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Sample records for rural low-income pregnant

  1. Breast-feeding intentions among low-income pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman; Arnett, Dennis B; Mauk, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    Provide a better understanding of the process used by low-income pregnant/postpartum women when deciding whether to breast-feed or not. Pregnant/postpartum women admitted to an obstetrics floor completed a survey to determine breast-feeding intention (n=88). Subjects were primarily Hispanic and African American women. Beliefs and referent other were related positively to attitude and subjective norm, respectively. Subjective norm was related positively to intention to breast-feed. Breast-feeding knowledge was low. Others' opinions clearly influence feeding intentions among this population of low-income women. Inclusion of these significant others, family, and friends within the breast-feeding education process is warranted.

  2. Nutrition information-seeking behaviour of low-income pregnant Maghrebian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Anik; Marquis, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition information-seeking behaviour was explored among low-income pregnant Maghrebian women living in Montreal. Environmental factors likely to influence nutrition information-seeking behaviour during pregnancy are discussed. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews with 14 primigravid pregnant women recruited via the Montreal Diet Dispensary, a nonprofit agency with the mission of promoting health among low-income pregnant women. Data collection was part of a larger project on pregnant women's nutrition decision-making. Environmental factors likely to influence information-seeking behaviour were identified. They were grouped within two major themes: culture and interactions with individuals from the social environment. The culture theme was divided into three minor themes: eating habits, food beliefs, and religious beliefs. The interactions with individuals from the social environment theme was divided into two minor themes: interactions with health care providers and interactions with family members. Understanding the influence of these environmental factors should help registered dietitians tailor communication strategies to pregnant immigrant women's specific information needs.

  3. Stress, sleep, depression and dietary intakes among low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan; Smith, Barbara; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the mediating roles of sleep and depression on the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake among low-income overweight and obese pregnant women by trimesters. Participants (N = 213) completed a self-administered survey including stress (exogenous variable), depression, sleep (mediators), fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake (endogenous variables). Path analysis was performed to compare mediation effects among pregnant women in each trimester. Consistently across three trimesters, stress was related to depression but not sleep duration, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency or fat intake. Sleep duration was not associated with depression. Depending on trimester, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, and sleep latency were related to depression; night time sleep disturbance and depression affected fat intake; stress influenced fruit and vegetable intake. Sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency and depression did not mediate the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake in the second and third trimesters. However, depression mediated the relationship between stress and fat intake in the first trimester. Stress management interventions may help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women decrease depressive symptoms and therefore contribute to overall nutritional health.

  4. The Mental Health Needs of Low-Income Pregnant Teens: A Nursing-Social Work Partnership in Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nancy A.; Anastas, Jeane W.

    2015-01-01

    While the rates of teen childbearing have declined in the United States, adolescents who become pregnant and decide to bear and rear their babies are often from low-income, highly stressed families and communities. This article will describe the psychosocial problems of pregnant urban teens and how exposure to interpersonal trauma and current…

  5. Voluntary, Randomized, Student Drug-Testing: Impact in a Rural, Low-Income, Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Kyle D.

    2008-01-01

    Illegal drug use and abuse by the nation's secondary school students is a continuing public health issue and this is especially true for students living in rural, low-income areas where access to intervention and treatment services is often limited. To address this issue, some school districts have implemented voluntary, randomized, student …

  6. "The Kids Still Come First": Creating Family Stability during Partnership Instability in Rural, Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Manoogian, Margaret M.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the nature of partnerships among 28 rural low-income mothers who experienced partnership transitions across three waves of annual interviews. Guided by "lens of uncertainty" and "boundary ambiguity theory," the authors specifically explored (a) how low-income mothers in rural communities experience partnership…

  7. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  8. Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Vicente

    2008-09-01

    During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.

  9. Low-income, pregnant, African American women's views on physical activity and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to gain insight into how low-income, pregnant, African American women viewed physical activity and approached nutrition during pregnancy. Three focus groups with a total of 26 women were conducted utilizing open-ended questions related to physical activity and diet during pregnancy. Content analysis was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Groups were compared and contrasted at the within-group and between-group levels to identify themes. Two themes that related to physical activity during pregnancy were identified: 1) fatigue and low energy dictate activity and 2) motivation to exercise is not there. Three themes were identified that related to diet: 1) despite best intentions, appetite, taste, and cravings drive eating behavior; 2) I'll decide for myself what to eat; and 3) eating out is a way of life. Women reported that being physically active and improving their diets was not easy. Women indicated that their levels of physical activity had decreased since becoming pregnant. Attempts at improving their diets were undermined by frequenting fast food restaurants and cravings for highly dense, palatable foods. Women ceded to the physical aspects of pregnancy, often choosing to ignore the advice of others. A combination of low levels of physical activity and calorie-dense diets increased the risk of excessive gestational weight gain in this sample of women, consequently increasing the risk for weight retention after pregnancy. Health care providers can promote healthy eating and physical activity by building on women's being "in tune with and listening to" their bodies. They can query women about their beliefs regarding physical activity and diet and offer information to ensure understanding of what contributes to healthy pregnancy outcomes. Intervention can focus on factors such as cravings and what tastes good, suggesting ways to manage pregnancy effects within a healthy diet. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Perceptions of breastfeeding and planned return to work or school among low-income pregnant women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojjanasrirat, Wilaiporn; Sousa, Valmi D

    2010-07-01

    To describe the perceptions of breastfeeding in low-income pregnant women to understand their needs better as they plan to return to work or school. Maternal employment has a negative impact on breastfeeding duration. Yet there is insufficient research on challenges and facilitators regarding breastfeeding and employment issue among low-income women in the USA. Knowing the perceptions of breastfeeding among low-income pregnant women and their plan to return to work or school may have implications for nurses and midwives in providing quality care. Qualitative study using focus group interviews. The research setting consisted of three Women, Infants and Children clinics (WIC) in a midwestern city of the USA. Seventeen pregnant women (aged 19-35) participated in focus group interviews. Data were coded and analysed for themes and patterns using the QSR software - NVivo 6. Eleven participants were single. Ten women were primigravida, and seven were multipara. The following five themes were identified: (1) perceived benefits of breastfeeding; (2) general perceptions of breastfeeding; (3) maternal concerns; (4) having the right support; and (5) anticipated challenges of combining breastfeeding and work. Conclusions.  Low-income women anticipated substantial barriers for breastfeeding when they planned to combine breastfeeding and work or school. The results of this study have many implications for public health practice, research and policy. Educating employers and the public at large about the health and economic benefits derived from long-term breastfeeding could help promote breastfeeding awareness. Strategies supporting breastfeeding among low-income working women must be provided at multiple levels to help overcome the barriers they concern. Health care providers should help women gain confidence by minimising their uncertainties and fears about breastfeeding to prepare them to continue breastfeeding successfully after returning to work. © 2010 Blackwell

  11. Adaptation of the U.S. Food Security Survey Module for Low-Income Pregnant Latinas: Qualitative Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) assessed the face validity of the 18-items US Household Food Security Scale Module (US HFSSM) among low-income pregnant Latinas and 2) adapt the US HFSSM to the target population. This study was conducted in the United States in Hartford, Connecticut where 40% of residents are of Latina descent. Three focus groups (N=14total) were held with pregnant and postpartum Latinas from April – June 2004 to assess the understanding and applicability (face validi...

  12. Empowerment in the process of health messaging for rural low-income mothers: an exploratory message design project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoory, Linda; Braun, Bonnie; Maring, Elisabeth Fost; Duggal, Mili; Briones, Rowena Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Rural, low-income mothers face challenges to their health equal to or greater than those of low-income mothers from urban areas. This study put health message design into the hands of low-income rural mothers. The current study filled a research gap by analyzing a participatory process used to design health messages tailored to the everyday lives of rural low-income mothers. A total of forty-three mothers participated in nine focus groups, which were held from 2012 to 2013, in eight states. The mothers were from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Participants discussed food security, physical activity, and oral health information. They created messages by considering several elements: visuals, length of message, voice/perspective, self-efficacy and personal control, emotional appeals, positive and negative reinforcements, and steps to health behavior change. This study was innovative in its focus on empowerment as a key process to health message design.

  13. Shaping Core Health Messages: Rural, Low-Income Mothers Speak Through Participatory Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie; Braun, Bonnie; Maring, Elisabeth Fost

    2018-04-23

    Rural, low-income families are disproportionately impacted by health problems owing to structural barriers (e.g., transportation, health insurance coverage) and personal barriers (e.g., health literacy). This paper presents a Participatory Action Research (PAR) model of co-created Core Health Messages (CHMs) in the areas of dental health, food security, health insurance, and physical activity. The research project engaged a multi-disciplinary team of experts to design initial health messages; rural, low-income mothers to respond to, and co-create, health messages; and stakeholders who work with families to share their insights. Findings reveal the perceptions of mothers and community stakeholders regarding messages and channels of message dissemination. By using PAR, a learner engagement approach, the researchers intend to increase the likelihood that the CHMs are culturally appropriate and relevant to specific populations. The CHM-PAR model visually illustrates an interactive, iterative process of health message generation and testing. The paper concludes with implications for future research and outreach in a technological landscape where dissemination channels are dynamic. This paper provides a model for researchers and health educators to co-create messages in a desired format (e.g., length, voice, level of empathy, tone) preferred by their audiences and to examine dissemination methods that will best reach those audiences.

  14. Socio-hydrogeology and low-income countries: taking science to rural society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Shrikant Daji

    2017-11-01

    Rural societies in low-income, high-population countries often faces scarcity of water of suitable quality for domestic use and agriculture. Hydrogeologists should therefore orientate their research work towards solving practical problems and impart basic knowledge about the hydrogeology of local watersheds to the village councils and communities so as to ensure their participation in better management of groundwater resources. Such cooperation between the hydrogeologists and villagers is the foundation of socio-hydrogeology, which aims at broader dissemination of information and discussions with hydrogeologists at village meetings regarding watershed management such as recharge augmentation, groundwater quality issues and prudent use of groundwater. Socio-hydrogeology implies improved accessibility of rural society to hydrogeological experts and better communication through the use of more appropriate and understandable language.

  15. Top-Down, Routinized Reform in Low-Income, Rural Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickel

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has funded fifty-nine state, urban, and rural systemic initiatives. The purpose of the initiatives is to promote achievement in math, science, and technology among all students, and to encourage schools and communities to secure the resources needed to maintain such outcomes. The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI is a six-state consortium which focuses these efforts on low-income, rural schools. The primary means of accomplishing ARSI's aims is a one-day-one-school site visit, called a Program Improvement Review, done by an ARSI math or science expert. The centrally important Program Improvement Reviews, however, seem to be premised on unsubstantiated assumptions as to the static, easy-to-understand, easy-to-evaluate nature of educational achievement in rural Appalachian schools. As a result, the Reviews resemble exercises in early-twentieth century scientific management, and are unlikely to enhance achievement in science or math. Consequently, even if there is merit to the commonsense human capital approach to economic growth and development on which systemic initiatives are tacitly premised, this first- person account makes a case that desired payoffs are unlikely to follow from the work of ARSI.

  16. Intention to breastfeed in low-income pregnant women: the role of social support and previous experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between breastfeeding intention among socioeconomically disadvantaged pregnant women and maternal demographics, previous breastfeeding experience, and social support. A cross-sectional, convenience sampling strategy was employed for data collection. Low-income women (n = 1001) in a public hospital completed a six-page questionnaire about their infant feeding plans, demographics, and social support. Simple regression analyses were conducted to compare maternal breastfeeding intention with the hypothesized correlates. Breastfeeding intention was positively correlated with older maternal age, higher education, more breastfeeding experience, Hispanic ethnicity, and hearing about breastfeeding benefits from family members, the baby's father, and lactation consultants, but not from other health professionals. Health professionals' attitudes were less influential on women's infant feeding decisions than the attitudes and beliefs of members of women's social support networks. When controlling for breastfeeding experience (none vs any), some findings, varied, indicating a need for breastfeeding interventions tailored to women's level of experience. Use of peer counselors and lactation consultants, inclusion of a woman's family members in breastfeeding educational contacts, and creation of breastfeeding classes tailored to influential members of women's social support networks may improve breastfeeding rates among low-income women, especially those with no breastfeeding experience, more effectively than breastfeeding education to pregnant women that is solely conducted by health professionals.

  17. Influenza vaccine text message reminders for urban, low-income pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Melissa S; Westhoff, Carolyn; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Vargas, Celibell Y; Camargo, Stewin; Vawdrey, David K; Castaño, Paula M

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the impact of influenza vaccine text message reminders in a low-income obstetric population. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that enrolled 1187 obstetric patients from 5 community-based clinics in New York City. The intervention group received 5 weekly text messages regarding influenza vaccination starting mid-September 2011 and 2 text message appointment reminders. Both groups received standard automated telephone appointment reminders. The prespecified endpoints were receipt of either pre- or postpartum influenza vaccination calculated cumulatively at the end of each month (September-December 2011). After adjusting for gestational age and number of clinic visits, women who received the intervention were 30% more likely to be vaccinated as of December 2011 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.003, 1.69 end of September: AOR = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.85; October: AOR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.75; November: AOR = 1.27; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.65). The subgroup of women early in the third trimester at randomization showed the greatest intervention effect (December 31: 61.9% intervention vs 49.0% control; AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.15). In this low-income obstetric population, text messaging was associated with increased influenza vaccination, especially in those who received messages early in their third trimester.

  18. Adaptation of the U.S. Food Security Survey Module for Low-Income Pregnant Latinas: Qualitative Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) assessed the face validity of the 18-items US Household Food Security Scale Module (US HFSSM) among low-income pregnant Latinas and 2) adapt the US HFSSM to the target population. This study was conducted in the United States in Hartford, Connecticut where 40% of residents are of Latina descent. Three focus groups (N=14(total)) were held with pregnant and postpartum Latinas from April - June 2004 to assess the understanding and applicability (face validity) of the US HFSSM as well as adapt the US HFSSM based on their recommendations. This was followed by pre-testing (N=7) to make final adaptations to the US HFSSM. Overall, the items in the US HFSSM were clear and understandable to participants, but some questions sounded repetitive to them. Participants felt the questions were applicable to other pregnant Latinas in their community and shared food security related experiences and strategies. Participants recommendations led to key adaptations to the US HFSSM including reducing the scale to 15-items, wording statements as questions, including two time periods, replacing the term "balanced meals" with "healthy and varied", replacing the term "low cost foods" with "cheap foods" and including a definition of the term, and including a coping mechanism of avoiding running out of food. The adapted US HFSSM was found to have good face validity among pregnant Latinas and can be used to assess food insecurity among this vulnerable population.

  19. The Influence of Family on Educational and Occupational Achievement of Adolescents in Rural Low-Income Areas: An Ecological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chin, Chong-Hee

    Focusing on the family as a context for the development of life plans by youth, this report summarizes findings of a 14-year longitudinal study on the educational and occupational life plans and achievement of youth in rural low-income areas in six southeastern states. Specific attention is given to (1) how parental educational and occupational…

  20. Are Mothers Really "Gatekeepers" of Children?: Rural Mothers' Perceptions of Nonresident Fathers' Involvement in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…

  1. Material Hardship and Internal Locus of Control Over the Prevention of Child Obesity in Low-Income Hispanic Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Gross, Michelle B; Scheinmann, Roberta; Messito, Mary Jo

    2016-07-01

    To determine the relations between household material hardships and having a low internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity in low-income Hispanic pregnant women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a third trimester prenatal visit from women participating in the Starting Early Study, a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a primary care-based family-centered early child obesity prevention intervention. Using multiple logistic regression analyses, we determined whether 4 domains of material hardship (food insecurity, difficulty paying bills, housing disrepair, neighborhood stress), considered individually and also cumulatively, were associated with having a low internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity. The sample included 559 low-income Hispanic pregnant women, with 60% having experienced at least 1 hardship. Food insecurity was independently associated with a low internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-3.77), controlling for other hardships and confounders. Experiencing a greater number of material hardships was associated in a dose-dependent relationship with an increased odds of having a low internal locus of control. Prenatal material hardships, in particular food insecurity, were associated with having a lower prenatal internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity. Longitudinal follow-up of this cohort is needed to determine how relations between material hardships and having a low internal locus of control will ultimately affect infant feeding practices and child weight trajectories. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the nutrition and physical activity education needs of low-income, rural mothers: can technology play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Nancy L; Billing, Amy S; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of low-income, rural mothers regarding their need for nutrition and physical activity education and the role of technology in addressing those needs. Quantitative and qualitative research was combined to examine the nature and scope of the issues faced by this target population. Women who were currently receiving food stamps and had children in nursery school to eighth grade were recruited through a state database to participate in a telephone survey (N = 146) and focus groups (N = 56). Low-income, rural mothers were aware of and practiced many health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity, but they faced additional barriers due to their income level, rural place of residence, and having children. They reported controlling the fat content in the food they cooked and integrating fruits and vegetables but showed less interest in increasing fiber consumption. They reported knowing little about physical activity recommendations, and their reported activity patterns were likely inflated because of seeing housework and child care as exercise. To stretch their food budget, the majority reported practicing typical shopping and budgeting skills, and many reported skills particularly useful in rural areas: hunting, fishing, and canning. Over two-thirds of the survey respondents reported computer access and previous Internet use, and most of those not yet online intended to use the Internet in the future. Those working in rural communities need to consider technology as a way to reach traditionally underserved populations like low-income mothers.

  3. Practicing preventive health: the underlying culture among low-income rural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary W; Harpel, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Health disparities on the basis of geographic location, social economic factors and education levels are well documented. However, even when health care services are available, there is no guarantee that all persons will take preventive health measures. Understanding the cultural beliefs, practices, and lifestyle choices that determine utilization of health services is an important factor in combating chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal, cultural, and external barriers that interfered with participating in a community-based preventive outreach program that included health screening for obesity, diabetes, heart diseases, and hypertension when cost and transportation factors were addressed. Six focus groups were conducted in a rural community of Louisiana. Focus groups were divided into 2 categories: participants and nonparticipants. Three focus groups were completed with Dubach Health Outreach Project (DUHOP) participants and 3 were completed with nonparticipants. The focus group interviews were moderated by a researcher experienced in focus group interviews; a graduate student assisted with recording and note-taking during the sessions. Four main themes associated with barriers to participation in preventive services emerged from the discussions: (1) time, (2) low priority, (3) fear of the unknown, and (4) lack of companionship or support. Health concerns, free services, enjoyment, and free food were identified as motivators for participation. The findings of this study indicated that the resulting synergy between low-income status and a lack of motivation regarding health care prevention created a complicated practice of health care procrastination, which resulted in unnecessary emergency care and disease progression. To change this practice to proactive disease prevention and self care, a concerted effort will need to be implemented by policy makers, funding agents, health care providers, and community leaders and members.

  4. Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among married non-pregnant women living in a low-income suburb of Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramia, Sami; Kobeissi, Loulou; El Kak, Faysal; Shamra, Sarah; Kreidieh, Khalil; Zurayk, Huda

    2012-09-17

    This study aimed to identify reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in married, non-pregnant women, aged 18 to 49 years, living in a low-income suburb of Beirut, and to investigate the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and these infections. Among 1,015 women recruited for the study, 502 were found eligible and 441 were medically examined. Appropriate specimens were collected for Nisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. The results showed a relatively high prevalence of RTIs (28.2%). The prevalence rates of different agents were as follows: 22.9% of the women were positive for T. vaginalis, 8.8% for candidiasis, 4.5% for bacterial vaginosis, and 1% for N. gonorrhea; none of the women were positive for C. trachomatis. Regression analysis showed that women between the ages of 30 and 39 were twice more likely to have T. vaginalis as compared to younger women. Furthermore, women whose husbands were taxi drivers were at higher risk of acquiring T. vaginalis (OR = 2.2) as compared with women whose husbands occupation was listed as skilled/unskilled. This conclusion can be drawn for the odds of developing any RTI (OR = 2.15). Moreover, those participants with the lowest income were twice as likely to have any RTI compared to those with higher incomes. This study shows a relatively high prevalence of RTIs (T. vaginalis mainly). It urges further in-depth research on cultural practices and economic factors to understand the pattern of sexual behavior in this community.

  5. The Role of Rural Communities in the Postsecondary Preparation of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Nathan F.; Holly, L. Neal

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, rural education has been critiqued for contributing to brain drain and social stratification that saps the human, social, and economic resources of rural communities. This article, based on an investigation of six small rural school districts in the same state, offers an alternative view of the role of community groups and…

  6. A Problem-Solving Therapy Intervention for Low-Income, Pregnant Women at Risk for Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, McClain; Villarreal, Yolanda; Rubin, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs at higher rates among impoverished mothers than the general population. Depression during pregnancy is one of the strongest predictors of developing PPD. Research indicates that non-pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing depressive symptoms but engaging and retaining low-income mothers remains a…

  7. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries: A literature review of attraction and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieleman Marjolein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the most damaging effects of severely weakened and under-resourced health systems is the difficulty they face in producing, recruiting, and retaining health professionals, particularly in remote areas. Low wages, poor working conditions, lack of supervision, lack of equipment and infrastructure as well as HIV and AIDS, all contribute to the flight of health care personnel from remote areas. In this global context of accelerating inequities health service policy makers and managers are searching for ways to improve the attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. But the development of appropriate strategies first requires an understanding of the factors which influence decisions to accept and/or stay in a remote post, particularly in the context of mid and low income countries (MLICS, and which strategies to improve attraction and retention are therefore likely to be successful. It is the aim of this review article to explore the links between attraction and retention factors and strategies, with a particular focus on the organisational diversity and location of decision-making. Methods This is a narrative literature review which took an iterative approach to finding relevant literature. It focused on English-language material published between 1997 and 2007. The authors conducted Pubmed searches using a range of different search terms relating to attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. Furthermore, a number of relevant journals as well as unpublished literature were systematically searched. While the initial search included articles from high- middle- and low-income countries, the review focuses on middle- and low-income

  8. A model of household energy services in a low-income rural African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.I.; Alfstad, T.; Victor, D.G.; Goldstein, G.; Remme, U.

    2005-01-01

    Energy use is closely linked to quality of life in rural Africa. The gathering of fuel-wood and other traditional fuels is a strenuous and time consuming task mainly performed by women; indoor exposure to particulate matter, mainly from cooking and heating with traditional fuels, causes about 2.5 million deaths each year in developing countries (Bruce et al., Bull World Org. 78 (2000) 1078). Modern fuels and appliances allow households to reduce their exposure to smoke from biomass cookers and heaters. Yet modern fuels are costly for income-poor households and often carry their own external costs. For example, numerous children are poisoned from ingesting paraffin, and whole villages have burned from fires triggered by paraffin stoves and lamps

  9. Interrelationship between food security status, home availability of variety of fruits and vegetables and their dietary intake among low-income pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnery, Danielle L; Labban, Jeffrey D; Dharod, Jigna M

    2018-03-01

    To (i) determine differences in the availability of variety of fruits and vegetables (F&V) at home by food security status; and (ii) examine the inter-associations between food security status, availability of variety of F&V at home and frequency of F&V intake, among low-income pregnant women. Design/Setting Participants were interviewed to collect food security status, home availability of variety of F&V and frequency of F&V intake. Bivariate analyses, multivariate regression and exploratory mediation analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 and the PROCESS macro. Low-income pregnant women (n 198) were interviewed if they were ≥18 years of age, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and spoke English or Spanish. Low/very low food security was found among 43 % of participants. Compared with fully food-secure participants, very low food-secure participants reported a lower variety of fruits (P=0·028) and vegetables (P=0·058) available at home. Mediation analyses indicated that through home availability of variety of fresh F&V, food security status was associated with the daily intake of F&V (indirect effect (95 % CI): fresh fruits, -0·039 (-0·074, -0·013); fresh vegetables, -0·048 (-0·083, -0·023)). As food security worsened, the available variety of fresh F&V decreased, which was associated with lower intake. The study highlights the interlink between food security, home food environment and diet quality, and the importance of nutrition education intervention to promote a healthy home food environment and improved pregnancy outcomes among low-income women.

  10. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports,"…

  11. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries : a literature review of attraction and retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Uta; Dieleman, Marjolein; Martineau, Tim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the

  12. Goal setting for health behavior change: evidence from an obesity intervention for rural low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, A V; Blackman, L T; Page, R A; Gizlice, Z; Benedict, S; Barnes, K; Kelsey, K; Carter-Edwards, L

    2014-01-01

    Rural, minority populations are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity and may benefit from lifestyle modification programs that are tailored to meet their unique needs. Obesity interventions commonly use goal setting as a behavior change strategy; however, few have investigated the specific contribution of goal setting to behavior change and/or identified the mechanisms by which goal setting may have an impact on behavior change. Furthermore, studies have not examined goal setting processes among racial/ethnic minorities. Using data from an obesity intervention for predominately minority women in rural North Carolina, this study sought to examine whether intervention participation resulted in working on goals and using goal setting strategies which in turn affected health behavior outcomes. It also examined racial/ethnic group differences in working on goals and use of goal setting strategies. Data came from a community-based participatory research project to address obesity among low-income, predominately minority women in rural North Carolina. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used. Participants included 485 women aged 18 years and over. Intervention participants (n=208) received health information and goal setting support through group meetings and tailored newsletters. Comparison participants (n = 277) received newsletters on topics unrelated to obesity. Surveys assessed physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, goal-related stage of change, and use of goal setting strategies. Chi squared statistics were used to assess intervention group differences in changes in goal-related stage of change and use of goal setting strategies as well as racial/ethnic group differences in stage of change and use of goal setting strategies at baseline. The causal steps approach of Baron and Kenny was used to assess mediation. Intervention compared to comparison participants were more likely to move from contemplation to action/maintenance for the

  13. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural elementary and middle schools in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Nguyen, Thuan; Pickus, Hayley; Chen, Zunqiu

    2014-08-01

    Food stores near schools are an important source of snacks for children. However, few studies have assessed availability of healthy snacks in these settings. The aim of this study was to assess availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near schools and examine how availability of healthy items varied by poverty level of the school and rural-urban location. Food stores were selected based on their proximity to elementary/middle schools in three categories: high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural. Audits were conducted within the stores to assess the presence or absence of 48 items in single-serving sizes, including healthy beverages, healthy snacks, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables. Overall, availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was low in all stores. However, there was significant cross-site variability in availability of several snack and fruit items, with stores near high-income urban schools having higher availability, compared to stores near low-income urban and/or rural schools. Stores near rural schools generally had the lowest availability, although several fruits were found more often in rural stores than in urban stores. There were no significant differences in availability of healthy beverages and fresh vegetables across sites. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was limited in stores near schools, but these limitations were more severe in stores proximal to rural and low-income schools. Given that children frequent these stores to purchase snacks, efforts to increase the availability of healthy products, especially in stores near rural and low-income schools, should be a priority.

  14. Measuring self-reported health in low-income countries: piloting three instruments in semi-rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Blomstedt

    2012-07-01

    to further study the validity and reliability of the SRH question and the VAS and understand which instrument is best suited to study SRH in the low-income setting of semi-rural Burkina Faso.

  15. Psychosocial factors and obesity in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries: the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, A; Teo, K; Rangarajan, S; Kabali, C; Khumalo, I; Kutty, V R; Gupta, R; Yusuf, R; Iqbal, R; Ismail, N; Altuntas, Y; Kelishadi, R; Diaz, R; Avezum, A; Chifamba, J; Zatonska, K; Wei, L; Liao, X; Lopez-Jaramillo, P; Yusufali, A; Seron, P; Lear, S A; Yusuf, S

    2015-08-01

    Psychosocial stress has been proposed to contribute to obesity, particularly abdominal, or central obesity, through chronic activation of the neuroendocrine systems. However, these putative relationships are complex and dependent on country and cultural context. We investigated the association between psychosocial factors and general and abdominal obesity in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiologic study. This observational, cross-sectional study enrolled 151 966 individuals aged 35-70 years from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 high-, middle- and low-income countries. Data were collected for 125 290 individuals regarding education, anthropometrics, hypertension/diabetes, tobacco/alcohol use, diet and psychosocial factors (self-perceived stress and depression). After standardization for age, sex, country income and urban/rural location, the proportion with obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg m(-)(2)) increased from 15.7% in 40 831 individuals with no stress to 20.5% in 7720 individuals with permanent stress, with corresponding proportions for ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity of 48.6% and 53.5%, respectively (P<0.0001 for both). Associations between stress and hypertension/diabetes tended to be inverse. Estimating the total effect of permanent stress with age, sex, physical activity, education and region as confounders, no relationship between stress and obesity persisted (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for obesity 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.10)). There was no relationship between ethnicity- and sex-specific central obesity (adjusted PR 1.00 (0.97-1.02)). Stratification by region yielded inconsistent associations. Depression was weakly but independently linked to obesity (PR 1.08 (1.04-1.12)), and very marginally to abdominal obesity (PR 1.01 (1.00-1.03)). Although individuals with permanent stress tended to be slightly more obese, there was no overall independent effect and no evidence that abdominal obesity or its consequences

  16. Home-prepared soymilk: Potential to alleviate protein-energy malnutrition in low-income rural communities in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel N. Medoua

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research findings reported pronounced protein and some energy shortfalls for school-aged children and female caregivers in rural communities in Qwa-Qwa, South Africa. The household gardening project was expanded to include soy cultivation. Subsequently, a process was developed for home-preparation of soymilk to support macronutrient consumption. The limited explorative experimental approach included chemical analysis for total protein (Kjeldahl digestion, spectrophotometric determination, total carbohydrate (Anthone method and total lipid content (extraction, Gravimetric method, separation. Total energy content was calculated. All results were benchmarked against equivalents. Duplicate analysis of samples, respectively prepared from 1:2 (n= 6 and 1:4 (n = 4 volume ratios of rehydrated minced soybeans : water for cooking of soy mash, indicated statistically-significant differences for reported nutrients (p ≤ 0.05. Comparison between sourced commercial soymilk products for drinking indicated no statistical differences (p > 0.05. Although statistically-significant shortfalls were indicated for nearly all such values for home-prepared soymilk (1:4 ratio against industrial ‘SoyCow’ soymilk and values reported in the South African database for standardised nutrient composition of food (p ≤ 0.05, a much-needed contribution will be made to protein (and energy intake through consumption of the product. More efficient extraction (possibly double mincing of rehydrated soybeans and more efficient pressing of cooked soy mash should be explored, followed by an intervention study to evaluate the impact of daily consumption of home-prepared soymilk on the nutritional status of children in low-income communities. The development of recipes to promote the inclusion of undissolved fibre from the soymilk extraction process (okara in dishes prepared at household level, such as bread, is recommended.

  17. Pilot evaluation of HEAL – A natural experiment to promote obesity prevention behaviors among low-income pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreela V. Sharma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Instituting interventions during the prenatal period is optimal for early obesity prevention in the child. Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL is a six-week, multi-component program to promote breastfeeding, healthy dietary habits, cooking skills and physical activity among Medicaid-eligible pregnant-women in Texas. HEAL is integrated into the healthcare system and offered as a standard-of-care for eligible patients. Methods: Preliminary evaluation of this natural experiment conducted from March 2015 through October 2016 informs the initial feasibility, acceptability and effects of the program on participant diet, home nutrition environment, physical activity, and breastfeeding self-efficacy and intentions measured using self-report surveys. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was conducted to evaluate pre- and post-intervention changes, controlling for participants' ethnicity, age, and income level. Interaction effects of session attendance on the outcomes were further assessed. Results: Of the 329 women who enrolled in HEAL, 210 women completed the pre-post assessment (64% retention rate. Pre-to-post intervention, there were significant increases in availability and intake of fruits and vegetables, self-efficacy towards consuming more fruits and vegetables, and cooking frequency and skills (p < 0.05, and decreased frequency of eating heat and serve foods (p < 0.05. Significant improvements in physical activity, duration of breastfeeding, perceived benefits and intentions to breastfeed were also observed (p < 0.05. Higher attendance of HEAL sessions was associated with better outcomes. Process evaluation demonstrated 95% fidelity of program implementation. Conclusion: HEAL operationalizes clinic-community linkages and shows promise in improving behaviors during pregnancy. Future research warrants the use of a stringent study design with a control group to determine program efficacy. Keywords: Pregnancy, Obesity prevention, Nutrition

  18. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety disorders amongst low-income pregnant women in urban South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heyningen, Thandi; Honikman, Simone; Myer, Landon; Onah, Michael N; Field, Sally; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety is highly prevalent in many populations; however, the burden of anxiety disorders amongst pregnant women in low-resource settings is not well documented. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of antenatal anxiety disorders amongst low-income women living with psychosocial adversity. Pregnant women were recruited from an urban, primary level clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview diagnostic interview assessed prevalence of anxiety disorders. Four self-report questionnaires measured psychosocial characteristics. Logistic regression models explored demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity as predictors for anxiety disorders. Amongst 376 participants, the prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 23%. Although 11% of all women had post-traumatic stress disorder, 18% of the total sample was diagnosed with other anxiety disorders. Multivariable analysis revealed several predictors for anxiety including a history of mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03-8.32), Major depressive episode (MDE) diagnosis (AOR 3.83; CI 1.99-7.31), multigravidity (AOR 2.87; CI 1.17-7.07), food insecurity (AOR 2.57; CI 1.48-4.46), unplanned and unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.14; CI 1.11-4.15), pregnancy loss (AOR 2.10; CI 1.19-3.75) and experience of threatening life events (AOR 1.30; CI 1.04-1.57). Increased perceived social support appeared to reduce the risk for antenatal anxiety (AOR 0.95; CI 0.91-0.99). A range of antenatal anxiety disorders are prevalent amongst pregnant women living in low-resource settings. Women who experience psychosocial adversity may be exposed to multiple risk factors, which render them vulnerable to developing antenatal anxiety disorders.

  19. Fast Food Intake in Relation to Employment Status, Stress, Depression, and Dietary Behaviors in Low-Income Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Objective This study explored fast food intake as a potential mediator of the relationships among employment status; stress; depression; and fruit, vegetable, and fat intakes by race (African American vs. Non-Hispanic White) and body mass index (BMI category: overweight vs. obesity). Methods Low-income overweight and obese pregnant women (N = 332) were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Michigan. Path analysis was performed to explore mediation effects by race and BMI category. Results Fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.02) in Non-Hispanic White women, but no mediation effect was detected in African American women. For overweight women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04) and the relationship between depression and vegetable intake (p = 0.01). Also, fast food intake partially mediated the relationship between depression and fat intake (p = 0.003). For obese women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04). Conclusion Fast food is an important topic for nutrition education for overweight and obese pregnant women. Future interventions may be more successful if they address issues associated with employment status (e.g., lack of time to plan and cook healthy meals) and depressive mood (e.g., inability to plan meals or shop for groceries when coping with negative emotions).

  20. Home-prepared soymilk: Potential to alleviate protein-energy malnutrition in low-income rural communities in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara S. Duvenage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research findings reported pronounced protein and some energy shortfalls for school-aged children and female caregivers in rural communities in Qwa-Qwa, South Africa. The household gardening project was expanded to include soy cultivation. Subsequently, a process was developed for home-preparation of soymilk to support macronutrient consumption. The limited explorative experimental approach included chemical analysis for total protein (Kjeldahl digestion, spectrophotometric determination, total carbohydrate (Anthone method and total lipid content (extraction, Gravimetric method, separation. Total energy content was calculated. All results were benchmarked against equivalents. Duplicate analysis of samples, respectively prepared from 1:2 (n = 6 and 1:4 (n = 4 volume ratios of rehydrated minced soybeans : water for cooking of soy mash, indicated statistically-significant differences for reported nutrients (p ≤ 0.05. Comparison between sourced commercial soymilk products for drinking indicated no statistical differences (p > 0.05. Although statistically-significant shortfalls were indicated for nearly all such values for home-prepared soymilk (1:4 ratio against industrial ‘SoyCow’ soymilk and values reported in the South African database for standardised nutrient composition of food (p ≤ 0.05, a much-needed contribution will be made to protein (and energy intake through consumption of the product. More efficient extraction (possibly double mincing of rehydrated soybeans and more efficient pressing of cooked soy mash should be explored, followed by an intervention study to evaluate the impact of daily consumption of home-prepared soymilk on the nutritional status of children in low-income communities. The development of recipes to promote the inclusion of undissolved fibre from the soymilk extraction process (okara in dishes prepared at household level, such as bread, is recommended. Navorsing het beduidende proteïen en minder ernstige

  1. An Empirical Analysis of Rural-Urban Differences in Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditures in a Low-Income Society of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Wang

    Full Text Available The paper examines whether out-of-pocket health care expenditure also has regional discrepancies, comparing to the equity between urban and rural areas, and across households.Sampled data were derived from Urban Household Survey and Rural Household Survey data for 2011/2012 for Anhui Province, and 11049 households were included in this study. The study compared differences in out-of-pocket expenditure on health care between regions (urban vs. rural areas and years (2011 vs. 2012 using two-sample t-test, and also investigated the degree of inequality using Lorenz and concentration curves.Approximately 5% and 8% of total household consumption expenditure was spent on health care for urban and rural populations, respectively. In 2012, the wealthiest 20% of urban and rural population contributed 49.7% and 55.8% of urban and rural total health expenditure respectively, while the poorest 20% took only 4.7% and 4.4%. The concentration curve for out-of-pocket expenditure in 2012 fell below the corresponding concentration curve for 2011 for both urban and rural areas, and the difference between curves for rural areas was greater than that for urban areas.A substantial and increasing gap in health care expenditures existed between urban and rural areas in Anhui. The health care financing inequality merits ample attention, with need for policymaking to focus on improving the accessibility to essential health care services, particularly for rural and poor residents. This study may provide useful information on low income areas of China.

  2. Information and Communication Technology Use Among Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women by Race and Ethnicity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice Lynn; Lawson, Shari; Ehsanipoor, Robert; Costigan, Kathleen; Polk, Sarah; Bennett, Wendy

    2015-07-03

    interventions to low-income, racially diverse pregnant and postpartum women, but disparities in Internet use and SMS text messaging exist. Interventions or programs requiring Web-based apps may have lower uptake unless alternatives are available, such as those adapted for limited English proficiency populations.

  3. Influence of Leisure Competence and Level of Leisure Activity on Life Satisfaction in Low-Income Older Adults in Rural South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihea; Choi, Jung A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationships among leisure competence, level of leisure activity, and life satisfaction in low-income older adults in rural South Korea. A sample of 137 older adults answered the study questionnaire, and significant differences in leisure competence were noted depending on age, religion, and perceived health status as well as level of leisure activity based on perceived health status and type of leisure activities. There were also notable differences in life satisfaction regarding religion and perceived health status, and a correlation among leisure competence, level of leisure activity, and life satisfaction; the influencing power of leisure competence and level of leisure activity on life satisfaction was 47%. The findings suggest that enhancement of older adults' leisure competence may increase participation in leisure activities. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(2):67-75.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. The impact of a museum travelling exhibition on middle school teachers and students from rural, low-income homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United States responded to a travelling museum exhibition hosted at a non-museum site. The authors explore the impact of the exhibition on students from poor, rural backgrounds, discussing how it helped them to engage with themes such as freedom of expression, democracy, citizenship and Holocaust education. The results show that, by connecting curricular content with real-life situations, field trips such as this have the potential to change not only students' understanding of the curriculum, but also their teachers' estimation of their abilities.

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a rural, physically active, low income population in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinidiyapathirage M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, physically active, economically deprived population in Sri Lanka. Methods By visiting individual households in the community, 35-64 year old adults resident in two selected estates in the Nuwara Eliya District of Sri Lanka, were invited to participate in the study. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made on all participants. Blood samples were obtained for the assay of fasting glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin and alanine aminotransferase. NAFLD was diagnosed on established ultrasound criteria for fatty liver in the absence of hepatitis B and C markers and high alcohol consumption. Results Of those invited, 403 (65% participated in the study. Almost all participants were either Indian or Sri Lankan Tamils and 53% were females. Prevalence of NAFLD was 18% in this population. Twice as many males were diagnosed as having NAFLD compared to females. Male sex, high BMI, high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure and high plasma glucose levels were significant predictors of NAFLD. Conclusion Nearly one in five people in this predominantly Indian Tamil, rural, physically active, economically deprived population had NAFLD. The condition was associated with constituent features of the metabolic syndrome. These results support studies reporting ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and suggest that genetic factors may also play a role in determining disease risk.

  6. A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Positive Action Program in a Low-Income, Racially Diverse, Rural County: Effects on Self-Esteem, School Hassles, Aggression, and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shenyang; Wu, Qi; Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L

    2015-12-01

    Positive Action is a school-based program that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., school engagement, academic achievement). Although a number of studies have shown that Positive Action successfully achieves these goals, few studies have evaluated the program's effectiveness in rural schools. Given that rural youth are at an increased risk for risky behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use), this is a critical gap in the existing Positive Action research base. The current study assesses the impact of Positive Action on change rates of self-esteem, school hassles, aggression, and internalizing symptoms in a group (N = 1246, 52% female) of ethnically/racially diverse (27% White, 23% African American, 12% mixed race/other, 8% Latino, 30% as American Indian) middle school youth (age range 9-20) located in two violent, low-income rural counties in North Carolina. One county engaged in Positive Action over the 3-year study window while the other county did not. Following multiple imputation and propensity score analysis, 4 two-level hierarchical linear models were run using each of the outcome measures as dependent variables. The results indicate that the program generates statistically significant beneficial effects for youth from the intervention county on self-esteem scores and school hassles scores. Although the program generates beneficial effects for intervention youth on the change in aggression scores, the finding is not statistically significant. The finding on the change in internalizing scores shows a non-significant detrimental effect: the youth from the comparison county have lower internalizing scores than those from the intervention county. Implications are discussed.

  7. The Regional Asthma Disease Management Program (RADMP) for low income underserved children in rural western North Carolina: a National Asthma Control Initiative Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Melinda S; Yeatts, Karin B; Russell, Donald W; Trees, Amy S; Sutherland, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of low-income children with asthma living in rural western North Carolina have suboptimal asthma management. To address the needs of these underserved children, we developed and implemented the Regional Asthma Disease Management Program (RADMP); RADMP was selected as one of 13 demonstration projects for the National Asthma Control Initiative (NACI). This observational intervention was conducted from 2009 to 2011 in 20 rural counties and the Eastern Band Cherokee Indian Reservation in western North Carolina. Community and individual intervention components included asthma education in-services and environmental assessments/remediation. The individual intervention also included clinical assessment and management. Environmental remediation was conducted in 13 childcare facilities and 50 homes; over 259 administrative staff received asthma education. Fifty children with mild to severe persistent asthma were followed for up to 2 years; 76% were enrolled in Medicaid. From 12-month pre-intervention to 12-month post-intervention, the total number of asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits decreased from 158 to 4 and hospital admissions from 62 to 1 (p < 0.0001). From baseline to intervention completion, lung function FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75 increased by 7.2%, 13.2% and 21.1%, respectively (all p < 0.001), and average school absences dropped from 17 to 8.8 days. Healthcare cost avoided 12 months post-intervention were approximately $882,021. The RADMP program resulted in decreased ED visits, hospitalizations, school absences and improved lung function and eNO. This was the first NACI demonstration project to show substantial improvements in healthcare utilization and clinical outcomes among rural asthmatic children.

  8. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  9. Meta-analysis to estimate the load of Leptospira excreted in urine: beyond rats as important sources of transmission in low-income rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Veronica; Nieto, Nathan; Keim, Paul; Pearson, Talima

    2017-01-28

    Leptospirosis is a major zoonotic disease with widespread distribution and a large impact on human health. Carrier animals excrete pathogenic Leptospira primarily in their urine. Infection occurs when the pathogen enters a host through mucosa or small skin abrasions. Humans and other animals are exposed to the pathogen by direct contact with urine, contaminated soil or water. While many factors influence environmental cycling and the transmission of Leptospira to humans, the load of pathogenic Leptospira in the environment is likely to play a major role. Peridomestic rats are often implicated as a potential source of human disease; however exposure to other animals is a risk factor as well. The aim of this report is to highlight the importance of various carrier animals in terms of the quantity of Leptospira shed into the environment. For this, we performed a systematic literature review and a meta-analysis of the amount of pathogen that various animal species shed in their urine. The quantity of pathogen has been reported for cows, deer, dogs, humans, mice, and rats, in a total of 14 research articles. We estimated the average Leptospira per unit volume shed by each animal species, and the daily environmental contribution by considering the total volume of urine excreted by each carrier animal. Rats excrete the highest quantity of Leptospira per millilitre of urine (median = 5.7 × 10 6  cells), but large mammals excrete much more urine and thus shed significantly more Leptospira per day (5.1 × 10 8 to 1.3 × 10 9  cells). Here we illustrate how, in a low-income rural Ecuadorian community, host population demographics, and prevalence of Leptospira infection can be integrated with estimates of shed Leptospira to suggest that peridomestic cattle may be more important than rats in environmental cycling and ultimately, transmission to humans.

  10. Food sources and intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in low-income countries with emphasis on infants, young children (6-24 months), and pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Dewey, Kathryn G; Perez-Exposito, Ana B; Nurhasan, Mulia; Lauritzen, Lotte; Roos, Nanna

    2011-04-01

    With increasing interest in the potential effects of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in early life, there is a need for data on the dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in low-income countries. This review compiles information on the content in breast milk and in foods that are important in the diets of low-income countries from the few studies available. We also estimate the availability of fat and fatty acids in 13 low-income and middle-income countries based on national food balance sheets from the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database (FOASTAT). Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid content is very low in populations living mainly on a plant-based diet, but higher in fish-eating countries. Per capita supply of fat and n-3 fatty acids increases markedly with increasing gross domestic product (GDP). In most of the 13 countries, 70-80% of the supply of PUFA comes from cereals and vegetable oils, some of which have very low α-linolenic acid (ALA) content. The total n-3 fatty acid supply is below or close to the lower end of the recommended intake range [0.4%E (percentage of energy supply)] for infants and young children, and below the minimum recommended level (0.5%E) for pregnant and lactating women in the nine countries with the lowest GDP. Fish is important as a source of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, but intake is low in many countries. The supply of n-3 fatty acids can be increased by using vegetable oils with higher ALA content (e.g. soybean or rapeseed oil) and by increasing fish production (e.g. through fish farming). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Insurance coverage and prenatal care among low-income pregnant women: an assessment of states' adoption of the "Unborn Child" option in Medicaid and CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian P; Bennett, Wendy L; Barry, Colleen L; Bleich, Sara N

    2014-01-01

    The "Unborn Child" (UC) option provides state Medicaid/Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) programs with a new strategy to extend prenatal coverage to low-income women who would otherwise have difficulty enrolling in or would be ineligible for Medicaid. To examine the association of the UC option with the probability of enrollment in Medicaid/CHIP during pregnancy and probability of receiving adequate prenatal care. We use pooled cross-sectional data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 32 states between 2004 and 2010 (n = 81,983). Multivariable regression is employed to examine the association of the UC option with Medicaid/CHIP enrollment during pregnancy among eligible women who were uninsured preconception (n = 45,082) and those who had insurance (but not Medicaid) preconception (n = 36,901). Multivariable regression is also employed to assess the association between the UC option and receipt of adequate prenatal care, measured by the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Residing in a state with the UC option is associated with a greater probability of Medicaid enrollment during pregnancy relative to residing in a state without the policy both among women uninsured preconception (88% vs. 77%, P option is not significantly associated with receiving adequate prenatal care, among both women with and without insurance preconception. The UC option provides states a key way to expand or simplify prenatal insurance coverage, but further policy efforts are needed to ensure that coverage improves access to high-quality prenatal care.

  12. Utilization of HIV testing services among pregnant mothers in low income primary care settings in northern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Ambaw, Fentie; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2017-06-24

    HIV testing of women in child bearing age is an entry point for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT). This study aims to identify the proportion of women tested for HIV and to determine factors associated with utilization of HIV testing services among pregnant mothers in primary care settings in northern Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted in 416 pregnant women from four primary care centers between October 2, 2012 and May 31, 2013 in East Gojjam, Ethiopia. The proportion of mothers who tested for HIV was 277(67%). Among mothers who were not tested for HIV, lack of HIV risk perception (n = 68, 49%) was a major self-reported barrier for HIV testing. A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that those pregnant women who had comprehensive knowledge about MTCT had an Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) of 3.73 (95% CI: 1.56, 8.94), having comprehensive knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV an AOR of 2.56 (95% CI: 1.26, 5.19), and a favorable attitude towards persons living with HIV an AOR of 2.42 (95%CI, 1.20, 4.86) were more likely to be tested for HIV. One third of pregnant women had never been tested for HIV until the time of the study. Efforts should be made to improve mother's knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT to increase uptake of HIV testing. Enhancing mother's HIV risk perception to scale up HIV testing in resource limited setting is highly recommended.

  13. High prevalence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections among human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women in a low-income South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudau, Maanda; Peters, Remco P; De Vos, Lindsey; Olivier, Dawie H; J Davey, Dvora; Mkwanazi, Edwin S; McIntyre, James A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of evidence on the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected pregnant women in two healthcare facilities in a South African township to determine the prevalence of CT, NG and TV. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited during the first antenatal care visit for their current pregnancy and requested to self-collect vulvovaginal swab specimens. Specimens were tested for CT, NG and TV using the Xpert® assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Of 247 tested for CT, NG and TV, 47.8% tested positive for at least one organism; CT = 36.8%, TV = 23.9%, NG = 6.9%. Forty three (17.4%) had multiple infections, of which 42 included CT as one of the infecting organisms. Of the 118 participants who tested positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI), 23.7% reported STI-like symptoms. Among women who tested positive for CT, 29.7% reported symptoms while 47.1 and 27.1% of those who tested positive for NG and TV, respectively, reported symptoms. The high STI prevalence coupled with the low symptom prevalence among infected individuals justifies the use of diagnostic screening approaches rather than syndromic management of STIs in this setting.

  14. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  15. Electric power generation using photovoltaic solar cells for low income rural population; Geracao de energia eletrica com celula solar fotovoltaica para populacao rural de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldi, Andre Fava; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    With the growing electric energy use demand and almost not expansion of the energy mesh (basically composed by hydroelectric plants) existing in the country, several others methods of alternative energy generation may be necessary. Beyond that, the usually employed energy is becoming much more costly, rarer and politically more impracticable like burn fuels as oil and coal. The use of renewable approaches of energy, that are 'infinite' energies (as the wind and the light of the sun, for example), can become an excellent alternative. In this new energy group, the solar energy transformed by the use of photo voltage cells is becoming very important. The 'clear' solar radiation tends to be a more intelligent and practical option, and the future technology of energy storage will be able to solve the problem of the regions that have less sunny days. Its main advantages on the other alternative sources of energy are the trustworthiness and the previsibility. Its biggest disadvantage consists on the fact that technical limitations can not allow a solar energy generator to distribute electricity for a city. It is interesting to notice that with the development of projects as this in alternative energy, isolated areas that does not access electricity distribution network (as some far regions), it has become the most viable option of generation of electric energy. Another point is that even with the distribution network it has to be checked if it is possible to use this electricity consulting the company credential that work at those localities of consumption. Moreover, many regions of the country already installed the solar energy system for water heating, confirming that, the existing structure allows the installation of a a solar cells generation energy system without many problems. In this project, we introduce a method for electric energy generation by solar cells for rural population of low gains. This option uses low cost materials but with a good

  16. What are pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To date, studies have sought cause and effect and have neglected the opinion of the people about what they perceive to be problematic and what they believe constitutes satisfactory maternity service provision. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...

  17. Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community of ... ours, it is a common cause of anaemia in pregnancy in both immune and non-immune ... Apart from the use of nets, drugs and vector control, the prevention of malaria in ...

  18. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  19. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and fasting blood glucose level: A population-based cross-sectional study among low-income adults in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liu; Bai, Lingling; Shi, Min; Ni, Jingxian; Lu, Hongyan; Wu, Yanan; Tu, Jun; Ning, Xianjia; Wang, Jinghua; Li, Yukun

    2017-11-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is an established predictor of cardiovascular disease and stroke. We aimed to identify the association between CIMT and blood glucose, as well as the risk factors associated with increased CIMT in a low-income Chinese population. Stroke-free and cardiovascular disease-free residents aged ≥45 years were recruited. B-mode ultrasonography was carried out to measure CIMT. There were 2,643 participants (71.0%) in the normal group, 549 (14.7%) in the impaired fasting glucose group and 533 (14.3%) in the diabetes mellitus group. The determinants of increased CIMT were older age; male sex; low education; hypertension; smoking; high levels of systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and low levels of diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, after adjusting for covariates. Age and hypertension were the common risk factors for increased CIMT in all three groups. Furthermore, male sex, smoking and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were positively associated with the mean CIMT in the normal group; high triglycerides levels were negatively associated with the mean CIMT in the impaired fasting glucose group; and alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for mean CIMT in the diabetes mellitus group. Hypertension was the greatest risk factor for increased CIMT. These findings suggest that it is crucial to manage and control traditional risk factors in low-income populations in China in order to decelerate the recent dramatic increase in stroke incidence, and to reduce the burden of stroke. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  1. Ways to use and building solar heating with reusable materials in rural and urban low-income communities; Formas de utilizacao e construcao de aquecedores solares com materiais reaproveitaveis em comunidades rurais e urbana de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida; Putti, Fernando Ferrari [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil); Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Cremasco, Camila Pires [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Caneppele, Fernando de Lima [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos; Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Itapeva, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    The search for cleaner energy sources, gave rise to the solar heaters, which are the most widely used systems in energy savings for heating water, but due to its high investment cost, this device becomes inaccessible to low-income communities. Noting the demand for low cost system for these communities, the project aimed to promote the scientific dissemination in academia and the population to build solar heaters composed of recyclable packaging such as milk cartons and bottles pet. and due to large populations still residing in rural areas, this becomes feasible, because it is a small-scale system and easy construction and because of this facility may be disseminated among the neighbouring owners, and can be used for domestic use, as well as in rural utensils hygiene. For the realization of the project, the prototypes were developed in the interior of the Sao Paulo cities and rural properties. The courses will aim the dissemination and the methods to be carried out the construction of the systems and the end was carried out a questionnaire, which sought to verify the effective deployment and construction in residential properties. From the present study seeks to start a deployment of these types of systems at State level, and aims to create public policies for the promotion of their actual deployment in all cities in the State from this project. (author)

  2. A CROSS-SECTIONAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON CUTANEOUS DISEASES IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS BELONGING TO LOW INCOME GROUP FAMILIES ATTENDING PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES AT BANGALORE RURAL, SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Chandrashekar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The incidence and the spectrum of paediatric dermatological diseases vary from one part of the world to another.1 Skin diseases, though very common in many developing countries are not often regarded as a significant health problem.2 Majority of the skin diseases tend to occur in children under the age of 5 years. This high prevalence could be due to the lower immunity or higher frequency of hospital visits by infants due to greater parental care. The aim of the study is to compare the present spectrum of cutaneous disorders between two age groups of children less than 5 years and 5-14 years old and their correlation with socioeconomic status attending primary health centre, Bangalore rural, south. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 22 to November 22, 2017, in children with skin disorders under 14 years old who attended primary health centre at Bangarappanagar and Uttarahalli in Bangalore. RESULTS A total of 522 children with skin diseases, 486 children were included in the study and they were divided into two groups of those less than 5 years with the sex ratio (M:F 1.5:1 and 5-14 years old with the sex ratio (M:F 1.3:1. The most common dermatological disease among less than 5 years age group was infections, eczema, infestations and pigmentary disorders and the most common dermatological diseases between 5-14 years was infections, scabies, eczema and acne. CONCLUSION Skin problems mainly scabies, tinea, impetigo and eczema were common in children who attended the primary health centres at Bangalore rural. There is a high prevalence of communicable diseases among children belonging to parents of low socioeconomic status. Community health education regarding personal hygiene coupled with that of the surrounding environment can help in controlling these diseases in the long run.

  3. Analysis of the feasibility of solar heating systems composite for packaging recyclable for use in rural low income; Analise da viabilidade economica de sistemas de aquecedores solares compostos por embalagens reciclaveis para utilizacao em comunidades rurais de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida; Maiochi, Tamara; Pereira, Danilo F.; Magalhaes, Marcelo M. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil)], email: gabrielfilho@tupa.unesp.br; Cremasco, Camila P. [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioestatistica

    2011-07-01

    Solar heaters are an appropriate technology for tropical and sub tropical to warm bath water through the energy in sunlight. The development of conventional solar heaters is in the market and its acceptance is still low due to high cost. However, low-cost solar heaters have been developed in recent years to meet a consumer demand that currently do not have access to this technology, especially low-income rural communities. The aim of this study was to analyze the economic feasibility of solar water heaters built with recyclable materials (plastic bottles and milk cartons) through the consequent reduction of sales of electricity. For development work, a heater was built with recyclable materials in accordance with the manuals provided by the Department of the Environment of Parana (SEMA) and found time to use electric showers by families of rural properties in order to determine the costs and billing of electricity. By spending on materials, we concluded that the system was feasible, with amortization over 13 months in fixed installments of R$ 23.79. (author)

  4. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  5. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income children...

  6. curity in low-income rural communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 40, 2012 .... South Africa-Netherlands Research Pro- gramme on ... text and level of use (Kuzwayo, 2008:173; Pelle- tier et al ... that influence food availability and access, as ... effect as far as possible (Radimer et al, 1992; .... during the process.

  7. the unbooked pregnant woman: experience from a rural tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    pregnant women who presented at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital over a five year period. Five ... of preventive medicine and an important component of maternal health. The range of activities covered by ANC includes nutrition,.

  8. Pregnancy-related health information-seeking behaviors among rural pregnant women in India: validating the Wilson model in the Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima

    2014-09-01

    Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families. Our study can help inform policies and multi

  9. Cancer Outcomes in Low-Income Elders

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Cancer Outcomes in Low-Income Elders, Is There An Advantage to Being on Medicaid Because of reduced financial barriers, dual Medicare-Medicaid enrollment of...

  10. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  11. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  12. Occupational and Educational Goals of Low Income Children in Kentucky, 1969 and 1975. RS-49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Anne V.; Coleman, A. Lee

    Changes in the occupational and educational aspirations and expectations of fifth and sixth grade children over a 6-year period were studied. In 1969, a questionnaire was administered to 355 students from 4 rural mountain schools and 3 urban schools in low-income areas in 3 Kentucky counties. In 1975, 199 students from the same rural mountain…

  13. Drug use behaviour of pregnant women in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)

  14. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  15. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  16. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Melonie M; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Turan, Janet M

    2013-12-02

    Women's ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and implementation of programs geared at promoting HIV

  17. Preconception Health Behaviors of Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Adejoke B; Sneller, Krista; Ebeye, Tega D; Dykstra, Megan Jongekrijg; Ellens, Victoria L; Lee, HaEun Grace; Zandee, Gail L

    2016-01-01

    Preconception behaviors have a significant impact on birth outcomes, particularly among low-income minority groups, and women with unplanned pregnancies. This study examined women's perceived health status and behaviors such as drinking, smoking, exercise, and use of multivitamins and folic acid. This was a descriptive study based on a convenience sample of women living in urban underserved neighborhoods. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted using STATA 13. The sample consisted of 123 women ages 18 to 51 years (mean = 30.57); 51.22% were Hispanic, 36.59% African American, and 12.2% Caucasian. Over 70% had a household income of less than $20,000, 57.72% had no health insurance in the last year, and 58.54% were not married. These women were below the Healthy People 2020 goals for drinking, smoking, and multivitamin use, especially those who were planning to get pregnant in the next 6 months or not sure of their pregnancy planning status. There were no significant differences on any of the preconception health behavior variables based on pregnancy intention. Nurses and healthcare providers should emphasize importance of practicing healthy behaviors during the preconception period among low-income ethnic minority women specifically those living in urban medically underserved areas who are unsure of their pregnancy planning status or are at risk of unintended pregnancy.

  18. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...... of pneumonia and asthma/wheezing/bronchiolitis and examines whether asthma in under-5s may be confused with pneumonia. Over-diagnosing of bacterial pneumonia can be suspected from the limited association between clinical pneumonia and confirmatory test results such as chest x-ray and microbiological findings...... and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...

  19. Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Da-Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1 to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test. Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test. Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.

  20. Coping with low incomes and cold homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Will; White, Vicki; Finney, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of low-income households in Great Britain which explored households’ strategies for coping both with limited financial resources in the winter months, when demand for domestic energy increases, and, in some cases, with cold homes. The study combined a national survey of 699 households with an income below 60 per cent of national median income with in-depth interviews with a subsample of 50 households. The primary strategy adopted by low-income households to cope with financial constraint was to reduce spending, including spending on essentials such as food and fuel, and thereby keep up with core financial commitments. While spending on food was usually reduced by cutting the range and quality of food purchased, spending on energy was usually reduced by cutting consumption. Sixty-three per cent of low-income households had cut their energy consumption in the previous winter and 47 per cent had experienced cold homes. Improvements to the thermal performance of homes reduced but did not eliminate the risk of going cold as any heating cost could be a burden to households on the lowest incomes. Householders’ attitudes were central to their coping strategies, with most expressing a determination to ‘get by’ come what may.

  1. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria have higher rates of antiretroviral treatment initiation, but similar loss to follow-up as non-pregnant women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H

    2015-11-01

    We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both pPregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; pPregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Facilitating HIV status disclosure for pregnant women and partners in rural Kenya: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Women’s ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. Methods This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. Results We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Conclusion Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and

  3. Effects of low income on infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Louise; Xu, Qian; Potvin, Louise; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2003-06-10

    Few population-based studies have analyzed the link between poverty and infant morbidity. In this study, we wanted to determine whether inadequate income itself has an impact on infant health. We interviewed 2223 mothers of 5-month-old children participating in the 1998 phase of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development to determine their infant's health and the sociodemographic characteristics of the household (including household income, breast-feeding and the smoking habits of the mother). Data on the health of the infants at birth were taken from medical records. We examined the effects of household income using Statistics Canada definitions of sufficient (above the low-income threshold), moderately inadequate (between 60% and 99% of the low-income threshold) and inadequate (below 60% of the low-income threshold) income on the mother's assessment of her child's overall health, her report of her infant's chronic health problems and her report of the number of times, if any, her child had been admitted to hospital since birth. In the analysis, we controlled for factors known to affect infant health: infant characteristics and neonatal health problems, the mother's level of education, the presence or absence of a partner, the duration of breast-feeding and the mother's smoking status. Compared with infants in households with sufficient incomes, those in households with lower incomes were more likely to be judged by their mothers to be in less than excellent health (moderately inadequate incomes: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1; very inadequate incomes: adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). Infants in households with moderately inadequate incomes were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) than those in households with sufficient incomes, but the same was not true of infants in households with very inadequate incomes (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). Household income did not

  4. Seroprevalence study of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women referred to Aleshtar rural and urban health centers in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh Cheraghi pour

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the a parasitic infectious caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause abortion or fetus damage in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis (IgG & IgM among the pregnant women referred to Aleshtar rural and urban health centers in 2008. Materials and Methods: Total 331 blood samples were collected from 204 urban and 127 rural pregnant wemon referred to rural and urban health centers of Aleshtar. After recording their information in the questionnaire and preparation of sample, all samples were evaluated with IgG- and IgM-ELISA to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: In this study seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in urban and rural pregnant women were 36/2% and 44%, respectively. And 11. 2% of the urban and 9. 4% of the rural women suffered from acute Toxoplasma infection while 25% and 34. 6% of the urban and the rural cases had chronic infection, respectively. The results of analysis showed that there were significant relationships between seropositivity (IgG and IgM and education level, age, contact with raw meat, contact with cat, kind of food, washing vegetables, consumption of vegetables and milk in both urban and rural pregnant women (p<0. 05. There was no significant difference between seropositivity and other variables. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the high level of education and preferment health awareness can reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis. Nevertheless, %60. 8 of the pregnant women in this study didn’t have previous history of toxoplasma infection and are exposed to primary infectin and acute disease. Therefore, preventive measures and controlled programs are necessary.

  5. Diet intake trends among pregnant women in rural area of rawalpindi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quresshi, Z; Khan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Adequate and healthy diet during pregnancy is essential for the health of both mother and new-born. This study was designed to know the health status of pregnant women and new-born by determining food taking habits of pregnant women. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on pregnant women of 2nd and 3rd trimester in a rural area of district Rawalpindi. Food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary recall methods were used to identify their food consumption practices. Analysis was done by SPSS, while Nutrisurvey software was used to check the presence of Vitamin A, C, and Iron in specific fruits or vegetables. Results: A total of 110 pregnant women participated in the study. Most of them were illiterate, had low household income, and unemployed. Intake of meal frequency was according to the standards of Institute of Medicine (IOM), but food group consumption was not according to the recommendations of the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA). Most participants 102 (93.2%) knew that food is important during pregnancy. However a increase in frequency intake was observed in 63 (57.3%); while, 19 (17.3%) reported no change in food intake practices. About 67 (61%) were taking some sort of dietary supplements. Avoidance of any food 24 (22%), intake of additional food 51 (46%), craving 86 (78%), and aversion to any sort of food 42 (38%) was also identified in the study sample. No significant association was found between food group consumption, food availability and accessibility. Dietary diversity score, calculated according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines, indicated that about half study participants were not consuming adequate food. Conclusion: Study results show that food intake practices of pregnant women in the study area were not satisfactory. (author)

  6. Retention in care of HIV-infected pregnant and lactating women starting ART under Option B+ in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenas-García, Jara; Wikman-Jorgensen, Philip; Hobbins, Michael; Mussa, Manuel Aly; Ehmer, Jochen; Keiser, Olivia; Mbofana, Francisco; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, Mozambique adopted Option B+, universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and lactating women, as national strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We analysed retention in care of pregnant and lactating women starting Option B+ in rural northern Mozambique. We compared ART outcomes in pregnant ('B+ pregnant'), lactating ('B+ lactating') and non-pregnant non-lactating women of childbearing age starting ART according to clinical and/or immunological criteria ('own health') between July 2013 and June 2014. Lost to follow-up was defined as no contact >180 days after the last visit. Multivariable competing risk models were adjusted for type of facility (type 1 vs. peripheral type 2 health centre), age, WHO stage and time from HIV diagnosis to ART. Over 333 person-years of follow-up (243 'B+ pregnant', 65'B+ lactating' and 317 'own health' women), 3.7% of women died and 48.5% were lost to follow-up. 'B+ pregnant' and 'B+ lactating' women were more likely to be lost in the first year (57% vs. 56.9% vs. 31.6%; P pregnant' (adjusted subhazard ratio [asHR]: 2.77; 95% CI: 2.18-3.50; P HIV in rural settings with weak health systems will depend on specific improvements in counselling and retention measures, especially at the beginning of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 77 FR 65139 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ...-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY... amend its low-income credit unions regulation by extending the time credit unions have to accept a low- income designation. Under the current rule, an FCU that has received notification from NCUA that it...

  8. 78 FR 4030 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY... amending its low-income credit unions regulation by extending the time period in which a federal credit union (FCU) may accept a low-income designation. Under the current rule, an FCU that receives notice...

  9. Supporting and including children from low income families

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, FD

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores: • What we mean by low income and poverty and how poverty is defined • The families living on low income in the UK today and the impact of low income and poverty on children’s well-being, development and learning • Supporting children from low income families • The attainment gap between children from low income backgrounds and their peers • The pupil premium and how schools have used the extra funding to raise attainment • Key aspects of good practice and what schools c...

  10. Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair J. Wylie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of pesticides by households in rural Ghana is common for residential pest control, agricultural use, and for the reduction of vectors carrying disease. However, few data are available about exposure to pesticides among this population. Our objective was to quantify urinary concentrations of metabolites of organophosphate (OP, pyrethroid, and select herbicides during pregnancy, and to explore exposure determinants. In 2014, 17 pregnant women from rural Ghana were surveyed about household pesticide use and provided weekly first morning urine voids during three visits (n = 51 samples. A total of 90.1% (46/51 of samples had detectable OP metabolites [geometric mean, GM (95% CI: 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol 0.54 µg/L (0.36–0.81, para-nitrophenol 0.71 µg/L (0.51–1.00], 75.5% (37/49 had detectable pyrethroid metabolites [GM: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid 0.23 µg/L (0.17, 0.32], and 70.5% (36/51 had detectable 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid levels, a herbicide [GM: 0.46 µg/L (0.29–0.73]. Concentrations of para-nitrophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Ghanaian pregnant women appear higher when compared to nonpregnant reproductive-aged women in a reference U.S. population. Larger studies are necessary to more fully explore predictors of exposure in this population.

  11. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Results Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day. Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%, compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P Conclusion The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  12. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Lu, Li; Jun, Ye Xue; Mei, Wang Hong

    2007-03-04

    This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day). Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%), compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P opportunity costs, including in terms of healthcare access. The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  13. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women from Rural Area of Latur District of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Jojan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteriuria is a significant cause of morbidity in pregnant women affecting both mother and fetus. Institution of rational antibiotic treatment on the basis of screening helps to reduce further morbidity. Aim and Objectives: To find out the prevalence of urinary tract infections in asymptomatic pregnant women and to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolated bacteria to guide the treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 mid-stream urine samples from Asymptomatic Antenatal Care (ANC cases were screened for significant bacteriuria by using standard procedures. The bacterial isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility studies. Results: Significant bacteriuria was found positive in 23% cases. It was more common in the age group 18 to 25 years (91.30%, and during 2nd trimester (47.82%. S. aureus (82.60% was found to be themost common uropathogen. Imipenem and meropenem (82.60% each were found to be most effective antimicrobial agents. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is a notable increase in the prevalence of uropathogens resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents in rural areas also. The results also emphasize the importance of screening for significant bacteriuria in asymptomatic pregnant women.

  14. Syphilis screening among 27,150 pregnant women in South Chinese rural areas using point-of-care tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Gang Yang

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China.Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA tests.Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphilis. 106 (0.39% syphilis cases were diagnosed, of which 78 (73.6% received treatment for syphilis. Multivariate analysis revealed that older pregnant women (31-35 years old, aOR 2.7, 95% CI 0.99-7.32; older than 35 years old, aOR 5.9, 95% CI 2.13-16.34 and those with a history of adverse pregnant outcomes (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.30-5.76 were more likely to be infected with syphilis.A high prevalence of syphilis exists among pregnant women living in rural areas of South China. Enhanced integration of syphilis screening with other routine women's health services (OB GYN, family planning may be useful for controlling China's syphilis epidemic.

  15. Travel patterns and characteristics of low-income subpopulation in New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuscher, Tim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lim, Hyeonsup [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that people residing in poverty face more mobility challenges in their daily travels as compared to those living in higher income households. In many cities, the lack of a public transportation systems and investments in low-income areas are making it difficult for those living in poverty to access jobs, goods, and services (schools, groceries, health cares, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of the travel behaviors and identify patterns and trends of the low-income residents within NYS. The 2009 National Household Travel Survey data was used as the primary information source to analyze subjects associated with poverty and mobility, as well as to address questions such as are there differences in traveler demographics between the low-income population and those of others who live in various NYS regions (e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS)? How do they compare with the population at large (e.g., rest of the country) or with findings from previous years (i.e., trend)? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the low-income group? Through this study, various key findings on low-income population sizes, household characteristics, travel patterns, and mobility limitations were identified and summarized in this report.

  16. "When a woman is pregnant, her grave is open": health beliefs concerning dietary practices among pregnant Kalenjin women in rural Uasin Gishu County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riang'a, Roselyter Monchari; Nangulu, Anne Kisaka; Broerse, Jacqueline E W

    2017-12-16

    Reducing malnutrition remains a major global challenge especially in low- and middle-income countries. Lack of knowledge on the motive of nutritional behaviour could ultimately cripple nutrition intervention outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate how health beliefs influence nutritional behaviour intention of the pregnant Kalenjin women of rural Uasin Gishu County in Kenya. The study findings provide useful information for culturally congruent nutrition counselling and intervention. In this qualitative study semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 pregnant and post-natal (with children less than one year) Kalenjin women in selected rural public health facilities of Uasin Gishu County Kenya. Furthermore, key informant interviews took place with 6 traditional birth attendants who were also pregnancy herbalists, two community health workers and one nursing officer in charge of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) for triangulation and provision of in-depth information. Content analysis of interview transcripts followed a grounded theory (Protection Motivation Theory) approach, using software MAXQDA version 12.1.3. Abstracted labour (big babies and lack of maternal strength), haemorrhage (low blood), or having other diseases and complications (evil or bad food) were the major perceived health threats that influence nutritional behaviour intention of the pregnant Kalenjin women in rural Uasin Gishu County in Kenya. The pregnancy nutritional behaviour and practices of the Kalenjin women in rural Uasin Gishu County act as an adaptive response to the perceived health threats, which seem to be within the agency of pregnant women. As a result, just giving antenatal nutritional counselling without addressing these key health assumptions that underlie a successful pregnancy outcome is unlikely to lead to changes in nutritional behaviour.

  17. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Turan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV. We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n=2 groups and in-depth interviews (n=25 with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37% reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa.

  18. Perceptions of low-income African-American mothers about excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J; Henry, Tasmia Q; Klotz, Alicia A; Foster, Gary D; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    A rising number of low-income African-American mothers gain more weight in pregnancy than is recommended, placing them at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. Little is known about the perceptions of mothers in this population that may influence excessive gestational weight gain. In 2010-2011, we conducted 4 focus groups with 31 low-income, pregnant African-Americans in Philadelphia. Two readers independently coded the focus group transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 9 themes around perceptions that encouraged or discouraged high gestational weight gain. Mothers attributed high weight gain to eating more in pregnancy, which was the result of being hungrier and the belief that consuming more calories while pregnant was essential for babies' health. Family members, especially participants own mothers, strongly reinforced the need to "eat for two" to make a healthy baby. Mothers and their families recognized the link between poor fetal outcomes and low weight gains but not higher gains, and thus, most had a greater pre-occupation with too little food intake and weight gain rather than too much. Having physical symptoms from overeating and weight retention after previous pregnancies were factors that discouraged higher gains. Overall, low-income African-American mothers had more perceptions encouraging high gestational weight gain than discouraging it. Interventions to prevent excessive weight gain need to be sensitive to these perceptions. Messages that link guideline recommended weight gain to optimal infant outcomes and mothers' physical symptoms may be most effective for weight control.

  19. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  20. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  1. 75 FR 8392 - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-11] Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Lists the Following Information Title Of Proposal: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database. Omb...

  2. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  3. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... family income at or below 200 percent of the Federal poverty line for a family of the size involved; (ii... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child. (a...

  4. Poject Managment Approach to Public Low Income Housing. | Ogbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research assesses the impacts of project management (PM) variables on the socio-economic formation of public low-income housing (LIH) users in Abia and ... socio-economic impact of public low income housing (LIH) and the PM variables: project scope control (PS), project planning (PPC), project cost control (PC), ...

  5. Boosting antenatal care attendance and number of hospital deliveries among pregnant women in rural communities: a community initiative in Ghana based on mobile phones applications and portable ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Benjamin; Anto, Evelyn A; Osei, Prince K; Pieterson, Kojo; Crimi, Alessandro

    2016-06-14

    The World Health Organization has recommended at least four antenatal care (ANC) visits and skilled attendants at birth. Most pregnant women in rural communities in low-income countries do not achieve the minimum recommended visits and deliver without skilled attendants. With the aim of increasing number of ANC visits, reducing home deliveries, and supplementing care given by ANC clinics, a proposed system based on low-cost mobile phones and portable ultrasound scan machines was piloted. A sample of 323 pregnant women from four rural communities in the Central Region of Ghana were followed within a 11-month project. In each community, at least one health worker was trained and equipped with a mobile phone to promote ANC and hospital deliveries in her own community. If women cannot attend ANC, technicians acquired scans by using portable ultrasound machines in her community directly and sent them almost in real time to be analyzed by a gynecologist in an urban hospital. A preliminary survey to assess ANC status preceding the pilot study was conducted. During this, one hundred women who had had pregnancies within five years prior to the study were interviewed. The preliminary survey showed that women who attended ANC were less likely to have a miscarriage and more likely to have delivery at hospital or clinic than those who did not, and women who attained at least four ANC visits were less likely to practice self-medication. Among the women involved in the project, 40 gave birth during the period of observation. The proposed prenatal care approach showed that 62.5 % of pregnant women who gave birth during the observation period included in the project (n=40) had their labor attended in clinics or hospitals as against 37.5 % among the cases reported in the pre-survey. One case of ectopic and two cases of breech pregnancies were detected during the pilot through the proposed approach, and appropriate medical interventions were sought. Our results show that the proposed

  6. Designing Low-Income Housing Using Local Architectural Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumansyahjaya, K.; Tatura, L. S.

    2018-02-01

    The provision of houses for low-income people who do not have a home worthy of being one of the major problems in the city of Gorontalo, because the community in establishing the house only pay attention to their wants and needs in creating a healthy environment, the beauty of the city and the planning of the home environment in accordance with the culture of the people of Gorontalo. In relation to the condition, the focus of this research is the design of housing based on local architecture as residential house so that it can be reached by a group of low income people with house and environment form determined based on family development, social and economic development of society and environment which take into account the local culture. Stages of this research includes five (5) stages, including the identification phase characteristics Gorontalo people of low income, the characteristics of the identification phase house inhabited by low-income people, the stage of identification preference low-income households, the phase formation house prototype and the environment, as well as the stage of formation model home for low-income people. Analysis of the model homes for low-income people using descriptive analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, and discrimination analysis to produce a prototype of the house and its surroundings. The prototype is then reanalyzed to obtain the model home for low-income people in the city of Gorontalo. The shape of a model home can be used as a reference for developers of housing intended for low-income people so that housing is provided to achieve the goals and the desired target group.

  7. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  8. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments can provide benefits to low-income communities by investing in energy efficiency. Use the Program Finder table to identify those programs that reach the sectors and audiences of interest in your organization.

  9. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  10. achieving improved financing for low-income producers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Approaches, Improved Access, Finance, Low-income, Producers. INTRODUCTION .... either by setting up a dual-purpose financial institution, or by making ..... management information systems (Braverman and. Huppi, 1991).

  11. Negative Life Events and Antenatal Depression among Pregnant Women in Rural China: The Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Fangnan; Jiang, Xiaoning; Xiao, Yun; Dong, Xuehan; Kong, Xianglei; Yang, Xuemei; Tian, Donghua; Qu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between psychological and the mental health status of pregnant women in rural China. The current study aims to explore the potential mediating effect of negative automatic thoughts between negative life events and antenatal depression. Data were collected in June 2012 and October 2012. 495 rural pregnant women were interviewed. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, stresses of pregnancy were measured by the pregnancy pressure scale, negative automatic thoughts were measured by the automatic thoughts questionnaire, and negative life events were measured by the life events scale for pregnant women. We used logistic regression and path analysis to test the mediating effect. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 13.7%. In the logistic regression, the only socio-demographic and health behavior factor significantly related to antenatal depression was sleep quality. Negative life events were not associated with depression in the fully adjusted model. Path analysis showed that the eventual direct and general effects of negative automatic thoughts were 0.39 and 0.51, which were larger than the effects of negative life events. This study suggested that there was a potentially significant mediating effect of negative automatic thoughts. Pregnant women who had lower scores of negative automatic thoughts were more likely to suffer less from negative life events which might lead to antenatal depression.

  12. Growth faltering in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of growth data from over 50 low and low-middle income countries shows a consistent pattern of stunting and poor weight gain from about 3 months of age and persisting until at least 5 years. Children tend not to be wasted because their short stature offsets their underweight, leading to a rather adequately proportioned appearance. This frequently conceals the true levels of malnutrition in communities. At the macro-environmental level such growth faltering is due to the combined effects of poverty, food insecurity, low-dietary diversity, a highly infectious environment, poor washing facilities and poor understanding of the principles of nutrition and hygiene. These tend to be ameliorated as communities pass through the demographic transition with improved incomes and education. Because such changes will take generations to achieve, the global health community continues to search for effective interim solutions. Disappointingly, apart from intensive feeding programmes aimed at rehabilitating severely malnourished children, there are few examples of very successful nutrition interventions. This emphasizes the need for a better understanding of the etiology of growth failure. This paper uses anthropometric data collected over 6 decades in subsistence-farming communities from rural Gambia to illustrate the typical key features of growth faltering. Arising from this analysis, and from gaps in the published literature, the following issues are highlighted as still requiring a better resolution: (1) the pre-natal and inter-generational influences on growth failure; (2) the ontogeny of the infant immune system; (3) the exact nature of the precipitating insults that initiate gastroenteropathy; (4) the effects of both enteric and systemic infections on the hormonal regulation of growth; (5) interactions between macro- and micro-nutrient deficiencies and infections in causing growth failure, and (6) the role of the microbiome in modulating dietary influences on

  13. A Portrait of Low-Income Migrants in Contemporary Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    GARDNER, ANDREW; GARDNER, ANDREW; PESSOA, SILVIA; DIOP, ABDOULAYE; AL-GHANIM, KALTHAM; LE TRUNG, KIEN; HARKNESS, LAURA

    2013-01-01

    Though transnational labor migration in the Gulf States has increasingly been of scholarly interest, that scholarship has to date relied largely on qualitative ethnographic methodologies or small non-representative sampling strategies. This paper presents the findings of a large representative sample of low-income migrant laborers in Qatar. The data describe the basic characteristics of the low-income migrant population in Qatar, the process by which migrants obtain employment, the frequency ...

  14. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  15. Trends in HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Frohlich, Janet A; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Mahlase, Gethwana; Samsunder, Natasha; Dellar, Rachael C; Zuma-Mkhonza, May; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2015-11-01

    Despite substantial progress in the delivery of HIV prevention programs, some communities continue to experience high rates of HIV infection. We report on temporal trends in HIV prevalence in pregnant women in a community in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Annual, anonymous cross-sectional HIV sero-prevalence surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2013 among first visit prenatal clinic attendees. The time periods 2001 to 2003 were defined as pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART), 2004 to 2008 as early ART, and 2009 to 2013 as contemporary ART roll-out, to correspond with the substantial scale-up of ART program. Overall, HIV prevalence rose from 35.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3 to 38.3] pre-ART (2001-2003) to 39.0% (95% CI: 36.8 to 41.1) in the early ART (2004-2008) to 39.3% (95% CI: 37.2 to 41.4) in the contemporary ART (2009-2013) roll-out periods. In teenage women (age 20-24 and ≥ 25 years had a 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.3-2.4; P = 0.001) and 3-fold (95% CI: 2.1 to 4.3; P age-disparate relationships, are needed to impact this HIV epidemic trajectory.

  16. “YOU GET ANGRY INSIDE YOURSELF”: LOW-INCOME ADOLESCENT SOUTH AFRICAN GIRLS’ SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer, Karin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Informed by the feminist social constructionist approach this study aimed at exploring the subjective experiences of depression of low-income South African adolescent girls. Participants in this study (girls between the ages of 12 and 14 live in a semi-rural low-income coloured community in the Western Cape. Participants were familiar with the concept of depression, but it seemed that for them the central emotion associated with depression was anger, which often manifested in destructive behaviours. Furthermore, participants seemed to construct depression as a relational problem, suggesting that psychotherapy may be indicated as an important intervention strategy.

  17. Knowledge of malaria prevention among pregnant women and female caregivers of under-five children in rural southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji M. Adebayo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria.Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%.Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1% had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5% were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years, had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0% respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs.Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under

  18. Women's empowerment and its differential impact on health in low income communities in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lwendo Moonzwe; Schensul, Stephen L.; Schensul, Jean J.; Verma, Ravi; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of empowerment to women's self-reported general health status and women's self-reported health during pregnancy in low-income communities in Mumbai. The data on which this paper is based were collected in three study communities located in a marginalized area of Mumbai. We draw on two data sources: in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with 66 married women and a survey sample of 260 married women. Our analysis shows that empowerment functions differently in relation to women's reproductive status. Non-pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment experience greater general health problems, while pregnant women with higher levels of empowerment are less likely to experience pregnancy related health problems. We explain this non-intuitive finding and suggest that a globally defined empowerment measure for women may be less useful that one that is contextually and situationally defined. PMID:24766149

  19. Food beliefs and practices among the Kalenjin pregnant women in rural Uasin Gishu County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riang'a, Roselyter Monchari; Broerse, Jacqueline; Nangulu, Anne Kisaka

    2017-05-25

    Understanding food beliefs and practices is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutritional programmes, and educational messages. This study aimed to understand the pregnancy food beliefs and practices and the underlying reasons for these among the contemporary rural Kalenjin communities of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 154 pregnant and post-natal Kalenjin women about restricted and recommended foods, and why they are restricted or recommended during pregnancy. Respondents were purposively selected (based on diversity) from those attending Maternal and Child Health (MCH) care in 23 rural public health facilities. Key informant interviews (n = 9) with traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) who were also herbalists, community health workers, and nursing officers in charge of MCH were also conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS software. Data from respondents who gave consent to be tape recorded (n = 42) was transcribed and qualitatively analysed using MAXQDA software. The restriction of animal organs specifically the tongue, heart, udder and male reproductive organs, meat and eggs, and the recommendation of traditional green vegetables and milk was reported by more than 60% of the respondents. Recommendation of fruits, traditional herbs, ugali (a dish made of maize flour, millet flour, or Sorghum flour, sometimes mixed with cassava flour), porridge and liver, and restriction of avocadoes and oily food were reported by more than 20% of the respondents. The reasons for observing these dietary precautions were mainly fears of: big foetuses, less blood, lack of strength during birth, miscarriages or stillbirths, and maternal deaths as well as child's colic and poor skin conditions after birth. Pregnancy food beliefs were widely known and practised mainly to protect the health of the mother and child, and ensuring successful pregnancy outcome. Given the deep-rooted nature of the

  20. Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: Implications for the health of pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Romito, Patrizia; Odero, Merab; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Turan, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women (n=29), four with male partners (n=32), and in-depth interviews with service providers (n=20), we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence like forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual – gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics, and community norms – shape high rates of violence. PMID:23387300

  1. Nutritionally Optimized, Culturally Acceptable, Cost-Minimized Diets for Low Income Ghanaian Families Using Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Esa-Pekka A; Dunning, Hanna E; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Robertson, Aileen; Parlesak, Alexandr

    2018-04-07

    The Ghanaian population suffers from a double burden of malnutrition. Cost of food is considered a barrier to achieving a health-promoting diet. Food prices were collected in major cities and in rural areas in southern Ghana. Linear programming (LP) was used to calculate nutritionally optimized diets (food baskets (FBs)) for a low-income Ghanaian family of four that fulfilled energy and nutrient recommendations in both rural and urban settings. Calculations included implementing cultural acceptability for families living in extreme and moderate poverty (food budget under USD 1.9 and 3.1 per day respectively). Energy-appropriate FBs minimized for cost, following Food Balance Sheets (FBS), lacked key micronutrients such as iodine, vitamin B12 and iron for the mothers. Nutritionally adequate FBs were achieved in all settings when optimizing for a diet cheaper than USD 3.1. However, when delimiting cost to USD 1.9 in rural areas, wild foods had to be included in order to meet nutritional adequacy. Optimization suggested to reduce roots, tubers and fruits and to increase cereals, vegetables and oil-bearing crops compared with FBS. LP is a useful tool to design culturally acceptable diets at minimum cost for low-income Ghanaian families to help advise national authorities how to overcome the double burden of malnutrition.

  2. [Living conditions and gastroenteritis in the low income population of Tijuana, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaiz Fernández, G; Barragán de Olaiz, C

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the low income population of certain areas of the city of Tijuana, Mexico. Data collected showed that these suburban areas are inhabited by people from rural areas of Mexico, with minimum education, that basically work at the "maquiladoras". General hygienic conditions were poor and the services insufficient. The prevalence of diarrheas among the population was extremely high in the two weeks previous to the study, being highest for children less than one year old, in which the proportion with at least one episode of diarrhea was 47 per cent.

  3. CROWDING AND SHOPPING VALUE IN LOW-INCOME RETAIL CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Quezado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the great potential of low-income consumption, this research is based on the scales developed by Babin, Darden and Griffin (1994 and by Machleit, Kellaris and Eroglu (1994, aiming to investigate hedonic and utilitarian consumer behavior and its relation with low-income perception of crowding. A research was performed with 404 consumers in real store environment and the results showed that consumers revealed being prone to utilitarian behavior in both centers. About crowding phenomenon, the consumers felt more uncomfortable by crowding at the commercial center with less infrastructure. There were indices that this discomfort was less intense in hedonic consumers.

  4. Institutional Variation in Enrollment of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, James

    2018-01-01

    Socioeconomic diversity in tertiary education has come under heightened scrutiny in the past few years. This paper estimates the relationship between prices (both sticker price and net price), financial aid policies, and selectivity on the variation of low-income students across postsecondary institutions. All three factors are significant in…

  5. Concept of innovation in low-income market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Koki da Costa Nogami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Investigate the concept and the adoption of innovation in the low-income market. Design/methodology/approach – Four different studies were conducted. First, a Delphi study with 126 Marketing and Innovation professors from graduate programs. Second, interviews with 13 professionals, technical assistance professionals and retail managers. Third, two focus groups with low-income consumers. Fourth, survey with 390 respondents. Findings – The results indicate that innovations in the low-income markets are mainly characterized by adaptations and adjustments in products, with emphasis on incremental innovations, not radical. In addition, the adoption of innovation in this context is characterized as late, not initial. Originality/value – In terms of theoretical contributions, the present study reveals how the concept of innovation is built in the low-income market. From a perspective collectively constructed with information from different market agents (industry, retail and consumers, research findings become robust to understanding a phenomenon. Moreover, in addition to different market agents, different methods of data collection and analysis were also used, further enriching the results. This collective contribution, based theoretically on a literature of social construction, interviewing different market agents and using different methodological approaches, synergistically potentiated the development of this paper

  6. Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

  7. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.

  8. Positive Reading Attitudes of Low-Income Bilingual Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert-webb, Kathy M.; Zhang, Zhidong

    2018-01-01

    Many assume low-income, emergent bilingual Latinos have poor reading attitudes. To investigate this issue, we surveyed 1,503 Texas public high school students through stratified cluster sampling to determine their reading attitudes. Most represented Latinos and mixed-race Latinos/Whites who heard Spanish at home and whose mother tongue was…

  9. Financial Arrangements and Relationship Quality in Low-Income Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R.; Sassler, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between household financial arrangements and relationship quality using a representative sample of low-income couples with children. We detailed the banking arrangements couples utilize, assessed which factors relate to holding a joint account versus joint and separate, only separate, or no account, and analyzed…

  10. Harsh, Firm, and Permissive Parenting in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Posner, Jill K.

    1998-01-01

    Parents' reports of their child-rearing expectations and intentions were measured for 184 low-income urban families when children were in the third and fifth grades. Parenting strategies were stable over time. Parenting strategies were related to measures of adjustment at school, behavior problems in the home, academic achievement, and…

  11. Learning from Low Income Market-driven Innovations and Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning from Low Income Market-driven Innovations and Social Entrepreneurship in India. A social enterprise is one that uses innovation, finance and business acumen in a business setting to produce social outcomes such as poverty alleviation, health benefits or social inclusion. Social enterprises generate products and ...

  12. Successful schools and risky behaviors among low-income adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mitchell D; Coller, Karen M; Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Kennedy, David P; Buddin, Richard; Shapiro, Martin F; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Brown, Arleen F; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Bergman, Peter; Chung, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether exposure to high-performing schools reduces the rates of risky health behaviors among low-income minority adolescents and whether this is due to better academic performance, peer influence, or other factors. By using a natural experimental study design, we used the random admissions lottery into high-performing public charter high schools in low-income Los Angeles neighborhoods to determine whether exposure to successful school environments leads to fewer risky (eg, alcohol, tobacco, drug use, unprotected sex) and very risky health behaviors (e.g., binge drinking, substance use at school, risky sex, gang participation). We surveyed 521 ninth- through twelfth-grade students who were offered admission through a random lottery (intervention group) and 409 students who were not offered admission (control group) about their health behaviors and obtained their state-standardized test scores. The intervention and control groups had similar demographic characteristics and eighth-grade test scores. Being offered admission to a high-performing school (intervention effect) led to improved math (P performance of public schools in low-income communities may be a powerful mechanism to decrease very risky health behaviors among low-income adolescents and to decrease health disparities across the life span. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. How Low-Income Children Use the Internet at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2005-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine home Internet use by low-income families in the United States. Participants were 140 children, mostly African American, whose Internet use was continuously and automatically recorded for one year. This article focuses on relationships between children's main computer activities, academic…

  14. Camouflage: The Experiences of Low-Income Business College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton de Dutton, Scarlett

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study shares the complex stories of two low-income business students who attend a flagship, public university as out-of-state students with the purpose of understanding, describing, giving voice to, and discovering insight from their experiences. Throughout U.S. Higher Education history, there is a pattern of limited participation…

  15. Alienation: A Concept for Understanding Low-Income, Urban Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    The author examines the concept of alienation and how it can be used to understand low-income, urban clients. A description is presented of 4 dimensions of alienation: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, and social isolation. Case illustrations are provided, and recommendations are made for counseling alienated clients. This article…

  16. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a survey of assistance programs that public utility commissions have approved in most states to assist the low-income customers of utilities within their states. Surveys find that there is no single model of low-income assistance; rather, each state has adopted a program that meets its particular circumstances. However, while the details of programs vary considerably, they all fall within four broad categories: (1) Affordability programs, which provide direct assistance in paying energy bills; (2) Consumer protections, such as collection practices and installment billing requirements, which make it easier to pay energy bills on time; (3) Education programs, which teach consumers about prudent energy use and counsel them about budgeting; and (4) Efficiency and weatherization programs, which make investments to help consumers control their energy bills by reducing their need for energy. Programs usually include more than one of these components. All programs also include outreach and evaluation components. This report describes these options, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the economic and other benefits of utility assistance programs for low-income customers. Low-income programs help participants by lowering the fraction of their incomes devoted to energy bills (the energy burden) from a very high level. In the United States, the median household devotes only 3.8 percent of its income to electricity while a family depending on a minimum-wage earner must devote 12.1 percent to energy while facing housing cost increases all over the nation. Low-income families unable to keep up with these pressures find themselves forced to go without power at times, to move, or to forgo other necessities such as food or medicine in order to pay their electricity bills

  17. Gender Differences in Caregiver Emotion Socialization of Low-Income Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Casey, James; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Low-income children are at elevated risk for emotion-related problems; however, little research has examined gender and emotion socialization in low-income families. The authors describe the ways in which emotion socialization may differ for low-income versus middle-income families. They also present empirical data on low-income caregivers'…

  18. Pilot of a diabetes primary prevention program in a hard-to-reach, low-income, immigrant Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Ann V; Graham, Margaret A; Wang, Xiaohui; Mier, Nelda; Sánchez, Esmeralda R; Flores, Isidore; Elizondo-Fournier, Marta

    2011-10-01

    An immigrant Hispanic population in the Texas-Mexico border region urgently requested assistance with diabetes. The project team implemented an exploratory pilot intervention to prevent type 2 diabetes in the general population through enhanced nutrition and physical activity. Social networks in low-income rural areas(colonias) participated in an adaptation of the Diabetes Empowerment Education Program. The program had a pre-post-test design with a comparison group. The intervention had a small but significant effect in lowering body mass index, the biological outcome variable. The process evaluation shows that the participants valued the pilot project and found it culturally and economically appropriate. This program was the first primary prevention program in diabetes to address a general population successfully. The study shows that low-income, rural Mexican American families will take ownership of a program that is participatory and tailored to their culture and economic situation.

  19. Malaria and anaemia in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, Emmanuel O; Dim, Cyril C; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S; Iloghalu, Emeka I; Ugwu, Angela O

    2014-06-01

    Several strategies are used in the care of pregnant women accessing antenatal care in primary health centres in Nigeria, with the aim of reducing the burden of malaria and anaemia. The objective of the study was to appraise the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria where malaria preventive strategies are in place. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 300 pregnant women receiving antenatal care in randomly selected primary health centres in the Nkanu West local government area (LGA), Enugu state, Nigeria from August to September 2010. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 92.0% (276/300) (mild in 86.7% [260/300] and moderate in 15.3% [16/300]). The prevalence of anaemia was 49.3% (148/300) (mild in 29.3% [88/300] and moderate in 20% [60/300]). There were no severe cases of malaria parasitaemia or anaemia. The educational status and occupation of participants were significantly associated with the occurrence of peripheral parasitaemia and anaemia respectively (pprevalence of malaria and anaemia is very high in the Nkanu West LGA of Enugu State, Nigeria. Efforts to reduce the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia in pregnancy should be intensified in rural settings of Enugu state and Nigeria as a whole. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Occupational Engagement in Low-Income Latina Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, Alix G

    This qualitative study examined the experience of occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors and suggests the potential for occupational therapy practitioners to improve health outcomes in this vulnerable and underserved population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 9 participants. Inductive analysis was used to code for themes and patterns related to occupational engagement and quality of life (QOL). Lack of occupational engagement negatively affected QOL, but participation in occupations such as religious activity and caregiving promoted well-being. Financial concerns and communication barriers decreased QOL. Breast cancer can have a negative impact on occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors; however, some occupations may increase QOL. Socioeconomic status and cultural values influence occupational engagement and QOL. Occupational therapy practitioners can improve health outcomes in this population through awareness of relevant sociocultural factors and attention to appropriate patient communication. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Castro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999. Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  2. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruben; Fajnzylber, Eduardo

    2017-09-28

    : The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999). Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  3. Experiencing Lifetime Domestic Violence: Associations with Mental Health and Stress among Pregnant Women in Rural Bangladesh: The MINIMat Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Frith, Amy Lynn; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Experience of domestic violence has negative mental health consequences for women. The association of cumulative and specific forms of domestic violence, particularly emotional violence and controlling behavior, with common mental disorders and stress has rarely been studied in pregnant women. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations of specific and multiple forms of lifetime domestic violence and controlling behavior with distress and cortisol level during pregnancy in rural Bangladeshi women. In this observational sub-study of larger MINIMat trial, 3504 pregnant women were interviewed using a shortened Conflict Tactic Scale about their lifetime experience of domestic violence including physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior. Women's levels of emotional distress were assessed using the self-reported questionnaire (SRQ-20) developed by WHO, and levels of morning salivary cortisol were measured in a subsample (n = 1300) of women during week 28-32 of pregnancy. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of lifetime physical, sexual, emotional domestic violence and controlling behavior with levels of distress and cortisol during pregnancy. The prevalence of lifetime domestic violence was 57% and emotional distress was 35% in these pregnant women. All forms of domestic violence were associated with higher levels of emotional distress. Women who experienced either emotional violence or controlling behavior had the highest levels of emotional distress. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative number of the different forms of domestic violence and women's levels of emotional distress. There was no association between women's experience of domestic violence and level of morning salivary cortisol. Including emotional violence and controlling behavior as major types of violence in future research and health interventions is warranted. Furthermore, the extent of the negative impacts of domestic violence

  4. Estimating the Impact of Low-Income Universal Service Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Ackerberg; David R. DeRemer; Michael H. Riordan; Gregory L. Rosston; Bradley S. Wimmer

    2013-01-01

    This policy study uses U.S. Census microdata to evaluate how subsidies for universal telephone service vary in their impact across low-income racial groups, gender, age, and home ownership. Our demand specification includes both the subsidized monthly price (Lifeline program) and the subsidized initial connection price (Linkup program) for local telephone service. Our quasi-maximum likelihood estimation controls for location differences and instruments for price endogeneity. The microdata all...

  5. Interconnected microbiomes and resistomes in low-income human habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Pehrsson, Erica C.; Tsukayama, Pablo; Patel, Sanket; Mej?a-Bautista, Melissa; Sosa-Soto, Giordano; Navarrete, Karla M.; Calderon, Maritza; Cabrera, Lilia; Hoyos-Arango, William; Bertoli, M. Teresita; Berg, Douglas E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antibiotic-resistant infections annually claim hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. This problem is exacerbated by resistance gene exchange between pathogens and benign microbes from diverse habitats. Mapping resistance gene dissemination between humans and their environment is a public health priority. We characterized the bacterial community structure and resistance exchange networks of hundreds of interconnected human fecal and environmental samples from two low-income Latin A...

  6. Surviving spinal cord injury in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Øderud

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore life expectancy (life expectancy is the average remaining years of life of an individual and the situation of persons living with SCI in low income settings. Method: Literature studies and qualitative methods were used. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 informants from four study sites in Zimbabwe representing persons with SCI, their relatives and rehabilitation professionals. Results: There are few publications available about life expectancy and the daily life of persons with SCI in low income countries. Those few publications identified and the study findings confirm that individuals with SCI are experiencing a high occurrence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections leading to unnecessary suffering, often causing premature death. Pain and depression are frequently reported and stigma and negative attitudes are experienced in society. Lack of appropriate wheelchairs and services, limited knowledge about SCI amongst health care staff, limited access to health care and rehabilitation services, loss of employment and lack of financial resources worsen the daily challenges. Conclusion: The study indicates that life expectancy for individuals with SCI in low income settings is shorter than for the average population and also with respect to individuals with SCI in high income countries. Poverty worsened the situation for individuals with SCI, creating barriers that increase the risk of contracting harmful pressure sores and infections leading to premature death. Further explorations on mortality and how individuals with SCI and their families in low income settings are coping in their daily life are required to provide comprehensive evidences.

  7. Empowering low-income black families of handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, M; Rao, S S

    1991-10-01

    A qualitative study of four black, low-income, single mothers used in-depth interviews and participant observation to evaluate their interactions with outreach agency professionals. Three perceived aspects (disrespect, focus on deficits, and discounting parenting style differences) were associated with exclusionary (unempowering) relationships. A reciprocal and supportive approach was associated with collaborative (empowering) relationships. Implications of these findings for professionals serving minority families are discussed.

  8. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    This report has been prepared to provide low-income advocates and other stakeholders information on the energy burden faced by low-income customers and programs designed to alleviate that burden in various states. The report describes programs designed to lower payments, manage arrearages, weatherize and provide other energy efficiency measures, educate consumers, increase outreach to the target It discusses the costs and benefits of the population, and evaluate the programs. various options--to the degree this information is available--and describes attempts to quantify benefits that have heretofore not been quantified. The purpose of this report is to enable the low-income advocates and others to assess the options and design program most suitable for the citizens of their states or jurisdictions. It is not the authors' intent to recommend a particular course of action but, based on our broad experience in the field, to provide the information necessary for others to do so. We would be happy to answer any questions or provide further documentation on any of the material presented herein. The original edition of this report was prepared for the Utah Committee on Consumer Services, pursuant to a contract with the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC), to provide information to the Utah Low-Income Task Force established by the Utah Public Service, Commission. Attachment 1 is drawn from NCLC's 1998 Supplement to its Access to Utility Services; NCLC plans to update this list in 2001, and it will be available then from NCLC. This report has been updated by the authors for this edition.

  9. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-14

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.  Created: 8/14/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/14/2013.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences of low-income urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Shea, Judy A; Rubin, David; Wood, Joanne

    2014-07-01

    Current assessments of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may not adequately encompass the breadth of adversity to which low-income urban children are exposed. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the range of adverse childhood experiences faced by young adults who grew up in a low-income urban area. Focus groups were conducted with young adults who grew up in low-income Philadelphia neighborhoods. Using the nominal group technique, participants generated a list of adverse childhood experiences and then identified the 5 most stressful experiences on the group list. The most stressful experiences identified by participants were grouped into a ranked list of domains and subdomains. Participants identified a range of experiences, grouped into 10 domains: family relationships, community stressors, personal victimization, economic hardship, peer relationships, discrimination, school, health, child welfare/juvenile justice, and media/technology. Included in these domains were many but not all of the experiences from the initial ACEs studies; parental divorce/separation and mental illness were absent. Additional experiences not included in the initial ACEs but endorsed by our participants included single-parent homes; exposure to violence, adult themes, and criminal behavior; personal victimization; bullying; economic hardship; and discrimination. Gathering youth perspectives on childhood adversity broadens our understanding of the experience of stress and trauma in childhood. Future work is needed to determine the significance of this broader set of adverse experiences in predisposing children to poor health outcomes as adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Práticas alimentares na gravidez: um estudo com gestantes e puérperas de um complexo de favelas do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brasil Eating practices during pregnancy: a study of low-income pregnant and postpartum women in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Ribeiro Baião

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo analisar as práticas alimentares durante a gestação relatadas por mulheres grávidas e puérperas, moradoras em um complexo de favelas do município do Rio de Janeiro. Optou-se por uma pesquisa de base interpretativa, na qual se utilizou entrevista semiestruturada e análise de conteúdo em sua vertente temática. Foram incluídas 18 gestantes e oito puérperas (n=26, sendo sete adolescentes e 19 adultas; primíparas e multíparas. Para as mulheres, comer e assistir à televisão, comer fora de casa e comer com parentes e amigos no fim de semana eram formas de associar lazer à comida, aumentando o prazer por ela. A renda foi apontada como a principal barreira para o consumo de alimentos saudáveis, que era prioridade das crianças. Por esses motivos, leite, verduras, legumes e frutas eram pouco consumidos. A dieta era composta basicamente por arroz, feijão e frango. Houve preferência por "besteiras". As mulheres estavam submetidas a uma alimentação monótona. Ressalta-se a importância da compreensão e valorização das questões socioculturais e econômicas que influenciam as práticas alimentares, a fim de que a orientação alimentar e nutricional, visando à alimentação saudável, possa ser negociada e ajustada às necessidades e à subjetividade das mulheres grávidas.This study aimed to analyze the self-reported eating practices of pregnant and postpartum women living in a group of slum communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. The interpretative methodology used a semi-structured interview and thematic content analysis. The sample (n=26 consisted of 18 pregnant and 8 postpartum women, of whom 7 were adolescents and 19 adults, including both primiparous and multiparous subjects. According to these women, eating while watching television, eating out, and eating with relatives and friends on weekends were forms of associating leisure-time activities with food, thus increasing their pleasure

  12. Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda C. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1 screening and referral, (2 facilitators to referral, (3 barriers to referral, (4 culture and language, (5 life events, and (6 support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services.

  13. Assessment of Nutrition Profile of Pregnant Women in Rural Area (Mymensingh District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafiur Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is the most common nutritional disorders in the developing countries like Bangladesh. The most vulnerable groups of population to malnutrition are under-5 children, pregnant women and lactating mother. This study makes an attempt to investigate the nutritional status of pregnant women and to correlate different factors with pregnancy. The cross-sectional study was followed to determine nutritional status by anthropometric and biochemical assessment as well as clinical appearance. The obtaining result of all assessments was compared with standard data (NCHS & UNHCR/WFP. A total of 380 pregnant women were randomly selected from health care centers (governments and non-governments in the Mymensingh district of Bangladesh from early June 2007 to January 2008. The result of research showed that 30.52% severely malnourished, 36.57% moderately malnourished, and 23.15% well nourished and 9.73% were overnourished by calculating weight gain during different stages of pregnancy. By using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC 28.94%, 35%, 25.26% and 10.78% pregnant women were found severely malnourished, moderately malnourished, well nourished and overnourished respectively. It observed that the prevalence of nutritional status to pregnant women were found 29.69% severely malnourished, 34.39% moderately malnourished, 26.36% well nourished and 9.56% over nourished by observing the clinical appearance. In average it showed that 29.71% were severely malnourished, 35.32% were moderately malnourished, 24.92% were well nourished and 10.02% were overnourished. By estimating hemoglobin (Hb level during pregnancy it obtained that 5.52% severely anemic, 61.84% moderately anemic, 18.15% mildly anemic and 14.47% pregnant women were nonanemic. In my study, 12.63 % pregnant women were under 18 years old while 50% were severely malnourished and 30.4% were malnourished. It found that the primary education levels were 16.57% and total monthly family incomes of 16

  14. [Coverage of nutritional and health programs in the low income strata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat, M A; González, N; Mardones, F; Moenne, A M; Sánchez, H

    1982-06-01

    The extent and consequences of exclusion of low income strata from maternal and child health programs in Chile are analyzed using available data. Infant mortality has been shown by several studies to be closely associated with socioeconomic status in Chile. Babies of illiterate mothers showed the highest rate of mortality and the least improvement in rate between 1972-78. The effect of socioeconomic status on the mortality rate of infants in greatly influenced by birth weight; low birth weight infants of low income groups suffer significantly higher mortality than among higher income groups. Several national studies in Chile demonstrated a relationship between infant malnutrition and health program coverage. Infant malnutrition is greatest in groups benefiting least from health care. Based on the fact that 90.5% of births in 1980 were professionally attended, it is estimated that 9.5% of the low income population lacks access to health care. A recent survey showed that 9.9% of the population under 6 years, some 105,848 children, was not covered by the National Complementary Feeding Program. Another study showed that 12.3% of mothers had no prenatal medical attention prior to their most recent birth; mothers with little or no education, living in rural areas, and of high parity were most likely not to have received medical attention. Factors responsible for lack of access to health and nutrition programs appeared to include unsatisfactory relationships with the health workers, poor acceptability of foods offered, excessive distance and waiting times, and lack of interest or motivation on the part of the mothers.

  15. Comparison of frequency of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in pregnant women in urban and rural area of district Swat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.T.; Marwat, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective analytical study was carried out to observe the frequency of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C among the pregnant women of Swat. The study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2008. It was a retrospective study based on review of records of pregnant women admitted to Labour Room of Obstetrics/Gynaecology Unit, Saidu Teaching Hospital, Swat. Patients were screened for Hepatitis B and C by Immuno Chromatographic Technique (ICT) device. The findings were recorded on proforma and analysed. Those found positive on screening test were confirmed by ELISA. Total number of patients screened was 5607. The frequency of Hepatitis B and C (Combined) was 223 (3.98%), out of which 77 (1.37%) were HBsAg positive, 141 (2.52%) were anti HCV positive and 5 (0.09%) were both HBsAg and anti HCV positive. The frequency of Hepatitis B amongst age groups 14-19 , 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 years were 2/77, 33/77, 40/77, and 2/77) respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis C amongst age groups 14-19, 20-29,30-39 and 40-49 years was 4/141, 59/141, 67/141 and 11/141 respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis B and C in multigravida was 41/77, 67/141, in grand multigravida it was 20/77, 43/141 and in primigravida it was 16/77, 31/141 respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C amongst urban and rural population was 32 (39.02%) and 50 (60.98%); and 40 (27.40%) and 106 (72.60%) respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis B and C (Combined) in urban, rural population were 72 (31.58 %) and 156 (68.15 %) respectively. HBsAg and HCV was common infections in pregnant women of Swat. Therefore, every pregnant woman undergoing delivery and/or any other surgical procedure must be screened for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. (author)

  16. Food beliefs and practices among the Kalenjin pregnant women in rural Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riang'a, Roselyter Monchari; Broerse, Jacqueline; Nangulu, Anne Kisaka

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding food beliefs and practices is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutritional programmes, and educational messages. This study aimed to understand the pregnancy food beliefs and practices and the underlying reasons for these among the contemporary rural

  17. The Effect of Brief Interventions on the Drinking Behaviour of Pregnant Women in a High-Risk Rural South African Community: A Cluster Randomised Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Sandra; Jordaan, Esme; Viljoen, Dennis; Olivier, Leana; de Waal, Johanna; Poole, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of a series of brief interventions (BIs) on anti-natal alcohol consumption of women from a disadvantaged and high-risk background attending state health clinics in a rural district, Western Cape Province, South Africa. A pragmatic cluster randomised trial design was followed. All pregnant women,…

  18. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  19. CDM pilot project to stimulate market for family-hydro for low-income households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Over 100,000 low-income households living in rural, rice-farming regions of Vietnam and China rely upon family-hydro (between 100 and 200W) as the only affordable means of obtaining electricity. These systems are used for domestic lighting, radio and, in some cases, televisions. The units are small, cheap and are usually installed and owned by a single family. Funding from the CDM could be utilised in order to reduce the cost of good quality equipment to provide low-income households living in isolated off-grid locations with an affordable and sustainable electricity supply which can meet their needs for lighting, educational, productive and recreational uses. Therefore research was needed to determine the level of carbon emission reductions resulting from their use. The successful acceptance by the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) of the methodology of establishing the benchmark developed during this project could then be used as a precedent by other project developers in the future, thus being of long-term support to the emerging family-hydro industry. (author)

  20. Factors Associated with Pregnant Women’s Anticipations and Experiences of HIV-related Stigma in Rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1,777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women’s empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:22799618

  1. Financial management of low-income urban families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnittgrund, K.P. (Univ. of California, Riverside); Baker, G.

    1983-09-01

    The major focus of this research was the difference in financial-management practices used by low-income urban white, black, and Mexican-American families. A random sample of 199 interviews was completed during the spring of 1980 in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. The sample consisted of 69 white, 70 black, and 60 Mexican-American families. Differences in financial behavior did occur for each race. In addition, they were optimistic regarding their own ability to handle money and resolve financial problems but generally negative toward the ability of other families to manage money, use credit, and plan purchases. 20 references, 3 tables.

  2. Informal support networks of low-income senior women living alone: evidence from Fort St. John, BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.

  3. The prevalence of anaemia and associated factors in pregnant women in a rural Indian community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors suggest that the very high prevalence of anaemia early in pregnancy (74.8% is an indication of the failure of World Health Organisation and national programmes to tackle the issue in this group. Those pregnant for the first time are at greatest risk of developing anaemia. A highly significant association was found with the mother‘s age, educational and socio-economic status, religion, parity and Body Mass Index (BMI.

  4. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume I: The View from the Farm--Special Problems of Minority and Low-Income Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    This is the first of two volumes of papers examining the impact of national agricultural policy on the rural poor. The seven articles in this volume offer personal accounts of minority and low-income farmers struggling to gain a foothold in American agriculture. "'It's Too Late for Our Family,'" by Marian Lenzen, describes a family's…

  5. HIV-1, HSV-2 and syphilis among pregnant women in a rural area of Tanzania: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evjen-Olsen Bjørg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of new HIV infections in African countries are associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. Thus, the magnitude of HSV-2 infection in an area may suggest the expected course of the HIV epidemic. We determined prevalence of genital herpes, syphilis and associated factors among pregnant women from a remote rural Tanzanian community that has a low but increasing HIV prevalence. Methods We analysed 1296 sera and responses to a standard structured questionnaire collected from pregnant women aged between 15–49 years, attending six different antenatal clinics within rural Manyara and Singida regions in Tanzania. Linked anonymous testing (with informed consent of the serum for specific antibodies against HSV-2 was done using a non-commercial peptide- 55 ELISA. Antibodies against syphilis were screened by using rapid plasma reagin (RPR and reactive samples confirmed by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA. Results Previous analysis of the collected sera had shown the prevalence of HIV antibodies to be 2%. In the present study the prevalence of genital herpes and syphilis was 20.7% (95% CI: 18.53–23.00 and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.03–2.51, respectively. The presence of HSV-2 antibodies was associated with polygamy (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.62 – 3.01 and the use of contraceptives other than condoms (OR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.21 – 2.41. Syphilis was associated with reporting more than one lifetime sexual partner (OR 5.4, 95% CI: 1.88 – 15.76 and previous spontaneous abortion (OR 4.3, 95% CI: 1.52–12.02. Conclusion The low prevalence of HIV infection offers a unique opportunity for strengthening HIV prevention in a cost-effective manner. The identification and control of other prevalent curable STIs other than syphilis and specific intervention of HSV-2 in specific populations like pregnant women would be one among approaches towards preventing incident HIV infections.

  6. Profile of pregnant women using delivery hut services of the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Haldar, Partha; Singh, Arvind K; Archana, S; Misra, Puneet; Rai, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    To describe women who attended two delivery huts in rural Haryana, India. The present observational study assessed routinely collected service provision data from two delivery huts located at primary health centers in the district of Faridabad. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care, use of free transport services, and maternal and neonatal indicators at delivery were assessed for all pregnant women who used the delivery hut services from January 2012 to June 2014. During the study period, 1796 deliveries occurred at the delivery huts. The mean age of the mothers was 23.3 ± 3.3 years (95% confidence interval 23.1-23.5). Of 1648 mothers for whom data were available, 1039 (63.0%) had travelled less than 5 km to the delivery hut. The proportion of mothers who belonged to a lower caste increased from 31.0% (193/622) in 2012 to 41.1% (162/394) in 2014. The proportion of mothers who were illiterate also increased, from 8.1% (53/651) in 2012 to 26.4% (104/394) in 2014. Belonging to a disadvantaged social group (in terms of caste or education) was not an obstacle to use of delivery hut services. The delivery huts might have satisfied some unmet needs of community members in rural India. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nation's Capital to cover low-income women's abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-15

    Sharon Pratt Kelly, the mayor of the District of Columbia, has announced that, effective May 1, 1994, the city will use its Medical Charities Fund to pay for "medically appropriate" abortions for women with annual incomes of US$13,200 who do not have health insurance that covers abortions. This income level represents 185% of the federal poverty level for single women. The determination as to whether an abortion is "appropriate" will be made by the woman's physician. From 1989-93, there was a ban on the use of District of Columbia tax monies to cover abortions for local women. In 1988, however, approximately 4000 District women received funding for their abortions. The US$1 million Medical Charities Fund was originally set up to cover emergency room bills for low-income District residents who did not qualify for Medicaid. $650,000 is expected to be added to the fund; in addition, the District's 1995 budget will allocate funding earmarked for abortion coverage for low-income women.

  8. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty. PMID:29401482

  9. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque

    Full Text Available This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898, we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers. Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  10. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Valentina; Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  11. Social marketing nutrition education for low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagues, Rachel; Stotz, Sarah; Childers, Austin; Phua, Joe; Hibbs, Judy; Murray, Deborah; Lee, Jung Sun

    2018-01-01

    As access to healthy food (or lack thereof) could be considered a social justice issue, social workers should be concerned about this issue and willing to collaborate with colleagues of various disciplines to address it. This study was a formative evaluation conducted to understand best practices, recommendations, and feasibility of a social-marketing-based nutrition education program tailored to the needs of adults with limited income. The authors report findings from focus groups conducted with Cooperative Extension Agents (CEAs) and region coordinators (n = 45) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) (n = 69) eligible participants to inform the development of a social marketing nutrition intervention for SNAP-Ed in Georgia. Barriers to healthy eating included cultural preferences, costs of healthy food, lack of time, and lack of availability. Social marketing has a potential to deliver effective and efficient SNAP-Ed targeted to large, limited-resource Georgians. Segmenting the low-income population based on geographical location as well as best methods for outreach can allow tailored messages to meet identified needs, lifestyles, and other variables that make these individuals most likely to respond to the program. Food security and nutrition education are topics of concern for all health care professionals interested in addressing complex health issues of many low-income adults.

  12. Outpatient case management in low-income epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, William O; Al-Saadi, Sam; Orth, Thomas L

    2008-12-01

    Case management (CM) has been shown to improve the medical care of patients in several paradigms of general medicine. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of CM on low-income patients with epilepsy. From 2002 to 2003, 737 epilepsy patients had CM provided by a non-profit, state-supported, epilepsy service subserving a four county region in southeastern Florida. Standardized survey forms distributed by the Florida Department of Health were completed by 159 consecutive patients at program admission. Follow-up information regarding seizure frequency, antiepileptic drugs, and quality of life self-rating was performed after 1 year of CM. The patients evaluated were composed of 58.5% men, with a mean age of 41.0 years. After CM, an increase in self-reported seizure control was seen in 40.2% of patients (preduction of ED visits per patient from 1.83 per patient per year before CM to 0.14 per patient per year after CM (p<0.0001, Wilcoxon matched-pairs test). Following CM, fewer patients reported difficulty with friends, employers, problems socializing, and feelings of anger (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). CM of low-income patients with epilepsy resulted in self-reported improvement in seizure control, QoL, and significantly reduced ED visitation. CM in epilepsy is feasible and represents a cost-effective improvement in outpatient epilepsy management.

  13. Explaining the persistence of low income and environmentally degrading land uses in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests continue to be plagued by the dual sustainability challenges of deforestation and rural poverty. We seek to understand why many of the farmers living in the Brazilian Amazon, home to the world's largest tropical agricultural-forest frontier, persist in agricultural activities associated with low incomes and high environmental damage. To answer this question, we assess the factors that shape the development and distribution of agricultural activities and farmer well-being in these frontiers. Our study utilizes a uniquely comprehensive social-ecological dataset from two regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon and employs a novel conceptual framework that highlights the interdependencies between household attributes, agricultural activities, and well-being. We find that livestock production, which yields the lowest per hectare incomes, remains the most prevalent land use in remote areas, but many examples of high income fruit, horticulture, and staple crop production exist on small properties, particularly in peri-urban areas. The transition to more profitable land uses is limited by lagging supply chain infrastructure, social preferences, and the fact that income associated with land use activities is not a primary source of perceived life quality. Instead subjective well-being is more heavily influenced by the nonmonetary attributes of a rural lifestyle (safety, tranquility, community relations, etc.. We conclude that transitions away from low-income land uses in agricultural-forest frontiers of the Brazilian Amazon need not abandon a land-focused vision of development, but will require policies and programs that identify and discriminate households based on a broader set of household assets, cultural attributes, and aspirations than are traditionally applied. At a broader scale, access to distant markets for high value crops must be improved via investments in processing, storage, and marketing infrastructure.

  14. Model for Service Delivery for Developmental Disorders in Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Syed Usman; Minhas, Fareed Aslam; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Atif

    2015-12-01

    As in many low-income countries, the treatment gap for developmental disorders in rural Pakistan is near 100%. We integrated social, technological, and business innovations to develop and pilot a potentially sustainable service for children with developmental disorders in 1 rural area. Families with developmental disorders were identified through a mobile phone-based interactive voice response system, and organized into "Family Networks." "Champion" family volunteers were trained in evidence-based interventions. An Avatar-assisted Cascade Training and information system was developed to assist with training, implementation, monitoring, and supervision. In a population of ∼30,000, we successfully established 1 self-sustaining Family Network consisting of 10 trained champion family volunteers working under supervision of specialists, providing intervention to 70 families of children with developmental disorders. Each champion was responsible for training and providing ongoing support to 5 to 7 families from his or her village, and the families supported each other in management of their children. A pre-post evaluation of the program indicated that there was significant improvement in disability and socioemotional difficulties in the child, reduction in stigmatizing experiences, and greater family empowerment to seek services and community resources for the child. There was no change in caregivers' well-being. To replicate this service more widely, a social franchise model has been developed whereby the integrated intervention will be "boxed" up and passed on to others to replicate with appropriate support. Such integrated social, technological, and business innovations have the potential to be applied to other areas of health in low-income countries. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Is 'Opt-Out HIV Testing' a real option among pregnant women in rural districts in Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamalwa David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An 'opt-out' policy of routine HIV counseling and testing (HCT is being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa to expand prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT. Although the underlying assumption is that pregnant women in rural Africa are able to voluntarily consent to HIV testing, little is known about the reality and whether 'opt-out' HCT leads to higher completion rates of PMTCT. Factors associated with consent to HIV testing under the 'opt-out' approach were investigated through a large cross-sectional study in Kenya. Methods Observations during HIV pre-test information sessions were followed by a cross-sectional survey of 900 pregnant women in three public district hospitals carrying out PMTCT in the Busia district. Women on their first antenatal care (ANC visit during the current pregnancy were interviewed after giving blood for HIV testing but before learning their test results. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis were performed. Results Of the 900 women participating, 97% tested for HIV. Lack of testing kits was the only reason for women not being tested, i.e. nobody declined HIV testing. Despite the fact that 96% had more than four earlier pregnancies and 37% had been tested for HIV at ANC previously, only 17% of the women surveyed knew that testing was optional. Only 20% of those surveyed felt they could make an informed decision to decline HIV testing. Making an informed decision to decline HIV testing was associated with knowing that testing was optional (OR = 5.44, 95%CI 3.44-8.59, not having a stable relationship with the child's father (OR = 1.76, 95%CI 1.02-3.03, and not having discussed HIV testing with a partner before the ANC visit (OR = 2.64 95%CI 1.79-3.86. Conclusion High coverage of HIV testing appears to be achieved at the cost of pregnant women not understanding that testing is optional. Good quality HIV pre-test information is central to ensure that pregnant women

  16. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined in...

  17. 77 FR 25787 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2013 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program... Package and Guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income... nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax controversies with the IRS, or inform individuals for...

  18. Low-Income Urban High School Students' Use of the Internet to Access Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Kristan M.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the Web-based resources available to low-income students as they build their perceptions, make their decisions, and engage in financial aid activities. Data are gathered from the results of six focus groups with low-income high school students attending urban high schools. Findings suggest that low-income students do have…

  19. Shopping Behaviors of Low-income Families during a 1-Month Period of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Janice; Eggett, Dennis L.; Richards, Rickelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore food shopping behaviors among low-income families over the course of the month. Design: Two researchers conducted 13 90-minute focus groups. Setting: Two community organizations serving low-income populations and a university campus. Participants: Low-income adults (n = 72) who were the primary household food shoppers and who…

  20. Bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries: A case study from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Sultan, Sikander; Ahmed, Shakil

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge of the concentrations of bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries is scanty. The present investigation was conducted to assess the culturable concentration and size distribution of bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungi in two rural and an urban site in Pakistan. The highest indoor culturable bacteria concentration was found at Rural Site II (14,650 CFU/m 3 ) while the outdoor maximum occurred at the urban site (16,416 CFU/m 3 ). With reference to fungi, both indoor and outdoor concentrations were considerably higher at Rural Site I than the other sites. The size distribution of culturable bacteria at all sites showed greater variability than that of culturable fungi. At all sites more than the half (55–93%) of the culturable bacterial and fungal counts were observed in the respirable fraction ( 3 in the indoor environment. ► Elevated levels outdoors due to proximity to cattle and poor sanitary conditions. ► More that 50% of the bacterial and fungal aerosols were respirable. ► Possible increased respiratory exposure of inhabitants. - Bioaerosol concentrations up to 14,650 CFU/m 3 were measured in the indoor environment reflecting the proximity to cattle and poor sanitary conditions. These elevated levels pose a significant health risk.

  1. Sustainable performance of microinsurance in low-income markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Mazambani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable performance in microinsurance offering in low-income markets is important to ensure that the service simultaneously achieves corporate profitability and poverty alleviation. Sustainable performance requires a balanced integration of supply and demand factors in the offering of the service. Microinsurance is still supply driven thereby creating a lopsided mismatch between demand and supply that leads to oversupply and low uptake. On the basis of extant literature, the paper aims to propose and discuss factors critical to demand and supply of microinsurance. A conceptual framework for sustainable microinsurance is presented with individual metrics that can be addressed as managerial tools for driving and controlling sustained superior performance. While this is a theoretical paper, microinsurance practitioners may benefit from the application of the presented theory

  2. Determinants of disciplinary practices in low-income black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M L; Power, T G; Wimbush, D D

    1992-06-01

    Disciplinary attitudes and practices of low-income black mothers were examined. Mothers were interviewed about their parenting attitudes and control practices, and their responses were coded in terms of the degree to which they took a parent-versus a child-oriented approach to discipline. Mothers in the sample varied widely in their attitudes toward physical punishment, and mothers who used power-assertive techniques were as likely to take the child's perspective and give input into the socialization process as those who did not. Factors associated with maternal disciplinary styles included: maternal education, father absence, maternal age, and self-reported religious beliefs. Findings are discussed in terms of the variability in disciplinary practices in this population, as well as the factors contributing to these individual differences.

  3. How motivation influences breastfeeding duration among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Frick, Kevin D; Strobino, Donna; Carpenter, Laura M; Milligan, Renee; Pugh, Linda C

    2009-05-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 low-income breastfeeding women to explore the incentives and disincentives to breastfeeding experienced within 6 months postpartum. Using an individual net benefit maximization (INBM) framework based on economic theory, we assessed women's motivations, incentives, and disincentives for breastfeeding. Based on the framework and their experience breastfeeding, women fell into 3 groups: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, and successfully experienced with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Successfully experienced women were most likely to breastfeed to 6 months. Intrinsically motivated women valued breastfeeding but often required information and instruction to reach breastfeeding goals. Extrinsically motivated women were least likely to continue breastfeeding even with support and instruction. Providers can screen women to determine their experience and motivation then tailor interventions accordingly. Intrinsically motivated women may need support and instruction, extrinsically motivated women may benefit from motivational interviewing, and successfully experienced women may need only minimal breastfeeding counseling.

  4. Recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Azocar, F; Organista, K C; Muñoz, R F; Lieberman, A

    1996-10-01

    This article offers suggestions for recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in treatment studies. Because Latinos underuse traditional mental health services, places such as medical centers or churches with large Latino constituents are suggested as useful alternative sources. To keep Latinos in research protocols, providing culturally sensitive treatments are necessary. Culturally sensitive treatments should incorporate families as part of recruitment efforts, particularly older men in the family. In addition, showing respect is an important aspect of traditional Latino culture that includes using formal titles and taking time to listen carefully. Finally, traditional Latinos tend to like interactions with others that are more warm and personal than is generally part of a research atmosphere.

  5. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire used in pregnant women from a rural area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Bjerregaard, Anne A; Che, Yan; Mao, Yanyan; Hu, Wenfu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Weijin; Olsen, Sjúrdur F; Strøm, Marin

    2014-11-01

    Food frequency questionnaires are relatively inexpensive, easy and quick to administer, but the construction of a food frequency questionnaire that can capture Chinese food habits is challenging given the diverse lifestyle and eating habits in different parts of the country. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire against a 3-day dietary recall in a rural region of western China. Prospective cohort study. Chinese maternal and child healthcare hospital. A total of 168 healthy pregnant women. Pregnant women completed a food frequency questionnaire at 16-24 weeks gestation, and again at 29-31 weeks; during weeks 26-27 they completed a 3-day dietary recall. In general, mean intake was higher when assessed with food frequency questionnaires compared with dietary recall. Spearman and intra-class correlation coefficients between the two food frequency questionnaires ranged from 0.31 to 0.69 and from 0.27 to 0.79, respectively. For the second food frequency questionnaire and the dietary recall, the crude and de-attenuated Spearman correlations ranged from 0.12 to 0.55 and 0.14 to 0.58, respectively. The correlation both between the two food frequency questionnaires and between the second food frequency questionnaire and the dietary recall decreased after adjustment for energy. Ranking women, 31-57% and 1-8% were classified into the same and the opposite quartile, respectively, by both food frequency questionnaires; 30-45% and 1-11% were classified into the same and the opposite quartile respectively for the second food frequency questionnaire and dietary recall. The food frequency questionnaire showed good reproducibility and correlations with dietary recall; it is useful for ranking study participants according to dietary intake, which is of great importance to future etiological studies in this cohort. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Pregnancy planning, timing, happiness and depressive symptoms among low-income women living with and without HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, Marcia; Singh, Hardeep; Gao, Yang; Aaron, Erika

    2018-03-21

    This study assessed associations of sociodemographic factors and pregnancy intent and wantedness with pregnancy happiness and prenatal depressive symptoms and the relationship between prenatal depressive symptoms and pregnancy happiness. Depression is the leading cause of disability world-wide and more so for women. Women are most likely to experience depression in their child bearing years, including during pregnancy. Untreated prenatal depression, associated with unwanted pregnancies endangers the health and wellbeing of the mother and her child. Research on the association of prenatal depression with pregnancy happiness among women with low incomes in the U.S.A. is limited. For women living with HIV, associations among family planning factors, pregnancy feelings and prenatal depression have been understudied. Sixty-four women living with HIV and 194 HIV-negative low-income pregnant women receiving care in a public university-based ob-gyn clinic with integrated HIV-care in Philadelphia between 2009 and 2012 participated in the study. The women completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic and pregnancy factors and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The independent associations of sociodemographic and pregnancy factors with pregnancy happiness and associations of these factors and pregnancy happiness with the CES-D were assessed using multivariable linear regressions. Women who felt the pregnancy was too soon were less happy being pregnant (p < 0.01). Prenatal depressive symptoms were inversely associated with happiness with being pregnant and completing high school (p < 0.001 for both). Health care professionals need to provide reproductive counselling and mental health for prenatal depression should explore feelings about being pregnant and being a mother.

  7. Assessing the Digital Divide Among Low-Income Perinatal Women: Opportunities for Provision of Health Information and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavita, Shauna P; Krummel, Debra A; Talks, Alexandra; Cobb, Alexandra; McClure, Erin

    2018-04-30

    Technology-based health interventions may provide a means to reach low-income perinatal women and improve outcomes for both mother and infant, yet little is known about technology access and interest among this population. This study explored interest, attitudes, and concerns regarding technology to deliver health information and interventions. Between May and October 2014, a cross-sectional study of 161 low-income pregnant and/or postpartum mothers (up to 1 year) was conducted, assessing attitudes and behaviors regarding the current use of devices and receptivity to interventions delivered through devices. Participants (ages 18-41) were pregnant or postpartum and able to read and comprehend English. Women were recruited from waiting areas at two urban clinics affiliated with the local health department in a Midwestern city in the United States. Surveys included 46 questions and were completed at the time of invitation. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, or chi-square for independence tests were completed using SPSS (version 23). Participants from this sample were mostly African American (60%) and had a mean age of 26 years. Most were postpartum (67%). The majority of the sample used mobile phones (most being smartphones), with less access and use of computers and tablets. A moderate level of interest in utilizing technology for health-related information and interventions was found, with concerns related to privacy and time.

  8. Trends and inequities in where women delivered their babies in 25 low-income countries: evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limwattananon, Supon; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sirilak, Supakit

    2011-05-01

    In low-income countries, the coverage of institutional births is low. Using data from the two most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (1995-2001 and 2001-2006) for 25 low-income countries, this study examined trends in where women delivered their babies--public or private facilities or non-institutional settings. More than half of deliveries were in institutional settings in ten countries, mostly public facilities. In the other 15 countries, the majority of births were in women's homes, which was often their only option. Between the two survey periods, all five Asian countries studied (except Bangladesh) had an increase of 10-20 percentage points in institutional coverage, whereas none of the 19 sub-Saharan African countries saw an increase of more than 10 percentage points. More urban women and more in the richest (least poor) quintile gave birth in public or private facilities than rural and poorest quintile women. The rich-poor gap of institutional births was wider than the urban-rural gap. Inadequate public investment in health system infrastructure in rural areas and lack of skilled health professionals are major obstacles in reducing maternal mortality. Governments in low-income countries must invest more, especially in rural maternity services. Strengthening private, for-profit providers is not a policy choice for poor, rural communities. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Archana; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Mehra, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. Methods: A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick® HIV antibody test, and subse...

  10. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, E Benjamín; Arósquipa, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income). These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  11. Factors that influence a career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Benjamín Puertas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine which factors influence a medical student's decision to choose a career in primary care; and to establish if these factors are similar or different among students in high-, middle- and low-income countries. METHODS: An extensive search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Virtual Library of Health for articles on primary care careers published in 2003-2013 in English, Spanish, and/or Portuguese. Initially, 600 records were identified; 74 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 55 were selected (42 from high-income countries; 13 from middle- and low-income. These were assessed to identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence career choice among medical students from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. RESULTS: A comparison framework with common and specific factors that influence career choice in primary care among medical students from high-, middle- and low-income was developed. Factors were classified as extrinsic or intrinsic, and as facilitators or barriers. Several factors common to all countries were identified: facilitators were exposure to rural location, role models, working conditions; barriers were low income, prestige, and medical school environment. Some factors specific to middle- and low-income countries were: understanding of rural needs and intellectual challenge. Other factors specific to high-income countries were: attitude towards social problems, voluntary work, influence of family, and length of residency. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies on the subject are needed, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Identifying factors as barriers or facilitators for career choice will promote a better understanding of the reasons behind the shortage of primary care professionals and will contribute to policy building, improved training, and recruitment and retention of these professionals.

  12. Poverty concentration and determinants in China's urban low-income neighbourhoods and social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shenjing; Wu, Fulong; Webster, Chris; Liu, Yuting

    2010-01-01

    Based on a large-scale household survey conducted in 2007, this article reports on poverty concentration and determinants in China's low-income neighbourhoods and social groups. Three types of neighbourhood are recognized: dilapidated inner-city neighbourhoods, declining workers' villages and urban villages. Respondents are grouped into four categories: working, laid-off/unemployed and retired urban residents, together with rural migrants. We first measure poverty concentration across different types of neighbourhood and different groups. The highest concentrations are found in dilapidated inner-city neighbourhoods and among the laid-off/unemployed. Mismatches are found between actual hardships, sense of deprivation and distribution of social welfare provision. Second, we examine poverty determinants. Variations in institutional protection and market remuneration are becoming equally important in predicting poverty generation, but are differently associated with it in the different neighbourhoods and groups. As China's urban economy is increasingly shaped by markets, the mechanism of market remuneration is becoming a more important determinant of poverty patterns, especially for people who are excluded from state institutions, notably laid-off workers and rural migrants.

  13. The moderating role of brands for low income luxury consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Santino Bizarrias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The value of luxury is a multidimensional construct that assesses how consumers consider the various dimensions of luxury in their consumption relations. The consumption of luxury is not a trivial activity for most people, but brings a certain fascination and is part of the imaginary of the lower classes in emerging markets. The social identity of these consumers is changing because they aspire a new social position. But luxury consumption hurts the standards of this consumer profile. At the same time the self esteem is observed as an important element of people self-confirmation. For consumers, specifically, self-esteem is an important antecedent of consumption decisions. A sample of low income students was analyzed in this study to describe their relationship with luxury, and its influence on self-esteem when moderated by brand expressiveness. Through structural equation modeling this study found that the expression of the brand moderates the relationship of the value of luxury with self-esteem, allowing consumers of lower classes to observe a significant role of luxury in their lives.

  14. CFD Simulations to Improve Ventilation in Low-Income Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rosemond; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Quality of housing plays an important role in public health. In Dhaka, Bangladesh, the leading causes of death include tuberculosis, lower respiratory infections, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, so improving home ventilation could potentially mitigate these negative health effects. The goal of this project is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the relative effectiveness of different ventilation strategies for Dhaka homes. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD model of a standard Dhaka home with apertures of different sizes and locations was developed to predict air exchange rates. Our initial focus is on simulating ventilation driven by buoyancy-alone conditions, which is often considered the limiting case in natural ventilation design. We explore the relationship between ventilation rate and aperture area to determine the most promising configurations for optimal ventilation solutions. Future research will include the modeling of wind-driven conditions, and extensive uncertainty quantification studies to investigate the effect of variability in the layout of homes and neighborhoods, and in local wind and temperature conditions. The ultimate objective is to formulate robust design recommendations that can reduce risks of respiratory illness in low-income housing.

  15. Xerostomia Among Older Adults With Low Income: Nuisance or Warning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Hee-Gerl; Moreno, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of xerostomia and related factors among low-income older adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional, population-based study. Using data from the Home Healthcare Service Project, a population-based interview survey with home healthcare service, a total of 9,840 adults 65 years of age and older were assessed for the presence of xerostomia in association with aspects of health lifestyles, chronic disease, oral conditions, and oral function. Overall, 40% of participants reported experiencing xerostomia. Multivariate regression analysis indicated xerostomia was more likely to be reported by women having symptoms of gingival bleeding/pain, having difficulty swallowing liquid or chewing solid food, and having multiple chronic diseases. Interestingly, older adults who live alone and drink alcohol (two or more times per week) reported fewer problems with xerostomia. Increased focus on the detrimental health consequences of xerostomia would make treatment a higher priority. Improved assessment of at-risk populations, particularly among the elderly, could lead to earlier preventative interventions, lessening the negative impact on quality of life. Health professionals along with the general public need increased knowledge about the detrimental effects of xerostomia on overall health. There is a need for earlier assessment and treatment to facilitate optimal health promotion and disease prevention. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Maternal concerns about children overeating among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Rizk, Monika; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    Addressing overeating is essential to obesity treatment and prevention. The objectives of this study were to investigate maternal concern for child overeating, to identify associated participant characteristics and to determine if concern for child overeating is associated with maternal feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N=289) of children (mean age 70.8months) participated in a semi-structured interview. Themes of maternal concern for child overeating were identified and a coding scheme was reliably applied. Maternal feeding practices were measured by questionnaire and videotaped eating interactions. Logistic regressions were used to test the associations of participant characteristics with the presence of each theme, and bivariate analyses were used to test the associations of the presence of each theme with feeding practices. Three themes were identified: 1) mothers worry that their child does overeat, 2) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because they manage their child's eating behavior, and 3) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because of characteristics inherent to the child. Child obesity predicted the themes; mothers of obese and overweight children are more likely to be concerned about overeating. Themes were associated with lower levels of observed pressure to eat. Only Theme 2 was associated with greater restrictive feeding practices. Interventions that provide parents' practical, healthy ways to prevent child overeating may be helpful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. AFFORDABILITY OF LOW INCOME HOUSING IN PUMWANI, NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, in Kenya, through the National Housing Corporation (NHC, an arm of the central government that delivers affordable houses, the local government embarked on the redevelopment of Pumwani the oldest surviving affordable low income housing in Nairobi. Pumwani was started in 1923 and it targeted early African immigrants to Nairobi. Currently, the old Pumwani is home to some of the city’s poorest dwellers majorities who depend on the informal sector for an income. Redevelopment was targeted at housing all the genuine dwellers. Instead delivery ended up with house types that were at first rejected by the beneficiaries. Although the new housing was slightly of an improved physical and spatial quality it was unaffordable. Beneficiaries were required to pay an average monthly rent of US$157 for up to eighteen years towards purchase of the new house. In the beginning, some of them had declined to take position of the newly built houses. To raise the basic rent majorities of those who have since moved in have opted to rent out some of the space. To date there is still standoff with some of the houses still unoccupied. Except during the period of social survey when the beneficiaries were brought in to supply the necessary information, the entire construction process was undertaken by NHC under a turnkey project. Among other factors the construction process was at fault for it raised the costs. Also, some of the basic housing needs were not effectively looked into. There was a housing mismatch.

  18. Should low-income countries invest in breast cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Shimokata, Tomoya; Honda, Kazunori; Tsukuura, Hiroaki; Ando, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    With the increase in incidence and mortality of breast cancer in low-income countries (LICs), the question of whether LICs should promote breast cancer screening for early detection has gained tremendous importance. Because LICs have limited financial resources, the value of screening must be carefully considered before integrating screening programs into national healthcare system. Mammography-the most commonly used screening tool in developed countries-reduces breast cancer-specific mortality among women of age group 50-69, but the evidence is not so clear for younger women. Further, it does not reduce the overall mortality. Because the women in LICs tend to get breast cancer at younger age and are faced with various competing causes of mortality, LICs need to seriously evaluate whether mammographic screening presents a good value for the investment. Instead, we suggest a special module of clinical breast examination that could provide similar benefits at a very low cost. Nevertheless, we believe that LICs would obtain a much greater value for their investment if they promote primary prevention by tobacco cessation, healthier food and healthier lifestyle campaigns instead.

  19. Food Insecurity as a Risk Factor for Obesity in Low-Income Boushehrian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mohammadpour Kaldeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity contributes to poor health and nutritional status such as higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and other mental and physical problems. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in low-income women living in Bushehr. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 Bushehrian women (19-49 years, non pregnant and non lactating. The women were interviewed for socio-economic, demographic, physical and household food security. The radimer-cornell food insecurity instrument and international physical activity questionnaire were used. For data analysis, logistic regression was conducted. Results: Overall, a majority of the households (86% experienced food insecurity. About more than half (55% of the women were obese. The mean body mass index of food insecure groups (30.43 ± 4.67 Kg/cm2 were significantly higher than food secure group (21.41 ± 1.61 Kg/cm2 (p<0.05. After adjusting for other variables using logistic regression, housewives (OR=3.99 and lower physical activity (OR=2.65 significantly increased as well as food security (OR= 0.04 significantly decreased the risk of obesity. Conclusion: The consumption of chip and high dense food and lower physical activity can be important reasons for overweight and obesity in food insecure women.

  20. Inclusive Development through Providing Vertical Housing for Low Income Family in Yogyakarta Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Rachmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive development is mean to accommodate the marginalized people, most of whom are the poor with problem of fulfilling their need of housing. The government has tried hard to meet the need of housing by constructing rusunawa. This paper is aimed at describing about the provision and uses of rusunawa, both in cities and peri urban area by studying the cases in the City of Yogyakarta, Sleman Regency, and Bantul Regency. The study was conducted by doing observation and both structured and in-depth interviews. The research results show that rusunawa was viewed as one solutions to help low-income family in fulfilling their need of housing. In some cases in the City of Yogyakarta, rusunawa plays an important role in preventing the settlement along both sides of rivers from becoming slum areas. Rusunawa in both Regencies of Sleman and Bantul are located near the city so it is easy for the settlers to get to their workplace. The construction of rusunawa has also paid attention to the disabled by providing special facilities. The same case is providing playground for children and facilities for early education for young kids. However, there have not been special facilities for the elderly and pregnant women.

  1. Uterotonic use at home births in low-income countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandermeyer, Dawn; Stanton, Cynthia; Armbruster, Deborah

    2010-03-01

    This literature review compiles data on rates of use, indications, types of provider, mode of administration, and dose of uterotonics used for home births in low-income countries, and identifies gaps meriting further research. Published and unpublished English language articles from 1995 through 2008 pertaining to home use of uterotonics were identified via electronic searches of medical and social science databases. In addition, bibliographies of articles were examined for eligible studies. Data were abstracted and analyzed by the objectives outlined for this review. Twenty-three articles met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Use rates of uterotonics at home births ranged widely from 1% to 69%, with the large majority of observations from South Asia. Descriptive studies suggest that home use of uterotonics before delivery of the baby are predominantly administered by nonprofessionals to accelerate labor, and are not perceived as unsafe. To achieve maximum benefit and minimal harm, programs that increase access to uterotonics for postpartum hemorrhage prevention must take into account existing practices among pregnant women. Further research regarding access to uterotonics and intervention studies for provider behavior change regarding uterotonic use is warranted.

  2. Barriers to Distance Education in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; Varre, Claire de la; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to examine barriers to the use of distance education and explore related factors in small and low-income rural schools. Data were collected via a telephone survey with administrators or other qualified personnel. The sample involved 417 randomly selected small and low-income rural school districts…

  3. Low-Income Community Solar: Utility Return Considerations for Electric Cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra Y [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this short report is to identify project structures that make low-income community solar projects more cost-effective, replicable, and scalable, for electric cooperative and municipal utilities. This report explores the tradeoffs between providing energy bill savings for low-income subscribers and utility project returns, as well as some of the key lessons learned from existing successful low-income community solar pilot projects.

  4. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Ward; Fiona Verity; Patricia Carter; George Tsourtos; John Coveney; Kwan Chui Wong

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy ...

  5. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  6. Pregnant women’s perception and attitudes toward modern and traditional midwives and the perceptional impact on health seeking behaviour and status in rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Peprah

    Full Text Available This qualitative study was conducted in some selected rural communities within the Birim South District between March to June 2017 with the main aim of teasing out insights into Ghana’s perspective of pregnant women’s attitudes and perceptions about modern and traditional midwives and perceptional impact on health seeking behaviour and status. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known study in Ghana that has provided empirical evidence on this subject. The study found that pregnant women have good attitudes and perceptions toward traditional midwives based on their personal experiences, beliefs and philosophies. Thus, pregnant women only see the need to seek the service of modern midwives when serious complications occur during childbirth and predominantly have their deliveries supervised by traditional midwives. These results call for, specifically two main policy interventions. First, behavioral change interventions through education, community sensitisation and awareness, is required. This should target family members, especially husbands and mothers in-law who are key household decision makers. This will radically help change the conservative attitudes and perceptions about modern midwives by pregnant women. Second, based on the support offered and willingness showed by the study participants, effective intercultural midwifery system will help maximise the utilisation of our midwifery and health delivery systems. Traditional and modern midwives need to work together to ensure safe birth. We consider collaboration among healthcare providers as critical, especially in the rural areas where the number of modern midwives are limited. Keywords: Traditional midwife, Modern midwife, Intercultural midwifery system, Behavioral change, Rural Ghana

  7. 24 CFR 1000.142 - What is the “useful life” during which low-income rental housing and low-income homebuyer housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Activities § 1000.142 What is the “useful life” during which low-income rental housing and low-income... recipient shall describe in its IHP its determination of the useful life of each assisted housing unit in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the âuseful lifeâ during...

  8. Food Choices of Minority and Low-Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Douglas E.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Barraclough, Susan J.; Thorndike, Anne N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective strategies are needed to address obesity, particularly among minority and low-income individuals. Purpose To test whether a two-phase point-of-purchase intervention improved food choices across racial, socioeconomic (job type) groups. Design A 9-month longitudinal study from 2009 to 2010 assessing person-level changes in purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods following sequentially introduced interventions. Data were analyzed in 2011. Setting/participants Participants were 4642 employees of a large hospital in Boston MA who were regular cafeteria patrons. Interventions The first intervention was a traffic light–style color-coded labeling system encouraging patrons to purchase healthy items (labeled green) and avoid unhealthy items (labeled red). The second intervention manipulated “choice architecture” by physically rearranging certain cafeteria items, making green-labeled items more accessible, red-labeled items less accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of green- (or red-) labeled items purchased by an employee. Subanalyses tracked beverage purchases, including calories and price per beverage. Results Employees self-identified as white (73%), black (10%), Latino (7%), and Asian (10%). Compared to white employees, Latino and black employees purchased a higher proportion of red items at baseline (18%, 28%, and 33%, respectively, p0.05 for interaction between race or job type and intervention). Mean calories per beverage decreased similarly over the study period for all racial groups and job types, with no increase in per-beverage spending. Conclusions Despite baseline differences in healthy food purchases, a simple color-coded labeling and choice architecture intervention improved food and beverage choices among employees from all racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:22898116

  9. Prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements increase cord leptin concentration in pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lanou, Hermann; Meda, Nicolas; Taes, Youri; Valea, Innocent; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2013-05-01

    In developing countries, prenatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) were shown to increase birth size; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unknown. Cord blood hormone concentrations are strongly associated with birth size. Therefore, we hypothesize that LNSs increase birth size through a change in the endocrine regulation of fetal development. We compared the effect of daily prenatal LNSs with multiple micronutrient tablets on cord blood hormone concentrations using a randomized, controlled design including 197 pregnant women from rural Burkina Faso. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) I and II, their binding proteins IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3, leptin, cortisol, and insulin were quantified in cord sera using immunoassays. LNS was associated with higher cord blood leptin mainly in primigravidae (+57%; P = 0.02) and women from the highest tertile of BMI at study inclusion (+41%; P = 0.02). We did not find any significant LNS effects on other measured cord hormones. The observed increase in cord leptin was associated with a significantly higher birth weight. Cord sera from small-for-gestational age newborns had lower median IGF-I (-9 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGF-II (-79 μg/L; P = 0.003), IGFBP-3 (-0.7 μg/L; P = 0.007), and leptin (-1.0 μg/L; P = 0.016) concentrations but higher median cortisol (+18 μg/L; P = 0.037) concentrations compared with normally grown newborns. Prenatal LNS resulted in increased cord leptin concentrations in primigravidae and mothers with higher BMI at study inclusion. The elevated leptin concentrations could point toward a higher neonatal fat mass.

  10. Composite measures of women's empowerment and their association with maternal mortality in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chiao-Wen; Tavrow, Paula

    2017-11-08

    Maternal mortality has declined significantly since 1990. While better access to emergency obstetrical care is partially responsible, women's empowerment might also be a contributing factor. Gender equality composite measures generally include various dimensions of women's advancement, including educational parity, formal employment, and political participation. In this paper, we compare several composite measures to assess which, if any, are associated with maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) in low-income countries, after controlling for other macro-level and direct determinants. Using data from 44 low-income countries (half in Africa), we assessed the correlation of three composite measures - the Gender Gap Index, the Gender Equity Index (GEI), and the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) - with MMRs. We also examined two recognized contributors to reduce maternal mortality (skilled birth attendance (SBA) and total fertility rate (TFR)) as well as several economic and political variables (such as the Corruption Index) to see which tracked most closely with MMRs. We examined the countries altogether, and disaggregated by region. We then performed multivariate analysis to determine which measures were predictive. Two gender measures (GEI and SIGI) and GDP per capita were significantly correlated with MMRs for all countries. For African countries, the SIGI, TFR, and Corruption Index were significant, whereas the GEI, SBA, and TFR were significant in non-African countries. After controlling for all measures, SBA emerged as a predictor of log MMR for non-African countries (β = -0.04, P = 0.01). However, for African countries, only the Corruption Index was a predictor (β = -0.04, P = 0.04). No gender measure was significant. In African countries, corruption is undermining the quality of maternal care, the availability of critical drugs and equipment, and pregnant women's motivation to deliver in a hospital setting. Improving gender equality and

  11. Cost-effectiveness of maternal GBS immunization in low-income sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B; Kim, Sun-Young; Cosgriff, Ben; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Schrag, Stephanie J; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Verani, Jennifer R; Sinha, Anushua

    2017-12-14

    A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown. We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants' lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past public health performance. Vaccine efficacy for covered serotypes was ranged from 50% to 90%. The model projected EOGBS (early-onset) and LOGBS (late-onset) cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), healthcare costs (2014 US$), and cost-effectiveness for a representative country in each of the four clusters: Guinea-Bissau, Uganda, Nigeria, and Ghana. Maximum vaccination costs/dose were estimated to meet two cost-effectiveness benchmarks, 0.5 GDP and GDP per capita/DALY, for ranges of disease incidence (reported and adjusted for under-reporting) and vaccine efficacy. At coverage equal to the proportion of pregnant women with≥4 antenatal visits (ANC4) and serotype-specific vaccine efficacy of 70%, maternal GBS immunization would prevent one-third of GBS cases and deaths in Uganda and Nigeria, where ANC4 is 50%, 42-43% in Guinea-Bissau (ANC4=65%), and 55-57% in Ghana (ANC4=87%). At a vaccination cost of $7/dose, maternal immunization would cost $320-$350/DALY averted in Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria, and Ghana, less than half these countries' GDP per capita. In Uganda, which has the lowest case fatality ratios, the cost would be $573/DALY. If the vaccine prevents a small proportion of stillbirths, it would be even more cost-effective. Vaccination cost/dose, disease incidence, and case fatality were key drivers of cost/DALY in sensitivity analyses. Maternal GBS immunization could be a cost-effective intervention in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, with cost-effectiveness ratios similar to other recently introduced vaccines

  12. Reasons for non-immunization of children in an urban, low income group in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Joseph L; Babbar, Harsh; Yadav, Sangita

    2002-07-01

    A study was undertaken on 500 children under the age of 5 years belonging to a low income group. All were attending the paediatrics outpatient department of a large teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. Only 25% were found to have received complete primary immunization as per the National Immunization Schedule (bacille Calmette-Guérin at birth, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and oral poliovirus vaccine at 6,10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine at 9 months). The major reasons for non-immunization of the children were: migration to a native village (26.4%); domestic problems (9.6%); the immunization centre was located too far from their home (9.6%); and the child was unwell when the vaccination was due (9%). Twelve per cent of mothers could not give any reason for non-immunization. In addition to the migration of children to rural areas, the other significant finding was an indirect effect of intensive OPV administration as part of polio eradication initiative. The lack of awareness and fear of side effects constituted a small minority of reasons for non-immunization.

  13. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. Methods A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Results Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8% of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9% with healthy babies (p = Conclusions This study highlights the greatly increased vulnerability of women with perinatal death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  14. Psychological and social consequences among mothers suffering from perinatal loss: perspective from a low income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausia, Kaniz; Moran, Allisyn C; Ali, Mohammed; Ryder, David; Fisher, Colleen; Koblinsky, Marge

    2011-06-09

    In developed countries, perinatal death is known to cause major emotional and social effects on mothers. However, little is known about these effects in low income countries which bear the brunt of perinatal mortality burden. This paper reports the impact of perinatal death on psychological status and social consequences among mothers in a rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 476 women including 122 women with perinatal deaths were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum, and followed up for negative social consequences at 6 months postpartum. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews at women's home. Overall 43% (95% CI: 33.7-51.8%) of women with a perinatal loss at 6 weeks postpartum were depressed compared to 17% (95% CI: 13.7-21.9%) with healthy babies (p = death to experience negative psychological and social consequences. There is an urgent need to develop appropriate mental health care services for mothers with perinatal deaths in Bangladesh, including interventions to develop positive family support.

  15. A methodology to measure cervical vertebral bone maturation in a sample from low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luciana Barreto Vieira; Caldas, Maria de Paula; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the regression method for determining vertebral age developed by Caldas et al. (2007) by testing this method in children from low-income families of the rural zone. The sample comprised cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of 76 boys and 64 girls aged 7.0 to 14.9 years living in a medium-sized city in the desert region of the northeastern region of Brazil, with an HDI of 0.678. C3 and C4 vertebrae were traced and measured on cephalometric radiographs to estimate the bone age. The average age, average hand-wrist age and average error estimated for girls and boys were, respectively, 10.62 and 10.44 years, 11.28 and 10.57 years, and 1.42 and 1.18 years. Based on these results, the formula proposed by Caldas et al. (2007) was not applicable to the studied population, and new multiple regression models were developed to obtain the children's vertebral bone age accurately.

  16. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  17. Building and Using a Social Network: Nurture for Low-Income Chinese American Adolescents' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D.; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of…

  18. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to

  19. Improving Readability of an Evaluation Tool for Low-Income Clients Using Visual Information Processing Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Marilyn S.; Sylva, Kathryn; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Wooten-Swanson, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visual information processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…

  20. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  1. 76 FR 36976 - Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD76 Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... low-income designation using the geo-coding software the agency has developed for that purpose to...

  2. 75 FR 80364 - Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... 701 RIN 3133-AD76 Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union... (FCUs) that do not qualify for a low-income designation using the geo-coding software the NCUA has developed for that purpose to submit an analysis of a statistically valid sample of their member income data...

  3. Critical Components of a Summer Enrichment Program for Urban Low-Income Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Corina R.; Johnsen, Susan K.; Witte, Mary M.; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2015-01-01

    Effective program models are needed for low-income youth. This article describes one successful summer enrichment program, University for Young People's Project Promise, and outlines three key components of a Partnership for Promoting Potential in Low-Income Gifted Students (Partnership Model), which is based on Lee, Olszewski-Kubilius, and…

  4. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  5. 13 CFR 108.710 - Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the... of your Portfolio Concerns must be Low-Income Enterprises in which you have an Equity Capital... total dollars) in Equity Capital Investments in Low-Income Enterprises. (b) Non-compliance with this...

  6. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  7. Assessment of Low-Income Adults' Access to Technology: Implications for Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…

  8. 78 FR 33154 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2014 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Package and Guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income... nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax disputes with the IRS, or educate individuals for whom... Grant Application Package and Guidelines, IRS Publication 3319 (Rev. 5-2013), can be downloaded from the...

  9. 76 FR 34297 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2012 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income Taxpayer Clinic (LITC... representation for free or for a nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax controversies with the IRS..., IRS Publication 3319 (Rev. 5-2011), can be downloaded from the IRS Internet site at http://www.irs.gov...

  10. Developmental Trends in Self-Regulation among Low-Income Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, H. Abigail; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Bradley, Robert H.; Raikes, Helen H.; Ayoub, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    The attainment of self-regulatory skills during the toddler years is an understudied issue, especially among low-income children. The present study used growth modeling to examine the change over time and the final status in children's abilities to self-regulate, in a sample of 2,441 low-income children aged 14 to 36 months. Positive growth in…

  11. Federally Funded Education and Job Training Programs for Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2011-01-01

    With the growing demand for highly skilled workers and declining wages for those who are less skilled, low-income youth with limited education and no work experience have few opportunities for gainful employment. Since the Great Depression, the federal government has been funding programs that provide low-income, out-of-school, and unemployed…

  12. The Experience of Low-Income College Students at a Selective University: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paula Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Low-income students at selective institutions report feeling a sense of isolation, alienation, and marginalization. However, it is essential that the voices of low-income students that have successfully navigated the college experience be part of the conversation. Rather than approach the study from a deficit perspective, this Interpretative…

  13. Determinants of electricity demand for newly electrified low-income African households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louw, Kate; Conradie, Beatrice; Howells, Mark; Dekenah, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Access to clean, affordable and appropriate energy is an important enabler of development. Energy allows households to meet their most basic subsistence needs; it is a central feature of all the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, while a lack of access to energy may not be a cause of poverty, addressing the energy needs of the impoverished lets them access services which in turn address the causes of poverty. While much is known about the factors affecting the decisions made when choosing between fuel types within a household, few quantitative studies have been carried out in South Africa to determine the extent to which these factors affect energy choice decisions. It is assumed that the factors traditionally included in economic demand such as price and income of the household affect choice; tastes and preferences as well as external factors such as distance to fuel suppliers are expected to influence preferences. This study follows two typical low-income rural sites in South Africa, Antioch and Garagapola, where the Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) was piloted in 2002. The EBSST is set at 50 kWh/month per household for low domestic consumers; this is worth approximately R20 (±US$3). This subsidy is a lifeline tariff, where households receive the set amount of units per month, free of charge irrespective of whether more units are purchased. These data (collected in 2001 and 2002), recently collated with detailed electricity consumption data, allow us to determine the drivers of electricity consumption within these households. The sample analysed is taken from the initial phase of the study, when no FBE had been introduced to the households. This enabled the study presented here to make use of the well-populated datasets to assess what affects the electricity use decision in these households. This paper attempts to assess which factors affected the decision-making process for electricity consumption within these households. A brief history

  14. Sociocultural construction of food ways in low-income Mexican-American women with diabetes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Vaello, Sandra; Brown, Sharon A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore how low-income Hispanic women, with at least 10 years of having type 2 diabetes, successfully manage the disease within a sociocultural context, especially in relation to foodways. Managing type 2 diabetes is challenging, particularly for underserved populations such as low-income Hispanic women. This population segment has higher rates of type 2 diabetes, diabetes-related complications, obesity, and sedentary lifestyles than the general U.S. Dietary management is a critical aspect of diabetes care, but it is perhaps the most difficult health behaviour to modify. A qualitative and ethnographically based study was used. Participant observation and individual interviews explored the interrelationships of culture, food habits and type 2 diabetes among 12 low-income Hispanic women residing in an impoverished rural community located on the Texas-Mexico border. Hispanic women used unique strategies to adjust their diet, particularly portion control; for example, they emphasised the 'use of the fork', based on the notion that Hispanic finger foods are less healthy. Women categorised foods as bad or acceptable, depending on the context, such as important family or social gatherings. Those with years of diabetes experience confidently took charge of the disease based on knowledge of their bodies and a desire to avoid complications, while acknowledging brief infractions of dietary 'rules' and balancing various social roles and expectations. Hispanic women manage their type 2 diabetes within a sociocultural environment. Those with expertise make changes in how they eat to care for their diabetes, but also continue to maintain traditional foodways. Foodways are critical to most cultural groups and modifying dietary behaviours can be challenging. Clinicians must develop self-management guidance within the sociocultural context of the patient if diabetes outcomes are to improve and be sustained. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Lewin, Simon; Ciapponi, Agustín; Herrera, Cristian A; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Rada, Gabriel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    the following. - We are uncertain whether pay-for-performance improves health worker performance, people's use of services, people's health, or resource use in low-income countries (very low-certainty evidence). - We are uncertain whether financial incentives for health workers improve the quality of care provided by primary care physicians or outpatient referrals from primary to secondary care (very low-certainty evidence). - There is no rigorous research evaluating incentives (e.g. bursaries or scholarships linked to future practice location, rural allowances) for recruiting health workers to serve in remote areas. It is uncertain whether giving health workers incentives lead more of them to stay in underserved areas (very low-certainty evidence). - No studies assessed the effects of financial interventions on the movement of health workers between public and private organisations in low- and middle-income countries. How up to date is this overview? The overview authors searched for systematic reviews published up to 17 December 2016. PMID:28891235

  16. Nutritional and Weight-Management Behaviors in Low-Income Women Trying to Conceive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women trying to conceive as compared to women not trying to conceive. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women aged 16–40 years who were low-income, racially diverse, (n=1,711) and attending reproductive health clinics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between pregnancy intention and various health behaviors after adjusting for demographic variables, gravidity, and obesity status. Results At total of 8.9% (n=153) of the participants stated they were trying to get pregnant. Women trying to conceive were more likely than those not trying to have participated in a number of unhealthy weight loss practices in the past year. These included taking diet pills, supplements or herbs (13.5% vs. 8.8%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11–3.49;), using laxatives or diuretics or inducing vomiting (7.7% vs. 3.0%; aOR 2.70, CI 1.23–5.91;), and fasting for 24 hours (10.7% vs. 5.5%; aOR 2.15, CI 1.03–4.51;). There were no significant differences between the two groups in amount of exercise, current smoking status or current alcohol consumption Further, fruit, green salad and other vegetables, and intake of soda and fast food were unrelated to pregnancy intention. Conclusion This study highlights that women trying to conceive are more likely to participate in unhealthy and potentially dangerous weight loss practices than women not trying to conceive. PMID:25162259

  17. Nutritional and weight management behaviors in low-income women trying to conceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Laz, Tabassum H; Rahman, Mahbubur; McGrath, Christine J

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women trying to conceive as compared with women not trying to conceive. This was a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including nutritional habits and weight management strategies of women aged 16-40 years who were low income, racially diverse, (n=1,711), and attending reproductive health clinics. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between pregnancy intention and various health behaviors after adjusting for demographic variables, gravidity, and obesity status. A total of 8.9% (n=153) of the participants stated they were trying to get pregnant. Women trying to conceive were more likely than those not trying to have participated in a number of unhealthy weight loss practices in the past year. These included taking diet pills, supplements, or herbs (13.5% compared with 8.8%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-3.49), using laxatives or diuretics or inducing vomiting (7.7% compared with 3.0%; adjusted OR 2.70, CI 1.23-5.91), and fasting for 24 hours (10.7% compared with 5.5%; adjusted OR 2.15, CI 1.03-4.51). There were no significant differences between the two groups in amount of exercise, current smoking status, or current alcohol consumption Furthermore, fruit, green salad and other vegetables, and intake of soda and fast food were unrelated to pregnancy intention. This study highlights that women trying to conceive are more likely to participate in unhealthy and potentially dangerous weight loss practices than women not trying to conceive. II.

  18. A three year retrospective study on seroprevalence of syphilis among pregnant women at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Abate

    2014-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a serious public health problem in low income countries, including Ethiopia. Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum remains a major cause of reproductive morbidity and poor pregnancy outcomes in low income countries. Stillbirth, perinatal death, serious neonatal infection and low-birth weight babies are common among seropositive mothers. To assess the seroprevalence of syphilis and risk factor correlates of this infection at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia. The study was done on 2385 pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic (ANC) from January 2009 to December 2011. Data was abstracted from the antenatal care clinic medical database. Chi-square test was used, using SPSS version 16 and significance level was chosen at 0.05 level with a two-tailed test. Of the total, 69(2. 9%) of pregnant women were confirmed as seropositive for syphilis. Pregnant women with an age group of 21-25 years of old were the most seropositive (3.4%), followed by 26-30 years of old (3.1%). The prevalence of syphilis infection was 3.2% in urban and 2.2% in rural pregnant women. Relatively high prevalence of syphilis infection were identified among students (4.2%) followed by governmental employees (3.8%). The seroprevalence of syphilis among pregnant women attending ANC is declining. However, syphilis is more prevalent in the young and urban pregnant women. Emphasis on education to young people on STI risk behavioral change and partner follow up and notification for exposure to syphilis and treatment should be given.

  19. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bobo-Dioulasso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections are the first infections in pregnant women and can cause serious complications during pregnancy. In order to improve its management in low income country like Burkina Faso, we conducted a prospect cross-sectional study, to describe its epidemiological and biological aspects in pregnant women at ...

  20. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A social marketing approach to improving the nutrition of low-income women and children: an initial focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Martin, Julia; Jorgensen, Jenel; Barker, Mary

    2009-09-01

    To identify approaches for interventions to improve the nutrition of low-income women and children. Seven focus groups were conducted with low-income women caring for young children in their households. They discussed shopping, eating at home, eating out and healthy eating. The discussions were recorded and subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. A semi-rural community in Oregon, USA. There were seventy-four women (74% White), most of whom were 18-29 years old. Four broad themes were identified, i.e. cost-consciousness, convenience, social influences and health issues. The target population would benefit from improved understanding of what constitutes a balanced diet, with a greater emphasis on a more central role for fruit and vegetables. To persuade this population to change their eating habits, it will be necessary to convince them that healthful food can be low-cost, convenient and palatable for children. Comparing findings from the present study with a similar one in the UK suggests that the US women faced many of the same barriers to healthy eating but displayed less helplessness.

  2. Electronic Payment Adoption in the Banking Sector of Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Teshome Alemu; Tridib Bandyopadhyay; Solomon Negash

    2015-01-01

    Banks in low-income countries are launching e-banking services such as Internet banking, SMS banking, ATM banking, card banking, point of sales (PoS) and mobile banking. Among these planned services, ATM is the most matured service in many private and state owned banks in Ethiopia. ATM is a recent phenomenon in low-income countries (; ), and is still being introduced in financial sectors in low-income countries (Angeli, 2008; ) making investigation of factors of ICT technology adoption in low...

  3. Using social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroever, Stephanie J; Mackert, Michael S; McAlister, Alfred L; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the value of using social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents. We evaluated qualitative data obtained through focus groups with low-income, predominantly Hispanic parents. Results were mixed; lack of time and credibility were the primary objections parents cited in using social media to obtain information about their children's health. Social media has value as part of an overall communication strategy, but more work is needed to determine the most effective way to use this channel in low-income populations.

  4. [Changes of iodine nutrition status and thyroid function among pregnant women in iodine sufficient rural area of Gansu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Sun, Wei; Zhu, Xiaonan; Cao, Yongqin; Ge, Pengfei

    2014-01-01

    To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 215 pregnant women in Yongjing couty from May to June 2013. Samples of blood and random urine were collected, and serum thyrotrophin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin ( anti-TG)and urinary iodine were measured. The medians of urinary iodine from the three groups of pregnant women(first, second and third trimester) were 189.8 µg/L, 152.5 µg/L and 144.9 µg/L respectively. With the exception of pregnant women in the third trimester, the urinary iodine medians of pregnant women in the first and second trimesters were within the 150-249 µg/L range which was defined as optimal by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. With the increase of gestational age, the level of FT3 decreased (P iodine TSH levels and the gestational age. The medians of anti-TG and anti-TPO appeared the lowest in the first trimester, and remained at a high level in women at second and third trimesters. Significant difference was seen in anti-TG, anti-TPO levels of the three groups of pregnant women (first, second and third trimester) (P iodine levels were not obvious. With the increase of gestational age, the incidence of iodine deficiency also increased among pregnant women. Abnormal thyroid hormones, TSH, positive anti-TG and anti-TPO were mainly existed in the early pregnancy. Programs as monitoring urinary iodine as well as thyroid function targeting all the pregnant women should be carried out.

  5. Paths to Work in Rural Places: Key Findings and Lessons from the Impact Evaluation of the Future Steps Rural Welfare-to-Work Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckstroth, Alicia; Burwick, Andrew; Ponza, Michael; Marsh, Shawn; Novak, Tim; Phillips, Shannon; Diaz-Tena, Nuria; Ng, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Helping low-income families in rural areas find gainful employment and achieve economic self-sufficiency is an ongoing policy concern. The Rural Welfare-to-Work Strategies demonstration is using rigorous experimental designs to build knowledge about how to help low-income families in rural areas strive toward sustained employment and…

  6. Overweight and obesity among low-income Muslim Uyghur women in far western China: correlations of body mass index with blood lipids and implications in preventive public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Li; Zhan, Jin Qiong; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shu Gang; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hong Yan; Ma, Zhi Ping; Hao, Xiao Ling; Simayi, Dilixia; Tao, Lin; Zhao, Jin; Amanguli, A; Mohemaiti, Meiliguli; Jing, Ming Xia; Wang, Wei; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Zou, Xiao Guang; Gu, Yan; Li, Li; Wang, Ying Hong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic of obesity is a global public health concern. Most studies on obesity are skewed toward high-income and urban settings and few covers low-income populations. This study focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlations with blood lipids/metabolites/enzymes (bio-indicators) in a rural community typical of low-income in remote western China. This study was performed in a Muslim ethnic Uyghur rural community in Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, about 4,407 km (2,739 miles) away from Beijing. Body mass index (BMI) and major blood bio-indicators (25 total items) were measured and demographic information was collected from 1,733 eligible healthy women aged 21 to 71 yrs, of whom 1,452 had complete data for analysis. More than 92% of the women lived on US$1.00/day or less. According to the Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity were defined as BMI at 24 to public health policies in Uyghur communities. To prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in low-income settings, we therefore propose a cost-effective, two-step strategy first to screen for obesity and then to screen persons with obesity for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Delivery arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Lewin, Simon; Herrera, Cristian A; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Rada, Gabriel; Wiysonge, Charles S; Bastías, Gabriel; Dudley, Lilian; Flottorp, Signe; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Garcia Marti, Sebastian; Glenton, Claire; Okwundu, Charles I; Peñaloza, Blanca; Suleman, Fatima; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-09-13

    findings to low-income countries. We identified 7272 systematic reviews and included 51 of them in this overview. We judged 6 of the 51 reviews to have important methodological limitations and the other 45 to have only minor limitations. We grouped delivery arrangements into eight categories. Some reviews provided more than one comparison and were in more than one category. Across these categories, the following intervention were effective; that is, they have desirable effects on at least one outcome with moderate- or high-certainty evidence and no moderate- or high-certainty evidence of undesirable effects. Who receives care and when: queuing strategies and antenatal care to groups of mothers. Who provides care: lay health workers for caring for people with hypertension, lay health workers to deliver care for mothers and children or infectious diseases, lay health workers to deliver community-based neonatal care packages, midlevel health professionals for abortion care, social support to pregnant women at risk, midwife-led care for childbearing women, non-specialist providers in mental health and neurology, and physician-nurse substitution. Coordination of care: hospital clinical pathways, case management for people living with HIV and AIDS, interactive communication between primary care doctors and specialists, hospital discharge planning, adding a service to an existing service and integrating delivery models, referral from primary to secondary care, physician-led versus nurse-led triage in emergency departments, and team midwifery. Where care is provided: high-volume institutions, home-based care (with or without multidisciplinary team) for people living with HIV and AIDS, home-based management of malaria, home care for children with acute physical conditions, community-based interventions for childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia, out-of-facility HIV and reproductive health services for youth, and decentralised HIV care. Information and communication technology: mobile

  8. 26 CFR 1.42-1T - Limitation on low-income housing credit allowed with respect to qualified low-income buildings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... credit agencies for exclusive use in making housing credit allocations to buildings that are part of... housing credit allocations in excess of an agency's aggregate housing credit dollar amount. In the event... not perform an independent investigation of the qualified low-income building in order to certify on...

  9. "I'm Happy with My Mommy": Low-Income Preschoolers' Causal Attributions for Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined low-income African American and European American preschoolers' socioemotional causal attributions. Results indicate that younger preschoolers, particularly young African Americans, may need help articulating emotions. Adults can support children's emotional reasoning through scaffolding. (Author)

  10. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  11. The conceptual mismatch: transportation stressors and experiences for low-income adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Physical access to jobs has long been identified as a barrier to employment and earnings, with prior : research identifying the spatial mismatch between suburban entry-level jobs and low-income workers. : However, existing transportation resear...

  12. The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

    2009-06-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas.

  13. Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tract (QCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — It allows to generate tables for Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tracts (QCT) and for Difficult Development Areas (DDA). LIHTC Qualified...

  14. The socioeconomic gradient of secondhand smoke exposure in children: evidence from 26 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-12-01

    To provide the first analysis of socioeconomic inequalities in children's daily exposure to indoor smoking in households in 26 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used nationally representative household samples (n=369 654) collected through the Demographic Health Surveys between 2010 and 2014 to calculate daily exposure to secondhand smoke (ESHS) among children aged 0-5 years. The relative and absolute concentration (RC and AC) indices were used to quantify wealth-based inequalities in daily ESHS in each country and in urban and rural areas in each country. We decomposed total socioeconomic inequalities in ESHS into within-group and between-group (rural-urban) inequalities to identify the sources of wealth-based inequality in ESHS in LMICs. We observed substantial variation across countries in the prevalence of daily ESHS among children. Children's ESHS was higher in rural areas compared to urban areas in the majority of the countries. The RC and AC demonstrated that daily ESHS was concentrated among poorer children in almost all countries (RC, median=-0.179, IQR=0.186 and AC, median=-0.040, IQR=0.055). The concentration of ESHS among poorer children was greater in urban relative to rural areas. The decomposition of the overall socioeconomic inequality in daily ESHS revealed that wealth-based differences in ESHS within urban and rural areas were the main contributor to socioeconomic inequalities in most countries (median=46%, IQR=32%). Special attention should be given to reduce ESHS among children from rural and socioeconomically disadvantaged households as social inequalities in ESHS might contribute to social inequalities in health over the life course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in pregnant Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote New South Wales: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Panic disorder in rural Tanzania: an explorative study | Nordgreen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... patients as especially useful. Conclusion: A manual for brief interventions for PD may be adapted to a rural Tanzanian setting, also taking into consideration the limited financial and human resources in a rural low-income country setting. Keywords: Panic disorder; Culture; Cognitive behaviour therapy; Low-income country ...

  17. Low-Income Demand for Local Telephone Service: Effects of Lifeline and Linkup

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ackerberg; Michael Riordan; Gregory Rosston; Bradley Wimmer

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive data set on local telephone service prices is used to evaluate the effect of Lifeline and Linkup programs on the telephone penetration rates of low-income households in the United States. Lifeline and Linkup programs respectively subsidize the monthly subscription and initial installation charges of eligible low-income households. Telephone penetration rates are explained by an estimated nonlinear function of local service characteristics (including subsidized prices) and the ...

  18. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Metallinos-Katsaras

    2014-01-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and ...

  19. Legislated changes to federal pension income in Canada will adversely affect low income seniors' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, J C Herbert; Fleisch, Valerie C; McIntyre, Lynn

    2013-12-01

    This study uses a population health intervention modeling approach to project the impact of recent legislated increases in age eligibility for Canadian federally-funded pension benefits on low income seniors' health, using food insecurity as a health indicator. Food insecurity prevalence and income source were assessed for unattached low income (seniors aged 65-69 years (population weighted n=151,485) using public use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 4.1 (2007-2008). Seniors' benefits through federal public pension plans constituted the main source of income for the majority (79.4%) of low income seniors aged 65-69 years, in contrast to low income seniors aged 60-64 years who reported their main income from employment, employment insurance, Workers' Compensation, or welfare. The increase in income provided by federal pension benefits for low income Canadians 65 and over coincided with a pronounced (50%) decrease in food insecurity prevalence (11.6% for seniors ≥65 years versus 22.8% for seniors seniors' benefits in Canada from 65 to 67 years will negatively impact low income seniors' health, relegating those who are food insecure to continued hardship. © 2013.

  20. Does a low-income urban population practise healthy dietary habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nurul Ain; Thangiah, Nithiah; Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the unhealthy dietary habits and practices in a low-income community in an urban area and determine the associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low-income housing area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data were collected using a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews by trained enumerators in order to obtain details on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary practices. Descriptive statistics showed that 86.7% of the respondents in the low-income community consumed fruit and vegetables less than five times per day, 11.7% consumed carbonated and sweetened drinks more than twice per day and about 25% consumed fast food more than four times per month. In total, 65.2% (n=945) did not have healthy dietary practices. Binary logistic regression showed that age, education and ethnicity were significant predictors of unhealthy dietary practices among the low-income community. Those in the 30-59 years age group had higher odds (odds ratio 1.65, p=0.04) of practising an unhealthy diet as compared with those older than 60 years of age. Unhealthy dietary practices were found to be common among the low-income group living in an urban area. Healthy lifestyle intervention should be highlighted so that it can be adopted in the low-income group.

  1. Working Memory Differences between Children Living in Rural and Urban Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if the working memory profiles of children living in rural poverty are distinct from the working memory profiles of children living in urban poverty. Verbal and visuospatial working memory tasks were administered to sixth-grade students living in low-income rural, low-income urban, high-income rural, and…

  2. A pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for perinatal depression adapted for women with low incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahen, Heather; Himle, Joseph A; Fedock, Gina; Henshaw, Erin; Flynn, Heather

    2013-07-01

    Perinatal women with identified depression in prenatal care settings have low rates of engagement and adherence with depression-specific psychotherapy. We report the feasibility and symptom outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) modified (mCBT) to address the needs of perinatal, low-income women with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Pregnant women (n = 1421) were screened for depressive symptoms in obstetrics clinics in conjunction with prenatal care visits. A total of 59 women met diagnostic criteria for MDD; 55 women were randomly assigned to mCBT or Treatment as Usual (TAU). The mCBT intervention included an initial engagement session, outreach, specific perinatal content and interpersonal components. Measures were gathered at pre-treatment, 16 week post-randomization, and 3-month follow-up. Most participants attended at least one CBT session and met study criteria for treatment adherence. Active research staff outreach promoted engagement and retention in the trial. Treatment satisfaction was rated as very good. In both observed and multiple imputation results, women who received mCBT demonstrated greater improvement in depressed mood than those in TAU at 16-week post-randomization and 3-month follow-up, Cohen's d = -0.71 (95% CI -4.93, -5.70). Modified CBT offers promise as a feasible and acceptable treatment for perinatal women with low-incomes in prenatal care settings. Targeted delivery and content modifications are needed to engage populations tailored to setting and psychosocial challenges specific to the perinatal period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A qualitative study of motivators and barriers to healthy eating in pregnancy for low-income, overweight, African-American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Naomi R; Klotz, Alicia A; Herring, Sharon J

    2013-09-01

    Poor diet quality is common among low-income, overweight, African-American mothers, placing them at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to better understand the contextual factors that may influence low-income African-American mothers' diet quality during pregnancy. In 2011, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 overweight/obese, pregnant African Americans in Philadelphia, PA, all of whom received Medicaid and were eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Two readers independently coded the interview transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 10 themes around motivators and barriers to healthy eating in pregnancy. Mothers believed that consuming healthy foods, like fruits and vegetables, would lead to healthy babies and limit the physical discomforts of pregnancy. However, more often than not, mothers chose foods that were high in fats and sugars because of taste, cost, and convenience. In addition, mothers had several misconceptions about the definition of healthy (eg, "juice is good for baby"), which led to overconsumption. Many mothers feared they might "starve" their babies if they did not get enough to eat, promoting persistent snacking and larger portions. Living in multigenerational households and sharing resources also limited the mothers' control over food choices and made consuming healthy foods especially difficult. Despite the good intentions of low-income African-American mothers to improve diet quality during pregnancy, multiple factors worked together as barriers to healthy eating. Interventions that emphasize tasty and affordable healthy food substitutes, address misconceptions, and counsel mothers about true energy needs in pregnancy may improve low-income, African-American, overweight/obese mothers' diet quality. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Minor ailments in pregnancy are not a minor concern for pregnant women: a morbidity assessment survey in rural Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Buddhika Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although maternal mortality has become a major focus on global public health agenda, maternal morbidity is a neglected area of research. The purpose of this paper is to present the burden of acute maternal illness during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out in Anuradhapura district, Sri Lanka. Pregnant women residing in the Anuradhapura district with a gestational age more than 24 weeks through 36 weeks were recruited to the study using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. All pregnant women who consented participated in a detailed interview using a structured questionnaire. Self reported episodes of acute illness during pregnancy were the main outcome measures. Secondary outcomes were utilization of medical services and frequency of hospitalizations. RESULTS: Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP was experienced by 325 (69.7% of the 466 pregnant women studied. Other common symptoms were backache (152, 32.6%, dizziness (112, 24.0% and heartburn/regurgitation (107, 23.0%. Of the 421 pregnant women who reported ill health conditions 260 (61.8% women sought medical treatment for these illnesses. Total number of episodes that needed treatment seeking were 373. Hospitalizations were reported by 83 (17.8% pregnant women and the total number of hospitalizations was 109. The leading cause of hospitalization was NVP which accounted for 43.1% of total admissions and 49.1% of total days spent in hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Minor maternal ill health conditions affecting day-to-day life have a major burden on pregnancy period. Evidence based management guidelines and health promotion strategies are needed to control and prevent these conditions, in order to provide comprehensive, good quality maternal health care.

  5. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  6. Effects of simplifying outreach materials for energy conservation programs that target low-income consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Canfield, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Critics have speculated that the limited success of energy conservation programs among low-income consumers may partly be due to recipients having insufficient literacy to understand the outreach materials. Indeed, we found outreach materials for low-income consumers to require relatively high levels of reading comprehension. We therefore improved the Flesch–Kincaid readability statistics for two outreach brochures, by using shorter words and shorter sentences to describe their content. We examined the effect of that simplification on low-income consumers′ responses. Participants from low-income communities in the greater Pittsburgh area, who varied in literacy, were randomly assigned to either original communications about energy conservation programs or our simplified versions. Our findings suggest that lowering readability statistics successfully simplified only the more straightforward brochure in our set of two, likely because its content lent itself better to simplification. Findings for this brochure showed that simplification improved understanding of its content among both low-literacy and high-literacy recipients, without adversely affecting their evaluation of the materials, or their intention to enroll in the advertised programs. We discuss strategies for improving communication materials that aim to reach out to low-income populations. - Highlights: • Brochures about energy programs for low-income consumers can be too hard to read. • We made brochures easier to read by using shorter words and shorter sentences. • Simplifying a straightforward brochure improved the understanding of all recipients. • However, simplifying a complex brochure had no effect on understanding. • We suggest strategies for improving outreach to low-income consumers

  7. Diagnostic Study of Barriers for Strengthening Livelihoods of Low-Income Rural Women in Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Romanova, Ekaterina; Kolybashkina, Nina; Hiller, Bradley Todd; Kochkin, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Due to the strong economic growth maintained in the last 15 years, Uzbekistan made progress in reducing gender inequality. At the same time, several demographic and structural challenges remain; and effectively engaging women in the economy is one of them. While modernizing various sectors of the economy will foster progress and development, it may also result in setbacks for women, as the...

  8. Practicing Preventive Health: The Underlying Culture among Low-Income Rural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary W.; Harpel, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Context: Health disparities on the basis of geographic location, social economic factors and education levels are well documented. However, even when health care services are available, there is no guarantee that all persons will take preventive health measures. Understanding the cultural beliefs, practices, and lifestyle choices that determine…

  9. Mothers’ and Fathers’ Sensitivity and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income, Rural Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Willoughby, Michael T.; Zvara, Bharathi; Barnett, Melissa; Gustafsson, Hanna; Cox, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal sensitive parenting and child cognitive development across the first 3 years of life using longitudinal data from 630 families with co-residing biological mothers and fathers. Sensitive parenting was measured by observational coding of parent-child interactions and child cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence. There were multiple direct and indirect associations between parenting and cognitive development across mothers and fathers, suggesting primary effects, carry-forward effects, spillover effects across parents, and transactional effects across parents and children. Associations between parenting and cognitive development were statistically consistent across mothers and fathers, and the cumulative effects of early parenting on later cognitive development were comparable to the effects of later parenting on later cognitive development. As interpreted through a family systems framework, findings suggest additive and interdependent effects across parents and children. PMID:25954057

  10. Delivery arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Lewin, Simon; Herrera, Cristian A; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Rada, Gabriel; Wiysonge, Charles S; Bastías, Gabriel; Dudley, Lilian; Flottorp, Signe; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Garcia Marti, Sebastian; Glenton, Claire; Okwundu, Charles I; Peñaloza, Blanca; Suleman, Fatima; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    assessments of the relevance of findings to low-income countries. Main results We identified 7272 systematic reviews and included 51 of them in this overview. We judged 6 of the 51 reviews to have important methodological limitations and the other 45 to have only minor limitations. We grouped delivery arrangements into eight categories. Some reviews provided more than one comparison and were in more than one category. Across these categories, the following intervention were effective; that is, they have desirable effects on at least one outcome with moderate- or high-certainty evidence and no moderate- or high-certainty evidence of undesirable effects. Who receives care and when: queuing strategies and antenatal care to groups of mothers. Who provides care: lay health workers for caring for people with hypertension, lay health workers to deliver care for mothers and children or infectious diseases, lay health workers to deliver community-based neonatal care packages, midlevel health professionals for abortion care, social support to pregnant women at risk, midwife-led care for childbearing women, non-specialist providers in mental health and neurology, and physician-nurse substitution. Coordination of care: hospital clinical pathways, case management for people living with HIV and AIDS, interactive communication between primary care doctors and specialists, hospital discharge planning, adding a service to an existing service and integrating delivery models, referral from primary to secondary care, physician-led versus nurse-led triage in emergency departments, and team midwifery. Where care is provided: high-volume institutions, home-based care (with or without multidisciplinary team) for people living with HIV and AIDS, home-based management of malaria, home care for children with acute physical conditions, community-based interventions for childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia, out-of-facility HIV and reproductive health services for youth, and decentralised HIV care

  11. Locus of health control as a predictor of diet in pregnant women residing in a small town and rural setting in Małopolska district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The locus of health control is one of the individual characteristics determining the diet of an individual. The aim of this study was to analyse the consumption frequency of selected food products depending on the locus of health control in a group of pregnant women residing in a small town and rural setting in Małopolska district. The study was conducted in a group of 300 pregnant women from Małopolska region, who were between 20 and 40 years of age (29.02 +/- 6.33). The consumption frequency of food products was examined with a prepared questionnaire, in a 7-item scale (from 7 points--several times a day to 1 point--never). The locus of health control was determined with the MHLC scale developed by K.A. Wallston et al., and adapted by Z. Juczyński. The relationship between the MHLC scale and the frequency of consumption of various products was estimated on the basis of Spearman's coefficients of rank correlation and the Mann-Whitney U test, using Statistica 10.0 software. Higher level of internal control (MHLC-I) was associated with significant increase in the consumption frequency of orange and red vegetables (p locus of health control (MHLC-C) was associated with significantly reduced frequency of consuming whole grains (p control made more rational nutritional choices significantly more frequently than those with the external control.

  12. Population density, distance to public transportation, and health of women in low-income neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Merwin, Elizabeth I; Bourguignon, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of two neighborhood walkability (the extent to which the built environment is pedestrian friendly) metrics on health outcomes of women living in low-income urban neighborhoods, both before and after accounting for individual and neighborhood factors. A cross-sectional, retrospective design was used. The sample of 1800 low-income women was drawn from Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study (a study of low-income women from three U.S. cities). Using multilevel modeling and geographic information systems, the study sought to determine the effect of distance to public transportation and residential density on health status, mental health symptoms, and health-related limitations. No significant relationship was found between the two walkability metrics and health outcomes. Instead, neighborhood problems that affect crime and safety impacted health status and mental health symptoms. As cities make changes to the built environment with the hope of affecting residents' health outcomes, public health nurses need to be aware that changing walkability characteristics in a neighborhood may not affect the health of residents of high crime, low-income neighborhoods. Without first addressing neighborhood crime, efforts to improve walkability in low-income neighborhoods may fail. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An optimization algorithm for simulation-based planning of low-income housing projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Construction of low-income housing projects is a replicated process and is associated with uncertainties that arise from the unavailability of resources. Government agencies and/or contractors have to select a construction system that meets low-income housing projects constraints including project conditions, technical, financial and time constraints. This research presents a framework, using computer simulation, which aids government authorities and contractors in the planning of low-income housing projects. The proposed framework estimates the time and cost required for the construction of low-income housing using pre-cast hollow core with hollow blocks bearing walls. Five main components constitute the proposed framework: a network builder module, a construction alternative selection module, a simulation module, an optimization module and a reporting module. An optimization module utilizing a genetic algorithm enables the defining of different options and ranges of parameters associated with low-income housing projects that influence the duration and total cost of the pre-cast hollow core with hollow blocks bearing walls method. A computer prototype, named LIHouse_Sim, was developed in MS Visual Basic 6.0 as proof of concept for the proposed framework. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the use of the developed framework and to illustrate its essential features.

  14. How Medicaid Expansion Affected Out-of-Pocket Health Care Spending for Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Chakraborty, Ougni; Russo, Therese

    2017-08-01

    ISSUE. Prior research shows that low-income residents of states that expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act are less likely to experience financial barriers to health care access, but the impact on out-of-pocket spending has not yet been measured. GOAL. Assess how the Medicaid expansion affected out-of-pocket health care spending for low-income families compared to those in states that did not expand and consider whether effects differed in states that expanded under conventional Medicaid rules vs. waiver programs. METHODS. Analysis of the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2010–2015. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS. Compared to families in nonexpansion states, low-income families in states that did expand Medicaid saved an average of $382 in annual spending on health care. In these states, low-income families were less like to report any out-of-pocket spending on insurance premiums or medical care than were similar families in nonexpansion states. For families that did have some out-of-pocket spending, spending levels were lower in states that expanded Medicaid. Low-income families in Medicaid expansion states were also much less likely to have catastrophically high spending levels. The form of coverage expansion — conventional Medicaid or waiver rules — did not have a statistically significant effect on these outcomes.

  15. How children with special health care needs affect the employment decisions of low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprest, Pamela; Davidoff, Amy

    2004-09-01

    To better understand the impact of having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN), on low-income parents' employment decisions. Using data from the 1999 and 2000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we estimate multivariate statistical regressions (logit and tobit models) to estimate the relationship between having a CSHCN and the likelihood of employment and hours of employment for a sample-of low-income single parents. Controlling for differences in demographic and family characteristics, we find no significant association between having a CSHCN and the probability of work or the number of hours worked among low-income single-parent families. Separate analysis of different dimensions of special health care needs shows that parents of children with activity limitations are significantly less likely to work and work fewer hours. This result does not hold true for the group of children defined based on elevated or special service use, or for the group of children with specific chronic conditions. These results indicate that only a specific subset of children with special needs present difficulties for low-income parents' work. This suggests that policies to help low-income single parents of children with disabilities move into work should target this specific subset of children with special health care needs.

  16. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week’s supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability. It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  17. Perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Louise; Lanumata, Tolotea; Robinson, Jo-Ani; Tavila, Aliitasi; Wilton, Jenny; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2008-07-01

    In New Zealand the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among Māori, Pacific and low-income peoples. Nutrition labels have the potential to promote healthy food choices and eating behaviours. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of research among indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities and low-income populations regarding their perceptions, use and understanding of nutrition labels. Our aim was to evaluate perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income peoples and to explore improvements or alternatives to current labelling systems. Māori, Samoan and Tongan researchers recruited participants who were regular food shoppers. Six focus groups were conducted which involved 158 people in total: one Māori group, one Samoan, one Tongan, and three low-income groups. Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders rarely use nutrition labels to assist them with their food purchases for a number of reasons, including lack of time to read labels, lack of understanding, shopping habits and relative absence of simple nutrition labels on the low-cost foods they purchase. Current New Zealand nutrition labels are not meeting the needs of those who need them most. Possible improvements include targeted social marketing and education campaigns, increasing the number of low-cost foods with voluntary nutrition labels, a reduction in the price of 'healthy' food, and consideration of an alternative mandatory nutrition labelling system that uses simple imagery like traffic lights.

  18. Opportunities for Prevention: Assessing Where Low-Income Patients Seek Care for Preventable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiman, Tamar A; Valdmanis, Vivian G; Bernet, Patrick; Moises, James

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has many aspects that are aimed at improving health care for all Americans, including mandated insurance coverage for individuals, as well as required community health needs assessments (CHNAs), and reporting of investments in community benefit by nonprofit hospitals in order to maintain tax exemptions. Although millions of Americans have gained access to health insurance, many--often the most vulnerable--remain uninsured, and will continue to depend on hospital community benefits for care. Understanding where patients go for care can assist hospitals and communities to develop their CHNA and implementation plans in order to focus resources where the need for prevention is greatest. This study evaluated patient care-seeking behavior among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Florida in 2008--analyzed in 2013--to assess whether low-income patients accessed specific safety net hospitals for treatment or received care from hospitals that were geographically closer to their residence. This study found evidence that low-income patients went to hospitals that treated more low-income patients, regardless of where they lived. The findings demonstrate that hospitals-especially public safety net hospitals with a tradition of treating low-income patients suffering from CAD-should focus prevention activities where low-income patients reside.

  19. Wanting better: a qualitative study of low-income parents about their children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Linsenmayer, Kristi A; Williams, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, the purpose of this study was to understand low-income parents' experiences and how these influenced their oral health-related behavior toward their children. Twenty-eight parents were recruited from 7 sites that serve low-income families. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed, were comprised of mostly open-ended questions. Transcripts were analyzed for common themes. Parents' experiences influenced their oral health-related beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Finding dentists who accept Medicaid was the greatest barrier to realizing intended preventive dental care. Physicians appeared to have relatively little impact on these families' oral health care, even though parents believed that oral health is part of overall health care. WIC (the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children) played an important role in facilitating oral health knowledge and access to dental care. Most low-income parents had received little attention to their own oral health, yet wanted better for their children. This motivated the high value placed on their children's preventive oral health. Parents faced challenges finding dental care for their children. Difficulty finding a regular source of dental care for low-income adults, however, was nearly universal. The authors identified strategies, which emerged from their interviews, to improve the oral health knowledge and dental care access for these low-income families.

  20. Food stress in Adelaide: the relationship between low income and the affordability of healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a "Healthy Food Basket" methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing "food stress." Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  1. Cigarette smoking and food insecurity among low-income families in the United States, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Pitts, M Melinda; Lee, Chung-Won

    2008-01-01

    To quantify the association between food insecurity and smoking among low-income families. A retrospective study using data from the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. men, women, and children and the family units in which they reside. Low-income families. Family income was linked with U.S. poverty thresholds to identify 2099 families living near or below 200% of the federal poverty level. Food insecurity (i.e., having insufficient funds to purchase enough food to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle) was calculated from the 18-core-item food security module of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Current smoking status was determined. Smoking prevalence was higher among low-income families who were food insecure compared with low-income families who were food secure (43.6% vs. 31.9%; p < .01). Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking was associated with an increase in food insecurity of approximately six percentage points (p < .01). Given our finding that families near the federal poverty level spend a large share of their income on cigarettes, perhaps it would be prudent for food-assistance and tobacco-control programs to work together to help low-income people quit smoking.

  2. [Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women under Monitoring in Pre Distinct Prenatal Services: The Metropolitan Area and the Rural Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Caroline San Severino; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in some nutritional aspects of pregnant women assisted at prenatal care services in a country town and in a metropolitan area. Pregnant women received prenatal care in the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), metropolitan area, and Paula Cândido (PC), a country town. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) containing socioeconomic information and information about eating habits was applied. In addition,weight and height were measured on the occasion of the visits and the women were ask to give their prepregnancy weight for subsequent BMI calculation. Data were analyzed according to region and trimester of pregnancy using the SPSS software version 15.0, the t-test to compare averages and the chi-square test of independence, with the level of significance set at 5%. 240 pregnant women were included, 90 from the country town and 150 from the metropolitan area. Of these, most were married (BH = 56.6%; PC = 46.6%) and did not work outside the home (BH = 54.0%; PC = 84.4%). They predominantly had 3-4 meals/ day during the 1st and 2nd quarters (BH = 54.0 and 46%; PC = 66.7 and 63.3%, respectively) and had 5-6 meals/day during Q3 in BH (44%). There was significant weight gain only in the 1st quarter (BH: 58,0%; PC: 53.3%). Weight gain versus eating habits was significant for the variables "lunch or dinner away from home" for the 1st quarter in BH (p = 0.006), "How many times they consume milk" in the 1 st quarter in PC (p = 0.03), and "How many times they consume junk food" in the 3rd quarter in BH (p = 0.009). Pregnant woman showed proper eating habits in both regions despite the prevalence of pregestational overweight in BH and a low level of education and income, especially in the country town, an indicator that may be unfavorable for the nutrition of pregnant women during this period. Studies of association between eating habits and newborn health will provide more information about nutrition during pregnancy.

  3. Tailoring science education graduate programs to the needs of science educators in low-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetta, Vincent N.; van den Berg, Euwe

    Science education graduate programs in high-income countries frequently enroll students from low-income countries. Upon admission these students have profiles of knowledge, skills, and experiences which can be quite different from those of students from the host high-income countries. Upon graduation, they will normally return to work in education systems with conditions which differ greatly from those in high-income countries. This article attempts to clarify some of the differences and similarities between such students. It offers suggestions for making graduate programs more responsive to the special needs of students from low-income countries and to the opportunities they offer for enhancing cross-cultural sensitivity. Many of the suggestions can be incorporated within existing programs through choices of elective courses and topics for papers, projects, and research. Many references are provided to relevant literature on cultural issues and on science education in low-income countries.

  4. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2017-09-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Bucking the trend? Health care expenditures in low-income countries 1990-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, M

    1999-01-01

    Health care expenditures in low-income countries are analysed for the years 1990 and 1995 using four key indicators. Key findings include a substantial reduction in public spending per capita across low-income countries between 1990-95; a significant shift towards private expenditures, which appears increasingly to be substituting rather than supplementing public expenditures; a fall in total and public health spending in many countries despite growth in national income, contradicting the relationship found in other studies. Two possible explanations are put forward. First that the patterns found are a direct result of the structural adjustment policies adopted by many low-income countries, which aim to control and often cut public financing, whilst promoting private health expenditures. Secondly, that following the wave of privatization of state industries, many governments are finding problems adapting to their new role as a tax collector, and are thus not benefiting from economic growth to the extent that might be expected.

  6. Social Policy Trends- Housing Affordability for Families with Low Incomes Across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita (Gres Wilkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR FAMILIES WITH LOW INCOMES ACROSS CANADA Percentage of income devoted to paying lowest-priced rent in a city, by low-income family type, select years, 1990-2015 Much public attention has been directed towards the issue of a Canada-wide housing crisis. The focus has typically been on the cost of housing for an average income Canadian family. Less attention has been paid to families with incomes much lower than those of the average Canadian household, for which the housing crisis is far more severe. Households and individuals with particularly low incomes are at the highest risk of experiencing the worst effects of a lack of housing affordability, including homelessness.

  7. The Role of Educational Aspirations and Expectations in the Discontinuity of Intergenerational Low-Income Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill,, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated one potential mechanism mediating continuity and discontinuity in low-income status across generations: children's educational aspirations and expectations. Data were drawn from a community sample of 808 participants who were followed from age 10 to 30. Four trajectory groups of children's educational aspirations and expectations were identified from ages 10 to 18 (grades five through 12): “stable-high” group, “stable-low” group, “increaser” group, and “decreaser” group. Among participants from low-income families, those in the stable-high group and the increaser group were equally likely to graduate from high school. High school graduation was positively associated with level of total household income at age 30. Findings suggest that social work efforts that support the development of high educational aspirations and expectations in children might serve to reduce the intergenerational continuity of low-income status. PMID:24385713

  8. Economics, Marketing and Low Income Individuals: interest after a history of indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Wilcox Hemais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the early years of marketing, researchers used theories and concepts from economics as base for the development of their own theories and concepts. This similarity can be seen in the way marketing viewed the low income individual and his relationship with consumption, in the first studies of the subject. Like the economists, researchers in marketing described these individuals as dependents of society and governments to better their lives. This view changes when Prahalad defends a new perspective, through which individuals in this context are seen as consumers, with desires to consume products of diverse nature. The objective of this article, therefore, is to analyze the paths trailed by economics and two moments in marketing about the low income individual. Initially, the view economics has on low income individuals is discussed, so that, afterwards, two perspectives of marketing about this segment can be presented.

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Low-Income Women: A Population-Based Study in China from 1991 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyan; Bai, Lingling; Zhan, Changqing; Yang, Li; Tu, Jun; Gu, Hongfei; Shi, Min; Wang, Jinghua; Ning, Xianjia

    2016-12-01

    Data on long-term trends in the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among women in China are rare, especially among low-income women. The aim of this study was to investigate the secular trends in the prevalence of CVD risk factors among low-income women in northern China. The prevalence and clustering of CVD risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, current smoking status, and alcohol consumption, were assessed and compared in women aged 35-74 years in northern China in 1991 and 2011. The age-adjusted prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among women was significantly higher in 2011 than in 1991, with increases of 31% (53.6% vs. 41.1%) for hypertension, 148% (20.9% vs. 8.4%) for obesity, 256% (11.7% vs. 3.3%) for diabetes, and 1634% (4.5% vs. 0.3%) for alcohol consumption. Over the 21-year period, there were significant differences in the prevalence of clustering of ≥1, ≥2, and 3 risk factors in all age groups. The greatest increase was observed among women aged 35-44 years, with a 7.3-fold increase in the prevalence of clustering of three risk factors. Simultaneously, the prevalence of clustering of ≥1 risk factors among women aged 35-44 years was 1.7-fold higher in 2011 than in 1991; the prevalence of clustering of ≥2 risk factors was raised by 5.5-fold among elderly women. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to emphasize the prevention and control of cardiovascular risk factors among young women in rural China to reduce the burden of CVDs.

  10. Access to and use of paid sick leave among low-income families with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Perry, Cynthia D; Kenney, Genevieve M; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Pantell, Matthew S

    2008-08-01

    The ability of employed parents to meet the health needs of their children may depend on their access to sick leave, especially for low-income workers, who may be afforded less flexibility in their work schedules to accommodate these needs yet also more likely to have children in poor health. Our goal was to provide rates of access to paid sick leave and paid vacation leave among low-income families with children and to assess whether access to these benefits is associated with parents' leave taking to care for themselves or others. We used a sample of low-income families (paid leave and characteristics of children, families, and parents' employer. Access to paid leave was lower among children in low-income families than among those in families with higher income. Within low-income families, children without >or=1 full-time worker in the household were especially likely to lack access to this benefit, as were children whose parents work for small employers. Among children whose parents had access to paid sick leave, parents were more likely to take time away from work to care for themselves or others. This relationship is even more pronounced among families with the highest need, such as children in fair or poor health and children with all parents in full-time employment. Legislation mandating paid sick leave could dramatically increase access to this benefit among low-income families. It would likely diminish gaps in parents' leave taking to care for others between families with and without the benefit. However, until the health-related consequences are better understood, the full impact of such legislation remains unknown.

  11. The Effectiveness Of Rental Housing Finance For Low-Income Households In Sombo Rental Flats Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nur Ramadhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fullfilment for the needs of housing is a priority that cannot be suspended especially in urban areas of developing country whose population continues to increase because of the rapid urbanization. Indonesia as the developing country still has a fairly high backlog approximately at 7.6 millions unit house in 2014 most of them are low income people. The Government has several plan in striving for the scarcity of housing. One of them is the development of rental flats which have goals for the social housing fulfillment for low income people and increase their housing affordability by lowering the rental rates. The intention is to assist the low income people save their money to buy their own homes. But in facts there are several constraints related to this rental flats finance such as late payment by the residents uncontroled right transfer and the tariff adjusted to the ability of the inhabitants can not cover the cost of the physical building management and maintanance. This study aims to evaluate Sombo rental flat finance for for low income people in which the data are collected through in depth interview observation and documentation. The results of several qualitatively descriptive analysis show that the effectiveness of rental flat financing in the aspect of the purpose and goal to facilitating low income community needs of housing is quiet accomplished. Beside that the organization is also well structured and have the efficient human resources. But Sombo rental flats effectivenes is relatively low in the aspect of profit ability rental financing program and in the enforcement of rules and regulation. The main problem is in the arrears of residents rental payment and the deficiency for maintanance cost so it has to depend on the city government subsidies. The rental finance constraint are caused by several factors which are historic factors residents factors and the vision and commitment of the city government to facilitate housing for low

  12. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  13. "Broken windows": Relationship between neighborhood conditions and behavioral health among low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Kim, Dong Ha

    2018-03-01

    This study explored the association between neighborhood conditions and behavioral health among African American youth. Cross-sectional data were collected from 683 African American youth from low-income communities. Measures for demographics, neighborhood conditions (i.e. broken windows index), mental health, delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors were assessed. Major findings indicated that participants who reported poorer neighborhood conditions compared to those who lived in better living conditions were more likely to report higher rates of mental health problems, delinquency, substance use, and unsafe sexual behaviors. Environmental factors need to be considered when addressing the behavioral health of low-income African American youth.

  14. HIV testing uptake and retention in care of HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women initiated on 'Option B+' in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzangare, Janet; Takarinda, Kudakwashe C; Harries, Anthony D; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Mhangara, Mutsa; Apollo, Tsitsi Mutasa; Mushavi, Angela; Chimwaza, Anesu; Sithole, Ngwarai; Magure, Tapiwa; Mpofu, Amon; Dube, Freeman; Mugurungi, Owen

    2016-02-01

    Zimbabwe has started to scale up Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, but there is little published information about uptake or retention in care. This study determined the number and proportion of pregnant and lactating women in rural districts diagnosed with HIV infection and started on Option B+ along with six-month antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes. This was a retrospective record review of women presenting to antenatal care or maternal and child health services at 34 health facilities in Chikomba and Gutu rural districts, Zimbabwe, between January and March 2014. A total of 2728 women presented to care of whom 2598 were eligible for HIV testing: 76% presented to antenatal care, 20% during labour and delivery and 4% while breastfeeding. Of 2097 (81%) HIV-tested women, 7% were HIV positive. Lower HIV testing uptake was found with increasing parity, late presentation to antenatal care, health centre attendance and in women tested during labour. Ninety-one per cent of the HIV-positive women were started on Option B+. Six-month ART retention in care, including transfers, was 83%. Loss to follow-up was the main cause of attrition. Increasing age and gravida status ≥2 were associated with higher six-month attrition. The uptake of HIV testing and Option B+ is high in women attending antenatal and post-natal clinics in rural Zimbabwe, suggesting that the strategy is feasible for national scale-up in the country. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. HIV-positive pregnant women attending the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS (PMTCT) services in Ethiopia: economic productivity losses across urban-rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Mbonigaba, Josue; Kaye, Sylvia Blanche

    2018-06-01

    HIV/AIDS impacts significantly on pregnant women and on children in Ethiopia. This impact has a multiplier effect on household economies and on productivity losses, and is expected to vary across rural and urban settings. Applying the human capital approach to data collected from 131 respondents, this study estimated productivity losses per HIV-positive pregnant woman-infant pair across urban and rural health facilities in Ethiopia, which in turn were used to estimate the national productivity loss. The study found that the annual productivity loss per woman-infant pair was Ethiopian birr (ETB) 7,433 or United States dollar (US$) 378 and ETB 625 (US$ 32) in urban and rural settings, respectively. The mean patient days lost per year due to inpatient admission at hospitals/health centres was 11 in urban and 22 in rural health facilities. On average, urban home care-givers spent 20 (SD = 21) days annually providing home care services, while their rural counterparts spent 23 days (SD = 26). The productivity loss accounted for 16% and 7% of household income in urban and rural settings, respectively. These high and varying productivity losses require preventive interventions that are appropriate to each setting to ensure the welfare of women and children in Ethiopia.

  16. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  17. A Mixed Methods Study on Developing Low-Income Kindergarten Students' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kara J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine how the effects of kindergarten teachers' evidence-based literacy instructional practices impact the development of low-income kindergarten students' intrinsic reading motivation. The research questions are: (a) What are kindergarten teachers' perceptions of students' intrinsic reading…

  18. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Low-Income Preschooler's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Miriam; Poulakos, Anthoula; Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2016-01-01

    Parent-teacher rating discrepancies in rating of children's social skills were examined in a low-income, ethnically diverse preschool sample, using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales [Gresham, F. J. & Elliott, S. N. (2008). "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales." Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments].…

  19. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  20. Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes Low-Income Children's Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Ramani, Geetha B.

    2008-01-01

    The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of…

  1. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  2. Family and Cultural Influences on Low-Income Latino Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = 0.66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77%…

  3. Children's Effects on Parenting Stress in a Low Income, Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, R. Debra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Relationships between parenting stress and other maternal and child characteristics were investigated with 66 low income mothers and their five- to eight-year-old children at risk for educational disabilities. Child characteristics (self esteem, behavior conduct, and spelling achievement) and maternal characteristics (self esteem and crowding…

  4. Healthy and comfortable dwellings for the low-income settlements in Surakarta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsandrie, Y.; Bokel, R.M.J.; Van der Linden, A.C.; Kurvers, S.R.; Cauberg, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Technology for the low-income group of people should be as simple as their daily life. Giving recommendations for simple dwelling design and changing people’s behaviour for a better living are the concerns of this research. A field-survey was conducted in November-December 2010 involving 426

  5. Smoking Attitudes and Practices among Low-Income African Americans: Qualitative Assessment of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M.; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2003-01-01

    Qualitatively examined sociocultural factors associated with smoking attitudes and practices among low-income, African American young adults smokers and nonsmokers. Focus group data indicated that specific contextual and familial factors contributed to smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation (e.g., strong parental discipline, limited…

  6. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  7. Prospera Digital Phase II: Financial inclusion for low-income women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Prospera Digital Phase II: Financial inclusion for low-income women in Mexico ... a research network in Latin America, to identify barriers and opportunities to scale up ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  8. Employment and the Risk of Domestic Abuse among Low-Income Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Magnuson, Katherine; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data from 2 randomized evaluations of welfare-to-work programs--the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies--to estimate the effect of employment on domestic abuse among low-income single mothers. Unique to our analysis is the application of a 2-stage least squares method, in…

  9. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  10. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  11. Process Evaluation of a Parenting Program for Low-Income Families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M.; Kelly, Jane; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L.; Hutchings, Judy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This mixed-methods process evaluation examined the feasibility of a parenting program delivered by community facilitators to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in low-income families with children aged 3-8 years in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 68). Method: Quantitative measures included attendance registers, fidelity checklists,…

  12. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  13. Multidisciplinary Perspectives towards the Education of Young Low-Income Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Demir-Dagdas, Tuba; Cakmakci, Huzeyfe; Cava-Tadik, Yasemin; Intepe-Tingir, Seyma

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the issues surrounding low-income immigrants in the U.S. and the ways they shape the educational experiences of their young children. Using a multidisciplinary lens including sociology, family studies, education, and mental health, the authors analyse multiple perspectives towards the educational experiences of children in…

  14. After-School Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn; Moberg, D. Paul; Brown, Roger; Rodriguez-Espiricueta, Ismael; Flores, Nydia I.; Burke, Melissa P.; Coover, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated a culturally representative parent engagement strategy with Latino parents of elementary school children. Ten urban schools serving low-income children from mixed cultural backgrounds participated in a large study. Classrooms were randomly assigned either either to an after-school, multifamily support…

  15. Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Judith B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…

  16. 76 FR 64882 - Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...] Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program AGENCY: Federal... payments would replace the current administrative process, under which the Universal Service Administrative... Wireline Competition Bureau (WCB) seeks comment on a proposal for disbursing Universal Service Fund low...

  17. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  18. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children's Long-Term Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression…

  19. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  20. Experiential Cooking Programs for Low-Income Adults: Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Karen; Vineyard, Michelle; Olson, Ann; Peterson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Experiential cooking classes for low-income adults can help improve healthy nutrition behaviors. However, nutrition educators and Extension professionals can face challenges in successful implementation of these programs such as difficulties recruiting and retaining participants. Drawing upon lessons learned from a cooking intervention with…

  1. Preschool Interactive Peer Play Mediates Problem Behavior and Learning for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Romero, Sandy L.; Carter, Tracy M.

    2012-01-01

    The study employed a developmental, ecological, and resiliency framework to examine whether interactive peer play competencies mediated associations between teacher reported problem behavior and learning outcomes for a representative sample of urban low-income children (N = 507 across 46 Head Start classrooms). Structural equation models provided…

  2. Elaboration and Autonomy Support in Low-Income Mothers' Reminiscing: Links to Children's Autobiographical Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…

  3. Parental Mathematics Homework Involvement of Low-Income Families with Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Robyn Hackford; Chen, Yung-Chi; Fish, Marian C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between methods of parental assistance (i.e., provision of structure, direct assistance, and autonomy support) with mathematics homework for high-achieving and low-achieving students and children's achievement in mathematics in low-income families and examines the impact of parental efficacy on these…

  4. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  5. Understanding the Gender Gap in School Performance among Low-Income Children: A Developmental Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, girls outperform boys in overall school performance. The gender gap is particularly large among those in at-risk groups, such as children from families at economic disadvantage. This study modeled the academic trajectories of a low-income sample of boys and girls from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project across the full course…

  6. Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environm...

  7. The feasibility of a Paleolithic diet for low-income consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzgar, Matthew; Rideout, Todd C.; Fontes-Villalba, Maelan; Kuipers, Remko S.

    Many low-income consumers face a limited budget for food purchases. The United States Department of Agriculture developed the Thrifty Food Plan to address this problem of consuming a healthy diet given a budget constraint. This dietary optimization program uses common food choices to build a

  8. Factors Influencing the General Well-Being of Low-Income Korean Immigrant Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2011-01-01

    This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…

  9. Evaluation of DOE's Partnership in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Lee, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    In July 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded competitive grants to five states to conduct pilot projects to establish partnerships and use resource leveraging to stimulate support for low-income residential energy retrofits. The projects were conducted under DOE's Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. These projects have been monitored and analyzed through a concurrent process evaluation conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This study reports the findings of that evaluation. The overriding goal of the PILIRR Program was to determine whether the states could stimulate support for low-income residential energy improvements from non-federal sources. The goal for the process evaluation was to conduct an assessment of the processes used by the states and the extent to which they successfully established partnerships and leveraged resources. Five states were selected to participate in the program: Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington. Each state proposed a different approach to promote non-federal support for low-income residential weatherization. Three of the five states--Florida, Iowa, and Washington--established partnerships that led to retrofits during the monitoring period (October 1986--October 1988). Kentucky established its partnership during the monitoring period, but did not accomplish its retrofits until after monitoring was complete. Oklahoma completed development of its marketing program and had begun marketing efforts by the end of the monitoring period. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Social Competence among Low-Income Preschoolers: Emotion Socialization Practices and Social Cognitive Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between emotion socialization variables, social cognitive knowledge, and children's social competence in preschoolers from low-income families. Found that mothers' self-reported emotion socialization practices were related to children's emotional knowledge and sibling caregiving behavior. (MDM)

  11. Low-Income Parental Profiles of Coping, Resource Adequacy, and Public Assistance Receipt: Links to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Angela N.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika L.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in perceptions of resources and in coping strategies among low-income parents likely influences parenting. The purposes of this study were to identify differences in parental profiles, as indicated by receipt of public assistance, perceptions of adequacy of resources, and coping strategies, and to examine these profiles relative to…

  12. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  13. Low-Income Children, Their Families and the Great Recession: What Next in Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Chaudry, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth vary in their developmental health due to differences in family economic security and exposure to toxic stress. The economic downturn has increased the challenges facing low-income children. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and the President's first budget made significant down-payments on investments in…

  14. Educator Perceptions of Low-Income Elementary Students and Their Effects on Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between income level and achievement has led some educators to believe that low-income students cannot learn at the same level as can middle-class and affluent peers. This problem is significant because as more families become impoverished, more students may be at risk for failure. Many studies have identified challenges facing…

  15. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  16. Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2004-01-01

    Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

  17. Life After Welfare Reform: Low-Income Single Parent Families, Pre- and Post-TANF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janice; Song, Xue; Jones-DeWeever, Avis

    This study used data from the first and last waves of the 1996 U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation to compare the characteristics and wellbeing of low-income, single parent families before and after passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), noting the characteristics and…

  18. Student Success for All: Support for Low-Income Students at an Urban Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Although federal financial aid has increased in recent years, the costs of college tuition and living expenses have increased even more, leaving larger numbers of students with unmet need. Restructuring of financial aid, however, is insufficient to address the problem of diverging attainment gaps between low-income students and their more…

  19. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  20. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  1. The Impact of GEAR UP on College Readiness for Students in Low Income Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; France, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) on college readiness outcomes using a quasi-experimental design. GEAR UP is designed to increase the number of low-income students who are prepared to enter and succeed in postsecondary education by providing 6-year…

  2. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  3. Feminist Relational Advocacy: Processes and Outcomes from the Perspective of Low-Income Women with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…

  4. Reducing the Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Low-Income Countries Has Substantial Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of low birth weight not only lowers infant mortality rates but also has multiple benefits over the life cycle. This study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the incidence of low birth weight in low-income countries, both through lower mortality rates and medical costs and through increased learning and productivity. The estimated economic benefits, under pla...

  5. Family Investments in Low-Income Children's Achievement and Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; McPherran Lombardi, Caitlin; Dearing, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study,…

  6. Childbirth attendance strategies and their impact on maternal mortality and morbidity in low-income settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyone, Thidar; Sorensen, Bjarke Lund; Tellier, Siri

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To review quantitative evidence of the effect on maternal health of different childbirth attendance strategies in low-income settings. Design. Systematic review. Methods. Studies using quantitative methods, referring to the period 1987-2011, written in English and reporting the impact ...

  7. Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

  8. Personal Empowerment in the Study of Home Internet Use by Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda; Gallo, Michael; Nucklos, Eddy; Sherblom, Stephen; Pennick, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a United States Department of Commerce (National Telecommunications and Information Administrations, NTIA, 1995) study of home Internet use by Low-income families. The study investigated the barriers, benefits (empowerment), and perceived worth of the Internet and concluded that home Internet access enabled powerful emotional and…

  9. Variations in Classroom Language Environments of Preschool Children Who Are Low Income and Linguistically Diverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Sandilos, Lia; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Lopez, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study aimed to (a) provide an in-depth description of the frequency and type of language interactions that children who are low income and/or dual language learners (DLLs) experience in their classrooms and (b) examine whether differences exist in children's language experiences based on children's DLL status and level of…

  10. Widening Income Inequalities: Higher Education's Role in Serving Low Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…

  11. Social Support and Low-Income, Urban Mothers: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Roche, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of engaged parenting in explaining longitudinal associations between maternal perceptions of social network support and whether youth engage in delinquent behaviors during the transition into adolescence. The sample included 432 low-income, African American and Latino youth (49% female) and their mothers…

  12. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  13. Is the Feeling Mutual? Examining Parent-Teacher Relationships in Low-Income, Predominantly Latino Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hannah; Robinson, Michelle; Valentine, Jessa Lewis; Fish, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Strong parent-teacher relationships are critical to students' academic success. Mismatches in parents' and teachers' perceptions of each other may negatively affect children's outcomes. Using survey data collected from parents and teachers in 52 low-income, predominantly Latino schools, we explore subgroup variation in parents' and teachers'…

  14. Characterizing Air Pollution in Two Low-Income Neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of urban population growth in the world, with a large number of urban residents living in low-income “slum” neighborhoods. We conducted a study for an initial assessment of the levels and spatial and/or temporal patterns of multiple polluta...

  15. Fruit and vegetable attitudes, norms, and intake in low-income youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable (FV) attitudes and norms have been shown to influence intake in youth; yet research with low-income youth and studies supplementing self-report with objective measures of intake are lacking. Cross-sectional survey data on self-rated FV intake, FV attitudes, and FV norms were coll...

  16. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  17. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  18. Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Low-Income Urban Dwellers in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM. Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model revealed that 20.5% (21.8% and 38.46% (38.9% of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  19. Fostering Community and Civic Engagement in Low-Income Multicultural Schools through Transformative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Barbara; Horman, Judith; Lapointe, Claire

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine how transformative leadership enables students from a low-income and multicultural neighbourhood to learn about democracy, responsible citizenship, and community engagement at school. As part of a graduate seminar on critical pedagogy and cultural studies in education, in-depth group interviews were conducted with…

  20. Promoting health and advancing development through improved housing in low-income settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, A.; Bruce, N.; Cairncross, S.; Davies, M.; Greenland, K.; Hiscox, A.F.; Lindsay, S.; Lindsay, T.; Satterthwaite, D.; Wilkinson, P.

    2013-01-01

    There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme

  1. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  2. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  3. Poverty Levels and Debt Indicators among Low-Income Households before and after the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…

  4. Health-related quality-of-life in low-income, uninsured men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupski, Tracey L; Fink, Arlene; Kwan, Lorna; Maliski, Sally; Connor, Sarah E; Clerkin, Barbara; Litwin, Mark S

    2005-05-01

    The objective was to describe health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in low-income men with prostate cancer. Subjects were drawn from a statewide public assistance prostate cancer program. Telephone and mail surveys included the RAND 12-item Health Survey and UCLA Prostate Cancer Index Short Form and were compared with normative age-matched men without cancer from the general population reported on in the literature. Of 286 eligible men, 233 (81%) agreed to participate and completed the necessary items. The sample consisted of 51% Hispanics, 23% non-Hispanic whites, and 17% African Americans. The low-income men had worse scores in every domain of prostate-specific and general HRQOL than had the age-matched general population controls. The degree of disparity indicated substantial clinical differences in almost every domain of physical and emotional functioning between the sample group and the control group. Linear regression modeling determined that among the low-income men, Hispanic race, and income level were predictive of worse physical functioning, whereas only comorbidities predicted mental health. Low-income patients with prostate cancer appear to have quality-of-life profiles that are meaningfully worse than age-matched men from the general population without cancer reported on in the literature.

  5. A Talent for Tinkering: Developing Talents in Children from Low-Income Households through Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ann; Adelson, Jill L.; Kidd, Kristy A.; Cunningham, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Guided by the theoretical framework of curriculum as a platform for talent development, this quasi-experimental field study investigated an intervention focused on engineering curriculum and curriculum based on a biography of a scientist through a comparative design implemented in low-income schools. Student outcome measures included science…

  6. Modeling exposures to organophosphates and pyrethroids for children living in an urban low-income environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological a...

  7. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in an Urban Supermarket by Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J.; Stites, Shana D.; Wallace, Samantha L.; Braitman, Leonard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictors of fresh fruit and vegetable purchases in a low-income population and identify subgroups in which interventions to increase such purchases might prove useful. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 209 shopping transactions from 30 households. Individual and household characteristics obtained from primary…

  8. Millennial Learners and Net-Savvy Teens? Examining Internet Use among Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Walker, J. D.; Kim, Seongdok

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses access and use of information and communication technologies among urban high school students from low-income families, a topic of great interest to teacher educators, educational policymakers, and others concerned with digital literacy instruction. Recent reports from national digital learning initiatives have portrayed…

  9. Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank A.; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2006-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African…

  10. Influence of a Supervised Mentoring Program on the Achievement of Low-Income South Korean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sumi; Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supervised mentoring program designed to improve the academic achievement of 834 low-income elementary and secondary school students in Seoul, South Korea. When compared to the control group, both elementary and middle school students exposed to the mentoring program improved in mathematic and reading…

  11. Growth in Means-Tested Programs and Tax Credits for Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William; Dahl, Molly; Falk, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following: (1) Medicaid; (2) the low-income…

  12. ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW INCOME FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRESSMAN, HARVEY

    A PROPOSAL FOR AN ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN CERTAIN AREAS OF BOSTON IS PRESENTED. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ARE THAT THERE IS AND OBVIOUS AND PRESSING NEED TO GIVE EXTRA HELP TO THE ABLE STUDENT FROM A DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUND, AND THAT A RELATIVELY BRIEF ENRICHMENT EXPERIENCE FOR…

  13. Contraceptive use among low-income urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manisha; Meena, Jyoti; Sharma, Sumedha; Poddar, Anju; Dhalliwal, Vikas; Modi-Satish Chander Modi, S C; Singh, Kamlesh

    2011-02-01

    The reports of a rise in contraceptive practices have not been matched by a similar decrease in population, so there is a need to look into the causes of this discrepancy. To obtain information from low-income urban married women regarding their contraceptive knowledge, practices, and utilization of the services. Percentage of low-income urban married women using contraception, different types of contraception used, influence of education on choice of contraception. All nonpregnant married women between the ages of 18 and 45 years, belonging to low-income groups were selected for study. Statistical analysis was done using EPI Info ver-5.0. Chi square test was used to test the significance of data. Contraceptive use among these women was 52%; the most common method was tubal ligation. Educated women used spacing methods more often than uneducated women. Women had adequate awareness regarding type of contraceptives available but had no idea about the timing of starting contraception after delivery and about emergency contraception. The low-income urban population is aware of the importance of limiting the family size and has family planning facilities yet has less contraceptive usage because of low level of education, increased rate of discontinuation, and lack of proper knowledge of the use of contraception. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. 78 FR 63993 - ``Low-Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... changes in the Consumer Price Index. The Secretary annually adjusts the low-income levels based on the... applicable programs. The income figures below have been updated to reflect increases in the Consumer Price... recognition of same-sex spouses and same-sex marriages, was unconstitutional. In light of this decision...

  15. Maternal Correlates of Growth in Toddler Vocabulary Production in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Singer, Judith D.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of growth in toddlers' vocabulary production between the ages of 1 and 3 years by analyzing mother-child communication in 108 low-income families. Individual growth modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in children's observed vocabulary production and predictors of initial status and between-person…

  16. A Postsecondary Transition Model for Low-Income, Minority Youth in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexis Tolbert

    2016-01-01

    School administrators are in the best position, but often lack the knowledge, to help low-income, minority youth transition to college. Consequently, some youth are not meeting their full potential and there are long-term, deleterious consequences on local economies as wage earning potential stagnates. Using Aslanargun's, Farmer-Hinton's, and…

  17. Coping with Family Conflict: What's Helpful and What's Not for Low-Income Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Family conflict is exacerbated by poverty-related stress and is detrimental to adolescent mental health. Adolescent coping with family conflict has the potential to buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of family conflict on internalizing symptoms. We examined coping with family conflict among 82 low-income adolescents (53.7% female, mean age…

  18. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  19. Reading and Comprehension Levels in a Sample of Urban, Low-Income Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cheryl; Weitzel, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because health literacy is related to healthcare outcomes, this study looked at reading and comprehension levels in a sample of urban, low-income persons. Design: This was a descriptive exploration of reading comprehension levels, controlled for medical problems that could impact on vision and therefore ability to read. Setting: Ninety…

  20. Are College Faculty and First-Generation, Low-Income Students Ready for Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.; Thompson, Maris R.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing current research on college readiness as well as the role of cultural agents as a conceptual framework, this qualitative study investigates student and faculty beliefs about readiness and the pedagogical practices that allow instructors to effectively serve as cultural agents for first-generation, low-income students. Three major…

  1. Cell Phone Ownership and Service Plans Among Low-Income Smokers: The Hidden Cost of Quitlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Rosner, June-Marie; Toll, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Quitlines (QLs) are free, effective sources of treatment for tobacco dependence. Although the QL number is toll-free, the use of cell phones as the sole source of telephony may impose an unintended cost, in terms of cell minutes. To quantify the use of cell-only telephony among self-pay or Medicaid smokers, assess their calling plans, and estimate the impact of a typical course of QL counseling. A survey of smokers age at least 18 years visiting an American urban emergency department from April to July, 2013. Seven-hundred seventy-three smokers were surveyed, of whom 563 (72.8%) were low-income, defined as having Medicaid or no insurance. All low-income smokers had at least one phone: 48 (8.5%) reported land-lines only, 159 (28.2%) land-lines and cells, and 356 (63.2%) cells only. Of the cell phone owners, monthly calling plans provided unlimited minutes for 339/515 (65.8%), at most 250 minutes for 124 (24.1%), and more than 250 minutes for 52 (10.0%). Another recent trial found that QL users make a median of 1 call lasting 28 minutes, with the 75th and 90th percentiles of calls and minutes at 3 and 4 calls, and 48 and 73.6 minutes, respectively. Thus, robust use of QL services could consume 11%-29% of a low-income smoker's typical 250 monthly cell minutes. Among low-income smokers, cell phones are often the sole telephone. Robust use of the QL may impose a substantial burden on low-income smokers' calling plans, and therefore deter use of the QL. Exempting calls to QLs from counting against smokers' plans may help promote QL utilization. Low-income individuals have high rates of smoking, and are more likely to own only cell phones, not landlines, for telephone access. Because cell phone calling plans often have limited numbers of monthly minutes, cell-only individuals may have to spend a substantial proportion of their monthly minutes on QL services. This may act as a deterrent to using an otherwise free, effective means of treatment for tobacco dependence

  2. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  3. Pregnant Women Diet Quality and Its Sociodemographic Determinants in Southwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Ferdous, Tarana; Tegenfeldt, Kathrin; Roy, Sumitro; Rahman, A K M Fazlur; Rashid, Iftekhar; Haque, Raisul; Rahman, Zakia; Hossen, Kabir; Siddiquee, Saydur Rahman; Rahman, Mosiqure; Sanghvi, Tina G; Shaheen, Nazma

    2016-03-01

    Diet diversity of pregnant women is associated with nutrition sufficiency, micronutrient adequacy, and pregnancy outcomes. However, the sociodemographic determinants of diet diversity among pregnant women in low-income countries are not well studied. The analysis was undertaken to study the determinants of high dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods by pregnant women from rural Bangladesh. Pregnant women (508) were randomly selected from southwestern Bangladesh and interviewed to collect data about diet and sociodemographic characteristics. A 24-hour recall was used to collect information about diet. Diet diversity score was calculated for 9 major food groups. All analyses were conducted using STATA SE 12. The overall mean diet diversity score was low at 4.28 and was significantly high among pregnant women who have higher educational achievement, whose husbands' occupation was business, who live in households of 4 or more family members, and who were dwelling in a house with more than 1 room. Highest gap on knowledge and consumption was reported for 3 food groups including dairy foods, eggs, and dark green leafy vegetables. Consumption of dairy and eggs was lower among women from low socioeconomic status, but no significant association was found between sociodemographic characteristics and consumption of leafy vegetables. Our analysis has shown that diet quality of pregnant women was poor and intake of micronutrient-rich foods was low despite having knowledge about the importance of these foods, underscoring the need for promoting the diet quality in developing countries through behavior change communication programs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Factors associated with utilization of motorcycle ambulances by pregnant women in rural eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssebunya, Rogers; Matovu, Joseph K B

    2016-03-03

    Evidence suggests that use of motorcycle ambulances can help to improve health facility deliveries; however, few studies have explored the motivators for and barriers to their usage. We explored the factors associated with utilization of motorcycle ambulances by pregnant women in eastern Uganda. This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study conducted among 391 women who delivered at four health facilities supplied with motorcycle ambulances in Mbale district, eastern Uganda, between April and May 2014. Quantitative data were collected on socio-demographic and economic characteristics, pregnancy and delivery history, and community and health facility factors associated with utilization of motorcycle ambulances using semi-structured questionnaires. Qualitative data were collected on the knowledge and attitudes towards using motorcycle ambulances by pregnant women through six focus group discussions. Using STATA v.12, we computed the characteristics of women using motorcycle ambulances and used a logistic regression model to assess the correlates of utilization of motorcycle ambulances. Qualitative data were analyzed manually using a master sheet analysis tool. Of the 391 women, 189 (48.3%) reported that they had ever utilized motorcycle ambulances. Of these, 94.7% were currently married or living together with a partner while 50.8% earned less than 50,000 Uganda shillings (US $20) per month. Factors independently associated with use of motorcycle ambulances were: older age of the mother (≥35 years vs ≤24 years; adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.03, 9.13), sharing a birth plan with the husband (aOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.19, 5.26), husband participating in the decision to use the ambulance (aOR =3.22, 95% CI: 1.92, 5.38), and having discussed the use of the ambulance with a traditional birth attendant (TBA) before using it (aOR =3.12, 95% CI: 1.88, 5.19). Qualitative findings indicated that community members were aware of what motorcycle ambulances

  5. Postpartum Health Information Seeking Using Mobile Phones: Experiences of Low-Income Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Christie, Vanessa M; Prabhakar, Annu; Harris, Asia L; Siek, Katie A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives To assess low-income mothers' perceptions of their postpartum information needs; describe their information seeking behavior; explore their use of mobile technology to address those needs; and to contribute to the sparse literature on postpartum health and wellness. Methods Exploratory community-based qualitative approach. Interviewees were recruited among clients of community partners and had children aged 48 months and under. A survey assessing demographics was used to identify low-income mothers. 10 low-income mothers were recruited from survey participants to complete in-depth interviews regarding postpartum information needs, information seeking, and technology use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by three researchers independently. Narratives were analyzed along predetermined (etic) and emergent (emic) categories. Results Establishing breastfeeding and solving breastfeeding problems were central postpartum concerns leading to information seeking. Interviewees reported almost exclusive use of mobile phones to access the Internet. Mobile applications were widely used during pregnancy, but were not valuable postpartum. Face-to-face information from medical professionals was found to be repetitive. Online information seeking was mediated by default mobile phone search engines, and occurred over short, fragmented time periods. College graduates reported searching for authoritative knowledge sources; non-graduates preferred forums. Conclusions for Practice Low-income postpartum women rely on their smartphones to find online infant care and self-care health information. Websites replace pregnancy-related mobile applications and complement face-to-face information. Changes in searching behavior and multitasking mean information must be easily accessible and readily understood. Knowledge of page-rank systems and use of current and emergent social media will allow health-related organizations to better engage with low-income mothers online and

  6. Medicaid Coverage Expansions and Cigarette Smoking Cessation Among Low-income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Jonathan W; Donohue, Julie M; Barry, Colleen L; Huskamp, Haiden A; Jarlenski, Marian

    2017-12-01

    Expanding Medicaid coverage to low-income adults may have increased smoking cessation through improved access to evidence-based treatments. Our study sought to determine if states' decisions to expand Medicaid increased recent smoking cessation. Using pooled cross-sectional data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for the years 2011-2015, we examined the association between state Medicaid coverage and the probability of recent smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children who were current or former smokers (n=36,083). We used difference-in-differences estimation to examine the effects of Medicaid coverage on smoking cessation, comparing low-income adult smokers in states with Medicaid coverage to comparable adults in states without Medicaid coverage, with ages 18-64 years to those ages 65 years and above. Analyses were conducted for the full sample and stratified by sex. Residence in a state with Medicaid coverage among low-income adult smokers ages 18-64 years was associated with an increase in recent smoking cessation of 2.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.9). In the comparison group of individuals ages 65 years and above, residence in a state with Medicaid coverage expansion was not associated with a change in recent smoking cessation (-0.1 percentage point, 95% confidence interval, -2.1 to 1.8). Similar increases in smoking cessation among those ages 18-64 years were estimated for females and males (1.9 and 2.2 percentage point, respectively). Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Medicaid coverage expansions may have increased smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children via greater access to preventive health care services, including evidence-based smoking cessation services.

  7. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  8. A review of low income energy assistance measures adopted in other jurisdictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Low-income energy assistance programs (LIEPs) have been established and implemented in many jurisdictions to help make electricity and natural gas more affordable. Low-income programs also serve many other public interest goals, such as safeguarding and protecting the public health and welfare of the citizens; augmenting incomes or standards of living for the lowest income energy customers; encouraging conservation and more efficient use of energy resources; reducing customer care costs for utilities; reducing uncollectible accounts and bad debt expense for utilities; and reducing carbon emissions and greenhouse gas levels. This report contained a summary of the policies, programs, and measures that have been implemented, mandated, or allowed by regulators in other jurisdictions to assist low-income energy consumers with electricity and natural gas costs. The report categorized the differing low income policies and programs that have been implemented and examined the effectiveness of those policies and programs as measured by the costs and benefits, as well the level of customer participation. These categories included rate discounts or waivers; modified rate designs; alternative billing methods; customer rebates; conservation and demand side management programs; budget or equal billing; payment plans for past due accounts; waivers of late payment charges; waivers or reductions of customer security deposits; limits on disconnections; and reduced or waived fees for reconnections. The report covered regulatory jurisdictions, including those in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, France, Spain, and Finland. The report also discussed the role of regulators, utilities, charitable organizations, and other interested parties in developing and implementing low-income energy assistance programs that were cost-effective and efficient. It was concluded that, in addition to rate discounts or waivers of the fixed monthly service charge, many

  9. Systematic Review of Factors Influencing Farmers' Market Use Overall and among Low-Income Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Vaudrin, Nicole; Schneider, Christine; Trapl, Erika; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Taggart, Morgan; Ariel Cascio, M; Walsh, Colleen; Flocke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates a widening gap in fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption between high- and low-income Americans. This gap is related, in part, to decreased access to food retailers that sell fresh F/V in low-income communities. Farmers' markets are identified as a strategy for improving F/V consumption by increasing access to these foods. The aim of this systematic review was to examine literature published from 1994 to 2014 to identify facilitators and barriers of farmers' markets use, particularly among low-income consumers. Peer-reviewed literature was identified in Ebsco Host (Academic Search Complete). Inclusion criteria for abstract review was primary research focused on farmers' market use identifying 87 studies for full-text review. Full-text review identified articles focused on facilitators and/or barriers of farmers' market use resulting in 49 articles. At least two reviewers completed review of all articles. Of the 49 articles, 39% specified inclusion of low-income consumers and fewer than 15% focused on racial and ethnic minorities. Few studies were guided by theory and/or used standardized metrics. Results indicate farmers' market use is influenced by multiple economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal factors. Among studies that included low-income populations (n=19), key barriers to farmers' market use were perceptions that food assistance benefits were not accepted, belief that food variety at farmers' markets was limited, lack of access to transportation, lack of racial/ethnic diversity in the market space, and mismatch between markets and personal lifestyles. There is wide variation in study design and reporting standards and infrequent use of standardized measures limiting comparisons across studies. There is a need to establish valid and reliable metrics and reporting standards for evaluating farmers' markets. Findings may inform interventions, programs, and policies to promote farmers' market use. Copyright

  10. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women cooking and heating with solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, John R; Asteria-Peñaloza, Renée; Diaz-Artiga, Anaité; Davila, Gilberto; Hammond, S Katharine; Ryde, Ian T; Meyer, Joel N; Benowitz, Neal; Thompson, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    Household air pollution is a major contributor to death and disability worldwide. Over 95% of rural Guatemalan households use woodstoves for cooking or heating. Woodsmoke contains carcinogenic or fetotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Increased PAHs and VOCs have been shown to increase levels of oxidative stress. We examined PAH and VOC exposures among recently pregnant rural Guatemalan women exposed to woodsmoke and compared exposures to levels seen occupationally or among smokers. Urine was collected from 23 women who were 3 months post-partum three times over 72h: morning (fasting), after lunch, and following dinner or use of wood-fired traditional sauna baths (samples=68). Creatinine-adjusted urinary concentrations of metabolites of four PAHs and eight VOCs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Long-term (pregnancy through 3 months prenatal) exposure to particulate matter and airborne PAHs were measured. Women using wood-fueled chimney stoves are exposed to high levels of particulate matter (median 48h PM 2.5 105.7μg/m 3 ; inter-quartile range (IQR): 77.6-130.4). Urinary PAH and VOC metabolites were significantly associated with woodsmoke exposures: 2-naphthol (median (IQR) in ng/mg creatinine: 295.9 (74.4-430.9) after sauna versus 23.9 (17.1-49.5) fasting; and acrolein: 571.7 (429.3-1040.7) after sauna versus 268.0 (178.3-398.6) fasting. Urinary PAH (total PAH: ρ=0.89, p0.85) or PAH and VOC biomarkers (ρ=-0.20 to 0.38, p>0.07). Urinary metabolite concentrations were significantly greater than those of heavy smokers (mean cigarettes/day=18) across all PAHs. In 15 (65%) women, maximum 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations exceeded the occupational exposure limit of coke-oven workers. The high concentrations of urinary PAH and VOC metabolites among

  11. Correlates of facility delivery for rural HIV-positive pregnant women enrolled in the MoMent Nigeria prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Isah, Christopher; Fan-Osuala, Chinenye; Erekaha, Salome; Ramadhani, Habib O; Anaba, Udochisom; Adeyemi, Olusegun A; Manji-Obadiah, Grace; Lee, Daniel; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Charurat, Manhattan

    2017-07-14

    Low rates of maternal healthcare service utilization, including facility delivery, may impede progress in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and in reducing maternal and infant mortality. The MoMent (Mother Mentor) study investigated the impact of structured peer support on early infant diagnosis presentation and postpartum maternal retention in PMTCT care in rural Nigeria. This paper describes baseline characteristics and correlates of facility delivery among MoMent study participants. HIV-positive pregnant women were recruited at 20 rural Primary Healthcare Centers matched by antenatal care clinic volume, client HIV prevalence, and PMTCT service staffing. Baseline and delivery data were collected by participant interviews and medical record abstraction. Multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equation analysis was used to evaluate for correlates of facility delivery including exposure to structured (closely supervised Mentor Mother, intervention) vs unstructured (routine, control) peer support. Of 497 women enrolled, 352 (71%) were between 21 and 30 years old, 319 (64%) were Christian, 245 (49%) had received secondary or higher education, 402 (81%) were multigravidae and 299 (60%) newly HIV-diagnosed. Delivery data was available for 445 (90%) participants, and 276 (62%) of these women delivered at a health facility. Facility delivery did not differ by type of peer support; however, it was positively associated with secondary or greater education (aOR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.2) and Christian affiliation (OR 1.4, CI 1.0-2.0) and negatively associated with primigravidity (OR 0.5; 0.3-0.9) and new HIV diagnosis (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-0.9). Primary-level or lesser-educated HIV-infected pregnant women and those newly-diagnosed and primigravid should be prioritized for interventions to improve facility delivery rates and ultimately, healthy outcomes. Incremental gains in facility delivery from structured peer support appear limited

  12. A Supermarket Double-Dollar Incentive Program Increases Purchases of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Among Low-Income Families With Children: The Healthy Double Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; Moran, Alyssa; Thorndike, Anne N; Boulos, Rebecca; Franckle, Rebecca L; Greene, Julie C; Blue, Dan J; Block, Jason P; Rimm, Eric B

    2018-03-01

    To carry out a pilot study to determine whether a supermarket double-dollar fruit and vegetable (F&V) incentive increases F&V purchases among low-income families. Randomized controlled design. Purchases were tracked using a loyalty card that provided participants with a 5% discount on all purchases during a 3-month baseline period followed by the 4-month intervention. A supermarket in a low-income rural Maine community. A total of 401 low-income and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) supermarket customers. Same-day coupon at checkout for half-off eligible fresh, frozen, or canned F&V over 4 months. Weekly spending in dollars on eligible F&V. A linear model with random intercepts accounted for repeated transactions by individuals to estimate change in F&V spending per week from baseline to intervention. Secondary analyses examined changes among SNAP-eligible participants. Coupons were redeemed among 53% of eligible baskets. Total weekly F&V spending increased in the intervention arm compared with control ($1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], $0.29 to $3.88). The largest increase was for fresh F&V ($1.97; 95% CI, $0.49 to $3.44). Secondary analyses revealed greater increases in F&V spending among SNAP-eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($5.14; 95% CI, $1.93 to $8.34) than among non-SNAP eligible participants who redeemed coupons ($3.88; 95% CI, $1.67 to $6.08). A double-dollar pricing incentive increased F&V spending in a low-income community despite the moderate uptake of the coupon redemption. Customers who were eligible for SNAP saw the greatest F&V spending increases. Financial incentives for F&V are an effective strategy for food assistance programs to increase healthy purchases and improve dietary intake in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-income minority and homeless mothers' perceptions of their 9-13 year-old children's weight status, diet, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery; Richards, Rickelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine low-income mothers' perceptions of their children's height and weight in relation to actual measures, and perceptions of dietary quality and health status. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary quality/health status data were collected during a multi-phase nutrition research project with low-income Minnesotans, and a sub-set of non-pregnant mother-child dyads (mothers ages ≥ 18 years, children ages 9-13 years) were analyzed (n = 257). Participants were Caucasian, African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Asian, or Other/mixed race, and most were homeless. Relationships between maternal perceptions of their child's height and weight and the actual measures, and maternal perceptions of dietary quality and health status for the dyad, were examined using independent and paired samples t-tests, ANOVA, and paired samples correlations. Comparisons were also made by maternal and child body mass index (BMI) status and living situation. Mothers significantly underestimated their child's height and weight (-4.8 ± 13.9 cm, P = 0.000; -5.3 ± 8.5 kg, P = 0.000); greatest misperceptions of weight were among mothers of overweight/obese children (P = 0.000). Mothers not reporting estimates of their child's height and weight (n = 53) had higher BMIs (P = 0.029), and their children were younger (P = 0.000) and lighter (P = 0.021) compared to mothers who provided estimates. Inability to objectify children's weight status may contribute to the obesity epidemic affecting low-income minority populations. Underestimation of weight status may be influenced by cultural perceptions of body image and socioeconomic status.

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder among low-income women exposed to perinatal intimate partner violence : Posttraumatic stress disorder among women exposed to partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastello, Jennifer C; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Kodadek, Marie P; Bullock, Linda C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-06-01

    Women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) and other forms of lifetime trauma may be at risk for negative mental health outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to examine potential predictors of PTSD among low-income women exposed to perinatal IPV. This study analyzed baseline cross-sectional data from 239 low-income pregnant women in the USA who participated in a nurse home visitation intervention between 2006 and 2012 after reporting recent IPV. PTSD was assessed with the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) in which participants answer questions about the most disturbing traumatic event (MDTE) in their lifetime that affected them the week before the interview. In total, 40 % of the women were identified as having PTSD (DTS ≥40). PTSD prevalence significantly increased with age to nearly 80 % of women ages 30 and older (n = 23). Age was also the strongest predictor of PTSD (p violence were not significantly associated with PTSD status. Despite recent exposure to IPV, most participants identified other traumatic events as more disturbing than IPV-related trauma. Further, the risk for PTSD increased with age, suggesting that the cumulative effect of trauma, which may include IPV, increases the risk for PTSD over a lifetime. Implementing comprehensive screening for trauma during prenatal care may lead to the early identification and treatment of PTSD during pregnancy in a community setting.

  15. Children's tooth decay in a public health program to encourage low-income pregnant women to utilize dental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirtcliff R Mike

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A community-based public health program to provide a dental home for women covered by the Oregon Health Plan (Medicaid in Klamath County, Oregon USA was instituted with the long-term goal to promote preventive oral care for both mothers and their new infants provided by dental managed care companies. Methods As part of the evaluation of the program, children in Klamath and comparable non-program counties were examined in their 2nd year of life to begin to determine if benefits accrued to the offspring of the mothers in Klamath County. Results Eighty-five and 58.9% of the children were caries free in the Klamath and comparison county samples, respectively (RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.13, 1.93. The mean (SD number of teeth with any decay was .75 (2.5 in the test population and 1.6 (2.5 in the comparison population (t = 2.08, p = .04. Conclusions The assessment showed that children of mothers in the Klamath County program were about one and a half times more likely to be caries free than children in the comparison counties. Additional controlled studies are being undertaken.

  16. Children's tooth decay in a public health program to encourage low-income pregnant women to utilize dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Sutherland, Marilynn; Shirtcliff, R Mike; Ludwig, Sharity; Smolen, Darlene

    2010-02-18

    A community-based public health program to provide a dental home for women covered by the Oregon Health Plan (Medicaid) in Klamath County, Oregon USA was instituted with the long-term goal to promote preventive oral care for both mothers and their new infants provided by dental managed care companies. As part of the evaluation of the program, children in Klamath and comparable non-program counties were examined in their 2nd year of life to begin to determine if benefits accrued to the offspring of the mothers in Klamath County. Eighty-five and 58.9% of the children were caries free in the Klamath and comparison county samples, respectively (RR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.13, 1.93). The mean (SD) number of teeth with any decay was .75 (2.5) in the test population and 1.6 (2.5) in the comparison population (t = 2.08, p = .04). The assessment showed that children of mothers in the Klamath County program were about one and a half times more likely to be caries free than children in the comparison counties. Additional controlled studies are being undertaken.

  17. Urban-Rural Problems. Contemporary Social Problems Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee

    Various social problems are created by migration of low-income rural people into urban areas. These people are classified "low income" because their material level-of-living is often less than that found in urban areas. The dominant national values for material well-being are based upon urban middle class standards, thus creating a social problem…

  18. 24 CFR 1000.110 - Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program? 1000.110 Section 1000.110 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.110 Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families...

  19. Obesity risk in children: The role of acculturation in the feeding practices and styles of low-income Hispanic families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hisp...

  20. Access and Mobilization: How Social Capital Relates to Low-Income Youth's Postsecondary Educational (PSE) Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Mariam; Feliciano, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Youth from advantaged backgrounds have more social relationships that provide access to resources facilitating their educational success than those from low-income families. Does access to and mobilization of social capital also relate to success among the few low-income youth who "overcome the odds" and persist in higher education?…

  1. Weekly and Twice-Weekly Yoga Classes Offer Similar Low-Back Pain Relief in Low-Income Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekly and Twice-Weekly Yoga Classes Offer Similar Low-Back Pain Relief in Low-Income Minority Populations Share: © Photodisc ... in minority and low-income populations with chronic low-back pain. Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine, Boston ...

  2. Parenting Practices among Low-Income Parents/Guardians of Academically Successful Fifth Grade African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Mehta, Sejal; Behar-Horenstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between parenting and academic achievement has provided conflicting results, particularly for low-income, culturally-diverse parents. Using resilience theory, the researchers conducted a case study with five low-income African American mothers. Findings suggest that educators can benefit from partnering with…

  3. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  4. 78 FR 16277 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Low Income Housing Tax Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Database AGENCY: Office of the Chief... codified as 42 U.S.C. 1437z-8) that requires each state agency administering tax credits under section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (low-income housing tax credits or LIHTC) to furnish HUD, not...

  5. 75 FR 9609 - Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Tenant Data Collection: Responses To Advance Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... comment on methodology for the collection of data on low-income housing tax credit housing, as required by... 36 (to be codified as 42 U.S.C. 1437z-8) that requires each State agency administering tax credits under section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (low-income housing tax credits or LIHTC) to...

  6. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…

  7. [Factors associated with insulin resistence in rural populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Larissa Loures; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2009-04-01

    This study explores the relations of anthropometric, body composition assessments, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters with insulin resistance in two rural communities. Sample was composed by adults aged 18 or older, both sexes. Participants were excluded if pregnant and diabetic. Data collection included demographic lifestyle, hemodynamic, anthropometric and biochemical variables. From the 567 subjects, 50.4% were men and 49.6%, women. Most of the sample was non-white (75.7%), lived with partner (69.3%) and had low educational level. Overweight and obesity prevalences were 17.4% and 5.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis found risk factors associated to insulin resistance for non-diabetic adults with low income and educational level: overweight, obesity, elevated waist-to-hip ratio, C-reactive protein and skin color.

  8. How a North Carolina program boosted preventive oral health services for low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R Gary; Stearns, Sally C; Pahel, Bhavna T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Park, Jeongyoung

    2010-12-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.

  9. A number sense intervention for low-income kindergartners at risk for mathematics difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Nancy I; Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Early number sense is a strong predictor of later success in school mathematics. A disproportionate number of children from low-income families come to first grade with weak number competencies, leaving them at risk for a cycle of failure. The present study examined the effects of an 8-week number sense intervention to develop number competencies of low-income kindergartners (N = 121). The intervention purposefully targeted whole number concepts related to counting, comparing, and manipulating sets. Children were randomly assigned to either a number sense intervention or a business as usual contrast group. The intervention was carried out in small-group, 30-min sessions, 3 days per week, for a total of 24 sessions. Controlling for number sense at pretest, the intervention group made meaningful gains relative to the control group at immediate as well delayed posttest on a measure of early numeracy. Intervention children also performed better than controls on a standardized test of mathematics calculation at immediate posttest.

  10. Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy-efficiency programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Campbell, Nina

    2011-06-15

    The International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency Unit (EEU) has begun a new programme of work on innovative energy-efficiency policies for mitigating fuel poverty. The IEA's current research focuses on the potential for low-income weatherisation programmes to address poor housing quality -- the main driver of fuel poverty -- as well as innovative methods for financing and evaluating such programmes. A common problem is that the energy-saving benefits accruing to fuel-poor households barely offset the investment required, suggesting a weak return on government spending. However, these investments have additional co-benefits for participants as well as for energy providers, property owners, local communities and society as a whole. This first IEA workshop focused on methods for incorporating the range of co-benefits into evaluation of low-income weatherisation programmes. The presentations given by top experts in the fuel poverty field are summarised in this report, along with conclusions and proposals for further research.

  11. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  12. Multilevel Perspectives on Female Sterilization in Low-Income Communities in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Marie A; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Jadhav, Kalpita

    2016-09-01

    Surgical sterilization is the primary method of contraception among low-income women in India. This article, using qualitative analysis of key informant, in-depth interviews, and quantitative analyses, examines the antecedents, process, and outcomes of sterilization for women in a low-income area in Mumbai, India. Family planning policies, socioeconomic factors, and gender roles constrain women's reproductive choices. Procedures for sterilization rarely follow protocol, particularly during pre-procedure counseling and consent. Women who choose sterilization often marry early, begin conceiving soon after marriage, and reach or exceed ideal family size early due to problems in accessing reversible contraceptives. Despite these constraints, this study indicates that from the perspective of women, the decision to undergo sterilization is empowering, as they have fulfilled their reproductive duties and can effectively exercise control over their fertility and sexuality. This empowerment results in little post-sterilization regret, improved emotional health, and improved sexual relationships following sterilization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Measuring the bias against low-income country research: an Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Macinko, James; Jimenez, Geronimo; Mullachery, Pricila

    2017-11-06

    With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries. Computer-based Implicit Association Test (IAT) distributed to healthcare professionals and researchers. Stimuli representing Rich Countries were chosen from OECD members in the top ten (>$36,000 per capita) World Bank rankings and Poor Countries were chosen from the bottom thirty (based medicine and diffusion of innovations.

  14. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  15. Empowering low-income community in Kampong settlement by exploring people's activities in surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawole, Paulus; Sutanto, Haryati B.

    2017-11-01

    Urban Kampong is a spontaneous settlement growing in several big cities within developing countries including Indonesia. This settlement is developed by low-income people without any plan. Therefore there is no specific housing pattern in the settlement. The characteristics of the settlements is dominated by Javanese traditional roof typology and narrow path with minimal public open spaces. People's creativity in building their houses often uses second hand building materials that make their houses look specific. Besides, infrastructure facilities within Kampong Settlement are very poor. Because the poor living in Urban Kampong have to adjust their live with minimum infrastructure facilities available, they have to be creative in using all facilities available. Through the creativities of low-income people living in Urban Kampong the research will show how the inhabitants can be empowered by exploring inhabitant's creativities and consequently the environmental quality within Urban Kampong can be improved as well.

  16. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slater

    Full Text Available Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  17. Adherence to hysterosalpingogram appointments following hysteroscopic sterilization among low income women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The few studies on post-Essure hysterosalpingogram (HSG) adherence rates show inconsistent results. This study examined associations between sociodemographic variables not examined in prior studies and HSG adherence among low income women. Study Design Medical records of 286 women who underwent sterilization between August 31, 2005 and September 30, 2011 were reviewed. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine variable associations with HSG adherence. Results The adherence rate for the first HSG was 85.0% (243/286). Variables associated with adherence were: lower education level (p=.01), not working outside the home (p=.04), being married (pEssure placement is feasible among low income populations. Furthermore, not speaking English or having to commute a far distance to the clinic do not appear to be barriers. This is encouraging considering the importance of this test to confirm tubal occlusion. PMID:24012097

  18. Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Camp: A Summer Approach to Prevent Obesity in Low-Income Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gretchen Lynn; Schneider, Constance; Kaiser, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of participation in a summer camp focused on nutrition and fitness among low-income youth. In 2011-2012, overweight and obese youth (n = 126) from Fresno, CA participated in a free 6-week summer program, Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Camp (HLFC), which included 3 h/wk of nutrition education provided by University of California CalFresh and 3 hours of daily physical activity through Fresno Parks and Recreation. The researchers used repeated-measures ANOVA to examine changes in weight, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) between HLFC and the comparison group (n = 29). Significant pre-post WHtR reductions were observed in HLFC: 0.64 to 0.61 (P obesity prevention among low-income youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal Care Utilization for Mothers from Low-Income Areas of New Mexico, 1989–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Waitzkin, Howard; Carson, E. Ann; Romain, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999. Methodology/Principal Findings Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:20862298

  20. Prenatal care utilization for mothers from low-income areas of New Mexico, 1989-1999.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Schillaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999.Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings.These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes.

  1. Longitudinal Effects of Group Music Instruction on Literacy Skills in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L.; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6–9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  2. Characteristics of prepared food sources in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan T; Powell, Lisa M; Newman, Sara; Klassen, Ann Carroll; Frick, Kevin D; Anderson, Jennifer; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources(PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs(N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods.

  3. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation Among Low-Income Single Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M; Cherlin, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. Based on longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the 3-city Welfare Study, results indicate that employment status alone is not significantly associated with whether women marry or cohabit. We find that nonemployed mothers and mothers working nonstandard schedules were less likely to marry compared to those working standard schedules. Mothers' perceptions of economic well-being were associated with marriage at Wave 2. In contrast, cohabitation outcomes were not explained by economic factors, but were related to the perception of child care support. The policy implications of these results are discussed, in particular, as they relate to welfare reform's work and family goals.

  4. Uncommon social trajectories: Chilean low-income adolescents with reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ortiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students from low-income families are less successful at school, as indicated by theories of social reproduction. This article focuses on Chilean students that, in spite of their social background, have performed well in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009. Using logistic regression analysis we identify factors associated with academic achievement in reading. Results show that student variables have a greater explanatory value than family and school variables.

  5. Feasibility of Internet-based Parent Training for Low-income Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoron, Lucy; Hvizdos, Erica; Bocknek, Erika L; Montgomery, Erica; Ondersma, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    Parent training programs promote positive parenting and benefit low-income children, but are rarely used. Internet-based delivery may help expand the reach of parent training programs, although feasibility among low-income populations is still unclear. We examined the feasibility of internet-based parent training, in terms of internet access/use and engagement, through two studies. In Study 1, 160 parents recruited from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) centers completed a brief paper survey regarding internet access and use (all parents received government aid). We found high levels of access, openness, and comfort with the internet and internet-enabled devices. In Study 2, a pilot study, we assessed use of an online parenting program in a project with a sample of 89 predominately low-income parents (75% received government aid). Parents learned about a new, online parenting program (the "5-a-Day Parenting Program") and provided ratings of level of interest and program use 2-weeks and 4-weeks later. Local website traffic was also monitored. At baseline, parents were very interested in using the web-based program, and the majority of parents (69.6%) reported visiting the website at least once. However, in-depth use was rare (only 9% of parents reported frequent use of the online program). Results support the feasibility of internet-based parent training for low-income parents, as most parent were able to use the program and were interested in doing so. However, results also suggest the need to develop strategies to promote in-depth program use.

  6. Financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Lewin, Simon; Ciapponi, Agustín; Herrera, Cristian A; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Rada, Gabriel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Background One target of the Sustainable Development Goals is to achieve "universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all". A fundamental concern of governments in striving for this goal is how to finance such a health system. This concern is very relevant for low-income countries. Objectives To provide an overview of the evidence from...

  7. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  8. LOW-INCOME, MINORITY FATHERS’ CONTROL STRATEGIES AND THEIR CHILDREN'S REGULATORY SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Jenessa L.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith Lee

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24-months and children's regulatory skills at pre-kindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Evaluation Research Program (n = 71) we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24-months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), an...

  9. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  10. Cohabitating Partners and Domestic Labor in Low-Income Black Families

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew; Vazan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the division of domestic labor in low-income cohabiting Black stepfamilies. We analyze survey data collected from 136 such families in order to understand how stepparent gender and relationship length impact the distribution of domestic labor. We hypothesize that women do more domestic work than men across all three family types, and that stepfathers are more involved in domestic labor in established relationships compared to new relationships. Findings indicate that coh...

  11. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD's experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD's minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency open-quote in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock

  12. Financial Intermediation Costs in Low-Income Countries; The Role of Regulatory, Institutional, and Macroeconomic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Tigran Poghosyan

    2012-01-01

    We analyze factors driving persistently higher financial intermediation costs in low-income countries (LICs) relative to emerging market (EMs) country comparators. Using the net interest margin as a proxy for financial intermediation costs at the bank level, we find that within LICs a substantial part of the variation in interest margins can be explained by bank-specific factors: margins tend to increase with higher riskiness of credit portfolio, lower bank capitalization, and smaller bank si...

  13. LESS SPACE, MORE SPATIALITY FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING UNITS IN EGYPT: IDEAS FROM JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermine Abdel Gelil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, the Egyptian government launched a national housing project for low-income families. To minimize cost, it has progressively reduced units’ sizes. Numerous surveys indicate that unit specifications were based on political and economic criteria, rather than on users’ needs, which resulted in the recurrence of the persistent phenomenon of individual modifications. A number of scholars and architects concerned with this phenomenon are advocating the revival of the social design principles of traditional Cairene houses (16th –19th century after adapting them to contemporary needs. However, they provide no concrete solutions as to how to achieve this in small-scale units located in multi-storey buildings. During my research in Japan, I was introduced to traditional middle class urban houses. Their practical designs used to resolve issues of privacy, internal flexibility, storage, and family growth can be beneficially applied to housing units in Egypt. This paper first explains why relying solely on traditional housing designs to resolve social issues associated with low-income units in Egypt is both fanciful and incomplete, then discusses why ideas from Japanese homes can be beneficially applied to low-income housing units in Egypt. Third, this paper examines issues in these units and the resultant modifications by Egyptian households. Next, it analyzes concepts of spatial organization, modular systems, partitioning, and storage in traditional middle class urban houses in Japan. Finally, this paper formulates proposals for fulfilling the social needs of occupants in Egypt by integrating these ideas into low-income housing units.

  14. LOW INCOME CONSUMERS AND ONLINE SHOPPING: APPREHENSIONS IN CONSUMING THROUGH THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo da Silva Dias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth in access of low income consumers to the internet has taken them to use the net in search of entertainment, education and relationships. However, consuming online is still an activity surrounded by distrust. The present study aims to discuss the reasons why low income consumers have apprehension in consuming through the internet. For this, in depth interviews were conducted with 23 low income consumers. The collected data shows that the internet is still seen by the interviewees as being, mainly, for leisure and entertainment. Online shopping still is a task they fear, because of different motives. Initially, one can point the preference to consume in physical stores, since the consumers can touch the desired product, enjoy the trip to the store as a moment of pleasure and the possibility of interacting with salesmen, who help them in their choice. The apprehensions in buying online are also influenced by the perception that sites are not safe, because they offer threats, such as viruses or theft of personal information. Furthermore, interviewees believe that online stores are not compromised with their customers, since they permit problems to occur in the delivery of merchandise, are not clear about the shopping process, and create difficulties in payment method. Another reason for them not to buy online is the perception that if a negative consuming episode of online shopping happened to someone they know, it is also bound to happen with them. Despite this reasoning, these consumers point the importance of help from a third party in their reference group as main incentive for them to face the obstacles to consuming through the internet. In conclusion, it is possible to consider that low income consumers have apprehensions that are similar to their higher income peers, but, also, show different feelings, which are seldom discussed in the literature about online shopping.

  15. African-American homeless and low-income housed mothers: comparison of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, S A; Morgan, K M; Anderson, E A

    1997-01-01

    The child-rearing practices of homeless and low-income housed mothers of preschool children in Head Start were compared. Overall, homeless mothers provided less learning and academic stimulation, less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and a less positive physical environment for their children than did housed mothers. Mothers in both living arrangements provided more language stimulation to daughters than to sons. Implications of the findings for working with homeless families are discussed.

  16. Pediatric clinical drug trials in low-income countries: key ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, S M; Knoppert, D C; Stanton-Jean, M; Avard, D

    2015-02-01

    Potential child participants in clinical research trials in low-income countries are often vulnerable because of poverty, high morbidity and mortality, inadequate education, and varied local cultural norms. However, vulnerability by itself must not be accepted as an obstacle blocking children from the health benefits that may accrue as an outcome of sound clinical research. As greater emphasis is placed on evidence-based treatment of children, it should be anticipated that there will be a growing call for agreement on principles to guide clinical investigations in low-income countries. There is now general acceptance of the view that children must be protected from non-evidence-based interventions and from substandard treatments. The questions remaining relate to how best to stimulate clinical research activity that will serve the needs of infants, children, and youth in developing countries and how best to assign priority to ethically sound research that will meet their clinical requirements. In low-income countries, 39 % of citizens are 13 years of age or younger, and consequently it is certain that clinical investigations of some new therapeutic products will be conducted there more frequently. This review offers some suggestions for approaches that will help to achieve more effective ethical consideration, including (1) improving the quality of research ethics boards; (2) fostering collaborative partnerships among important stakeholders; (3) making concerted efforts to build capacity; (4) improving the quality of the consent and waiver process; and (5) developing improved governance for harmonized ethics platforms. Continuing support by international organizations is required to sustain the establishment and maintenance of stronger research ethics boards to protect children enrolled in clinical trials. This review underscores the importance of developing a culture of solidarity and true partnership between developed and low-income country organizations, which

  17. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  18. New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of New Haven used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  19. Health Care Access and Use Among Low-Income Children on Subsidized Insurance Programs in California.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Trenholm; Anna Saltzman; Shanna Shulman; Michael Cousineau; Dana Hughes

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the CaliforniaKids and Healthy Kids programs—county-based insurance programs in California for low-income children. The study examined features of both programs, use of basic health care services by the children enrolled, and typical experiences accessing inpatient and other high-cost care. Children enrolled in the two programs made substantial use of outpatient health care, despite important variation in program features. The study concludes with recommendations on ho...

  20. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings: An evaluation of the test-negative design

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Victor, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The test-negative design (TND), an epidemiologic method currently used to measure rotavirus vaccine (RV) effectiveness, compares the vaccination status of rotavirus-positive cases and rotavirus-negative controls meeting a pre-defined case definition for acute gastroenteritis. Despite the use of this study design in low-income settings, the TND has not been evaluated to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness. Methods This study builds upon prior methods to evaluate the use of the T...

  1. An Investigation Into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related bel...

  2. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  3. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuehi OM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Olufunke M Ebuehi, IA AkintujoyeReproductive and International Health Unit, Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria.Methods: A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1 statistical software.Results: Almost half (48.8% of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6% of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%, “providing antenatal services” (16.5%, “performing caesarean section” (13.0%, “providing family planning services” (8.2%, and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%. About 6/10 (61.0% respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7% respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%, normal delivery (36.1%, “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%, “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%, and family planning services (1.9%. Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%, “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%,

  4. Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kelly Marinoski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well as by measuring the flow rate of existing water fixtures and appliances. The results indicated that the shower was the fixture with the largest water consumption in households, i.e., about 30%–36% of total water consumption on average, followed by the toilet (18%–20%. The surveyed households consumed from 111 to 152 L/capita·day on average, based on different income ranges. No correlation was found between income and water consumption. The results of this study can be used to estimate the consumption of water for new buildings, as well as to develop integrated water management strategies in low-income developments, in Florianópolis, such as water-saving plumbing fixtures, rainwater harvesting, and greywater reuse. Likely, there would be a deferral of capital investments in new water assets for enhancing water and wastewater services by saving water in low-income houses.

  5. The association of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental comorbidities in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Korgaonkar, Purva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental indicators in low-income families. Parents/guardians of approximately 400 children, aged 2-14 years, were recruited from a charity hospital serving low income neighborhoods in the outskirts of Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers of children were interviewed in their local language by a trained nurse. Eight self-reported comorbidities were grouped into two constructs based on factor analysis and conveniently labeled as mental health (anxiety, attention and behavioral problems) and developmental problems (learning, developmental delay, hearing impairment, sleep and speech problems). Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, presence of older siblings, number of people in the household, child birth weight, presence of mold, and family history of asthma or hay fever. Children with asthma had 18 times greater odds of mental health problems (adjusted OR = 18.0, 95% CI: 9.2, 35.1) as compared to children without asthma. The odds of developmental problems were more than 14 times greater for children with asthma (adjusted OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 7.8, 26.1) as compared to children without asthma. This study found mental and developmental adverse consequences of childhood asthma in low-income families. Identifying and treating asthma at an early age could reduce the burden of comorbidities in this population.

  6. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Laz, Tabassum H; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-09-01

    Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction.

  7. BARRIERS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN DEVELOPING 'DO-IT-YOURSELF' (DIY PRODUCTS FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Lepre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct involvement of the user in the assembling process of his/her own products or even entire house is a reality among low-income populations in developing countries. Nevertheless, there are a limited number of products that have actually been designed from a do-it-yourself (DIY perspective, which results in several problems, such as poor user safety while the product is being assembled or inadequate results from an improvised assembling. Hence, the main goal of this paper is to analyse barriers to and opportunities for developing DIY products for low-income housing in developing countries. The research method utilises a case study of a DIY product consisting of a hybrid solution that acted as both a partition wall and a wardrobe. The identified opportunities included more systematic use of existing craft competencies among low-income families and the possibility of cost reduction through DIY concepts. Major barriers included the perception of the DIY product as inferior and the difficulty of communicating the DIY assembly process to users who quite often are illiterate.

  8. Digital Inequality and Developmental Trajectories of Low-income, Immigrant, and Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Vikki S; Gonzalez, Carmen; Clark, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Children growing up in the United States today are more ethnically and racially diverse than at any time in the nation's history. Because of rising income inequality, almost half of the 72 million children in the United States are also growing up in low-income families, with immigrant and children of color disproportionately likely to be within their ranks. Children in low-income households are more likely to face a number of social challenges, including constrained access to the Internet and devices that connect to it (ie, digital inequality), which can exacerbate other, more entrenched disparities between them and their more privileged counterparts. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics' new guidelines encourage clinicians to reduce children's overexposure to technology, we argue for a more nuanced approach that also considers how digital inequality can reduce low-income children's access to a range of social opportunities. We review previous research on how digital inequality affects children's learning and development and identify areas where more research is needed on how digital inequality relates to specific aspects of children's developmental trajectories, and to identify what interventions at the family, school, and community levels can mitigate the adverse effects of digital inequality as children move through their formal schooling. On the basis of the evidence to date, we conclude with guidelines for clinicians related to supporting digital connectivity and more equitable access to social opportunity for the increasingly diverse population of children growing up in the United States. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Low-Income Adolescents Under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Naaila; Chaplin, Tara M; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Gender roles in mainstream U.S. culture suggest that girls express more happiness, sadness, anxiety, and shame/embarrassment than boys, while boys express more anger and externalizing emotions, such as contempt. However, gender roles and emotion expression may be different in low-income and ethnically diverse families, as children and parents are often faced with greater environmental stressors and may have different gender expectations. This study examined gender differences in emotion expression in low-income adolescents, an understudied population. One hundred and seventy nine adolescents (aged 14-17) participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Trained coders rated adolescents' expressions of happiness, sadness, anxiety, shame/embarrassment, anger, and contempt during the TSST using a micro-analytic coding system. Analyses showed that, consistent with gender roles, girls expressed higher levels of happiness and shame than boys; however, contrary to traditional gender roles, girls showed higher levels of contempt than boys. Also, in contrast to cultural stereotypes, there were no differences in anger between boys and girls. Findings suggest gender-role inconsistent displays of externalizing emotions in low-income adolescents under acute stress, and may reflect different emotion socialization experiences in this group.

  10. Health outcomes in low-income children with current asthma in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, T; Dell, S; Tassoudji, M; Wang, C

    2009-01-01

    Data collected from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) in 1994/95 and 1996/97 were used to measure longitudinal health outcomes among children with asthma. Over 10 000 children aged 1 to 11 years with complete data on asthma status in both years were included. Outcomes included hospitalizations and health services use (HSU). Current asthma was defined as children diagnosed with asthma by a physician and who took prescribed inhalants regularly, had wheezing or an attack in the previous year, or had their activities limited by asthma. Children having asthma significantly increased their odds of hospitalization (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.71, 3.70) and health services use (OR = 3.80; 95% CI: 2.69, 5.37). Low-income adequacy (LIA) in 1994/ 95 significantly predicts hospitalization and HSU in 1996/97 (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.29, 5.59 and OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99, respectively). Our results confirmed that both having current asthma and living in low-income families had a significant impact on the health status of children in Canada. Programs seeking to decrease the economic burden of pediatric hospitalizations need to focus on asthma and low-income populations.

  11. Television viewing in low-income latino children: variation by ethnic subgroup and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Matson, Pamela A; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2013-02-01

    Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0-4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing.

  12. Complexity of food preparation and food security status in low-income young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Stringer, Bernadette; Haines, Ted

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status. This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients. Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently. Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.

  13. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. - Highlights: ► We demonstrate the significant impact of the split incentive on low-income tenants. ► We discuss split incentive characteristics, and policy failures. ► We described an on-bill financing model with unique features. ► This policy has protections and incentives for tenants and landlords.

  14. Three models of community mental health services In low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Silva Mary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare and contrast three models of community mental health services in low-income settings. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary and secondary data collected before, during, and after site visits to mental health programs in Nigeria, the Philippines, and India. Study Design Qualitative case study methodology. Data Collection Data were collected through interviews and observations during site visits to the programs, as well as from reviews of documentary evidence. Principal Findings A set of narrative topics and program indicators were used to compare and contrast three community mental health programs in low-income countries. This allowed us to identify a diversity of service delivery models, common challenges, and the strengths and weaknesses of each program. More definitive evaluations will require the establishment of data collection methods and information systems that provide data about the clinical and social outcomes of clients, as well as their use of services. Conclusions Community mental health programs in low-income countries face a number of challenges. Using a case study methodology developed for this purpose, it is possible to compare programs and begin to assess the effectiveness of diverse service delivery models.

  15. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-income African American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronnie Faye Jones

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI > 85 and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed eleven barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities.Conclusions: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family-informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  16. Stakeholder perspectives on barriers for healthy living for low-income african american families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Williams, Joel E; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85) and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Child and parent focus group analysis revealed 11 barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities. Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  17. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P maternal control of child's eating routines (P maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. After-school programs for low-income children: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, R

    1999-01-01

    Children's out-of-school time, long a low-level source of public concern, has recently emerged as a major social issue. This, in turn, has heightened interest in the heterogeneous field of after-school programs. This article provides a profile of after-school programs for low-income children, focusing on supply and demand, program emphases, and program sponsors and support organizations. It also discusses the major challenges facing the field in the areas of facilities, staffing, and financing. Details and examples are drawn from the ongoing evaluation of a specific after-school program initiative called MOST (Making the Most of Out-of-School Time), which seeks to strengthen after-school programs in Boston, Chicago, and Seattle. Looking ahead, the article highlights the pros and cons of options for increasing coverage to reach more low-income children, strengthening programs, expanding funding, and articulating an appropriate role for after-school programs to fill in the lives of low-income children.

  20. Internet use among low-income persons recently diagnosed with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayben, J K; Giordano, T P

    2007-10-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet to obtain health-related information, communicate with providers and access research. Use of the Internet to obtain health-related information by low-income patients recently diagnosed with HIV infection has not been examined. In 2005, we surveyed 126 low-income patients diagnosed with HIV infection within the last three years. Eighty-five percent of the patients wereInternet to access information about HIV, 52% had never used the Internet, 28% had never used it to obtain health-related information and only 18% had done so at least monthly for the last six months. Two-thirds of the population studied would need instruction on how to use the Internet. In multivariable regression, 2004 income > or =$15,000 predicted monthly Internet use to obtain health-related information. Older age, heterosexual intercourse as HIV risk factor and inadequate health literacy were independent predictors of needing instruction. The low-income population with HIV infection lags behind the general population in Internet access and may not benefit from Internet-dependent advances in health communication, including HIV-related interventions.

  1. Low-income Euro-American mothers' perceptions of health and self-care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Elnora P; Clark, Michele C; Guevara, Edilma B; Svrcek, Claire Y

    2011-01-01

    Health promotion activities may decrease preventable diseases and health system overuse. This study examined how low-income Euro-American mothers described their health/wellness, self-care practices (SCP), and SCP benefits, barriers, and interpersonal influences (norms, modeling, and social support) affecting their SCP. This descriptive qualitative study used a convenience sample of 10 low-income, English-speaking mothers, 25-43 years old, seeking women's/children's health services at a large urban Texas health clinic. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, using a standardized semistructured interview guide; data were analyzed using Miles and Huberman's qualitative research methods. All participants primarily described themselves positively and as mothers and workers. Most viewed health and wellness as distinct but typically included physical and emotional well-being. Mothers valued health and SCP for personal and family reasons. All identified SCP benefits. Most identified SCP barriers. Women viewed themselves as vital to family function and well-being, learned SCP primarily from parents during childhood, and described limited support for SCP. The results provide a better understanding of participants' self-care decision making and are useful in designing appropriate clinical health promotions. Reducing health inequities in low-income women requires further study of the underlying causes and development of effective policies and measures to address them. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Television Viewing in Low-Income Latino Children: Variation by Ethnic Subgroup and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653

  3. The association between ownership of common household devices and obesity and diabetes in high, middle and low income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Scott A; Teo, Koon; Gasevic, Danijela; Zhang, Xiaohe; Poirier, Paul P; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Seron, Pamela; Kelishadi, Roya; Tamil, Azmi Mohd; Kruger, Annamarie; Iqbal, Romaina; Swidan, Hani; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Kutty, V Raman; Karsıdag, Kubilay; Kumar, Rajesh; Li, Wei; Szuba, Andrzej; Avezum, Alvaro; Diaz, Rafael; Anand, Sonia S; Rosengren, Annika; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-03-04

    Household devices (e.g., television, car, computer) are common in high income countries, and their use has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that device ownership is associated with obesity and diabetes and that these effects are explained through reduced physical activity, increased sitting time and increased energy intake. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study involving 153,996 adults from high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income countries. We used multilevel regression models to account for clustering at the community and country levels. Ownership of a household device increased from low to high income countries (4% to 83% for all 3 devices) and was associated with decreased physical activity and increased sitting, dietary energy intake, body mass index and waist circumference. There was an increased odds of obesity and diabetes with the ownership of any 1 household device compared to no device ownership (obesity: odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-1.55; diabetes: OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.28-1.50). Ownership of a second device increased the odds further but ownership of a third device did not. Subsequent adjustment for lifestyle factors modestly attenuated these associations. Of the 3 devices, ownership of a television had the strongest association with obesity (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.29-1.49) and diabetes (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.44). When stratified by country income level, the odds of obesity and diabetes when owning all 3 devices was greatest in low income countries (obesity: OR 3.15, 95% CI 2.33-4.25; diabetes: OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.53-2.53) and decreased through country income levels such that we did not detect an association in high income countries. The ownership of household devices increased the likelihood of obesity and diabetes, and this was mediated in part by effects on physical activity, sitting time and dietary energy intake. With

  4. Social Interaction Needs and Entertainment Approaches to Pregnancy Well-Being in mHealth Technology Design for Low-Income Transmigrant Women: Qualitative Codesign Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJaberi, Hana

    2018-04-13

    Low-income Caribbean transmigrant women face unique health challenges during pregnancy that set forth multidimensional implications for the design of mobile health (mHealth). Acknowledgment of the unique health needs of low-income Caribbean immigrant women in the United States and what that entails regarding technology design remains rarely examined in the literature of mHealth technologies. The goal of this study was to reveal the needs and gaps in mHealth interventions for pregnant immigrant women not yet realized in this field. These understandings reveal design opportunities for mHealth. The use of the qualitative participatory action research approach of codesign workshops in this study resulted in design solutions by the participants after reflecting on their earlier focus group discussions. The highlights are not the resulting designs per se but rather the inferences derived from the researcher reflecting on these designs. The designs exposed two themes relevant to this paper. First, the participants desired the inclusion and rebuilding of social and organizational relationships in mHealth. The resulting designs formulate an understanding of the women's health-related social support needs and how technology can facilitate them. Second, the participants wanted entertainment with an element of social participation incorporated in mHealth pregnancy management interventions. This brings attention to the role entertainment can add to the impact mHealth can deliver for pregnancy well-being. The study concluded with an examination of social and entertainment design implications that reveal pregnant immigrant women's virtual health-related sharing habits, choice of sharing interaction scenarios during pregnancy (eg, local, long distance, one-way, two-way, and many-many), and choice of sharing media (eg, text, voice, and video). Additionally, the study revealed exclusions to social sharing capabilities in health technologies for these women. ©Hana Al

  5. A Health Equity Problem for Low Income Children: Diet Flexibility Requires Physician Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D

    2015-09-01

    USDA programs, such as the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and/or National School Lunch Program (NSLP), enable child care centers and schools to provide free and reduced price meals, daily, to millions of low income children. Despite intention to equalize opportunity for every child to have a healthy diet, USDA program rules may be contributing to child obesity disparities and health inequity. USDA program rules require child care centers and schools to provide meals that include a specified number of servings of particular types of foods and beverages. The rules are designed for the average, healthy weight child to maintain weight and growth. They are not designed for the underweight child to gain weight, obese child to normalize weight, or pre-diabetic child to avoid incident diabetes. The rules allow for only one meal pattern and volume, as opposed to a flexible spectrum of meal patterns and portion sizes. Parents of children who participate in the CACFP, SBP, and/or NSLP do not have control over the amount or composition of the subsidized meals. Parents of overweight, obese, or diabetic children who participate in the subsidized meal programs can request dietary change, special meals or accommodations to address their child's health status, but child care providers and schools are not required to comply with the request unless a licensed physician signs a "Medical statement to request special meals and/or accommodations". Although physicians are the only group authorized to change the foods, beverages, and portion sizes served daily to low income children, they are not doing so. Over the past three years, despite an overweight and obesity prevalence of 30% in San Francisco child care centers serving low income children, zero medical statements were filed to request special meals or accommodations to alter daily meals in order to prevent obesity, treat obesity, or prevent postprandial hyperglycemia. Low income children

  6. The Life Course Implications of Ready to Use Therapeutic Food for Children in Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Potts, Kaitlin S; Bazzano, Lydia A; Mason, John B

    2017-04-11

    The development of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) for the treatment of uncomplicated cases of severe acute malnutrition in young children from 6 months to 5 years old has greatly improved survival through the ability to treat large numbers of malnourished children in the community setting rather than at health facilities during emergencies. This success has led to a surge in demand for RUTF in low income countries that are frequently food insecure due to environmental factors such as cyclical drought. Worldwide production capacity for the supply of RUTF has increased dramatically through the expansion and development of new manufacturing facilities in both low and high income countries, and new business ventures dedicated to ready-to-use foods have emerged not only for emergencies, but increasingly, for supplementing caloric intake of pregnant women and young children not experiencing acute undernutrition. Due to the lack of evidence on the long term health impact these products may have, in the midst of global nutrition transitions toward obesity and metabolic dysfunction, the increased use of manufactured, commercial products for treatment and prevention of undernutrition is of great concern. Using a framework built on the life course health development perspective, the current research presents several drawbacks and limitations of RUTF for nutrition of mothers and young children, especially in non-emergency situations. Recommendations follow for potential strategies to limit the use of these products to the treatment of acute undernutrition only, study the longer term health impacts of RUTF, prevent conflict of interests arising for social enterprises, and where possible, ensure that whole foods are supported for life-long health and nutrition, as well as environmental sustainability.

  7. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  8. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, Ia

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women's perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26-35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2-4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: "taking normal delivery" (56.7%), "providing antenatal services" (16.5%), "performing caesarean section" (13.0%), "providing family planning services" (8.2%), and "performing gynaecological surgeries" (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), "special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits" (1.9%), "concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong" (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: "TBA services are cheaper" (50.9%), "TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment" (34.0%), "TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services" (13.2%), "TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers" (43.4%), and "TBA service is the only maternity service that I know" (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past

  9. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural ... Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and ... Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at ...

  10. Individual and facility-level determinants of iron and folic acid receipt and adequate consumption among pregnant women in rural Bihar, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Wendt

    Full Text Available In Bihar, India, high maternal anemia prevalence and low iron and folic acid supplement (IFA receipt and consumption have continued over time despite universal IFA distribution and counseling during pregnancy.To examine individual and facility-level determinants of IFA receipt and consumption among pregnant women in rural Bihar, India.Using District Level Household Survey (2007-08 data, multilevel modeling was conducted to examine the determinants of two outcomes: IFA receipt (any IFA receipt vs. none and IFA consumption (≥90 days vs. <90 days. Individual-level and facility-level factors were included. Factor analysis was utilized to construct antenatal care (ANC quality and health sub-center (HSC capacity variables.Overall, 37% of women received any IFA during their last pregnancy. Of those, 24% consumed IFA for 90 or more days. Women were more likely to receive any IFA when they received additional ANC services and counseling, and attended ANC earlier and more frequently. Significant interactions were found between ANC quality factors (odds ratio (OR: 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.25, 0.56 and between ANC services and ANC timing and frequency (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.82. No HSC factors were significantly associated with IFA receipt. Women were more likely to consume IFA for ≥90 days if they attended at least 4 ANC check-ups and received more ANC services. IFA supply at the HSC (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.82 was also significantly associated with IFA consumption.Our findings indicate that individual and ANC factors (timing, frequency, and quality play a key role in facilitating IFA receipt and consumption. Although HSC capacity factors were not found to influence our outcomes, significant variation at the facility level indicates unmeasured factors that could be important to address in future interventions.

  11. Panic disorder in rural Tanzania: an explorative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research from low-income countries on the relevance of diagnoses ... study examines cultural based interpretations of the PD diagnose ... for PD may be adapted to a rural Tanzanian setting, also taking into consideration the limited financial ...

  12. The views of low-income employees regarding mandated comprehensive employee benefits for the sake of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikes, Katherin A; Hull, Sara C; Danis, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors stand in the way of good health for low-income populations. We suggest that employee benefits might serve as a means of improving the health of low-wage earners. We convened groups of low-income earners to design hypothetical employee benefit packages. Qualitative analysis of group discussions regarding state-mandated benefits indicated that participants were interested in a great variety of benefits, beyond health care, that address socioeconomic determinants of health. Long-term financial and educational investments were of particular value. These results may facilitate the design of employee benefits that promote the health of low-income workers.

  13. The Views of Low-Income Employees Regarding Mandated Comprehensive Employee Benefits for the Sake of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikes, Katherin A.; Hull, Sara C.; Dams, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors stand in the way of good health for low-income populations. We suggest that employee benefits might serve as a means of improving the health of low-wage earners. We convened groups of low-income earners to design hypothetical employee benefit packages. Qualitative analysis of group discussions regarding state-mandated benefits indicated that participants were interested in a great variety of benefits, beyond health care, that address socioeconomic determinants of health. Long-term financial and educational investments were of particular value. These results may facilitate the design of employee benefits that promote the health of low-income workers. PMID:20391255

  14. Chemical exposures in recently renovated low-income housing: Influence of building materials and occupant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Udesky, Julia O; Colton, Meryl D; McCauley, Martha; Camann, David E; Yau, Alice Y; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2017-12-01

    Health disparities in low-income communities may be linked to residential exposures to chemicals infiltrating from the outdoors and characteristics of and sources in the home. Indoor sources comprise those introduced by the occupant as well as releases from building materials. To examine the impact of renovation on indoor pollutants levels and to classify chemicals by predominant indoor sources, we collected indoor air and surface wipes from newly renovated "green" low-income housing units in Boston before and after occupancy. We targeted nearly 100 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including phthalates, flame retardants, fragrance chemicals, pesticides, antimicrobials, petroleum chemicals, chlorinated solvents, and formaldehyde, as well as particulate matter. All homes had indoor air concentrations that exceeded available risk-based screening levels for at least one chemical. We categorized chemicals as primarily influenced by the occupant or as having building-related sources. While building-related chemicals observed in this study may be specific to the particular housing development, occupant-related findings might be generalizable to similar communities. Among 58 detected chemicals, we distinguished 25 as primarily occupant-related, including fragrance chemicals 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetralin (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB). The pre- to post-occupancy patterns of the remaining chemicals suggested important contributions from building materials for some, including dibutyl phthalate and xylene, whereas others, such as diethyl phthalate and formaldehyde, appeared to have both building and occupant sources. Chemical classification by source informs multi-level exposure reduction strategies in low-income housing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the implications of dental treatment costs for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Patrick; McNally, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Dental disease is concentrated among those with low socioeconomic status. Dental care is not publicly funded, and many Canadians must therefore make difficult financial choices when accessing dental care. Families who live in poverty have difficulty meeting even their most basic household needs, so dental treatment may not be affordable. The objective of this study was to understand how the cost of dental treatment affects the monthly budgets of families with low incomes. A chart review was conducted for a sample of 213 new patients examined at the Dalhousie University dental clinic over a 1-year period. Costs for proposed treatment plans were averaged. The patients" ability to pay for proposed treatment was examined in the context of various income scenarios. Two hundred and one patients were included in the final analysis. Dental treatment costs per patient averaged approximately $1600 for the year, with 42% of the planned treatment completed within the first year. The estimated monthly cost of completed treatment was $55. When the cost of a healthy diet was included in the monthly budget, it was determined that families in Nova Scotia with parents working for minimum wage and those receiving income assistance would experience a 100% shortfall for dental expenses. Low-income families in Nova Scotia were unable to afford both a nutritious diet and dental care. This is disturbing, given the links between a healthy diet and both overall health and dental health. An understanding of the significance of income shortfalls for those with low incomes, especially as they affect even basic nutritional needs, will help dental professionals to appreciate the seriousness of this issue and the difficulties that many Canadians face when trying to access basic dental care.

  16. Factors contributing to background television exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Background television (TV) exposure is harmful to young children, yet few studies have focused on predictors of exposure. This study’s objectives were to elucidate demographic, environmental, and behavioral correlates of background TV exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers and to explore caregiver beliefs about the impact of such exposure. Methods A convenience sample of low-income Mexican American female primary caregivers of preschoolers (3–5 years old, n=309), recruited in safety-net clinics, were surveyed by phone. Caregivers reported the frequency of their child’s exposure to background TV and responded to questions on the home media environment, TV use, and whether they had thought about background TV exposure and its impact on their child. Results Background TV exposure was common; 43% reported that their child was often, very often, or always exposed to background TV. More hours of TV viewing by the caregiver and greater frequency of TV viewing during meals were associated with an increased frequency of exposure to background TV. Only 49% of participants had ever thought about the impact of background TV. Believing that background TV is not harmful was associated with higher levels of background TV exposure. Conclusions Findings suggest that background TV exposure is frequent and caregiver awareness of its potential impact is low in low-income Mexican American families. Beliefs that background TV is not harmful may predict risk of exposure. Potential targets for interventions focused on reducing background TV exposure in this population include increasing caregiver awareness of the potential negative impact of such TV exposure. PMID:27007983

  17. Breastfeeding support - the importance of self-efficacy for low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Francesca; Kendall, Sally; Mead, Marianne

    2010-07-01

    Breastfeeding is a key determinant in promoting public health and reducing health inequality. Low-income women have a significantly lower level of breastfeeding. Midwives in the UK have been encouraged to implement the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, but to date, there has been no evaluation of the impact of the training initiative on the breastfeeding behaviours of low-income women. As part of a wider study, this qualitative component was designed to answer the question - what are the views and experiences of low-income women (defined by Jarman scores) in relation to their breastfeeding support received in the post-natal period? A sample of seven women was interviewed. The in-depth interviews were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach based on the self-efficacy theory. The four themes that emerged from the data were the following: breastfeeding related to the woman's self-confidence, the social environment in which the woman lived, knowledge of breastfeeding and the influence of maternity services on breastfeeding outcomes. These themes were interpreted in relation to the self-efficacy theory. The findings suggest that the components that inform self-efficacy are consistent with the themes from the data, suggesting that midwives and other health professionals should take the psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding support into account. As this important feature of breastfeeding support is not explicitly part of the current Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, we suggest that further research and debate could inform expansion of these minimum standards to include the psychosocial aspects.

  18. Financial hardship and self-rated health among low-income housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Harley, Amy E; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian G

    2013-08-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among residents of low-income housing. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Health in Common Study (N = 828), an observational study to investigate social and physical determinants of cancer risk-related behaviors among residents of low-income housing in three cities in the Boston metropolitan area. Modified Poisson regression models were used to obtain the relative risk of low SRH (fair or poor), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Unadjusted models revealed that the respondents reporting financial hardship were 53% more likely to report low SRH compared with those not reporting financial hardship. After controlling for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, and psychological distress, the results showed that those reporting financial hardship were 44% more likely to report low SRH. Our results suggest that financial hardship is a robust predictor of SRH; and over and above the influence of demographic and traditional socioeconomic indicators, and even psychological distress, financial hardship remains strongly associated with low SRH. Additional research needs to be conducted to further elucidate this pathway and to better understand the determinants of variability in financial hardship among low-income housing residents to ensure the most appropriate policy levers (e.g., housing-related policy, food-related policy) are chosen to improve health outcomes in this population.

  19. Green Schoolyards in Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods: Natural Spaces for Positive Youth Development Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn R. Bates

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Children from low-income families are increasingly growing up in urban areas with limited access to nature. In these environments, strategies that promote access to natural outdoor spaces, such as green schoolyards, may enhance positive youth development outcomes by promoting physical activity (PA and prosocial behavior, as well as increasing perceptions of safety. The current study examines children’s PA and social interactions, as well as caregiver and teacher perceptions of safety, injuries, teasing/bullying, and gang activity on three newly renovated green schoolyards in low-income urban neighborhoods. A multi-method strategy, including behavioral mapping and caregiver- and teacher-reported surveys, was utilized at three time points to examine positive youth development outcomes and maintenance of effects over time. Analyses revealed that children evidenced a range of PA on the green schoolyards and demonstrated significant decreases in sedentary activity over time. The majority of children were engaged in social interactions with peers on the green schoolyards when observed. Less than 3% of interactions were negative and follow-up analyses found significant increases in positive interactions on the green schoolyards up to 24 months post-renovation. Caregivers and teachers reported increased perceptions of safety, fewer injuries, less teasing/bullying, and less gang-related activity on the renovated green schoolyards in comparison to the pre-renovation schoolyards, and these effects were maintained up to 32 months post-renovation. Overall, the study suggests that green schoolyards may promote positive development outcomes among youth living in urban, low-income neighborhoods by providing natural and safe spaces for PA and prosocial behavior.

  20. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal-Cury A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Faisal-Cury,1 Karen M Tabb,2 Guilherme Niciunovas,3 Carrie Cunningham,4 Paulo R Menezes,1 Hsiang Huang4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Psychopathology and Psychiatric Therapeutics (LIM-23, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168 completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23. Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, planned pregnancy, Brazil, low-income population, women

  1. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-03-07

    Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped at dinner in their homes. Mothers were chosen from a larger study to create a 2 X 2 X 2 design: maternal ethnicity (African American vs. Latina) by child gender by child weight status (healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). Observers coded videotapes for a range of maternal feeding strategies and other behaviors. Many mothers spent considerable time encouraging eating--often in spite of the child's insistence that he or she was finished. Mothers talked little about food characteristics, rarely referred to feelings of hunger and fullness, and made more attempts to enforce table manners than to teach eating skills. Latina mothers showed higher levels of teaching eating skills and encouraging their children to eat; African American mothers showed higher levels of enforcing table manners and getting children to clear their plates. Mothers of boys used more unelaborated commands and less questions/suggestions than mothers of girls. Finally, compared to mothers of overweight/obese children, mothers of healthy weight children showed higher levels of encouraging eating and lower levels of discouraging eating. Most of the mothers in this study did not engage in feeding practices that are consistent with current recommendations. They did this, despite the fact that they knew they were being observed. These results should be used to inform future research about the motivations behind mothers' feeding practices and the development of interventions by helping identify areas in greatest need of change.

  2. Neighborhood perceptions and hypertension among low-income black women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliyhah Al-Bayan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women’s perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure. Methods Seventeen Black female participants, living in public housing communities in New York City, completed one semi-structured, audiotaped interview in July of 2014. All interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes using N’Vivo 10 software. Results Three major themes emerged: (1 social connectedness, (2 stress factors, and (3 availability of food options. For example, factors that caused stress varied throughout the study population. Sources of stress included family members, employment, and uncleanliness within the neighborhood. Many participants attributed their stress to personal issues, such as lack of employment and relationships. In addition, the general consensus among many participants was that there should be a greater density of healthy food options in their neighborhoods. Some believed that the pricing of fresh foods in the neighborhoods should better reflect the financial status of the residents in the community. Conclusions Various neighborhood influences, including neighborhood disorder and lack of healthy food options, are factors that appear to increase Black women’s risk of developing high blood pressure. Implications of this research include the need to develop interventions that promote good neighborhood infrastructure (e.g. healthy food stores to encourage good nutrition habits and well-lit walking paths to encourage daily exercise, in addition to interventions that increase hypertension awareness in

  3. Knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Renata Evangelista; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Cordeiro, Samara Macedo; Machado, Daniel Rodrigues; Braga, Vanessa Augusta; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    to identify the knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women. an integrative review was conducted in February 2016 on the SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE databases, and in the SciELO journals directory. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 24 articles were selected. the knowledge produced comprises two main themes: "health in face of economic adversities" and "reciprocity in social support between low-income older women and their social network". health professionals, especially nurses, should be attentive to aspects related to social determinants and the health of low-income older women, highlighting the fact that they are not always the recipients of care. identificar o conhecimento produzido sobre a saúde das mulheres idosas de baixa renda. revisão integrativa realizada em fevereiro de 2016, nas bases de dados SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE e no diretório de revistas SciELO. Após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 24 artigos. o conhecimento produzido congrega dois temas principais: "a saúde diante das adversidades econômicas" e "reciprocidade no apoio social entre as mulheres idosas de baixa renda e sua rede social". os profissionais de saúde, em especial o enfermeiro, devem atentar para aspectos relacionados aos determinantes sociais e de saúde de mulheres idosas de baixa renda, destacando-se que elas, nem sempre, são apenas receptoras de cuidado.

  4. The family context of low-income parents who restrict child screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Parents (N=146) of children (age 2-5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change.

  5. Poor parents?: the realities of work-life balance in a low-income neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley Dean

    2007-01-01

    The article explores the work-life balance policy agenda as it has emerged in post-industrial societies, such as the UK, and it reports on a small-scale study of the experiences and expectations of work-life balance in a low-income inner-London neighbourhood. From the study certain general issues are identified relating to the inconsistency of employers' practices and the currently fragmented nature of childcare provision. And certain issues of particular relevance for low-earning parents are...

  6. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  7. Midline versus transverse incision for cesarean delivery in low-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Aabakke, Anna J M; Secher, Niels J

    2014-01-01

    While transverse incision is the recommended entry technique for cesarean delivery in high-income countries, it is our experience that midline incision is still used routinely in many low-income settings. Accordingly, international guidelines lack uniformity on this matter. Although evidence...... is limited, the literature suggests important advantages of the transverse incision, with lower risk of long-term disabilities such as wound disruption and hernia. Also, potential extra time spent on this incision appears not to impact neonatal outcome. Therefore, we suggest that it is time for a change...

  8. Interviews with low-income Pennsylvanians verify a need to enhance eating competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts Krall, Jodi; Lohse, Barbara

    2009-03-01

    Continuation of unhealthful dietary patterns and poor diet-related health outcomes among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations underscores the need to improve diet quality for this group. Enhancing eating competence, based on the Satter model of eating competence (ecSatter), may be one effective method to reach this goal, but requires substantiation in a low-income audience. This study utilized a qualitative approach to examine the congruence of the ecSatter model with the cognitive eating behaviors of a low-income audience. Structured interviews were conducted during summer of 2006 with 70 low-income adults in Pennsylvania. Themes about decisional factors that guide food selection, nutrition/health interests, and cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences were generated through content analysis. Thematic differences among eating competence levels and food security categories were examined. Nutrition information access preferences were also obtained. Eating competence, measured with the ecSatter Inventory, was low for this sample (mean 28.8+/-8.3). Convenience, mood, family, and availability of food at home, but not nutrition, were salient factors guiding meal and snack planning for both eating competent and noneating competent participants. Nearly equal proportions of persons with eating competence and without eating competence reported that they would make changes to their food purchases if they had more money to spend on food. Interestingly, for participants without eating competence, but not for those with eating competence, weight management played an important role in meal/snack planning, food purchases, and nutrition/health interests. ecSatter provided a tenable framework for rationalizing participants' cognitive and affective responses to eating experiences. Participants without eating competence were more likely to express negative thoughts and feelings associated with eating, regardless of food security status. The Internet, which was

  9. Managing anemia in low-income toddlers: barriers, challenges and context in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Rebecca; Pierce, Michelle B; Ferris, Ann M; Slivka, Hilda; Joyce, Patricia; Bernstein, Bruce A; Russell-Curtis, Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    Iron-deficiency remains a concern among low-income toddlers in the U.S. This formative study describes how primary care providers serving high-risk 1- to 3-year-old children in an urban ambulatory care setting approach anemia. Data collection included a retrospective review of randomly selected medical records (n=264) and semi-structured interviews with clinicians (n=41). Thirty-eight percent of the children presented with anemia (Hgb variable. While providers felt clinically comfortable with anemia, they felt burdened and challenged by follow-up. Communication and system barriers weighed most heavily on perceived treatment outcomes.

  10. Medicines coverage and community-based health insurance in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Anita K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The 2004 International Conference on Improving Use of Medicines recommended that emerging and expanding health insurances in low-income countries focus on improving access to and use of medicines. In recent years, Community-based Health Insurance (CHI schemes have multiplied, with mounting evidence of their positive effects on financial protection and resource mobilization for healthcare in poor settings. Using literature review and qualitative interviews, this paper investigates whether and how CHI expands access to medicines in low-income countries. Methods We used three complementary data collection approaches: (1 analysis of WHO National Health Accounts (NHA and available results from the World Health Survey (WHS; (2 review of peer-reviewed articles published since 2002 and documents posted online by national insurance programs and international organizations; (3 structured interviews of CHI managers about key issues related to medicines benefit packages in Lao PDR and Rwanda. Results In low-income countries, only two percent of WHS respondents with voluntary insurance belong to the lowest income quintile, suggesting very low CHI penetration among the poor. Yet according to the WHS, medicines are the largest reported component of out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in these countries (median 41.7% and this proportion is inversely associated with income quintile. Publications have mentioned over a thousand CHI schemes in 19 low-income countries, usually without in-depth description of the type, extent, or adequacy of medicines coverage. Evidence from the literature is scarce about how coverage affects medicines utilization or how schemes use cost-containment tools like co-payments and formularies. On the other hand, interviews found that medicines may represent up to 80% of CHI expenditures. Conclusion This paper highlights the paucity of evidence about medicines coverage in CHI. Given the policy commitment to expand CHI

  11. Reviewing the application of the balanced scorecard with implications for low-income health settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Jafri, S M Wasin; Abbas, Farhat; Pappas, Gregory; Brommels, Mats; Tomson, Goran

    2007-01-01

    High-income countries (HICs) are increasingly making use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) in healthcare. Evidence about BSC usage in low-income countries (LICs) is deficient. This study assessed feasibility of BSC use in LICs. Systematic review of electronic databases shows that the BSC improved patient, staff, clinical, and financial outcomes in HICs. To translate the experience of BSC use in HICs to their use in LICs, the applicability parameters of the National Committee for Quality Assurance were applied. Despite contextual challenges, pilot testing of BSC use can be undertaken in selected LICs. Committed leadership, cultural readiness, quality information systems, viable strategic plans, and optimum resources are required.

  12. Financing the response to HIV in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izazola-Licea, José Antonio; Wiegelmann, Jan; Arán, Christian; Guthrie, Teresa; De Lay, Paul; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2009-12-01

    To describe levels of national HIV spending and examine programmatic allocations according to the type of epidemic and country income. Cross-sectional analysis of HIV expenditures from 50 low-income and middle-income countries. Sources of information included country reports of domestic spending by programmatic activity and HIV services. These HIV spending categories were cross tabulated by source of financing, stratified by type of HIV epidemic and income level of the country and reported in international dollars (I$). Fifty low-income and middle-income countries spent US $ 2.6 billion (I$ 5.8 billion) on HIV in 2006; 87% of the funding among the 17 low-income countries came from international donors. Average per capita spending was I$ 2.1 and positively correlated with Gross National Income. Per capita spending was I$ 1.5 in 9 countries with low-level HIV epidemics, I$ 1.6 in 27 countries with concentrated HIV epidemics and I$ 9.5 in 14 countries with generalized HIV epidemics. On average, spending on care and treatment represented 50% of AIDS spending across all countries. The treatment-to-prevention spending ratio was 1.5:1, 3:1, and 2:1 in countries with low-level, concentrated and generalized epidemics, respectively. Spending on prevention represented 21% of total AIDS spending. However, expenditures addressing most-at-risk populations represented less than 1% in countries with generalized epidemics and 7% in those with low-level or concentrated epidemics. The most striking finding is the mismatch between the types of HIV epidemics and the allocation of resources. The current global economic recession will force countries to rethink national strategies, especially in low-income countries with high aid dependency. Mapping HIV expenditures provides crucial guidance for reallocation of resources and supports evidence-based decisions. Now more than ever, countries need to know and act on their epidemics and give priority to the most effective programmatic

  13. Motivators to engage in health promotion activities by low-income black fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Wilma J; Isaac-Savage, E Paulette

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing concern about the health status of low-income Black fathers. Little is known about their motivators to participate in health promotion activities. This descriptive qualitative research study explored these motivators. Focus groups were used to gather the data. Themes included avoiding specific diseases, helping others, a personal desire to learn, and modeling positive behaviors. These findings provide baseline data that might be used to develop community interventions targeting this group. Additional work will focus on validating these results and further exploration of some of the motivators verbalized by these participants.

  14. Medicare Part D: Are Insurers Gaming the Low Income Subsidy Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarolis, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    This paper shows how in Medicare Part D insurers' gaming of the subsidy paid to low-income enrollees distorts premiums and raises the program cost. Using plan-level data from the first five years of the program, I find multiple instances of pricing strategy distortions for the largest insurers. Instrumental variable estimates indicate that the changes in a concentration index measuring the manipulability of the subsidy can explain a large share of the premium growth observed between 2006 and 2011. Removing this distortion could reduce the cost of the program without worsening consumer welfare.

  15. Is operational research delivering the goods? The journey to success in low-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariah, R; Ford, N; Maher, D; Bissell, K; Van den Bergh, R; van den Boogaard, W; Reid, T; Castro, K G; Draguez, B; von Schreeb, J; Chakaya, J; Atun, R; Lienhardt, C; Enarson, D A; Harries, A D

    2012-01-01

    Operational research in low-income countries has a key role in filling the gap between what we know from research and what we do with that knowledge-the so-called know-do gap, or implementation gap. Planned research that does not tangibly affect policies and practices is ineffective and wasteful, especially in settings where resources are scarce and disease burden is high. Clear parameters are urgently needed to measure and judge the success of operational research. We define operational rese...

  16. Patient-centered technological assessment and monitoring of depression for low-income patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Vidyanti, Irene; Liu, Pai; Hawkins, Caitlin; Ramirez, Magaly; Guterman, Jeffrey; Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Ell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a significant challenge for ambulatory care because it worsens health status and outcomes, increases health care utilizations and costs, and elevates suicide risk. An automatic telephonic assessment (ATA) system that links with tasks and alerts to providers may improve quality of depression care and increase provider productivity. We used ATA system in a trial to assess and monitor depressive symptoms of 444 safety-net primary care patients with diabetes. We assessed system properties, evaluated preliminary clinical outcomes, and estimated cost savings. The ATA system is feasible, reliable, valid, safe, and likely cost-effective for depression screening and monitoring for low-income primary care population.

  17. Cigarette smoking and food insecurity among low-income families in the United States, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, Brian S.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Lee, Chung-won

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research is to quantify the association between food insecurity and smoking among low-income families. This analysis is a retrospective study using data from the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. men, women, and children and the family units in which they reside. Family income is linked with U.S. poverty thresholds to identify 2,099 families living near or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level. Food insecurit...

  18. Characteristics of Prepared Food Sources in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore City

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, SEUNG HEE; ROWAN, MEGAN T.; POWELL, LISA M.; NEWMAN, SARA; KLASSEN, ANN CARROLL; FRICK, KEVIN D.; ANDERSON, JENNIFER; GITTELSOHN, JOEL

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources (PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs (N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée ...

  19. Outstanding challenges for rotavirus vaccine introduction in low-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustrup, Marte; Madsen, Lizell B; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in children worldwide. Two internationally licensed rotavirus vaccines have proven to be efficacious in middle and high-income countries and they could potentially be valuable tools for the prevention of rotavirus....... There is also a need for political commitment to prevent rotavirus infections as well as a need for an overall strengthening of the health systems in low-income countries. If these challenges were met, rotavirus vaccination could substantially improve child health and survival from rotavirus...

  20. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...