Hine, Rochelle Helena; Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda Jane
Social connection is a fundamental human need, but challenging for individuals with characteristics that are socially stigmatized. Parenting with mental illness presents obstacles, as well as opportunities, for connection. In the present study, we examined connectedness within a personal recovery paradigm for rural mothers with a mental illness. In-depth interviews with 17 mothers with a mental illness, utilizing constructivist grounded theory, resulted in six categories of meaning, including 'yearning for connection', 'connecting intensely', 'encountering rejection and exclusion', 'choosing isolation', 'being known', and 'finding peers/helping others'. Women expressed a strong desire for connection, but for many, prior experiences of trauma and rejection created barriers to the development of trust, preventing some women from seeking opportunities for connection. Connectedness to self and significant others, and a broader life meaning and purpose can support and expedite personal recovery from mental illness for rural women. However the factors that contribute to the mental illness might also inhibit the development of trust needed to attain social connection. Increasing connectedness in mothers with mental illness is a complex endeavour requiring concerted focus as distinct from other service-delivery goals. The perinatal period could be a key time for intervention. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Audu, Ishaq A; Idris, Suleiman H; Olisah, Victor O; Sheikh, Taiwo L
Despite the fact that mental illness is a common problem in society, people's perception of the mentally ill and community attitude towards them is still rather poor, making their rehabilitation and reintegration into society an uphill task. To examine the stigmatization of people with mental illness within a rural community and identify the socio-demographic variables involved. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a multi-stage random sampling technique to obtain data through an interviewer-administered questionnaire to 325 adult inhabitants of a rural community in Nigeria. The results showed widespread ignorance about causation, mode of transmission and remedies available for mental illness, with only 0.9% of respondents attributing mental illness to brain disease. The others attributed it to spiritual attack, punishment for evil doing and illicit psychoactive substance use, among other things. Negative views about the mentally ill were also widely expressed resulting in discriminatory practices. Stigmatization of people with mental illness is still rampant in our community. There is a need for adequate public education about the causes and mode of transmission of mental illness and the treatment options available in the community.
Schoonover, Julie; Lipkin, Samuel; Javid, Munazza; Rosen, Anna; Solanki, Mehul; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L
Despite the significant toll of mental illness on the Indian population, resources for patients often are scarce, especially in rural areas. Traditional healing has a long history in India and is still widely used, including for mental illnesses. However, its use has rarely been studied systematically. The aim of this study was to determine the perspective of patients, their families, and healthy community members toward faith healing for mental illness, including the type of interventions received, perceptions of its efficacy, and overall satisfaction with the process. We also sought to explore the range of care received in the community and investigate possibilities for enhancing mental health treatment in rural Gujarat. We interviewed 49 individuals in July 2013 at Dhiraj General Hospital and in 8 villages surrounding Vadodara. A structured qualitative interview elicited attitudes toward faith healing for mental illnesses and other diseases. Qualitative analysis was performed on the completed data set using grounded theory methodology. Subjects treated by both a doctor and a healer reported they overwhelmingly would recommend a doctor over a healer. Almost all who were treated with medication recognized an improvement in their condition. Many subjects felt that traditional healing can be beneficial and believed that patients should initially go to a healer for their problems. Many also felt that healers are not effective for mental illness or are dishonest and should not be used. Subjects were largely dissatisfied with their experiences with traditional healers, but healing is still an incredibly common first-line practice in Gujarat. Because healers are such integral parts of their communities and so commonly sought out, collaboration between faith healers and medical practitioners would hold significant promise as a means to benefit patients. This partnership could improve access to care and decrease the burden of mental illness experienced by patients and
Harshal Ramesh Salve
Full Text Available Background: Attitude about mental illness determines health seeking of the people. Success of National Mental Health Programme (NMHP is dependent on attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders in the programme. Material & Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in Ballabgarh block of Faridabad district in Haryana. We aimed to study attitude about mental illness of various stakeholders of health care providers (HCP, community leaders in rural area of Haryana, north India. Study area consisting of five Primary Health Centers (PHCs serving 2,12,000 rural population. All HCP working at PHCs, Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA and community leaders in study area were approached for participation. Hindi version of Opinion about Mental illness Scale for Chinese Community (OMICC was used to study attitude. Results: In total, 467 participants were participated in the study. Of which, HCP, ASHAs and community leaders were 81 (17.4%, 145 (31.0% and 241 (51.6% respectively. Community members reported socially restrictive, pessimistic and stereotyping attitude towards mentally ill person. ASHA and HCP reported stereotyping attitude about person with mental illness. None of the stakeholders reported stigmatizing attitude. Conclusion: Training programme focusing on spectrum of mental illness for HCP and ASHA working in rural area under NMHP programme is needed. Awareness generation of community leaders about bio-medical concept of mental illness is cornerstone of NMHP success in India.
Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Nagarajaiah; Konduru, Reddemma; Badamath, Suresh
Human rights violations are commonly reported against people with mental illness and have remained a major research issue in recent times. The present study was aimed to compare psychiatric patients' perceptions of human rights needs between rural and urban settings. A descriptive study design was carried out among 100 recovered psychiatric patients based on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale (CGI-I scale), at a tertiary care center. Participants were selected through a random sampling method. Data was collected through face to face interviews, using a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics. The present study highlighted the significant differences in meeting their basic human rights needs in a physical needs dimension i.e. availability of hot water for bathing (c2=8.305, p .019). Our findings revealed that human rights violations among mentally ill are evident across rural and urban environments. Thus, there is an urgent need to change the attitude of the general population towards people with mental illness through awareness campaign. In addition, educating the public about the human rights of mentally ill is also essential.
Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon
The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'). However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to grasp how these may underpin the use of practices such as mechanical
Jones, Rebecca; Reupert, Andrea; Sutton, Keith; Maybery, Darryl
People with mental illness and substance use problems form a significant subgroup of the homeless population. International research has begun to document the complex experiences of this vulnerable group; however, less attention has focused on those living in rural areas. This study sought to determine the experiences of people with mental illness and/or substance use issues, experiencing significant housing problems in rural areas. Within a qualitative framework, individual interviews were conducted with 40 respondents in Australia. Themes generated a discussion around three main areas; (1) current housing problems, (2) pathways into unsuitable housing, and (3) factors contributing to appropriate accommodation. The need for agency staff to identify and assist with the housing issues of their clients is underscored.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting human rights which historically has had limited impact at the level of those living with mental illness and their families. Methods This research forms part of a longitudinal anthropological study of people with severe mental illness in rural Ghana. Visits were made to over 40 households with a family member with mental illness, as well as churches, shrines, hospitals and clinics. Ethnographic methods included observation, conversation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with people with mental illness, carers, healers, health workers and community members. Results Chaining and beating of the mentally ill was found to be commonplace in homes and treatment centres in the communities studied, as well as with-holding of food ('fasting'. However responses to mental illness were embedded within spiritual and moral perspectives and such treatment provoked little sanction at the local level. Families struggled to provide care for severely mentally ill relatives with very little support from formal health services. Psychiatric services were difficult to access, particularly in rural communities, and also seen to have limitations in their effectiveness. Traditional and faith healers remained highly popular despite the routine maltreatment of the mentally ill in their facilities. Conclusion Efforts to promote the human rights of those with mental illness must engage with the experiences of mental illness within communities affected in order to
Wilson, Rhonda L; Wilson, G Glenn; Usher, Kim
The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full use of the locally available unique social capital that is sufficiently flexible to facilitate mental health helping capital best suited to mental health service delivery for rural people in an Australian context.
Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Tian-Ming; Wong, Irene Yin-Ling; Yang, Xin; Liu, Chang-Cheng; Liu, Bo; Luo, Wei; Kuang, Wei-Hong; Thornicroft, Graham; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan
It is unknown whether there are differences in self-stigma among persons with different types of severe mental illness (SMI) in rural communities. This study was to examine the differences of self-stigma and its correlates in persons with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in a rural community in China. A total of 453 persons with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in a rural community participated in the study. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) was used to measure self-stigma. The t-test and analyses of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the differences in mean scores of ISMI and subscales among the three diagnoses. Logistic regression was used to explore the contributing factors to the level of self-stigma among the three groups. Self-stigma was moderate and severe with 94.7% of the total sample. Persons with schizophrenia had significantly higher mean scores of total ISMI, alienation and discrimination experience than those with bipolar disorders. Lower family income was significantly associated with higher levels of self-stigma in persons with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Factors predicting the level of self-stigma among the three groups were various. Self-stigma is common and severe in persons with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, especially those with lower income status in rural community in China. Persons with schizophrenia may have higher levels of self-stigma than those with bipolar disorder. Individual-level interventions should be developed to reduce self-stigma among persons with SMI in Chinese rural communities.
Handley, Tonelle E; Lewin, Terry J; Perkins, David; Kelly, Brian
Although mental health literacy has increased in recent years, mental illness is often under-recognised. There has been little research conducted on mental illness in rural areas; however, this can be most prominent in rural areas due to factors such as greater stigma and stoicism. The aim of this study is to create a profile of those who are most and least likely to self-identify mental health problems among rural residents with moderate- to-high psychological distress. Secondary analysis of a longitudinal postal survey. Rural and remote New South Wales, Australia. Four-hundred-and-seventy-two community residents. Participants completed the K10 Psychological Distress Scale, as well as the question 'In the past 12 months have you experienced any mental health problems?' The characteristics of those who reported moderate/high distress scores were explored by comparing those who did and did not experience mental health problems recently. Of the 472 participants, 319 (68%) with moderate/high distress reported a mental health problem. Reporting a mental health problem was higher among those with recent adverse life events or who perceived more stress from life events while lower among those who attributed their symptoms to a physical cause. Among a rural sample with moderate/high distress, one-third did not report a mental health problem. Results suggest a threshold effect, whereby mental health problems are more likely to be acknowledged in the context of additional life events. Ongoing public health campaigns are necessary to ensure that symptoms of mental illness are recognised in the multiple forms that they take. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.
... the same time. For example, you may have depression and a substance use disorder. Complications Mental illness is a leading cause of disability. Untreated mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral and physical health problems. Complications sometimes linked to mental illness include: ...
Gold, Paul B; Meisler, Neil; Santos, Alberto B; Carnemolla, Mark A; Williams, Olivia H; Keleher, Jennie
Urban-based randomized clinical trials of integrated supported employment (SE) and mental health services in the United States on average have doubled the employment rates of adults with severe mental illness (SMI) compared to traditional vocational rehabilitation. However, studies have not yet explored if the service integrative functions of SE will be effective in coordinating rural-based services that are limited, loosely linked, and geographically dispersed. In addition, SE's ability to replicate the work outcomes of urban programs in rural economies with scarce and less diverse job opportunities remains unknown. In a rural South Carolina county, we designed and implemented a program blending Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) with an SE model, Individual Placement and Support (IPS). The ACT-IPS program operated with ACT and IPS subteams that tightly integrated vocational with mental health services within each self-contained team. In a 24-month randomized clinical trial, we compared ACT-IPS to a traditional program providing parallel vocational and mental health services on competitive work outcomes for adults with SMI (N = 143; 69% schizophrenia, 77% African American). More ACT-IPS participants held competitive jobs (64 versus 26%; p < .001, effect size [ES] = 0.38) and earned more income (median [Mdn] = $549, interquartile range [IQR] = $0–$5,145, versus Mdn = $0, IQR = $0–$40; p < .001, ES = 0.70) than comparison participants. The competitive work outcomes of this rural ACT-IPS program closely resemble those of urban SE programs. However, achieving economic self-sufficiently and developing careers probably require increasing access to higher education and jobs imparting marketable technical skills. PMID:16177278
... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...
Mukherjee, Shrabani; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta Kanti
Stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness has a serious impact on the disease outcome and lives of people with mental illness as well as other family members. The objectives of this study were (i) To determine the level of self-perceived stigma toward mental illness, (ii) To measure perception to it among caregivers of people with mental illness, and (iii) To identify the factors associated with self-perceived stigma of caregivers. In this cross-sectional study, a structured interview was conducted among 200 caregivers of people with mental illness in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India. Stigma and perception regarding mental illness were assessed with a validated 12-item Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue and 20-item perception scale, respectively. Information on their sociodemographic characteristics was also collected. Average stigma score (53.3 ± 13.2) was higher than 50% of maximum attainable score. Caregivers of higher age, female gender, low income, higher education, manual job, rural residence, and those who are single or widowed scored higher in stigma scale. Caregivers with female gender (P = 0.007) and rural residence (P = 0.01) were more likely to have stigma while the perception score was negatively associated (P illness and improve family life.
Girma, Eshetu; Tesfaye, Markos; Froeschl, Guenter; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Müller, Norbert; Dehning, Sandra
Public understanding about mental illnesses and attitudes towards people with mental illness (PWMI) play a paramount role in the prevention and treatment of mental illness and the rehabilitation of PWMI. The aim of this study was to measure public stigma against PWMI and the factors associated with stigma in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC) in Southwest Ethiopia. This community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2012 among 845 randomly selected respondents by using the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale, an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was entered with EPI-DATA and then exported to STATA for analysis. Simple descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of stigma against PWMI. Of the total of 845 respondents, 68.17% were from rural districts. The mean stigma score was 2.62 on a 5-point score. The majority of the respondents (75.27%) believed that mental illness can be cured. Stress, poverty, and rumination were the most often perceived causes of mental illness. Rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.61, Pstigma (std. β = -0.14, Pstigma (std. β = 0.07, Pstigma levels. The study found a more undermining but less avoidant attitude towards PWMI. Rural residents showed higher levels of stigma. Stigma against PWMI was lower in people with an explanatory concept about the causes of mental illness and a higher level of education. Information, education, and communication about the causes, signs, and nature of mental illnesses would help to reduce stigma.
Objectives To assess community perceptions of mental illness in the Bwindi Community Hospital (BCH) catchment area: to recognise beliefs about the causes and the treatments for mental illness. To provide community data to staff at BCH as they work to develop more effective community mental health programmes. Background A shortage of mental health providers in Uganda has prompted research into community-based task-sharing models for the provision of mental health services in underserved communities. Methods Six focus group discussions, with a total of 54 community members (50% male, n = 27; mean age + s.d. [39.9 + 10.9 years]) from the BCH catchment area, were conducted to assess community member and stakeholder perceptions of mental illness and belief in the feasibility of community-based programming. Qualitative study of data through thematic analysis was conducted to assess the presence of commonly occurring perceptions. Results Qualitative thematic analysis revealed two major themes: (1) belief that any given patient’s metal illness results from either an intrinsic or an extrinsic cause and (2) belief in a need to determine treatment of mental illness based on the believed cause. Conclusion As BCH designs community-based mental health services, our findings provide support for the need for further education of community members and training of community health workers to address and integrate the above-stated beliefs regarding mental illness. PMID:29041798
Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Snell-Rood, Claire
Recent social changes and rising social inequality in the rural United States have affected the experience and meaning of mental illness and treatment seeking within rural communities. Rural Americans face serious mental health disparities, including higher rates of suicide and depression compared with residents of urban areas, and substance abuse rates in rural areas now equal those in urban areas. Despite these increased risks, people living in rural areas are less likely than their urban counterparts to seek or receive mental health services. This Open Forum calls for a research agenda supported by anthropological theory and methods to investigate the significance of this changed rural social context for mental health.
Girma, Eshetu; Tesfaye, Markos; Froeschl, Guenter; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Müller, Norbert; Dehning, Sandra
Background Public understanding about mental illnesses and attitudes towards people with mental illness (PWMI) play a paramount role in the prevention and treatment of mental illness and the rehabilitation of PWMI. The aim of this study was to measure public stigma against PWMI and the factors associated with stigma in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC) in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods This community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2012 among 845 randomly selected respondents by using the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale, an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was entered with EPI-DATA and then exported to STATA for analysis. Simple descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of stigma against PWMI. Results Of the total of 845 respondents, 68.17% were from rural districts. The mean stigma score was 2.62 on a 5-point score. The majority of the respondents (75.27%) believed that mental illness can be cured. Stress, poverty, and rumination were the most often perceived causes of mental illness. Rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.61, Psupernatural causes (std. β = −0.09, P<0.01) and perceived psychosocial and biological causes (std. β = −0.14, P<0.001) had significantly lower stigma levels. Conclusions The study found a more undermining but less avoidant attitude towards PWMI. Rural residents showed higher levels of stigma. Stigma against PWMI was lower in people with an explanatory concept about the causes of mental illness and a higher level of education. Information, education, and communication about the causes, signs, and nature of mental illnesses would help to reduce stigma. PMID:24324756
Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie
Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.
Larkings, Josephine S; Brown, Patricia M
Viewing mental illness as an 'illness like any other' and promoting biogenetic causes have been explored as a stigma-reduction strategy. The relationship between causal beliefs and mental illness stigma has been researched extensively in the general public, but has gained less attention in more clinically-relevant populations (i.e. people with mental illness and mental health professionals). A systematic review examining whether endorsing biogenetic causes decreases mental illness stigma in people with mental illness and mental health professionals was undertaken using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Multiple databases were searched, and studies that explored the relationship between biogenetic causal beliefs and mental illness stigma in people with mental illness or mental health professionals were considered. Studies were included if they focussed on depression, schizophrenia, or mental illness in general, were in English, and had adult participants. The search identified 11 journal articles reporting on 15 studies, which were included in this review. Of these, only two provided evidence that endorsing biogenetic causes was associated with less mental illness stigma in people with mental illness or mental health professionals. The majority of studies in the present review (n = 10) found that biogenetic causal beliefs were associated with increased stigma or negative attitudes towards mental illness. The present review highlights the lack of research exploring the impacts of endorsing biogenetic causes in people with mental illness and mental health professionals. Clinical implications associated with these results are discussed, and suggestions are made for further research that examines the relationship between causal beliefs and treatment variables. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Favazza, A R
Healing of mental illness through religious practices was a key element of early Christianity. In the early twentieth century such healing was associated with blue-collar and rural Fundamentalists, but religious healing practices have gained widespread acceptance by many middle-class, conservative Christian groups. "Evil demons" are now equated with envy, pride, avarice, hatred, and obsessions with alcohol and gambling. Many psychotherapeutic techniques of modern Christian healers appear to be rediscoveries of psychoanalytic insights expressed in religious metaphors. Most responsible healers encourage clients to seek medical and psychiatric help, especially for serious mental disorders. Psychiatrists need not share patients' religious beliefs, but for treatment to be effective these beliefs must be understood and respected.
Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.
Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to examine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about causes, manifestations and treatment of mental illness among adults in a rural community in northern Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional study design was used. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 250 adults residing in Karfi village, northern Nigeria. Results The most common symptoms proffered by respondents as manifestations of mental illness included aggression/destructiveness (22.0%, loquaciousness (21.2%, eccentric behavior (16.1% and wandering (13.3%. Drug misuse including alcohol, cannabis, and other street drugs was identified in 34.3% of the responses as a major cause of mental illness, followed by divine wrath/ God's will (19%, and magic/spirit possession (18.0%. About 46% of respondents preferred orthodox medical care for the mentally sick while 34% were more inclined to spiritual healing. Almost half of the respondents harbored negative feelings towards the mentally ill. Literate respondents were seven times more likely to exhibit positive feelings towards the mentally ill as compared to non-literate subjects (OR = 7.6, 95% confidence interval = 3.8–15.1. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the need for community educational programs in Nigeria aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the public would allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization towards such persons.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public understanding about mental illnesses and attitudes towards people with mental illness (PWMI play a paramount role in the prevention and treatment of mental illness and the rehabilitation of PWMI. The aim of this study was to measure public stigma against PWMI and the factors associated with stigma in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: This community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2012 among 845 randomly selected respondents by using the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI scale, an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was entered with EPI-DATA and then exported to STATA for analysis. Simple descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of stigma against PWMI. RESULTS: Of the total of 845 respondents, 68.17% were from rural districts. The mean stigma score was 2.62 on a 5-point score. The majority of the respondents (75.27% believed that mental illness can be cured. Stress, poverty, and rumination were the most often perceived causes of mental illness. Rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.61, P<0.001. A statistically significant inverse relationship was found between the level of education and degree of stigma (std. β = -0.14, P<0.01, while higher income was significantly associated with more stigma (std. β = 0.07, P<0.05. Respondents with higher scores for perceived supernatural causes (std. β = -0.09, P<0.01 and perceived psychosocial and biological causes (std. β = -0.14, P<0.001 had significantly lower stigma levels. CONCLUSIONS: The study found a more undermining but less avoidant attitude towards PWMI. Rural residents showed higher levels of stigma. Stigma against PWMI was lower in people with an explanatory concept about the causes of mental illness and a higher level of education. Information, education, and communication about the
Cheon, Bobby K; Chiao, Joan Y
Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one's reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one's attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness.
Mutiso, Victoria N; Musyimi, Christine W; Tomita, Andrew; Loeffen, Lianne; Burns, Jonathan K; Ndetei, David M
This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and rural (Kibwezi) selected health facilities in Kenya. All households within the two sites served by the selected health facilities were included in the study. To select the main respondent in the household, the oldest adult who could speak English, Kiswahili or both (the official languages in Kenya) was selected to participate in the interview. The Opinion about Mental Illness in Chinese Community (OMICC) questionnaire and the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus Version 5 (MINI) tools were administered to the participants. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare prevalence according to gender, while adjusted regression models examined the association between mental illness and views about mental illness, stratified by gender. The overall prevalence of mental illness was 45%, showing gender differences regarding common types of illness. The opinions about mental illness were similar for men and women, while rural respondents were more positively opinionated than urban participants. Overall, suffering from mental illness was associated with more positive opinions among women and more negative opinions among men. More research is needed into the factors explaining the observed differences in opinion about mental illness between the subgroups, and the impact of mental illness on stigma in Kenya in order to create an evidence-based approach against stigma.
Garrido, Melissa M; Prigerson, Holly G; Neupane, Suvam; Penrod, Joan D; Johnson, Christopher E; Boockvar, Kenneth S
Psychosocial distress among patients with limited life expectancy influences treatment decisions, treatment adherence, and physical health. Veterans may be at elevated risk of psychosocial distress at the end of life, and understanding their mental healthcare needs may help identify hospitalized patients to whom psychiatric services should be targeted. To examine mental illness prevalence and mental health treatment rates among a national sample of hospitalized veterans with serious physical illnesses. Design, Subjects, and Measurements: This was a retrospective study of 11,286 veterans hospitalized in a Veterans Health Administration acute care facility in fiscal year 2011 with diagnoses of advanced cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or advanced HIV/AIDS. Prevalent and incident mental illness diagnoses during and before hospitalization and rates of psychotherapy and psychotropic use among patients with incident depression and anxiety were measured. At least one-quarter of the patients in our sample had a mental illness or substance use disorder. The most common diagnoses at hospitalization were depression (11.4%), followed by alcohol abuse or dependence (5.5%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (4.9%). Of the 831 patients with incident past-year depression and 258 with incident past-year anxiety, nearly two-thirds received at least some psychotherapy or guideline-concordant medication within 90 days of diagnosis. Of 191 patients with incident depression and 47 with incident anxiety at time of hospitalization, fewer than half received mental healthcare before discharge. Many veterans hospitalized with serious physical illnesses have comorbid mental illnesses and may benefit from depression and anxiety treatment.
Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Dehning, Sandra; Mueller, Norbert; Tesfaye, Markos; Froeschl, Guenter
In addition to economic and material burdens, caregivers of people with mental illness are exposed to psychosocial challenges. Self-stigma is among the psychological challenges that can be exacerbated by intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. Caregivers' self-stigma can negatively influence the patients' treatment and rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to measure the level and correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on a sample of 422 caregivers. Data were collected by trained nurses working in the clinic using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. The majority (70.38%) of the caregivers were male. On a scale of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the average self-stigmatizing attitude score was 4.68 (±4.11). A statistically significant difference in mean self-stigma score was found between urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, PSelf-stigma of caregivers showed significant positive correlation with perceived signs of mental illness (r=0.18, Pself-stigma was perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness (standardized β=0.22, Pself-stigma in this study was significantly correlated with perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness. Since caregivers' self-stigma may negatively influence patients' treatment-seeking, adherence, and rehabilitation processes, programs that enhance coping strategies by strengthening self-esteem and empowerment by health care providers and establish family support groups may be helpful to tackle self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness.
Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Dehning, Sandra; Mueller, Norbert; Tesfaye, Markos; Froeschl, Guenter
Background In addition to economic and material burdens, caregivers of people with mental illness are exposed to psychosocial challenges. Self-stigma is among the psychological challenges that can be exacerbated by intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. Caregivers’ self-stigma can negatively influence the patients’ treatment and rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to measure the level and correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Methods An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on a sample of 422 caregivers. Data were collected by trained nurses working in the clinic using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Results The majority (70.38%) of the caregivers were male. On a scale of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the average self-stigmatizing attitude score was 4.68 (±4.11). A statistically significant difference in mean self-stigma score was found between urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, PSelf-stigma of caregivers showed significant positive correlation with perceived signs of mental illness (r=0.18, Pself-stigma was perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness (standardized β=0.22, Pself-stigma in this study was significantly correlated with perceived supernatural explanation of mental illness. Since caregivers’ self-stigma may negatively influence patients’ treatment-seeking, adherence, and rehabilitation processes, programs that enhance coping strategies by strengthening self-esteem and empowerment by health care providers and establish family support groups may be helpful to tackle self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. PMID:24470760
Seeman, Neil; Tang, Sabrina; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Ing, Alton
To obtain rapid and reproducible opinions that address mental illness stigma around the world. Random global Web users were exposed to brief questions, asking whether they interacted daily with someone with mental illness, whether they believed that mental illness was associated with violence, whether it was similar to physical illness, and whether it could be overcome. Over a period of 1.7 years, 596,712 respondents from 229 countries completed the online survey. The response rate was 54.3%. China had the highest proportion of respondents in daily contact with a person with mental illness. In developed countries, 7% to 8% of respondents endorsed the statement that individuals with mental illness were more violent than others, in contrast to 15% or 16% in developing countries. While 45% to 51% of respondents from developed countries believed that mental illness was similar to physical illness, only 7% believed that mental illness could be overcome. To test for reproducibility, 21 repeats of the same questions were asked monthly in India for 21 months. Each time, 10.1 ± 0.11% s.e., of respondents endorsed the statement that persons who suffer from mental illness are more violent than others, indicating strong reproducibility of response. This study shows that surveys of constructs such as stigma towards mental illness can be carried out rapidly and repeatedly across the globe, so that the impact of policy interventions can be readily measured. The method engages English speakers only, mainly young, educated males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: The employment status of mentally ill patients is a reflection of their productivity, control of illness besides providing therapeutic benefits and integration into mainstream society. Owing to the associated stigma, self-reporting of mental illness (SRMI often is rare. Census exercise of India in 2011 provides an insight of SRMI and employment status of such people. This study was undertaken to consider the role of gender, age group, and place on the employment status of SRMI. Methodology: Frequency of SRMI, age group, gender, and employment status was gathered from Indian 2011 census sources. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were employed. P≤ 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Majority (68.6% of the SRMI people resides in rural areas, in the economically productive age group of 15–59 years (75.88% and often males (57.51%. Of the SRMI as reported in the data, 78.62% were not employed while 2.4% of them were currently employed. The employability frequency distributions of SMRIs were statistically different in terms of area, age group, and gender with significance. Discussion: Although the mental illness data of 2011 census was rejected by mental health professionals citing discrepancy and underestimating of the prevalence of mental illness, it provides a robust estimate of the employability, self-reporting tendency of mental illness. The association of the factors provides a unique insight into SRMIs in India. Conclusion: Understanding the interplay of factors may yield robust estimates and clues for policy framers to formulate employment-related policies for employment opportunities for mentally ill patients.
Kirchner, JoAnn E.; Farmer, Mary Sue; Shue, Valorie M.; Blevins, Dean; Sullivan, Greer
Purpose: Many veterans who face mental illness and live in rural areas never obtain the mental health care they need. To address these needs, it is important to reach out to community stakeholders who are likely to have frequent interactions with veterans, particularly those returning from Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Methods:…
Aoki, Yuta; Malcolm, Estelle; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire
Mass media depictions of people with mental illness have a strong influence on public attitudes, to the extent that changes in these depictions can reduce public stigmatization of people with such illness. Journalists' mental health may influence their depiction of those with mental illness, but little is known about this. To investigate mental illness among journalists in five key areas: (1) journalists' mental health status; (2) journalists' personal attitudes towards mental illness; (3) attitudes and support journalists expect or have experienced from colleagues when they have a mental health problem; (4) effect of journalism's professional culture on the course of mental illness; and (5) effect of journalism's professional culture on mass media depictions of people with mental illness. We performed a systematic screening of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library regarding the study aims. We identified 19, 12, seven and four studies for aims 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. No articles were found for aim 5. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among journalists is higher than that among the general population. Journalists have positive personal attitudes towards mental illness, but there are perceived workplace disincentives to disclose mental health problems.
Yanos, Philip T; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H
The impact of the experience and diagnosis of mental illness on one's identity has long been recognized; however, little is known about the impact of illness identity, which we define as the set of roles and attitudes that a person has developed in relation to his or her understanding of having a mental illness. The present article proposes a theoretically driven model of the impact of illness identity on the course and recovery from severe mental illness and reviews relevant research. We propose that accepting a definition of oneself as mentally ill and assuming that mental illness means incompetence and inadequacy impact hope and self-esteem, which further impact suicide risk, coping, social interaction, vocational functioning, and symptom severity. Evidence supports most of the predictions made by the model. Implications for psychiatric rehabilitation services are discussed.
This article reviews dominant media portrayals of mental illness, the mentally ill and mental health interventions, and examines what social, emotional and treatment-related effects these may have. Studies consistently show that both entertainment and news media provide overwhelmingly dramatic and distorted images of mental illness that emphasise dangerousness, criminality and unpredictability. They also model negative reactions to the mentally ill, including fear, rejection, derision and ridicule. The consequences of negative media images for people who have a mental illness are profound. They impair self-esteem, help-seeking behaviours, medication adherence and overall recovery. Mental health advocates blame the media for promoting stigma and discrimination toward people with a mental illness. However, the media may also be an important ally in challenging public prejudices, initiating public debate, and projecting positive, human interest stories about people who live with mental illness. Media lobbying and press liaison should take on a central role for mental health professionals, not only as a way of speaking out for patients who may not be able to speak out for themselves, but as a means of improving public education and awareness. Also, given the consistency of research findings in this field, it may now be time to shift attention away from further cataloguing of media representations of mental illness to the more challenging prospect of how to use the media to improve the life chances and recovery possibilities for the one in four people living with mental disorders.
Pierce, David; Little, Fiona; Bennett-Levy, James; Isaacs, Anton N; Bridgman, Heather; Lutkin, Sarah J; Carey, Timothy A; Schlicht, Kate G; McCabe-Gusta, Zita P; Martin, Elizabeth; Martinez, Lee A
The significant impact of mental ill health in rural and remote Australia has been well documented. Included among innovative approaches undertaken to address this issue has been the Mental Health Academic (MHA) project, established in 2007. Funded by the Australian Government (Department of Health), this project was established as a component of the University Departments of Rural Health (UDRH) program. All 11 UDRHs appointed an MHA. Although widely geographically dispersed, the MHAs have collaborated in various ways. The MHA project encompasses a range of activities addressing four key performance indicators. These activities, undertaken in rural and remote Australia, aimed to increase access to mental health services, promote awareness of mental health issues, support students undertaking mental health training and improve health professionals' capacity to recognise and address mental health issues. MHAs were strategically placed within the UDRHs across the country, ensuring an established academic base for the MHAs' work was available immediately. Close association with each local rural community was recognised as important. For most MHAs this was facilitated by having an established clinical role in their local community and actively engaging with the community in which they worked. In common with other rural health initiatives, some difficulties were experienced in the recruitment of suitable MHAs, especially in more remote locations. The genesis of this article was a national meeting of the MHAs in 2014, to identify and map the different types of activities MHAs had undertaken in their regions. These activities were analysed and categorised by the MHAs. These categories have been used as a guiding framework for this article. The challenge to increase community access to mental health services was addressed by (i) initiatives to address specific access barriers, (ii) supporting recruitment and retention of rural mental health staff, (iii) developing the
Stolzenburg, Susanne; Freitag, Simone; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Muehlan, Holger; Schmidt, Silke; Schomerus, Georg
The aim of this study was to investigate whether personal stigma decreases self-identification as having a mental illness in individuals with untreated mental health problems. We interviewed 207 persons with a currently untreated mental health problem as confirmed by a structured diagnostic interview. Measures included symptom appraisal, self-identification as having a mental illness (SELFI), self-labeling (open-ended question on the nature of their problem) stigma-related variables (explicit and implicit), as well as sociodemographics, current symptom severity, and previous treatment. Support for discrimination and implicit stigmatizing attitude were both associated with lower likelihood of self-identification. More social distance and support for discrimination were associated with less self-labeling. Previous treatment was the strongest predictor of symptom appraisal, SELFI, and self-labeling. Destigmatizing mental illness could increase awareness of personal mental health problems, potentially leading to lower rates of untreated mental illness.
Lawson, Andrea; Fouts, Gregory
To examine the prevalence of verbalizations about mental illness in the animated feature films of The Walt Disney Company (TWDC). We discuss the results within the context of children's repeated exposure to popular animated movies and their learning of labels and stereotypes associated with mental illness. We recommend further research on this topic. We coded 34 animated feature films produced by TWDC for mental illness references (for example, "crazy" or "nuts"). We developed a coding manual to systematize the content analysis, to ensure accuracy of the data, and to ascertain intercoder reliability. Most of the films (that is, 85%) contain verbal references to mental illness, with an average of 4.6 references per film. The references were mainly used to set apart and denigrate the characters to whom they referred. Twenty-one percent of the principal characters were referred to as mentally ill. We discuss the contributions and limitations of the study. The findings have implications for child viewers in terms of their potentially learning prejudicial attitudes and distancing behaviours toward individuals perceived as being mentally ill. To further verify this connection, an assessment of the incidence of Disney film exposure and attitudes toward people with a mental illness, using a sample of school-aged children, is needed.
Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.
Mulugeta, Wudeneh; Xue, Hong; Glick, Myron; Min, Jungwon; Noe, Michael F; Wang, Youfa
Limited is known about mental illness and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors among refugees. These were studied using data collected from a refugee population in Buffalo, NY. Longitudinal data collected on 1055 adults (> 18 years) at a large refugee health center in Buffalo, NY, during 2004-2014 were used. Main outcomes were hypertension, diabetes, tobacco use, obesity, overweight/obesity, and mental illness. Risk factors were assessed using multivariate regression models. Compared to those without mental illness, refugees with mental illness had higher rates of hypertension (16.9 vs 28.4%, P mental illness (25.4 to 36.7%, P mental illness (13.0 to 24.5%, P mental illness prevalence among refugees was 16%, ranging from 6.9% among Asians to 43.9% among Cubans. Women were more likely to have mental illness (odds ratio = 2.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68-3.58) than men. Refugees who lived longer in the USA were more likely to carry psychiatric diagnoses (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.04-1.21). Mental illness rates varied considerably across various refugee groups. Rates of obesity and NCDs among refugees with mental illness were higher than among those without mental disorders. Gender, region of origin, and length of stay in the USA were associated with mental illness. Accurate and culturally sensitive screenings and assessments of mental illness are needed to reduce these health disparities.
Kapungwe, A; Cooper, S; Mwanza, J; Mwape, L; Sikwese, A; Kakuma, R; Lund, C; Flisher, A J
The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the presence, causes and means of addressing individual and systemic stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness in Zambia. This is to facilitate the development of tailor-made antistigma initiatives that are culturally sensitive for Zambia and other low-income African countries. This is the first in-depth study on mental illness stigma in Zambia. Fifty semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions were conducted with key stakeholders drawn from 3 districts in Zambia (Lusaka, Kabwe and Sinazongwe). Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Mental illness stigma and discrimination is pervasive across Zambian society, prevailing within the general community, amongst family members, amid general and mental health care providers, and at the level of government. Such stigma appears to be fuelled by misunderstandings of mental illness aetiology; fears of contagion and the perceived dangerousness of people with mental illness; and associations between HIV/AIDS and mental illness. Strategies suggested for reducing stigma and discrimination in Zambia included education campaigns, the transformation of mental health policy and legislation and expanding the social and economic opportunities of the mentally ill. In Zambia, as in many other low-income African countries, very little attention is devoted to addressing the negative beliefs and behaviours surrounding mental illness, despite the devastating costs that ensue. The results from this study underscore the need for greater commitment from governments and policy-makers in African countries to start prioritizing mental illness stigma as a major public health and development issue.
Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Müller, Norbert; Dehning, Sandra; Froeschl, Guenter; Tesfaye, Markos
Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness is a negative attitude by the public which blame family members for the mental illness of their relatives. Family stigma can result in self social restrictions, delay in treatment seeking and poor quality of life. This study aimed at investigating the degree and correlates of family stigma. A quantitative cross-sectional house to house survey was conducted among 845 randomly selected urban and rural community members in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. An interviewer administered and pre-tested questionnaire adapted from other studies was used to measure the degree of family stigma and to determine its correlates. Data entry was done by using EPI-DATA and the analysis was performed using STATA software. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analysis was done to identify the correlates of family stigma. Among the total 845 respondents, 81.18% were female. On a range of 1 to 5 score, the mean family stigma score was 2.16 (± 0.49). In a multivariate analysis, rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.43, P mental illness increased, the stigma scores decreased significantly. High supernatural explanation of mental illness was significantly correlated with lower stigma among individuals with lower level of exposure to people with mental illness (PWMI). On the other hand, high exposure to PWMI was significantly associated with lower stigma among respondents who had high education. Stigma scores increased with increasing income among respondents who had lower educational status. Our findings revealed moderate level of family stigma. Place of residence, perceived signs and explanations of mental illness were independent correlates of public stigma against family members of people with mental illness. Therefore, mental health communication programs to inform explanations and signs of mental illness need to be implemented.
S K Padhy
Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.
Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.
Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…
Mattejat, Fritz; Remschmidt, Helmut
The children of mentally ill parents have a higher risk of developing mental illnesses themselves over the course of their lives. This known risk must be taken into account in the practical provision of health care. Selective literature review. The increased psychiatric risk for children of mentally ill parents is due partly to genetic influences and partly to an impairment of the parent-child interaction because of the parent's illness. Furthermore, adverse factors are more frequent in these families, as well as a higher risk for child abuse. Genetic and psychosocial factors interact with one another. For example, genetic factors moderate environmental effects; that is, the effect of adverse environmental factors depends on the genetic substrate. Preventive measures for children of mentally ill parents urgently need improvement. In this article, positively evaluated programs of preventive measures are discussed. Essential prerequisites for success include appropriate, specialized treatment of the parental illness, psychoeducative measures, and special support (e.g. self-help groups) as indicated by the family's particular needs.
Adjorlolo, Samuel; Abdul-Nasiru, Inusah; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Bambi, Laryea Efua
Mental health professionals' attitudes toward offenders with mental illness have significant implications for the quality of care and treatment rendered, making it imperative for these professionals to be aware of their attitudes. Yet, this topical issue has received little research attention. Consequently, the present study investigates attitudes toward offenders with mental illness (insanity acquittees) in a sample of 113 registered mental health nurses in Ghana. Using a cross-sectional survey and self-report methodology, the participants respond to measures of attitudes toward offenders with mental illness, attitudes toward mental illness, conviction proneness, and criminal blameworthiness. The results show that mental health nurses who reportedly practiced for a longer duration (6 years and above) were more likely to be unsympathetic, while the male nurses who were aged 30 years and above were more likely to hold offenders with mental illness strictly liable for their offenses. Importantly, the nurses' scores in conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness significantly predict negative attitudes toward the offenders even after controlling for their attitudes toward mental illness. Yet, when the nurses' conviction proneness and criminal blameworthiness were held constant, their attitudes toward mental illness failed to predict attitudes toward the offenders. This initial finding implies that the nurses' views regarding criminal blameworthiness and conviction may be more influential in understanding their attitudes toward offenders with mental illness relative to their attitudes toward mental illness.
Fox, C; Buchanan-Barrow, E; Barrett, M
This study aimed to investigate children's thinking about mental illness by employing a well-established framework of adult illness understanding. The study adopted a semistructured interview technique and a card selection task to assess children's responses to causes, consequences, timeline and curability of the different types of mental illness. The children were aged between 5 and 11 years. Results indicated a developmental trend in the children's thinking about mental illness; there was an increase in the children's understanding of the causes, consequences, curability and timeline of mental illness with age. The older children demonstrated a more sophisticated and accurate thinking about mental illness compared with the younger children, who tended to rely on a medical model in order to comprehend novel mental illnesses. Furthermore, the girls exhibited more compassion, showing greater social acceptance compared with the boys. The Leventhal model provides a useful framework within which to investigate children's knowledge and understanding of mental illness. Limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed.
Peterson, A L
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Stigma involves connecting individuals with a particular label to negative characteristics; this is based not on the stigmatized condition itself, but cultural reactions to it. Stigma exists towards nurses with mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper offers a first-person account of experiencing stigma as a nurse with a mental illness. This paper incorporates the existing literature to offer a broader cultural perspective on the experiences of a nurse with a mental illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses are likely to encounter a nurse with a mental illness at some point in their practice. Nurses' reactions towards colleagues with mental illness can have significant implications for those colleague(s)' wellbeing. Nurses with mental illness will have to navigate their person and professional journey while giving consideration to the attitudes of their nursing peers and leaders. Limited research has been done on the stigma faced by nurses with mental illness from their nursing peers. Mental illness is not generally considered acceptable within the context of nursing culture, so when nurses do experience mental illness, their experiences in a professional context may be influenced by stereotypes, particularly those relating to dangerousness. Using autoethnography as a research method, the author examines her own subjective experiences of stigma as a nurse with a mental illness, and draws upon existing literature on stigma, deviance and the phenomenon of mental illness in nurses to analyse broader cultural implications for nursing. Assessment of suitability to return to work arises throughout the narratives, and consideration is given to the way that risk assessment by nursing leaders is impacted by negative stereotypes that surround mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N
Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with
Aggarwal, Anuj K.; Thompson, Maxwell; Falik, Rebecca; Shaw, Amy; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Lowenstein, Daniel H.
Objectives: Medical students have been shown to have high levels of psychological distress, including self-stigmatization and unwillingness to seek care. The authors hypothesized that a student-led curriculum involving personal mental illness experience, given during the first-year neuroscience course, and titled "Mental Illness Among Us…
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted…
Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C
Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hastrup, Lene H; Van Den Berg, Bernard; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte
This study investigates a possible added subjective burden among informal caregivers to care recipients with a mental illness or a combination of mental and somatic illnesses compared with caregivers to care recipients with a somatic illness. The study also investigates the subjective caregiver burden by caregivers' characteristics and objective burden. The association between subjective caregiver burden and socio-demographic factors, objective burden, and health-related quality of life was analyzed in a population of 865 Dutch informal caregivers, using multiple linear regression analysis. Controlling for other factors in the analysis, we found that caring for a recipient with mental illness or a combination of mental and somatic illness was associated with an extra subjective caregiver burden (measured by Caregiver Strain Index). Objective burden, in terms of more than 50 hours of care provision per week, less than three years of caregiving, or living together with the care recipients was associated with higher subjective caregiver burden. Other factors associated with higher subjective caregiver burden were being partners or a child of care recipient, having a paid job, a low health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), or having an illness. This study suggests that caregivers to care recipients with a mental and especially a combination of mental and somatic illnesses have a higher subjective caregiver burden compared with caregivers to care recipients with a somatic illness. Because the study is not representative of all caregivers, more research focusing on identifying and contacting informal caregivers is needed to confirm the result.
Background Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness is a negative attitude by the public which blame family members for the mental illness of their relatives. Family stigma can result in self social restrictions, delay in treatment seeking and poor quality of life. This study aimed at investigating the degree and correlates of family stigma. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional house to house survey was conducted among 845 randomly selected urban and rural community members in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. An interviewer administered and pre-tested questionnaire adapted from other studies was used to measure the degree of family stigma and to determine its correlates. Data entry was done by using EPI-DATA and the analysis was performed using STATA software. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analysis was done to identify the correlates of family stigma. Results Among the total 845 respondents, 81.18% were female. On a range of 1 to 5 score, the mean family stigma score was 2.16 (±0.49). In a multivariate analysis, rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.43, P supernatural (std. β = -0.12, P supernatural explanation of mental illness was significantly correlated with lower stigma among individuals with lower level of exposure to people with mental illness (PWMI). On the other hand, high exposure to PWMI was significantly associated with lower stigma among respondents who had high education. Stigma scores increased with increasing income among respondents who had lower educational status. Conclusions Our findings revealed moderate level of family stigma. Place of residence, perceived signs and explanations of mental illness were independent correlates of public stigma against family members of people with mental illness. Therefore, mental health communication programs to inform explanations and signs of mental illness need to be implemented. PMID:24555444
Read, Ursula M; Adiibokah, Edward; Nyame, Solomon
Abstract Background The Global Movement for Mental Health has brought renewed attention to the neglect of people with mental illness within health policy worldwide. The maltreatment of the mentally ill in many low-income countries is widely reported within psychiatric hospitals, informal healing centres, and family homes. International agencies have called for the development of legislation and policy to address these abuses. However such initiatives exemplify a top-down approach to promoting...
Sangeeta, S J; Mathew, K J
Understanding and perceptions about mental illness vary among individuals based on their experience with the illness or their contact with the people affected by it. These may be further influenced by the individuals' sociocultural background. This study aimed to understand the differences in the beliefs about, understanding of, and explanations for mental illness between different population groups of Jharkhand, India. During July 2014 to February 2016, we recruited the following 3 groups of individuals aged between 18 and 60 years: individuals with mental illness (group 1, n = 240), relatives of individuals with mental illness (group 2, n = 240), and the general public (group 3, n = 240). Qualitative and quantitative findings were combined in this study, and participants were asked about their beliefs about, understanding of, and explanations about mental illness. Individuals with mental illness and their relatives shared similar beliefs whereas the general public held a different opinion in various domains. There were significant differences among all groups in their understanding of various aspects of mental illnesses including the definition, causes, signs and symptoms, treatment, and outcomes. Individuals' perception towards different aspects of mental illness varies, despite they are sharing the same sociocultural milieu. Differences in beliefs, understanding, and explanations may lead to conflicts in treatment goals and expectations, and hamper the intervention strategies that promote mental health and patient care. Focused strategies to develop uniformity in beliefs and explanations about various aspects of mental illness may help to develop collaboration with different community groups that may in turn help in developing effective interventions and treatment.
Full Text Available Eshetu Girma,1,2 Anne Maria Möller-Leimkühler,2,3 Sandra Dehning,2,3 Norbert Mueller,2,3 Markos Tesfaye,4 Guenter Froeschl2,5 1Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 2CIHLMU Center for International Health, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany; 4Department of Psychiatry, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 5Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany Background: In addition to economic and material burdens, caregivers of people with mental illness are exposed to psychosocial challenges. Self-stigma is among the psychological challenges that can be exacerbated by intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors. Caregivers’ self-stigma can negatively influence the patients' treatment and rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to measure the level and correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Methods: An interviewer-administered cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jimma University Specialized Hospital Psychiatry Clinic in Ethiopia on a sample of 422 caregivers. Data were collected by trained nurses working in the clinic using a pretested questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression was performed to identify the correlates of self-stigma among caregivers of people with mental illness. Results: The majority (70.38% of the caregivers were male. On a scale of 0 to 15, with 0 being low and 15 being high, the average self-stigmatizing attitude score was 4.68 (±4.11. A statistically significant difference in mean self-stigma score was found between urban and rural respondents (t=3.95, P<0.05. Self-stigma of caregivers showed significant positive correlation with perceived signs of mental illness (r=0.18, P<0.001, perceived supernatural explanations of mental illness (r=0.26, P<0.001, and
Moulden, Heather M; Marshall, Liam E
There is evidence showing an increasing prevalence of mental illness in those in conflict with the law. However, there are many factors affecting the detection, treatment, and management of criminals who are mentally ill. Sex offenders with major mental illness present many challenges to those providing treatment and management services. For example, it is important to consider whether sexually offensive behavior is the cause of criminal behavior or whether it is reflective of an antisocial orientation. Recent evidence suggests it may help better understand and inform risk assessment and management. This paper will review the literature on mental illness among sexual offenders, present a typology to aid in the assessment, treatment, and management of sexual offender with mental illness, and highlight important considerations when providing treatment to sexual offenders with mental illness.
Siqueira, Vinicius R; Oades, Lindsay G
Objective. This study examined the use of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance, two key concepts of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), in the psychological recovery process of people with enduring mental illness. Method. Sixty-seven participants were recruited from the metropolitan, regional, and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. They all presented some form of chronic mental illness (at least 12 months) as reflected in DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria. The Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-19) was used to measure the presence of psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance; the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was used to examine the levels of psychological recovery; and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being was used to observe if there are benefits in utilizing psychological acceptance and experiential avoidance in the recovery process. Results. An analysis of objectively quantifiable measures found no clear correlation between the use of psychological acceptance and recovery in mental illness as measured by the RAS. The data, however, showed a relationship between psychological acceptance and some components of recovery, thereby demonstrating its possible value in the recovery process. Conclusion. The major contribution of this research was the emerging correlation that was observed between psychological acceptance and positive levels of psychological well-being among individuals with mental illness.
McLaughlin, Thomas Chalmers
This article examines the cost-effectiveness of providing permanent supported housing to homeless people with mental illness. Through the use of billing records and frequency of use charts, researchers were able to map the service usage of a cohort of 268 homeless individuals from both urban and rural communities. The results suggest that…
Kermode, Michelle; Herrman, Helen; Arole, Rajanikant; White, Joshua; Premkumar, Ramaswamy; Patel, Vikram
The global burden of mental illness is high and opportunities for promoting mental health are neglected in most parts of the world. Many people affected by mental illness live in developing countries, where treatment and care options are limited. In this context, primary health care (PHC) programs can indirectly promote mental health by addressing its determinants i.e. by enhancing social unity, minimising discrimination and generating income opportunities. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Describe concepts of mental health and beliefs about determinants of mental health and illness among women involved with a PHC project in rural Maharashtra, India; 2. Identify perceived mental health problems in this community, specifically depression, suicide and violence, their perceived causes, and existing and potential community strategies to respond to them and; 3. Investigate the impact of the PHC program on individual and community factors associated with mental health We undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 32 women associated with the PHC project regarding: their concepts of mental health and its determinants; suicide, depression and violence; and the perceived impact of the PHC project on the determinants of mental health. The interviews were taped, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Mental health and illness were understood by these women to be the product of cultural and socio-economic factors. Mental health was commonly conceptualised as an absence of stress and the commonest stressors were conflict with husbands and mother-in-laws, domestic violence and poverty. Links between empowerment of women through income generation and education, reduction of discrimination based on caste and sex, and promotion of individual and community mental health were recognised. However, mental health problems such as suicide and violence were well-described by participants. While it is essential that affordable, accessible, appropriate treatments and
Wilson, C; Nairn, R; Coverdale, J; Panapa, A
There is a dearth of studies examining how dangerousness is constructed in media depictions of mentally ill individuals who are frequently portrayed as acting violently. The aim of the present study was to identify the contribution of diverse technical, semiotic and discursive resources utilised in portraying a character with a mental illness in a prime-time drama as dangerous. Discourse analytic techniques, involving systematic, repeated, critical viewings, were applied to a single program drawn from a sample of prime-time television drama episodes touching on mental illness. Nine devices (appearance, music and sound effects, lighting, language, intercutting, jump-cutting, point of view shots, horror conventions and intertextuality) were identified as contributing to the signified dangerousness of person receiving care in the community for a mental illness. These techniques combine in signifying mental illness and a person suffering from it as dangerous. The findings suggest that mental health professionals working to reduce the stigma of mental illness need to have a reasonably sophisticated understanding of the practices and priorities of television production if they are to collaborate effectively with producers to create dramas that convey more human and sympathetic understandings of mental illness or to combat the negative effects of such portrayals.
Cheon, Bobby K.; Chiao, Joan Y.
Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one’s reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and expli...
Ndetei, David M; Mutiso, Victoria; Maraj, Anika; Anderson, Kelly K; Musyimi, Christine; McKenzie, Kwame
Literature describing stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness by children in the developing world is lacking. Children's mental health issues in the Kenyan context are especially pertinent due to the increased likelihood of exposure to risk factors and the high prevalence of mental disorders. The objective of the current study was to examine socio-demographic factors associated with the endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among Kenyan school children. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 4585 primary school-aged children in standards one through seven in the Eastern Province of Kenya. We examined relationships between the endorsement of stigmatizing attitudes and age, gender, district, religion, being in the standard appropriate for one's age, and parental employment status. Stigma scores decreased with increasing age (β = -0.83; 95 % CI = -0.99 to -0.67). Boys had higher stigma scores compared to girls (β = 1.55; 95 % CI = 0.86-2.24). Students from the rural district had higher average stigma scores as compared to those from the peri-urban district (β = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.44-1.84). Students who were not in the standard appropriate for their age had lower stigma scores than those who were in the standard typical for their age (β = -1.60; 95 % CI = -2.43 to -0.77). Stigmatizing attitudes toward the mentally ill exist among primary school children in Kenya; thus, anti-stigma interventions are needed, and our findings highlight particular subgroups that could be targeted.
Cabral, Lídia; Duarte, João; Ferreira, Manuela; dos Santos, Carlos
The current policy guidelines on mental health aim to keep the mentally ill within the community, with the development of social support, including families, hence the emergence of the role of the family caregiver. To identify socio-demographic variables influencing anxiety, depression and stress for the informal caregivers of the mentally ill; to determine the influence of family background variables on caregiver anxiety, depression and stress; to analyse the relationship between social support and caregiver overload with caregiver anxiety, depression and stress. Cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study with 104 caregivers, mostly female (62.5%), aged between 22 and 77 years with a mean age of 52.03 years. The following were used as instruments: the Family Apgar Scale; the Satisfaction with Social Support Scale (ESSS); the Caregiver Overload Scale (ESC); the Anxiety, Depression and Stress Scales (EADS-21). We found that females have higher rates (Panxiety, depression and stress; participants with less education have more anxiety than those with higher and secondary education (P=.001); caregivers living in rural areas have higher levels of depression (P=.044) and stress (P=.041); those who perceive belonging to families with marked dysfunctions have higher levels of depression (P=.0.001) and stress (P=.000); the higher the overload, the higher the levels of anxiety (P=.002), depression and stress (P=.000). I tis necessary to develop strategies for local and community intervention to promote mental health and prevent mental illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Neil A; Fatoye, Francis; Wibberley, Christopher
Negative stereotypes presented in the media may contribute to the stigma associated with mental illness. People's attitudes towards the mentally ill are initially influenced and subsequently maintained in part by the frequent media presentation of negative stereotypes of mental illness. This could result in social rejection of individuals with mental illnesses. To explore how four main U.K. national newspapers reported on mental health/mental illness stories over a 10-year period. This study utilised content analysis to identify words, themes and trends of representation related to the mentally ill in articles from the four newspapers. The findings indicated that there was an increase in the number of articles related to mental health/illness over the time of the study. The rate of increase was far greater than that for the increase in the total number of articles carried in the press over this time period. It was also identified that pejorative terms were used, in a number of the articles, to describe the mentally ill person. Many of the newspaper reports highlighted the need for protection of the general public from the mentally ill, and that the mentally ill were in some way different to the general public. In particular, both the words "violence" and "drugs" were linked to mental health/mental illness in these articles.
Wang, Li; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yan, Qiuli; Lu, Jie; Gao, Baoyin; Zhao, Yanlin; Pang, Yu
Although the prevalence of tuberculosis has decreased significantly over the past decades, the certain populations with mental illness are at increased risk for tuberculosis infection and transmission. However, no studies have examined the performance of different laboratory examination methods among people with severe mental illness in China. In this study, we firstly performed a retrospective study to evaluate the feasibility of three routine laboratory methods, including sputum microscopy, solid culture and GeneXpert, to diagnose tuberculosis patients with mental illness. During August 2010 and March 2013, a total of 251 TB patients based on clinical and radiographic criteria with severe mental illness were enrolled in this study. The majority of patients was homeless (97/251, 38.6%), and the other 62 (24.7%) and 92 (36.7%) were from urban and rural region, respectively. The most frequently diagnosed mental illness was schizophrenia, accounting for 84.1% (211/251) of patients available for analysis. In addition, the laboratory received 753 sputum samples collected from these 251 TB patients, of which 76.0% (572/753) of samples were classified as salivary sputum, which were unqualified for microscopy and culture. When the test results were analyzed by patients, the positive numbers of TB patients detected by sputum microscopy, solid culture and GeneXpert were 3 (1.2%), 5 (2.0%) and 5 (2.0%), respectively. In conclusion, our findings reveal that the current laboratory examinations based on sputum samples seem not to be suitable for the diagnosis of active TB in the persons with severe mental illness. The products using a non-invasive specimen such as urine deserve further evaluation, which may generate benefit for the early diagnosis of TB in this special population.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W
Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. We aim to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss important consequences for people with mental illness. A search of scientific literature on mental illness stigma was conducted with a focus on conceptually relevant empirical studies. After giving a conceptual overview of stigma, we elaborate on the consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment, coping behaviour, fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services, and on structural discrimination. Main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- are discussed. Stigma is of central importance to persons with mental illness, both to how they experience their illness and its consequences and whether they use available health services. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish the impact of mental illness stigma.
O'Keefe, Maureen L.
Largely the result of prison officials needing to safely and efficiently manage a volatile inmate population, administrative segregation or supermax facilities are criticized as violating basic human needs, particularly for mentally ill inmates. The present study compared Colorado offenders with mental illness (OMIs) to nonOMIs in segregated and…
Vigo, Daniel; Thornicroft, Graham; Atun, Rifat
We argue that the global burden of mental illness is underestimated and examine the reasons for under-estimation to identify five main causes: overlap between psychiatric and neurological disorders; the grouping of suicide and self-harm as a separate category; conflation of all chronic pain syndromes with musculoskeletal disorders; exclusion of personality disorders from disease burden calculations; and inadequate consideration of the contribution of severe mental illness to mortality from associated causes. Using published data, we estimate the disease burden for mental illness to show that the global burden of mental illness accounts for 32·4% of years lived with disability (YLDs) and 13·0% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), instead of the earlier estimates suggesting 21·2% of YLDs and 7·1% of DALYs. Currently used approaches underestimate the burden of mental illness by more than a third. Our estimates place mental illness a distant first in global burden of disease in terms of YLDs, and level with cardiovascular and circulatory diseases in terms of DALYs. The unacceptable apathy of governments and funders of global health must be overcome to mitigate the human, social, and economic costs of mental illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78
Oates, Jennifer; Drey, Nicholas; Jones, Julia
The effects of mental health nurses' own experience of mental illness or being a carer have rarely been researched beyond the workplace setting. This study aimed to explore how the experience of mental illness affects mental health nurses' lives outside of and inside work. A sample of 26 mental health nurses with personal experience of mental illness took part in semistructured interviews. Data were analysed thematically using a six-phase approach. The analysis revealed the broad context of nurses' experiences of mental illness according to three interwoven themes: mental illness as part of family life; experience of accessing services; and life interwoven with mental illness. Participants typically described personal and familial experience of mental illness across their life course, with multiple causes and consequences. The findings suggest that nurses' lives outside of work should be taken into account when considering the impact of their personal experience of mental illness. Similarly being a nurse influences how mental illness is experienced. Treatment of nurses with mental illness should account for their nursing expertise whilst recognizing that the context for nurses' mental illness could be much broader than the effect of workplace stress. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M
We examined how attitudes toward mental illness treatment and its course differ by serious psychological distress, mental illness treatment, chronic disease, and sociodemographic factors using representative state-based data. Using data from jurisdictions supporting the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System's Mental Illness and Stigma Module (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), we compared adjusted proportions of adults agreeing that "Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives" (treatment effectiveness) and that "People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness" (supportive environment), by demographic characteristics, serious psychological distress, chronic disease status, and mental illness treatment. Attitudes regarding treatment effectiveness and a supportive environment for people with mental illness varied within and between groups. Most adults receiving mental illness treatment agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer adults with serious psychological distress than those without such distress agreed that treatment is effective. Fewer of those receiving treatment, those with psychological distress, and those with chronic disease perceived the environment as supportive. These data can be used to target interventions for population subgroups with less favorable attitudes and for surveillance.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Corrigan, Patrick W
Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person ("genetic essentialism"), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental illness among 85 people with serious mental illness and 50 members of the public. The perceived responsibility of persons with mental illness for their condition, as well as fear and social distance, was assessed by self-report. Automatic associations between Mental Illness and Guilt and between Self and Guilt were measured by the Brief Implicit Association Test. Among the general public, endorsement of biogenetic models was associated with not only less perceived responsibility, but also greater social distance. Among people with mental illness, endorsement of genetic models had only negative correlates: greater explicit fear and stronger implicit self-guilt associations. Genetic models may have unexpected negative consequences for implicit self-concept and explicit attitudes of people with serious mental illness. An exclusive focus on genetic models may therefore be problematic for clinical practice and anti-stigma initiatives. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doran, Christopher M; Kinchin, Irina
Objective To examine the impact and cost associated with mental illness. Methods A rapid review of the literature from Australia, New Zealand, UK and Canada was undertaken. The review included literature pertaining to the cost-of-illness and impact of mental illness as well as any modelling studies. Included studies were categorised according to impact on education, labour force engagement, earlier retirement or welfare dependency. The well-accepted Drummond 10-point economic appraisal checklist was used to assess the quality of the studies. Results A total of 45 methodologically diverse studies were included. The studies highlight the significant burden mental illness places on all facets of society, including individuals, families, workplaces and the wider economy. Mental illness results in a greater chance of leaving school early, a lower probability of gaining full-time employment and a reduced quality of life. Research from Canada suggests that the total economic costs associated with mental illness will increase six-fold over the next 30 years with costs likely to exceed A$2.8 trillion (based on 2015 Australian dollars). Conclusions Mental illness is associated with a high economic burden. Further research is required to develop a better understanding of the trajectory and burden of mental illness so that resources can be directed towards cost-effective interventions. What is known about the topic? Although mental illness continues to be one of the leading contributors to the burden of disease, there is limited information on the economic impact that mental illness imposes on individuals, families, workplaces and the wider economy. What does this paper add? This review provides a summary of the economic impact and cost of mental illness. The included literature highlights the significant burden mental illness places on individuals, families, workplaces, society and the economy in general. The review identified several areas for improvement. For example, only
Full Text Available The authors demonstrate the behaviour of police towards mentally ill individuals de lege lata and de lege ferenda. For this, they use an analysis of the existing Protection and Advocacy for the Mentally Ill Act, the draft of the new law which regulates that area, examples from practice, statistical data and the viewpoints of the legal and medical professions. This article points out the most frequent application of police powers when dealing with mentally ill persons and certain quandaries about the practice of admitting mentally ill persons into psychiatric institutions when they are a danger to themselves and others, that is, in the case of providing help to health workers dealing with mentally ill persons. Statistical data for the area of the Republic of Croatia point to a slight trend in the increase of police interventions over the last five years and also in the professional police approach towards such individuals. In conclusion, the coordinated activity of all services dealing with mentally ill persons is proposed as are additional education and the specialisation of police officials dealing with such persons. Furthermore, the need for balance between the necessity to protect the rights of mentally ill persons and the protection of rights and the security of the surroundings in which such persons live and the security of the entire community are pointed out.
... how you can help. By Mayo Clinic Staff Mental illness in children can be hard for parents to ... help they need. Understand the warning signs of mental illness in children and how you can help your ...
Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Keyes, Cory L.M.
Mental health has long been defined as the absence of psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The absence of mental illness, however, is a minimal outcome from a psychological perspective on lifespan development. This article therefore focuses on mental illness as well as on three core
Chisholm, Katharine; Patterson, Paul; Greenfield, Sheila; Turner, Erin; Birchwood, Max
Understanding how adolescents perceive mental illness is important for clinicians wishing to improve engagement, and for the development of educational programmes and health-behaviour directed policies. The current research aimed to develop a preliminary model of how adolescents perceive mental illness and construct their understanding of mental health. Forty-six participants aged 11-18 from six schools in Birmingham, UK, took part in one of 12 group interviews. A thematic analysis highlighted a dual perception of mental illness. Adolescents discussed stereotypes and extreme examples of illness, but also displayed an insightful understanding of mental distress which had developed through participants' own experiences. Participants attempted to reconcile and negotiate these conflicting perceptions by creating distinctions between concepts of 'craziness' and 'normality', and reported experiencing negative emotions relating to both perceptions of illness. The findings suggest that once media stereotypes have been acknowledged, adolescents demonstrate a relatively sophisticated understanding of mental illness, although one which differed at times from the diagnostic medical model of mental illness. Focusing on individual symptoms, prevalence rates and prior contact adolescents have had with individuals with mental illnesses provides a framework to discuss mental health and ill-health with adolescents. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Opare-Henaku, Annabella; Utsey, Shawn O
Mental illness is a culturally laden phenomenon, and different cultures have unique ways of constructing mental illness. In this study, conceptions of mental illness were explored among 30 participants of Akan descent in Ghana through individual and group interviews. Participants demonstrated a wide range of knowledge on mental illness indicating that poor self-care, deficits in social functioning, and disordered behaviors are the cardinal features of mental illness. The data revealed that Akan cultural beliefs influenced notions of etiology of mental illness and care of the mentally ill. While participants recognized the role of multiple factors such as genetics, substance abuse, daily hassles (for example, concerns about basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter), and trauma in the cause of mental illness, the predominant belief was that mental illness is a retributive and/or a spiritual illness. This belief encourages pluralistic health-seeking behaviors: use of hospitals, prayer camps, herbalists, and traditional healers. The implications of these findings for public health education on mental illness, and clinical training and practice are discussed.
Deans, C; Soar, R
This paper identifies and describes the experiences of 13 rural mental health professionals who care for clients diagnosed with a mental illness and a coexisting alcohol and other drug disorder (dual diagnosis). Dual diagnosis is a common problem which is often poorly understood and managed by mental health professionals. The effect of excessive substance use on a person's mental well-being can present as a diagnostic challenge as each condition may mask symptoms of the other. The authors utilized a phenomenological approach to discover the experiences of a group of mental health professionals working in rural communities in Victoria, Australia. Caring for clients diagnosed with dual diagnosis was found to be a complex and stressful role that involved high levels of skill and knowledge. Despite the fact that health professionals in rural areas are expected to deliver the most appropriate care to individuals with a dual diagnosis, a number of these rural health professionals have limited preparation and experience in dealing with arising clinical diagnosis issues. Clinicians experience frustration, resentment and powerlessness in their attempt to understand their clients' drug misuse whilst simultaneously endeavouring to provide a quality mental health service.
This paper introduces the definition of mental poverty and the status quo of mental poverty in China's rural areas. Mental poverty in China's rural areas embodies the following aspects: the sense of parochialism is serious; the small farmer consciousness is strong; there is misgiving about identity. This paper analyses the reason of Mental poverty influencing farmers' behavior model and rural economic development. Mental poverty influences the farmers' changing current situation; Mental pover...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of mental illness is high and opportunities for promoting mental health are neglected in most parts of the world. Many people affected by mental illness live in developing countries, where treatment and care options are limited. In this context, primary health care (PHC programs can indirectly promote mental health by addressing its determinants i.e. by enhancing social unity, minimising discrimination and generating income opportunities. The objectives of this study were to: 1. Describe concepts of mental health and beliefs about determinants of mental health and illness among women involved with a PHC project in rural Maharashtra, India; 2. Identify perceived mental health problems in this community, specifically depression, suicide and violence, their perceived causes, and existing and potential community strategies to respond to them and; 3. Investigate the impact of the PHC program on individual and community factors associated with mental health Method We undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 32 women associated with the PHC project regarding: their concepts of mental health and its determinants; suicide, depression and violence; and the perceived impact of the PHC project on the determinants of mental health. The interviews were taped, transcribed, translated and thematically analysed. Results Mental health and illness were understood by these women to be the product of cultural and socio-economic factors. Mental health was commonly conceptualised as an absence of stress and the commonest stressors were conflict with husbands and mother-in-laws, domestic violence and poverty. Links between empowerment of women through income generation and education, reduction of discrimination based on caste and sex, and promotion of individual and community mental health were recognised. However, mental health problems such as suicide and violence were well-described by participants. Conclusion While it is
Koh, Eugen; Shrimpton, Bradley
Exhibitions of art by people with experience of mental illness are increasingly being staged to improve awareness of mental health issues in the general community and to counter the stigma of mental illness. However, few exhibitions have incorporated research to ascertain their actual effectiveness. This paper reports the results of a study that considered the responses of 10,000 people after they viewed exhibitions of art produced by people with experience of mental illness. These works were selected from the Cunningham Dax Collection, one of the world's most extensive collection of artworks by people with experience of mental illness and/or psychological trauma. More than 90% of respondents agreed with three propositions that the exhibitions helped them: (1) gain a better understanding of mental illness; (2) gain a more sympathetic understanding of the suffering of people with mental illness; and (3) appreciate the ability and creativity of people with mental illness. The results suggest that exhibitions can successfully promote mental health literacy and contribute to positive attitudes towards people with experience of mental illness. This paper explores these findings and raises questions about how the presentation of artworks in an exhibition influences their effectiveness in mental health promotion.
Maranzan, K Amanda
Mental illness stigma is a common problem in healthcare students and professionals in addition to the general public. Stigma is associated with numerous negative outcomes and hence there is an urgent need to address it. This article explores the potential for interprofessional education (IPE) to emerge as a strategy to reduce mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals. Most anti-stigma strategies use a combination of knowledge and contact (with a person with lived experience) to change attitudes towards mental illness. Not surprisingly interprofessional educators are well acquainted with theory and learning approaches for attitude change as they are already used in IPE to address learners' attitudes and perceptions of themselves, other professions, and/or teamwork. This article, through an analysis of IPE pedagogy and learning methods, identifies opportunities to address mental illness stigma with application of the conditions that facilitate stigma reduction. The goal of this article is to raise awareness of the issue of mental illness stigma amongst healthcare students and professionals and to highlight interprofessional education as an untapped opportunity for change.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009
Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…
Tzouvara, V; Papadopoulos, C
Mental illness stigma negatively affects the lives of individuals with mental health disorders. Studies have indicated that the type and degree of stigma significantly varies across cultures. This study aimed to add to this body of knowledge by examining the prevalence and the type of mental illness stigma among individuals who identified themselves as Greek. It also examined the influence of a range of potential within-culture stigma moderating factors, including levels of previous experience with mental illness and mental illness knowledge. A cross-sectional quantitative design was employed, and 111 participants living in England and Greece were sampled through the snowball sampling technique. Stigma prevalence was measured using the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness' questionnaire. The findings revealed that participants showed a high degree of sympathy for people with mental illness but also considered them to be inferior and of a lower social class, and needing strict societal control. Higher stigma was significantly associated with being educated in England (instead of Greece), higher religiosity, lower knowledge levels and lower levels personal experience of mental illness. Targeted antistigma campaigns specifically tailored for the Greek culture are required in order to help reduce stigmatizing attitudes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin
Stigma and recovery "from" and "in" mental illness are associated in many various ways. While recovery gives opportunities, makes person stronger, gives purpose and meaning to their lives and leads to social inclusion, in the same time stigma reduces opportunities, reduces self-esteem and self-efficacy, reduces the belief in own abilities and contributes to social exclusion through discrimination. The recovery of a person with mental illness means to get and keep hope, to understand their own possibilities and impossibilities, active living, to be autonomous, to have a social identity and to give meaning and purpose of our own lives. The care system, recovery-oriented, provides help and support to people with mental disorders in his/her recovery, which contributes to reduction of self-stigma, to the elimination of stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs in mental health services which consequently may have a positive reflection in reducing the stigma of mental illness in the community. It is important to look at the stigma and recovery from the perspective of individual experience of each person with a mental illness in the process of recovery. A support to the recovery concept and the development of a recovery-oriented system of care should be one of the key segments of any strategy to combat the stigma of mental illness. Also, the cultural and the social stigma aspects of stigma would be taken into account in the developing of the recovery concept and on the recovery-oriented care system.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Corrigan, Patrick W.
Whereas some research suggests that acknowledgment of the role of biogenetic factors in mental illness could reduce mental illness stigma by diminishing perceived responsibility, other research has cautioned that emphasizing biogenetic aspects of mental illness could produce the impression that mental illness is a stable, intrinsic aspect of a person (“genetic essentialism”), increasing the desire for social distance. We assessed genetic and neurobiological causal attributions about mental il...
Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence
Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all
Bhumika T Venkatesh
Full Text Available Background: Stigma associated with mental illnesses is one of the principal causes for mentally ill people not receiving adequate mental health care and treatment. The study was conducted to assess the extent of stigma associated with mental illness and knowledge of mental illness among the community. Materials and Methods: Community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 445 respondents from Udupi district; the community attitude toward the mentally ill (CAMI scale was used to assess stigma. The probability proportional to sampling size technique was adopted to select the wards/blocks. Household from blocks/wards were selected using convenience sampling. Self- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the information. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS version 15. Results: Of the total 445 respondents, the prevalence of stigma toward mentally ill people was 74.61% (95% confidence interval, 0.7057, 0.7866. The prevalence of stigma was high under all the four domains of CAMI scale. High prevalence of stigma was seen among females and people with higher income. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of stigma toward PWMI was found to be high. The stigma toward PWMI was associated with gender with respect to AU, BE and CMHI. Hence, the study suggests that there is a strong need to eliminate stigma associated with mental illness to improve the mental health status of the region.
Shapiro, Samuel; Rotter, Merrill
Although studies have examined portrayals of mental illness in the mass media, little attention has been paid to such portrayals in video games. In this descriptive study, the fifty highest-selling video games in each year from 2011 to 2013 were surveyed through application of search terms to the Wikia search engine, with subsequent review of relevant footage on YouTube. Depiction categories were then assigned based on the extent of portrayal and qualitative characteristics compared against mental illness stereotypes in cinema. Twenty-three of the 96 surveyed games depicted at least one character with mental illness. Forty-two characters were identified as portraying mental illness, with most characters classified under a "homicidal maniac" stereotype, although many characters did not clearly reflect cinema stereotypes and were subcategorized based on the shared traits. Video games contain frequent and varied portrayals of mental illness, with depictions most commonly linking mental illness to dangerous and violent behaviors. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to examine the attitude of nonpsychiatric health professionals about mental illness in urban multispeciality tertiary care setting. Aim: To assess attitude toward mental illness among urban nonpsychiatric health professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire was administered to 222 medical and paramedical staff at two tertiary care hospitals at Chandigarh. Results: There is an increased awareness of mental illness especially in military subjects. Literacy was associated with a positive attitude toward mental illness. Health care givers commonly fail to ask about the emotional well being of their patients. Many saw referral to psychiatrist as a form of punishment. There is uniform desire for more knowledge about psychiatric disorders in medical and paramedical staff. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the need for educational programs aimed at demystifying mental illness. A better understanding of mental disorders among the nonpsychiatric medical professional would help to allay fear and mistrust about mentally ill persons in the community as well as lessen stigmatization toward such persons.
Evans-Lacko, S; Brohan, E; Mojtabai, R; Thornicroft, G
Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems is needed. This study links two large, international datasets to explore the association between public stigma in 14 European countries (Eurobarometer survey) and individual reports of self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among persons with mental illness (n=1835) residing in those countries [the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks (GAMIAN) study]. Individuals with mental illness living in countries with less stigmatizing attitudes, higher rates of help-seeking and treatment utilization and better perceived access to information had lower rates of self-stigma and perceived discrimination and those living in countries where the public felt more comfortable talking to people with mental illness had less self-stigma and felt more empowered. Targeting the general public through mass anti-stigma interventions may lead to a virtuous cycle by disrupting the negative feedback engendered by public stigma, thereby reducing self-stigma among people with mental health problems. A combined approach involving knowledge, attitudes and behaviour is needed; mass interventions that facilitate disclosure and positive social contact may be the most effective. Improving availability of information about mental health issues and facilitating access to care and help-seeking also show promise with regard to stigma.
Naughton, Michael F A; Maybery, Darryl J; Goodyear, Melinda
Nearly 50% of all mental illnesses begin in childhood before the age of 14 years, and over 20% of parents have a mental illness. Few studies have examined the co-occurrence of mental illnesses in parents and children. In the present study, we examined the extent of mental illness within families of 152 clients attending an Australian regional child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). A cross-sectional study design was employed involving a case record review and clinician-completed questionnaire of the children and youth attending a CAMHS. It was found that 79% of these children were living with a parent with mental illness. The predominant diagnosis of both child and parent was an anxiety or mood disorder, and many families had co-occurring risk factors of domestic violence and limited social supports. The findings in this Australian cohort are similar to those of other international research. While novel in nature, the present study has highlighted the extent of both mental illness and scarce supports for both children and parents in the same family. The findings indicate the need for a coordinated multiservice delivery of appropriate and consistent family-focussed interventions, responding to both mental illness and social supports for children and parents. Further research should examine specific components of family need and support, as seen through the eyes of the child and their parent. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Oduguwa, Adeola Oluwafunmilayo; Adedokun, Babatunde; Omigbodun, Olayinka Olusola
Background Stigmatizing attitudes and discriminatory behaviour towards persons with mental illness are known to start in childhood. In Nigeria, it is not unusual to see children taunting persons with mental illness. This behaviour continues into adulthood as evidenced by the day-to-day occurrences in the community of negative attitudes and social distance from persons with mental illness. School-based interventions for pupils have been found to increase knowledge about mental illness. Childre...
Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.
Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.
Stiawa, Maja; Kilian, Reinhold
Social Networks of Children with Mentally Ill Parents Mental illness of parents can be a load situation for children. Supporting social relations might be an important source in such a situation. Social relations can be shown by social network analysis. Studies about social networks and mental health indicate differences regarding structure and potential for support when compared with social networks of healthy individuals. If and how mental illness of parents has an impact on their children's network is widely unknown. This systematic review shows methods and results of studies about social networks of children with mentally ill parents. By systematic search in electronic databases as well as manual search, two studies were found who met the target criteria. Both studies were conducted in the USA. Results of studies indicate that parental mental illness affects the state of mental health and social networks of children. Symptomatology of children changed due to perceived social support of network contacts. Impact of social support and strong network contacts seems to depend on age of children and the family situation. That's why support offers should be adapt to children's age. Focusing on social networks as potential resource for support and needs of the family affected seems appropriate during treatment.
Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Morrison, James
The study was an attempt to construct an attitude scale to measure the radical psychosocial or libertarian position about "mental illness" and mental health practices. The factor analysis defined four scale factors: mental illness mythology, antimedical model, social deviance control, and anti-coercive treatment. (Author)
Public Health Nurses work with children under 18 years in schools and the community. Increasingly children are living with a parent suffering from a mental illness. Consequently Public Health Nurses are encountering more mental illness as part of their practice. The research reported in this article aimed to identify the Public Health Nurse's role with regard to children in these circumstances. A qualitative research design was used with eight Public Health Nurses working in rural and urban settings. Participants engaged in a focus group from which data were gathered and analysed thematically using axial coding. To evaluate the identified themes six of the participants went on to take part in a further focus group. The three key themes identified were Advocacy, Assessment, and Relational Knowing and Clinical Practice. It emerged that the role of Public Health Nurses working with such families involved advocating for the child, using a range of assessment skills to gather relevant information and make referrals, with all informed by expert knowledge and clinical experience. Findings indicate the need for more acknowledgement of the frequency with which Public Health Nurses are encountering problems associated with mental illness; and hence the need for provision of appropriate education and support that will enable them to effectively advocate for children's safety and wellbeing.
Azman, Azlinda; Jamir Singh, Paramjit Singh; Sulaiman, Jamalludin
Mental illness is a disease that affects millions of people every year. It not only causes stress to the mentally ill patients, but also for the family members who provide them the care. The family caregivers, therefore need some form of coping strategies in dealing with their mentally ill family members. This qualitative study aims at identifying and analysing the coping strategies adopted by the family caregivers in dealing with their mentally ill family members. A total of 15 family caregivers from the state of Kedah, Malaysia participated in the face-to-face semi structured interview. The study findings identified an array of coping strategies used by the family caregivers, including religious coping, emotional coping, acceptance, becoming engaged in leisure activities, and the use of traditional healing to help them cope with their mentally ill members. Suggestions and conclusions: Study suggests that the family caregivers should engage themselves in social support groups to learn about and obtain the positive coping strategies used by other caregivers who have similar experiences in caring for the mentally ill. Study also suggests that they should get appropriate training from the mental health professionals in order to enhance the caregivers' coping skills.
Full Text Available Background: Globally, people with mental illness frequently encounter stigma, prejudice, and discrimination by public and health care professionals. Research related to medical students′ attitudes toward people with mental illness is limited from India. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare the attitudes toward people with mental illness among medical students′. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was carried out among medical students, who were exposed (n = 115 and not exposed (n = 61 to psychiatry training using self-reporting questionnaire. Results: Our findings showed improvement in students′ attitudes after exposure to psychiatry in benevolent (t = 2.510, P < 0.013 and stigmatization (t = 2.656, P < 0.009 domains. Further, gender, residence, and contact with mental illness were the factors that found to be influencing students′ attitudes toward mental illness. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that psychiatric education proved to be effective in changing the attitudes of medical students toward mental illness to a certain extent. However, there is an urgent need to review the current curriculum to prepare undergraduate medical students to provide holistic care to the people with mental health problems.
Petti, T A; Benswanger, E G; Fialkov, M J; Sonis, M
Lack of appropriate training in both public mental health service and rural mental health service is a major factor in the critical shortage of child psychiatrists in rural settings. The authors describe a residency training program in rural public mental health designed to help alleviate that shortage. The program familiarizes fourth-year residents in child psychiatry with the clinical, political, and social aspects of rural public mental health services through didactic and supervisory sessions as well as an eight-month practicum experience involving provision of inservice training and administrative and case-related consultation to staff of mental health agencies. An assessment of the program indicated that participants felt it was beneficial, but the program was only partly successful in increasing the number of child psychiatrists entering practice in rural areas. The authors urge that residency programs in child psychiatry give priority to training child psychiatrists for work in rural settings.
Theoretical neuroscience, which characterizes neural mechanisms using mathematical and computational models, is highly relevant to central problems in the philosophy of psychiatry. These models can help to solve the explanation problem of causally connecting neural processes with the behaviors and experiences found in mental illnesses. Such explanations will also be useful for generating better classifications and treatments of psychiatric disorders. The result should help to eliminate concerns that mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia are not objectively real. A philosophical approach to mental illness based on neuroscience need not neglect the inherently social and historical nature of mental phenomena.
Dunham, A; Kinnear, D; Allan, L; Smiley, E; Cooper, S-A
People with intellectual disabilities face a much greater burden and earlier onset of physical and mental ill-health than the general adult population. Physical-mental comorbidity has been shown to result in poorer outcomes in the general population, but little is known about this relationship in adults with intellectual disabilities. To identify whether physical ill-health is associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities and whether the extent of physical multi-morbidity can predict the likelihood of mental ill-health. To identify any associations between types of physical ill-health and mental ill-health. A total of 1023 adults with intellectual disabilities underwent comprehensive health assessments. Binary logistic regressions were undertaken to establish any association between the independent variables: total number of physical health conditions, physical conditions by International Classification of Disease-10 chapter and specific physical health conditions; and the dependent variables: problem behaviours, mental disorders of any type. All regressions were adjusted for age, gender, level of intellectual disabilities, living arrangements, neighbourhood deprivation and Down syndrome. The extent of physical multi-morbidity was not associated with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities as only 0.8% of the sample had no physical conditions. Endocrine disease increased the risk of problem behaviours [odds ratio (OR): 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.47], respiratory disease reduced the risk of problem behaviours (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99) and mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.92), and musculoskeletal disease reduced the risk of mental ill-health of any type (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.73-0.98). Ischaemic heart disease increased the risk of problem behaviours approximately threefold (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 1.02-10.60). The extent of physical multi-morbidity in the population with intellectual
Maranzan, K. Amanda
A number of initiatives are aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, yet stigma remains a problem in the general population. A focus on stigma reduction with students is particularly relevant, as students often hold negative attitudes toward mental illness, have regular contact with persons experiencing mental health difficulties, and because…
Aghukwa Nkereuwem Chikaodiri
Full Text Available A few months from the time of this survey, the nearly completed inpatient psychiatric facility within the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital’s complex would be ready for admissions. Understanding the health workers’ level of experience of mental illness and their likely behavioural responses towards people with psychiatric illness, therefore, should be a good baseline to understanding their likely reactions towards admitting such patients within a general hospital setting. The study, which used a pre-tested and adapted attribution questionnaire, was prospective and cross-sectional. Randomly selected health workers in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital had their level of familiarity and attributions towards psychiatric patients assessed. The respondents showed a high level of experience with mental illness, with more than 3 in 5 of them having watched movies on mental illness before. More than half of them held positive (favorable attributions towards persons with mental illness on nine of the ten assessed attribution factors. Almost all held negative (unfavourable opinion towards intimate relationships with such persons. Attribution factors, “Responsibility, “Anger”, “Dangerousness”, “Fear” and “Segregation” were significantly related to the respondents’ level of education (P less than 0.05. Marital status of the respondents related significantly to “Pity” and “Avoidance” factors (P less than 0.05. Having watched movies on mental illness significantly related to “Responsibility” and “Fear” factors (P less than 0.05. Programs designed to improve the health workers mental health literacy, and increased positive professional contacts with mentally ill persons on treatment, would further enhance their perceived positive attributions towards them.
Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.
Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…
McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith
Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W
Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services. Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti-stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma.
Boyd, Candice P; Aisbett, Damon L; Francis, Kristy; Kelly, Melinda; Newnham, Krystal; Newnham, Karyn
The mental health of adolescents living in rural Australia has received little research attention. In this article, the extant literature on rural adolescent mental health in Australia is reviewed. Given the lack of literature on this topic, the review is centered on a vignette presented at the beginning of the article. The case represented by the vignette is that of a young Australian growing up in a rural area. The issues raised--including the nature of mental health issues for rural adolescents and barriers to seeking professional help--are then discussed in terms of the available literature. The article concludes with a future focus for research efforts in the area of rural adolescent mental health.
Corner, Emily; Gill, Paul
We test whether significant differences in mental illness exist in a matched sample of lone- and group-based terrorists. We then test whether there are distinct behavioral differences between lone-actor terrorists with and without mental illness. We then stratify our sample across a range of diagnoses and again test whether significant differences exist. We conduct a series of bivariate, multivariate, and multinomial statistical tests using a unique dataset of 119 lone-actor terrorists and a matched sample of group-based terrorists. The odds of a lone-actor terrorist having a mental illness is 13.49 times higher than the odds of a group actor having a mental illness. Lone actors who were mentally ill were 18.07 times more likely to have a spouse or partner who was involved in a wider movement than those without a history of mental illness. Those with a mental illness were more likely to have a proximate upcoming life change, more likely to have been a recent victim of prejudice, and experienced proximate and chronic stress. The results identify behaviors and traits that security agencies can utilize to monitor and prevent lone-actor terrorism events. The correlated behaviors provide an image of how risk can crystalize within the individual offender and that our understanding of lone-actor terrorism should be multivariate in nature.
Mohamed-Kaloo, Zaakiyah; Laher, Sumaya
Mental health literacy on the part of medical practitioners is an important component of mental healthcare. General practitioners (GPs) are typically the first doctors consulted by a person who is ill. Exploration of their perceptions regarding mental illness, aetiological issues and treatment is important. To investigate perceptions of mental illness in a sample of ten South African Muslim GPs (five male, five female) in the Lenasia area (Johannesburg, South Africa). Using a qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with each GP. The questionnaire encompassed 37 questions relating to the context in which the GPs practised, perceptions of mental illness, understanding of religion and culture, and treatment of mental illness (including aspects of spiritual illness). Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. Six dominant themes were identified, namely GPs' understanding of mental illness and its causation; stigma, secrecy and somatisation; the beneficial effects of religion in mental illnesses; perceptions of spiritual illnesses; collaboration with traditional healers; and collaboration with psychiatrists and psychologists. Greater awareness regarding the stigmatisation of mental illness is needed. Furthermore, it is important that healthcare professionals have an understanding of religious and cultural taxonomies of illness as well as the use of traditional healing as a mode of treatment. Participants identified a need for increased collaboration between healthcare professionals, including traditional healers.
Rayan, Ahmad; Fawaz, Mirna
The purpose of this study was to examine cultural misconceptions about mental illness and how they are associated with the public stigma against mental illness among Lebanese university students. A sample of 203 participants completed the study. Data about cultural misconceptions, attitudes about mental illness, and public stigma of mental illness were obtained. The researchers examined the mean difference in public stigma according to cultural beliefs about mental illness. The majority of students believe that mental health professionals have inadequate knowledge and expertise to treat mental disorders. Various cultural misconceptions about mental illness were reported. Public stigma significantly differed based on these cultural misconceptions. Psychiatric nurses should play a vital role in reshaping the inappropriate cultural view about mental illness. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bondesson, E; Larrosa Pardo, F; Stigmar, K; Ringqvist, Å; Petersson, I F; Jöud, A; Schelin, M E C
Pain from various locations in the body and mental illness are common and the comorbidity between the two is well-known although the temporal relationship remains to be determined. Our aim was to follow patients over time to study if pain (here dorsalgia/abdominal pain) or fibromyalgia lead to an increased risk of developing mental illness (here depression/anxiety) and/or the reverse, that is whether patients with mental illness have an increased risk to develop pain or fibromyalgia, compared to the rest of the population. This prospective cohort study used the Skåne Healthcare Register, covering all care in the region of Skåne, southern Sweden (population ~1.3 million). The cohort included healthcare consultations in primary care, outpatient specialized care and inpatient care between 2007 and 2016 for all patients without prior registered diagnosis of mental illness or pain, aged 18 or older (n = 504,365). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for developing mental illness after pain was 2.18 (95% CI = 2.14-2.22) compared to without pain. IRR for developing pain after mental illness was 2.02 (95% CI = 1.98-2.06) compared to without mental illness. Corresponding IRR for developing mental illness after fibromyalgia was 4.05 (95% CI = 3.58-4.59) and for developing fibromyalgia after mental illness 5.54 (95% CI = 4.99-6.16). This study shows a bidirectional influence of similar magnitude of pain and mental illness, respectively. In monitoring patients with pain or mental illness, a focus on both conditions is thus important to develop appropriate, targeted interventions and may increase the likelihood of improved outcomes. We followed a population-based cohort over a period of 10 years, including incident cases of both exposure and outcome and found a bidirectional relationship between pain and mental illness. Clinicians need to pay attention on both conditions, in patients seeking care due to mental illness or pain. © 2018 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Ben Natan, Merav; Drori, Tal; Hochman, Ohad
This study examined public perception of stigmas relating to mental illness six months after a reform, which integrated mental health care into primary care in Israel. The results reveal that the public feels uncomfortable seeking referral to mental health services through the public health system, with Arab Israelis and men expressing lower levels of comfort than did Jewish Israelis. The current reform has not solved the issue of public stigma regarding mental health care. The study suggests that the current reforms must be accompanied over time with appropriate public education regarding mental illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lauber, Christoph; Rössler, Wulf
There is a wide range of literature on stigmatization and discrimination of people with mental illness. Most studies, however, derive from Western countries. This review aims at summarizing results from developing countries in Asia published between 1996-2006. Medline search focusing on English-speaking literature. Comparable to Western countries, there is a widespread tendency to stigmatize and discriminate people with mental illness in Asia. People with mental illness are considered as dangerous and aggressive which in turn increases the social distance. The role of supernatural, religious and magical approaches to mental illness is prevailing. The pathway to care is often shaped by scepticism towards mental health services and the treatments offered. Stigma experienced from family members is pervasive. Moreover, social disapproval and devaluation of families with mentally ill individuals are an important concern. This holds true particularly with regards to marriage, marital separation and divorce. Psychic symptoms, unlike somatic symptoms, are construed as socially disadvantageous. Thus, somatisation of psychiatric disorders is widespread in Asia. The most urgent problem of mental health care in Asia is the lack of personal and financial resources. Thus, mental health professionals are mostly located in urban areas. This increases the barriers to seek help and contributes to the stigmatization of the mentally ill. The attitude of mental health professionals towards people with mental illness is often stigmatizing. This review revealed that the stigmatization of people with mental illness is widespread in Asia. The features of stigmatization-beliefs about causes of and attitudes towards mental illness, consequences for help-seeking-have more commonalities than differences to Western countries.
Doyle, Otima; Joe, Sean; Caldwell, Cleopatra H
We have presented nationally representative data on the prevalence and correlates of mental illness and mental health service use among African American and Caribbean Black (US-born and foreign-born) fathers in the United States. We have reported national estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of mental illness, correlates, and service use among African American (n = 1254) and Caribbean Black (n = 633) fathers using data from the National Survey of American Life, a national household survey of Black Americans. We used bivariate cross-tabulations and Cox proportional hazards regression approaches and adjusted for the National Survey of American Life's complex sample design. The prevalence of mental illness, sociodemographic correlates, and service use among Black fathers varied by ethnicity and nativity. US-born Caribbean Black fathers had alarmingly high rates of most disorders, including depression, anxiety, and substance disorders. Mental health service use was particularly low for African American and foreign-born Caribbean Black fathers. These results demonstrate the need for more research on the causes and consequences of mental illness and the help-seeking behavior of ethnically diverse Black fathers.
Zolezzi, Monica; Bensmail, Nawal; Zahrah, Farah; Khaled, Salma Mawfek; El-Gaili, Tayseer
Stigma in relation to mental illness is one of the main factors inhibiting people from seeking help. Studies have been undertaken looking into the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) about mental illness among residents in Qatar; however, none have looked specifically at students in higher education. The aim of this study was to understand the KAB toward mental illness among students at a Qatari university and determine if there are any differences based on gender, nationality, and college type. A convenience sample of students from all genders, colleges, and nationalities was approached to participate in a survey that consisted of four sections: demographic, beliefs, attitudes, and help-seeking and treatment preferences associated with mental illness. Chi-square testing was performed to test for differences in the distribution of proportions of our primary outcomes (students' beliefs, attitudes, and help-seeking and treatment preferences). A total of 282 students completed the survey. The majority of the participating students were females (59.3%), non-Qataris (64.3%), and enrolled in science-based colleges (62.7%). Beliefs reflecting poor mental health literacy, such as "medications to treat mental illness can cause addiction", "mental illness is not like any other illness", or that "mental illness is a punishment from God", were reported by a majority of students (84.4%, 56.7%, and 50.2%, respectively). Stigmatizing attitudes that were endorsed by a majority of students included believing that people with mental illness cannot have regular jobs (60.2%), that people with mental illness are dangerous (65.7%), and that they would not marry someone with a mental illness (88.9%). Additionally, 33.6% of students indicated they would be ashamed to mention if someone in their family or they themself, had a mental illness. A vast majority of students (86.3%) indicated to prefer family and friend's support as treatment options. Significant differences in KAB about
Schomerus, G; Angermeyer, M C; Baumeister, S E; Stolzenburg, S; Link, B G; Phelan, J C
A core component of stigma is being set apart as a distinct, dichotomously different kind of person. We examine whether information on a continuum from mental health to mental illness reduces stigma. Online survey experiment in a quota sample matching the German population for age, gender and region (n=1679). Participants randomly received information on either (1) a continuum, (2) a strict dichotomy of mental health and mental illness, or (3) no information. We elicited continuity beliefs and stigma toward a person with schizophrenia or depression. The continuum intervention decreased perceived difference by 0.19 standard deviations (SD, Pmental illness can be improved by providing information on a mental health-mental illness continuum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Salzer, Mark S; Brusilovskiy, Eugene; Townley, Greg
A broad range of estimates of recovery among previously institutionalized persons has been reported, but no current, community-based national estimate of recovery from serious mental illness exists. This study reports recovery rate results, based on a remission definition, and explores related demographic factors. A national, geographically stratified, and random cross-sectional survey conducted from September 2014 to December 2015 resulted in responses from more than 41,000 individuals. Lifetime prevalence of serious mental illness was assessed by asking about receipt of a diagnosis (major depression, bipolar disorder, manic depression, and schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) and hospitalization and impairment associated with the diagnosis. Recovery was determined by asking about impairments over the past 12 months. Almost 17% reported receiving one of the diagnoses in their lifetime, 6% had a lifetime rate of a serious mental illness, and nearly 4% continued to experience interference associated with serious mental illness. One-third of those with a lifetime serious mental illness reported having been in remission for at least the past 12 months. Recovery rates were low until age 32 and then progressively increased. Lifetime estimates of diagnosed illness and current prevalence of serious mental illness are consistent with previous research. Results indicate that recovery is possible and is associated with age. Further research is needed to understand factors that promote recovery, and sustained evaluation efforts using similar parsimonious approaches may be useful in conducting timely assessments of national and local mental health policies.
... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...
Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn
This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naïve theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing and card selection tasks to assess 6- to 11-year-old children's conceptions of the causes and consequences (Study 1) and the curability and timeline (Study 2) of different mental and physical illnesses/ailments. The studies revealed that, at all ages, the children held coherent causal-explanatory ideas about the causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of both mental and physical illnesses/ailments. However, while younger children tended to rely on their knowledge of common physical illnesses when thinking about mental illnesses, providing contagion and contamination explanations of cause, older children demonstrated differences in their thinking about mental and physical illnesses. No substantial gender differences were found in the children's thinking. It is argued that children hold coherent conceptions of mental illness at all ages, but that mental illness only emerges as an ontologically distinct conceptual domain by the end of middle childhood.
Pölkki, Pirjo; Ervast, Sari-Anne; Huupponen, Marika
This paper examines the needs and stress reactions of children of mentally ill parents, as well as coping and resilience. The study is based on the interviews of six 9-11 years old children and narratives of seventeen female grown up children of mentally ill parents. The younger and older children of the mentally ill parents had not been informed about their parent's illness. The illness of the parent aroused a variety of emotions in them. The children used both practical problem solving and emotional coping mechanisms. Informal social support was available to them but seldom from the public services. It is recommended that professionals in mental health and child welfare services clarify their roles when working with mentally ill parents. The best interest of the child and the parenting they need should be carefully assessed. Open care measures should be offered to families early enough to prevent serious child welfare and mental problems.
Chan, Randolph C H; Mak, Winnie W S
The present study applied the common sense model to understand the underlying mechanism of how cognitive and emotional representations of mental illness among people in recovery of mental illness would impact their endorsement of self-stigma, and how that would, in turn, affect clinical and personal recovery. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 376 people in recovery. Participants were recruited from seven public specialty outpatient clinics and substance abuse assessment clinics across various districts in Hong Kong. They were asked to report their perception towards their mental illness, self-stigma, symptom severity, and personal recovery. The results of structural equation modeling partially supported the hypothesized mediation model indicating that controllability, consequences, and emotional concern of mental illness, but not cause, timeline, and identity, were associated with self-stigma, which was subsequently negatively associated with clinical and personal recovery. The present study demonstrated the mediating role of self-stigma in the relationship between individuals' illness representations towards their mental illness and their recovery. Illness management programs aimed at addressing the maladaptive mental illness-related beliefs and emotions are recommended. Implications on developing self-directed and empowering mental health services are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jorm, Anthony; Sawyer, Michael; Gillett, Joy
Australian Rotary Health (ARH) was established in 1981 with the goal of supporting family health research in Australia. Since 2000, ARH has supported research relevant to mental health and mental illness. This article describes the early history of the fund, the reasons for the move to mental illness research, some examples of research projects that have had a beneficial impact and the branching out into mental health community awareness raising and stigma reduction. ARH has emerged as a major non-government supporter of mental illness research. It has also effectively engaged Rotary clubs at a local level to increase community awareness of mental illness and to reduce stigma.
Full Text Available Mental illness is a major public health concern in Canada and also globally. According to the World Health Organization, five of the top ten disabilities worldwide are mental health disorders. Within Canada, one in five individuals is living with mental illness each year. Currently, there are 6.7 million Canadians living with mental illness and over 1 million Canadian youth living with mental illness. Police are frequently the first responders to situations in the community involving people with mental illness, and police services are increasingly aware of the need to provide officers with additional training and strategies for effectively interacting with these citizens. This study examined the effectiveness of four online, interactive video-based simulations designed to educate police officers about mental illness and strategies for interacting with people with mental illness. The simulations were created through the efforts of a unique partnership involving a police service, a mental health facility and two postsecondary institutions. Frontline police officers from Ontario were divided into one of three groups (simulation, face to face, control. Using a pre- and post-test questionnaire, the groups were compared on their level of knowledge and understanding of mental illness. In addition, focus groups explored the impact of the simulations on officers’ level of confidence in engaging with individuals with mental illness and officers’ perceptions of the simulations’ ease of use and level of realism. The study’s findings determined that the simulations were just as effective as face-to-face learning, and the officers reported the simulations were easy to use and reflected real-life scenarios they had encountered on the job. As mental health continues to be a major public concern, not only in Canada but also globally, interactive simulations may provide an effective and affordable education resource not only for police officers but for
Dickerson, Faith B.; Brown, Clayton H.; Daumit, Gail L.; LiJuan, Fang; Goldberg, Richard W.; Wohlheiter, Karen; Dixon, Lisa B.
We examined indices of the health of persons with serious mental illness. A sample of 100 adults with schizophrenia and 100 with major mood disorder were recruited from randomly selected outpatients who were receiving community-based psychiatric treatment. Participants were surveyed about health indicators using items from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study III and the National Health Interview Survey. Their responses were compared with those of matched samples from the general population surveys. A total of 1% of persons with serious mental illness, compared with 10% from the general population sample, met criteria for all 5 of selected health indicators: nonsmoker, exercise that meets recommended standards, good dentition, absence of obesity, and absence of serious medical co-occurring illness. Within the mentally ill group, educational level, but not a diagnosis of schizophrenia versus mood disorder, was independently associated with a composite measure of health behaviors. We conclude that an examination of multiple health indicators may be used to measure overall health status in persons with serious mental illness. PMID:16469943
Ballal, Divya; Navaneetham, Janardhana
Children of parents with mental illness are not routinely included in psychoeducational and supportive family interventions provided by adult mental health systems. The family, therefore, is an important and, sometimes, the only source of information and support for them. To understand the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of the experiences of well parents in talking to their children about parental mental illness. Ten well parents whose spouses were diagnosed with a severe mental illness participated in the study. Socio-demographic information, family details and history of the spouse's mental illness along with their experiences of talking to children about parental mental illness, the perceived risks and benefits, challenges they faced and the role of others in the process were recorded. Qualitative data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The themes of 'distancing children from parental mental illness', 'avoiding conversations about the illness', 'giving and receiving emotional support', 'providing explanations of the illness' and 'regulating other sources of information' show the complex ways in which well parents influence their children's understanding of parental mental illness. The findings are examined in the background of what is known about this topic from the perspective of children or of the parent with illness. Possible ways to support well parents in families affected by parental mental illness are discussed. This study is a step forward in the understanding of how families talk to children about parental mental illness and provides the perspective of the well parent.
Full Text Available Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT. We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted.
Background: Female infertility is highly co-morbid with mental illness. In Nigeria, very few studies have been conducted to determine the pattern of mental illness among women with infertility. We aimed to determine the pattern of mental illness in a sample of women with female infertility as well as its associated correlates.
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David; Hanley, Christine
People with serious mental illness experience higher rates of oral and dental health problems than the wider population. Little is known about how dental health is viewed or addressed by nurses working with mental health consumers. This paper presents the views of nurses regarding the nature and severity of dental health problems of consumers with serious mental illness, and how often they provide advice on dental health. Mental health sector nurses (n=643) completed an online survey, including questions on dental and oral health issues of people with serious mental illness. The majority of nurses considered the oral and dental conditions of people with serious mental illness to be worse than the wider community. When compared with a range of significant physical health issues (e.g. cardiovascular disease), many nurses emphasised that dental and oral problems are one of the most salient health issues facing people with serious mental illness, their level of access to dental care services is severely inadequate and they suffer significantly worse dental health outcomes as a result. This study highlights the need for reforms to increase access to dental and oral health care for mental health consumers.
Background. Mental health literacy on the part of medical practitioners is an important component of mental healthcare. General practitioners (GPs) are typically the first doctors consulted by a person who is ill. Exploration of their perceptions regarding mental illness, aetiological issues and treatment is important. Objective.
Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.
Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…
People with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese can benefit from taking part in a fitness program called InSHAPE where they receive help with fitness, weight loss, and even grocery shopping on a budget.
Dardas, L A; Simmons, L A
The stigma of mental illness varies significantly from culture to culture and from person to person. To date, little is known about how mental illness stigma manifests within the Arab community. This study aimed at bringing clarity to the concept of 'mental illness stigma' as it applies to Arab families. Nursing's holistic and patient-centered approach is integral to helping Arab patients and their families appropriately incorporate individual values, beliefs, and cultural perspectives into treatment plans. This study establishes a scientific alert for professionals at all levels to avoid making false generalizations about a specific culture that are not based on specific research findings from that culture. Accessing mental health services is a critical step towards reducing the burden of mental illness. The stigma of mental illness is one of the most common reasons for not seeking mental health care leading to negative health consequences and undue suffering for many individuals and their families. Stigma is embedded in its social context. What may be considered acceptable in one society may be considered unacceptable and open to stigmatization in other societies. Arabs have a shared set of values, beliefs, and traditions that are substantially different from those of Westerners. Further, in most Arab countries, formal mental health resources are scarce and people with mental illness experience the compounded disadvantages of poverty and illness stigma. To date, little is known about how mental illness stigma manifests within the Arab community making it difficult to design and test interventions that support Arab individuals with mental illness and their families in treatment seeking and adherence. Using Rodger's concept analysis method, we examined how 'mental illness stigma' operates within an Arab context as a first step towards elucidating culturally competent approaches to treatment. This analysis provides a foundation for future work in the areas of mental
St Louis, K O; Roberts, P M
Public attitudes toward mental illness in two widely disparate cultures, Canada and Cameroon, were compared using an experimental version of a survey instrument, the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Mental Illness or POSHA-MI(e). 120 respondents rated POSHA-MI(e) items relating to mental illness on 1-9 equal appearing interval scales: 30 in English and 30 in French in both Cameroon and Canada. Additionally, 30 matched, monolingual English, American respondents were included as a comparison group. In Canada (and in the USA), attitudes were generally more positive and less socially stigmatizing toward mental illness than in Cameroon. Differences between countries were much larger than differences between language groups. Consistent with other research, beliefs and reactions of the public regarding mental illness reflect stigma, especially in Cameroon. Cultural influences on these public attitudes are more likely important than language influences. Results of this field test of the POSHA-MI(e), documenting differences in public attitudes toward mental illness in two divergent cultures, support its further development.
Soderstrom, Irina R.
Prisons are increasingly being filled with inmates who suffer from mental illness. This paper examines the prevalence of mental illness in American jails and prisons, the duty government and society has to provide appropriate mental health treatment, and the implications for inmate safety, costs, recidivism, and community reintegration if…
In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.
Full Text Available Monica Zolezzi,1,2 Nawal Bensmail,2 Farah Zahrah,2 Salma Mawfek Khaled,3 Tayseer El-Gaili4 1Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, 2College of Pharmacy, 3Research Unit, Social and Economic Survey Research Institute, 4Student Counseling Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Stigma in relation to mental illness is one of the main factors inhibiting people from seeking help. Studies have been undertaken looking into the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB about mental illness among residents in Qatar; however, none have looked specifically at students in higher education. The aim of this study was to understand the KAB toward mental illness among students at a Qatari university and determine if there are any differences based on gender, nationality, and college type. Methods: A convenience sample of students from all genders, colleges, and nationalities was approached to participate in a survey that consisted of four sections: demographic, beliefs, attitudes, and help-seeking and treatment preferences associated with mental illness. Chi-square testing was performed to test for differences in the distribution of proportions of our primary outcomes (students’ beliefs, attitudes, and help-seeking and treatment preferences. Results: A total of 282 students completed the survey. The majority of the participating students were females (59.3%, non-Qataris (64.3%, and enrolled in science-based colleges (62.7%. Beliefs reflecting poor mental health literacy, such as “medications to treat mental illness can cause addiction”, “mental illness is not like any other illness”, or that “mental illness is a punishment from God”, were reported by a majority of students (84.4%, 56.7%, and 50.2%, respectively. Stigmatizing attitudes that were endorsed by a majority of students included believing that people with mental illness cannot have regular jobs (60.2%, that people with mental illness are dangerous (65.7%, and that they would not marry
Rüsch, Nicolas; Corrigan, Patrick W; Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V
People with mental illness often internalize negative stereotypes, resulting in self-stigma and low self-esteem ("People with mental illness are bad and therefore I am bad, too"). Despite strong evidence for self-stigma's negative impact as assessed by self-report measures, it is unclear whether self-stigma operates in an automatic, implicit manner, potentially outside conscious awareness and control. We therefore assessed (i) negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness and (ii) low implicit self-esteem using 2 Brief Implicit Association Tests in 85 people with mental illness. Implicit self-stigma was operationalized as the product of both implicit measures. Explicit self-stigma and quality of life were assessed by self-report. Greater implicit and explicit self-stigma independently predicted lower quality of life after controlling for depressive symptoms, diagnosis, and demographic variables. Our results suggest that implicit self-stigma is a measurable construct and is associated with negative outcomes. Attempts to reduce self-stigma should take implicit processes into account.
Corrigan, Patrick W
Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Collier, Elizabeth; Grant, Maria J
To illuminate long-term experiences of mental illness from both research and autobiographical accounts. A literature review of English-language papers, 1950-2014, relating to the experience of long-term mental illness indexed in AgeInfo, AMED, ASSIA, British Nursing Index (BNI), CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycEXTRA, and PsychINFO. Twenty-five research papers and nine autobiographic accounts met the review criteria. Thematic analysis revealed nine themes: fear, explanation seeking, stigma, disability, coping strategies, control, support, change and learning, and life history. Specific gaps of note relate to age differences, acknowledgement of longevity of mental illnesses, and different cultural perspectives. Research Implications: There is an absence of longitudinal studies focused on experiences of long-term mental illness. The considerable length-of-time implicated in the experiences suggests that more individual life experience rather than illness focused studies are needed, enabling a holistic understanding. This includes studies from cultures other than the Western world. Greater transparency is needed in justifying age inclusions or passive exclusion of older peoples' perspectives. Knowledge of long-term mental illness experiences is of great importance to mental health practitioners. Evidence-based services cannot be provided if we do not have an holistic understanding of long-term mental illness. Social Implications: This review questions our ability to provide effective support for those experiencing long-term mental illness, in particular older people and different cultural perspectives. There appear to be no literature reviews that focus on the individual experience of long-term mental illness. It highlights the surprisingly small number of research studies available to inform mental health practitioners.
Bromley, Elizabeth; Gabrielian, Sonya; Brekke, Benjamin; Pahwa, Rohini; Daly, Kathleen A.; Brekke, John S.; Braslow, Joel T.
Objective Community integration is recognized as a crucial component of recovery from serious mental illness. Although the construct of community integration can be measured with structured instruments, little is known about the subjective and experiential meaning of community and community involvement for persons with serious mental illness. Methods In 2010, 30 individuals with serious mental illness treated in two public mental health clinics completed semistructured interviews that elicited the places and people that they associate with the experience of community and the larger meaning of community in their lives. Results Participants described four experiences as integral to their concepts of community: receiving help, minimizing risk, avoiding stigma, and giving back. Participants looked for communities that provide reliable support, and they described the need to manage community contact in order to protect themselves and others from their symptoms and from discrimination. Most participants experienced communities centered on mental health treatment or mentally ill peers as providing opportunities for positive engagement. Conclusions The experience of having a serious mental illness shapes preferences for and perceptions of community in pervasive ways. Participants describe community involvement not as a means to move away from illness experiences and identities but as a process that is substantially influenced by them. Mental health communities may help individuals with serious mental illness to both manage their illness and recognize and enjoy a sense of community. The findings indicate the need for further research on the relationship between community integration and outcome in serious mental illness. PMID:23545784
Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A
Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.
McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Webster, Daniel W; Barry, Colleen L
In response to recent mass shootings, policy makers have proposed multiple policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns. The political debate about these proposals is often uninformed by research. To address this gap, this review article summarizes the research related to gun restriction policies that focus on serious mental illness. Gun restriction policies were identified by researching the THOMAS legislative database, state legislative databases, prior review articles, and the news media. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched for publications between 1970 and 2013 that addressed the relationship between serious mental illness and violence, the effectiveness of gun policies focused on serious mental illness, the potential for such policies to exacerbate negative public attitudes, and the potential for gun restriction policies to deter mental health treatment seeking. Limited research suggests that federal law restricting gun possession by persons with serious mental illness may prevent gun violence from this population. Promotion of policies to prevent persons with serious mental illness from having guns does not seem to exacerbate negative public attitudes toward this group. Little is known about how restricting gun possession among persons with serious mental illness affects suicide risk or mental health treatment seeking. Future studies should examine how gun restriction policies for serious mental illness affect suicide, how such policies are implemented by states, how persons with serious mental illness perceive policies that restrict their possession of guns, and how gun restriction policies influence mental health treatment seeking among persons with serious mental illness.
Full Text Available The work of early pioneers like Dorothea Dix was instrumental in the establishment of institutions dedicated especially for the care of the mentally ill. Originally from the United States, she became acquainted with the idea of humane treatment of the mentally ill during her visit to England. After her return to the United States, she conducted a statewide investigation of care for the insane poor in Massachusetts and began to extensively lobby for reforms and establishment of more state-funded institutions for the care of mentally ill. Her efforts led to setting up of several mental health institutions, which became the cornerstone of care of psychiatrically ill, and for training of mental health care providers. Though subsequently, the hegemony of the institutions was challenged, and the era of deinstitutionalization was ushered in, the work of Dorothea Dix is important as it vouched for humane care of patients with mental illnesses.
Hendrie, Hugh C; Lindgren, Donald; Hay, Donald P; Lane, Kathleen A; Gao, Sujuan; Purnell, Christianna; Munger, Stephanie; Smith, Faye; Dickens, Jeanne; Boustani, Malaz A; Callahan, Christopher M
Patients with serious mental illness are living longer. Yet, there remain few studies that focus on healthcare utilization and its relationship with comorbidities in these elderly mentally ill patients. Comparative study. Information on demographics, comorbidities, and healthcare utilization was taken from an electronic medical record system. Wishard Health Services senior care and community mental health clinics. Patients age 65 years and older-255 patients with serious mental illness (schizophrenia, major recurrent depression, and bipolar illness) attending a mental health clinic and a representative sample of 533 nondemented patients without serious mental illness attending primary care clinics. Patients having serious mental illness had significantly higher rates of medical emergency department visits (p = 0.0027) and significantly longer lengths of medical hospitalizations (p mentally ill group (p seriously mentally ill. The differences in healthcare utilization between the groups remained significant after adjusting for comorbidity levels, lifestyle factors, and attending primary care. Our findings of higher rates of emergency care, longer hospitalizations, and increased frequency of falls, substance abuse, and alcoholism suggest that seriously mentally ill older adults remain a vulnerable population requiring an integrated model of healthcare. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E
Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, M.-C.; Lee, T.-K.
The authors report stereotactically created lesioning by radiofrequency or Cyberknife radiosurgery for patients with mental illness. Since 1993, thirty-eight patients have undergone stereotactic psychosurgery for medically intractable mental illnesses. Two patients had aggressive behavior. Twenty-five patients suffered from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and ten patients had depression. Another patient suffered from atypical psychosis. Bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractotomy were done for aggressive behavior. Limbic leucotomy or anterior cingulotomy was done for CCD and subcaudate tractotomy with or without cingulotomy was done for depression. In twenty-three patients, the lesions were made by a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator. In fifteen cases, the lesions were made with Cyberknife Radiosurgery (CKRS). The Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) declined from 8 to 2 with clinical improvement during follow up period. With long-term follow up (meaning 57 months) in 25 OCDs, the mean Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Score (YBOCS) declined from 34 to 13 (n = 25). The Hamilton Depression scale (HAMD) for ten patients with depression declined from 38.5 to 10.5 (n = 10). There was no operative mortality and no significant morbidity except one case with transient urinary incontinence. Authors suggest that stereotactic psychosurgery by RF and CKRS could be a safe and effective means of treating some medically intractable mental illnesses. (author)
Rowan, Kathleen; Shippee, Nathan D
This study used nationally representative household survey data to examine the association between mental illness and experiences with usual care providers and health plans among persons with public or private insurance (N=25,176). Data were from the 2004-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Mental illness was assessed with symptom scales of serious psychological distress and depression at two time points, and persons were categorized by whether mental illness was episodic or persistent over time. Questions about experiences with providers (four questions) and plans (five questions) were based on the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey. Rates of problems with plans and providers were reported for each category of mental illness, and multivariate regression was used to examine the association of problems with mental illness. Rates of problems with health plans were high, specifically for treatment approvals, finding information, and customer service, and were higher among persons with mental illness. Rates of problems with providers were lower than problems with plans, but persons with mental illness were more likely to report problems, specifically that doctors do not explain treatment options, respect treatment choices, or seek participation in decisions. Persons with mental illness reported experiencing more clinical and administrative problems at their usual source of care, although the reasons were not clear. Efforts by plans to improve health care before and after the clinical encounter and by providers to design treatments in line with patient preferences may improve experiences for all patients and particularly for those with mental illness.
WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C
The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China's history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture.
Papadopoulos, Chris; Foster, John; Caldwell, Kay
The aim of this study is investigate whether the cross-cultural value paradigm 'individualism-collectivism' is a useful explanatory model for mental illness stigma on a cultural level. Using snowball sampling, a quantitative questionnaire survey of 305 individuals from four UK-based cultural groups (white-English, American, Greek/Greek Cypriot, and Chinese) was carried out. The questionnaire included the 'Community Attitudes to Mental Illness scale' and the 'vertical-horizontal individualism-collectivism scale'. The results revealed that the more stigmatizing a culture's mental illness attitudes are, the more likely collectivism effectively explains these attitudes. In contrast, the more positive a culture's mental illness attitudes, the more likely individualism effectively explains attitudes. We conclude that a consideration of the individualism-collectivism paradigm should be included in any future research aiming to provide a holistic understanding of the causes of mental illness stigma, particularly when the cultures stigmatization levels are particularly high or low.
Groenier Klaas H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe mental illness (SMI experience distress and disabilities in several aspects of life, and they have a higher risk of somatic co-morbidity. Both patients and their family members need the support of an easily accessible primary care system. The willingness of general practitioners and the impeding factors for them to participate in providing care for patients with severe mental illness in the acute and the chronic or residual phase were explored. Methods A questionnaire survey of a sample of Dutch general practitioners spread over the Netherlands was carried out. This comprised 20 questions on the GP's 'Opinion and Task Perspective', 19 questions on 'Treatment and Experiences', and 27 questions on 'Characteristics of the General Practitioner and the Practice Organisation'. Results 186 general practitioners distributed over urban areas (49%, urbanised rural areas (38% and rural areas (15% of the Netherlands participated. The findings were as follows: GPs currently considered themselves as the first contact in the acute psychotic phase. In the chronic or residual phase GPs saw their core task as to diagnose and treat somatic co-morbidity. A majority would be willing to monitor the general health of these patients as well. It appeared that GP trainers and GPs with a smaller practice setting made follow-up appointments and were willing to monitor the self-care of patients with SMI more often than GPs with larger practices. GPs also saw their role as giving support and information to the patient's family. However, they felt a need for recognition of their competencies when working with mental health care specialists. Conclusion GPs were willing to participate in providing care for patients with SMI. They considered themselves responsible for psychotic emergency cases, for monitoring physical health in the chronic phase, and for supporting the relatives of psychotic patients.
Oud, Marian J T; Schuling, Jan; Slooff, Cees J; Groenier, Klaas H; Dekker, Janny H; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty
Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) experience distress and disabilities in several aspects of life, and they have a higher risk of somatic co-morbidity. Both patients and their family members need the support of an easily accessible primary care system. The willingness of general practitioners and the impeding factors for them to participate in providing care for patients with severe mental illness in the acute and the chronic or residual phase were explored. A questionnaire survey of a sample of Dutch general practitioners spread over the Netherlands was carried out. This comprised 20 questions on the GP's 'Opinion and Task Perspective', 19 questions on 'Treatment and Experiences', and 27 questions on 'Characteristics of the General Practitioner and the Practice Organisation'. 186 general practitioners distributed over urban areas (49%), urbanised rural areas (38%) and rural areas (15%) of the Netherlands participated. The findings were as follows: GPs currently considered themselves as the first contact in the acute psychotic phase. In the chronic or residual phase GPs saw their core task as to diagnose and treat somatic co-morbidity. A majority would be willing to monitor the general health of these patients as well. It appeared that GP trainers and GPs with a smaller practice setting made follow-up appointments and were willing to monitor the self-care of patients with SMI more often than GPs with larger practices.GPs also saw their role as giving support and information to the patient's family.However, they felt a need for recognition of their competencies when working with mental health care specialists. GPs were willing to participate in providing care for patients with SMI. They considered themselves responsible for psychotic emergency cases, for monitoring physical health in the chronic phase, and for supporting the relatives of psychotic patients.
Gold, Paul B
OBJECTIVE Competitive employment may improve life quality for adults with severe mental illness, but it is not known for whom or under what circumstances. On the basis of previous research demonstrating benefits of family contact for African-American adults with severe mental illness, it was hypothesized that frequent family contact would moderate (enhance) a positive association between competitive employment and global quality of life for a rural sample of predominantly African-American adults. METHODS In a secondary analysis of data collected from a randomized trial of supported employment, a series of nested random regression analyses was conducted to test the hypothesized moderating effect of face-to-face family contact on the association between competitive employment and global quality of life, controlling for severity of psychiatric symptoms and satisfaction with family relations. RESULTS Most of the 143 study participants spent time with a family member at least once a month (80%)-and most at least weekly (60%). Participants who held a competitive job and had face-to-face contact with family members at least weekly reported higher global quality of life than all other study participants. CONCLUSIONS In this rural sample of African-American adults with severe mental illness, competitive work was associated with higher global quality of life only for those who frequently spent time with family members. Research is needed to test the generalizability of this finding to other geographic settings and cultures, as well as the feasibility and effectiveness of formal inclusion of family members in psychosocial rehabilitation interventions.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Thornicroft, Graham
'Mental illness' is a common label. However, the general public may or may not consider various conditions, ranging from major psychiatric disorders to stress, as mental illnesses. It is unclear how such public views affect attitudes towards people with mental illness and reactions to one's own potential mental illness, e.g. in terms of help-seeking or disclosure. In representative English population surveys the classification of six conditions (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, drug addiction, stress, grief) as a mental illness was assessed as well as attitudes towards, and contact with, people with mental illness, intentions to disclose a mental illness and to seek treatment. A factor analysis of how strongly respondents perceived the six conditions as a mental illness yielded two factors: (i) major psychiatric disorders and (ii) stress- and behaviour-related conditions including drug addiction. In regression analyses, higher scores on the first, but not the second, factor predicted less perceived responsibility of people with mental illness for their actions, and more support for a neurobiological illness model and help-seeking. Classifying stress-related/behaviour-related conditions as mental illnesses, as well as not referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses, was associated with more negative attitudes and increased social distance, but also with stronger intentions to disclose a mental illness to an employer. Negative attitudes and social distance were also related to ethnic minority status and lower social grade. Referring to major psychiatric disorders as mental illnesses may reflect higher mental health literacy, better attitudes towards people with mental illness and help-seeking. A broader concept of mental illness could, although increasing negative attitudes, facilitate disclosure in the workplace. Public views on what is a mental illness may have context-dependent effects and should be taken into account in anti
Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne
Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...... or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark.......Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...
Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bart?omiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin
The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2?years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not requ...
Whitley, Rob; Berry, Sarah
Much research suggests that the general public relies on the popular media as a primary source of information about mental illness. We assessed the broad content of articles relating to mental illness in major Canadian newspapers over a 6-year period. We also sought to assess if such content has changed over time. We conducted a retrospective analysis of Canadian newspaper coverage from 2005 to 2010. Research assistants used a standardized guide to code 11 263 newspaper articles that mention the terms mental health, mental illness, schizophrenia, or schizophrenic. Once the articles were coded, descriptive statistics were produced for overarching themes and time trend analyses from 2005 to 2010. Danger, violence, and criminality were direct themes in 40% of newspaper articles. Treatment for a mental illness was discussed in only 19% of newspaper articles, and in only 18% was recovery or rehabilitation a significant theme. Eighty-three per cent of articles coded lacked a quotation from someone with a mental illness. We did not observe any significant changes over time from 2005 to 2010 in any domain measured. There is scope for more balanced, accurate, and informative coverage of mental health issues in Canada. Newspaper articles infrequently reflect the common realities of mental illness phenomenology, course, and outcome. Currently, clinicians may direct patients and family members to other resources for more comprehensive and accurate information about mental illness.
Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Shields, Laura; Bunders, Joske F G; Sagade, Jaya
Section 5(ii) of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (HMA) states that under certain circumstances, mental illness is accepted as a ground for the annulment of marriage, while Section 13(1) (iii) states that mental illness is a ground for divorce. There is little data on how this provision is used and applied in matrimonial petitions. This paper assesses judicial practices in divorce cases, exploring the extent to which gender and the diagnosis of mental illness affect the decision to grant annulment or divorce. The paper analyses judgments related to annulment and divorce at the Family Court in Pune and at the High Courts in India. In the Family Court at Pune, 85% of the cases were filed by husbands, who alleged that their spouse was mentally ill. Medical evidence of mental illness was presented in only 36% of the cases and in many cases, divorce/nullity was granted even in the absence of medical evidence. In 14% of the cases, nullity/divorce was granted even when both spouses were not present. Of the Family Court cases reaching the High Court, 95% were filed by male petitioners. The High Courts reversed the lower courts' judgments in 50% of the cases. Our analysis highlights the need for standardised guidelines for lower courts on what constitutes adequate medical proof of mental illness when hearing a petition related to nullity or divorce under HMA. It also provides a critical review of Section 5(ii) of HMA.
Sarkar, Nandini D P; Bardaji, Azucena; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Bunders-Aelen, Joske; Baingana, Florence; Criel, Bart
While the global health community advocates for greater integration of mental health into maternal health agendas, a more robust understanding of perinatal mental health, and its role in providing integrated maternal health care and service delivery, is required. The present study uses the Illness Representation Model, a theoretical cognitive framework for understanding illness conceptualisations, to qualitatively explore multiple stakeholder perspectives on perinatal depression in rural Uganda. A total of 70 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions were conducted with various local health system stakeholders, followed by an emergent thematic analysis using NVivo 11. Local communities perceived perinatal depression as being both the fault of women, and not. It was perceived as having socio-economic and cultural causal factors, in particular, as being partner-related. In these communities, perinatal depression was thought to be a common occurrence, and its negative consequences for women, infants and the community at large were recognised. Coping and help-seeking behaviours prescribed by the participants were also primarily socio-cultural in nature. Placing the dynamics and mechanisms of these local conceptualisations of perinatal depression alongside existing gaps in social and health care systems highlights both the need of, and the opportunities for, growth and prioritisation of integrated perinatal biomedical, mental, and social health programs in resource-constrained settings.
Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.
Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J
The media are often identified as partially responsible for increasing the stigma of mental illness through their negatively focused representations. For many years, training programs have educated journalists on how to report on mental illness to reduce stigma. This purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefits of reading a positive, neutral or a negative journalism article that discusses mental illness. Consenting adult participants were randomly assigned to read one of three published articles about recovery from mental illness, a dysfunctional public mental health system, or dental hygiene. The participants completed measures immediately before and after the intervention; the measures administered evaluated stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illness. Public stigma was assessed using the nine-item Attribution Questionnaire and the Stigma Through Knowledge Test (STKT). The STKT is a measure of mental illness stigma less susceptible to the impact of social desirability. Affirming attitudes represent public perceptions about recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, indicated as important to accepting and including people with psychiatric disabilities into society. Significant differences were observed between the articles on recovery and dysfunctional public mental health system, as well as the control condition, on the measures of stigma and affirming attitudes. The recovery article reduced stigma and increased affirming attitudes, whereas the dysfunctional public mental health system article increased stigma and decreased affirming attitudes. Not all journalistic stories have positive effects on attitudes about mental illness.
Background. The burden of mental illness is particularly severe for people living in low-income countries. Negative attitudes towards the mentally ill, stigma experiences and discrimination constitute part of this disease burden. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge of possible causes of mental illness ...
Graham, Annette L; Brooker, Joanne; Hasking, Penelope; Clarke, David; Meadows, Graham
The distribution of mental illness information is a crucial element of mental health promotion initiatives. We assessed the receipt and perceived helpfulness of such information in Australia. Data from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing indicated that, during the year prior to the survey, 33.7% of Australians received mental illness information; of these, 51.2% found it helpful. Among people with a mental disorder, 46.1% received information; of these, 67.4% found it helpful. Non-English speakers and the socially disadvantaged were less likely to receive mental illness information. Older and less educated respondents were less likely to both receive mental illness information and find it helpful. Mental health service users were more likely to receive mental illness information perceived as helpful than those who had not accessed such services. Better targeted information interventions are required to ensure those most likely to benefit receive mental illness-related information.
... putting these recommendations in place. By state and community leaders Helping mental health and tobacco control programs to work together to ... With Mental Illness On Other Web Sites The Community Guide: Reducing Tobacco Use and ... Administration) SAMHSA: Smoking & Mental Illness SAMHSA: Smoking & ...
Wu, Chia-Yi; Liu, Shen-Ing; Chang, Shu-Sen; Sun, Fang-Ju
Mental health promotion campaigns require a good understanding of public attitudes and mental health literacy. Few studies have investigated changes in these two aspects over time. We aimed to examine such changes and their associations with help-seeking preference in Taiwan. Data were extracted from the Taiwan Social Change Survey (1990, 1995, and 2000) based on national representative samples. Each wave of the surveys included four questions about attitudes toward severe mental illness, a case vignette describing depressive and anxiety symptoms to evaluate respondents' mental health literacy, and their preference of medical and/or informal help-seeking if they develop such symptoms. Mental and physical health statuses measured using the Chinese Health Questionnaire and self-reported chronic physical illnesses were included as covariates. There were 2531, 2075, and 1892 respondents in the three waves of the surveys, respectively. During the 1990 s, approximately one in four to five Taiwanese held some misconceptions toward mental illness. The attitudes toward mental illness were generally not associated with medical or informal help-seeking preference after statistical adjustment. However, respondents viewing symptoms in the vignette as physical or mental in origin were more willing to seek help than those who saw these symptoms as not being an illness. Attribution of depressive and anxiety symptoms appeared to be more likely to influence help-seeking behaviors than attitudes toward mental illness. Enhancing public mental health literacy toward depression may help facilitate help-seeking in response to potential mental illness. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gonzales, Lauren; Davidoff, Kristin C; Nadal, Kevin L; Yanos, Philip T
Microaggressions are subtle verbal or behavioral communications of disparaging messages to people based upon membership in a socially marginalized group. Their negative impact has been demonstrated for racial/ethnic groups, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability, but currently no research exists on microaggressions as experienced by persons with mental illnesses. Qualitative data were gathered from 4 focus groups with 2 samples: adult mental health consumers in an assertive community treatment program and college students with mental illness diagnoses. Focus group transcripts were then analyzed using an open coding approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) to identify hierarchical themes and categories. Five major themes were identified, including invalidation, assumption of inferiority, fear of mental illness, shaming of mental illness, and second class citizen. Perpetrators of microaggressions were most commonly identified as being close friends, family members, and authority figures. Importantly, participants reported experiencing more overt discrimination experiences than subtle microaggression experiences. Reported negative outcomes related to microaggression experiences included isolation, negative emotions, and treatment nonadherence. Reported consequences of microaggressions have important implications for mental health treatment, especially as perpetrators were reported to include treatment providers and were usually unaware of such negative social exchanges. Loss of social support reported by participants and the frequent occurrence of microaggressions within close relationships implies these experiences could contribute to internalization of stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness. Directions for future research include an investigation of motivation and reasoning behind perpetration of microaggressions against persons with mental illnesses. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
I pay particular attention to characterising Szasz's account of mental illness as that of an anti-realist error-theory and present ways in which a realist may counter such a position. Ultimately I argue that in order to hold a realist position on mental illness one would have to adopt some form of realism towards values, such as ...
Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Elgerisi, Dikla; Easterbrook, Adam; Ratzon, Navah Z
Employment offers many benefits to people with mental illness, yet their employment rate is much lower than that of the general population. We investigated the effect of work-related motor skills, neurocognition, and job attitudes on the work performance of people with mental illness, comparing those working in sheltered workshops, with controls working in similar jobs. Twenty-nine adults with severe mental illness and 27 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled into the study using convenience sampling. They were assessed for gross and fine motor hand functioning, job attitudes, work performance, and cognition. People with mental illness scored lower on work performance, cognitive functioning, and hand dexterity while sitting and working with tools. They were assigned lower job loads than were controls, and perceived the physical environment at work as more constraining than did controls. Assembling motor skills significantly explained the work performance of people with mental illness. The results expand our understanding of the complexities involved in the employment of people with severe mental illness, and point to new paths for improving vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness, taking into account their motor skills and job attitudes. Implications for rehabilitation Therapists should be aware that employed people with severe mental illness may have various unmet needs, affecting their work performance and experience of stress. This study results demonstrate importance of motor skills and perception of the work environment for the promotion of vocational outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness. Employment of people with severe mental illness should be viewed from holistic perspective as with general population, rather than focused on traditionally illness-related factors.
Historically, nurses have lacked recognition for the work they do, especially in the area of mental health. There is a shortage of qualified mental health nurses to meet the demand for services. Many rural areas in the United States have few or no mental health services to offer communities. Encouraging positive attitudes toward mental health…
Flynn, Sandra M; Shaw, Jenny J; Abel, Kathryn M
Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997-2006) were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66%) perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27%) and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%), most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research.
Sandra M Flynn
Full Text Available Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past.All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997-2006 were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports.6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66% perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27% and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%, most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence.In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research.
Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Marco Ho-Bun; Lim, Vivian Wai-Man
Metholodogy This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I) and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists. Findings The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18%) of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study. Conclusion The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals. PMID:26484889
Larina Chi-Lap Yim
Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and correlates of mental illness in homeless people in Hong Kong and explored the barriers preventing their access to health care. Ninety-seven Cantonese-speaking Chinese who were homeless during the study period were selected at random from the records of the three organisations serving the homeless population. The response rate was 69%. Seventeen subjects could not give valid consent due to their poor mental state, so their responses were excluded from the data analysis. A psychiatrist administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders (SCID-I and the Mini -Mental State Examination. Consensus diagnoses for subjects who could not complete the SCID-I were established by three independent psychiatrists.The point prevalence of mental illness was 56%. Seventy-one percent of the subjects had a lifetime history of mental illness, 30% had a mood disorder, 25% had an alcohol use disorder, 25% had a substance use disorder, 10% had a psychotic disorder, 10% had an anxiety disorder and 6% had dementia. Forty-one percent of the subjects with mental illness had undergone a previous psychiatric assessment. Only 13% of the subjects with mental illness were receiving psychiatric care at the time of interview. The prevalence of psychotic disorders, dementia and the rate of under treatment are hugely underestimated, as a significant proportion (18% of the subjects initially selected were too ill to give consent to join the study.The low treatment rate and the presence of this severely ill and unreached group of homeless people reflect the fact that the current mode of service delivery is failing to support the most severely ill homeless individuals.
Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…
Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. © 2014 The Author(s).
Kidd, Sean A; Howison, Meg; Pilling, Merrick; Ross, Lori E; McKenzie, Kwame
There is increasing attention to diversity in psychiatric services and widespread recognition of the mental health implications of stigma for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups. However, these areas remain markedly underdeveloped in the area of severe mental illness. The aim of this review was to map out the existing base of knowledge in these areas to help inform future research, practice, and policy directions. A review of the literature was conducted to answer the following question: What factors and strategies need to be considered when developing services for individuals from sexual or gender minority groups who are experiencing severe mental illness? A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was completed by using Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework for scoping reviews. A total of 27 publications were identified for review. Mental health services research indicated generally lower levels of service satisfaction among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and transsexual (LGBT) individuals and minimal evidence regarding specific interventions. Descriptive research suggested an increased risk of severe mental illness in LGBT populations, an association between this increased risk and discrimination, and the potential benefit of cultivating spaces where individuals can be "out" in all aspects of themselves. There is a pressing need for research into interventions for LGBT populations with severe mental illness as well as descriptive studies to inform efforts to reduce illness morbidity linked to discrimination.
Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo
This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry.
Corrigan, Patrick W.
Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…
Ordan, Revital; Shor, Ron; Liebergall-Wischnitzer, Michal; Noble, Lawrence; Noble, Anita
To examine professional stigma and attitudes of parenthood towards postpartum women with severe mental illness and the association between postpartum nurses' attitudes and nursing interventions that promote motherhood. Stigma and attitudes towards parenthood of women with severe mental illness may influence nurses' clinical practices. Cross-sectional, mixed methods. The Stigma among Health Professionals towards People with Severe Mental Illness, Attitudes towards Parenthood among People with Severe Mental Illness and Nursing Interventions that Promote Becoming a Mother Questionnaires were used in the study, as well as qualitative analysis. Sixty-one postpartum nurses participated in the study. Increased stigma was associated with an increase in negative attitudes towards parenthood among people with severe mental illness, in general, and towards their parenthood skills, in particular. Postpartum nurses reported a decrease in nursing interventions and a therapeutic nurse-client relationship that fosters mother's empowerment. Themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis were postpartum nurse's perceptions of inadequacy, difficulty of postpartum nurses taking responsibility for managing women with severe mental illness and a paternalistic approach to these women, rather than empowerment, regarding infant care. Nurses providing care to postpartum women with severe mental illness and their infants may provide fewer routine postpartum interventions due to professional stigma and negative attitudes concerning parenting skills. Nurses should provide individualised, tailored care that allows women with severe mental illness to become a mother to the best of her ability. Not all women with severe mental illness are capable of caring for themselves and/or their baby. Nurses should provide individualised, tailored care that allows the women with severe mental illness to become a mother to the best of her ability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Amini, Homayoun; Majdzadeh, Reza; Eftekhar-Ardebili, Hasan; Shabani, Amir; Davari-Ashtiani, Rozita
The study aimed to assess medical students' attitudes toward mental illness following a 4-week psychiatry clerkship. All fifth-year medical students from three academic centers in Tehran were asked to participate in the study. They completed the questionnaire on the last day of their 4-week psychiatry clerkship. A self-administered questionnaire was used to examine participants' Attitudes Toward Mental Illness (ATMI). One hundred and sixty eight students completed the questionnaires (88.9% response rate). In general, the students had favorable attitudes toward mental illness at the end of their clerkship, with mean (± SD) ATMI total score of 78.6 (± 8.1) (neutral score, 66.0). The students showed the most favorable opinion (95.2%) about Category 5 (stereotypic attitude toward people with mental illness) whilst they revealed the least favorable opinion (64.3%) regarding Category 1 (social relations with people affected by mental illness). In addition, the students thought that movies were on the top of influential media on shaping the attitudes toward mental illness. Overall, most of Iranian medical students had generally favorable attitudes toward people with mental illness at the end of their clerkship. Therefore, it may be expected next generation of medical doctors show more favorable attitude toward mental illness. PMID:23878611
To report on the analysis of the concept of the stigma of mental illness within the Haitian American community. Mental illness is a highly stigmatized condition within certain communities making it challenging for individuals to seek effective treatment. The consequences of such stigma can have lifelong corollaries for the individuals, the families and the communities. The concept of stigma is not fully developed in nursing; clarity of the concept of stigma of mental illness is still needed in the nursing literature. In order to assist patients in accessing mental health services, the concept of stigma must first be clarified. The method used for this concept analysis was that of Walker and Avant. Five attributes were identified, creating the following definition: labelling, stereotype, negative attitude, emotional response, and discrimination. The antecedents for stigma of mental illness are lack of knowledge about mental illness, emotional state and cultural beliefs and values. The origins of stigmatization of mental illness among Haitian Americans need to be understood. Mental health illnesses are stigmatized within the Haitian culture, which presents as a barrier to accessing help for many Haitian American women suffering from mental illness. The defining attributes can be used to develop tools to help clinicians identify patients being stigmatized. Once stigma is recognized, nurses can develop strategies and policies that can mitigate the effects of stigmatization of mental illness among this patient population. Further research is essential to examine the ways in which this concept impacts the Haitian American community, as well as effective strategies to help minimize its effects. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Ogloff, James R P; Talevski, Diana; Lemphers, Anthea; Wood, Melisa; Simmons, Melanie
Despite the number of studies investigating co-occurring disorders, and more recently, co-occurring disorders and criminal offending, few studies have considered samples from forensic mental health services. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between mental illness, substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and offending. The prevalence of co-occurring disorders was investigated in 130 male offenders who had contact with the statewide forensic mental health service in Victoria, Australia. Offense histories and severity of offending were compared among participants diagnosed with a single mental illness (or no mental illness), co-occurring mental illness and substance use, and co-occurring disorders plus antisocial personality disorder. The majority of participants had co-occurring mental and substance use disorders; a significant minority met the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Participants with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders, and those who had an additional diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, were responsible for more serious and frequent offending than those with mental illness alone. Forensic mental health services must take into account the effect that co-occurring disorders have on clients' functioning and offending. Those who work with people with psychiatric disabilities and co-occurring substance use disorders must ensure that the substance disorders are addressed to help ensure recovery from the mental illness and to reduce the likelihood of offending. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Thoits, Peggy A.
The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…
Mohamed-Kaloo, Z; Laher, S
BACKGROUND: Mental health literacy on the part of medical practitioners is an important component of mental healthcare. General practitioners (GPs) are typically the first doctors consulted by a person who is ill. Exploration of their perceptions regarding mental illness, aetiological issues and treatment is important. OBJECTIVE: To investigate perceptions of mental illness in a sample of 10 South African Muslim GPs (five male, five female) in the Lenasia area (Johannesburg, South Africa). ME...
Crowther, Andrew; Kemp, Michael
To determine how attitudes of rural mental health nurses differ across generations. Survey. Mental health services in rural New South Wales. Practising mental health nurses. Survey responses. Survey response rate 44%. A total of 89 mental health nurses, clustered in inpatient units and community health centres, responded. Of these nurses, 4 were veterans, 52 baby boomers, 17 Generation X and 5 Generation Y. There are significant differences in how mental health nurses from different generations view their work, and in what is expected from managers. Managers need to modify traditional working styles, allowing greater flexibility of employment. They must also accept lower staff retention rates, and facilitate the development of younger staff.
Maher, Erin J; Kroska, Amy
We examine the determinants of patients' accounts of their own mental illness. In particular, we examine the factors that affect the likelihood of attributing one's own mental illness to controllable factors rather than non-controllable factors. Our quantitative measure of attributional control is derived from the coding of in-depth interviews with people with severe mental illness seeking treatment for the first time (N = 144). We find that those who occupy positions of social disadvantage (particularly African-American males and those who receive public assistance) are less likely to attribute their illness to controllable sources, suggesting that personal mental illness attributions are systematically related to a person's social location. We outline the significance of these findings for research on the psychological consequences of mental illness attributions.
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard
Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)
Economou, M; Louki, E; Charitsi, M; Alexiou, T; Patelakis, A; Christakaki, A; Papadimitriou, G N
The media seem to have played a prominent role in shaping the contemporary social image of people with mental illness, by perpetuating the stigma attached to it. Worldwide, a vast amount of research findings converge to the stigmatizing representation of people with mental illness by the media, with reference to the dominant stereotype of violence. The present study aims to explore the representations of mental illness in the Greek Press using a quantitative and qualitative approach. Potential changes in the media portrayal of mental illness during the last decade are also being examined: findings are compared to those of a previous research that took place in 2001, following the same methodology. The sample consisted of press articles referring to mental illness, that were indexed daily from the Greek newspapers during the period July-November 2011. The items were categorized into thematic categories and further analyzed taking in account the use of stigmatizing vocabulary, the reproduction of common myths concerning mental illness, the overall valence of each article (stigmatizing, neutral or anti-stigmatizing) towards people with mental illness, as well as the contextual implications conveyed in the use of psychiatric terms as a metaphor. The largest thematic category that emerged from the sample was that referring to the repercussions of the economic crisis to mental health, followed by the category of articles where psychiatric terms are used as a metaphor. The comparisons made between 2001 and 2011 revealed an improved representation of mental illness in terms of stigma, especially regarding schizophrenia. The public expression of stigma has decreased, with fewer stigmatizing articles and notably more neutral in valence articles. The findings of this study suggest a decline of the media propensity for emotionally charged descriptions and a shift towards objective journalism regarding mental illness. This is most likely to be attributed to the anti
Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet
For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.
Comorbid substance use in adolescents with mental illness is often an indicator of poor treatment outcome. This study aims to determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, substance use in adolescents with mental illness attending a mental health service. Data was collected from hospital records of 162 ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free. Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 2/5/2013.
Gladstone, Brenda M; Boydell, Katherine M; Seeman, Mary V; McKeever, Patricia D
This paper provides a review of published qualitative research on children's experiences of parental mental illness. We undertook a comprehensive search of Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Sociological Abstracts and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts databases, as well as citation searches in Web of Science and manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers. Although 20 studies met the search criteria, only 10 focused exclusively on children's descriptions of their experience--the remainder elicited adults' perspectives on children's experiences of parental mental illnesses. Findings are organized under three themes: the impact of illness on children's daily life, how children cope with their experiences and how children understand mental illness. Despite references to pervasive knowledge gaps in the literature, significant information has been accumulated about children's experiences of parental mental illness. Considerable variability in research findings and tensions remain unresolved. For example, evidence is mixed as to children's knowledge and understanding of mental illnesses and how best to deploy resources to help them acquire optimal information. Furthermore, children's desire to be recognized as important to their parents' well-being conflicted with adults' perceptions that children should be protected from too much responsibility. Nevertheless, the cumulative evidence remains a key reason for advocating for psychoeducation and peer-support group interventions for children, which are endorsed by child and adult study participants alike. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Arun Kumar Agnihotri
This study was initiated to explore the attitude towards mental illness among medical ... keep social distance against the mentally ill, however these students have tendency to feel that mentally ..... stigma and its consequences: evidence from a.
There has been increasing concern in recent years about the availability of mental health services for people with serious mental illness in rural areas. To meet these needs the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented the Rural Access Networks for Growth Enhancement (RANGE) program, in 2007, modeled on the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) model. This study uses VA administrative data from the RANGE program (N = 343) to compare client characteristics at program entry, patterns of service delivery, and outcomes with those of Veterans who received services from the general VA ACT-like program (Mental Health Intensive Case Management (MHICM) (N = 3,077). Veterans in the rural program entered treatment with similar symptom severity, less likelihood of being diagnosed with schizophrenia and having had long-term hospitalization, but significantly higher suicidality index scores and greater likelihood of being dually diagnosed compared with those in the general program. RANGE Veterans live further away from their treatment teams but did not differ significantly in measures of face-to-face treatment intensity. Similar proportions of RANGE and MHICM Veterans were reported to have received rehabilitation services, crisis intervention and substance abuse treatment. The rural programs had higher scores on overall satisfaction with VA mental health care than general programs, slightly poorer outcomes on quality of life and on the suicidality index but no significant difference on other outcomes. These data demonstrate the clinical need, practical feasibility and potential effectiveness of providing intensive case management through small specialized case management teams in rural areas.
This article is based on a study that investigated the notions of mental illness by Vhavenda traditional healers in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Specifically, the aim of the researchers was to understand and describe these traditional healers' representations of the causes of mental illness, including the diagnostic and ...
Wong, M G P; Poole, C J M; Agius, R
Clinicians may be asked whether mental ill-health has been caused by work but there is no guidance on how this judgement should be made. To seek a consensus on the factors that should be considered and how they should be sought when attributing mental ill-health to work. A three-round Delphi study involving expert academics, occupational physicians, psychiatrists and psychologists. We deemed consensus had been reached when 66% or more of the experts were in agreement. Of 54 invited experts, 35 (65%) took part in the first round, 30 of these 35 (86%) in the second and 29 of these 30 (97%) in the final round. Consensus was reached for 11 workplace stressors: high job strain; effort-reward imbalance; major trauma; interpersonal conflict; inadequate support; role ambiguity; person-job mismatch; organizational injustice; organizational culture; work scheduling and threats to job security. Seven personal factors were identified as being important: previous mental illness; personality traits of neuroticism; adverse life events or social circumstances; resilience; a family history of mental illness and secondary gain. The worker, manager and co-workers were thought to be the most useful sources of workplace information. Consensus was reached for a definition of occupational mental illness but not for a threshold of work-relatedness. The attribution of mental ill-health to work is complex and involves the consideration of both workplace stressors and personal factors of vulnerability. Clinical consultation with an occupational physician who is familiar with the workplace is central to the process. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf
When identifying ways to reduce stigmatization because of mental illness it is crucial to understand contributing factors. Social distance-the willingness to engage in relationships of varying intimacy with a person--is an indicator of public attitudes toward persons with mental illness. Multiple linear regression analysis of the results of a vignette-based opinion survey conducted on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 594). The level of social distance increases if situations imply 'social closeness.' The vignette describing a person with schizophrenia, attitudes to general aspects of mental health (lay helping, community psychiatry), emotions toward those affected, and the attitude toward consequences of mental illness (medical treatment, medication side effects, negative sanctions, e.g. withdrawal of the driver license) were found to predict social distance. Demographic factors such as age, gender, and the cultural background influence social distance. The explained variance (R2) is 44.8%. Social distance is a multifaceted concept influenced by, e.g., socio-economic and cultural factors, but also by the respondent's general attitude toward (mental) health issues. These results suggest that more knowledge about mental illnesses, especially schizophrenia, may increase social distance. The findings presented here may help to focus anti-stigma campaigns not only on transmission of knowledge, but on integrating different approaches.
Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.
Racial disparities in mental health outcomes have been widely documented in noninstitutionalized community psychiatric samples, but few studies have specifically examined the effects of race among individuals with the most severe mental illnesses. A sample of 925 individuals hospitalized for severe mental illness was followed for a year after…
Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T
Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.
Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit; Halvari, Hallgeir; Hynnekleiv, Torfinn
There is increasing evidence for physical activity (PA) having a positive impact on physical and mental health as well as illness symptoms in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). However, individuals with SMI experience several barriers that makes it difficult to take advantage of the benefits associated with PA. One barrier consistently reported to impede PA is motivational issues. Thus, the main aim of the present study was to examine associations between PA and motivation for PA, perceived competence for PA, functioning, apathy, and demographic variables among individuals with SMI. This was conducted within a larger study aiming at including all inhabitants with SMI in one particular small, rural municipality. A total of 106 participants were recruited to the study. Questionnaire-based interviews conducted by two mental health nurses assessed self-reported PA, motivation and competence for PA, functioning, and apathy. Additionally, 71 participants accepted to wear an accelerometer-equipped wristwatch yielding an objective assessment of PA. The participants engaged in little PA. However, they did not lack motivation, as over 90% stated that they would like to be more active, and participants across PA level displayed high scores of a motivation reflecting that they valued the benefits of PA. Results showed that higher self-reported PA level was associated with higher levels of integrated regulated motivation and perceived competence for PA while it was unrelated to functioning and apathy. In the subpopulation with objectively measured PA, integrated regulated motivation for PA remained significantly associated with PA level, whereas poor scores on functioning lowered the odds ratio for higher PA level. The results show that PA specific motivation is associated with PA even when controlling for functioning and apathy. This highlight the importance of facilitating context specific motivation (i.e., motivation for PA) and that health care practitioners
Albino J Oliveira-Maia
Full Text Available Within clinical psychiatry, recovery from severe mental illness has classically been defined according to symptoms and function (service-based recovery. However, service-users have argued that recovery should be defined as the process of overcoming mental illness, regaining self-control and establishing a meaningful life (customer-based recovery. Here we aimed to compare customer-based and service-based recovery and clarify their differential relationship with other constructs, namely needs and quality of life. The study was conducted in 101 patients suffering from severe mental illness, recruited from a rural community mental health setting in Portugal. Customer-based recovery and function-related service-based recovery were assessed respectively using a shortened version of the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM-20 and the Global Assessment of Functioning score. The Camberwell Assessment of Need scale was used to objectively assess needs, while subjective quality of life was measured with the TL-30s scale. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that the Global Assessment of Functioning score was incrementally predictive of the MHRM-20 score, when added to a model including only clinical and demographic factors, and that this model was further incremented by the score for quality of life. However, in an alternate model using the Global Assessment of Functioning score as the dependent variable, while the MHRM-20 score contributed significantly to the model when added to clinical and demographic factors, the model was not incremented by the score for quality of life. These results suggest that, while a more global concept of recovery from severe mental illness may be assessed using measures for service-based and customer-based recovery, the latter, namely the MHRM-20, also provides information about subjective well-being. Pending confirmation of these findings in other populations, this instrument could thus be useful for
McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C
Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality.
Full Text Available People with mental illness are more likely to have serious coexisting physical health problems than the general population. Although lifestyle and genetics may contribute independent risks of cardiovascular dysfunction in schizophrenia and other serious mental illness, antipsychotic treatment also represents an important contributor to risk of cardiovascular disorder, particularly for certain drugs and for vulnerable patients. Mental health professionals and other health care provider must give emphasis to recognize the clinical signposts indicating mental health related cardiovascular problems to forestall progression to type II diabetes, cardiovascular events and premature death.
Rönngren, Ylva; Björk, Annette; Audulv, Åsa; Enmarker, Ingela; Kristiansen, Lisbeth; Haage, David
Although persons with severe mental illness face an increased risk of mortality and of developing negative health outcomes, research has shown that lifestyle interventions can sufficiently support their health. In response, this study examined a nurse-led lifestyle intervention developed in cooperation with members of municipal and county councils to gauge its impact on the quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and body composition of persons with severe mental illness. Lasting 26 weeks and involving 38 persons with severe mental illness, the intervention prioritised two components: the interpersonal relationships of persons with severe mental illness, staff, and group leaders and group education about physical and mental health. Pre-post intervention measurements of quality of life collected with the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, cognitive performance with the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale, walking capacity with a 6-min walk test, and body composition in terms of waist circumference and body mass index were analysed using a nonparametric test Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results suggest that the intervention afforded significant improvements in the health-related variables of quality of life, cognitive performance, walking capacity, and waist circumference for persons with severe mental illness. However, long-term studies with control groups and that examine parameters related to cardiovascular risk factors are essential to ensure the sustained impact of the intervention. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan
The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness.
Nandini D. P. Sarkar
Full Text Available While the global health community advocates for greater integration of mental health into maternal health agendas, a more robust understanding of perinatal mental health, and its role in providing integrated maternal health care and service delivery, is required. The present study uses the Illness Representation Model, a theoretical cognitive framework for understanding illness conceptualisations, to qualitatively explore multiple stakeholder perspectives on perinatal depression in rural Uganda. A total of 70 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions were conducted with various local health system stakeholders, followed by an emergent thematic analysis using NVivo 11. Local communities perceived perinatal depression as being both the fault of women, and not. It was perceived as having socio-economic and cultural causal factors, in particular, as being partner-related. In these communities, perinatal depression was thought to be a common occurrence, and its negative consequences for women, infants and the community at large were recognised. Coping and help-seeking behaviours prescribed by the participants were also primarily socio-cultural in nature. Placing the dynamics and mechanisms of these local conceptualisations of perinatal depression alongside existing gaps in social and health care systems highlights both the need of, and the opportunities for, growth and prioritisation of integrated perinatal biomedical, mental, and social health programs in resource-constrained settings.
Mak, Winnie W S; Chong, Eddie S K; Wong, Celia C Y
The present study applied the common sense model (i.e., cause, controllability, timeline, consequences, and illness coherence) to understand public attitudes toward mental illness and help-seeking intention and to examine the mediating role of perceived controllability between causal attributions with public attitudes and help seeking. Based on a randomized household sample of 941 Chinese community adults in Hong Kong, results of the structural equation modeling demonstrated that people who endorsed cultural lay beliefs tended to perceive the course of mental illness as less controllable, whereas those with psychosocial attributions see its course as more controllable. The more people perceived the course of mental illness as less controllable, more chronic, and incomprehensible, the lower was their acceptance and the greater was mental illness stigma. Furthermore, those who perceived mental illness with dire consequences were more likely to feel greater stigma and social distance. Conversely, when people were more accepting, they were more likely to seek help for psychological services and felt a shorter social distance. The common sense model provides a multidimensional framework in understanding public's mental illness perceptions and stigma. Not only should biopsychosocial determinants of mental illness be advocated to the public, cultural myths toward mental illness must be debunked.
sufferers of mental illness in Nigeria, span the social, psychological, and economic .... from the ground to eat, that schizophrenia will remain incurable. .... Figure 1: Household coping strategies for the mentally ill. Strategies aimed at Health care ...
, the Act's statutory requirements relating to the informed consent to participation in clinical research by mentally ill children and adolescents in South Africa are examined. The necessity of doing clinical research in mentally ill children and ...
Scott, David; Burke, Karena; Williams, Susan; Happell, Brenda; Canoy, Doreen; Ronan, Kevin
To compare chronic physical health disorder prevalence amongst Australian adults with and without mental illness. Total n=1,716 participants (58% female) with a mean age of 52 ± 13 years (range: 18 to 89 years) completed an online survey of Australian adults in 2010. Outcome measures including prevalence of chronic physical conditions and self-reported body mass index (BMI) in n=387 (23%) with a self-reported mental illness diagnosis were compared to respondents without mental illness. A significantly higher proportion of participants with mental illness were obese (BMI ≥ 30; 31 vs 24%, p=0.005). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for coronary heart disease, diabetes, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, and food allergies or intolerances (OR range: 1.54-3.19) demonstrated that chronic physical disorders were significantly more common in participants with a mental illness. Australian adults with a diagnosis for mental illness have a significantly increased likelihood of demonstrating chronic physical health disorders compared to persons without mental illness. Health professionals must be alert to the increased likelihood of comorbid chronic physical disorders in persons with a mental illness and should consider the adoption of holistic approaches when treating those with either a mental or physical illness. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Vendsborg, Per; Nordentoft, Merete; Lindhardt, Anne
Persons with a mental illness and their relatives experience discrimination and expect to be discriminated. The public regards them as unpredictable and dangerous and do not wish to have any relation with them neither in private nor at work. This opinion is shared by people working in health care...... or social care. The myth of dangerousness is out of proportion and the media is to blame as they most often mention persons with mental illnesses as dangerous. Many countries make a great effort to reduce stigma and this is also under planning in Denmark....
Moore, Donna; Ayers, Susan; Drey, Nicholas
This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure perceived stigma for perinatal mental illness in women. Stigma is one of the most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment and many women with perinatal mental illness fail to get the treatment they need. However, there is no psychometric scale that measures how women may experience the unique aspects of perinatal mental illness stigma. A draft scale of 30 items was developed from a literature review. Women with perinatal mental illness (n = 279) were recruited to complete the City Mental Illness Stigma Scale. Concurrent validity was measured using the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness Scale. Factor analysis was used to create the final scale. The final 15-item City Mental Illness Stigma Scale has a three-factor structure: perceived external stigma, internal stigma and disclosure stigma. The scale accounted for 54% of the variance and had good internal reliability and concurrent validity. The City Mental Illness Stigma Scale appears to be a valid measure which provides a potentially useful tool for clinical practice and research in stigma and perinatal mental illness, including assessing the prevalence and characteristics of stigma. This research can be used to inform interventions to reduce or address the stigma experienced by some women with perinatal mental illness.
Results: Of 387 respondents, 60.2% had diagnosable current mental illness and 16.3% had had one disorder in their lifetime. Of the diagnosable current mental illnesses, 29.7% were Psychosis; 5.4% Major depressive episode; 5.6% Anxiety disorders; 3.6% mixed. Anxiety-Depression; and 3.9% Suicidality. In terms of ...
Background: Success in the treatment of the mentally-ill is suggested by patient's level of functioning. This study is to determine the highest overall level of functioning among the mentally-ill patients on follow-up at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Methods: Patients were picked consecutively as they presented at ...
Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stuebe, Alison
The perinatal period provides an important window into a woman's long-term health. Perinatal mental illness is a common condition conferring potential serious long-term psychiatric and medical consequences for the mother and family. It is known that childbirth acts as a powerful trigger for depressive episodes in some women, and that women with histories of a mood disorder are particularly vulnerable. Some evidence links perinatal mental illness with obstetrical complications and reduced lactation initiation and duration. Therefore, perinatal mental illness may be a marker for long-term risk, and may contribute directly to subsequent cardiometabolic disease through both neuroendocrine mechanisms and the effects of mental illness on health behaviours. In clinical practice, these associations underscore the importance of screening and treating women with perinatal mental illness to ensure best possible long-term outcomes. Early screening and treatment may both mitigate the primary disease process and reduce the risk of comorbid medical conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walter, Charles Thomas
This dissertation demonstrates how patients' mental illness treatment careers depend on the change and/or stability among differing levels of social structure. Theorists of the mental illness career tend to ignore the role that higher levels of social structural change have on individuals' mental illness career. Researchers using an organizational perspective tend to focus on the organizational environment but ignore the treatment process from the individual's point of view. Both perspectives...
Gwaikolo, Wilfred S; Kohrt, Brandon A; Cooper, Janice L
There are increasing efforts and attention focused on the delivery of mental health services in primary care in low resource settings (e.g., mental health Gap Action Programme, mhGAP). However, less attention is devoted to systematic approaches that identify and address barriers to the development and uptake of mental health services within primary care in low-resource settings. Our objective was to prepare for optimal uptake by identifying barriers in rural Liberia. The country's need for mental health services is compounded by a 14-year history of political violence and the largest Ebola virus disease outbreak in history. Both events have immediate and lasting mental health effects. A mixed-methods approach was employed, consisting of qualitative interviews with 22 key informants and six focus group discussions. Additional qualitative data as well as quantitative data were collected through semi-structured assessments of 19 rural primary care health facilities. Data were collected from March 2013 to March 2014. Potential barriers to development and uptake of mental health services included lack of mental health knowledge among primary health care staff; high workload for primary health care workers precluding addition of mental health responsibilities; lack of mental health drugs; poor physical infrastructure of health facilities including lack of space for confidential consultation; poor communication support including lack of electricity and mobile phone networks that prevent referrals and phone consultation with supervisors; absence of transportation for patients to facilitate referrals; negative attitudes and stigma towards people with severe mental disorders and their family members; and stigma against mental health workers. To develop and facilitate effective primary care mental health services in a post-conflict, low resource setting will require (1) addressing the knowledge and clinical skills gap in the primary care workforce; (2) improving physical
Full Text Available Klara Latalova,1,2 Dana Kamaradova,1,2 Jan Prasko1,2 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness. Keywords: victimization, violence, severe mental illness, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder
Lin, Lin; Zhang, Jie
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among impulsivity, mental disorder, and suicide with a sample of rural young Chinese. Subjects were 392 consecutively recruited male and female suicides aged 15-34 years and 416 community male and female controls of the same age range sampled in rural China. The case-control data were obtained using psychological autopsy with structured and semi-structured instruments. Dysfunctional impulsivity was a significant risk factor regardless of mental disorder in rural China. Dysfunctional impulsivity is a potential area for further study of suicidal behavior. The suicide prevention efforts in rural China may address impulsivity.
Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel
The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness are strongly linked to suffering, disability and poverty. In order to protect the rights of those with mental disorders and to sensitively develop services, it is vital to gain a more accurate understanding of the frequency and nature of stigma against people with mental illness. Little research about this issue has been conducted in Sub- Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to describe levels of stigma in Malawi. Methods A cross-sectional survey of patients and carers attending mental health and non-mental health related clinics in a general hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were interviewed using an adapted version of the questionnaire developed for the “World Psychiatric Association Program to Reduce Stigma and Discrimination Because of Schizophrenia”. Results 210 participants participated in our study. Most attributed mental disorder to alcohol and illicit drug abuse (95.7%. This was closely followed by brain disease (92.8%, spirit possession (82.8% and psychological trauma (76.1%. There were some associations found between demographic variables and single question responses, however no consistent trends were observed in stigmatising beliefs. These results should be interpreted with caution and in the context of existing research. Contrary to the international literature, having direct personal experience of mental illness seemed to have no positive effect on stigmatising beliefs in our sample. Conclusions Our study contributes to an emerging picture that individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa most commonly attribute mental illness to alcohol/ illicit drug use and spirit possession. Our work adds weight to the argument that stigma towards mental illness is an important global health and human rights issue.
Afzelius, M; Plantin, L; Östman, M
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Coping with parental mental illness in families can be challenging for both children and parents. Providing evidence-based family interventions to families where a parent has a mental illness can enhance the relationships in the family. Although psychiatric research has shown that evidence-based family interventions may improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack in this area of research from an everyday clinical context. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study reinforces the fact that parents with mental illnesses are searching for support from psychiatric services in order to talk to their children about their illness. The finding that under-age children comply when they are told by their parents to join an intervention in psychiatric services supporting the family is something not observed earlier in research. This study once more illuminates the fact that partners of a person with parental mental illness are seldom, in an obvious way, included in family support interventions. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Psychiatric services, and especially mental health nurses, have an important task in providing families with parental mental illness with support concerning communication with their children and in including the "healthy" partner in family support interventions. Introduction Although research has shown that evidence-based family interventions in research settings improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack of knowledge about interventions in an everyday clinical context. Aim This study explores how families with parental mental illness experience family interventions in a natural clinical context in psychiatric services. Method Five families with children aged 10-12 were recruited from psychiatric services in southern Sweden and interviewed in a manner inspired by naturalistic inquiry and content analysis. Both
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Swinburne-Romine, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter
The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed.
Del Olmo-Romero, Francisco; González-Blanco, María; Sarró, Salvador; Grácio, Jaime; Martín-Carrasco, Manuel; Martinez-Cabezón, Ana C; Perna, Giampaolo; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Varandas, Pedro; Ballesteros-Rodríguez, Javier; Rebolleda-Gil, Carlos; Vanni, Giovanna; González-Fraile, Eduardo
Research shows that personnel working in mental health facilities may share some of the societal prejudices towards mental illness. This might result in stigmatizing behaviours towards people suffering from mental disorders, undermining the quality of their care. To describe and compare attitudes towards mental illness across a sample of professionals working in a wide range of mental health facilities in Spain, Portugal and Italy. We administered a survey to personnel including two questionnaires related to stigmatizing attitudes: The Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) and the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-27). Data were compared according to professional category, work setting and country. 34.06% (1525) professionals of the surveyed population responded adequately. Psychologists and social therapists had the most positive attitudes, and nursing assistants the most negative, on most factors of CAMI and AQ-27. Community staff had more positive attitudes than hospital-based professionals in most factors on CAMI and in discriminatory responses on AQ-27. Globally, mental health professionals showed a positive attitude towards mental illness, but also a relative support to coercive treatments. There are differences in attitudes modulated by professional category and setting. Results can guide preventive strategies, particularly for the hospital-based and nursing staff.
Notes that parents whose son or daughter develops serious mental illness experience grief that is often neither recognized by society nor addressed by mental health professionals. Describes some common elements of parental bereavement, losses experienced with mental illness, consequences of ignoring grief, and appropriate interventions for mental…
Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment.
Elsayed, Maha; Magistretti, Pierre J.
Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment.
their illness on the one side, and widespread stigma and discrimination on the other. Evidence from North America and paralleling findings from research in Western Europe suggest that stigma and discrimination are major problems in the community, with negative attitudes and behaviour towards people with mental illness ...
Ali, Mana K; Hack, Samantha M; Brown, Clayton H; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Lijuan; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Dixon, Lisa B; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A
Black consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) face significant challenges in obtaining quality mental health care and are at risk for experiencing significant disparities in mental health care outcomes, including recovery from mental illness. Patient-provider interactions may partly contribute to this disparity. The purpose of the current study was to understand the effects of race, psychosis, and therapeutic alliance on mental health recovery orientation among Veterans with SMI. Participants were Veterans who had an SMI being treated at two Veteran Affairs outpatient mental health clinics by a psychiatrist or nurse practitioner. Participants completed the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Mental Health Recovery Measure, and patient-report Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship (STAR-P) which includes three subscales: positive collaboration, positive clinician input, and non-supportive clinician input. Regression analyses were used to determine interactive effects of race, psychosis severity, and therapeutic alliance variables. The sample was 226 Veterans (50% black, 50% white). Black participants were slightly older (p mental health recovery (p mental health recovery orientation for black participants. Conversely, for white participants, positive collaboration had little effect on the negative relationship between psychosis severity and mental health recovery orientation. Increased levels of psychosis may inhibit patients' perceptions of their ability to recover from SMI. However, for black participants, positive collaboration with mental health providers may moderate the effects of psychotic symptomatology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The context of the study is the increased assessment and treatment of persons with mental illness in general hospital settings by general health staff, as the move away from mental hospitals gathers pace in low and middle income countries. The purpose of the study was to examine whether general attitudes of hospital staff towards persons with mental illness, and extent of mental health training and clinical experience, are associated with different attitudes and behaviours towards a patient with mental illness than towards a patients with a general health problem - diabetes. Methods General hospital health professionals in Malaysia were randomly allocated one of two vignettes, one describing a patient with mental illness and the other a patient with diabetes, and invited to complete a questionnaire examining attitudes and health care practices in relation to the case. The questionnaires completed by respondents included questions on demographics, training in mental health, exposure in clinical practice to people with mental illness, attitudes and expected health care behaviour towards the patient in the vignette, and a general questionnaire exploring negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Questionnaires with complete responses were received from 654 study participants. Results Stigmatising attitudes towards persons with mental illness were common. Those responding to the mental illness vignette (N = 356 gave significantly lower ratings on care and support and higher ratings on avoidance and negative stereotype expectations compared with those responding the diabetes vignette (N = 298. Conclusions Results support the view that, in the Malaysian setting, patients with mental illness may receive differential care from general hospital staff and that general stigmatising attitudes among professionals may influence their care practices. More direct measurement of clinician behaviours than able to be implemented
Full Text Available Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan.Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences.Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents. Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8% had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%. Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3% considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4% and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7% to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1% considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41% respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05.Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can
Full Text Available There have been repeated instances of police forces having violent, sometimes fatal, interactions with individuals with mental illness. Police forces are frequently first responders to those with mental illness. Despite this, training police in how to best interact with individuals who have a mental illness has been poorly studied. The present article reviews the literature examining mental illness training programs delivered to law enforcement officers. Some of the key findings are the benefits of training utilizing realistic hands-on scenarios, which focus primarily on verbal and non-verbal communication, increasing empathy, and de-escalation strategies. Current issues in training police officers are firstly the tendency for organizations to provide training without proper outcome measures of effectiveness, secondly the focus of training is on changing attitudes although there is little evidence to demonstrate this relates to behavioural change, and thirdly the belief that a mental health training program given on a single occasion is sufficient to improve interactions over the longer-term. Future police training needs to address these issues.
Objective: This study reviews conceptual and methodological issues of needs for care among people with severe mental illness (SMI) and presents data on their prevalence, correlates and consequences for mental health care. Method: Focus is on the definition of the concept of need as what people can
Kearns, Michelle; Muldoon, Orla T; Msetfi, Rachel M; Surgenor, Paul W G
The stigma surrounding mental ill-health is an important issue that affects likelihood of diagnosis and uptake of services, as those affected may work to avoid exposure, judgment, or any perceived loss in status associated with their mental ill-health. In this study, we drew upon social identity theory to examine how social group membership might influence the stigma surrounding mental ill-health. Participants from two urban centers in Ireland (N = 626) completed a survey measuring stigma of mental health, perceived social support as well as identification with two different social groups (community and religion). Mediation analysis showed that subjective identification with religious and community groups led to greater perceived social support and consequently lower perceived stigma of mental ill-health. Furthermore, findings indicated that high identification with more than one social group can lead to enhanced social resources, and that identification with a religious group was associated with greater community identification. This study thus extends the evidence base of group identification by demonstrating its relationship with stigma of mental ill-health, while also reinforcing how multiple identities can interact to enhance social resources crucial for well-being. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S
Should a murderer be allowed to inherit the victim's estate? The question dates from biblical times, but most jurisdictions today have statutes in place that bar inheritance by convicted murderers. However, a special problem arises when the killer has a severe mental illness and has been found not guilty by reason of insanity. Should such people, who have not been convicted of a crime, be permitted to collect their inheritance? Jurisdictions vary in their responses, with the rules reflecting a mix of practical and moral considerations influenced by different perspectives about what determines the behavior of persons with mental illness.
Malley, Sharon M; Dattilo, John; Gast, David
Single-subject multiple probe designs were employed in two studies with 5 young adults who had a dual diagnosis of mental retardation and mental illness. Our aim was to determine effects of instruction designed to teach visual arts activity skills and promote personal expressiveness on acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of these skills and behaviors associated with these persons' mental health. In Study 1, a 5-second constant time delay procedure was used to teach three chosen art activities. In Study 2, an instructional package was used to promote personally expressive behaviors. After learning the skills in Study 1, participants in Study 2 displayed improvement in occurrence of behaviors associated with mental illness and increases in personally expressive behaviors.
Derby, John K.
This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Methods Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001–2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. Results In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder – 31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%–33.8% and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%–35.3%. Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Conclusion Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher
Swanson, Jeffrey W.; McGinty, E. Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M.
Purpose This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Methods Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Results Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms–related fatalities. Conclusions Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. PMID:24861430
Swanson, Jeffrey W; McGinty, E Elizabeth; Fazel, Seena; Mays, Vickie M
This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and juxtaposed with evidence from benchmark epidemiologic and clinical studies of violence and mental illness and of the accuracy of psychiatrists' risk assessments. Selected policies and laws designed to reduce gun violence in relation to mental illness are critically evaluated; evidence-based policy recommendations are presented. Media accounts of mass shootings by disturbed individuals galvanize public attention and reinforce popular belief that mental illness often results in violence. Epidemiologic studies show that the large majority of people with serious mental illnesses are never violent. However, mental illness is strongly associated with increased risk of suicide, which accounts for over half of US firearms-related fatalities. Policymaking at the interface of gun violence prevention and mental illness should be based on epidemiologic data concerning risk to improve the effectiveness, feasibility, and fairness of policy initiatives. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Francis, Catherine; Pirkis, Jane; Blood, R Warwick; Dunt, David; Burgess, Philip; Morley, Belinda; Stewart, Andrew; Putnis, Peter
To provide a detailed picture of the extent, nature and quality of portrayal of mental health/illness in Australian non-fiction media. Media items were retrieved from Australian newspaper, television and radio sources over a 1-year period, and identifying/descriptive data extracted from all items. Quality ratings were made on a randomly selected 10% of items, using an instrument based on criteria in Achieving the Balance (a resource designed to promote responsible reporting of mental health/illness). Reporting of mental health/illness was common, with 4351 newspaper, 1237 television and 7801 radio items collected during the study period. Media items most frequently focused on policy/program initiatives in mental health (29.0%), or on causes/symptoms/treatment of mental illnesses (23.9%). Stories about mental health issues in the context of crime were relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5.6% of items. Most media items were of good quality on eight of the nine dimensions; the exception was that details of appropriate help services were only included in 6.4% of items. In contrast to previous research, the current study found that media reporting of mental health/illness was extensive, generally of good quality and focused less on themes of crime and violence than may have been expected. This is encouraging, since there is evidence that negative media portrayal of mental health/illness can detrimentally affect community attitudes. However, there are still opportunities for improving media reporting of mental health/illness, which should be taken up in future media strategies.
Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van Bortel, Tine
Stigma of mental illness has been identified as a significant barrier to help-seeking and care. Basic knowledge of mental illness - such as its nature, symptoms and impact - are neglected, leaving room for misunderstandings on mental health and 'stigma'. Numerous researches have been conducted on stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders. However, most of the literature investigates stigma from a cultural conception point of view, experiences of patients or public attitudes towards mental illness but little to none from the standpoint of mental health professionals. In Malaysia, this research on stigma is particularly limited. Therefore, the state of stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness was investigated from the perspectives of mental health professionals in Malaysia. In-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 mental health professionals from both government and private sectors including psychiatrists, psychologists and counsellors. The interviews were approximately 45-minutes long. The data was subsequently analysed using the basic thematic approach. Seven principal themes, each with their own sub-themes, emerged from the analysis of 'stigma of mental illness' from mental health professionals' point of view, including: (1) main perpetrators, (2) types of mental illness carrying stigma, (3) demography and geography of stigma, (4) manifestations of stigma, (5) impacts of stigma, (6) causes of stigma and (7) proposed initiatives to tackle stigma. Stigma of mental illness is widespread in Malaysia. This is most evident amongst people suffering from conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Stigma manifests itself most often in forms of labelling, rejection, social exclusion and in employment. Family, friends and workplace staff are reported to be the main perpetrators of discriminatory conducts. According to the perspectives of the mental health professionals, implications of
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current investigation examined the psychometric properties of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale in a sample of patients with mental illness. In addition to the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity that previous studies have tested for the ISMI, we extended the evaluation to its construct validity and measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. METHODS: Three hundred forty-seven participants completed two questionnaires (i.e., the ISMI and the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale [DSSS], and 162 filled out the ISMI again after 50.23±31.18 days. RESULTS: The results of this study confirmed the frame structure of the ISMI; however, the Stigma Resistance subscale in the ISMI seemed weak. In addition, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity were all satisfactory for all subscales and the total score of the ISMI, except for Stigma Resistance (α = 0.66; ICC = 0.52, and r = 0.02 to 0.06 with DSSS. Therefore, we hypothesize that Stigma Resistance is a new concept rather than a concept in internalized stigma. The acceptable fit indices supported the measurement invariance of the ISMI across time, and suggested that people with mental illness interpret the ISMI items the same at different times. CONCLUSION: The clinical implication of our finding is that clinicians, when they design interventions, may want to use the valid and reliable ISMI without the Stigma Resistance subscale to evaluate the internalized stigma of people with mental illness.
Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Karen; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert
Shortened life expectancy of people with mental illness is now widely known and the focus of research and policy activity. To date, research has primarily reflected perspectives of health professionals with limited attention to the views and opinions of those most closely affected. The voice of carers is particularly minimal, despite policy stipulating carer participation is required for mental health services. To present views and opinions of carers regarding physical health of the people they care for. Qualitative exploratory. Two focus groups and one individual interview were conducted with 13 people identifying as carers of a person with mental illness. Research was conducted in the Australian Capital Territory. Data analysis was based on the thematic framework of Braun and Clarke. Two main themes were interaction between physical and mental health; and, carers' own physical and mental health. Participants described the impact of mental illness and its treatments on physical health, including their own. Carers are acknowledged as crucial for the delivery of high quality mental health services. Therefore they have an important role to play in addressing the poor physical health of people with mental illness. Hearing their views and opinions is essential.
Christine M. Sarteschi
Full Text Available This paper sought to synthesize what is currently known about mentally ill offenders in American jails and prisons based upon the most recent government and congressional reports and relevant literature review. The primary goal is to provide a detailed picture of the status of mentally ill offenders—including prevalence, basic demographic information, bio-psycho-social status, mental health, and family histories—and also to identify the problems, conditions, and obstacles faced while under the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system. Mentally ill offenders are constitutionally guaranteed basic mental health treatment. A review of the literature indicates that this constitutional guarantee is not being adequately fulfilled. Implications and suggestions for change are discussed.
Swinson, Nicola; Flynn, Sandra M; While, David; Roscoe, Alison; Kapur, Navneet; Appleby, Louis; Shaw, Jenny
The rise in homicides by those with serious mental illness is of concern, although this increase may not be continuing. To examine rates of mental illness among homicide perpetrators. A national consecutive case series of homicide perpetrators in England and Wales from 1997 to 2006. Rates of mental disorder were based on data from psychiatric reports, contact with psychiatric services, diminished responsibility verdict and hospital disposal. Of the 5884 homicides notified to the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness between 1997 and 2006, the number of homicide perpetrators with schizophrenia increased at a rate of 4% per year, those with psychotic symptoms at the time of the offence increased by 6% per year. The number of verdicts of diminished responsibility decreased but no change was found in the number of perpetrators receiving a hospital order disposal. The likeliest explanation for the rise in homicide by people with psychosis is the misuse of drugs and/or alcohol, which our data show increased at a similar magnitude to homicides by those with psychotic symptoms. However, we are unable to demonstrate a causal association. Although the Poisson regression provides evidence of an upward trend in homicide by people with serious mental illness between 1997 and 2006, the number of homicides fell in the final 2 years of data collection, so these findings should be treated with caution. There appears to be a concomitant increase in drug misuse over the period, which may account for this rise in homicide. However, an increase in the number of people in contact with mental health services may suggest that access to mental health services is improving. Previous studies have used court verdicts such as diminished responsibility as a proxy measure of mental disorder. Our data indicate that this does not reflect accurately the prevalence of mental disorder in this population.
Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad
Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a role in treatment. PMID:25548734
Conclusion: Attribution of depressive and anxiety symptoms appeared to be more likely to influence help-seeking behaviors than attitudes toward mental illness. Enhancing public mental health literacy toward depression may help facilitate help-seeking in response to potential mental illness.
Lyons, Zaza; Laugharne, Jonathan; Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John
Stigma towards mental illness has been found to impact adversely on medical students' attitudes towards psychiatry. This study aimed to assess the impact of stigma among final year students at the University of Science and Technology in Kumasi, Ghana, and the University of Western Australia. A 28-item "Attitudes and stigma towards mental health" questionnaire was distributed to final year students at both universities. There was a significant difference in questionnaire scores, with Australian students showing more positive attitudes towards mental illness and lower levels of stigma compared with Ghanaian students. Stigmatization was expressed by Australian and Ghanaian students. A combination of medical school experiences and wider societal and cultural beliefs could be responsible for students' attitudes towards mental illness. Educators can develop locally relevant anti-stigma teaching resources throughout the psychiatry curriculum to improve students' attitudes towards psychiatry as a discipline and mental illness in general.
Sharma, Indira; Tripathi, C B; Pathak, Abhishek
The institution of marriage in Hindus is regulated by the prevailing social norms and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955. Married women with mental illness are heavily discriminated. This paper examines the social and legal aspects of Hindu marriage in women with mental illness. The HMA, 1955 lays down the conditions for a Hindu marriage and also provides matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce. The application of the provisions of HMA in the setting mental illness is difficult and challenging. There is a wide gap between the legislative provisions of HMA, and societal value systems and attitudes towards marriage in Indian society. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legal provisions. The disparities are most glaring in the setting of mental illness in women. This is a reflection of social stigma for mental illness and patriarchal attitude towards women. Concerted efforts are needed to bridge the gap between the legislative provisions of HMA and societal value systems and attitudes toward marriage. Awareness programs regarding the nature and types of mental illness, advances in treatment and information about good outcome of severe mental illness will be helpful. Improvement in moral and religious values will overcome to some extent the negative attitudes and patriarchal mind set toward married women with mental illness.
Baer, Rebecca J; Chambers, Christina D; Bandoli, Gretchen; Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Laura L
Previous studies have demonstrated an association between mental illness and preterm birth (before 37 weeks). However, these investigations have not simultaneously considered gestation of preterm birth, the indication (eg, spontaneous or medically indicated), and specific mental illness classifications. The objective of the study was to examine the likelihood of preterm birth across gestational lengths and indications among Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid program) participants with a diagnostic code for mental illness. Mental illnesses were studied by specific illness classification. The study population was drawn from singleton live births in California from 2007 through 2011 in the birth cohort file maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, which includes birth certificate and hospital discharge records. The sample was restricted to women with Medi-Cal coverage for prenatal care. Women with mental illness were identified using International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, codes from their hospital discharge record. Women without a mental illness International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, code were randomly selected at a 4:1 ratio. Adjusting for maternal characteristics and obstetric complications, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for preterm birth comparing women with a mental illness diagnostic code with women without such a code. We identified 6198 women with a mental illness diagnostic code and selected 24,792 women with no such code. The risk of preterm birth in women with a mental illness were 1.2 times higher than women without a mental illness (adjusted relative risk, 1.2, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.3). Among the specific mental illnesses, schizophrenia, major depression, and personality disorders had the strongest associations with preterm birth (adjusted relative risks, 2.0, 2.0 and 3.3, respectively). Women receiving prenatal care through California's low
Vila-Badia, Regina; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Arenas, Otilia; Casas-Anguera, Emma; García-Morales, Esther; Villellas, Raúl; Martín, José Ramón; Pérez-Franco, María Belén; Valduciel, Tamara; Casellas, Diana; García-Franco, Mar; Miguel, Jose; Balsera, Joaquim; Pascual, Gemma; Julia, Eugènia; Ochoa, Susana
To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention for reducing social stigma towards mental illness in adolescents. The effect of gender and knowledge of someone with mental illness was measured. Two hundred and eighty secondary school students were evaluated using the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) questionnaire. The schools were randomized and some received the intervention and others acted as the control group. The programme consisted of providing information via a documentary film and of contact with healthcare staff in order to reduce the social stigma within the school environment. The intervention was effective in reducing the CAMI authoritarianism and social restrictiveness subscales. The intervention showed significant changes in girls in terms of authoritarianism and social restrictiveness, while boys only showed significant changes in authoritarianism. Following the intervention, a significant reduction was found in authoritarianism and social restrictiveness in those who knew someone with mental illness, and only in authoritarianism in those who did not know anyone with mental illness. The intervention was effective to reduce social stigma towards people with mental illness, especially in the area of authoritarianism. Some differences were found depending on gender and whether or not the subjects knew someone with mental illness.
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.
Ally, Yaseen; Laher, Sumaya
The important role that religious beliefs may have on perceptions of mental illness cannot be ignored. Many religions including Islam advocate witchcraft and spirit possession--all of which are thought to influence the behaviour of a person so as to resemble that of a mentally ill individual. Thus this research explored Muslim Faith Healers perceptions of mental and spiritual illness in terms of their understanding of the distinctions between the two, the aetiologies and the treatments thereof. Six Muslim Healers in the Johannesburg community were interviewed and thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. From the results it is clear that the faith healers were aware of the distinction between mental and spiritual illnesses. It was also apparent that Islam has a clear taxonomy that distinguishes illness and the causes thereof. Treatments are then advised accordingly. Thus this paper argues that the predominant Western view of the aetiology and understanding of mental illness needs to acknowledge the various culturally inclined taxonomies of mental illness so as to better understand and aid clients.
McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie
Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.
Sewilam, Ahmed M; Watson, Annie M M; Kassem, Ahmed M; Clifton, Sue; McDonald, Margaret C; Lipski, Rebecca; Deshpande, Smita; Mansour, Hader; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L
Stigma toward mentally ill individuals acts as a barrier to accessing care and receiving treatment. To review current evidence pertaining to stigma toward mental illness in the Middle East in order to inform effective and sustainable interventions in this region. We conducted a systematic literature search using the PubMed database and evaluated all identified studies according to specific inclusion criteria. Stigma toward individuals with mental illness does exist in the Middle East. Stigmatizing attitudes are particularly high toward culturally proscribed mental illnesses like alcohol abuse and lower for other disorders such as depression and psychosis. We propose the following initiatives to reduce stigma toward mental illness in the Middle East: (a) educate families to enable them to support their affected relatives, (b) increase cooperation between psychiatrists and faith healers and (c) educate young people in schools to increase their awareness and understanding of mental illnesses and to combat negative stereotypes. © The Author(s) 2014.
Vasudev, Kamini; Martindale, Brian V
Aim People with severe mental illness are at higher risk of physical health problems. Guidelines recommend annual monitoring. An audit cycle was completed on individuals with severe mental illness under the care of an early interventions in psychosis (EIP) service to evaluate and improve physical health monitoring practice.
Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Korsbek, Lisa; Mikkelsen, John Hagel
is a randomised, assessor-blinded, multi-centre, clinical trial of the IMR program compared with treatment as usual for 200 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder under the care of two community mental health centres in the Capital Region of Denmark. The primary outcome is level......Background: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe mental illnesses that can have a significant disabling impact on the lives of people. Psychosocial interventions that stress hope and recovery as a part of a multidimensional approach are possibly indicated to support people with severe...... mental illness in facilitating recovery. Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a curriculum-based psychosocial intervention designed as structured program with a recovery-oriented approach. The aim of IMR is to rehabilitate people with severe mental illnesses by helping them acquire knowledge...
Wainberg, Milton L; Cournos, Francine; Wall, Melanie M; Norcini Pala, Andrea; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Pinto, Diana; Pinho, Veronica; McKinnon, Karen
The majority of people in psychiatric care worldwide are sexually active, and studies have revealed sharply elevated rates of HIV infection in that group compared with the general population. Recovery-oriented treatment does not routinely address sexuality. We examined the relationship between gender, severe mental illness diagnosis, and stigma experiences related to sexuality among people in psychiatric outpatient care. Sexually active adults attending 8 public outpatient psychiatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro (N = 641) were interviewed for psychiatric diagnosis and stigma experiences. Stigma mechanisms well-established in the literature but not previously examined in relation to sexuality were measured with the Mental Illness Sex Stigma Questionnaire, a 27-item interview about stigma in sexual situations and activities. Experiences of stigma were reported by a majority of participants for 48% of questionnaire items. Most people reported supportive attitudes toward their sexuality from providers and family members. Those with severe mental illness diagnoses showed greater stigma on individual discrimination and structural stigma mechanisms than did those with nonsevere mental illness diagnoses, whereas there was no difference on the social psychological processes (internalized stigma) mechanism. Regardless of diagnosis or gender, a majority of participants devalued themselves as sexual partners. Adults in psychiatric outpatient care frequently reported stigma experiences related to aspects of their sexual lives. From the perspectives of both HIV prevention and recovery from mental illness, examinations of the consequences of stigma in the sexual lives of people in psychiatric care and improving their measurement would have wide applicability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Rr Dian Tristiana
Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.
Padayachee, Priyanka; Laher, Sumaya
Conceptualisations of mental illness are not universally applicable, as culture shapes the expression, perceptions and treatment preferences thereof. By focusing on the perceptions of Hindu psychologists regarding mental illness, this study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that religious beliefs have on such conceptualisations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Hindu psychologists around the Johannesburg area, South Africa. Responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. From the findings, it was evident that religion plays a critical role in the understanding and treatment of mental illness. Hindu beliefs around psychological disturbances were salient. Additionally, it was found that a tension existed between psychologists' awareness of the influential function of religion, particularly amongst collectivistic communities such as the Hindu community, and their occupational understandings and practices, which are deeply rooted in Western thought. Furthermore, it was suggested that the fear of stigma prevented Hindu clients from reaping the benefits of seeking help from culturally competent psychologists.
Friedman, Susan Hatters; McEwan, Miranda V
Despite a limited empirical literature, parental mental illness is often cited as a major risk factor for violence against children. However, mental illness that is adequately treated would not be expected to lead to increased violence risk. This study compared incidents of violence toward children perpetrated by parents who were newly discharged from inpatient psychiatric treatment with violence perpetrated by other parents in the same communities to determine whether parents with treated mental illness had an elevated risk of child abuse perpetration. A secondary analysis of data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study was conducted. Violence toward children reported by parents and by collateral informants at the initial ten-week follow-up interview was analyzed for two groups: study participants discharged from inpatient psychiatric facilities and parents in the community matched by neighborhood. Of the 416 parents in the participant group, 20 (5%) committed violence toward a child in the ten weeks after discharge, compared with 41 (14%) of the 299 parents in the comparison group. In the participant group, diagnostic categories of parents who committed violence toward a child were as follows: serious mental illness only (8% of whom were violent), substance use disorder only (3%), both serious mental illness and substance use disorder (4%), and another issue (7%). This study found that parents with treated serious mental illness were not at higher risk than other parents in their community of perpetrating violence toward children. Parents who were admitted to an acute psychiatric facility and treated appeared to be at lower risk of being violent toward children than other parents in their community.
Hickey, Jason E; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Waterman, Heather
Rapid growth and development in recent decades has seen mental health and mental illness emerge as priority health concerns for the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded. However, there is a paucity of local research to guide ongoing service development. Local research is important because service users' experience of mental illness and mental health services are linked to their sociocultural context. In order for service development to be most effective, there is a need for increased understanding of the people who use these services.This article aims to review and synthesize mental health research from the Gulf Cooperation Council. It also seeks to identify gaps in the literature and suggest directions for future research. A scoping framework was used to conduct this review. To identify studies, database searches were undertaken, regional journals were hand-searched, and reference lists of included articles were examined. Empirical studies undertaken in the Gulf Cooperation Council that reported mental health service users' experience of mental illness were included. Framework analysis was used to synthesize results. Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria and the following themes were identified: service preferences, illness (symptomology, perceived cause, impact), and recovery (traditional healing, family support, religion). Gaps included contradictory findings related to the supportive role of the Arabic extended family and religion, under-representation of women in study samples, and limited attention on illness management outside of the hospital setting.From this review, it is clear that the sociocultural context in the region is linked to service users' experience of mental illness. Future research that aims to fill the identified gaps and develop and test culturally appropriate interventions will aid practice
Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Cheng, Chi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Man
Few studies have been performed to explore mental health literacy and stigmatising attitudes towards mental illness and their relationships with causal beliefs about mental illness among Chinese people in Taiwan. Using a comparative approach, this study attempted to compare the mental health literacy and stigmatising attitudes of Taiwanese Chinese with those found among Australian and Japanese participants in other studies and to explore how mental health literacy and stigmatising attitudes relate to different perceptions of causes of mental illness. A convenience sample of 287 participants completed a battery of standardised questionnaires. A much lower percentage of Taiwanese people than Australians could correctly identify depression and schizophrenia. The Taiwanese respondents rated psychiatrists and clinical psychologists as more helpful than social workers and general practitioners (GPs) and expressed more uncertainty about the usefulness of certain medications when compared to the Australian and Japanese samples. Interestingly, Taiwanese Chinese hold similarly high levels of stigma towards schizophrenia, but lower levels of stigma towards depression when compared to the Japanese respondents. Taiwanese respondents who have higher levels of mental health literacy about schizophrenia were less willing to interact with people with schizophrenia than those with lower levels of mental health literacy. This study underlines the need for public education programmes to improve knowledge of various mental illnesses and to reduce stigmatising attitudes among Taiwanese Chinese. The aforementioned socially and culturally driven beliefs must be taken into consideration so that culturally relevant education programmes can be developed.
Holloway, Kristi; Riley, Geoffrey; Auret, Kirsten
Background Online mental health resources have been proposed as an innovative means of overcoming barriers to accessing rural mental health services. However, clinicians tend to express lower satisfaction with online mental health resources than do clients. Objective To understand rural clinicians’ attitudes towards the acceptability of online mental health resources as a treatment option in the rural context. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 rural clinicians (general practitioners, psychologists, psychiatrists, and clinical social workers). Interviews were supplemented with rural-specific vignettes, which described clinical scenarios in which referral to online mental health resources might be considered. Symbolic interactionism was used as the theoretical framework for the study, and interview transcripts were thematically analyzed using a constant comparative method. Results Clinicians were optimistic about the use of online mental health resources into the future, showing a preference for integration alongside existing services, and use as an adjunct rather than an alternative to traditional approaches. Key themes identified included perceptions of resources, clinician factors, client factors, and the rural and remote context. Clinicians favored resources that were user-friendly and could be integrated into their clinical practice. Barriers to use included a lack of time to explore resources, difficulty accessing training in the rural environment, and concerns about the lack of feedback from clients. Social pressure exerted within professional clinical networks contributed to a cautious approach to referring clients to online resources. Conclusions Successful implementation of online mental health resources in the rural context requires attention to clinician perceptions of acceptability. Promotion of online mental health resources to rural clinicians should include information about resource effectiveness, enable integration with existing
Fraser, Sarah J; Chapman, Justin J; Brown, Wendy J; Whiteford, Harvey A; Burton, Nicola W
The life expectancy of adults with mental illness is worse than that of the general population and is largely due to poor physical health status. Physical activity has been consistently recommended for the prevention and management of many chronic physical health conditions and can also have benefits for mental health. This cross sectional study assessed the attitudes towards and preferences for physical activity among inpatient adults with mental illness, and differences by distress and gender. Self-report questionnaires were completed by 101 patients. Findings indicated that inpatient adults with mental illness are interested in doing physical activity while in hospital, primarily to maintain good physical health and improve emotional wellbeing. Fewer than half of participants agreed that physical activity has benefits for serious mental illness. Participants indicated a preference for walking and physical activity that can be done alone, at a fixed time and with a set routine and format. Major barriers were fatigue and lack of motivation. Females were more likely than males to prefer activities done with others of the same gender (P = 0.001) and at the same level of ability (P physical activity intervention programming in hospital settings, which may contribute to decreasing the chronic disease burden and improve the psychological wellbeing in adults with mental illness. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Coverdale, John; Nairn, Raymond; Claasen, Donna
Because there are no published reports of depictions of mental illness in print media based on national samples, we set out to prospectively collect and analyse a near complete New Zealand sample of print media. A commercial clipping bureau was contracted to provide cuttings of all items with any mental health or illness aspect over a four week period. These items were analysed for potentially positive and negative depictions and how mental illness was represented within each item. An independent search for additional newspaper items concerning one prominently featured topic indicated that the rate of identification of relevant stories was at least 91%. The collection consisted of six hundred print items which were most commonly news or editorial pieces (n = 562, 93.7%). Negative depictions predominated, with dangerousness to others (n = 368, 61.3%) and criminality (n = 284, 47.3%) being the most common. Positive depictions, including human rights themes, leadership and educational accomplishments occurred in 27% (n = 164) of all items. Generic mental illness terminology without reference to specific diagnostic categories was present in 47% of all items (n = 284). Negative depictions that predominate confirm the stereotypic understanding of mental illness that is stigmatizing. These findings underscore the challenge facing us as mental health professionals attempting to change attitudes towards mental disorders when the stereotypes are so regularly reinforced.
Full Text Available Severe mental illness is a broad category that includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe depression. Both genetic disposition and environmental exposures play important roles in the development of severe mental illness. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the roles of genetic and environmental depend on each other. Gene-environment interactions may underlie the paradox of strong environmental factors for highly heritable disorders, the low estimates of shared environmental influences in twin studies of severe mental illness and the heritability gap between twin and molecular heritability estimates. Sons and daughters of parents with severe mental illness are more vulnerable to the effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, suggesting that the expression of genetic liability depends on environment. In the last decade, gene-environment interactions involving specific molecular variants in candidate genes have been identified. Replicated findings include an interaction between a polymorphism in the AKT1 gene and cannabis use in the development of psychosis and an interaction between the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene and childhood maltreatment in the development of persistent depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder has been underinvestigated, with only a single study showing an interaction between a functional polymorphism in BDNF and stressful life events triggering bipolar depressive episodes. The first systematic search for gene-environment interactions has found that a polymorphism in CTNNA3 may sensitise the developing brain to the pathogenic effect of cytomegalovirus in utero, leading to schizophrenia in adulthood. Strategies for genome-wide investigations will likely include coordination between epidemiological and genetic research efforts, systematic assessment of multiple environmental factors in large samples, and prioritization of genetic variants.
Full Text Available Psychological strain in working life is gaining ever more attention. Health care workers are often under extreme emotional stress, which can become so overwhelming that they show signs of mental ill-health. This project aimed to develop a model for sustainable psychological support within a hospital clinic to prevent mental ill-health among employees. Mental strains at work and mental ill-health among clinic employees were mapped out, after which interventions for psychological support were designed in collaboration with employees. The interventions were conducted over one year and evaluated. Throughout the process the clinic received continuous feedback. Both questionnaires and interviews were used. The results of identifying mental strains and conducting interventions showed that employees experienced mental strain at work and perceived a need for support. Intervention evaluations showed that the project provided support, new insights, and an increased acceptance for long-term prevention of mental strain. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies supported the results. The conclusion was that increased legitimacy for mental strain at work and continuous feedback between clinic management and employees, as well as organizational circumstances are important factors when developing long-term intervention programs with various forms of psychological support.
Willging, Cathleen E; Israel, Tania; Ley, David; Trott, Elise M; DeMaria, Catherine; Joplin, Aaron; Smiley, Verida
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities.
Lin, Wei-Chen; Winkelman, John W
Sleep complaints are commonly encountered in psychiatric clinics. Underlying medical disorders or sleep disorders need to be identified and treated to optimize treatment of the mental illness. Excessive daytime sleepiness, which is the main symptom of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), overlaps with those of many severe mental illnesses. Medication side effects or the disorder itself maybe account for daytime sleepiness but comorbid OSA is a possibility that should not be overlooked. The diagnosis of OSA is straightforward but treatment compliance is problematic in psychiatric patients. This article summarizes studies concerning comorbid OSA in patients with severe mental illness and includes suggestions for future investigations.
Kliewer, Stephen P.; McNally Melissa; Trippany, Robyn L.
Deinstitutionalization has had a significant impact on the mental health system, including the client, the agency, and the counselor. For clients with serious mental illness, learning to live in a community setting poses challenges that are often difficult to overcome. Community mental health agencies must respond to these specific needs, thus…
Sheikh, Taiwo L; Adekeye, Oluwatosin; Olisah, Victor O; Mohammed, Abdulaziz
Prejudices against people with mental illness are widespread in many societies leading to a number of detrimental consequences. In order to adequately develop programmes and services that will help protect the rights and privileges of people with mental illness, it is imperative to study the nature of stigma and factors associated with it. Our objective in this study was to observe the level of stigmatisation of the mentally ill among employees of a Nigerian University and the factors associated with it. The study was carried out at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital and the Ahmadu Bello University main campus. Employing a two-staged random sampling technique, 15 departments were chosen from both institutions, after which 10 participants were further sampled from each department to obtain a total of 150 participants. All the participants were administered the socio-demographic questionnaire and Mental Illness Clinicians' Attitude 4(th) version (MICA 4). The findings indicate that 53.4% of respondents' classified as high stigmatisation while 46.6% was classified as low stigmatisation. Low scores on stigmatisation were observed among departments of psychiatry, nursing and ophthalmology, while high scores were observed among respondents from administration and engineering. Relationship between variables and predictors of stigmatisation were also established. There is a high tendency to stigmatise persons with mental illness except where there has been some contact with mental health practice or among the clinical departments in the hospital. We recommend community psychiatry care for the mentally ill and psycho-education for staff periodically to reduce this level of stigmatisation.
Oexle, Nathalie; Corrigan, Patrick W
People with mental illness are often members of multiple stigmatized social groups. Therefore, experienced disadvantage might not be determined solely by mental illness stigma. Nevertheless, most available research does not consider the effects and implications of membership in multiple stigmatized social groups among people with mental illness. Reflecting on intersectionality theory, the authors discuss two intersectional effects determining disadvantage among people with mental illness who are members of multiple stigmatized social groups, namely double disadvantage and prominence. To be effective, interventions to reduce disadvantage experienced by people with mental illness need to be flexible and targeted rather than universal in order to address the implications of intersectionality. Whereas education-based approaches usually assume homogeneity and use universal strategies, contact-based interventions consider diversity among people with mental illness.
Roberts, Laura Weiss; Kim, Jane Paik
Ethical controversy surrounds clinical research involving seriously ill participants. While many stakeholders have opinions, the extent to which protocol volunteers themselves see human research as ethically acceptable has not been documented. To address this gap of knowledge, authors sought to assess views of healthy and ill clinical research volunteers regarding the ethical acceptability of human studies involving individuals who are ill or are potentially vulnerable. Surveys and semi-structured interviews were used to query clinical research protocol participants and a comparison group of healthy individuals. A total of 179 respondents participated in this study: 150 in protocols (60 mentally ill, 43 physically ill, and 47 healthy clinical research protocol participants) and 29 healthy individuals not enrolled in protocols. Main outcome measures included responses regarding ethical acceptability of clinical research when it presents significant burdens and risks, involves people with serious mental and physical illness, or enrolls people with other potential vulnerabilities in the research situation. Respondents expressed decreasing levels of acceptance of participation in research that posed burdens of increasing severity. Participation in protocols with possibly life-threatening consequences was perceived as least acceptable (mean = 1.82, sd = 1.29). Research on serious illnesses, including HIV, cancer, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, was seen as ethically acceptable across respondent groups (range of means = [4.0, 4.7]). Mentally ill volunteers expressed levels of ethical acceptability for physical illness research and mental illness research as acceptable and similar, while physically ill volunteers expressed greater ethical acceptability for physical illness research than for mental illness research. Mentally ill, physically ill, and healthy participants expressed neutral to favorable perspectives regarding the ethical
This article shares the author's experience in dealing with her child who has a mental illness. The author hopes that other teachers and school administrators would find her experience helpful when dealing with mentally ill children. The author describes the first steps to learning with a child with a mental illness.
Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn
This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…
Janardhana, Navaneetham; Raghunandan, Shravya; Naidu, Dodala Muniratnam; Saraswathi, L; Seshan, Valli
Caring is a fundamental issue in the rehabilitation of a person with mental illness and more so for people with severe mental illness. The lack of adequate manpower resources in the country is adding and enlisting the responsibility of providing care on the families to provide physical, medical, social and psychological care for their severely unwell mentally ill people. To examine the load of caregiving with reference to the types of care during the symptomatic and remission phases of severe mental illness and the various ways in which caregivers adapt their lives to meet the needs of people with severe mental illness. The present research draws its data from the 200 families with mental illness in Andra Pradesh and Karnataka in India. The data presented in the study was collected from interviews using an interview schedule with open-ended questions. The study diffuses the notion of 'care' as 'physical', 'medical, 'psychological' and 'social' care. The present article focuses on the caregiving roles of the caregivers of people with schizophrenia, affective disorders and psychosis not otherwise specified (NOS) and found that the caregiving does not differ much between the different diagnosis, but caregiving roles changes from active involvement in physical and medical care to more of social and psychological care during the remission. The study records the incredulous gratitude of caregivers at being acknowledged for the work they do. In that regard, the study itself provides a boost to the morale of tired, unacknowledged caregivers.
Hall, Ryan Chaloner Winton; Friedman, Susan Hatters
Since the recent shootings in Tucson, Arizona; Aurora, Colorado; and Newtown, Connecticut, there has been an ever-increasing state and national debate regarding gun control. All 3 shootings involved an alleged shooter who attended college, and in hindsight, evidence of a mental illness was potentially present in these individuals while in school. What appears to be different about the current round of debate is that both pro-gun control and anti-gun control advocates are focusing on mentally ill individuals, early detection of mental illness during school years, and the interactions of such individuals with physicians and the mental health system as a way to solve gun violence. This raises multiple questions for our profession about the apparent increase in these types of events, dangerousness in mentally ill individuals, when to intervene (voluntary vs involuntary), and what role physicians should play in the debate and ongoing prevention. As is evident from the historic Tarasoff court case, physicians and mental health professionals often have new regulations/duties, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and increased liability resulting from high-profile events such as these. Given that in many ways the prediction of who will actually commit a violent act is difficult to determine with accuracy, physicians need to be cautious with how the current gun debate evolves not only for ourselves (eg, increased liability, becoming de facto agents of the state) but for our patients as well (eg, increased stigma, erosion of civil liberties, and changes in the physician-patient relationship). We provide examples of potential troublesome legislation and suggestions on what can be done to improve safety for our patients and for the public. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dalum, Helle Stentoft; Korsbek, Lisa; Mikkelsen, John Hagel
Background: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe mental illnesses that can have a significant disabling impact on the lives of people. Psychosocial interventions that stress hope and recovery as a part of a multidimensional approach are possibly indicated to support people with severe...... mental illness in facilitating recovery. Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) is a curriculum-based psychosocial intervention designed as structured program with a recovery-oriented approach. The aim of IMR is to rehabilitate people with severe mental illnesses by helping them acquire knowledge...... and skills in managing their illness and achieve personal recovery goals. Previous randomised clinical trials indicate that IMR can be implemented with a good effect and a high fidelity though further trials are crucial to demonstrate the potential effectiveness of IMR. Methods/Design: The trial design...
Vogel, Marc; Frank, Anastasia; Choi, Fiona; Strehlau, Verena; Nikoo, Nooshin; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Hwang, Stephen W; Somers, Julian; Krausz, Michael R; Schütz, Christian G
Chronic pain is an important public health issue. However, characteristics and needs of marginalized populations have received limited attention. Studies on prevalence and correlates of chronic pain among homeless persons are lacking. We assessed chronic pain among homeless persons with mental illness in the At Home/Chez Soi study. Cross-sectional data from a randomized controlled trial on homelessness and mental health. Data collected between 2009 and 2013 in three Canadian cities. One thousand two hundred eighty-seven homeless persons with mental illness. Data on chronic pain and utilization of prescribed and nonprescribed interventions was assessed using a chronic pain screening instrument. Mental illness was diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Forty-three percent reported moderate to severe chronic pain, interfering with general daily activities (80%), sleep (78%), and social interactions (61%). Multivariate analysis indicated that increasing age and diagnoses of major depressive disorder, mood disorder with psychotic features, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were independent predictors of chronic pain. Chronic pain was further associated with increased suicidality. Among participants reporting chronic pain, 64% had sought medical treatment and 56% treated pain with prescribed drugs, while 38% used illicit drugs for pain relief. Chronic pain is very common among homeless persons with mental illness and affects activities of daily living. Clinicians treating this population should be aware of the common connections between chronic pain, depression, panic disorder, PTSD, and substance use. While the data indicate the contribution of chronic pain to complex treatment needs, they also indicate a clear treatment gap. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia
To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005
"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…
Bignall, Whitney J Raglin; Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M
Although the prevalence of mental illness is similar across ethnic groups, a large disparity exists in the utilization of services. Mental health attributions, causal beliefs regarding the etiology of mental illness, may contribute to this disparity. To understand mental health attributions across diverse ethnic backgrounds, we conducted focus groups with African American (n = 8; 24 %), Asian American (n = 6; 18 %), Latino/Hispanic (n = 9; 26 %), and White (n = 11; 32 %) participants. We solicited attributions about 19 mental health disorders, each representing major sub-categories of the DSM-IV. Using a grounded theory approach, participant responses were categorized into 12 themes: Biological, Normalization, Personal Characteristic, Personal Choice, Just World, Spiritual, Family, Social Other, Environment, Trauma, Stress, and Diagnosis. Results indicate that ethnic minorities are more likely than Whites to mention spirituality and normalization causes. Understanding ethnic minority mental health attributions is critical to promote treatment-seeking behaviors and inform culturally responsive community-based mental health services.
Chiles, Catherine; Stefanovics, Elina; Rosenheck, Robert
Stigma among health care providers toward people with mental illness is a worldwide problem. This study at a large US university examined medical student attitudes toward mental illness and its causes, and whether student attitudes change as they progress in their education. An electronic questionnaire focusing on attitudes toward people with mental illness, causes of mental illness, and treatment efficacy was used to survey medical students at all levels of training. Exploratory factor analysis was used to establish attitudinal factors, and analysis of variance was used to identify differences in student attitudes among these factors. Independent-samples t tests were used to assess attitudes toward efficacy of treatments for six common psychiatric and medical conditions. The study response rate was 42.6 % (n = 289). Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors reflecting social acceptance of mental illness, belief in supernatural causes, and belief in biopsychosocial causes. Stages of student education did not differ across these factors. Students who had completed the psychiatry clerkship were more likely to believe that anxiety disorders and diabetes could be treated effectively. Students reporting personal experiences with mental illness showed significantly more social acceptance, and people born outside the USA were more likely to endorse supernatural causes of mental illness. Sociocultural influences and personal experience with mental illness have a greater effect than medical education on attitudes toward people with mental illness. Psychiatric education appears to have a small but significant effect on student attitudes regarding treatment efficacy.
McGinty, Emma E; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L
The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995-2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media's continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Lin, Wen-Chieh; Zhang, Jianying; Leung, Gary Y; Clark, Robin E
To examine the association between mental illness and chronic physical conditions in older adults and investigate whether co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with greater risk of chronic physical conditions beyond mental illness alone. A retrospective cross-sectional study. Medicare and Medicaid programs in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Medicare and Medicaid members aged 65 and older as of January 1, 2005 (N = 679,182). Diagnoses recorded on Medicare and Medicaid claims were used to identify mental illness, SUDs, and 15 selected chronic physical conditions. Community-dwelling older adults with mental illness or SUDs had higher adjusted risk for 14 of the 15 selected chronic physical conditions than those without these disorders; the only exception was eye diseases. Moreover, those with co-occurring SUDs and mental illness had the highest adjusted risk for 11 of these chronic conditions. For residents of long-term care facilities, mental illness and SUDs were only moderately associated with the risk of chronic physical conditions. Community-dwelling older adults with mental illness or SUDs, particularly when they co-occurred, had substantially greater medical comorbidity than those without these disorders. For residents of long-term care facilities, the generally uniformly high medical comorbidity may have moderated this relationship, although their high prevalence of mental illness and SUDs signified greater healthcare needs. These findings strongly suggest the imminent need for integrating general medical care, mental health services, and addiction health services for older adults with mental illness or SUDs. © 2011, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.
This book highlights a broad range of issues on mental health and illness in large cities. It presents the epidemiology of mental disorders in cities, cultural issues of urban mental health care, and community care in large cities and urban slums. It also includes chapters on homelessness, crime...... and racism - problems that are increasingly prevalent in many cities world wide. Finally, it looks at the increasing challenges of mental disorders in rapidly growing cities. The book is aimed at an international audience and includes contributions from clinicians and researchers worldwide....
Nene Ernest Khalema
Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on the interplay between employment integration and retention of individuals diagnosed with mental health and related disability (MHRD. Specifically, the paper addresses the importance of an integrative approach, utilizing a social epidemiological approach to assess various factors that are related to the employment integration of individuals diagnosed with severe mental illness. Our approach to the review incorporates a research methodology that is multilayered, mixed, and contextual. The review examines the literature that aims to unpack employers’ understanding of mental illness and their attitudes, beliefs, and practices about employing workers with mental illness. Additionally we offer a conceptual framework entrenched within the social determinants of the mental health (SDOMH literature as a way to contextualize the review conclusions. This approach contributes to a holistic understanding of workplace mental health conceptually and methodologically particularly as practitioners and policy makers alike are grappling with better ways to integrate employees who are diagnosed with mental health and disabilities into to the workplace.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a substantial increase in research on mental illness related stigma over the past 10 years, with many measures in use. This study aims to review current practice in the survey measurement of mental illness stigma, prejudice and discrimination experienced by people who have personal experience of mental illness. We will identify measures used, their characteristics and psychometric properties. Method A narrative literature review of survey measures of mental illness stigma was conducted. The databases Medline, PsychInfo and the British Nursing Index were searched for the period 1990-2009. Results 57 studies were included in the review. 14 survey measures of mental illness stigma were identified. Seven of the located measures addressed aspects of perceived stigma, 10 aspects of experienced stigma and 5 aspects of self-stigma. Of the identified studies, 79% used one of the measures of perceived stigma, 46% one of the measures of experienced stigma and 33% one of the measures of self-stigma. All measures presented some information on psychometric properties. Conclusions The review was structured by considering perceived, experienced and self stigma as separate but related constructs. It provides a resource to aid researchers in selecting the measure of mental illness stigma which is most appropriate to their purpose.
Furber, Gareth; Segal, Leonie; Leach, Matthew; Turnbull, Catherine; Procter, Nicholas; Diamond, Mark; Miller, Stephanie; McGorry, Patrick
Mental illness is prevalent across the globe and affects multiple aspects of life. Despite advances in treatment, there is little evidence that prevalence rates of mental illness are falling. While the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancers are common in the policy dialogue and in service delivery, the prevention of mental illness remains a neglected area. There is accumulating evidence that mental illness is at least partially preventable, with increasing recognition that its antecedents are often found in infancy, childhood, adolescence and youth, creating multiple opportunities into young adulthood for prevention. Developing valid and reproducible methods for translating the evidence base in mental illness prevention into actionable policy recommendations is a crucial step in taking the prevention agenda forward. Building on an aetiological model of adult mental illness that emphasizes the importance of intervening during infancy, childhood, adolescence and youth, we adapted a workforce and service planning framework, originally applied to diabetes care, to the analysis of the workforce and service structures required for best-practice prevention of mental illness. The resulting framework consists of 6 steps that include identifying priority risk factors, profiling the population in terms of these risk factors to identify at-risk groups, matching these at-risk groups to best-practice interventions, translation of these interventions to competencies, translation of competencies to workforce and service estimates, and finally, exploring the policy implications of these workforce and services estimates. The framework outlines the specific tasks involved in translating the evidence-base in prevention, to clearly actionable workforce, service delivery and funding recommendations. The framework describes the means to deliver mental illness prevention that the literature indicates is achievable, and is the basis of an ongoing project to model the workforce
Evans-Lacko, S.; Brohan, E.; Mojtabai, R.; Thornicroft, G.
Background. Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems...
Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is the perception that one is cared for, has assistance available from significant others and its benefit is by buffering stress by influencing the ability to adjust and live with illness. Social support can uplift the quality and subjective wellbeing of people. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived social support and factors influencing it among mentally ill patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Ninety cases aged more than 18 years visiting outpatient of psychiatric department and diagnosed as a case of mental illness for at least a year were included. Instruments used were self-developed proforma and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Interview technique was used to collect the data. Results: Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family, 28% of the patients perceive social support from significant others. Regression analysis showed that the perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. It is not influenced by gender, subjective financial status and frequency of hospitalization. Conclusion: Perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family.
Atzema, Clare L.; Schull, Michael J.; Kurdyak, Paul; Menezes, Natasja M.; Wilton, Andrew S.; Vermuelen, Marian J.; Austin, Peter C.
Background: It has been suggested that patients with mental illness wait longer for care than other patients in the emergency department. We determined wait times for patients with and without mental health diagnoses during crowded and noncrowded periods in the emergency department. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort analysis of adults seen in 155 emergency departments in Ontario between April 2007 and March 2009. We compared wait times and triage scores for patients with mental illness to those for all other patients who presented to the emergency department during the study period. Results: The patients with mental illness (n = 51 381) received higher priority triage scores than other patients, regardless of crowding. The time to assessment by a physician was longer overall for patients with mental illness than for other patients (median 82, interquartile range [IQR] 41–147 min v. median 75 [IQR 36–140] min; p < 0.001). The median time from the decision to admit the patient to hospital to ward transfer was markedly shorter for patients with mental illness than for other patients (median 74 [IQR 15–215] min v. median 152 [IQR 45–605] min; p < 0.001). After adjustment for other variables, patients with mental illness waited 10 minutes longer to see a physician compared with other patients during noncrowded periods (95% confidence interval [CI] 8 to 11), but they waited significantly less time than other patients as crowding increased (mild crowding: −14 [95% CI −12 to −15] min; moderate crowding: −38 [95% CI −35 to −42] min; severe crowding: −48 [95% CI −39 to −56] min; p < 0.001). Interpretation: Patients with mental illness were triaged appropriately in Ontario’s emergency departments. These patients waited less time than other patients to see a physician under crowded conditions and only slightly longer under noncrowded conditions. PMID:23148052
Eno Louden, Jennifer; Manchak, Sarah M
Mental health treatment adherence is often required for offenders with mental illness supervised on probation and parole. However, research on offenders with mental illness has largely overlooked cultural and ethnic responsivity factors that may affect adherence to treatment. Latinos are a quickly growing subgroup of offenders whose social networks differ in meaningful ways from European Americans' (e.g., size, composition, centrality of family). Social networks are known to relate to both clinical and criminal justice outcomes for offenders with mental illness, and there are features of nonoffender Latinos' social networks that suggest that findings distilled from work with non-Latino offenders may not apply to them. The present study examined the social networks of 86 Latino probationers with serious mental illness to (a) describe the size and composition of these networks and (b) to determine which factors of social networks are related to treatment adherence. The authors found that Latino offenders' social networks are small (∼6 individuals), consisting primarily of family and professionals such as treatment providers and probation officers. Supportive relationships with nonprofessionals and treatment providers was related to lower likelihood of missing treatment appointments, whereas social control and pressure from family and friends to attend treatment was not related to treatment adherence. Findings are discussed within the context of improved practices for community corrections and mental health agencies in working with Latino offenders with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M.
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, ...
Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…
This podcast is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free.
Carder, Melanie; Turner, Susan; McNamee, Roseanne; Agius, Raymond
There is concern about the frequency of work-related mental ill-health and 'stress' within the UK. To provide a measure of the incidence of work-related mental ill-health reported by specialist psychiatrists and occupational physicians to UK voluntary reporting schemes during the period 2002-05. Additionally, an investigation of determinants, notably factors identified by reporters as precipitants in cases of work-related mental ill-health was undertaken. The study used data collected by The Health and Occupation Reporting Network (THOR) from 2002 to 2005. Cases were analysed by age, gender, industry and precipitating event. Estimated annual average incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals of work-related mental ill-health diagnoses reported to THOR between 2002 and 2005 by psychiatrists were 89 (78, 101) per million and by occupational physicians were 1589 (1443, 1735) per million. For both groups of reporters, anxiety and depression continued to make up the largest proportion of diagnoses. The majority of cases were attributed to factors such as workload and difficulties with other workers. There was some suggestion that the type of factors associated with the mental ill-health case reports varied between industrial sectors. Work-related anxiety and depression and stress continue to constitute a significant proportion of all work-related mental ill-health diagnoses in the UK, with workload and interpersonal relationships reported as significant risk factors. Further investigations may determine whether guidance for employers and employees on work-related mental ill-health would benefit from being more industry specific.
Parcesepe, Angela M; Cabassa, Leopoldo J
Public stigma is a pervasive barrier that prevents many individuals in the U.S. from engaging in mental health care. This systematic literature review aims to: (1) evaluate methods used to study the public's stigma toward mental disorders, (2) summarize stigma findings focused on the public's stigmatizing beliefs and actions and attitudes toward mental health treatment for children and adults with mental illness, and (3) draw recommendations for reducing stigma towards individuals with mental disorders and advance research in this area. Public stigma of mental illness in the U.S. was widespread. Findings can inform interventions to reduce the public's stigma of mental illness.
Çelik Ince, S; Partlak Günüşen, N; Serçe, Ö
Individuals with mental illness have significantly higher mortality and morbidity than the general population due to physical illnesses. Mental health nurses play a key role in providing care for common physical problems and protecting and promoting healthy lifestyles. Little is known from previous studies in the international literature about the attitudes, behaviours and thoughts of mental health nurses on providing physical health care. Mental health nurses mostly focus on the existing physical health problems of individuals with mental illness. However, mental health nurses do not include practices of disease prevention and physical health promotion for individuals with mental illness. The desire to see positive changes in individuals with mental illness, receiving positive feedback, feeling useful and happy, and feeling satisfied with their profession motivate mental health nurses in terms of providing physical health care. The knowledge and skill required of mental health nurses to provide physical health care need to be increased. Institutions should employ expert nurses who are able to guide mental health nurses to provide physical health care. It is important to provide adequate physical infrastructure and human resources to provide better physical health care in mental health services. Background Mental health nurses play an important role in improving the physical health of individuals with mental illnesses. However, there are limited studies of their attitudes and practices about physical health. Therefore, there is a need for qualitative studies to clarify the issue. The aim of this study was to determine mental health nurses' opinions about physical health care for individuals with mental illness. This study was carried out in Turkey. A qualitative descriptive approach was taken in the study. The sample consisted of twelve mental health nurses selected by purposeful sampling. In-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview format
Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte; Van Doesum, Karin TM; Martinussen, Monica
Background: Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. This knowledge has led to changes in Norwegian legislation, making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, and to provide necessary support for the children of mentally ill patients. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the process of implementing new routines in adult mental health services to identify and support children of mentally ill parents. Methods: The design w...
Razali, S M; Khan, U A; Hasanah, C I
The concept of aetiology of mental illness in 134 Malay patients was investigated by means of a 20-item checklist. About 53% of the patients attributed their illnesses to supernatural agents. Witchcraft and possession by evil spirits were regarded as common causes of illness. The number of patients who believed in supernatural causes of their mental illness was significantly higher among those who had consulted bomohs (Malay traditional healers) than among those who had not consulted them. The belief that mental illness is caused by supernatural agents is firmly held by bomohs, who reinforce this notion in those who seek their advice. Belief in supernatural causes of mental illness was not significantly associated with age, gender, level of education or occupation of the patients. Patients who believed in supernatural causes of mental illness were also found to show poor drug compliance, and the number of such patients at 6 months follow-up was significantly lower than the corresponding figure for those who did not believe in supernatural causes. The importance of understanding the patients' cultural background when treating psychiatric patients is highlighted.
Han, Euna; Liu, Gordon G
Racial minorities are a rapidly growing portion of the US population. Research suggests that racial minorities are more vulnerable to mental illness due to risk factors, such as higher rates of poverty. Given that the burden of mental illnesses is significant, equal likelihood of mental health services utilization is important to reduce such burden. Racial minorities have been known to use mental health services less than Whites. However, it is unclear whether racial disparity in prescription drug use for mental illnesses exists in a nationally representative sample. For a valid estimation of prescription drug use patterns, the characteristic in the distribution of prescription drug use should be accounted for in the estimation model. This study is intended to document whether there was a disparity in psychiatric drug use in both extensive and intensive margins between Whites and three racial minorities: Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian-Indians. The study looked at several specified mental illnesses, controlling for underlying health status and other confounding factors. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the multiyear Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative panel sample from 1996 through 2000. This analysis provides estimates of the actual expenditure on prescription drug use for people with specified mental illnesses for this study, based on comparison of Whites and other racial minorities. We derived the estimates from the two-part model, a framework that adjusts the likelihood of using prescription drugs for the specified mental illnesses while estimating the total actual expenditures on prescription drugs among the users. This study found that Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian-Indians were less likely than Whites to use prescription drugs by 8.3, 6.1 and 23.6 percentage points, respectively, holding other factors constant in the sample, with at least one of the specified mental illnesses. The expenditure on prescription drugs for
Robson , Anthony ,
International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Mental ill health is an epidemic worldwide because of the combined effect of the modern diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Primary prevention of mental ill health starts, crucially, with optimal adult nutrition before the inception of pregnancy, includes breastfeeding, and continues throughout the life of th...
...; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... psychosis within specified time periods and for Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness... eligibility determinations; Presumptive eligibility for psychosis and other mental illness.'' Copies of...
Full Text Available Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness.This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor.From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore.Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception.There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.
Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns.
Appelbaum, Paul S; Swanson, Jeffrey W
This column describes federal and state laws to restrict access to firearms among people with mental illness. The contribution to public safety of these laws is likely to be small because only 3%-5% of violent acts are attributable to serious mental illness, and most do not involve guns. The categories of persons with mental illnesses targeted by the laws may not be at higher risk of violence than other subgroups in this population. The laws may deter people from seeking treatment for fear of losing the right to possess firearms and may reinforce stereotypes of persons with mental illnesses as dangerous.
Rational and reality-congruent unconscious processes facilitate adaptive functioning and have implications for mental illness and psychotherapy. With this knowledge, psychotherapists can more effectively guide interventions to improve mental health.
Stone, Elizabeth M; McGinty, Emma E
This study measured Americans' willingness to pay an additional $50 in taxes to improve health care and social services for individuals with serious mental illness. A nationally representative online survey was conducted with 1,010 respondents. Analysis examined how respondents' demographic characteristics and attitudes toward individuals with serious mental illness correlated with their willingness to pay additional taxes to improve health care and social services for this vulnerable population. A majority of respondents expressed willingness to pay $50 in additional taxes to improve health care services (60%) and social services (58%) for individuals with serious mental illness. Those with more negative attitudes toward individuals with serious mental illness were less willing to pay additional taxes to improve either service type. Many Americans are willing to pay additional taxes to improve health care and social services for individuals with serious mental illness.
Mizock, Lauren; Russinova, Zlatka; Millner, Uma Chandrika
The process of acceptance of mental illness is a central component of recovery and has been linked to functioning, illness management, and quality of life. A number of barriers and facilitators have been theorized as impacting this process. This study was conducted with 30 participants with serious mental illness (a major psychiatric disorder with impairment in multiple areas of functioning) to elicit the barriers to and facilitators of the acceptance of mental illness. Grounded theory methodology was utilized to analyze the 30 semistructured interviews. Results revealed barriers to and facilitators of acceptance of mental illness at the micro level (cognitive, emotional, behavioral, identity-related), meso level (relational), and macro level (cultural, systemic). Clinical and research implications are discussed with regard to facilitating acceptance of mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.
Einstein, Evan Hy; Klepacz, Lidia
This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students' and psychiatry residents' conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant's formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. If these notions are therefore part of students' and residents' conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.
Roscoe, Joseph N; Lery, Bridgette; Chambers, Jaclyn E
Among children investigated for maltreatment, those with parents experiencing mental illness or substance abuse are more likely to be placed out-of-home; however, little is known about why these children are at greater risk. Using a sample of 2488 Structured Decision Making ® assessments administered in San Francisco county from 2011 to 2015, we identified a profile of safety threats that accounts for why workers are more likely to determine children of parents with mental illness and/or substance abuse unsafe in the home. Eight percent of assessments in our sample involved parents with current mental illness only and 10% had comorbid substance abuse. The odds of an unsafe determination more than doubled among parents with mental illness (OR = 2.52, p mental illness on safety determination: caretaking impairment due to emotional stability/developmental status/cognitive deficiency (57%), failure to meet a child's immediate needs (30%), and threats of harm (14%). Three safety threats accounted for 55% of the effect of comorbid mental illness and substance abuse on safety determination: failure to meet a child's immediate needs (21%), presence of a drug-exposed infant (21%), and caretaking impairment due to emotional stability/developmental status/cognitive deficiency (14%). Results suggest that sustained linkage to effective mental health services and material resources at the outset of a child welfare case may help to promote faster and more likely reunification, and prevent future maltreatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Different studies show different attitudes towards mental illness among medical students. This study was initiated to explore the attitude towards mental illness among medical students in a medical college of Manipur. A cross-sectional selfadministered questionnaire-based study was conducted among medical students in ...
Pasmatzi, E; Koulierakis, G; Giaglis, G
The way that the social stigma of mental illness is related with the self-stigma, which in turn affects self-esteem and self-efficacy of mental patients was investigated. A sample of 66 patients in the Adult Psychiatric Clinic of the Thessaloniki General Hospital "G. Papanikolaou" was participated in this descriptive association study, with cross-sectional comparisons. The sample comprised of patients who were hospitalized or visited the Clinic as out-patients during the period that the study was undertaken. A tool for measuring the basic demographic, social and clinical characteristics of the participants was designed and used. Additionally, the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, SSMIS, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, RSE and the General Self-Efficacy Sherer Scale, GSESH were used for measuring self-stigma, self-esteem and self-efficacy respectively. Results showed that self-esteem and self-efficacy were highly associated with each another. Self-esteem and self-efficacy co varied. Greater self-stigma was associated with lower self-esteem and selfefficacy confirming the power of this relationship which is connected with patients' psychological empowerment and acts as mediator between patients' self-categorization as "mentally ill" and their self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additionally, a mild negative association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and age was found while higher educational level was associated with greater selfefficacy. Greater self-stigma along with lower educational level were the most significant predictors of both self-esteem and self-efficacy of mental patients, as shown by regression analysis. Some of our results, such as the percentage of low self-esteem (30.3%), were different from previous relevant data (9.1-24%), probably due to differences in sample's cultural characteristics and composition, research tools used, and the degree of mentally ill patients' reaction to social stigma perception. Despite its methodological limitations, the
Raymond J. Gibbons
Full Text Available Objectives. The current study investigated mental health literacy in an Australian sample to examine sex differences in the identification of and attitudes towards various aspects of mental illness.Method. An online questionnaire was completed by 373 participants (M = 34.87 years. Participants were randomly assigned either a male or female version of a vignette depicting an individual exhibiting the symptoms of one of three types of mental illness (depression, anxiety, or psychosis and asked to answer questions relating to aspects of mental health literacy.Results. Males exhibited poorer mental health literacy skills compared to females. Males were less likely to correctly identify the type of mental illness, more likely to rate symptoms as less serious, to perceive the individual as having greater personal control over such symptoms, and less likely to endorse the need for treatment for anxiety or psychosis.Conclusion. Generally, the sample was relatively proficient at correctly identifying mental illness but overall males displayed poorer mental health literacy skills than females.
The term "mental illness" has been criticized on a variety of grounds, most notably by those who have argued that the term is merely a "myth" or a "metaphor." Some have argued that if and when so-called mental illnesses are exhaustively explained by disturbed brain function or structure, we will no longer need the term "mental illness," on the supposition that neuropathology and psychopathology are mutually exclusive constructs. The author argues that, on the contrary, the locution "mental illness" is not rendered useless or unnecessary when neuropathology is discovered, nor is the term "mental illness" a metaphor. Rather, it is an instance of "ordinary language" that we apply quite literally to certain types of suffering and incapacity in the realm of thought, emotion, cognition, and behavior. Although its use carries the risk of perpetuating mind-body dualism and it may be misused as a pejorative label, "mental illness" is likely to remain a useful and meaningful descriptive term, even as we discover the neurobiological underpinnings of psychiatric illness.
Muralidharan, Anjana; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Molinari, Victor; Goldberg, Richard W
Individuals with serious mental illness endorse many more medical and psychosocial barriers to physical activity (PA) than the general population. However, it is unknown if older adults with serious mental illness are at greater risk of experiencing barriers to PA than their younger counterparts. The present study utilized a national VA dataset to compare veterans with serious mental illness ages 55 and older (n = 9,044) to veterans with serious mental illness ages 54 and younger (n = 8,782) on their responses to a questionnaire assessment of barriers to PA. Older veterans were more likely to endorse arthritis and cardiopulmonary disease, and less likely to endorse work schedule, as barriers to PA. Interventions designed to increase PA for young/middle-aged adults with serious mental illness may be broadly useful for older adults with serious mental illness, with some modification to address specific health concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Cloyes, Kristin Gates
Increasingly, US prisoners diagnosed with mental illness are housed in control units, the most restrictive form of confinement in the US prison system. This situation has led to intense debate over the legal, ethical and clinical status of mental illness. This is a semiotic struggle with profound effects, yet most related work treats mental illness as a neutral, individual variable. Few analyses locate mental illness within a larger sociopolitical context. Fewer still focus on discursive practice. None critically analyze the accounts of control unit prisoners, who talk about extreme marginality and risk for victimization. This paper has two aims: (i) to develop a systematic method of analysis that accounts for signification as discourse-in-action; and (ii) to show how prisoners' signification of mental illness articulates agency through and against marginalizing discourse. Political discourse analysis demonstrates how control unit prisoners with psychiatric diagnoses signify mental illness, and articulate safer identifications in the process.
The objective of this study was to examine the reasons for the most recent loss of housing and for continued homelessness as perceived by homeless persons with mental illness. A total of 2,974 currently homeless participants in the 1996 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) were asked about the reasons for their most recent loss of housing and continued homelessness. The responses of participants who had mental illness, defined both broadly and narrowly, were compared with responses of those who were not mentally ill. The broad definition of mental illness was based on a set of criteria proposed by NSHAPC investigators. The narrow definition included past psychiatric hospitalization in addition to the NSHAPC criteria. A total of 1,620 participants (56 percent) met the broad definition of mental illness, and 639 (22 percent) met the narrow definition; 1,345 participants (44 percent) did not meet any of these criteria and were categorized as not having a mental illness. Few differences in reasons for the most recent loss of housing were noted between the participants with and without mental illness. Both groups attributed their continued homelessness mostly to insufficient income, unemployment, and lack of suitable housing. Homeless persons with mental illness mostly report the same reasons for loss of housing and continued homelessness as those who do not have a mental illness. This finding supports the view that structural solutions, such as wider availability of low-cost housing and income support, would reduce the risk of homelessness among persons with mental illness, as among other vulnerable social groups.
Alonso, L; Jeffrey, W D
Santeria, a religious system that blends African and Catholic beliefs, is practiced by many Cuban Americans. One aspect of this system is the belief in spirit possession. Basic santeria beliefs and rituals, including the fiesta santera (a gathering at which some participants may become possessed), are briefly described, and four cases in which the patients' belief in possession played a role in their mental illness are presented. The belief in possession can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, but it should not be considered a culture-bound syndrome. Rather, it may be a nonspecific symptom of a variety of mental illnesses and should be evaluated in the context of the patient's overall belief system and ability to carry out usual activities.
Trondsen, Marianne V
Although a considerable body of research has described the implications of parental mental illness, the perspectives of children and adolescents have rarely been addressed. In this article, I explore adolescents' experiences in everyday life, based on an action-oriented study of a Norwegian online self-help group for adolescents (aged 15 to 18) with mentally ill parents. The analysis was conducted through participant observation of the group for 2 years. The adolescents experienced a variety of difficult challenges related to their parent's mental illness: lack of information and openness; unpredictability and instability; fear; loneliness; and loss and sorrow. However, they also discussed strategies for active management of the challenges arising from the family situation. I argue that these adolescents can be understood as vulnerable as well as active participants in managing their everyday lives. I emphasize the importance of including perspectives of children and adolescents in further research so as to improve health care for families with parental mental illness.
Full Text Available Background. Mental illness is an important public health issue worldwide; stigmatisation and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness are widespread among the general public. However, little is known about the attitudes of undergraduates to mental illness. Purpose. To compare the attitudes towards mental illness among undergraduates enrolled in nursing courses v. those enrolled in Bachelor of Business Management (BBM courses. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted for the present study. A total of 268 undergraduates were selected to complete the Attitude Scale for Mental Illness (ASMI and the Opinions about Mental Illness in the Chinese Community (OMICC questionnaires. Results. We found significant differences between the number of nursing and BBM students who agreed with statements posed by the questionnaires, e.g., that they would move out of their community if a mental health facility was established there (χ2=16.503, p<0.002, that they were not afraid of treated mentally ill people (χ2=15.279, p<0.004, and that people with mental illness tend to be violent (χ2=14.215, p<0.007 and dangerous (χ2=17.808, p<0.001. Nursing students disagreed that people with mental illness are easily identified (χ2=30.094, p<0.000, have a lower IQ (χ2=70.689, p<0.000 and should not have children (χ2=24.531, p<0.000. Nursing students were more benevolent than BBM students, as they agreed that people with mental illness can hold a job (χ2=49.992, p<0.000 and can return to their former position (χ2=11.596, p<0.021, that everyone faces the possibility of becoming mentally ill (χ2=38.726, p<0.000, and that one should not laugh at the mentally ill (χ2=17.407, p<0.002. Nursing students held less pessimistic attitudes, as they felt that the mentally ill should receive the same pay for the same job (χ2=10.669, p<0.031 and that the public are prejudiced towards people with mental illness (χ2=17.604, p<0.001. Conclusion
...; Presumptive Eligibility for Psychosis and Other Mental Illness AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... time periods and for Persian Gulf War veterans who developed a mental illness other than psychosis... veterans, 38 CFR 17.37, to include veterans with psychosis or mental illness other than psychosis. We are...
Lund, Crick; Myer, Landon; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Flisher, Alan J
Little is known regarding the links between mental disorder and lost income in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mental disorder and lost income in the first nationally representative psychiatric epidemiology survey in South Africa. A probability sample of South African adults was administered the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview schedule to assess the presence of mental disorders as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version IV. The presence of severe depression or anxiety disorders was associated with a significant reduction in earnings in the previous 12 months among both employed and unemployed South African adults (p = 0.0043). In simulations of costs to individuals, the mean estimated lost income associated with severe depression and anxiety disorders was $4,798 per adult per year, after adjustment for age, gender, substance abuse, education, marital status, and household size. Projections of total annual cost to South Africans living with these disorders in lost earnings, extrapolated from the sample, were $3.6 billion. These data indicate either that mental illness has a major economic impact, through the effect of disability and stigma on earnings, or that people in lower income groups are at increased risk of mental illness. The indirect costs of severe depression and anxiety disorders stand in stark contrast with the direct costs of treatment in South Africa, as illustrated by annual government spending on mental health services, amounting to an estimated $59 million for adults. The findings of this study support the economic argument for investing in mental health care as a means of mitigating indirect costs of mental illness.
King, Robert; Neilsen, Philip; White, Emma
There is evidence that creative writing forms an important part of the recovery experience of people affected by severe mental illness. In this paper, we consider theoretical models that explain how creative writing might contribute to recovery, and we discuss the potential for creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation. We argue that the rehabilitation benefits of creative writing might be optimized through focus on process and technique in writing, rather than content, and that consequently, the involvement of professional writers might be important. We describe a pilot workshop that deployed these principles and was well-received by participants. Finally, we make recommendations regarding the role of creative writing in psychosocial rehabilitation for people recovering from severe mental illness and suggest that the development of an evidence base regarding the effectiveness of creative writing is a priority. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
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illness, particularly the young generation and college-going students. ... the attitudes and beliefs about people with mental illness among .... totally agree = 4, totally agree = 5) based on their feelings towards ... tend to be violent (χ2=14.215, p<0.007) and dangerous (χ2=17.808, ..... disabled persons through fieldwork.
Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Ramachandra; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Math, Suresh Bada
Background: Globally women confront manifold violations of human rights and women with poverty and mental illness are doubly disadvantaged. Aim: The aim was to examine the influence of poverty in meeting human rights needs among recovered women with mental illness at family and community level. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study carried out among randomly selected (n = 100) recovered women with mental illness at a tertiary care center. Data were collected through face-to-face interview using structured needs assessment questionnaire. Results: Our findings revealed that below poverty line (BPL) participants were not satisfied in meeting their physical needs such as “access to safe drinking water” (χ2 = 8.994, P rights needs in emotional dimension, that is, afraid of family members (χ2 = 8.233, P women from APL group expressed that they were discriminated and exploited by the community members (χ2 = 17.490, P women with mental illness. Further, mental health professionals play an essential role in educating the family and public regarding human rights of people with mental illness. PMID:26124524
Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
Background Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. Aims This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. Methods From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). Conclusions There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns. PMID:27893796
Hoy, Janet M
Incorporating individuals' understandings and explanations of mental illness into service delivery offers benefits relating to increased service relevance and meaning. Existing research delineates explanatory models of mental illness held by individuals in home, outpatient, and hospital-based contexts; research on models held by those in peer-support contexts is notably absent. In this article, I describe themes identified within and across explanatory models of mental illness and recovery held by mental health consumers (N = 24) at one peer center, referred to as a consumer-operated service center (COSP). Participants held explanatory models inclusive of both developmental stressors and biomedical causes, consistent with a stress-diathesis model (although no participant explicitly referenced such). Explicit incorporation of stress-diathesis constructs into programming at this COSP offers the potential of increasing service meaning and relevance. Identifying and incorporating shared meanings across individuals' understandings of mental illness likewise can increase relevance and meaning for particular subgroups of service users. © The Author(s) 2014.
Huang, Yao-Hui; Lin, Yao-Yu; Lee, Shih-Kai; Lee, Ming-Feng; Lin, Ching-Lan Esther
The ideology of recovery addresses the autonomy of patients with mental illness and their ability to reconstruct a normal life. Empirical knowledge of this process of recovery and related factors remains unclear. To assess the process of recovery and related factors in patients with mental illness. This cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted on a convenience sample in a psychiatric hospital. Two-hundred and fifty patients with mental illness were recruited and were assessed using 3 instruments: Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR), Perceived Psychiatric Stigma Scale (PPSS), and Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ 2 , analysis of variance, and multiple linear regression analysis. Most of the participants were male, middle-aged, unmarried, educated to the senior high school level, employed, receiving home-care treatment, and diagnosed with schizophrenia. Those who were unemployed, living in a community rehabilitative house, and living in the community, respectively, earned relatively higher recovery scores (p mental illness. Community psychiatric nurses should provide care to help employed patients adapt to stresses in the workplace, strengthen their stigma-coping strategies, and promote public awareness of mental health issues by increasing public knowledge and acceptance of mental illness in order to minimize patient-perceived stigma and facilitate their recovery.
The current study aimed to measure the stress levels of family caregivers of individuals with mental illness and compare their stress levels according to the diagnosis and other sociodemographic characteristics. The sample comprised 310 family caregivers of individuals with mental illness in Jordan. Family caregivers completed a demographic checklist and the Arabic version of the Perceived Stress Scale 10-Item (PSS-10) questionnaire. A significant difference was found in PSS-10 levels among family caregivers according to gender, diagnosis of their family member, and time since diagnosis. Female caregivers reported significantly higher stress levels than male caregivers. Family members of individuals with schizophrenia reported the highest stress levels (p family caregivers and time since diagnosis. Investigating stress levels in family members of individuals with mental illness may be helpful when designing interventions to reduce such stress. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(6), 30-35.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Stanton, Robert; Happell, Brenda
A substantial body of evidence supports the role of exercise interventions for people with a mental illness. However, much of this literature is conducted using outpatient and community-based populations. We undertook a systematic review examining the effect of exercise interventions on the health of people hospitalized with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders. Eight studies met our inclusion criteria. Several studies show positive health outcomes from short-term and long-term interventions for people hospitalized due to depression. Although positive, the evidence for inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or anxiety disorders is substantially less. There is an urgent need to address the paucity of literature in this area, in particular the optimal dose and delivery of exercise for people hospitalized as a result of mental illness. Standardization of reporting exercise programme variables, the assessment of mental illness, and the reporting of adverse events must accompany future studies. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Outpatient chronic hemodialysis facilities often serve large populations of patients in an open and sometimes fast-paced environment. Any sizeable group of people will contain a sample of mental illnesses -and the end-stage renal disease diagnosis can be accompanied by co-occurring or comorbid mental illness. Thus, it is important for professional teams to be able to effectively manage related issues arising in the dialysis clinic. Guided by Medicare mandates, dialysis clinics all employ a masters level social worker to respond to the myriad psychosocial needs of this population; MSWs are trained to recognize the signs and symptoms of mental illnesses, and can help guide the team response.
Nee, Claire; Witt, Clare
We examined how different types of mental illness elicited varying levels of predicted criminality and compared this with factors which might also elicit a negative response, specifically, a criminal history and social disadvantage. A sample of 243 participants undertook an anonymous, online experiment. Each participant was exposed to one of six vignettes: three involved mental illness (schizophrenia, depression/anxiety, or alcohol dependency); two in which socio-economic background was manipulated; and a control. The impact of mental illness, history of criminality and social disadvantage on the likelihood that the character in the vignette would commit future crime, and levels of sympathy, trust and potential for rehabilitation in the character were measured. Age and personal experience of mental illness and/or criminal behaviour in the participants was also examined. The sample were significantly more likely to think that a character would 'possibly' commit future crime if he had mental illness in comparison to the control, but crimes were expected to be minor. Significantly more discriminatory behaviour was reported towards the character with no mental illness but a disadvantaged background. Familiarity ameliorated this effect. Prejudice towards those with a criminal past and a disadvantaged background may be stronger than prejudice against those with mental illnesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jahn, Danielle R; Muralidharan, Anjana; Drapalski, Amy L; Brown, Clayton H; Fang, Li Juan; Lucksted, Alicia
Individuals with serious mental illness and veterans are two populations at elevated risk for suicide; however, research has not examined whether veterans with serious mental illness may be at higher suicide risk than nonveterans with serious mental illness. Additionally, overlapping risk factors for suicide in these populations may account for differences in suicide-related outcomes between these groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify differences in death ideation and suicide ideation among veterans and nonveterans with serious mental illness. We also aimed to explore these effects after adjusting for potentially shared risk factors. We found that veterans with serious mental illness reported death ideation and suicide ideation more than twice as often as nonveterans with serious mental illness. After adjusting for demographic, psychiatric, and theory-driven risk factors, the effect of veteran status on death ideation remained significant, though the effect on suicide ideation was no longer significant. Depressive and psychotic symptoms were significant predictors of death ideation; depressive symptoms and hostility were significant predictors of suicide ideation. Clinicians should particularly monitor death ideation and suicide ideation in veterans with serious mental illness, as well as associated clinical risk factors such as depression, psychotic symptoms, and hostility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Stone, Amanda M; Merlo, Lisa J
Mental illness stigma remains a significant barrier to treatment. However, the recent increase in the medical and nonmedical use of prescription psychiatric medications among college students seems to contradict this phenomenon. This study explored students' attitudes and experiences related to psychiatric medications, as well as correlates of psychiatric medication misuse (ie, attitudes toward mental illness and beliefs about the efficacy of psychiatric medications). Data were collected anonymously via self-report questionnaires from April 2008 to February 2009. Measures included the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, the Drug Abuse Screening Test, Day's Mental Illness Stigma Scale, the Attitudes Toward Psychiatric Medication scale, and the Psychiatric Medication Attitudes Scale. Participants included 383 university students (59.2% female), recruited on the campus of a large state university or through online classes offered through the same university. High rates of psychiatric medication misuse were shown (13.8%) when compared to rates of medical use (6.8%), and students with prescriptions for psychiatric drugs were also more likely to be misusers (χ(2) = 20.60, P mental illness, including lower anxiety around the mentally ill (t = 3.26, P mental illness (t = -2.11, P mental illness, the appropriate use of psychiatric medications, and the potential consequences associated with abuse of these potent drugs. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Lídia Cabral; João Duarte; Manuela Ferreira; Carlos dos Santos
Background: The current policy guidelines on mental health aim to keep the mentally ill within the community, with the development of social support, including families, hence the emergence of the role of the family caregiver. Objectives: To identify socio-demographic variables influencing anxiety, depression and stress for the informal caregivers of the mentally ill; to determine the influence of family background variables on caregiver anxiety, depression and stress; to analyse the relat...
Tlhalefi T. Tlhowe
The purpose of this research was to explore and describe the strengths of .... In this review family strengths refer to qualities of families with a mentally ill .... they thought that their mentally ill family members were just acting out when ..... techniques, creative communication and praise as strengths. .... International Journal of.
Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett
Objective: Children of mothers with mental illness are at risk for multiple untoward outcomes, including child maltreatment and foster care placement. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between maternal mental illness and children's long term safety and stability. Methods: A multi-sector administrative dataset from the…
McGinty, Emma E.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Choksy, Seema; Barry, Colleen L.
The United States is engaged in ongoing dialogue around mental illness. To assess trends in this national discourse, we studied the volume and content of a random sample of 400 news stories about mental illness from the period 1995–2014. Compared to news stories in the first decade of the study period, those in the second decade were more likely to mention mass shootings by people with mental illnesses. The most frequently mentioned topic across the study period was violence (55 percent overall) divided into categories of interpersonal violence or self-directed (suicide) violence, followed by stories about any type of treatment for mental illness (47 percent). Fewer news stories, only 14 percent, described successful treatment for or recovery from mental illness. The news media’s continued emphasis on interpersonal violence is highly disproportionate to actual rates of violence among those with mental illnesses. Research suggests that this focus may exacerbate social stigma and decrease support for public policies that benefit people with mental illnesses. PMID:27269031
Tang, Lu; Bie, Bijie
This study explores the cultured understanding of mental health and mental illnesses among members of Generation Y in China through a narrative approach. Five prominent narratives are identified through the analysis of stories about mental illnesses collected through semistructured interviews with college students. These five narratives feature the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, the fragile victim, the antisocial recluse, and the homosexual. These narratives are gendered, in that women are the primary protagonists in the narrative about the fragile victim, while men are featured prominently in the narratives about the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, and the antisocial recluse. Our study demonstrates that these narratives are based on, and will further reinforce, highly cultural-specific stereotypes and biases about mental illnesses in China. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.
Evan Hy Einstein
Full Text Available Objective: This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students’ and psychiatry residents’ conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. Methods: The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant’s formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results: Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. Conclusions: If these notions are therefore part of students’ and residents’ conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.
Quinn, Patrick D; Rickert, Martin E; Weibull, Caroline E; Johansson, Anna L V; Lichtenstein, Paul; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik; Iliadou, Anastasia N; D'Onofrio, Brian M
Several recent population-based studies have linked exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy to increased risk of severe mental illness in offspring (eg, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia). It is not yet clear, however, whether this association results from causal teratogenic effects or from confounding influences shared by smoking and severe mental illness. To examine the association between smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness in offspring, adjusting for measured covariates and unmeasured confounding using family-based designs. This study analyzed population register data through December 31, 2013, for a cohort of 1 680 219 individuals born in Sweden from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 2001. Associations between smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness in offspring were estimated with adjustment for measured covariates. Cousins and siblings who were discordant on smoking during pregnancy and severe mental illness were then compared, which helped to account for unmeasured genetic and environmental confounding by design. Maternal self-reported smoking during pregnancy, obtained from antenatal visits. Severe mental illness, with clinical diagnosis obtained from inpatient and outpatient visits and defined using International Classification of Diseases codes for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Of the 1 680 219 offspring included in the analysis, 816 775 (48.61%) were female. At the population level, offspring exposed to moderate and high levels of smoking during pregnancy had greater severe mental illness rates than did unexposed offspring (moderate smoking during pregnancy: hazard ratio [HR], 1.25; 95% CI, 1.19-1.30; high smoking during pregnancy: HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.44-1.59). These associations decreased in strength with increasing statistical and methodologic controls for familial confounding. In sibling comparisons with within-family covariates, associations were substantially weaker and nonsignificant (moderate
Rayan, Ahmad; Mahroum, Maryam Husnee; Khasawneh, Aws
This study aims to assess the correlates of stigma toward mental illness among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). One hundred and sixty one Jordanian outpatients suffering from MDD completed the study. Participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiological Studies for the intensity of depression, and the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale to assess stigma. Participants reported a moderate level of perceived stigma toward mental illness. Age, perceived pain, the number of relapses, and severity of depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with stigma toward mental illness among the study sample. The severity of depressive symptoms was the strongest correlate of stigma toward mental illness. Factors associated with stigma toward mental illness should be carefully considered when implementing anti-stigma programs for patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Noblett, Joanne E; Lawrence, Robert; Smith, Jared G
What are the attitudes of general hospital doctors toward patients with comorbid mental illness? Do certain characteristics of the health professional related to attitude valence to patients with comorbid mental illness? An anonymous questionnaire was sent out to a cohort of doctors working in three General Hospitals in South West London. The questionnaire included vignettes to assess the respondents' attitudes toward eight patients presenting with a physical compliant with different clinical histories, including depression, schizophrenia, personality disorder, diabetes, and criminal behavior. A total of 52 participants completed the questionnaire; 40 females and 12 males. Across all domains, the most positive attitudes were held toward patients without a diagnosis of mental illness. The least positive attitudes were toward patients with schizophrenia, personality disorder, and those classified as "criminals," and negative attitudes relating to the unpredictability of patients was identified in these categories. There was no statistically significant difference in attitudes depending on age or level of training. However, female participants tended to endorse more positive attitudinal responses, most clearly toward patients with depression and heroin addiction. Negative attitudes of doctors were identified toward certain mental illness diagnoses and are likely to contribute the physical health disparity between patients with and without a comorbid mental illness. This raises the question as to how these attitudes can be changed in order to improve the parity of physical health care between patient with and without mental illness. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hussain, Rafat; Guppy, Michelle; Robertson, Suzanne; Temple, Elizabeth
University students are often perceived to have a privileged position in society and considered immune to ill-health and disability. There is growing evidence that a sizeable proportion experience poor physical health, and that the prevalence of psychological disorders is higher in university students than their community peers. This study examined the physical and mental health issues for first year Australian rural university students and their perception of access to available health and support services. Cross-sectional study design using an online survey form based on the Adolescent Screening Questionnaire modeled on the internationally recognised HEADSS survey tool. The target audience was all first-year undergraduate students enrolled in an on-campus degree program. The response rate was 41% comprising 355 students (244 females, 111 males). Data was analysed using standard statistical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics; and thematic analysis of the open-ended responses. The mean age of the respondents was 20.2 years (SD 4.8). The majority of the students lived in on-campus residential college style accommodation, and a third combined part-time paid work with full-time study. Most students reported being in good physical health. However, on average two health conditions were reported over the past six months, with the most common being fatigue (56%), frequent headaches (26%) and allergies (24%). Mental health problems included anxiety (25%), coping difficulties (19.7%) and diagnosed depression (8%). Most respondents reported adequate access to medical doctors and support services for themselves (82%) and friends (78%). However the qualitative comments highlighted concerns about stigma, privacy and anonymity in seeking counselling. The present study adds to the limited literature of physical and mental health issues as well as barriers to service utilization by rural university students. It provides useful baseline data for the
Dalky, Heyam F
Family stigma is well documented in the research literature; however, it has only been recently that efforts have been undertaken to discuss the perception of stigma as reported by Arab families of relatives with mental illness. This clinical paper aims to identify families' perception of stigma related to mental illness, and to compare Arab families' approaches with various aspects of caring from different countries. Further, this paper discusses, in-depth, specific areas related to families' perceptions of stigma: What impacts does stigma perception have on those families and on their relatives' care outcomes and what are coping strategies are used to handle stigma and its impacts in such countries? This paper emphasizes that chronic mental illness contributes the most to families' perception of stigma. In this study, Arab families perceived the experience of caring for a family member with a mental illness with fear, loss, embarrassment, and disgrace of family reputations. Further, secrecy, isolation, despair, and helplessness were reported the most among different family groups in Jordan and Morocco. This paper reminds us that cultural norms and beliefs shape family members' perception of coping and their ability to manage caring for relatives with mental illnesses. Thus, more studies are needed concerning coping and management strategies that are culturally relevant. This could eventually guide the establishment of stigma reduction initiatives and expand understanding of stigma from different cultural perspectives.
Paul, Sayani; Corneau, Simon; Boozary, Tanya; Stergiopoulos, Vicky
The multiple challenges that ethnoracial homeless individuals experiencing mental illness face are well documented. However, little is known about how this homeless subpopulation copes with the compounding stressors of racial discrimination, homelessness and mental illness. This study is an in-depth investigation of the personal perceived strengths, attitudes and coping behaviors of homeless adults of diverse ethnoracial backgrounds experiencing homelessness and mental illness in Toronto, Canada. Using qualitative methods, 36 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to capture the perspectives of ethnoracial homeless participants with mental illness on coping and resilience. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Similar to prior findings in the general homeless population, study participants recognized personal strengths and attitudes as great sources of coping and resilience, describing hope and optimism, self-esteem and confidence, insight into their challenges and spirituality as instrumental to overcoming current challenges. In addition, participants described several coping strategies, including seeking support from family, friends and professionals; socializing with peers; engaging in meaningful activities; distancing from overwhelming challenges; and finding an anchor. Findings suggest that homeless adults with mental illness from ethnoracial groups use similar coping strategies and sources of resilience with the general homeless population and highlight the need for existing services to foster hope, recognize and support individual coping strategies and sources of resilience of homeless individuals experiencing complex challenges.
Iglay, Kristy; Santorelli, Melissa L; Hirshfield, Kim M; Williams, Jill M; Rhoads, George G; Lin, Yong; Demissie, Kitaw
This study aimed to compare diagnosis and treatment delays in elderly breast cancer patients with and without pre-existing mental illness. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data including 16,636 women 68+ years, who were diagnosed with stage I-IIIa breast cancer in the United States from 2005 to 2007. Mental illness was identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes recorded on inpatient and outpatient claims during the 3 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis. Patients were classified as having no mental illness, anxiety, depression, anxiety and depression, or severe mental illness (bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorder). Multivariable binomial regression was used to assess the association between mental illness and delays of ≥60 and ≥90 days after adjustment for confounders. Patients with comorbid anxiety and depression had an increased risk for diagnosis delay of ≥90 days from symptom recognition (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00, 1.23), and those with severe mental illness had an increased risk for initial treatment delay of ≥60 days from diagnosis (RR 1.36; 95% CI 1.06, 1.74). Patients with any mental illness experienced an increased risk for adjuvant chemotherapy delay of ≥90 days from last operation (RR 1.13; 95% CI 1.01, 1.26) and each category of mental illness, except depression, showed a non-significant trend for this association. Breast cancer patients with mental illness should be closely managed by a cross-functional care team, including a psychiatrist, a primary care physician, and an oncologist, to ensure adequate care is received within an appropriate timeframe.
Riebschleger, Joanne; Grové, Christine; Cavanaugh, Daniel
Millions of children have a parent with a mental illness (COPMI). These children are at higher risk of acquiring behavioural, developmental and emotional difficulties. Most children, including COPMI, have low levels of mental health literacy (MHL), meaning they do not have accurate, non-stigmatized information. There is limited knowledge about what kind of MHL content should be delivered to children. The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the knowledge content needed for general population children and COPMI to increase their MHL. A second aim is to explore content for emerging children’s MHL scales. Researchers created and analyzed a literature review database. Thematic analysis yielded five main mental health knowledge themes for children: (1) attaining an overview of mental illness and recovery; (2) reducing mental health stigma; (3) building developmental resiliencies; (4) increasing help-seeking capacities; and (5) identifying risk factors for mental illness. COPMI appeared to need the same kind of MHL knowledge content, but with extra family-contextual content such as dealing with stigma experiences, managing stress, and communicating about parental mental illness. There is a need for MHL programs, validated scales, and research on what works for prevention and early intervention with COPMI children. PMID:29072587
Full Text Available Millions of children have a parent with a mental illness (COPMI. These children are at higher risk of acquiring behavioural, developmental and emotional difficulties. Most children, including COPMI, have low levels of mental health literacy (MHL, meaning they do not have accurate, non-stigmatized information. There is limited knowledge about what kind of MHL content should be delivered to children. The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the knowledge content needed for general population children and COPMI to increase their MHL. A second aim is to explore content for emerging children’s MHL scales. Researchers created and analyzed a literature review database. Thematic analysis yielded five main mental health knowledge themes for children: (1 attaining an overview of mental illness and recovery; (2 reducing mental health stigma; (3 building developmental resiliencies; (4 increasing help-seeking capacities; and (5 identifying risk factors for mental illness. COPMI appeared to need the same kind of MHL knowledge content, but with extra family-contextual content such as dealing with stigma experiences, managing stress, and communicating about parental mental illness. There is a need for MHL programs, validated scales, and research on what works for prevention and early intervention with COPMI children.
Pinals, Debra A; Anacker, Lisa
Gun violence and mental illness is a major area of media attention, especially because highly publicized mass shootings seem to have become more commonly reported in the press. Gun access also is undergoing a highly politicized debate in the United States. It is important for mental health practitioners to understand the background and context of laws related to firearms access, and to understand data related to risk of suicide and violence toward others caused by gun violence among persons with mental illness. In addition, clinically driven risk assessments with specific inquiry related to firearms can be important for identifying individuals for whom firearm-focused clinical risk mitigation may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moore, Donna; Drey, Nicholas; Ayers, Susan
BACKGROUND: Perinatal mental illness is a global health concern; however, many women with the illness do not get the treatment they need to recover. Interventions that reduce the stigma around perinatal mental illness have the potential to enable women to disclose their symptoms to health care providers and consequently access treatment. There are many online forums for perinatal mental illness and thousands of women use them. Preliminary research suggests that online forums may promote help-...
The painting of the mentally ill has fascinated artists and their public throughout the 20th century. Yet the psychologically as well as art-historically interesting topic can be traced back over a long period in the history of Western culture. Aristotle emphasizes that all men who create great works, such as artists, philosophers, poets and politicians, are prone to melancholy, that excess of black gall which is characteristic of artists and depressive. Although Plato distinguished between creative and clinical mania, the topos of "genius and madness" prevails up to our century. The cult of melancholy is taken up bei Marsilio Ficino and becomes fashionable among the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the Romantic period of the early 19th century the psychologically unstable or even sick intellectual and artist becomes the focus of attention. Artistic madness is glorified in an almost mystical fashion. However, disillusionment was soon to follow. Schopenhauer, Lombroso and many physicians stress the close relationship between genius and madness. However, they judge madness to be merely morbid and negative. During the 20th century the artists of the avantgarde show much interest in psychoanalysis and in the art of the mentally ill. The rise of National Socialism brought about a drastic break in the appraisal of the art of the mentally ill, which today is an acknowledged factor in contemporary art.
The potential for artificial intelligences and robotics in achieving the capacity of consciousness, sentience and rationality offers the prospect that these agents have minds. If so, then there may be a potential for these minds to become dysfunctional, or for artificial intelligences and robots to suffer from mental illness. The existence of artificially intelligent psychopathology can be interpreted through the philosophical perspectives of mental illness. This offers new insights into what it means to have either robot or human mental disorders, but may also offer a platform on which to examine the mechanisms of biological or artificially intelligent psychiatric disease. The possibility of mental illnesses occurring in artificially intelligent individuals necessitates the consideration that at some level, they may have achieved a mental capability of consciousness, sentience and rationality such that they can subsequently become dysfunctional. The deeper philosophical understanding of these conditions in mankind and artificial intelligences might therefore offer reciprocal insights into mental health and mechanisms that may lead to the prevention of mental dysfunction.
Burnard, P; Naiyapatana, W; Lloyd, G
This paper reports some of the findings of an ethnographic study carried out in Thailand over a 2-year period. Interviews were conducted with three clinical nurses, three student nurses, 14 nurse educators, one psychiatrist, one Buddhist monk and two lay people (n = 24) about their views of mental health and mental health care in Thailand. Data (comprising field notes and interview transcripts) were analysed with the aid of Atlas.ti. Data were also collected through observation and conversation. This paper reports only the findings from the interviews. Findings emerged under the following headings: Causes of mental illness; Status of the mentally ill; Karma; Merit making; Kwan; Treatment and care; Reasons for becoming a mental health nurse. A range of causes, including the effects of ghosts and spirits, were identified under the first heading. The stigma of mental illness was noted under the second. Karma and merit making are Buddhist concepts and were discussed by many respondents as was the animist concept of kwan. Treatment and care seemed to include both 'modern' and 'traditional' approaches. These findings are discussed and some tentative 'rules' that appear to exist within the culture are mooted. The study is descriptive in nature and the findings cannot be generalized; however, it is hoped that they go some way to illuminate aspects of Thai culture as they relate to the mental health and mental health nursing fields.
Campbell, A; Manoff, T; Caffery, J
Until recently, there has been a significant gap in the literature exploring the issues of the mental health needs for rural communities in Australia. In this study we investigated the prevalence of diagnosable psychological disorders in both a rural and a non-rural primary care sample in far north Queensland, Australia. In a previous study we had screened some 300 GP attendees, on a number of sociodemographic variables and measures of psychological wellbeing, from four rural GP practices and one regional GP practice. Of these, 130 participants agreed to further follow up. In this study, 118 of the participants were selected and contacted by phone to complete the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF). The CIDI-SF diagnosis was then analysed in relation to the sociodemographic indicators that had previously been collected. The prevalence of diagnosable mental health disorders in the rural sample was found to be higher in comparison with the regional urban sample. The sociodemographic factors of rural residence, gender, and length of residence were associated with having a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Although there were a number of methodological limitations to this study, there did appear to be a significant relationship between rural location and the likelihood of receiving a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Why this might be the case is not clear, and we consider a number of explanations, but our finding suggests that further research in mental health should consider the issue of rurality as a key feature to be explored.
Alexandra J. Werntz
Full Text Available Informal caregiving for dementia is common and often affects caregiver mental health. In addition to typical stressors faced by caregivers of persons with dementia (PWDs, rural caregivers often face additional stressors associated with living in more remote locations; unfortunately, this group is largely understudied. Ninety-three caregiver–PWD dyads completed measures of social support, perceived control, self-efficacy, burden, and cognitive functioning. Measures of PWD activities of daily living and mental functioning were also collected. These variables were hypothesized to predict caregiver self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Contrary to predictions, only caregiving-related self-efficacy and caregiver burden predicted the caregiver’s mental health. Future interventions for improving rural caregiver self-reported mental health should target cognitions associated with caregiving self-efficacy and caregiver burden. Health care providers for rural families should focus on ways to reduce feelings of caregiver burden and provide caregivers with useful skills and tools for caregiving.
Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Mikyung
This study is based on the contact hypothesis that contact with mental illness is the most effective anti-stigma strategy. This study aims to analyze which form of contact can most effectively decrease the dangerousness and social distance associated with schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. In total, 573 Korean adults ( M age = 43.71 years, standard deviation ( SD) = 13.41; 54.1% male, 45.9% female) were surveyed about randomly assigned vignettes of schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. The participants were questioned on the dangerousness and social distance associated with the assigned vignette, as well as direct and indirect contact experience with the mental illness. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the main effect and interaction effect that the type of mental illness and contact experience have on the two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). The findings show that the type of mental illness has a significant main effect on dangerousness and social distance, but contact type only has a significant main effect on social distance. Moreover, the two independent variables (mental illness subtype and contact experience) have an interaction effect on two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). Therefore, the anti-stigma effect of contact varies according to the type of mental illness. Our findings suggest that appropriate anti-stigma strategies are required for each type of mental illness. Considering that opportunities for direct contact with persons with mental illness are highly limited, it is necessary to actively utilize indirect contact.
Full Text Available Introduction: Patients living in rural and remote areas may have limited access to mental healthcare due to lack of facilities and socioeconomic reasons, and this is the case of rural areas in Eastern Europe countries. In Greece, community mental health service delivery in rural areas has been implemented through the development of the Mobile Mental Health Units (MMHUs. Methods: We present a 10-year account of the operation of the MMHU of the prefectures of Ioannina and Thesprotia (MMHU I-T and report on the impact of the service on mental health delivery in the catchment area. The MMHU I-T is a multidisciplinary community mental health team which delivers services in rural and mountainous areas of Northwest Greece. Results: The MMHU I-T has become an integral part of the local primary care system and is well known to the population of the catchment area. By the end of 2016, the majority of patients (60% were self-referred or family-referred, compared to 24% in the first 2 years. Currently, the number of active patients is 293 (mean age 63 years, 49.5% are older adults, and the mean caseload for each member of the team is 36.6. A significant proportion of patients (28% receive care with regular domiciliary visits, and the provision of home-based care was correlated with the age of the patients. Within the first 2 years of operation of the MMHU I-T hospitalizations of treatment, engaged patients were reduced significantly by 30.4%, whereas the treatment engagement rates of patients with psychotic disorders were 67.2% in 5 years. Conclusions: The MMHU I-T and other similar units in Greece are a successful paradigm of a low-cost service which promotes mental health in rural, remote, and deprived areas. This model of care may be informative for clinical practice and health policy given the ongoing recession and health budget cuts. It suggests that rural mental healthcare may be effectively delivered by integrating generic community mental health
Goldberg, Richard W; Dickerson, Faith; Lucksted, Alicia; Brown, Clayton H; Weber, Elyssa; Tenhula, Wendy N; Kreyenbuhl, Julie; Dixon, Lisa B
Individuals with serious mental illness have elevated rates of comorbid chronic general medical conditions and may benefit from interventions designed to support illness self-management. This study examined the effectiveness of a modified version of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program called Living Well for individuals with serious mental illness. A total of 63 mental health consumers with serious mental illness and at least one concurrent chronic general medical condition were randomly assigned to receive the 13-session peer-cofacilitated Living Well intervention or usual care. Participants were evaluated on attitudinal, behavioral, and functional outcomes at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at a two-month follow-up. Living Well participants showed significant postintervention improvements across a range of attitudinal (self-efficacy and patient activation), behavioral (illness self-management techniques), and functional (physical and emotional well-being and general health functioning) outcomes. Although attenuation of effect was observed for most outcomes at two months postintervention, evidence was found of continued improvement in general self-management behaviors (use of action planning, brainstorming, and problem-solving). Continued advantage was found for the Living Well group in other areas, such as health-related locus of control and reports of healthy eating and physical activity. Receipt of Living Well was associated with a notable decrease in use of the emergency room for medical care, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. Living Well shows promise in helping mental health consumers more effectively manage chronic general medical conditions and experience improved functioning and well-being.
Levin, Kate A
Previous research suggests that there are significant differences in health between urban and rural areas. The aim of this study is to describe the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in health in Scotland and to examine the factors associated with health inequalities in urban and rural areas. The data used in this study were limiting long-term illness (LLTI) and socio-economic data collected by the 1991 Census. A rurality indicator was created using Scottish Household Survey rurality classifications. Multilevel Poisson regression modelling was carried out with LLTI as a health indicator for each type of rurality within Scotland. A variety of socio-economic factors were investigated for each rurality. Areas with the highest Standardized Illness Ratios (SIRs) (>125) are predominantly urban whereas the lowest SIRs (rural areas. Rural communities are more heterogeneous than urban areas in terms of their social make-up with relation to health; however, when these areas are split according to minor road length and different socio-economic factors are added, the model fit for each new model is improved and the reduction in total variation is comparable with that of the urban models. These findings suggest that rural areas should not be treated as a homogeneous group but should be subdivided into rural types.
This paper discusses provider-initiated HIV counselling and testing (PICT) and some of the ethical dilemmas associated with it, on the basis that PICT may be used to increase the number of mentally ill persons tested for HIV. The authors conclude that PICT should be promoted to all psychiatric admissions and mentally ill ...
Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria; Ponteri, Marco; Vittorielli, Michela; Corradi, Angela; Minicuci, Nadia; Rossi, Giuseppe
To assess the association between socio-demographic characteristics and community attitudes towards mentally ill people. We assessed a sample of 280 subjects, stratified for sex and age, which has identified using the electoral registers of Brescia. A letter was sent to everyone in order to introduce the future potential study participant to the topics of the public attitudes towards mental illness and it included an invitation to take part in the study. After, 280 subjects were contacted by telephone. Finally, 174 persons, who expressed their willingness to collaborate, were visited by a team of four trained interviewers. The instruments used were: a semi-structured interview; the Community Attitudes to the Mentally Ill (CAMI) inventory, which is composed by 40 statements, concerning the degree of acceptance of mental health services and mentally ill patients in the community; and the Fear and Behavioural Intentions (FABI) inventory, which is composed by 10 items, concerning fears and behavioural intentions towards mentally ill people. 106 subjects refused to participate. Factor analysis of the CAMI revealed three components Physical distance and fear, Social isolation and Social responsibility and tolerance. Factor 1 is associated with: people >61 years old; people being divorced/widowed/living separated; people who haven't participated in social or volunteer activities. Factor 2 is associated with: people > 41 years old; people being schooled at a level that's higher than elementary level; unemployed people. Factor 3 doesn't present any associations. The results of this study outline the need to: a) promote interventions focused to improve the general attitude towards people with mental illness; b) to favour specific actions in order to prevent or eliminate prejudices in subgroups of the population.
Youssef, Farid F; Bachew, Raecho; Bodie, Dalecia; Leach, Richanna; Morris, Kevin; Sherma, Glenderia
Mental illness is a significant contributor to global disease burden and this is expected to increase over the coming decades. Traditionally mental illness has not been well understood by the general public, resulting in poor attitudes towards persons with mental illness and stigmatization. Such conditions are common in the Caribbean where less than 5% of the health budget is allocated to mental illness. To assess knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students within the English-speaking Caribbean. A self-report questionnaire was adapted from previous studies designed to measure knowledge and attitudes of mental illness. Students were sampled from the University of the West Indies campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago. Responses were collected from 673 persons with a response rate of 84%. While participants were agreed that particular diseases were mental illnesses, overall knowledge scores were low. Knowledge was higher among those persons who knew someone with a mental illness. Attitude scores were suggestive of stigmatization, with drug abuse and schizophrenia seen in a particularly poor light. These results suggest that widespread educational campaigns need to be implemented across the region, designed to both increase knowledge about mental illness and reduce discrimination towards persons suffering with mental illness.
Cruwys, Tegan; Gunaseelan, Sathiavaani
Previous research has found that in the face of discrimination, people tend to identify more strongly with stigmatized groups. Social identification can, in turn, buffer wellbeing against the negative consequences of discrimination. However, this rejection identification model has never been tested in the context of mental illness identity. A survey was conducted with 250 people with diagnosed depression or current symptoms of at least moderate clinical severity. Experiencing mental illness stigma was associated with poorer wellbeing. Furthermore, people who had experienced such stigma were more likely to identify as a depressed person. Social identification as depressed magnified, rather than buffered, the relationship between stigma and reduced wellbeing. This relationship was moderated by perceived social norms of the depressed group for engaging in depressive thoughts and behaviors. These findings suggest that mental illness stigma is a double-edged sword: as well as the direct harms for wellbeing, by increasing identification with other mental illness sufferers, stigma might expose sufferers to harmful social influence processes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bennett, J; Stennett, R
There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available In Poland patients with psychiatric problems form a large group; in 2010 there were almost 1.5 million people for whom outpatient psychiatric care was provided, whereas approximately 200 thousand ill individuals were treated in 24-h psychiatric wards. Only 17% of the mentally disabled are professionally active. The results of many researches show that despite the detrimental influence of mental disorders on the employment (e.g., lower productivity, absenteeism, presenteism, increased risk of accidents at the workplace, professional activity can play a key role in the stabilization of the mental state, it can also help in disease recovery. People with mental disorders are a social group that is at the higher risk of exclusion from the job market. The opinion prevailing among employers is that mentally ill individuals have decreased ability to conduct professional activity, and social attitudes towards them tend to be based on marking and stigmatizing. This review tackles the advantages of working during the illness, barriers which people with mental disorders face on the job market when they want to either start or continue work, and professional functioning of people with diagnosed depression (e.g., affective disorders and schizophrenia (representing psychotic disorders. The analysis of existing data show that to improve the situation of mentally ill people present on the job market close cooperation between the representatives of various medical specializations is necessary, as well as their active participation in the process of social and professional rehabilitation of people affected by mental disorders. Med Pr 2015;66(1:57–69
Guarnaccia, P J; Parra, P; Deschamps, A; Milstein, G; Argiles, N
Among Hispanics, the family is viewed as the primary care giver for seriously mentally ill family members. This paper reports on a study of minority families' conceptions of serious mental illness, of their interaction with mental health resources, and on the burdens experienced by families in caring for a seriously mentally ill family member. The focus of this paper is on Hispanic families in New Jersey, with some comparative data from other ethnic group families. Families' conceptions of serious mental illness are explored and analyzed to demonstrate the importance of concepts of nervios and fallo mental in shaping families' responses to their ill family member. Social support systems for families are also explored with particular attention to the role of religious institutions and religious healing as a major source of solace.
Nalukenge, W; Martin, F; Seeley, J; Kinyanda, E
Increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has led HIV to be considered a chronic disease, shifting attention to focus on quality of life including mental wellbeing. We investigated knowledge and causal attributions for mental disorders in HIV-positive children and adolescents in rural and urban Uganda. This qualitative study was nested in an epidemiological mental health study among HIV-positive children and adolescents aged 5-17 years in rural and urban Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers of HIV-positive children (5-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) in HIV care. Interviews were audio recorded with permission from participants and written consent and assent sought before study procedures. Thirty eight participants (19 caregivers, 19 children/adolescents) were interviewed. Age range of caregivers was 28-69 years; majority were female (17). Caregivers had little knowledge on mental disorders ;only 3 related the vignette to a mental problem and attributed it to: improper upbringing, violence, poverty and bereavement. Five adolescents identified vignettes as portraying mental disorders caused by: ill-health of parents, bereavement, child abuse, discrimination, HIV and poverty. Caregivers are not knowledgeable about behavioural and emotional challenges in HIV-positive children/adolescents. Mental health literacy programmes at HIV care clinics are essential to enhance treatment-seeking for mental health.
Nakku, Juliet E M; Okello, Elialilia S; Kizza, Dorothy; Honikman, Simone; Ssebunnya, Joshua; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred
Perinatal mental illness is a common and important public health problem, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to explore the barriers and facilitators, as well as perceptions about the feasibility and acceptability of plans to deliver perinatal mental health care in primary care settings in a low income, rural district in Uganda. Six focus group discussions comprising separate groups of pregnant and postpartum women and village health teams as well as eight key informant interviews were conducted in the local language using a topic guide. Transcribed data were translated into English, analyzed, and coded. Key themes were identified using a thematic analysis approach. Participants perceived that there was an important unmet need for perinatal mental health care in the district. There was evidence of significant gaps in knowledge about mental health problems as well as negative attitudes amongst mothers and health care providers towards sufferers. Poverty and inability to afford transport to services, poor partner support and stigma were thought to add to the difficulties of perinatal women accessing care. There was an awareness of the need for interventions to respond to this neglected public health problem and a willingness of both community- and facility-based health care providers to provide care for mothers with mental health problems if equipped to do so by adequate training. This study highlights the acceptability and relevance of perinatal mental health care in a rural, low-income country community. It also underscores some of the key barriers and potential facilitators to delivery of such care in primary care settings. The results of this study have implications for mental health service planning and development for perinatal populations in Uganda and will be useful in informing the development of integrated maternal mental health care in this rural district and in similar settings in other low and middle income countries.
The aim of this article is to review the literature on the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness. For both concepts there are different definitions, which will be promptly worked according to the analysis. The study of this issue, particularly outside the scope of our country just highlights the lack of information about this topic in our country. In addition, the following work aims to discuss the relationship between homeless and serious mental illness, as well as a new perspective of work with respect to this issue.
Sharav, Vera Hassner
The implementation of a recommendation by the President's New Freedom Commission (NFC) to screen the entire United States population--children first--for presumed, undetected, mental illness is an ill-conceived policy destined for disastrous consequences. The "pseudoscientific" methods used to screen for mental and behavioral abnormalities are a legacy from the discredited ideology of eugenics. Both eugenics and psychiatry suffer from a common philosophical fallacy that undermines the validity of their theories and prescriptions. Both are wed to a faith-based ideological assumption that mental and behavioral manifestations are biologically determined, and are, therefore, ameliorated by biological interventions. NFC promoted the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) as a "model" medication treatment plan. The impact of TMAP is evident in the skyrocketing increase in psychotropic drug prescriptions for children and adults, and in the disproportionate expenditure for psychotropic drugs. The New Freedom Commission's screening for mental illness initiative is, therefore, but the first step toward prescribing drugs. The escalating expenditure for psychotropic drugs since TMAP leaves little doubt about who the beneficiaries of TMAP are. Screening for mental illness will increase their use.
Xu, Ziyan; Huang, Fangfang; Kösters, Markus; Rüsch, Nicolas
People with mental illness often face different types of mental illness stigma that may affect their lives, including perceived stigma, self-stigma, harmful coping strategies and poor quality of life. Although anti-stigma interventions for people with mental illness from Western countries have been identified by recent systematic reviews, their efficacy in China is unknown. This review evaluates the efficacy of anti-stigma interventions among people with mental illness in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau. A systematic search of 8 electronic databases in English and Chinese yielded 17 randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated wherever possible. Psychoeducation was the most commonly used intervention. SMDs were large and significant for perceived/experienced/anticipated stigma, self-prejudice and coping with stigma, as well as for depression and anxiety symptoms and quality of life. Both Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and psychoeducation had positive effects on perceived/experienced/anticipated stigma. The quality of studies was modest and heterogeneity across studies was high. Anti-stigma interventions demonstrated promise to reduce stigma's negative impact on people with mental illness in China, but more high-quality intervention research is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This podcast is based on the February 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which shows that cigarette smoking is a serious problem among adults with mental illness. More needs to be done to help adults with mental illness quit smoking and make mental health facilities tobacco-free. Created: 2/5/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 2/5/2013.
Hanafiah, Ainul Nadhirah; Van Bortel, Tine
Background Stigma of mental illness has been identified as a significant barrier to help-seeking and care. Basic knowledge of mental illness - such as its nature, symptoms and impact - are neglected, leaving room for misunderstandings on mental health and ?stigma?. Numerous researches have been conducted on stigma and discrimination of people with mental disorders. However, most of the literature investigates stigma from a cultural conception point of view, experiences of patients or public a...
Lai, Jiun-Yang; Huang, Tiao-Lai
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, distribution of psychiatric diagnoses, and treatment responses of patients with post-partum mental illness at an emergency unit at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung in Taiwan. During a 1 year period a total of 636 Taiwanese women received psychiatric consultation on their visits to the emergency room. Fifteen of these were noted to have post-partum mental illnesses. All subjects were followed up for a minimum of 3-6 months. The prevalence of patients with post-partum mental illness at an emergency unit at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung was 2.4% (15/636). The distribution of psychiatric diagnoses according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria included eight cases of major depressive disorders (53.3%), three cases of bipolar I disorder (20%), three cases of schizophrenia (20%), and one case of psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition (6.7%). Four subjects manifested catatonic features. Of these four, three had complete remission in catatonic symptoms after receiving intramuscular injection of lorazepam. The fourth subject died of multiple medical diseases. The treatment results suggest that most of the clinical presentations in patients with post-partum mental illness could be relieved by antipsychotics, mood stabilizers or antidepressants. In addition, it was found that intramuscular injection of lorazepam was also effective in patients with catatonic features and post-partum depression or psychosis.
Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2017 There is increasing evidence for physical activity having a positive impact on physical and mental health, as well as on illness symptoms in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). However, individuals with SMI experience several barriers related to physical activity that makes it difficult for them to take advantage of the benefits associated with physical activity. One barrier consistently reported to impede physical activity i...
Clark, Wayne; Welch, Stephanie N; Berry, Sandra H; Collentine, Ann M; Collins, Rebecca; Lebron, Dorthy; Shearer, Amy L
In a historic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness, California voters approved the Mental Health Services Act in 2004. The law funds a comprehensive statewide prevention initiative that places stigma and discrimination reduction at its center, with 25 projects providing interventions at the institutional, societal, and individual levels. Stakeholders selected specific strategies from the research-based California Strategic Plan on Reducing Stigma and Discrimination. Strategies range from social marketing to increase public knowledge to capacity building at the local level, including training that emphasizes participation by consumers of mental health services and cultural competence. Collectively, these strategies aim to foster permanent change in the public perception of mental illness and in the individual experience of stigma. We examined the context, planning, programming, and evaluation of this effort.
Papish, Andriyka; Kassam, Aliya; Modgill, Geeta; Vaz, Gina; Zanussi, Lauren; Patten, Scott
The stigma of mental illness among medical students is a prevalent concern that has far reaching negative consequences. Attempts to combat this stigma through educational initiatives have had mixed results. This study examined the impact of a one-time contact-based educational intervention on the stigma of mental illness among medical students and compared this with a multimodal undergraduate psychiatry course at the University of Calgary, Canada that integrates contact-based educational strategies. Attitudes towards mental illness were compared with those towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cluster-randomized trial design was used to evaluate the impact of contact-based educational interventions delivered at two points in time. The impact was assessed by collecting data at 4 time points using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) to assess changes in stigma. Baseline surveys were completed by 62% (n=111) of students before the start of the course and post-intervention ratings were available from 90 of these. Stigma scores for both groups were significantly reduced upon course completion (p mental illness and interest in a psychiatric career was increased at the end of the course. Stigma towards mental illness remained greater than for T2DM at all time points. Psychiatric education can decrease the stigma of mental illness and increase student confidence. However, one-time, contact-based educational interventions require further evaluation in this context. The key components are postulated to be contact, knowledge and attention to process, where attending to the student's internal experience of working with people with mental illness is an integral factor in modulating perceptions of mental illness and a psychiatric career.
Moore, Donna; Ayers, Susan
Many women with postnatal mental illness do not get the treatment they need and this is often because stigma prevents disclosure. The purpose of this study was to explore online social support for postnatal mental illness, how women experience stigma and potential disadvantages of using Internet forums. Interviews were conducted with fifteen participants who had suffered postnatal mental illness and had used forums. Systematic thematic analysis identified common themes in relation to social support, stigma and disadvantages of using forums. Most women felt they benefited from visiting forums by developing a shared understanding and discourse about their illness. Findings suggest future research should investigate if women benefit from using online social support provided by forums, if use challenges stigma and further explore potential concerns about using forums.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Rose, Carolyn; Holzhausen, Fabian; Mulfinger, Nadine; Krumm, Silvia; Corrigan, Patrick W; Willmund, Gerd-Dieter; Zimmermann, Peter
Many soldiers with mental illness (SWMIs) struggle with the decision whether to disclose their condition in or outside the military. This study therefore explored views on (self-)labeling as 'mentally ill', experiences of discrimination and coping, risks and benefits of (non-)disclosure, service use, disclosure decisions and consequences of disclosing. Active-duty SWMIs as well as soldiers without mental illness (commanding officers; enlisted ranks) and military social workers participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. SWMIs perceived negative stereotypes about their group (weakness, incompetence, blame, malingering) and saw stigma as a barrier to help-seeking. Being labeled 'mentally ill' was seen as harmful for one's career. Self-labeling led to poor self-esteem, greater need for help and feelings of weakness. Many SWMIs had experienced discrimination, such as gossip or inappropriate comments. Social isolation was a disadvantage of secrecy. Most SWMIs preferred selective disclosure and many did not disclose to their family. Military staff without mental illness expressed partly different views and described organizational challenges posed by SWMIs. Our findings suggest that disclosure decisions are personal and difficult and that stigma remains a barrier to re-integration and recovery of SWMIs in the military. Implications for interventions to support SWMIs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Fokuo, J Konadu; Park, Jin Hee
Stigma interferes with life goals of people with mental illness. Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) may impact stigmatizing attitudes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of psychiatric medication DTCA on the stigmatizing and affirming attitudes of the general population versus individuals self-identified with mental illness. Participants (n = 272) were randomly assigned to watch a DTCA about Cymbalta, an antidepressant, embedded in two other advertisements for non-pharmaceutical products. Participants completed measures of stigmatizing and affirming attitudes before and after viewing this DTCA. Results indicate that the Cymbalta DTCA worsened the attitudes of the general public. These participants were less likely to offer help, endorse recovery, and agree with self-determination attitudes towards people with mental illness following viewing the DTCA. The self-identified group reported less blame, less dangerousness, less social avoidance, more pity, and greater willingness to help after viewing the DTCA. Moreover, there was significant improvement in their endorsement of recovery. Results suggest that DTCAs about psychiatric medication may increase the public's stigma towards people with mental illness but reduce stigma among individuals who identify as having a mental illness. Findings are somewhat limited by selection biases and self-report. Implications for further development of DTCAs are considered.
Bella, Mónica E; Vilarrodona, Hugo
Literature suggests that general beliefs towards mental illnesses are strongly correlated to the social behavior towards people who suffer them. to explore beliefs and attitudes towards mental illnesses in children and adolescents and associate them to bioethics. exploratory, prospective and quantitative study. A questionnaire was administered to parents-tutors of children-adolescents with mental disorders, and to healthcare professionals of the Hospital de Niños de la Santísima Trinidad Córdoba (Argentina). Data processing was performed by means of frequency analysis. 68.5% of parents-tutors and 51.8% of healthcare professionals answered that mental illnesses are never considered like any other illness. Diagnose and treatment is perceived as a stigma by 25.9% of healthcare professionals. For 88.1% of parents-tutors and 9.8% of healthcare professionals, children and adolescents with mental illnesses are never dangerous. 77.1% of parents and 18.4% of professionals stated that people are never afraid of children-adolescents with MI. 42.8% of children-adolescents were excluded from school and 28.5% from family activities. mental illness during childhood entails a stigma that compromises development, equal opportunity and human rights.
Thornicroft, Amalia; Goulden, Robert; Shefer, Guy; Rhydderch, Danielle; Rose, Diana; Williams, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire
Better newspaper coverage of mental health-related issues is a target for the Time to Change (TTC) anti-stigma programme in England, whose population impact may be influenced by how far concurrent media coverage perpetuates stigma and discrimination. To compare English newspaper coverage of mental health-related topics each year of the TTC social marketing campaign (2009-2011) with baseline coverage in 2008. Content analysis was performed on articles in 27 local and national newspapers on two randomly chosen days each month. There was a significant increase in the proportion of anti-stigmatising articles between 2008 and 2011. There was no concomitant proportional decrease in stigmatising articles, and the contribution of mixed or neutral elements decreased. These findings provide promising results on improvements in press reporting of mental illness during the TTC programme in 2009-2011, and a basis for guidance to newspaper journalists and editors on reporting mental illness.
Erginer, Derya Kayar; Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak
The aim of this study is to determine the physical health status and healthy lifestyle behaviors of individuals with mental illness. A descriptive research design was used. The sample of the study consisted of 115 individuals with mental illness. The Health Lifestyle Behaviors Scale II was used to assess the healthy lifestyle behaviors of the participants. Of the individuals, 49.6% were found to have metabolic syndrome. Individuals with mental illness obtained the lowest score from the physical activity dimension of the scale. Individuals with mental illness need to receive education and support, especially in terms of nutrition and exercise. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma.
Corrigan, Patrick W
In the past decade, mental health advocates and researchers have sought to better understand stigma so that the harm it causes can be erased. In this paper, we propose a target-specific stigma change model to organize the diversity of information into a cogent framework. "Target" here has a double meaning: the power groups that have some authority over the life goals of people with mental illness and specific discriminatory behaviors which power groups might produce that interfere with these goals. Key power groups in the model include landlords, employers, health care providers, criminal justice professionals, policy makers, and the media. Examples are provided of stigmatizing attitudes that influence the discriminatory behavior and social context in which the power group interacts with people with mental illness. Stigma change is most effective when it includes all the components that describe how a specific power group impacts people with mental illness.
This guide contains all of the information, support and tools that community members need to implement "Talking About Mental Illness" in their community--an awareness program proven to be effective in bringing about positive change in young people's knowledge about mental illness, and in reducing stigma that surrounds mental illness. The…
van der Ende, P C; van Busschbach, J T; Nicholson, J; Korevaar, E L; van Weeghel, J
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: The combination of coping with their mental health problems and caring for children makes parents vulnerable. Family-centred practice can help to maintain and strengthen important family relationships, and to identify and enhance the strengths of a parent with a mental illness, all contributing to the recovery of the person with the mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO THE EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Taking the strength and the opportunities formulated by parents themselves as a starting point is fairly new. Parents with severe mental illness find strength for parenting in several ways. They feel responsible, and this helps them to stay alert while parenting, whereas parenthood also offers a basis for social participation through school contacts and the child's friendships. Dedication to the parent role provides a focus; parents develop strengths and skills as they find a balance between attending to their own lives and caring for their children; and parenting prompts them to find adequate sources of social support. In this study these strategies were found to be the fundamentals of recovery related to parenting. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses can support and coach patients who are identified as parents, and self-chosen parenting related goals are set and addressed. A family-focused approach by nurses can be used to prevent problems for children and their families, identify their strengths as well as vulnerabilities, and address the challenges to build resilience. Understanding of the problems of parents with mental illness is growing. Gaining insight into strategies for parenting, while taking the opportunities formulated by these parents themselves as a starting point is fairly new. What are the strategies of parents with a mental illness to be successful? Experiences of 19 mothers and eight fathers with a mental illness were explored with in-depth interviews. Data were content analysed, using qualitative methods. Next
Lauritzen, Camilla; Reedtz, Charlotte; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Martinussen, Monica
Mental health problems are often transmitted from one generation to the next. This knowledge has led to changes in Norwegian legislation, making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, and to provide necessary support for the children of mentally ill patients. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the process of implementing new routines in adult mental health services to identify and support children of mentally ill parents. The design was a pre-test post-test study. The sample (N = 219 at pre-test and N = 185 at post-test) included mental health professionals in the largest hospital in the region, who responded to a web-based survey on the routines of the services, attitudes within the workforce capacity, worker's knowledge on the impact of parental mental illness on children, knowledge on legislation concerning children of patients, and demographic variables. The results of this study indicated that some changes are taking place in clinical practice in terms of increased identification of children. Adult mental health services providing support for the children was however not fully implemented as a new practice. The main finding in this study is that the identification frequency had increased significantly according to self-reported data since the Family Assessment Form was implemented. The increase in self-reported identification behavior is however taking place very slowly. Three years after the legislation was changed to making it mandatory to assess whether or not patients have children, it was still not fully incorporated in the routines of the entire workforce. In terms of support for the families affected by parental mental illness, the changes are not yet significant.
Purcell, R; Jorm, A F; Hickie, I B; Yung, A R; Pantelis, C; Amminger, G P; Glozier, N; Killackey, E; Phillips, L; Wood, S J; Mackinnon, A; Scott, E; Kenyon, A; Mundy, L; Nichles, A; Scaffidi, A; Spiliotacopoulos, D; Taylor, L; Tong, J P Y; Wiltink, S; Zmicerevska, N; Hermens, Daniel; Guastella, Adam; McGorry, P D
An estimated 75% of mental disorders begin before the age of 24 and approximately 25% of 13-24-year-olds are affected by mental disorders at any one time. To better understand and ideally prevent the onset of post-pubertal mental disorders, a clinical staging model has been proposed that provides a longitudinal perspective of illness development. This heuristic model takes account of the differential effects of both genetic and environmental risk factors, as well as markers relevant to the stage of illness, course or prognosis. The aim of the Transitions Study is to test empirically the assumptions that underpin the clinical staging model. Additionally, it will permit investigation of a range of psychological, social and genetic markers in terms of their capacity to define current clinical stage or predict transition from less severe or enduring to more severe and persistent stages of mental disorder. This paper describes the study methodology, which involves a longitudinal cohort design implemented within four headspace youth mental health services in Australia. Participants are young people aged 12-25 years who have sought help at headspace and consented to complete a comprehensive assessment of clinical state and psychosocial risk factors. A total of 802 young people (66% female) completed baseline assessments. Annual follow-up assessments have commenced. The results of this study may have implications for the way mental disorders are diagnosed and treated, and progress our understanding of the pathophysiologies of complex mental disorders by identifying genetic or psychosocial markers of illness stage or progression. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Do, Mai; Pham, Nhu Ngoc K; Wallick, Stacy; Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul
Mental-illness-related (MIR) stigma is recognized as a major barrier to health care. Yet very little is known about mental illness and stigma among Vietnamese populations, or how emigration and acculturation processes might affect traditional views. Focus group discussions were conducted with Vietnamese Americans in New Orleans (Louisiana) and Vietnamese nationals in Bui Chu (Vietnam), who shared historical and cultural backgrounds, in 2010 to assess differences in their perceptions of mental illness and stigma. Results show several significant differences in mental illness perceptions between Vietnamese Americans and Vietnamese nationals, while MIR stigma seemed prevalent and understanding of mental illness was low among both groups.
Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D.; Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Myers, John A.
The purpose of this school-based cluster-randomized trial was to determine the initial acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of an existing community-based intervention, In Our Own Voice, in a sample of US adolescent girls aged 13–17 years (n=156). In Our Own Voice is a knowledge-contact intervention that provides knowledge about mental illness to improve mental health literacy and facilitates intergroup contact with persons with mental illness as a means to reduce mental illness stigma. This longitudinal study was set in two public high schools located in a southern urban community of the U.S. Outcomes included measures of mental illness stigma and mental health literacy. Findings support the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention for adolescents who enrolled in the study. Findings to support the efficacy of In Our Own Voice to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy are mixed. The intervention did not reduce mental illness stigma or improve mental health literacy at one week follow up. The intervention did not reduce mental illness stigma at 4 and 8 weeks follow up. The intervention did improve mental health literacy at 4 and 8 weeks follow up. Previous studies have assessed the preliminary efficacy In Our Own Voice among young adults; rarely has In Our Own Voice been investigated longitudinally and with adolescents in the United States. This study provides initial data on the effects of In Our Own Voice for this population and can be used to further adapt the intervention for adolescents. PMID:21624729
Kendra, Matthew S.; Cattaneo, Lauren B.; Mohr, Jonathan J.
Abnormal psychology instructors often use traditional and personal methods to educate students about and improve student attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking. Data from abnormal psychology students (N = 190) were used to determine if and how students' attitudes toward mental illness and professional help-seeking attitudes…
Jung, Wook; Choi, Eunkyung; Yu, Jaehak; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Ha, Jee Hyun
Prejudice and negative attitudes toward mental illness are major obstacles in the rehabilitation and functional recovery of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of health-related personnel toward mentally ill patients in a local urban community in South Korea. In total, 401 participants (men, 132; women, 269; mean age, 37.3 ± 9.5 years) were recruited. The participants were health-related personnel in a district of Seoul, who were recruited from three different workplaces: a local administration office, a public health center, and a community welfare center. Sociodemographic data were gathered, and the community attitudes toward the mentally ill (CAMI) inventory were administered. Comparisons of the CAMI subscales were conducted among participants using statistical analysis. Community welfare center workers showed more authoritarianism and social restriction and less community mental health ideology than the other two groups. Among the demographic variables, a shorter working career, higher education, female gender, and younger age were also related to a more negative attitude toward mentally ill patients. Community health-related personnel who have contact with patients with mental illness should be encouraged to have a fair, hospitable, and open-minded attitude. It is advisable for these workers to receive interventions such as regular educational programs early in their careers.
Schafer, Tim; Wood, Steve; Williams, Rena
This paper reports on a survey of attitudes to mental illness that was completed with a cohort of pre-registration nurses in 2007 in a large university in Essex. The background literature highlights the effects of attitudes on stigma, disadvantage and discrimination and presents a brief review of the literature on cultural variations in attitudes. It also briefly reviews the attitudes of health professionals to mental illness. A survey using the Community Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire was completed and ethnicity proved to be an important factor in accounting for variations in attitudes to mental illness. The Black and Black British group displayed less positive attitudes across all nursing branches when compared to the white group. The differences raised questions about how best nurse training can prepare nurses to practice in culturally sensitive ways that acknowledge the beliefs of patients whilst avoiding stereotyping and discrimination. Personal contact with someone with mental illness was also found to be a significant factor and the importance of user involvement in training is discussed. The paper concludes with some recommendations for nurse training that include greater use of teaching strategies that challenge beliefs and assumptions and promote a commitment to multicultural mental health practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dean, Kimberlie; Laursen, Thomas M; Pedersen, Carsten B
Importance: People with mental illness are more likely to have contact with the criminal justice system, but research to date has focused on risk of offense perpetration, while less is known about risk of being subjected to crime and violence. Objectives: To establish the incidence of being...... subjected to all types of criminal offenses, and by violent crimes separately, after onset of mental illness across the full diagnostic spectrum compared with those in the population without mental illness. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a longitudinal national cohort study using...... of mental illness, recorded as first contact with outpatient or inpatient mental health services. Diagnoses across the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses were considered separately for men and women. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated for first subjection to crime...
Loon, L.M.A. van; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Hosman, C.M.H.; Witteman, C.L.M.
Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and
Background The stigma of mental illness among medical students is a prevalent concern that has far reaching negative consequences. Attempts to combat this stigma through educational initiatives have had mixed results. This study examined the impact of a one-time contact-based educational intervention on the stigma of mental illness among medical students and compared this with a multimodal undergraduate psychiatry course at the University of Calgary, Canada that integrates contact-based educational strategies. Attitudes towards mental illness were compared with those towards type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Method A cluster-randomized trial design was used to evaluate the impact of contact-based educational interventions delivered at two points in time. The impact was assessed by collecting data at 4 time points using the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) to assess changes in stigma. Results Baseline surveys were completed by 62% (n=111) of students before the start of the course and post-intervention ratings were available from 90 of these. Stigma scores for both groups were significantly reduced upon course completion (p mental illness and interest in a psychiatric career was increased at the end of the course. Stigma towards mental illness remained greater than for T2DM at all time points. Conclusions Psychiatric education can decrease the stigma of mental illness and increase student confidence. However, one-time, contact-based educational interventions require further evaluation in this context. The key components are postulated to be contact, knowledge and attention to process, where attending to the student’s internal experience of working with people with mental illness is an integral factor in modulating perceptions of mental illness and a psychiatric career. PMID:24156397
Hallion, Madeleine; Taylor, Amanda; Roberts, Rachel
Sibling relationships have lifelong significance and childhood chronic illness and disability can have considerable impacts on healthy siblings, influencing development into adulthood. Research has not yet assessed well-being in this population using measures of both mental health and mental illness. Thus, this study assessed well-being in a comprehensive manner using the complete mental health (CMH) model. Participants (N = 144) included both adult siblings of those with chronic illness or disability and adults with healthy siblings. Measures of positive social, psychological and emotional well-being were used to assess mental health and a measure of depression, anxiety, and stress was used to assess mental illness. A high proportion of participants, both with and without siblings with a chronic illness or disability, were experiencing symptoms of mental illness, accompanied by high wellbeing. This indicates that many participants fit into the struggling category of the CMH model. The present research highlights the need for early intervention services to ensure that siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability are well supported in developing strengths, as well as managing difficulties. Results also indicate that targeting students in mental health promotion is important to encourage participation in services. Implications for rehabilitation Siblings of those with a chronic illness or disability need to be included in assessments in order to understand the experience of the family unit. It is important for families and clinicians to be aware of the needs of healthy siblings and encourage them to interact with support services in order to maximise and maintain well-being. Skills-based support could be beneficial, particularly for providing caregivers with strategies to meet the needs of both their child with a chronic illness or disability and their healthy children.
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David
People with serious mental illness have increased rates of physical ill-health and reduced contact with primary care services. In Australia, the Mental Health Nurse Incentive Program (MHNIP) was developed to facilitate access to mental health services. However, as a primary care service, the contribution to physical health care is worthy of consideration. Thirty-eight nurses who were part of the MHNIP participated in a national survey of nurses working in mental health about physical health care. The survey invited nurses to report their views on the physical health of consumers and the regularity of physical health care they provide. Physical health-care provision in collaboration with general practitioners (GPs) and other health-care professionals was reported as common. The findings suggest that the MHNIP provides integrated care, where nurses and GPs work in collaboration, allowing enough time to discuss physical health or share physical health activities. Consumers of this service appeared to have good access to physical and mental health services, and nurses had access to primary care professionals to discuss consumers' physical health and develop their clinical skills in the physical domain. The MHNIP has an important role in addressing physical health concerns, in addition to the mental health issues of people accessing this service. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Kristen L. Sessions
Results: Stakeholders perceived benefits to a community-based compared to a hospital-based programme, including improved patient care, lower costs to patients and improved community understanding of mental illness. They also cited barriers including cost, insufficient workforce and a lack of community readiness.Conclusions: Stakeholders express interest in developing community-based mental health programmes, as they feel that it will address mental health needs in the community and improve community awareness of mental illness. However, they also report that cost is a significant barrier to programme development that will have to be addressed prior to being able to successfully establish such programming. Additionally, many community members expressed unique sociocultural beliefs regarding the nature of mental illness and those suffering from a psychiatric disease.
Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel
This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…
Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat
Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…
Kowalenko, N.M.; Mares, S.P.; Newman, L.K.; Williams, A.E.S.; Powrie, R.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van
One in five young people in Australia, including infants, toddlers and preschoolers, lives in a family with a parent with a mental illness.1 Families affected by mental illness are more likely than other families to experience poverty and social isolation,2 and are more likely to have children taken
Clegg, Joshua W
Most students enter introductory or abnormal psychology courses with a naively realist concept of what constitutes mental illness, and most textbooks do little to complicate this understanding. The tendency to reify the various diagnostic categories of the mental health disciplines into stable and independent illnesses is ever present. However, a critical review of the development of successive versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) can help instructors demonstrate the evolving ways in which mental health and illness are conceptualized and can reveal the cultural, political, and economic forces that shape this process. This article provides a brief general review of this history, along with useful pedagogical questions and suggestions for integrating this material into the classroom. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Luo, Audrey; He, Hongbo; Mohamed, Somaia; Rosenheck, Robert
Stigma towards people with mental illness is a worldwide concern. A five-nation survey of medical student attitudes towards people with mental illness recently reported far lower levels of social acceptance among Chinese medical students compared to those from the US, Brazil, Ghana, and Nigeria. This qualitative study presented recent Chinese medical school graduates with probes based on questions used in the aforementioned cross-national study to elicit their views of factors underlying the negative attitudes towards social acceptance of people with mental illness. One-hour interviews were conducted with twenty psychiatry residents in June, 2016. Of 241 coded responses concerning negative attitudes, 51.5% were coded as reflecting fear of violent behavior, 22.8% as loss of face (i.e. shame from interpersonal associations), 17.0% lowered social status, 4.98% nonconforming social behavior, and 3.73% the heritability of mental illness. Low levels of social acceptance of individuals with mental illness among medical students in China are largely related to fears of violence of and loss of face. Understanding the attitudes of medical students may inform efforts to reduce stigma through educational initiatives targeted at both medical students and the general public.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence base for mental illness related stigma interventions in health care professionals and trainees is underdeveloped. This study aimed to examine the impact of mental illness related stigma training on third year medical students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour related to people with mental illness. Methods A non-randomised controlled trial was conducted with 110 third year medical students at a medical school in England to determine the effectiveness of a mental illness related stigma training package that targeted their knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results We detected a significant positive effect of factual content and personal testimonies training upon an improvement in knowledge, F(1, 61 = 16.3, p = 0.0002. No such difference was determined with attitudes or for behaviour. Conclusions Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour may need to be separately targeted in stigma reduction interventions, and separately assessed. The inter-relationships between these components in mental health promotion and medical education warrant further research. The study next needs to be replicated with larger, representative samples using appropriate evaluation instruments. More intensive training for medical students may also be required.
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Pierce, Sherrie; Collins, Jennifer L
Obesity impacts the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents, and is a risk factor for development of episodic and chronic illness. Rural Mexican-American adolescents are at risk for obesity and associated chronic illnesses.The study used a retrospective chart review of data collected routinely in a rural health clinic setting from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 to assess incidence of overweight/obesity status and episodic or chronic illness among Mexican-American adolescents aged 12-18 years. Analyses included body mass index, age, gender, and episodic or chronic illness diagnoses. Two hundred twelve charts were audited; women (n = 114, 53.8%), men (n = 98 46.2%); normal (n = 105, 49.5%), overweight/obese (n = 107, 50.5%). There were more female normal (n = 61, 53.5%) vs. overweight/obese (n = 53, 46.5%). More male overweight/obese (n = 54, 55.1%) than normal weight (n = 44, 44.9%). Age at first documented overweight/obesity status occurred in early adolescence (median = 13 years, mode = 12 years). Chronic illness incidence was higher among men than women, and overweight/obese vs. normal weight adolescents and in sub-categorizations by weight and specific illness. Incidence of episodic illness was higher among women than men, with variation by weight and specific illness. Disproportionately high incidence of episodic or chronic illness and overweight/obesity identified among rural Mexican-American adolescents compels intervention modification to improve effectiveness. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Background Employment is associated with better quality of life and wellbeing in people with mental illness. Unemployment is associated with greater levels of psychological illness and is viewed as a core part of the social exclusion faced by people with mental illness. Social Firms offer paid employment to people with mental illness but are under-investigated in the UK. The aims of this phase of the Social Firms A Route to Recovery (SoFARR) project were to describe the availability and spread of Social Firms across the UK, to outline the range of opportunities Social Firms offer people with severe mental illness and to understand the extent to which they are employed within these firms. Method A UK national survey of Social Firms, other social enterprises and supported businesses was completed to understand the extent to which they provide paid employment for the mentally ill. A study-specific questionnaire was developed. It covered two broad areas asking employers about the nature of the Social Firm itself and about the employees with mental illness working there. Results We obtained returns from 76 Social Firms and social enterprises / supported businesses employing 692 people with mental illness. Forty per cent of Social Firms were in the south of England, 24% in the North and the Midlands, 18% in Scotland and 18% in Wales. Other social enterprises/supported businesses were similarly distributed. Trading activities were confined mainly to manufacturing, service industry, recycling, horticulture and catering. The number of employees with mental illness working in Social Firms and other social enterprises/supported businesses was small (median of 3 and 6.5 respectively). Over 50% employed people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, though the greatest proportion of employees with mental illness had depression or anxiety. Over two thirds of Social Firms liaised with mental health services and over a quarter received funding from the NHS or a mental health
Gilbert, Eleanor; Marwaha, Steven; Milton, Alyssa; Johnson, Sonia; Morant, Nicola; Parsons, Nicholas; Fisher, Adrian; Singh, Swaran; Cunliffe, Di
Employment is associated with better quality of life and wellbeing in people with mental illness. Unemployment is associated with greater levels of psychological illness and is viewed as a core part of the social exclusion faced by people with mental illness. Social Firms offer paid employment to people with mental illness but are under-investigated in the UK. The aims of this phase of the Social Firms A Route to Recovery (SoFARR) project were to describe the availability and spread of Social Firms across the UK, to outline the range of opportunities Social Firms offer people with severe mental illness and to understand the extent to which they are employed within these firms. A UK national survey of Social Firms, other social enterprises and supported businesses was completed to understand the extent to which they provide paid employment for the mentally ill. A study-specific questionnaire was developed. It covered two broad areas asking employers about the nature of the Social Firm itself and about the employees with mental illness working there. We obtained returns from 76 Social Firms and social enterprises / supported businesses employing 692 people with mental illness. Forty per cent of Social Firms were in the south of England, 24% in the North and the Midlands, 18% in Scotland and 18% in Wales. Other social enterprises/supported businesses were similarly distributed. Trading activities were confined mainly to manufacturing, service industry, recycling, horticulture and catering. The number of employees with mental illness working in Social Firms and other social enterprises/supported businesses was small (median of 3 and 6.5 respectively). Over 50% employed people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, though the greatest proportion of employees with mental illness had depression or anxiety. Over two thirds of Social Firms liaised with mental health services and over a quarter received funding from the NHS or a mental health charity. Most workers with
Woods, N F
Women are entering the labor force at unprecedented rates, many combining employment with their roles as wives and mothers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the complement of women's roles was associated with negative mental health effects. It was hypothesized that multiple roles would have negative effects on mental health only in the presence of a social context that itself was associated with symptoms of mental ill health. The contextual variables included influence of sex role norms, task-sharing support from the spouse, and support from a confidant. A sample of 140 married women randomly selected from registrants at a family health clinic were interviewed about their roles and mental health. The complement of the women's roles was not associated with mental ill health, nor was there a clear relationship between employment or parenting on mental health. Each of the contextual variables had a moderate influence on symptoms of mental ill health. Women who had traditional sex role norms, little task-sharing support from a spouse, and little support from a confidant had poorer mental health than their counterparts. Thus, in this sample, the context for role performance had a stronger influence on mental health than did the actual roles women performed. In addition, the importance of the social contextual variables was contingent on the woman's complement of roles. For women who were both spouse and parent, confiding support was most important.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Fisher, David; Coleman, Karen J; Arterburn, David E; Fischer, Heidi; Yamamoto, Ayae; Young, Deborah R; Sherwood, Nancy E; Trinacty, Connie Mah; Lewis, Kristina H
To compare bariatric surgery outcomes according to preoperative mental illness category. Electronic health record data from several US healthcare systems were used to compare outcomes of four groups of patients who underwent bariatric surgery in 2012 and 2013. These included the following: people with (1) no mental illness, (2) mild-to-moderate depression or anxiety, (3) severe depression or anxiety, and (4) bipolar, psychosis, or schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Groups were compared on weight loss trajectory using generalized estimating equations using B-spline bases and on all-cause emergency department visits and hospital days using zero-inflated Poisson and negative binomial regression up to 2 years after surgery. Models were adjusted for demographic and health covariates, including baseline healthcare use. Among 8,192 patients, mean age was 44.3 (10.7) years, 79.9% were female, and 45.6% were white. Fifty-seven percent had preoperative mental illness. There were no differences between groups for weight loss, but patients with preoperative severe depression or anxiety or bipolar, psychosis, or schizophrenia spectrum disorders had higher follow-up levels of emergency department visits and hospital days compared to those with no mental illness. In this multicenter study, mental illness was not associated with differential weight loss after bariatric surgery, but additional research could focus on reducing acute care use among these patients. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of mental health disorders is important because early intervention is critical to restoring the mental as well as the physical and the social health of an individual. This study sought to investigate patterns of treatment seeking behavior and associated factors for mental illness. Methods A quantitative, institution-based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH located in Jimma, Ethiopia from March to April 2010. Data was collected using a pretested WHO encounter format by trained psychiatric nurses. Data was analyzed using SPSS V.16. Result Major depression disorder 186 (48.4%, schizophrenia 55 (14.3% and other psychotic disorders 47 (12.2% were the most common diagnoses given to the respondents. The median duration of symptoms of mental illness before contact to modern mental health service was 52.1 weeks. The main sources of information for the help sought by the patients were found to be family 126 (32.8% and other patients 75 (19.5%. Over a third of the patients 135 (35.2%, came directly to JUSH. Half of the patients sought traditional treatment from either a religious healer 116 (30.2% or an herbalist 77 (20.1% before they came to the hospital. The most common explanations given for the cause of the mental illness were spiritual possession 198 (51.6% and evil eye 61 (15.9%, whereas 73 (19.0% of the respondents said they did not know the cause of mental illnesses. Nearly all of the respondents 379 (98.7% believed that mental illness can be cured with modern treatment. Individuals who presented with abdominal pain and headache were more likely to seek care earlier. Being in the age group 31-40 years had significant statistical association with delayed treatment seeking behavior. Conclusions There is significant delay in modern psychiatric treatment seeking in the majority of the cases. Traditional healers
Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz
A significant share of the excess mortality among people suffering from mental illness is due to unhealthy lifestyles. Obesity, smoking, unhealthy diets and sedentary behaviour is twice as frequent among people with mental illness, but the willingness to improve lifestyle is as high as in healthy...... people. Based on a review of the literature we conclude that it is possible for people with mental illness to change their lifestyle, but they encounter a number of barriers to lifestyle changes, including their symptoms, adverse drug effects and their life situations....
Noblett, J; Caffrey, A; Deb, T; Khan, A; Lagunes-Cordoba, E; Gale-Grant, O; Henderson, C
Explore the experiences of liaison psychiatry professionals, to gain a greater understanding of the quality of care patients with mental illness receive in the general hospital setting; the factors that affect the quality of care; and their insights on interventions that could improve care. A survey questionnaire and qualitative in depth interviews were used to collect data. Data collection took place at the Royal College of Psychiatrists Faculty of Liaison Psychiatry Annual conference. Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis. Areas of concern in the quality of care of patients with co-morbid mental illness included 'diagnostic overshadowing', 'poor communication with patient', 'patient dignity not respected' and 'delay in investigation or treatment'. Eleven contributing factors were identified, the two most frequently mentioned were 'stigmatising attitudes of staff towards patients with co-morbid mental illness' and 'complex diagnosis'. The general overview of care was positive with areas for improvement highlighted. Interventions suggested included 'formal education' and 'changing the liaison psychiatry team'. The cases discussed highlighted several areas where the quality of care received by patients with co-morbid mental illness is lacking, the consequences of which could be contributing to physical health disparities. It was acknowledged that it is the dual responsibility of both the general hospital staff and liaison staff in improving care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perera, Dinali N; Short, Liz; Fernbacher, Sabin
Mental health service providers often have limited or problematic understanding of parents' support needs or experiences and family relationships. Moreover, the impact of family life and relationships for mothers with mental illness, and whether these relationships are experienced as positive or negative, have been largely underinvestigated. This article aims to increase understanding about the complexity of family relationships and support for mothers. Findings may be useful for services when considering family involvement, and for how to better meet the needs of mothers with mental illness and support their recovery. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 8 mothers with mental illness and 11 mental health service providers. This article presents a grounded theory analysis of the complexity of family relationships and support for mothers with mental illness. Family relationships of mothers with mental illness can be complex, potentially difficult, and challenging. Problems in relationships with partners and families, and experiences of abuse, can have harmful consequences on parenting, on mothers' and children's well-being, and on the support mothers receive. This project highlights a need to recognize and work with positive aspects and difficulties in family relationships as part of mental health service provision. Policies can be reviewed to increase the likelihood that mental health care will combine family-sensitive practice with practice that acknowledges difficult family relationships and experiences of family violence in order to maximize support to mothers with mental illness and their children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Happell, Brenda; Platania-Phung, Chris; Scott, David
People diagnosed with serious mental illness have higher rates of physical morbidity and decreased longevity, yet these people are not adequately served by health care systems. Nurses may provide improved physical health support to consumers with serious mental illness but this is partly dependent on nurses having necessary skills and interest in training opportunities for this component of their work. This survey investigated Australian nurses' interest in training across areas of physical health care including lifestyle factors, cardiovascular disease, and identifying health risks. A nation-wide online survey of nurse members of the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses. The survey included an adapted version of a sub-section of the Physical Health Attitudes Scale. Participants were asked to indicate their interest in various aspects of physical health care training. Most (91.6%) participants viewed educating nurses in physical health care as of moderate or significant value in improving the physical health of people with serious mental illness. Interest in training in all areas of physical health care was over 60% across the health care settings investigated (e.g. public, private, primary care). Forty-two percent sought training in all nine areas of physical health care, from supporting people with diabetes, to assisting consumers with sexually-related and lifestyle issues. The findings suggest that nurses in mental health services in Australia acknowledge the importance of training to improve physical health care of consumers with serious mental illness. Training programs and learning opportunities for nurses are necessary to reduce inequalities in health of people with serious mental illness. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Benders-Hadi, Nikole; Barber, Mary; Alexander, Mary Jane
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of motherhood among inpatient females at a large state psychiatric hospital in suburban New York, as well as develop an understanding of the characteristics and needs of this unique population. Data on motherhood status was gathered from October 2010 through April 2011 via medical records. Data on custody status, frequency of contacts with children, and effect of mental illness on parenting was assessed through patient surveys and focus groups. 38.5 % of female inpatients were found to be mothers, almost half of whom reported at least weekly contact with children despite their inpatient status. The majority of identified mothers reported having maintained custody of their minor children and expressed great pride at being primary caretakers for their children, yet also emphasized the challenging effects of stigma associated with mental illness and parenting. A significant proportion of women at this psychiatric hospital were found to be mothers. Although acknowledged by some clinicians at the individual level, motherhood appears to remain a forgotten role systemically. Determining motherhood status and recognizing the varied roles our patients have is one more way mental health providers can model and promote recovery-oriented care.
Studies of employee assistance program (EAP) clinical use across multiple industries and multiple EAP delivery models range from highs greater than 5% to lows of less than 1 %. Despite the range in utilization, the rates of employee behaviors that indicate a behavioral health issue are significantly higher, suggesting far too little use of EAPs overall. Studies of the costs to an employer for an employee with a mental health issue are as high as 37% lost annual productivity. EAPs have attempted to raise utilization through a variety of efforts, with mixed results. Most EAP utilization initiatives fail to address the impact of stigma, misunderstandings about mental illness and the reluctance of many employees to seek counseling as an option for better management of stress, work-life balance and overall mental wellness. For both employers and EAPs, addressing the impact of stigma and perceptions of mental illness is costly, requiring greater direct employee engagement and education. However, it is a more effective means of increasing EAP use than current practices and, ultimately, can result in significantly higher net gains in productivity while reducing employers' direct costs.
Hoffner, Cynthia A; Cohen, Elizabeth L
This study of responses to the TV series Monk, about a detective with obsessive-compulsive disorder, examines perceptions and behaviors related to mental illness. A total of 172 respondents completed an online survey. A parasocial bond with Monk was associated with lower stereotypes of mental illness and less social distance. Predictors and outcomes of perceived influence of the series on self and others were also examined. Perceived (positive) influence of the series on others' attitudes was predicted by respondents' favorable evaluation of the series's depiction of mental illness, as well as greater perceived exposure to and favorable evaluations among family and friends. Perceived influence on others also was associated with greater willingness to disclose mental health treatment, but only among people without personal or family experience with mental illness. In contrast, perceived influence of the series on self was predicted only by respondents' own evaluations of the series, and was related to willingness to seek mental health treatment-but only among those who had personally dealt with mental illness.
Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.
Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…
Kermode, Michelle; Bowen, Kathryn; Arole, Shoba; Joag, Kaustubh; Jorm, Anthony F
Explanations for mental disorders in India can be influenced by biomedicine, systems of traditional medicine and supernatural beliefs. Community beliefs about causes of mental distress influence help-seeking behaviours. This study aimed to assess local knowledge and understanding of causes and risks for mental disorders in a rural area of Maharashtra, and to assess the prevalence of possible common mental disorders. A cross-sectional mental health literacy survey was undertaken in late 2007. A questionnaire was administered to 240 systematically sampled community members and 60 village health workers (VHWs). Participants were presented with two vignettes describing people experiencing symptoms of mental disorders (depression, psychosis); they were asked about the causes of the problems and the vulnerabilities of community sub-groups. Additionally, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) was administered to assess prevalence of possible common mental disorders. The most commonly acknowledged causes of the problems were a range of socioeconomic factors. Supernatural and biological explanations were not widely endorsed. Women, the unemployed and the poor were judged as more likely to develop mental disorders, while both young and older people were perceived to be less vulnerable. Results of the GHQ12 indicated that 27% had a possible common mental disorder and that the elderly were at increased risk, contrary to community perceptions. Enhancing mental health literacy of both VHWs and community members using approaches that are sensitive to local conceptualizations of mental health and illness will contribute to improved treatment and care for people with mental disorders. Further investigation of mental health among the elderly in this community is indicated.
Moore, T; Sutton, K; Maybery, D
The recruitment, retention and training of mental health workers is of major concern in rural Australia, and the Gippsland region of Victoria is no exception. Previous studies have identified a number of common factors in these workforce difficulties, including rurality, difficulties of access to professional development and training, and professional and personal isolation. However, those previous studies have often focused on medicine and been based on the perspectives of practitioners, and have almost ignored the perspectives of managers of rural mental health services. The study reported in this article sought to contribute to the development of a more sustainable and effective regional mental health workforce by complementing earlier insights with those of leading administrators, managers and senior clinicians in the field. The study took a qualitative approach. It conducted semi-structured in-person interviews with 24 managers of health/mental-health services and senior administrators and clinicians working in organisations of varying sizes in the public and private sectors. Thematic content analysis of the transcribed interviews identified core difficulties these managers experienced in the recruitment, retention and training of employees. The study found that some of the issues commonly resulting in difficulties in recruiting, retaining and developing a trained workforce in rural areas, such as rurality (implying personal and professional isolation, distances to deliver service and small organisations) and a general shortage of trained personnel, are significant in Gippsland. Through its focus on the perspectives of leaders in the management of rural mental health services, however, the study found other key issues that contribute to workforce difficulties. Many, including the unattractive nature of mental health work, the fragmented administration of the mental health system, short-term and tied funding, and shortcomings in training are external to
Madathumkovilakath, Neethu Bhaskaran; Kizhakkeppattu, Sindhu; Thekekunnath, Saleem; Kazhungil, Firoz
Aggression is one of the chief determinants of caregiver burden in severe mental illnesses. Clinical and treatment implications of aggression in mental illness are predominantly studied in perspectives of mental health care professionals. Coping style of caregivers towards aggression of persons with mental illness is understudied. So we studied coping strategies used by caregivers of patients with severe mental illness towards aggressive behaviors of patients and relationship between aggressive behavior and coping strategies. We assessed two hundreds and seventy caregivers of patients with severe mental illness attending outpatient psychiatry department using Modified Overt Aggression Scale and the Ways of Coping Scale - revised. 95.6% of the caregivers perceived verbal aggression followed by aggression against property (67%), auto aggression (33.7%) and physical aggression (25.6%). The study revealed that adaptive coping strategies - planful problem solving and seeking social support were used by 40% each of caregivers to deal with aggressive behavior. Only 4.4% of caregivers resorted to escape avoidance which is maladaptive coping strategy. Though adaptive strategies were used by caregivers these were not used in appropriate situations. Physical aggression and aggression against property were not significantly associated with planful problem solving (r = 0.105; p = 0.08 and r = 0.110; p = 0.07 respectively). But verbal aggression, aggression against property and physical aggression were associated with escape avoidance (r = 0.152; p = 0.01 and r = 0.168; p = 0.01 and r = 0.23; p = mental illness is maladaptive with respect to aggression. Coping skills training would play a major role to address this issue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bartlett, Helen; Travers, Catherine; Cartwright, Colleen; Smith, Norman
The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of, and attitudes to, mental health issues in rural dwelling Queensland residents. A secondary objective was to provide baseline data of mental health literacy prior to the implementation of Australian Integrated Mental Health Initiative--a health promotion strategy aimed at improving the health outcomes of people with chronic or recurring mental disorders. In 2004 a random sample of 2% (2132) of the estimated adult population in each of eight towns in rural Queensland was sent a postal survey and invited to participate in the project. A series of questions were asked based on a vignette describing a person suffering major depression. In addition, questions assessed respondents' awareness and perceptions of community mental health agencies. Approximately one-third (36%) of those surveyed completed and returned the questionnaire. While a higher proportion of respondents (81%) correctly identified and labelled the problem in the vignette as depression than previously reported in Australian community surveys, the majority of respondents (66%) underestimated the prevalence of mental health problems in the community. Furthermore, a substantial number of respondents (37%) were unaware of agencies in their community to assist people with mental health issues while a majority of respondents (57.6%) considered that the services offered by those agencies were poor. While mental health literacy in rural Queensland appears to be comparable to other Australian regions, several gaps in knowledge were identified. This is in spite of recent widespread coverage of depression in the media and thus, there is a continuing need for mental health education in rural Queensland.
Full Text Available In Byzantium mentally ill persons were stigmatized, despite the fact that they could live normally. This stigma consisted a very serious problem not only for the patients themselves, but also for their families.Through the legislation of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and also the Leo's VI the Wise (9th – 10th A.C. legislation, mental illness was a main health cause of divorce and it concerned both males and females.During these years men were treated different than women, which had to wait five years in order to get a divorce. On the opposite men had to wait only three years to get a divorce for the cause of mentally retarded wife.
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey ( N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents.
Farina, Amerigo; And Others
The major focus of the three studies reported was the consequences of changing public conceptions of mental illness for the sufferer and his family. In two identically performed studies, two messages (one describing mental illness as a disease and the other as a product of social learning) were effective in changing beliefs. (Editor/RK)
Sessions, Kristen L; Wheeler, Lydia; Shah, Arya; Farrell, Deenah; Agaba, Edwin; Kuule, Yusufu; Merry, Stephen P
Mental illness has been increasingly recognised as a source of morbidity in low- and middle-income countries and significant treatment gaps exist worldwide. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of task sharing through community-based treatment models for addressing international mental health issues. This paper aims to evaluate the perceptions of a wide range of mental health stakeholders in a Ugandan community regarding the benefits and barriers to developing a community-based mental health programme. Bwindi Community Hospital (BCH) in south-west Uganda provides services through a team of community health workers to people in the Kanungu District. Thematic analysis of 13 semi-structured interviews and 6 focus group discussions involving 54 community members and 13 mental health stakeholders within the BCH catchment area. Stakeholders perceived benefits to a community-based compared to a hospital-based programme, including improved patient care, lower costs to patients and improved community understanding of mental illness. They also cited barriers including cost, insufficient workforce and a lack of community readiness. Stakeholders express interest in developing community-based mental health programmes, as they feel that it will address mental health needs in the community and improve community awareness of mental illness. However, they also report that cost is a significant barrier to programme development that will have to be addressed prior to being able to successfully establish such programming. Additionally, many community members expressed unique sociocultural beliefs regarding the nature of mental illness and those suffering from a psychiatric disease.
Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L
The current literature on the problem of mental illness stigma in the United States must be expanded to better account for the role of culture. This article examines the relationship between mental illness stigma and culture for Americans of American Indian, Asian, African, Latino, Middle Eastern, and European descent. In this review, culture refers to the shared beliefs, values, and norms of a given racial or ethnic group. The reviewed literature indicates that there are differences in stigma among the various cultural groups; however, explanations as to why these differences exist are scant. Qualitative and quantitative studies indicate that cultural values are important with regard to stigma, particularly for Asian Americans and African Americans. Less is known about the interaction between cultural values and mental illness stigma for other cultural groups. Continued research in the area requires better organization and more exploration of the role of cultural history and values as they relate to mental illness stigma. To that end, a detailed, systematic approach to future research in the area is proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stelling, Kirsten; Habers, Ingeborg; Jungbauer, Johannes
By now there is a relatively broadly based basic research as to burden and developmental risks in children of mentally ill parents. Nevertheless, hardly any studies exist focusing the living situation of teenagers concerned. This article presents results from an in-depth interview study with 15 adolescents (15 to 21 years old) who have a mentally ill parent. Particularly, the living situation of the study participants was explored from the perspective of developmental psychology, i. e. considering age-specific developmental tasks. The results show that, in many cases, daily life and future perspectives of adolescents are greatly affected by the mental illness of a parent. Based on the results of the study, the article presents conclusions for further research and psychosocial practice. Generally, professional assistance for children of mentally ill people should be on hand as early as possible. When planning specific help offers for adolescents affected, compatibility to their emotional life-world should be taken into consideration. Involving peer counsellors and offering web-based psychological assistance can contribute to better get in touch with adolescent clients.
Pitman, Erica; Matthey, Stephen
The Simplifying Mental Illness + Life Enhancement Skills program, for children with a mentally ill parent or sibling, is a 3-day program that aims to increase children's knowledge of mental illness and to better equip them with life skills considered beneficial for coping in their family. Self-report data from 25 children who attended 3 of these programs, in Canada and Australia, indicate that these aims were achieved. Their parents also report benefits for their children.
Tanabe, Yosuke; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Ideno, Yuki
The present study investigated the reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale, designed to assess internalized stigma experienced by people with mental illness. A survey was conducted with 173 outpatients with mental illness who attended psychiatric clinics on a regular basis. A retest was conducted with 51 participants to evaluate the scale's psychometric properties. The alpha coefficient for the overall internal consistency was 0.91, and the coefficients of the individual ISMI subscales ranged from 0.57 to 0.81. The test-retest reliability was r = 0.85 (n = 51, P stigma resistance items excluded. The Japanese version of the ISMI scale demonstrated similar reliability and validity to the original English version. Therefore, the Japanese version of the ISMI scale may be an effective and valid tool to measure internalized stigma among Japanese people who have a mental illness.
Lee, Samantha; Waters, Flavie; Briffa, Kathy; Fary, Robyn E
How do mental health professionals perceive the role of physiotherapists in the care of people with severe and persistent mental illness, and what factors do they perceive as influencing access to physiotherapy services? How do people with severe and persistent mental illness understand the potential role of physiotherapy in their healthcare, and what factors do they perceive as influencing access to physiotherapy services? Qualitative study. Twenty-four mental health professionals and 35 people with severe and persistent mental illness. Interview schedules were developed to explore participants' understanding of physiotherapy, as well as barriers and enablers to service access. Focus groups and interviews were conducted for each group of participants. Transcripts were analysed using an inductive approach to derive key themes. Both the mental health professionals and the people with severe and persistent mental illness expressed a limited understanding of the role and relevance of physiotherapy for physical health in mental healthcare. Common barriers to service access were cost, transport and lack of motivation. Likewise, enablers of reduced cost, provision of transport and education about physiotherapy to improve their understanding were identified. The health system structure and perceived lack of mental health knowledge by physiotherapists influenced referrals from mental health professionals. Consequently, education in mental health for physiotherapists and integration of the service within mental health were identified as potential enablers to physiotherapy access. Limited understanding about physiotherapy and its relevance to physical health in mental healthcare among mental health professionals and people with severe and persistent mental illness was found to be a key factor influencing service access. Limited physiotherapy presence and advocacy within mental health were also highlighted. There is a need for greater understanding about physiotherapy among
Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.
Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…
Cornish, Peter A; Church, Elizabeth; Callanan, Terrence; Bethune, Cheri; Robbins, Carl; Miller, Robert
This paper reports on the results of a demonstration project that examined the role of telehealth/telemedicine (hereafter referred to as telehealth) in providing interdisciplinary mental health training and support to health professionals in a rural region of Atlantic Canada. Special emphasis was placed on addressing the question of how training might affect interdisciplinary collaboration among the rural health professionals. Five urban mental health professionals from three disciplines provided training and support via video-satellite and internet, print and video resources to 34 rural health and community professionals. In order to assess the rural community's needs and the impact of the interventions, questionnaires were administered and on-site interviews were conducted before and after the project. Throughout the project, field notes were recorded and satisfaction ratings were obtained. Satisfaction with the video-satellite presentations was high and stable, with the exception of one session when signal quality was very poor. Rural participants were most satisfied with opportunities for interaction and least satisfied with the variable quality of the video transmission signal. High staff turnover among rural professionals resulted in insufficient power to permit statistical analysis. Positive reports of the project impact included expanded knowledge and heightened sensitivity to mental health issues, increased cross-disciplinary connections, and greater cohesion among professionals. The results suggest that, with some refinements, telehealth technology can be used to facilitate mental health training and promote interdisciplinary collaboration among professionals in a rural setting.
Although power differentials which enable the components of stigma to unfold have been identified, literature that demonstrates the gendered disparities in stigmatization is scarce. Using a gender-based framework, this paper aims first at understanding the gendered social cues which produce the stigma in mental illness enacted by the general population. Second, it highlights the influence of gender on the everyday experiences of a severe and persistent mental illness and the related stigmatization. Results are drawn from a combination of ethnographic and qualitative methods including a field ethnography of two health centres, one psychiatric hospital, and participants' households and neighbourhoods, two group discussions with members of the general population participating in gender-specific social support groups (N = 12 women/5 men), and illness narratives of men and women with a severe and persistent mental illness (N = 22), which was conducted from May to August 2006 in a poor, urban district of Peru. It is argued that in a society like that of Peru where gender roles are segregated into specific social and economic fields, gendered expectations shape both the experience of a severe and persistent mental illness and the stigmatization of people with such a mental illness in a gender-specific way. Not only do gender inequalities create the conditions leading to a power differential which enables stigmatization to unfold, but stigma is constructed as much around gendered-defined social roles as it is enacted in distinct social spheres for men and women with a severe and persistent mental illness. The gendered experience of stigmatization must, therefore, be fully understood in order to design more effective interventions that would challenge stereotypical perceptions and discriminatory practices, and reduce their effect on the everyday life of the mentally ill in Peru. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Covarrubias, Irene; Han, Meekyung
In this study, the attitudes toward and beliefs about serious mental illness (SMI) held by a group of graduate social work students in the northwestern United States were examined. Mental health stigma was examined with relation to the following factors: participants' level of social contact with SMI populations, adherence to stereotypes about SMI…
Nishtar, Sania; Minhas, Fareed A; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Badar, Asma; Mohamud, Khalif Bile
As part of the National Action Plan for Non-communicable Disease Prevention, Control and Health Promotion in Pakistan (NAP-NCD), mental illnesses have been grouped alongside non-communicable diseases (NCD) within a combined strategic framework in order to synchronize public health actions. The systematic approach for mental illnesses is centred on safeguarding the rights of the mentally ill, reducing stigma and discrimination, and de-institutionalisation and rehabilitation of the mentally ill in the community outlining roles of healthcare providers, the community, legislators and policy makers. The approach has implications for support functions in a number of areas including policy building, manpower and material development and research. Priority action areas for mental health as part of NAP-NCD include the integration of surveillance of mental illnesses in a comprehensive population-based NCD surveillance system; creating awareness about mental health as part of an integrated NCD behavioural change communication strategy; integration of mental health with primary healthcare; the development of sustainable public health infrastructure to support community mental health initiatives; building capacity of the health system in support of prevention and control activities; effective implementation of existing legislation and harmonizing working relationships with law enforcing agencies. NAP-NCD also stresses on the need to integrate mental health into health services as part of a sustainable and integrated medical education programme for all categories of healthcare providers and the availability of essential psychotropic drugs at all healthcare levels. It lays emphasis on protecting the interests of special groups such as prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, women, children and individuals with disabilities. Furthermore, it promotes need-based research for contemporary mental health issues.
The topic of rational suicide is often approached with some trepidation by mental health professionals. Suicide prevention strategies are more likely to be seen as the domain of psychiatry and a wealth of psychiatric literature is devoted to identifying and managing suicide risk. Whether or not suicide can be deemed permissible is ostensibly linked to discussions of autonomy and mental capacity, and UK legislation directs that a patient's wishes must be respected with regard to treatment refusal where decisional capacity is intact. In the context of the care and treatment of those with physical disorders, extreme and untreatable physical suffering is likely to be accepted as rational grounds for suicide, where the person possesses cognitive coherence and an ability to realistically appreciate the consequences of his or her actions. In the case of those with serious mental disorder, the grounds for accepting that suicide is rational are however less clear-cut. Serious mental illness is typically conceived of as a coercive pressure which prevents rational deliberation and as such, the suicides of those with serious mental illness are considered to be substantially non-voluntary acts arising from constitutive irrationality. Therefore, where an appropriate clinician judges that a person with serious mental disorder is non-autonomous, suicide prevention is likely to be thought legally and morally justified. There are arguably, two questionable assumptions in the position that psychiatry adopts: Firstly, that psychogenic pain is in some way less real than physical pain and secondly, that mental illness invariably means that a desire to die is irrational and inauthentic. If it can be shown that some people with serious mental illness can be rational with regard to suicide and that psychological pain is of equal significance as physical suffering, then it may be possible to conclude that some persons with serious mental illness should not by definition be excluded from the
Lateef Olutoyin Oluwole
Full Text Available Background: The power of the modern mass media is not limited to its ability to communicate information and entertain but derives primarily from its ability to define situations, thereby enabling it to construct social reality. Stigma is related to negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes that in turn lead to discriminatory practices. Aims: The study sought to know the perceptions of and attitudes of mass communication students towards mental illness and the mentally ill. Settings and Design: The study population comprised of final year Diploma students of Mass Communication of a foremost tertiary institution in Nigeria. Methods and Material: The World Psychiatric Association questionnaire measuring attitudes towards Schizophrenia was modified and administered to the students. Results: Study also showed only one-fifth of all respondents had contact with either an advert or a promotion about mental illness. About three-quarter (74.1% of those who had come in contact with information on mental illness had done so through audiovisuals including television and radio. More than half of the students ranked environmental factors foremost among causes of mental illness. Majority of the students (85.9% would definitely not marry someone with mental illness. Conclusions: The enormous potential and influence the media has on mental health issues would require that mental health professionals provide great input into the enlightenment program for these young and mental health-naïve potential image makers.
Leijdesdorff, Sophie; van Doesum, Karin; Popma, Arne; Klaassen, Rianne; van Amelsvoort, Therese
Children of parents with a mental illness and/or addiction are at high risk for developing a mental illness themselves. Parental mental illness is highly prevalent leading to a serious number of children at high risk. The aim of this review is to give an up-to-date overview of psychopathology in children of parents with various mental illnesses and/or addiction, based on recent literature. Worldwide, 15-23% of children live with a parent with a mental illness. These children have up to 50% chance of developing a mental illness. Parental anxiety disorder sets children at a more specific risk for developing anxiety disorder themselves, where children of parents with other mental illnesses are at high risk of a large variety of mental illnesses. Although preventive interventions in children of mentally ill parents may decrease the risk of problem development by 40%; currently, these children are not automatically identified and offered help. This knowledge should encourage mental health services to address the needs of these children which requires strong collaboration between Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and Adult Mental Health Services. Directions for further research would be to include both parents, allow for comorbidity and to look deeper into a broader variety of mental illnesses such as autism and personality disorder other than borderline.
Stanton, Robert; Rosenbaum, Simon; Lederman, Oscar; Happell, Brenda
Accredited Exercise Physiologists (AEPs) are trained to deliver exercise and physical activity interventions for people with chronic and complex health conditions including those with mental illness. However, their views on exercise for mental illness, their exercise prescription practices, and need for further training are unknown. To examine the way in which Australian AEPs prescribe exercise for people with mental illness. Eighty-one AEPs (33.3 ± 10.4 years) completed an online version of the Exercise in Mental Illness Questionnaire. Findings are reported using descriptive statistics. AEPs report a high level of knowledge and confidence in prescribing exercise for people with mental illness. AEPs rate exercise to be at least of equal value to many established treatments for mental illness, and frequently prescribe exercise based on current best-practice principles. A need for additional training was identified. The response rate was low (2.4%) making generalisations from the findings difficult. Exercise prescription practices utilised by AEPs are consistent with current best-practice guidelines and there is frequent consultation with consumers to individualise exercise based on their preferences and available resources. Further training is deemed important.
Baumann, Miranda Lynne; Teasdale, Brent
In response to a spate of mass shootings, national debate over the root of America's gun violence epidemic has centered on mental illness. Consequently, calls have been made to legislatively restrict firearm access among individuals with mental illness to reduce gun violence. While there is a link between mental illness and suicide, a dearth of empirical evidence exists to inform public policy on the link between firearm access and mental illness. The current study addresses this gap by exploring the nature of firearm-related risk among disordered individuals as compared to others from the same communities. We examined a subsample of the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, including 255 recently discharged psychiatric patients and 490 census-matched community residents. We conducted binomial logistic regressions to explore the impact of firearm access and patient status on violence and suicidality. In total, 15.3% reported firearm access, 23.5% violence, and 21.5% suicidality. Multivariate analyses revealed that, in the context of firearm access, patients were no more likely to perpetrate violence (OR=0.588; 95% CI=0.196-1.764) but were significantly more likely to report suicidality (OR=4.690; 95% CI=1.147-19.172). These results indicate that firearms constitute a serious risk factor for suicide, not violence, for disordered individuals. Thus, legislative efforts to reduce firearm-related risk among disordered individuals should focus on self-harm, not violence. Moreover, claims that mental illness is a principal cause of gun violence may reduce help-seeking among individuals at high risk for suicide. Researchers should devote further attention to addressing these claims empirically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.