rural parts of South Africa, the question is whether the use of biodigesters as a source of energy offers potential solutions to some of the difficulties and development needs faced by people in these areas. At the core, this translates into whether this technology would be financially and economically feasible for installation and use by rural households. Here we conduct both a financial and an economic cost-benefit analysis in one such community based on survey data from 120 households. Analysis of these data and supporting literature reveals that a biodigester is not a financially feasible investment for a rural household. Substantial economic benefits are, however, found to make a biodigester a worthwhile investment from a broader societal perspective. This is a compelling argument for further study and the consideration of government support in the light of broader economy-wide benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LeFebvre, Andrea M; Dare, Bill; Farrell, Susan J; Cuddeback, Gary S
An emerging focus of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams is the transition of clients to less intensive services, which creates space for individuals in need of ACT and is consistent with a recovery orientation of treatment. However, there is limited research on team transition rates, post-ACT services, and strategies to overcome transition barriers. In addition, few studies have examined differences in these factors among urban and rural ACT teams. To address these knowledge gaps, we interviewed eight ACT teams in urban and rural areas of eastern Ontario regarding their transition rates, processes of transitioning ACT clients to less intensive services, transition barriers, and solutions to overcoming these barriers. On average, teams transitioned about 6% of their clients over our 3-year study period. Urban and rural teams described both similar and distinct clinical and systemic barriers, such as client reluctance to transition and finding psychiatric follow-up outside of ACT. Implications for ACT practice and policy are discussed.
Cené, Crystal W; Akers, Aletha Y; Lloyd, Stacey W; Albritton, Tashuna; Powell Hammond, Wizdom; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
African Americans (AA) and rural communities often suffer disproportionately from poorer health. Theory-guided research examining how individual- and community-level factors influence health behaviors and contribute to disparities is needed. To understand how a social network model that captures the interplay between individual and community factors might inform community-based interventions to reduce HIV risk in rural AA communities. Qualitative study. Eleven focus groups with 38 AA 16-24 year olds, 42 adults over age 25, and 13 formerly incarcerated individuals held in community settings in two rural, predominantly AA counties in North Carolina. Thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with multiethnic key informants. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with open-ended questions assessed a) perceptions of multi-level HIV risk determinants from a social network model (individual, interpersonal, social, economic, political and structural) identified through literature review and b) community needs and assets affecting local HIV rates. Qualitative data was analyzed using directive content analysis guided by a social network model. We identified four themes regarding the interaction between individuals and their communities that mediate HIV risk: interpersonal processes, community structural environment, social disorder, and civic engagement. Communities were characterized as having a high degree of cohesiveness, tension, and HIV-related stigma. The community structural environment-characterized by neighborhood poverty, lack of skilled jobs, segregation, political disenfranchisement and institutional racism-was felt to reduce the availability and accessibility of resources to combat HIV. Adults noted an inability to combat social problems due to social disorder, which fuels HIV risk behaviors. Civic engagement as a means of identifying community concerns and developing solutions is limited by churches' reluctance to address HIV-related issues. To combat HIV
Full Text Available A fully sustainable sanitation system was developed for a rural hospital in Haiti. The system operates by converting human waste into biogas and fertilizer without using external energy. It is a hybrid anaerobic/aerobic system that maximizes methane production while producing quality compost. The system first separates liquid and solid human waste at the source to control carbon to nitrogen ratio and moisture content to facilitate enhanced biodegradation. It will then degrade human waste through anaerobic digestion and capture the methane gas for on-site use as a heating fuel. For anaerobic decomposition and methane harvesting a bioreactor with two-stage batch process was designed. Finally, partially degraded human waste is extracted from the bioreactor with two-stage batch process and applied to land farming type aerobic composter to produce fertilizer. The proposed system is optimized in design by considering local conditions such as waste composition, waste generation, reaction temperature, residence time, construction materials, and current practice. It is above ground with low maintenance requirements.
Ilika, Amobi Linus
Partner violence is a serious public health problem affecting mostly women. This qualitative study assessed the perceptions of rural Igbo women of Nigeria of intimate partner violence. Information was elicited using in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Women of childbearing age were selected from the various women age grades in Ozubulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Findings revealed that the women generally condone and are complacent with intimate partner violence, perceiving it as cultural and religious norms. The women felt that reprimands, beating and forced sex affecting their physical, mental and reproductive wellbeing are normal in marriage. They did not support reporting such cases to the police or divorcing the man, they would rather prefer reporting to family members. They felt that exiting the marriage would not gain the support of family members. They also expressed fear for the uncertainty in re-marrying, means of livelihood after re-marriage, social stigmatisation, and concern for their children. Socio-cultural norms and structures favour partner violence in Anambra State of Nigeria. There is a need for advocacy and concerted action that will involve the educational, health, civil and religious sectors of the society to evolve sustainable structures that will empower women and provide support to enable victims to react appropriately to violence.
Nimgaonkar, Alok U; Menon, Shylaja Devi
Psychiatric disorders constitute a major source of disability across the globe. In India, individuals with mental disorders are diagnosed and treated inadequately, particularly in under-served rural areas. We implemented and evaluated a psychiatric 'task shifting' program for a rural, marginalized, impoverished South Indian tribal community. The program was added to a pre-existing medical program and utilized community workers to improve health care delivery. Following community wide discussions, health workers were trained to provide community education and to identify and refer individuals with psychiatric problems to a community hospital. Subsequently, they also followed up the psychiatric patients to improve treatment adherence. The program was evaluated through medical records and community surveys. Treated patients experienced significant improvement in daily function (p=0.01). Mean treatment adherence scores remained stable at the beginning and end of treatment, overall. The proportion of self-referrals increased from 27% to 57% over three years. Surveys conducted before and after program initiation also suggested improved knowledge, attitudes and acceptance of mental illness by the community. The annual per capita cost of the program was 122.53 Indian Rupees per person per annum (USD 1.61). In conclusion, the community-driven psychiatric task shifting program was implemented successfully. It was accompanied by positive changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice. Initial community consultations and integration with a pre-existing medical program increased acceptance by the community and reduced costs. We recommend a similar model with integrated medical and psychiatric health care in other resource-deficient communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Florence, James; Behringer, Bruce
Traditional models for public health professional education tend to be didactic, with brief, discrete practica appended. National reports of both practitioners and academicians have called for more competency-driven, interdisciplinary-focused, community-based, service-oriented, and experientially-guided learning for students across the curriculum. East Tennessee State University began its own curricular revisioning in health professions education nearly 2 decades ago with a grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, emphasizing competencies development through community-based learning in community-academic partnerships. This article describes 3 examples that grew from that initiative. In the first example, students in multiple classes delivered a longitudinal community-based employee wellness intervention for a rural county school district. BS public health students conducted needs assessments and prepared health education materials; MPH students conducted health assessments and worked with school wellness councils to deliver client-centered interventions; DrPH students supervised the project and provided feedback to the schools using participatory methods. In the second example, MPH students in a social-behavioral foundations course used experiential learning to investigate the region's elevated cancer mortality ranking. Following meetings with multiple community groups, students employed theoretical constructs to frame regional beliefs about cancer and presented findings to community leaders. One outcome was a 5-year community-based participatory research study of cancer in rural Appalachia. In the third example, MPH students in a health-consulting course assessed local African Americans' awareness of the university's health and education programs and perceptions of their community health issues. Students learned consultation methods by assisting at multiple regional African American community meetings to discover issues and interest that resulted in the
Background Poor nutritional status of mothers has a direct and indirect consequence on their own health and that of their children. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status of mothers and their children and the risk factors for under-nutrition among mothers and children in rural and urban communities of Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods This was a cross sectional survey conducted using the multistage random sampling technique. A total of 300 mother-child pairs were studied, consisting of 150 each from rural and urban communities. Under-nutrition in mothers and children was determined using standard criteria. Results The prevalence of under-nutrition among mothers was significantly higher in rural than urban communities (10.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.014). The prevalences of underweight and stunted children were also significantly higher in rural than urban communities (19.4% vs. 9.3%, p child under nutrition differs across rural and urban communities. Conclusions The prevalence of maternal and child under-nutrition is high in both communities although higher in rural communities. Efforts at reducing the vicious cycle of under-nutrition among mothers and children should concentrate on addressing risk factors specific for each community. PMID:23880121
Jiménez-González, Alberto; Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Rosales-Flores, Roselia Arminda
To identify objective and subjective conditions in the lives of pregnant teens within a highly-marginalized community in the state of Puebla, Mexico. Objective and subjective conditions of pregnant teens were evaluated through a mixed methodology (surveys, observation guides and a structured interview guide). The main family characteristic is the absence of a father due to migration, no desire to study or work and the new meaning of pregnancy: the initial social stigma for engaging in a sexual activity and then, the stigma for being a young mother. Objective conditions show family disintegration, lack of access to education at the community, high school and college level as well as unemployment as processes linked to teen pregnancy; thus, making it practically impossible to develop life goals. Subjective conditions center around the reproduction of gender stereotypes related to maternity.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the traditionalexploitation of timber, in a community framework, to the respect of governanceprinciples in actions for the fight against poverty in some rural communities inCameroon. In 1990, the government of Cameroon adopted laws on the freedomof association that authorised teaming up for the search of possibilities for abetter economic welfare of populations. It is in line with this that in 1994, a newforest law which authorises willing communities to organise themselves andrequest the government to grant them a portion of the national forest of thepublic domain to be managed by them and for their personal interest. Also, andwith the help of the international community, Cameroon elaborated in 1998 itsfirst poverty reduction strategy paper that encouraged amongst others,community actions in the search of solutions to the economic crisis that strokethe country. Through the application of a logit model to the responses collectedthrough a survey carried out on a sample of 200 individuals of the East regionof Cameroon, it was noticed that timber exploitation in a community frameworkdoes not necessarily lead to the strengthening of the links of belonging to acommon community, and to the equitable redistribution of revenues from theexploitation of the community forest.
Full Text Available Many rural areas, in Sweden and worldwide, experience population decline where the young leave for education and work in urban areas. Employment has declined in several rural industries, such as agriculture, forestry, and fishing, while growing in other industries are often located in urban areas. Politicians and organizations have put much hope in tourism as a tool of rural development, but can tourism help reverse the rural out-migration trend among young adults? This paper explores how tourism affects young inhabitants’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural area in Sweden, the ski resort of Sälen. Students from the 1993–1995 elementary school graduating classes were interviewed about their migration history, childhood, and view of and ties to Sälen. The respondents experience that tourism contributes to a more vital community incorporating influences from elsewhere, but without eliminating the positive aspects of rural life. The regular flow of people – tourists, seasonal workers, and entrepreneurs – passing through Sälen presents opportunities to extend one’s social network that are widely appreciated by respondents. The high in and out mobility constitutes a key part of Sälen’s character. Contributions from tourism – such as employment, entertainment, leisure, and opportunities to forge new social relationships – are available during the adult transition, the life phase when rural areas are often perceived as least attractive. Even though out-migration occurs in Sälen, and some respondents still find Sälen too small, tourism has clearly increased the available opportunities and contributed significantly to making Sälen more attractive to young adults.
Neville, Stephen; Napier, Sara; Adams, Jeffery; Wham, Carol; Jackson, Debra
To identify the theories and concepts related to building age-friendly rural communities. Global population is rapidly ageing. Creating environments that support active ageing was a catalyst for the World Health Organization to develop Global Age-Friendly Cities guidelines. Although the age-friendly movement has captured the attention of some countries, little is known about the participation of older people in rural settings. An integrative review approach was employed to summarise the research literature on this topic. Using a systematic search strategy, databases including Discover (EBSCO's electronic database system), Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Medline and Google Scholar were searched. Primary, peer-reviewed studies were included if published during 2007-2014 in the English language. Nine studies were eligible for inclusion. The studies were set predominantly in Canada, with the exception of one from Ireland. The findings were summarised and clustered into main topics which included: theoretical perspectives; geographic and demographic characteristics; collaboration and partnerships; sustainability and capacity; and finally, future research agendas. Rural communities are changing rapidly and are becoming increasingly diverse environments. Community characteristics can help or hinder age-friendliness. Importantly, the fundamental starting point for age-friendly initiatives is establishing older peoples' perceptions of their own communities. It is important for nurses, working in primary health care settings, to understand the needs of older people in the communities in which they practice. This includes the community characteristics that can be enablers and barriers to older people being able to remain and age within their own communities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Walsh, Kieran; O'Shea, Eamon
Older adult active retirement groups encompass health promotion, social and community psychological potential. However, little is known about the internal dynamics of these groups or their contribution to individual well-being and the community. This paper examines the Third Age Foundation as an example of one such group operating in a rural area in Ireland and explores the various relationships at work internally and externally. Methodology included: structured and semi-structured interviews, focus groups and a postal survey. A substantial contribution to members' well-being and community competence and cohesion was found. Findings are discussed in reference to the importance of individual and community empowerment, sustainability, social entrepreneurship/leadership and the potential of such models to support community-based living in older age.
Sultan, Abdul Salam Saleh
To describe the health beliefs and practice in a rural Iraqi community. Personal observations and practice; narratives of colleagues. Rural Iraqi society has remained unchanged in beliefs and practices in many ways since the Babylonian and Sumerian eras over four millennia ago. Like other rural societies, it has a culture that includes values, beliefs, customs, communication style, and behaviors. Those beliefs often invoke supernatural agents such as evil, jinni, witchcraft and the results of sin, bad luck and envy. Primitive and current religious beliefs join with the effects of poverty and illiteracy. These rural people view health and disease quite differently from the views of their physicians and these cultural beliefs and practices confound current patient-clinician communication. Although physicians view the medical encounter as the main tool of diagnosis and therapy, especially when biomedical technology is lacking, ignorance of the characteristics of the rural society and people may make physicians' work all the more difficult. As with all cross-cultural interactions, better understanding of the patient or family's beliefs allow the clinician to find compromises and reach agreements that ignorance of their beliefs would deny. Simply asking the patient and the family how they view the illness, what they consider to be the cause, what treatments they have already tried and what treatments they hope you will use, may go a long way toward building a therapeutic relationship.
Full Text Available Looking ahead, rural Europe faces significant challenges. Some of these are long-term and will require major adaptation, such as climate change, increasing scarcity of fossil fuels and the ageing indigenous population. Others are medium-term and subject to political uncertainty, such as economic stagnation and unemployment, pressures from in-migration, and constrained public finances. Markets appear likely to continue to encourage conventional farm modernisation and capitalization, but these may increase, rather than resolve, rural problems and tensions. Seen through an ecological lens, conventional patterns of development decrease rural social, environmental and economic resilience, and yet this is becoming increasingly important. New approaches are needed which can work with global and local processes to maintain rural diversity, quality and community: key factors in resilience-building. Interesting tactics may involve increasing local capacity to act, stimulating new local products, services and markets and new forms of pluri-activity. Business profitability and productivity will remain central, but can be realised in a variety of unconventional ways. Some examples and approaches are briefly presented and some general lessons identified for the new Rural Development Policy and Programmes, 2014–2020.
Silas-Casillas, Juan Carlos; Perales-Franco, Cristina
Even in marginalized towns it is possible to find school communities that have developed relationships that encourage the construction of institutional cultures and management structures prone to superior academic performance compared to others within the same context. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project conducted in…
Cuellar, Jose B.
Discusses Chicano social scientists' needs identified by Mario Barrera: to use methodological strategies and theoretical models emphasizing researcher's close contact with the people; to research the nature of social and political control systems as applicable to the Chicano community; to define the relations between social scientists and the…
Farrokhi, M; Hajrasoliha, M; Meemari, G; Fahiminia, M; Talebi, M; Kohansal, M
For sustainable development an integrated cost-effective approach focused on the goal of health and environmental protection is necessary. In Iran more than 22 million people live in rural communities. A little more than 92% of the rural population in Iran have access to safe drinking water supply, but only less than 0.2% have sanitary wastewater disposal system. Groundwater is the main resource of water supply in rural communities in Iran and contaminated or untreated groundwater can be the major reason for waterborne diseases outbreak and wastewater discharge is the main cause of groundwater contamination. In new strategy in Iran's wastewater company, the importance of wastewater treatment is equal to water treatment in rural communities and the main goal in this section is providing sanitary wastewater disposal system for 8% of rural areas until 2010 and 30% until 2020. One of the most important limitations for establishment of wastewater disposal system is the limitation of governmental funds. For this reason, a national program was performed for ranking of rural communities with the goal of improving the funding effectiveness in wastewater management in rural communities. Many important criteria were considered for determination of priorities, these criteria include: population, population density, water consumption and wastewater generation, wastes disposal systems at present, environmental and health risks, agricultural and industrial wastewater, social conditions specially public participation, investment simplicity and type of living (seasonal or permanent). For collection of information about rural community, according to the criteria, a questionnaire was designed with 40 quantified questions. Questionnaires completed for all rural areas with more than 400 people population (more than 77% of rural population of the country). Completed questionnaires were analyzed with specific software for ranking of villages according to above mentioned criteria. Right
The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.
Abuzar, Menaka A; Owen, Julie
Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students' feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale) and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0). They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8). This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions. Significance for public healthAn oral health outreach programme is one of the suggested approaches to effectively address the endemic issues of poor oral health among Indigenous people around the world. An Indigenous dental clinical outplacement in Australia provides an example of beneficial outcomes of such an approach. It provides dental students with an opportunity to experience the health issues related to Australian Indigenous communities and prepare future graduates to work comfortably in the public health care system. Indigenous people also develop trust and feel comfortable in receiving oral health care services
The satisfaction of the rights of victims in the repair processes of serious violations of international human rights and international humanitarian law, involves the obligation to adopt criteria that take into account the perspective of the victims, why which the rationale, form and objectives of such remedies must be based on the construction and collective discussion of the people and communities involved. In this context, it is necessary to respond to what has been called a "failure to re...
Sherman, Jennifer; Sage, Rayna
Based in qualitative interviews and ethnographic research conducted in the remote rural town of "Golden Valley," California, this paper explores the roles of schools and education in structuring rural community life in the wake of economic devastation caused by the timber industry collapse in the region. We look in depth at the ways in…
Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon
Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…
Havenaar, Juhan M.; Geerlings, Mirjan I.; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian
This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used
This article shows how groups that acquired the highest concentration of social and political power in the Po Valley in the High and late Middle Ages, firstly rural seigniorial lords and latterly urban governments, tried to subordinate rural communities to their policies of land clearance and water
John, Deborah; Winfield, Tammy; Etuk, Lena; Hystad, Perry; Langellotto, Gail; Manore, Melinda; Gunter, Kathy
Individual risk factors for obesity are well-known, but environmental characteristics that influence individual risk, especially in rural communities, are not confirmed. Rural communities face unique challenges to implementing environmental strategies, such as walkability, aimed at supporting weight healthy lifestyles. Cooperative Extension, a community-embedded weight health partner, convened and engaged community members in self-exploration of local resources and readiness to change environmental characteristics perceived to promote unhealthy eating and inactivity. This approach leveraged Extension's mission, which includes connecting rural communities with land-grant university resources. HEAL MAPPS™ (Healthy Eating Active Living Mapping Attributes using Participatory Photographic Surveys) was developed as a participatory action research methodology. Adopted by Extension community partners, HEAL MAPPS™ involved residents in photomapping, characterizing, and communicating lived experiences of their rural community, and prioritizing interventions to change the obesogenic context. Extension educators serving rural communities in six Western U.S. states were trained to implement HEAL MAPPS™. Extension engaged community members who mapped and evaluated their encounters with environmental attributes that shape their dietary and activity patterns. The method partnered residents with decision makers in identifying issues, assessing resources and readiness, and prioritizing locally relevant environmental strategies to reduce access disparities for rural populations with high obesity risk. HEAL MAPPS™ revealed differences in resource availability, accessibility, and affordability within and among rural communities, as well as in readiness to address the obesogenic context. Extension functioned successfully as the backbone organization, and local community health partner, cooperatively implementing HEAL MAPPS™ and engaging constituents in shaping weight healthy
Kofi D. Benefo
Full Text Available Using survey and census data for rural Ghana collected in the 1980s, this study examines the ability of women's education to increase interest in fertility regulation and contraception among all women, regardless of their individual and household features. The study finds that, net of her own characteristics, a woman's interest in limiting fertility and using modern contraception increase with the percent of educated women in her community. These results suggest that female education has a greater capacity to introduce novel reproductive ideas and behaviors into rural areas of Africa and thereby transform the demographic landscape in the region than is currently believed. There is also evidence that female education may undermine existing methods of regulating fertility. Other community characteristics that increase women's interest in regulating fertility and contraceptive use in this setting include access to transportation and proximity to urban areas. However, these are not as powerful as women's education in transforming reproductive behavior.
Rigo, Ilva Inês; Paskulin, Lisiane Manganelli Girardi; de Morais, Eliane Pinheiro
Cross-sectional study, conducted with 34 elder people from a rural community of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2008. The objective is to evaluate their functional capacity and to compare interest variables between sexes. The household survey addressed social, economic and demographic variables, aspects related to health/disease, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Scale of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) of the Older American Resources and Services (OARS). Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Compared to men, women were more likely to be more educated, have less community activities, have similar MEEM scores, worst health perception and were more dependent to perform ADL. The peculiarities of rural elder persons are highlighted, as well the need to tailor actions to promote their adaptability in this context and allow the minimization of disabilities.
Montour, Amy; Baumann, Andrea; Blythe, Jennifer; Hunsberger, Mabel
The nursing literature includes descriptions of rural nursing workforces in Canada, the United States of America and Australia. However, inconsistent definitions of rural demography, diverse employment conditions and health care system reorganization make comparisons of these data difficult. In 2007, the Ministry of Health and Long-term Care in Ontario, Canada, transferred responsibility for decision-making and funding to 14 regional governing bodies known as Local Health Integration Networks (LHINs). Little is known about rural-urban variations in the nursing workforces in the LHINs because existing data repositories do not describe them. This study investigated the influence of demographic characteristics, provincial policies, organizational changes and emerging practice challenges on nursing work in a geographically unique rural region. The purpose was to describe the nature of nursing work from the perspective of rural nurse executives and frontline nurses. The study was conducted in 7 small rural and community hospitals in the Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant LHIN. Data collection occurred between August and November 2007. A qualitative descriptive study design was chosen to facilitate exploration of nursing in the rural setting. Study participants were identified through purposive snowball sampling. All nurses, nurse managers and nurse executives currently employed in the 7 study hospitals were eligible to participate. Data collection included the use of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Memos were also created to describe the relevance and applicability of concepts, categories and properties emerging from the data. Themes were compared across interviews to determine relevance and value. Twenty-one nurses from 7 different hospitals participated. The nurses reflect the aging trend in the provincial and regional workforces of Ontario. All study participants anticipate a substantial increase in retirements during the next decade, which will alter
Baker, Harold R.
This book examines cases of rural community development initiatives in the United States, Canada, and Europe, identified during a study of multicommunity collaboration projects. Section 1 includes 36 community development ideas operating at provincial, regional, and local levels. Included are ideas such as bank community development corporations,…
Taniguchi, Kyoko; Hirakawa, Yukiko
School management in many sub-Saharan African countries has been enhanced through community participation in an attempt to improve education quality. This study uses field research in a rural district of Malawi to assess how community and parent participation differs between schools, the intentions of communities and parents when carrying out…
Menaka A. Abuzar
Full Text Available Background. Indigenous people worldwide suffer from poor oral health as compared to non-Indigenous citizens. One of the approaches to bring about improvement in Indigenous oral health is to enhance the service provision by implementing oral health outplacement programmes. A case study of such a programme for dental students in Australia reports how an educational institution can successfully engage with an Indigenous oral health service to provide learning experiences to the students as well as deliver much needed services to the community. Design and Methods. The assessment of this ongoing outplacement programme over the period of 2008-14, based on students’ feedback, highlights some of the key beneficial outcomes. Students agreed that the Indigenous outplacement programme improved their understanding of Indigenous issues (mean ± SD: 4.10±0.8; 5 refers to strongly agree on 5-point scale and increased the possibility that they will practise in Indigenous health (3.66±1.0. They were pleased with the assistance received by clinical supervisors and clinic staff at the Indigenous dental clinic (4.28±0.8. Conclusions. This programme has demonstrated that structured student outplacements are valuable in building relations across cultures especially with Indigenous communities. It has also shown that university engagement with the public health sector can be beneficial to both institutions.
Acevedo-Nieto, Emilio C.; Paulo S.A. Pinto; Silva, Letícia F.; Guimarães-Peixoto, Rafaella P.M.; Santos, Tatiane O.; Ducas, Camilla T.S.; Bevilacqua, Paula D.
ABSTRACT: Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic zoonosis that affects human and pigs raised free-range in developing countries. The epidemiology of the taeniosis cysticercosis complex in Brazil is poorly understood especially when it comes to field research. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in rural communities located in the east of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. From 371 farms in the county o...
Environmental and climate changes are among the serious threats to the world's land resources in the 21st Century. Particularly, in the developing countries the impact inevitably goes as the continuing toll on agricultural production, human lives, and properties. It is also a driving force of poverty and impediment of overall economic development in many less developed nations, like Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper assesses the rural communities' vulnerability to farmland poverty in different ...
José Antonio Santana Rangel; Luz Arenas Monreal; Ramsey, Janine M.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the pillars of community resilience in a region where Chagas disease is endemic, with the aim of promoting participatory processes to deal with this condition from the resilience of the population. METHODS Qualitative study using ethnographic record and six interviews of focus groups with young people, women and men. The research was carried out in a rural area of the state of Morelos, Mexico, between 2006 and 2007. We carried out educational sessions with th...
Sturm, Heidrun; Moßhammer, Dirk; Roller, Gottfried; Joos, Stefanie
Introduction: A common problem in Germany is the recruitment of young general practitioners in rural areas. In principle, the physician self-government is responsible for securing outpatient care. Confronted with demographic change and preferences of a younger medical work-force, in recent years also communities and local governments get involved in the planning process. This is also reflected in recent healthcare reforms, where local planning commissions, which formerly comprised only payer ...