Tomayko, Emily J; Mosso, Kathryn L; Cronin, Kate A; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Parker, Tassy; Yaroch, Amy L; Adams, Alexandra K
High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2-5 years old) from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61%) and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05). Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p insecurity. The prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households in our sample is extremely high, and geographic designation may be an important contributing factor. Moreover, food insecurity had a significant negative influence on dietary intake for families. Understanding strategies employed by households may help inform future interventions to address food insecurity. ( NCT01776255 ). Registered: January 16, 2013. Date of enrollment
Emily J. Tomayko
Full Text Available Abstract Background High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Methods Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2–5 years old from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. Results A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61% and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05. Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p < 0.05 and higher intakes of fruit juice (<0.001, other sugar-sweetened beverages (p < 0.05, and fried potatoes (p < 0.001 than food secure adults. Food insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p < 0.05, soda (p = 0.01, and sports drinks (p < 0.05. Focus group participants indicated different strategies were used by urban and rural households to address food insecurity. Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity in
Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365
Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lawler, Michael J; Martin, James I
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of physical health stressors and coping resources with depressive symptoms among American Indian older adults age 50 years or older. The study used a convenience sample of 227 rural American Indian older adults. A hierarchical multiple regression tested three sets of predictors on depressive symptoms: (a) sociodemographics, (b) physical health stressors (functional disability and chronic medical conditions), and (c) coping resources (social support and spirituality). Most participants reported little difficulty in performing daily activities (e.g., eating, dressing, traveling, and managing money), while presenting over two types of chronic medical conditions. Depressive symptoms were predicted by higher scores on perceived social support and lower scores on functional disability; women and those having no health insurance also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that social work practitioners should engage family and community support, advocate for access to adequate health care, and attend to women's unique circumstances and needs when working with American Indian older adults.
Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J
To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice.
Vaidyanathan, K E
This article examines the extent to which the status of women is related to awareness, knowledge, and practice of family planning in India. It uses both macro-level data for the states of India and date from household surveys and field studies to assess the extent of interaction between the women's status indicators and family planning indicators. Results show a definite statistical relationship between women's status and women's ability to control fertility. The strongest relationship to adoption of family planning is the educational attainment of women, followed by age at marriage, and women's work participation, particularly in nonagricultural activities. Evidence from various surveys on the effects of crucial variables on reproductive behavior include 1) a marked reduction in fertility with increases in the educational level; 2) lower fertility for working women, and especially for non-manual workers; 3) a reduction in fertility with increases in age at marriage; and 4) a higher percentage of couples practicing family planning who have 2 or more surviving children, particularly if they have boys. A 1972 survey of 3 Indian states showed that 1) husbands impose a variety of restrictions on wives, with rural husbands placing more restrictions than urban husbands; 2) women's role in decision making in household affairs is positively correlated with the degree of awareness and knowledge of contraceptives as well as adoption of family planning; and 3) interspousal communication was significantly related to the practice of family planning in both rural and urban areas. In conclusion, to help encourage adoption of family planning and reduce fertility, India should 1) emphasize education for women, 2) enforce the legal minimum age at marriage, 3) promote employment opportunities for women, 4) improve women's role in decision making, and 5) encourage interspousal communication in family affairs.
Chadda, Rakesh K; Deb, Koushik Sinha
Indian society is collectivistic and promotes social cohesion and interdependence. The traditional Indian joint family, which follows the same principles of collectivism, has proved itself to be an excellent resource for the care of the mentally ill. However, the society is changing with one of the most significant alterations being the disintegration of the joint family and the rise of nuclear and extended family system. Although even in today's changed scenario, the family forms a resource for mental health that the country cannot neglect, yet utilization of family in management of mental disorders is minimal. Family focused psychotherapeutic interventions might be the right tool for greater involvement of families in management of their mentally ill and it may pave the path for a deeper community focused treatment in mental disorders. This paper elaborates the features of Indian family systems in the light of the Asian collectivistic culture that are pertinent in psychotherapy. Authors evaluate the scope and effectiveness of family focused psychotherapy for mental disorders in India, and debate the issues and concerns faced in the practice of family therapy in India.
Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S
The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI.
Calì, Massimiliano; Menon, Carlo
Although a high rate of urbanization and a high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, there is little knowledge of the effects of the former on the latter. Using a large sample of Indian districts from the 1983-1999 period, the authors find that urbanization has a substantial and systematic poverty-reducing effect in the surrounding rural areas....
Avery, Daniel M; Hooper, Dwight E; McDonald, John T; Love, Michael W; Tucker, Melanie T; Parton, Jason M
The economic impact of a family physician practicing family medicine in rural Alabama is $1,000,000 a year in economic benefit to the community. The economic benefit of those rural family physicians practicing obstetrics has not been studied. This study was designed to determine whether there was any added economic benefit of rural family physicians practicing obstetrics in rural, underserved Alabama. The Alabama Family Practice Rural Health Board has funded the University of Alabama Family Medicine Obstetrics Fellowship since its beginning in 1986. Family medicine obstetrics fellowship graduates who practice obstetrics in rural, underserved areas were sent questionnaires and asked to participate in the study. The questions included the most common types and average annual numbers of obstetrics/gynecological procedures they performed. Ten physicians, or 77% of the graduates asked to participate in the study, returned the questionnaire. Fourteen common obstetrics/gynecological procedures performed by the graduates were identified. A mean of 115 deliveries were performed. The full-time equivalent reduction in family medicine time to practice obstetrics was 20%. A family physician practicing obstetrics in a rural area adds an additional $488,560 in economic benefit to the community in addition to the $1,000,000 from practicing family medicine, producing a total annual benefit of $1,488,560. The investment of $616,385 from the Alabama Family Practice Rural Health Board resulted in a $399 benefit to the community for every dollar invested. The cumulative effect of fellowship graduates practicing both family medicine and obstetrics in rural, underserved areas over the 26 years studied was $246,047,120. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Rourke, James; O'Keefe, Danielle; Ravalia, Mohamed; Moffatt, Scott; Parsons, Wanda; Duggan, Norah; Stringer, Katherine; Jong, Michael; Walsh, Kristin Harris; Hippe, Janelle
To assess Memorial University of Newfoundland's (MUN's) commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice, and to determine the national and provincial effects of applying this approach. Analysis of anonymized secondary data. Canada. Memorial's medical degree (MD) graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015 (N = 305), MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates (N = 120), and physicians who completed family medicine training programs in Canada between 2004 and 2013 and who were practising in Canada 2 years after completion of their postgraduate training (N = 8091). National effect was measured by the proportion of MUN's family medicine program graduates practising in rural Canada compared with those from other Canadian family medicine training programs. Provincial effect was measured by the location of MUN's MD graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015. Commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice was measured by anonymized geographic data on admissions, educational placements, and practice locations of MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates, including those who completed family medicine residencies at MUN. Memorial's comprehensive pathways approach to training physicians for rural practice was successful on both national and provincial levels: 26.9% of MUN family medicine program graduates were in a rural practice location 2 years after exiting their post-MD training from 2004 to 2013 compared with the national rate of 13.3% (national effect); 305 of MUN's MD graduates were practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of 2015, with 36% practising in rural areas (provincial effect). Of 114 MD students with known background who graduated in 2011 and 2012, 32% had rural backgrounds. Memorial's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates spent 20% of all clinical placement weeks in rural areas; of note, 90% of all first-year placements and 95% of
Full Text Available The profound changes experienced by the Romanian society had a profound social impact on the structure and functions of the rural family. The paper aims to highlight the main trends recorded using a number of indicators: ruralization rate, birth rate, infant mortality rate, percentage of children born outside marriage, fertility rate, percentage of population aged 65 and over. Statistics from censuses and statistical yearbooks were processed to identify the trends of the Romanian rural family: changes in reproductive behavior, increased aging, declining birth rates.
This research is on the positive and negative aspects of Unilever's Shakti-project, a prime example of marketing to the ‘Bottom of the Pyramid’ as put forward by C.K. Prahalad (2006). Poor rural Indian women are recruited to become small-scale entrepreneurs by Hindustan Lever, the Indian subsidiary
Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie
Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family violence...
Katherine B. Gunter
Full Text Available Among rural families, rates of both child obesity and household food insecurity (FI are higher compared to non-rural families. These disparities result from a complex interplay of social and environmental conditions that influence behavior. The Transtheoretical Model suggests individual readiness to change underlies success in modifying obesity-preventing behaviors; however, whether an association between readiness to change obesity-related behaviors and FI status among rural families exists is unknown. We examined the association between readiness to change family-level nutrition and physical activity (PA behaviors that predict child obesity and family FI status within a sample of rural families to better understand these relationships. Families (n=144 were recruited from six rural Oregon communities in 2013. Families completed a FI screener and the Family Stage of Change Survey (FSOC, a measure of readiness to change family-level nutrition and PA behaviors associated with obesity. Demographic differences by FI status were explored, and regression was applied to examine relationships between FI and FSOC scores, adjusting for relevant covariates. Among FI families (40.2%, more were non-white (77.8% vs. 22.2%; p=0.036 and had lower adult education (30.4% vs. 11.8% with >high school degree; p=0.015 compared to non-FI families. After adjusting for education, race, ethnicity, and eligibility for federal meal programs, readiness to provide opportunities for PA was lower among FI families (p=0.002. These data highlight a need to further investigate how food insecurity and low readiness to provide PA opportunities, i.e. “physical activity insecurity” may be contributing to the higher obesity rates observed among rural children and families. Keywords: Food insecurity, Physical activity, Rural, Childhood obesity
Ariff, Kamil M; Beng, Khoo S
Understanding the sociocultural dimension of a patient's health beliefs is critical to a successful clinical encounter. Malaysia with its multi-ethnic population of Malay, Chinese and Indian still uses many forms of traditional health care in spite of a remarkably modern rural health service. The objective of this paper is discuss traditional health care in the context of some of the cultural aspects of health beliefs, perceptions and practices in the different ethnic groups of the author's rural family practices. This helps to promote communication and cooperation between doctors and patients, improves clinical diagnosis and management, avoids cultural blind spots and unnecessary medical testing and leads to better adherence to treatment by patients. Includes traditional practices of 'hot and cold', notions of Yin-Yang and Ayurveda, cultural healing, alternative medicine, cultural perception of body structures and cultural practices in the context of women's health. Modern and traditional medical systems are potentially complementary rather than antagonistic. Ethnic and cultural considerations can be integrated further into the modern health delivery system to improve care and health outcomes.
Xiaoling SONG; Dan YANG; Xiaohong SONG
Taking 20 relative poor families in Hechuan District of Chongqing Municipality as survey samples,taking 275 households of rural families selected by stratified sampling method as research objects,and taking family education investment behavior of this rural area as research content,this paper studied current situations of rural family education investment behavior in Hechuan District,difference in investment behavior and related influence factors. It is intended to provide references for family education investment of rural areas in Hechuan District and even Chongqing Municipality,and promote development of rural education undertaking in China.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family violence...
Full Text Available This articletakes family reunions held among peasants as a focus of study. During these events,keycultural categories come to light from which the analyzed group builds up ideas about kinship and also the relations that are implied in it. We observe that, in these cases, there are also indications of specific elements through which people express a valorization of rurality. To carry out this study, we collected data as part of an ethnographic research project conducted at a family reunion and in a rural community settled by German descendent immigrants, located in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil
Bajaj, Manish Kumar
Family controlled businesses are a very important organizational type as families control many large businesses around the world. In India, family controlled businesses account for 70 percent of total sales and net profits of the biggest 250 private sector companies. Family businesses play a very important role in the Indian economy. The literature on financial intermediation system has divided the system in two types: 1) Bank Based and 2) Market Based. The literature in Indian fin...
... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...
Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth; Ball, Alison
The current study examines the interrelations between observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination, and youth outcomes among a sample of 92 American Indian adolescents and their parents in a rural reservation. Path analysis is used to examine the relationships among observed parental socialization (cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination), and youth-reported perceived discrimination, ethnic identity and depression. Findings reveal that higher levels of observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination predict lower levels of depression as reported by youth 1 year later. Path analyses also show that observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination are positively associated with youth ethnic identity. These findings point to the importance of integrating familial socialization of culture and coping with discrimination in fostering resilience among American Indian youth.
Phillips, Julie; Hustedde, Carol; Bjorkman, Sarah; Prasad, Rupa; Sola, Orlando; Wendling, Andrea; Bjorkman, Kurt; Paladine, Heather
Women family physicians experience challenges in maintaining work-life balance while practicing in rural communities. We sought to better understand the personal and professional strategies that enable women in rural family medicine to balance work and personal demands and achieve long-term career satisfaction. Women family physicians practicing in rural communities in the United States were interviewed using a semistructured format. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using an immersion and crystallization approach, followed by detailed coding of emergent themes. The 25 participants described a set of strategies that facilitated successful work-life balance. First, they used reduced or flexible work hours to help achieve balance with personal roles. Second, many had supportive relationships with spouses and partners, parents, or other members of the community, which facilitated their ability to be readily available to their patients. Third, participants maintained clear boundaries around their work lives, which helped them to have adequate time for parenting, recreation, and rest. Women family physicians can build successful careers in rural communities, but supportive employers, relationships, and patient approaches provide a foundation for this success. Educators, employers, communities, and policymakers can adapt their practices to help women family physicians thrive in rural communities. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements for...
... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection...
Full Text Available Context: Currently, family medicine is not taught as a part of the undergraduate medical curriculum in India. In this context, the perceptions and attitudes of Indian medical students regarding family medicine as a career choice were studied. Aims: This study aims to study the perceptions and attitudes prevalent among Indian medical students regarding family medicine as a career choice and discuss its future implications. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey study design. Methods and Material: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of undergraduate medical (MBBS students attending the 2016 medical student conference DEMEDCON at Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College in Kolar, Karnataka, India. Besides demographics, the survey included questions pertaining to awareness, exposure, and interest in family medicine in India. We also asked an open-ended question regarding the respondent's perception of the future of family medicine in India. Statistical Analysis: Simple statistics such as mean and frequency (% were calculated. Given the small sample size, no formal tests for statistical significance were performed. Results: Responses were collected from 45 students between the ages of 18–24 from 6 medical colleges across Karnataka and Puducherry. The majority (64% of respondents were in their 3rd or 4th year of medical college. 98% of respondents expressed a desire to learn more about family medicine as a specialty, and 82% expressed a need to introduce it as a subject in medical college. However, only 58% were aware of the Medical Council of India accredited status of family medicine in India. Conclusions: There exists a significant lack of awareness and inadequate exposure among Indian medical students toward family medicine. Nonetheless, there is widespread optimism and a desire to learn more about the subject. Increased awareness and avenues for exposure to family medicine in the formal undergraduate medical curriculum is the need of the hour.
Burke, Meghan M.
Latino students and their families are the fastest growing minority group in the country, yet it is unclear whether rural (vs. urban) Latino families of students with disabilities have different needs. In this pilot study, 65 Latino family members of students with disabilities (15 rural; 50 urban) responded to a questionnaire about empowerment,…
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to examine the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG industry in India with an emphasis on rural India. This is a review article compiling information from various reports, articles and research papers in the related fields. This study shows how FMCG market is playing a vital role in the Indian economy and how rural areas of India are welcoming the FMCG sector. Predictions by various reports about the FMCG sector of India are also included in the article. It is understandable from this article that how world’s well known nation for its traditions and values is now also adapting to the new dimension of living standards. In FY17, rural India accounted for 60 per cent of the total FMCG market, 80% of FMCG categories are growing faster in rural India as against urban India. Total rural income, which is currently at around US$ 572 billion, is predicted to reach US$ 1.8 trillion by FY21. India’s rural per capita disposable income is estimated to increase at a CAGR of 4.4 per cent to US$ 631 by 2020.
Durham, Judith A.; Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman
Literature review addresses the status of farm families; farm stresses and their effects; dysfunctional family relationships; and the unique attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of rural culture toward social service intervention. By implementing coordinated service programs and initiating new legislation that addresses rural health care issues,…
Barik, Anamitra; Das, Kausik; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar
To prevent an increasing level of mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease among the rural Indian population, a management strategy of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) should be devised. This study aims to estimate the burden of MetS and its associated risk factors. Data from the Birbhum Population Project covering 9886 individuals (4810 male and 5076 female population) aged ≥18 years were used. The burden of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel, was determined. Bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were used to attain the study objective. Over 10.7% of the males and 20.3% of the females were diagnosed with MetS. Irrespective of sex, older individuals, being overweight/obese (body mass index of ≥23 kg/m 2 ) had higher probability of developing MetS, whereas being underweight is deemed a protective factor against MetS. Low physical activity among women appeared to be a risk factor for MetS. The prevalence of MetS is concerning even in rural India. Any intervention designed to address the issue could emphasize on weight loss, and physical activity, focusing on women and people at an advanced stage of life. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for Indian... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS...
Girardon-Perlini, Nara Marilene Oliveira; Ângelo, Margareth
To understand the meanings of cancer within the experience of rural families and how such meanings influence family dynamics. Qualitative study guided by Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical framework and Grounded Theory as a methodological framework. Six rural families (18 participants) undergoing the experience of having a relative with cancer participated in the interview. Constant comparative analysis of data allowed the elaboration of an explanatory substantive theory, defined by the main category Caregiving to support the family world, which represents the family's symbolic actions and strategies to reconcile care for the patient and care for family life. Throughout the experience, rural families seek to preserve the interconnected symbolic elements that provide support for the family world: family unit, land, work and care. Compreender os significados do câncer presentes na experiência de famílias rurais e como esses significados influenciam a dinâmica familiar. Estudo qualitativo orientado pelo Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico e pela Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados como referencial metodológico. Participaram, por meio de entrevista, seis famílias rurais (18 participantes) que estavam vivendo a experiência de ter um familiar com câncer. A análise comparativa constante dos dados permitiu a elaboração de uma teoria substantiva explicativa da experiência, definida pela categoria central Cuidando para manter o mundo da família amparado, que representa as ações e estratégias simbólicas da família visando a conciliar o cuidado do familiar doente e o cuidado da vida familiar. Ao longo da experiência, a família rural procura preservar os elementos simbólicos que, conectados, constituem o amparo do mundo da família: a unidade familiar, a terra, o trabalho e o cuidado.
Srivastava, Adit; Agarwal, Rahul; Soni, Romesh; Sachan, Avesh; Shivakumar, G. C.; Chaturvedi, T. P.
Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is one of the uncommon dysplasias affecting the maxillofacial region. The age group may vary from 19 to 76 years and typically presents in the 4th and 5th decades. In most cases patients do not have hereditary basis of disease, and only a few familial cases have been documented. As far as we know this is the 1st reported case of familial FCOD in an Indian family. The mother and son exhibited multiple sclerotic masses in both jaws. The mode of transmission appeared to be autosomal dominant with variable phenotypic expression. PMID:23198165
Shaklee, Harriet; Bigbee, Jeri; Wall, Misty
Chronic shortages of health, social service, and mental health professionals in rural areas necessitate creative partnerships in support of families. Cooperative extension professionals in Family and Consumer Sciences and community health nurses, who can bring critical skills to human services teams, are introduced as trusted professionals in…
Salehi-Isfahani, Djavad; Abbasi-Shavazi, M Jalal; Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat
During the first few years of the Islamic Revolution of 1979, and aided by pro-natal government policies, Iranian fertility was on the rise. In a reversal of its population policy, in 1989, the government launched an ambitious and innovative family planning program aimed at rural families. By 2005, the program had covered more than 90% of the rural population and the average number of births per rural woman had declined to replacement level from about 8 births in the mid 1980s. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of a particular feature of the program - health houses - on rural fertility, taking advantage of the variation in the timing of their construction across the country. We use three different methods to obtain a range of estimates for the impact of health houses on village-level fertility: difference-in-differences (DID), matching DID, and length of exposure. We find estimates of impact ranging from 4 to 20% of the decline in fertility during 1986-1996. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act...
Marathe, Nachiket; Shetty, Sudarshan; Lanjekar, Vikram; Ranade, Dilip; Shouche, Yogesh
The gut micro flora plays vital role in health status of the host. The majority of microbes residing in the gut have a profound influence on human physiology and nutrition. Different human ethnic groups vary in genetic makeup as well as the environmental conditions they live in. The gut flora changes with genetic makeup and environmental factors and hence it is necessary to understand the composition of gut flora of different ethnic groups. Indian population is different in physiology from western population (YY paradox) and thus the gut flora in Indian population is likely to differ from the extensively studied gut flora in western population. In this study we have investigated the gut flora of two Indian families, each with three individuals belonging to successive generations and living under the same roof. Denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed age-dependant variation in gut microflora amongst the individuals within a family. Different bacterial genera were dominant in the individual of varying age in clone library analysis. Obligate anaerobes isolated from individuals within a family showed age related differences in isolation pattern, with 27% (6 out of 22) of the isolates being potential novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. In qPCR a consistent decrease in Firmicutes number and increase in Bacteroidetes number with increasing age was observed in our subjects, this pattern of change in Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio with age is different than previously reported in European population. There is change in gut flora with age amongst the individuals within a family. The isolation of high percent of novel bacterial species and the pattern of change in Firmicutes /Bacteroidetes ratio with age suggests that the composition of gut flora in Indian individuals may be different than the western population. Thus, further extensive study is needed to define the gut flora in Indian population.
... the desired attitudinal and behavioral changes towards family planning is yet to be ... from selected rural areas in Ibadan towards family planning using the Health ... The study revealed that the socio-economic status of mothers significantly ...
Attitude of Rural Youths towards Family Farming in Dass, Bauchi State, Nigeria and the ... Majority were males (88 %), single (51 %), literate (99 %) and had rural ... most of them (78 %) said was learned through parents (non-formal sources).
Poulsen, Shruti S.
Immigration is a process fraught with both challenges and opportunities for families. In particular, East Indian families with U.S.-born adolescents experience the challenges of bridging cultures across generational divides; they are perceived by others as confused, identity less, and conflicted or as American-Born, Confused Desis (ABCDs). This…
Young, Richard A
The purpose of this study was to describe how many rural family physicians (FPs) and other types of providers currently provide maternity care services, and the requirements to obtain privileges. Chief executive officers of rural hospitals were purposively sampled in 15 geographically diverse states with significant rural areas in 2013 to 2014. Questions were asked about the provision of maternity care services, the physicians who perform them, and qualifications required to obtain maternity care privileges. Analysis used descriptive statistics, with comparisons between the states, community rurality, and hospital size. The overall response rate was 51.2% (437/854). Among all identified hospitals, 44.9% provided maternity care services, which varied considerably by state (range, 17-83%; P maternity care, a mean of 271 babies were delivered per year, 27% by cesarean delivery. A mean of 7.0 FPs had privileges in these hospitals, of which 2.8 provided maternity care and 1.8 performed cesarean deliveries. The percentage of FPs who provide maternity care (mean, 48%; range, 10-69%; P maternity care who are FPs (mean, 63%; range, 10-88%; P maternity care services in US rural hospitals, including cesarean deliveries. Some family medicine residencies should continue to train their residents to provide these services to keep replenishing this valuable workforce. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Joseph, A E; Phillips, D R
The majority of China's population lives in rural areas and a pattern is emerging of very uneven provision of support for rural elderly people. Local economic conditions and broad demographic trends are creating diversity in the ability both of rural families to care for their elderly kin and in the capacity of communities to support their elderly residents and family carers. In part as a consequence of China's population policy and the 'one-child policy', future Chinese families will have fewer members and be 'older', but they will continue to be regarded emotionally and in policy as the main source of economic and social support for the elderly. The increasing involvement of women in the paid workforce and the changing geographical distribution of family members resulting from work-related migration, are reducing the ability of families to care for their elderly relatives. The availability of resources other than the family for the care of older persons therefore becomes a key issue. Communities in more prosperous, modernising rural areas are often able to provide their elderly residents with welfare and social benefits previously found almost exclusively in urban areas. However, in poorly developed rural areas, provision is either very patchy or non-existent and the local economy cannot support expansion or improvement. A case study in Zhejiang Province illustrates the favourable provision for ageing in a prosperous modernising rural community, in which entitled elderly residents are provided with an impressive array of financial and social benefits. The paper concludes with a consideration of the policy implications of the growing differentiation of the social and economic capacity of rural communities to support their elderly members.
Hekmat, F; Kabacoff, R I; Klein, H E
A sample of 384 husbands and wives were randomly selected and interviewed to investigate the implication of fertility norms and motivations for childbearing on fertility and family planning behavior among Iranian families in urban and rural areas of Iran, after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. The term "fertility behavior" refers to actual family size, which is defined as number of children the respondent has living at the time of the interview. "Family planning behavior" refers to the duration of time that the subject has used any birth control method(s). Rural families demonstrated larger actual and ideal family sizes than urban families. The rural sample had a median actual family size of 3.5 children and a median ideal family size of 4.7 children. For the urban sample these figures were 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. The median number of years married was 12.33 for rural and 13.91 for urban respondents. Urban respondents tended to emphasize the psychological and emotional benefits and liabilities associated with having children while rural respondents tended to emphasize both economic and security related motivations. Both groups endorsed infant mortality as a motivation for having more children. Male and female respondents were remarkably similar in their endorsed motivations. There was a significant positive correlation between desired and ideal family size. The correlations among ideal/desired family size and practicing birth control methods were the same and significant at the .001 level. The relationship between motivations for childbearing and years of practicing birth control methods was also significant at the .001 level. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to examine the important predictors of fertility and family planning behavior. For both actual family size and years on birth control, males and females were very similar in terms of predictor importance. Those respondents with less education and large ideal family size tended to have larger
T S Anish
Full Text Available Background: The world is experiencing a pandemic of chikungunya which has swept across Indian Ocean and the Indian subcontinent. Kerala the southernmost state of India was affected by the chikungunya epidemic twice, first in 2006 and then in 2007. Kerala has got geography and climate which are highly favorable for the breeding of Aedes albopictus, the suspected vector. Aim: The aim of the study was to highlight the various domestic and environmental factors of the families affected by chikungunya in 2007 in Thiruvananthapuram district (rural of Kerala. Settings and design: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in Thiruvananthapuram (rural district during November 2007. Materials and Methods : Samples were selected from field area under three Primary Health Centers. These areas represent the three terrains of the district namely the highland, midland, and lowland. The sample size was estimated to be 134 houses from each study area. The field area of health workers was selected as clusters and six subcenters from each primary health center were randomly selected (lot method. Results and Conclusions: The proportion of population affected by chikungunya fever is 39.9% (38.9-40.9%. The investigators observed water holding containers in the peri-domestic area of 95.6% of the houses. According to regression (binary logistic analysis, the area of residence [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 8.01 (6.06-14.60], residing in a non-remote area [adjusted OR=0.25 (0.16-0.38], perceived mosquito menace [adjusted OR=3.07 (2.31-4.64], and containers/tires outside the house [adjusted OR=5.61 (2.74-27.58] were the independent predictors of the occurrence of chikungunya in households.
Hodge, Felicia Schanche
A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…
Planning a Family: Priorities and Concerns in Rural Tanzania. T Marchant, AK Mushi, R Nathan, O Mukasa, S Abdulla, C Lengeler, JRM Armstrong Schellenberg. Abstract. A fertility survey using qualitative and quantitative techniques described a high fertility setting (TFR 5.8) in southern Tanzania where family planning use ...
The paper discusses the effects of the changes of rural income level on family planning practice based a survey of 200 rural families in a affluent vegetable producing area of suburban Beijing. In 1984, 99.7% of child birth followed the local birth planning, and 99.1% of families with one child received One Child Certificates. The annual per capita income of the 200 families was 1,092 yuan (1 US$ = 3.7 yuan) in 1984 even higher than the community average. The number of children was negatively associated with the per capita income and per capita consumption except families with 4 children, most of whom have grown up. The rural mechanization in the community has greatly increased the need for skills and technology rather than strong laborers. The provision of community welfare programs and the increased living standard changed the value of children and also changed people's perception in favor of gender equality. Among families with 1 or 2 children, most preferred to have girls. And among families with more children, the preferred family size is smaller than the actual size, which shows a tendency towards favoring a small family. Among 1 child families, 58.7% considered 1 boy and 1 girl to be ideal, and 37.7% was happy with the only child. As the community becomes richer, both the community and individual families increased their investment in education. The spending on education per child was over 2 times as high in 1 child families than the families with more children. The educational status of parents is positively associated with the exception of children's future education and current spending on education. The concern of parents over children's education is an important factor in improving the quality of labor force. Women of higher education status are more acceptable to contraception and family planning policy. The relatively high level of education of the community has been conducive to it fertility decline.
... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under...
Pilz, Matthias; Wilmshöfer, Simon
The vast majority--70%--of the Indian population lives in rural areas. They are far removed from India's image as a society with an emerging middle class and well-regarded schools. This research focuses on education and opportunities for skill development for this rural population. The researchers investigated the area around the Chilika Lagoon, a…
Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; Lu, Xi
This article draws on a survey conducted in six provinces in summer 2008 to investigate the determinants of son preference in rural China. The analysis confirms the conventional wisdom that son preference is embedded within patrilineal family structures and practices. We extend our analysis by exploring specific aspects of variation within patrilineal family culture. We find that the patrilineal group (clan) composition of villages and family participation in practices such as building ancestral halls and updating genealogies significantly influence son preference. Yet even though son preference is embedded within patrilineal family culture, our analysis suggests that over time the attenuation of son preference is likely. This is because determinants associated with socioeconomic change—for instance, higher levels of education, direct exposure to official policy education materials, higher income (a proxy for rural industrialization), and agricultural mechanization—all attenuate son preference. Being younger and female are also associated with weaker son preference, and both characteristics are likely to interact with education and industrialization to further dilute son preference in the longer term. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that concerted efforts are needed to ameliorate institutional discrimination against rural people in welfare provisioning and in labor markets, and to promote multiple dimensions of gender equality, including in land rights, wage rates, and education.
Barik, Anamitra; Shah, Ravi V; Spahillari, Aferdita; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Das, Kaushik; Santra, Amal; Hembram, Jaba Ranjan; Bhattacharya, Dilip; Freedman, Jane E; Lima, Joao; Das, Ranendra; Bhattacharyya, Pinakpani; Das, Saumya; Chowdhury, Abhijit
While adiposity and hepatic steatosis are linked to cardiovascular risk in developed countries, their prevalence and impact in low-income countries are poorly understood. We investigated the association of anthropomorphic variables and hepatic steatosis with cardiometabolic risk profiles and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large rural Indian cohort. In 4691 individuals in the Birbhum Population Project in West Bengal, India, we performed liver ultrasonography, carotid ultrasound and biochemical and clinical profiling. We assessed the association of hepatic steatosis and anthropomorphic indices (BMI, waist circumference) with CVD risk factors (dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension) and subclinical CVD (by carotid intimal-medial thickness). Rural Indians exhibited a higher visceral adiposity index and pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia at a lower BMI than Americans. Individuals with any degree of hepatic steatosis by ultrasound had a greater probability of dysglycemia (adjusted odds ratio, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.31-2.12, P<0.0001) and pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.63, P=0.009). We observed a positive association between liver fat, adiposity and carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) in an unadjusted model (β=0.02, P=0.0001); the former was extinguished after adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors. In a large population of rural Indians, hepatic steatosis and waist circumference were associated with prevalent cardiometabolic risk and subclinical CVD at lower BMI relative to multi-ethnic Americans, though the association of the former with subclinical CVD was extinguished after adjustment. These results underscore the emerging relevance of hepatic steatosis and adiposity in the developing world, and suggest efforts to target these accessible phenotypes for cardiometabolic risk prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The author comments on the theories and empirical evidence which aid in understanding the determinants of the reproductive behavior of farmers in China. The issues are defined, and discussion expands on the needs for a specific number of children in rural versus urban areas, M. Cain's risk insurance hypothesis, the importance of modes of production for the farm family, the farmer's security versus risks, and the balance between risk projection and the maximization of interest. The significance of risk projection is presented as are the implications for policy making. Neither theory of farmer's reproductive behavior, 1) the economic cost and benefit theory or 2) the need for labor theory is considered suitable. The idea that benefits exceed the costs of rearing children cannot justify the repeated cycle of poverty among farmers with many children. The Hubei Province, Danjiankou City, study which estimates rearing costs of 3360 yuan/child benefits of 305 yuan/year to the parents in old age is considered incorrect. The second theory agrees that children are needed for production but recognized surplus labor and does not account for the fact that the more children, the poorer the family. Micro demographic theories identify factors affecting demographic behavior, the extent to which factors affect fertility, and the interrelatedness of factors. The rural family feels jeopardized with one child, and the lowest tolerable number of children is 2-3 in rural areas. Manual labor is the basis of the traditional peasant economy. In this economy, loss of income is a threat whether due to crop failure, weather changes, or market changes. Payment occurs at the end of the year only. Child health is a risk due to poor nutrition and poor health facilities. Following a one-child policy might jeopardize perpetuation of the family line and provision for parents by sons. Urban risks are different. Rural families limit risk by keeping material resources, enlarging and strengthening the
Full Text Available The paper seeks to analyse family businesses in rural areas, family business strategies and re-registration of sole proprietors with the Centre of Registers and Information Systems (hereinafter Commercial Register in 2009, and to provide an overview of entrepreneurship policies targeted at Estonian rural businesses. Layoffs have increased the number of unemployed; some of those who have lost employment opt for social assistance benefits, but some others decide to become entrepreneurs. Many enterprising people in Estonia have set up a family enterprise, mainly in the sphere of services, agriculture and tourism. The Estonian entrepreneurship policy supports enterprising people and approves of entrepreneurship as a promoter of national economic development. One of the most positive qualities of family enterprises is their short decision-making chain, which ensures rapid implementation of the strategy.
This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are.
Kulkarni, Smita R; Fall, Caroline H D; Joshi, Niranjan V; Lubree, Himangi G; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Pasarkar, Rashmi V; Bhat, Dattatray S; Naik, Sadanand S; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S
To study determinants of incident hyperglycemia in rural Indian mothers 6 years after delivery. The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study collected information in six villages near Pune on prepregnant characteristics and nutrition, physical activity, and glucose tolerance during pregnancy. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was repeated 6 years after delivery. A total of 597 mothers had an OGTT at 28 weeks' gestation; 3 had gestational diabetes (by World Health Organization 1999 criteria). Six years later, 42 of 509 originally normal glucose-tolerant mothers were hyperglycemic (8 diabetic, 20 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 with impaired fasting glucose). The hyperglycemic women had shorter legs and thicker skinfolds before pregnancy (P predispose to hyperglycemia in young rural Indian women. International cut points of diabetes risk factors are largely irrelevant in these women.
Jetty, Anuradha; Moore, Miranda A; Coffman, Megan; Petterson, Stephen; Bazemore, Andrew
Telehealth has the potential to reduce health inequities and improve health outcomes among rural populations through increased access to physicians, specialists, and reduced travel time for patients. Although rural telehealth services have expanded in several specialized areas, little is known about the attitudes, beliefs, and uptake of telehealth use in rural American primary care. This study characterizes the differences between rural and urban family physicians (FPs), their perceptions of telehealth use, and barriers to further adoption. Nationally representative randomly sampled survey of 5,000 FPs. Among the 31.3% of survey recipients who completed the survey, 83% practiced in urban areas and 17% in rural locations. Rural FPs were twice as likely to use telehealth as urban FPs (22% vs. 10%). Logistic regressions showed rural FPs had greater odds of reporting telehealth use to connect their patients to specialists and to care for their patients. Rural FPs were less likely to identify liability concerns as a barrier to using telehealth. Telemedicine allows rural patients to see specialists without leaving their communities and permits rural FPs to take advantage of specialist expertise, expand their scope of practice, and reduce the feeling of isolation experienced by rural physicians. Efforts to raise awareness of current payment policies for telehealth services, addressing the limitations of current reimbursement policies and state regulations, and creating new avenues for telehealth reimbursement and technological investments are critical to increasing primary care physician use of telehealth services.
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program? 1000.110 Section 1000.110 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.110 Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families...
Brooks, Elizabeth; Manson, Spero M; Bair, Byron; Dailey, Nancy; Shore, Jay H
Mental health issues are a serious concern for many American Indian Veterans, especially for post-traumatic stress disorder and related psychiatric conditions. Yet, acquiring mental health treatment can be a challenge in Native communities where specialized services are largely unavailable. Consequently, telehealth is increasingly being suggested as a way to expand healthcare access on or near reservation lands. In this study, we wanted to understand the factors affecting the diffusion of telehealth clinics that provided mental health care to rural, American Indian Veterans. We surveyed 39 key personnel and stakeholders who were involved in the decision-making process, technological infrastructure, and implementation of three clinics. Using Roger Everett's Diffusion Theory as a framework, we gathered information about specific tasks, factors hindering progress, and personal reactions to telehealth both before and after implementation. Many participants expressed initial concerns about using telehealth; however, most became positive over time. Factors that influenced participants' viewpoint largely included patient and staff feedback and witnessing the fulfillment of a community health need. The use of outside information to support the implementation of the clinics and personal champions also showed considerable influence in the clinics' success. The findings presented here address critical gaps in our understanding of telehealth diffusion and inform research strategies regarding the cultural issues and outcomes related to telemental health services. Information contained in this report serves as a long overdue guide for developing telemental health programs and policies among American Indians, specifically, and rural populations in general.
Ramesh Babu Kakumanu; Dr. V. Israel Raju; Dr. A. Kishore Kumar
A woman basically is an emotional creature and woman without emotions is like cake without cream. They undergo all types of emotions like joy, fear, anger, humor, sex, empathy and love. Family sentiments are most powerful tools to push woman into emotional state of mind. Family sentiments in the form of relationships, sharing love, caring, security, warmth, sex, and living together are frequently used in the advertisements. This article studies family appeals impact on Indian woman. The age b...
Full Text Available Background: The way that health care systems in developing countries like India care for dying patients, has an impact on the expectations of such care for those who migrate to other countries faces. At the end of life, cultural issues may impact on the quality of life remaining and for that reason, it is important that particular cultural practices are understood. This paper describes a study that investigated the cultural issues of access to palliative care services for Indian migrants in Australia. Purpose of the Study: To investigate the experiences of the family members of terminally ill Indian migrants in Victoria, Australia. Objective of the Study: To explore the issues related to accessing palliative care services for Indian migrants; to identify the effectiveness of palliative care in supporting the patient and family and to recommend strategies for improving this care. Materials and Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was utilized. Up to 6 family members were selected for in-depth interviews in understanding cultural issues related to the palliative care services for a family member. Results: Analysis of the interviews revealed that families of Indian patients experience difficulties whilst receiving palliative care services, which fell into three main categories: Indian support systems, cultural issues, and caring experiences. Although each of these issues had a direct influence on the experience of terminal care that their family member received, cultural issues and support systems also influenced the caring experiences. Conclusion: Despite the successful implementation of palliative care services across Australia, there are still problems in accessing and receiving the services among minority and disadvantaged groups like various cultural groups.
Full Text Available Background: Healthy population is indispensable for national development. Adequate food intake by people is the key determinant to keep up their health. Malnutrition nevertheless remains pervasive in developing countries, undermining people’s health, productivity, and often their survival. Food insecurity and hunger remain persistent in Nepal. Prevalence of low calories intake by rural family is widespread throughout the country population. Mainly marginalized communities, ethnic group with poor economic status, traditional societies and lower cast people are exposed to food defi cit. Objective: to investigate the prevalence of low calories intake by rural families and its associated determinants in Palpa district. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study was designed to achieve objective of the research. A random sample of 339 families was selected from rural areas (DUMRE, DAMKADA, GORKHEKOT and TELGHA villages of this district. Data were analyzed by using the SPSS software for Windows (version 16.0. Results: The existence of inadequate food calorie intake among rural families was most common. Most of them were malnourished. Conclusion: low calorie intake by ethnic group was considerably higher than other groups in community.
The aims of this pilot study were to identify and examine job control, working long hours and their impact on work and family conflict (WFC) among four Indian doctors and nurses. The four participants had previously worked in the west and were now working in India. Employing a grounded theory approach data were analyzed using several coding procedures geared toward model development. For these four Indian doctors and nurses, job control was found to be grounded in two factors: type of work group control and a lack of control in the work environment. Working long hours is seen to be possible due to a culture accepting of working long hours, a supportive family system, and other arrangements at home.
Kosteniuk, Julie; Morgan, Debra; Innes, Anthea; Keady, John; Stewart, Norma; D'Arcy, Carl; Kirk, Andrew
Little is known about the views of rural family physicians (FPs) regarding collaborative care models for patients with dementia. The study aims were to explore FPs' views regarding this issue, their role in providing dementia care, and the implications of providing dementia care in a rural setting. This study employed an exploratory qualitative design with a sample of 15 FPs. All rural FPs indicated acceptance of collaborative models. The main disadvantages of practicing rural were accessing urban-based health care and related services and a shortage of local health care resources. The primary benefit of practicing rural was FPs' social proximity to patients, families, and some health care workers. Rural FPs provided care for patients with dementia that took into account the emotional and practical needs of caregivers and families. FPs described positive and negative implications of rural dementia care, and all were receptive to models of care that included other health care professionals.
Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan
Due to the requirements of the competitive, market-oriented urban society, parents in urban and urbanized families are more likely than parents in rural families to encourage initiative-taking in child rearing in China. The socialization experiences of children from different types of families may be related to their adjustment. This study examined parental socialization attitudes, social and school adjustment, and their relations in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families. Participants were elementary school students (N = 1,033; M age = 11 years) and their parents in China. Data were obtained from parental reports, peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents in urban and urbanized families had higher scores than parents in rural families on encouragement of initiative-taking. Urban children, particularly girls, were more sociable, obtained higher social status, and had fewer school problems than their rural counterparts. Children from urbanized families were different from rural children and similar to urban children in social and school adjustment. Moreover, multigroup invariance tests showed that parental encouragement of initiative-taking was associated more strongly with children's sociable-assertive behavior and social standing in the urban and urbanized groups than in the rural group. The results indicate that particular socialization attitudes may vary in their adaptive value in child development as a function of specific social and cultural requirements in changing societies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Dugoua, Eugenie; Liu, Ruinan; Urpelainen, Johannes
The International Energy Agency estimates that more than a billion people remain without household electricity access. However, countries such as India have recently made major progress in rural electrification. Who has benefited from these achievements? We focus on 714 villages in six energy-poor states of northern and eastern India to investigate trends in electricity access. We use data both from the 2011 Census of India and an original energy access survey conducted in 2014 and 2015. During the three years that separated the surveys, distance to the nearest town and land area lose their power as predictors of the percentage of households in the village that has access to electricity. In this regard, the Indian government's flagship rural electrification program seems to have managed to overcome a major obstacle to grid extension. On the other hand, socio-economic inequalities between villages related to caste status and household expenditure remain strong predictors. These findings highlight the importance of socio-economic barriers to rural electricity access and alleviate concerns about remoteness and population density as obstacles to grid extension. - Highlights: • Empirical analysis of rural electrification progress in India. • Geographic differences across villages no longer explain electricity access. • Social and economic inequities remain stark. • Future policy should focus on household electrification within villages.
Ravindran, Neeraja; Myers, Barbara J.
Beliefs and practices regarding autism were explored in Indian families living outside India. Parents (N = 24) of children (3 to 15 years) with an autism spectrum disorder wrote open-ended answers in an online questionnaire regarding their beliefs about causes, treatments and services received, use of and preference for Indian medicine and…
Struthers, Roxanne; Savik, Kay; Hodge, Felicia Schanche
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the number one killer of American women. Consequently, CVD is a concern for all women, including ethnic women. However, little is known about CVD behaviors and responses to CVD symptomology among minority women, especially American Indian women. Response behaviors to chest pain require important actions. This article examines response behaviors to chest pain in a group of American Indian women participants of the Inter-Tribal Heart Project. In 1992 to 1994, 866 American Indian women, aged 22 years and older, participated in face-to-face interviews to answer survey questions on multiple areas related to cardiovascular disease on 3 rural reservations in Minnesota and Wisconsin. A secondary data analysis was conducted on selected variables including demographic characteristics, healthcare access, rating of health status, personal and family history of cardiovascular disease, and action in response to crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. Research findings report that 68% of women would actively seek healthcare immediately if experiencing crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. However, 264 women (32%) would take a passive action to crushing chest pain, with 23% reporting they would sit down and wait until it passed. Analysis revealed women reporting a passive response were younger in age (under age 45) and had less education (less than a high school education). These findings have implications for nurses and other healthcare providers working in rural, geographically isolated Indian reservations. How to present CVD education in a culturally appropriate manner remains a challenge. PMID:15191257
Foshee, Vangie A; Chang, Ling-Yin; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T
Rural adolescents are at high risk for dating violence victimization (DVV), which has serious negative consequences. Understanding more about the conditions that increase DVV risk for rural adolescents is needed to inform prevention efforts. In response to calls for examining the influence of upper levels of the social ecology on adolescent dating violence, this study examined whether associations between the family context and physical DVV were conditioned by the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which the family resided. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study of 3,236 rural adolescents nested in 65 block groups, which defined neighborhoods. Data were collected between 2003 and 2005. Multilevel growth curve modeling was conducted in 2014 to test hypothesized synergistic effects of the family and neighborhood on trajectories of physical DVV from grade 8 to 12. Low parental closeness was a DVV risk in residentially stable (pFamily aggression was a DVV risk, regardless of neighborhood characteristics (p=0.001). Low parental monitoring and rule setting were not DVV risks and their effects were not moderated by neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly (pviolence were not associated with DVV. None of the effects varied by sex of the adolescent, across time (grade), or by the combination of sex and time. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering the family and neighborhood, and particularly their synergistic effects in efforts to prevent adolescent DVV. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
González, Martha Rocío; Trujillo, Angela; Pereda, Noemí
To reveal the prevalence of corporal punishment in a rural area of Colombia and its correlates to family structure and other socio-demographic variables. A survey about childrearing and childcare was developed for this study, including a specific question about corporal punishment that was developed based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Family structure was categorized as follows, based on previous literature: 'nuclear family,' 'single parent' family, 'extended family,' 'simultaneous family' and 'composed family.' Forty-one percent of the parents surveyed admitted they had used corporal punishment of their children as a disciplinary strategy. The type of family structure, the number of children living at home, the age of the children, the gender of the parent who answered the survey, and the age and gender of the partner were significant predictors of corporal punishment. Family structure is an important variable in the understanding of corporal punishment, especially in regard to nuclear families that have a large number of children and parents who started their parental role early in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Petersen, Joergen Holm; Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan
The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. social class, respectively (P social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016) when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087). An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background PLS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset periodontopathia and palmar plantar keratosis. PLS is caused by mutations in the cathepsin C (CTSC gene. Dipeptidyl-peptidase I encoded by the CTSC gene removes dipeptides from the amino-terminus of protein substrates and mainly plays an immune and inflammatory role. Several mutations have been reported in this gene in patients from several ethnic groups. We report here mutation analysis of the CTSC gene in three Indian families with PLS. Methods Peripheral blood samples were obtained from individuals belonging to three Indian families with PLS for genomic DNA isolation. Exon-specific intronic primers were used to amplify DNA samples from individuals. PCR products were subsequently sequenced to detect mutations. PCR-SCCP and ASOH analyses were used to determine if mutations were present in normal control individuals. Results All patients from three families had a classic PLS phenotype, which included palmoplantar keratosis and early-onset severe periodontitis. Sequence analysis of the CTSC gene showed three novel nonsense mutations (viz., p.Q49X, p.Q69X and p.Y304X in homozygous state in affected individuals from these Indian families. Conclusions This study reported three novel nonsense mutations in three Indian families. These novel nonsense mutations are predicted to produce truncated dipeptidyl-peptidase I causing PLS phenotype in these families. A review of the literature along with three novel mutations reported here showed that the total number of mutations in the CTSC gene described to date is 41 with 17 mutations being located in exon 7.
ZHANG Jin-hua; YU Mei-lian; WU Fang-wei; CHEN Wei
This research focuses on the impact of family’s human capital on social mobility in China’s rural community. Empirical research is conducted based on data from surveying a typical rural community in the past 20 yr. The study indicates that social mobility in rural area is active in the past 20 yr, and the human capital of family, represented by primary labor’s education level, has played an essential role in mobility of low social class. Meanwhile, socio-economic development and the change of supply and demand in labor market dims the signaling role of degree education, but the impact of occupational training is increasingly remarkable. Therefore, the change from sole degree education to multi-leveled education including occupational education and training is a main way for China’s rural families in low class to realize social mobility.
Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Parker, Tassy; Kim, Kyungmann; Grant, Vernon M; Sheche, Judith N; Adams, Alexandra K
Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described. Methods Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a lifestyle intervention targeting increased fruit and vegetable intake, decreased sugar intake, increased physical activity, decreased TV/screen time, and two less-studied risk factors: stress and sleep. Families with young children from five American Indian communities nationwide were randomly assigned to a healthy lifestyle intervention ( Wellness Journey) augmented with social support (Facebook and text messaging) or a child safety control group ( Safety Journey) for 1 year. After Year 1, families in the Safety Journey receive the Wellness Journey, and families in the Wellness Journey start the Safety Journey with continued wellness-focused social support based on communities' request that all families receive the intervention. Primary (adult body mass index and child body mass index z-score) and secondary (health behaviors) outcomes are assessed after Year 1 with additional analyses planned after Year 2. Results To date, 450 adult/child dyads have been enrolled (100% target enrollment). Statistical analyses await trial completion in 2017. Lessons learned Conducting a community-partnered randomized controlled trial requires significant formative work, relationship building, and ongoing flexibility. At the communities' request, the study involved minimal exclusion criteria, focused on wellness rather than obesity, and included an active
In this article, Xin Xiang investigates what dushu, or "schooling," means for rural senior secondary school students in a high-poverty county in southwestern China. With the persistence of China's rural-urban education inequality and alarming reports about secondary school dropout rates, rural students' and their families' attitudes…
Smith, Darren P.; Higley, Rebecca
Although there is recurring empirical evidence of gentrifier families with young children, the importance of education-related factors in the migration and residential decision-making of rural gentrifiers have yet to be fully examined. Using the case study of Cranbrook, Kent, processes of education-led rural gentrification are revealed that are…
Correa, Natasha; Rajaraman, Divya; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Jayachitra, K G; Lear, Scott A; Punthakee, Zubin
Dietary patterns have contributed to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among Indian adolescents. Yet there are limited studies on their perspectives on healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to understand perceptions and attitudes of Indian-origin adolescents in India and Canada that may contribute to healthy eating behaviour. Qualitative data collection and analysis of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) was conducted among 34 boys and 39 girls (total number of participants: 73) of different weight and socioeconomic status (SES) in rural and urban India, and urban Canada aged 11-18 years. All adolescents perceived homemade foods, and foods high in vitamins, minerals and fiber as healthy. Rural Indian adolescents also identified contaminant-free food as important. Opinions differed regarding the health value of consuming meat, and amongst Canadian adolescents, the health impact of Western versus Indian diets. Identified benefits of healthy eating included improved energy for Indians, and disease prevention for Canadians and urban Indians. Identified barriers across all settings included peers; and availability, access and affordability of unhealthy foods. Urban Indians and Canadian girls also reported academic stress and lack of time as barriers. Canadian girls reported limited parental supervision during mealtimes as an additional barrier. Facilitators to healthy eating included parents, friends and personal preferences for healthy foods. This study suggests potential targets for family-based and school-based education programs and policies to improve dietary habits of Indian and Indo-Canadian adolescents which include, culturally focused nutrition education and guidelines, academic stress management strategies, parental education, food hygiene regulations and restriction on the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weber, Bruce A.
The past decade has seen a number of studies of how the poverty incidence (the percentage of families below the poverty line) of certain demographic groups changes in response to economic growth. The question of whether regional economic growth trickles down to rural and rural poor families was examined by statistically estimating the relationship…
Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Smith, Rebekah; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Wiens, Brenda; Cottler, Linda B
Upon immigration to the rural areas in the US, Latino families may experience cultural, geographic, linguistic and social isolation, which can detrimentally affect their wellbeing by acting as chronic stressors. Using a community engagement approach, this is a pilot mixed-method study with an embedded design using concurrent qualitative and quantitative data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate family and social environments in terms of protective factors and modifiable risks associated with mental well-being in Latino immigrants living in rural areas of Florida. Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads were interviewed by using in-depth ethnographic semistructured interviews and subsequent quantitative assessments, including a demographic questionnaire and three structured instruments: the Family Environment Scale Real Form, the SF-12v2™ Health Survey and the short version (eight items) of PROMIS Health Organization Social Isolation. This mixed-method pilot study highlighted how family, rural, and social environments can protect or impair wellbeing in rural Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads.
Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L; Johnson, Susan L; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Shroff, Monal R; Bentley, Margaret E
Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children's dietary intake, growth and development compared with home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into three groups of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The control group (CG) received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the complementary feeding group (CFG) received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the responsive complementary feeding and play group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices, and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the 12-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (P Mental Development scores (mean = 3.1, CI: 0.8-5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared with CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG) and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under 2 years in food-secure rural Indian families. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L.; Johnson, Susan L.; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez; Shroff, Monal R.; Bentley, Margaret E.
Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding, and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children’s dietary intake, growth, and development compared to home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into 3 groups1 of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The Control Group (CG), received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the Complementary Feeding Group (CFG), received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the Responsive Complementary Feeding & Play Group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the twelve-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (pDevelopment scores(Mean=3.1, CI: 0.8–5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared to CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG), and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under two years in food-secure rural Indian families. PMID:22625182
Rani, V.R.; Arends, D.; Brouwer, I.D.
Purpose – Measures of dietary diversity are relatively simple and associated with nutrient adequacy and nutritional status. The aim of this study is to validate dietary diversity score (DDS) as an indicator of nutrient adequacy of diet of Indian rural children aged five to eight years.
Campbell, R.; Bennett, T.
The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, specifically Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and communities of the reservation are undergoing change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. The capacity of satellite imagery to encompass large land tracts make the use of this technology a cost effective way to visualize and investigate population growth in rural communities. Likewise, integrating remotely sensed data into a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be a powerful tool to identify environmental and other land use issues that impact the people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of this research is to (1) observe and calculate land cover change around three communities on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using remotely sensed data (Landsat MSS, TM and ETM+) and Geographic Information Systems over a 20 year span, and (2) to discuss the potential impacts of rural sprawl on the Pine Ridge Reservation, SD. Preliminary results indicate that land cover has changed in relationship to increased population growth within three communities on the reservation. New housing developments, roads and buildings have appeared and these changes were detectable using Landsat imagery. These results will be discussed along with the experiences and education through the NASA Goddard Internship sponsored by the North Dakota Association of Tribal Colleges.
Rainsford, Suzanne; MacLeod, Roderick D; Glasgow, Nicholas J; Phillips, Christine B; Wiles, Robert B; Wilson, Donna M
End-of-life care must be relevant to the dying person and their family caregiver regardless of where they live. Rural areas are distinct and need special consideration. Gaining end-of-life care experiences and perspectives of rural patients and their family caregivers is needed to ensure optimal rural care. To describe end-of-life care experiences and perspectives of rural patients and their family caregivers, to identify facilitators and barriers to receiving end-of-life care in rural/remote settings and to describe the influence of rural place and culture on end-of-life care experiences. A systematic literature review utilising the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science) were searched in January 2016, using a date filter of January 2006 through January 2016; handsearching of included article references and six relevant journals; one author contacted; pre-defined search terms and inclusion criteria; and quality assessment by at least two authors. A total of 27 articles (22 rural/remote studies) from developed and developing countries were included, reporting rural end-of-life care experiences and perspectives of patients and family caregivers. Greatest needs were informational (developed countries) and medications (developing countries). Influence of rural location included distances, inaccessibility to end-of-life care services, strong community support and importance of home and 'country'. Articulation of the rural voice is increasing; however, there still remain limited published rural studies reporting on patient and family caregivers' experiences and perspectives on rural end-of-life care. Further research is encouraged, especially through national and international collaborative work.
Christiansen, Karina; Gadhoke, Preety; Pardilla, Marla; Gittelsohn, Joel
The purpose of this study was to understand what factors influenced work-family balance and related health behaviors among a sample of rural North American Indian women. We interviewed 89 women through both in-depth interviews and focus groups across four tribal communities in the American Southwest and Upper Midwest between July 2010 and August 2011. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes related to work- family demands placed on women and resources available to cope with those demands. Three prominent themes emerged: structural characteristics (the context of rural reservation life), role stressors (women's multiple and conflicting roles) and the influence of social support (communal nature of care in the family and institutional support in the workplace). We found that women in participating rural reservation communities often acted as primary caregivers for both immediate and extended family, and often placed the needs of others before themselves. The context of rural reservations, with high rates of unemployment, poverty, and chronic illnesses associated with the collective trauma of colonization, placed high demands on female caregivers. Social support from within the workplace, family, and cultural traditions helped some female caregivers balance the demands of home and work. Tribal worksites could be a resource for promoting health and work-life balance by being responsive to the particular demands placed on women that often interfere with engaging in positive health behaviors in general and tribal wellness programs in particular.
Full Text Available The study was assessed to determine the effects of rural-urban youth migration on farm families in Benue state, Nigeria during November 2014 to June 2015. Interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 respondents. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean scores and standard deviation. Results indicate that majority (76.3% of the respondents were males, middle aged and married. Major causes of rural-urban youth migration indicated by the respondents include inadequate employment opportunities in rural areas (M=3.6, search for better education (M=3.5, inadequate social infrastructure such as schools (M=3.4, poor medical care services in rural areas (M=3.4, looking for money through labour (M=3.4, apprenticeship programme (M=3.2, etc. Findings of the study also indicate that reduction of agricultural labour force (M=3.5, low agricultural productivity (M=3.3, high cost of labour (M= 3.3, reduction on demand for locally grown foods (M=2.9, decrease in dependency ratio in the rural areas (M=2.7, reduction on number of mouths to feed (M=2.7, among others were major effects of rural-urban youth migration among farm families. The study recommends that Nigerian government should provide adequate physical and social infrastructure in rural areas in order to encourage youths to remain in agriculture, reduce rural-urban youth migration as well as sustain agriculture for enhanced food security.
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public housing and multi-family Indian housing. 8.25 Section 8.25 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND...
Gordon, June A.; Liu, Xiangyan
This research focuses on the predispositions that recent Chinese and Indian immigrant families bring with them to the United States and how these are reinforced by the communities in which they locate. The findings draw from 144 interviews in California. Three themes dominate: positioning through schooling, transnational family, and extended…
Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia
Eriksson, Tor Viking; Qiang, Zhang Ying
This paper provides estimates of brother income correlations for rural China. Brother correlations are a parsimonious measure of the importance of family and community background as determinants of individuals' economic status. We find internationally high levels of income similarity for brothers...
Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey
Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.
American Indian College Fund, 2010
As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…
Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.
Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a…
Full Text Available The explanation for the inequality of school performances given by education professionals is often associated with the amplitude of the family support to the offspring’s education. In order to explore this relationship we analyze the results of part of a survey questionnaire applied to children in the 5th and 6th grade, where it was possible to identify the trajectory school of each student and the representations and practices of their parents in relation with the school. This is a total of 837 students spread over 8 schools in the municipalities of Lisbon and Loures with different national origins. We compared the information to indigenous students, for those who have Cape Verdean origin and those of Indian origin. We conclude that family support for education (index built on the way to school meetings, the control they exert over their homework, the dialogue about school life and the support given by the families to the difficulties contributes to school performance and that the two variables vary in a direct relationship. But this is not, in any way, a sufficient condition for success or failure in school as it is not unreasonable to conclude the decisive effect of the practices of family support for education about the results students get in school. There was also a stronger relationship with the results when it comes to the students of Cape Verdean origin and more fragile with those of Indian origin.
Das, Mithun; Pal, Susil; Ghosh, Arnab
Our objective was to test the association between familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult Asian Indians. A total of 448 adult (>30 years) individuals (257 males and 191 females) participated in the study. Familial risk of T2DM was classified into three groups viz., 1=both parents affected; 2=parent and/or siblings affected and 3=none or no family history for T2DM. Anthropometric measures, blood pressures, fasting blood glucose and metabolic profiles were studied using standard techniques. MS was defined accordingly. The prevalence of MS phenotypes was estimated and compared among the three familial risk strata. Individuals with a history of both parents affected from diabetes had significantly higher (Pfamily history of T2DM. Significant difference was also noticed between individuals with and without MS according to the family history of diabetes (Pfamily history of T2DM. Family history of T2DM had significant effect on individuals with MS as compared to their counterparts (individuals having no family history of T2DM). It therefore seems reasonable to argue that family history of T2DM could be useful as a predictive tool for early diagnosis and prevention of MS in Asian Indian population.
Interpretation & conclusions: The dietary profile of this rural south Indian population reflected unhealthy choices, with the high consumption of refined cereals in the form of polished white rice and low intake of protective foods like fruits, vegetables, n-3 poly and monounsaturated fatty acids. This could potentially contribute to the increase in prevalence of NCDs like diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in rural areas and calls for appropriate remedial action.
Chen, Jiangsheng; Yang, Hong
Employing data from the China rural-urban mobility survey conducted in 2010, this study investigates the influence of family demographic characteristics on the income, life satisfaction, and potential for rural-urban mobility at the rural household level of two provinces of China: Shaanxi and Henan. A larger labor force in a rural household was found to reduce a family's ability or inclination to move to a city. The findings reveal that family size negatively affects the average income per family member and reduces the marginal income of the labor force and that minor children can improve the life satisfaction of family members. We conclude that a larger family size does not translate to more benefits for a rural household. Family size preference is found to be a reflection of parents' concerns about elderly care and is deemed to be unfavorable for urbanization in P. R. China.
Cláudio Pinheiro Machado Filho
Full Text Available Abstract The rural production in Brazil has experienced a significant competitive impact with the stabilization of the economy promoted by the Real Plan in 1994. Indeed, the Brazilian agriculture has achieved efficiency gains in terms of technology, economies of scale and general modernization of the activity in the field. In this context, the professional management of rural production evolved. However, the governance process does not evolve in the same dimension, and the “governance risk” is still poorly addressed in the rural environment, which often limits the potential of operations. In this study, we sought to deepen the understanding of the factors that impact the implementation of governance practices in rural properties in Brazil. Based on a convenience and non-probability sample, this study seeks to understand the evolution of the governance process on farms and its correlation with the management practices. This study found a correlation between the existence of some formal management processes (for example, strategic planning and more robust accounting systems and advances in the governance mechanisms and processes, such as the establishment of a board of directors, clearer rules regarding the separation between corporate and family assets and more transparency in income statements. This study also found a lack of clarity in the separation of return on capital (dividend and compensation for work (compensation for services provided for partners, heirs and other family members. In summary, we concluded that there is the adoption of some governance mechanisms in the rural sector, but they are still poorly developed among rural producers, hence the need to stimulate them.
Elshof, Hans; Bailey, Ajay
Population decline in rural areas has an impact on rural villages. This research investigates to what extent families with children in rural villages experience consequences of population decline, in which ways they respond to these experiences, and how that plays a role in their individual social
Ouma, S.; Turyasima, M.; Acca, H.; Nabbale, F.; Obita, K. O.; Rama, M.; Adong, C. C.; Openy, A.; Beatrice, M. O.; Odongo-Aginya, E. I.; Awor, S.
Background Uganda’s rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. Objective To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Subjects Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. Results There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders’ involvement in family planning programme. Conclusions In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family
Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S
Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.
Jungari, Suresh Banayya; Chauhan, Bal Govind
Premature menopause refers to the occurrence of menopause in women less than 40 years of age. This heterogeneous disorder affects 1 percent and 0.1 percent of women less than 40 and 30 years of age, respectively. The study reported in this article attempts to understand the prevalence and determinants of premature menopause among Indian women by studying the effects of various socioeconomic indicators, such as age, education, wealth index, rural-urban settlement, work status, religion, and caste, on women. The study analyzed the National Family Health Survey-3, which is equivalent to the Demographic Health Survey in India. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to tease out the determinants of premature menopause. Results indicate that the percentage of premature menopause is very high (5.5 percent) among Indian women. Among Indian states, Andhra Pradesh women have the highest percentage of premature menopause (14.6 percent). Smoking and the nutritional status of women are strongly associated with early menopause. Furthermore, women living in rural areas and using tobacco are at a greater risk of premature menopause. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
... recipient for housing for non low-income Indian families and model activities? 1000.108 Section 1000.108... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.108 How is HUD approval obtained by a.... Assistance to non low-income Indian families must be in accordance with § 1000.110. Proposals may be...
Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit
Aim To measure the prevalence of self-reported morbidity and its associated factors among adults (aged ⩾15 years) in a select rural Indian population. Self-reporting of smoking has been validated as population-based surveys using self-reported data provide reasonably consistent estimates of smoking prevalence, and are generally considered to be sufficiently accurate for tracking the general pattern of morbidity associated with tobacco use in populations. However, to gauge the true disease burden using self-reported morbidity data requires cautious interpretation. During 2010-2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted under the banner of the Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Birbhum, an initiative of the Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of West Bengal, India. With over 93.6% response rate from the population living in 12 300 households, this study uses the responses from 16 354 individuals: 8012 smokers, and 8333 smokeless tobacco users. Smokers and smokeless tobacco users were asked whether they have developed any morbidity symptoms due to smoking, or smokeless tobacco use. Bivariate, as well as multivariate logistic regression analyses were deployed to attain the study objective. Findings Over 20% of smokers and over 9% of smokeless tobacco users reported any morbidity. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated using logistic regression shows that women are less likely to report any morbidity attributable to smoking (OR: 0.69; CI: 0.54-0.87), and more likely to report any morbidity due to smokeless tobacco use (OR: 1.68; CI: 1.36-2.09). Non-Hindus have higher odds, whereas the wealthiest respondents have lower odds of reporting any morbidity. With a culturally appropriate intervention to change behaviour, youth (both men and women) could be targeted with comprehensive tobacco cessation assistance programmes. A focussed intervention could be designed for unprocessed tobacco users to curb hazardous effects of
Sarker, P C
This paper is based on data taken from the study entitled Social Structure and Fertility Behavior in a Rural Community of Bangladesh. The field-work was carried out during 1985-86 in Kamnagar, a village in the north-eastern corner of Rajshahi metropolitan city, with a total population of 884. 54.4% of the villagers had no education. Basic information was collected from every household by questionnaires interviewing the head of the household. In the 2nd phase questionnaires were administered to 140 eligible husbands and 140 wives separately to collect information on fertility behavior. 56.8% of the families were nuclear. 12.1% of the families were supplementary nuclear, with parents and their unmarried children including 1 or more additional members. 24.9% of the families were joint, in which related males belonging to 2 or 3 generations lived together with their dependents. 6.2% of the families were extended. As far as the authority structure was concerned, 68.1% of the families were patriarchal, 9.9% of the families were matriarchal, and 22% of the families were egalitarian. The egalitarian authority system is increasing with the spread of female literacy, economic activities outside the home, and women's mobility. Couples in nuclear families are more free to decide on the number of children, birth spacing, and adoption of contraception than those in joint, extended, and supplementary nuclear families with patriarchal and matriarchal authority structures. In nuclear families with an egalitarian authority structure, husband-wife communication can help decide about the number of children wanted, the acceptance of contraceptives, and child spacing. Nuclear families favor lower fertility than supplementary nuclear, joint, and extended families with a patriarchal or matriarchal authority structure. The number of traditional joint and extended families is on the decline with the trend to nuclear families as a result of the increasing landlessness in rural Bangladesh
Hustedde, Carol; Paladine, Heather; Wendling, Andrea; Prasad, Rupa; Sola, Orlando; Bjorkman, Sarah; Phillips, Julie
The USA needs more rural physicians. Although women represent half of all US trained medical students, the rural physician workforce has remained predominantly male. Insight is needed into what makes rural practice attractive for women and which practice characteristics allow women physicians to practice successfully in rural areas. This study's purpose was to examine aspects of the practice environment that impact women physicians' professional satisfaction and commitment to rural medicine. Twenty-five women family physicians practicing in rural areas of the USA were interviewed by phone using a semi-structured format. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using an immersion and crystallization approach. Emergent themes were identified, coded, and discussed until team consensus was attained. Interviews continued until saturation of themes was reached. Three themes emerged from the data, in relationship to practice and employment attributes that contribute to US women physicians' professional satisfaction and willingness to remain in a rural setting: professional relationships, practice characteristics, and support during times of transition. Participants placed high importance on professional relationships, both within and outside of their rural practice. Rural women physicians enjoyed practicing an expanded scope of care, valued loan repayment opportunities, and appreciated supportive practice partners. Importantly, women physicians who found themselves struggling to maintain rural careers often had experienced difficulty during times of practice transition, including maternity leaves. Understanding practice attributes valued by successful rural women family physicians in the USA will help rural health systems, practices, and physicians-in-training to develop and evaluate opportunities that will best contribute to successful rural practice. Supporting women physicians during periods of practice transition may improve retention.
Jiang, Chunhong; Ma, Jingdong; Zhang, Xiang; Luo, Wujin
As the world's largest developing country, China has entered into the epidemiological phase characterized by high life expectancy and high morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and malignant tumors have become the leading causes of death since the 1990s. Constant payments for maintaining the health status of a family member who has chronic diseases could exhaust household resources, undermining fiscal support for other necessities and eventually resulting in poverty. The purpose of this study is to probe to what degree health expenditure for chronic diseases can impoverish rural families and whether the New Cooperative Medical Scheme can effectively protect families with chronic patients against catastrophic health expenditures. We used data from the 4th National Health Services Survey conducted in July 2008 in China. The rural sample we included in the analysis comprised 39,054 households. We used both households suffering from medical impoverishment and households with catastrophic health expenditures to compare the financial protection for families having a chronic patient with different insurance coverage statuses. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the impact of different benefit packages on health financial protection for families having a chronic patient. An additional 10.53% of the families with a chronic patient were impoverished because of healthcare expenditure, which is more than twice the proportion in families without a chronic patient. There is a higher catastrophic health expenditure incidence in the families with a chronic patient. The results of logistic regression show that simply adding extra benefits did not reduce the financial risks. There is a lack of effective financial protection for healthcare expenditures for families with a chronic patient in rural China, even though there is a high coverage rate with the New Cooperative Medical Schemes. Given the
Kelly, Kimberly M.; Love, Margaret M.; Pearce, Kevin A.; Porter, Kyle; Barron, Mary A.; Andrykowski, Michael
Context: Challenges to the identification of hereditary cancer in primary care may be more pronounced in rural Appalachia, a medically underserved region. Purpose: To examine primary care physicians' identification of hereditary cancers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was mailed to family physicians in the midwestern and southeastern United…
Jahns, Lisa; McDonald, Leander R; Wadsworth, Ann; Morin, Charles; Liu, Yan
The objective of the present study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among American Indian adults living on a rural, U.S. Northern Plains reservation using the nominal group technique (NGT). NGT is a method of data generation and interpretation that combines aspects of qualitative (free generation of responses) and quantitative (systematic ranking of responses) methodologies. Adults participated in one of two NGT sessions asking about either barriers to (n = 6), or facilitators of (n = 5), being physically active. Participants nominated and ranked 21 barriers and 18 facilitators. Barriers indicated lack of knowledge of how to fit physical activity into a daily schedule, work, caring for family members, and prioritizing sedentary pursuits. Other responses included environmental barriers such as lack of access and transportation to a gym, unsafe walking conditions, and inclement weather. Facilitators to following recommendations included knowledge of health benefits of physical activity and the perception of physical activity as enjoyable, including feeling good when working out. Environmental facilitators included being outdoors walking and biking as well as parks and exercise facilities. Responses provided direction for locally designed community-based programs to promote facilitators and decrease barriers to individual's engagement in physical activity.
Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M.; McDonell, James R.
This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents’ reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. PMID:27106255
Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M; McDonell, James R
This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents' reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Fernandes, Gisele Cristina Manfrini; Boehs, Astrid Eggert; Denham, Sharon A; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves; Martini, Jussara Gue
Natural disasters affect populations in various parts of the world. The impacts of disasters can cause many problems to the health of people and disruption to family life, potentially leading to an unexpected transition. The objective of this paper is to present the unexpected transitional experiences of rural families following a natural disaster. A multiple case study of six families was conducted with children and adolescents in a rural area affected by a 2008 disaster in southern Brazil. For data collection, we used participant observation, narrative interviews, genograms, ecomaps and an instrument called calendar routine. The analysis of the data resulted in different family interpretations about the changes resulting from the storm and compared life before and after the disaster. The loss of homes and loved ones, migration, unemployment, and losses from the farm were the main changes associated with new development tasks. The experiences of family transition after the disaster revealed that losses influenced social lives, daily routines and the preservation of cultural values.
Hearst, Mary O; Biskeborn, Kristin; Christensen, Mathew; Cushing, Carrie
To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among white and American Indian children in a predominantly rural state. Using a repeated, cross-sectional design of school children's height and weight, the study sample included 361,352 measures of children who were 5.0-19.9 years, attending school across 13 academic calendar years. Trained staff measured height, weight, and recorded gender, age, and race. Data were voluntarily reported to the State Department of Health. American Indian children consistently had higher rates of overweight and obesity compared to white children. Across the years, 16.3% of white students were overweight, whereas 19.3% of American Indian students were overweight. In addition, 14.5% of white children were obese and 25.9% of American Indian children were obese. Examining by rural versus urban schools, prevalence of overweight had been increasing among white male and female students and American Indian female students living in rural areas. Obesity is also increasing among rural white females and male and female American Indian children. The findings here suggest that although American Indian children are at higher risk, in general, compared to white children, rural populations in general are experiencing increases in childhood overweight and obesity. Targeted rural interventions beginning at an early age are necessary to improve the health of rural children, especially in American Indian communities. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Wang, Jingying; Li, Hui; Wang, Dan
This study examines the effects of family involvement on the literacy gap between rural and urban Chinese primary students via mediation analysis. Altogether, 1080 students in Grades 1, 3, and 5 were randomly sampled from three urban and three rural primary schools from Shandong and Guizhou Provinces, representing eastern and western China,…
Jackson, Jennifer A.; Smit, Ellen; Branscum, Adam; Gunter, Katherine; Harvey, Marie; Manore, Melinda M.; John, Deborah
Background. Family homes are a key setting for developing lifelong eating and physical activity habits, yet little is known about how family home nutrition and physical activity (FNPA) environments influence food insecurity (FI) and childhood obesity, particularly in rural settings. Aims. This study examined associations among FNPA, FI, and body…
Lou, Vivian W Q; Lu, Nan; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris
This study tested the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults and the mediating role of the grandparent-parent relationship in terms of grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health. Data were derived from a random sample of 1,027 adults aged 60 and older who were interviewed in the rural Chaohu region in 2009. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital in terms of relations with the first child's family on self-rated health among respondents, as well as the mediating effect of the grandparent-parent relationship. The results showed the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital on self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults. The grandparent-parent relationship had a partial mediation effect on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of respondents. Grandparent-grandchild family capital had a unique direct effect on the self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, enriching our theoretical understanding of sources of family capital and their impacts in a collectivist cultural context that emphasizes intergenerational interaction and exchange. The findings also highlighted the mediation effects of grandparent-parent relationships on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, supporting the "grandchild-as-linkage" hypothesis in understanding the social determination of self-rated health in China.
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a recipient use Indian preference or tribal preference in selecting families for housing assistance? 1000.120 Section 1000.120... AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.120 May a recipient use Indian preference...
After short-lived growth in the early 1990s, Russia’s private family farming sector has been characterized by stagnation, while ownership of former collective and state farms is increasingly concentrated in the hands of the rural elite. This accumulation turns the rural dwellers, who (formally) had
Full Text Available In China rural area, intergenerational exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring is uneven. Parents pay much more than the return they’ll get when they’re old, which mainly relates to the utilities of children. In countryside, the utilities of children (especially sons manifest in following aspects: continuing the family line, emotional comfort, laborer and supporting for old age. To some extent, these factors influence the rural intergenerational injustice respectively and together. From the prospective of trend of social and economic development, the caring of the retired will be taken by social insurance system; the intergeneration exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring will no longer be a social issue, but in the vast rural areas, the influence of traditional culture family lineage is still powerful. The need of caring of the old becomes so weak that emotional effect becomes much more urgent. The weak status of the old generation bring the fathers’ generation in a weak social status, which seriously affect the living conditions of the old generations. Therefore, when focusing the caring issue in the country, besides that we should ensure the old be cared materially, what matters most is keep the balance between the exchanging two sides
Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. © 2016 APJPH.
Kugler, Adriana D; Kumar, Santosh
Using data from nationally representative household surveys, we test whether Indian parents make trade-offs between the number of children and investments in education. To address the endogeneity due to the joint determination of quantity and quality of children, we instrument family size with the gender of the first child, which is plausibly random. Given a strong son preference in India, parents tend to have more children if the firstborn is a girl. Our instrumental variable results show that children from larger families have lower educational attainment and are less likely to be enrolled in school, with larger effects for rural, poorer, and low-caste families as well as for families with illiterate mothers.
Alizadeh, Mahasti; Jabbari Birami, Hossein; Moradi, Siavash
Introduction: Implementation of rural family physician program in Iran in 2005 has been evaluated and shown that this program has been led to some improvements in health indicators. In this study, some reproductive health (RH) indicators were compared before and after implementation of this program in rural areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: In this ecologic- time trend study, the data of 191075 births of rural women of East Azerbaijan from 2001 to 2010 was extracted from vital horoscope (ZIJ) and used for calculation of 20 important RH indicators. The paired t-test and correlation analysis wear used for data analysis. Results: Some indicators such as adolescent marriage rate, adolescent birth and over 35 year olds birth rate were increased after rural family physician program implementation in 2005. Also stillbirth rate and unsafe delivery were decreased during this period. There was a significant correlation between increasing adolescent birth rate and increasing low birth weight deliveries (r= 0.911, P= 0.031) and also between increasing over 35 year olds birth rate and increasing neonatal mortality rate in term of prematurity and congenital malformations (r= 0.912, P= 0.031) after program implementation. Conclusion: Perinatal care and safe delivery even for pregnancies outside the typical child-bearing ages are promoting after implementation of rural family physician program in East Azerbaijan. Also decreasing unsafe delivery and stillbirth rate can be considered as achievements of running this program in this province. PMID:26744731
Full Text Available Introduction: Implementation of rural family physician program in Iran in 2005 has been evaluated and shown that this program has been led to some improvements in health indicators. In this study, some reproductive health (RH indicators were compared before and after implementation of this program in rural areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: In this ecologic- time trend study, the data of 191075 births of rural women of East Azerbaijan from 2001 to 2010 was extracted from vital horoscope (ZIJ and used for calculation of 20 important RH indicators. The paired t-test and correlation analysis wear used for data analysis. Results: Some indicators such as adolescent marriage rate, adolescent birth and over 35 year olds birth rate were increased after rural family physician program implementation in 2005. Also stillbirth rate and unsafe delivery were decreased during this period. There was a significant correlation between increasing adolescent birth rate and increasing low birth weight deliveries (r= 0.911, P= 0.031 and also between increasing over 35 year olds birth rate and increasing neonatal mortality rate in term of prematurity and congenital malformations (r= 0.912, P= 0.031 after program implementation. Conclusion: Perinatal care and safe delivery even for pregnancies outside the typical child-bearing ages are promoting after implementation of rural family physician program in East Azerbaijan. Also decreasing unsafe delivery and stillbirth rate can be considered as achievements of running this program in this province.
Historically, Indian women have been denied education due to: early marriage and family responsibilities; lack of money; inadequate family attention to education; the threat education poses to Indian men; and geographical location. Indian tribes can best administer funds and programs to provide the education so necessary for Indian women. (SB)
Gisele Cristina Manfrini Fernandes
Full Text Available Abstract: Natural disasters affect populations in various parts of the world. The impacts of disasters can cause many problems to the health of people and disruption to family life, potentially leading to an unexpected transition. The objective of this paper is to present the unexpected transitional experiences of rural families following a natural disaster. A multiple case study of six families was conducted with children and adolescents in a rural area affected by a 2008 disaster in southern Brazil. For data collection, we used participant observation, narrative interviews, genograms, ecomaps and an instrument called calendar routine. The analysis of the data resulted in different family interpretations about the changes resulting from the storm and compared life before and after the disaster. The loss of homes and loved ones, migration, unemployment, and losses from the farm were the main changes associated with new development tasks. The experiences of family transition after the disaster revealed that losses influenced social lives, daily routines and the preservation of cultural values.
Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep
Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244
771 children from Baras, Rizal, and Pasay City, Philippines were studied. House interviews of mothers using precoded questionnaires were conducted and the children were given a complete physical examination. The study objectives were to compare the health and nutritional status of children in a rural and an urban area in greater Manila and to determine how family size affects the nutritional status of children 3 years and younger. The following were among the study results: 1) the weight curves of both urban and rural groups were similar until age 4-1/2 years, but beyond this age the mean weight curve of the rural group exceeded that of the urban group; 2) urban children between ages 1-5 enjoyed a height advantage; 3) there was a positive correlation between malnutrition and excessive family size; 4) the high prevalence of malnutrition among children 1-4 years of age was due to food deprivation because of poverty, parental ignorance, inappropriate folklores, oversized families, high episodes of illnesses, and inadequate medical care; and 5) dietary assessment of both groups showed the inadequacy of the quality and quantity of basic nutrients and elements needed for growth, development, and repair of tissues.
Ting, Su-Hie; Mahadhir, Mahanita
This preliminary study examines the languages used by parents with their children in Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil families to find out how the similarity or dissimilarity in parents' ethnic language influenced the choice of language transmitted to children and how far standard languages have permeated the family domain in Kuching City…
Dobe, Madhumita; Mandal, Ram Narayan; Jha, Ayan
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected villages to assess prevalence of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents, and describe the social determinants. The prevalence of adolescent GHP was 32.1% (95% CI = 27.1, 37.1). Logistic regression established 5 significant positive predictors-maternal GHP, presence of sanitary latrine, availability of soap at hand-washing locations, in-house water supply, and higher per capita income. Our research provides a scope for better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of GHP in a rural Indian setting, and may find implications in the Total Sanitation Campaign launched by Government of India.
Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the visual outcome after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study of subjects aged 40 years or more. Three thousand nine hundred and twenty-four rural subjects from 27 contiguous villages and 3850 urban subjects from five randomly selected divisions were studied. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated retinal examination. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, t test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight (216 males, 312 females, 781 eyes rural subjects (13.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI 12.4% to 14.6% and 406 (197 males, 209 females, 604 eyes urban subjects (10.5%, 95% CI 9.6-11.5% had undergone cataract surgery. Outcome of cataract surgery was defined based on visual acuity. Using best-corrected visual acuity for classification, the single most important cause for visual impairment was cystoid macular edema in the aphakic group and posterior capsule opacification in the pseudophakic group. Aphakia (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - odds ratio (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6%, visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR 6.2; 95% 4.0 to 9.8%, rural residence (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.5% and visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.5% were associated with visual impairment. The urban cataract-operated population had significantly more pseudophakics ( P < 0.001, men ( P = 0.02 and literates ( P < 0.001. In the rural group the prevalence of cataract surgery (13.5% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001 and number of people that had undergone cataract surgery within three years prior to examination ( P < 0.001 were significantly greater. In 30% of rural and 16% of urban subjects uncorrected refraction was the cause of visual impairment. Conclusions: Surgery
Kipp, Walter; Tindyebwa, Denis; Rubaale, Tom; Karamagi, Ednah; Bajenja, Ellen
We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with family caregivers of AIDS patients in three rural districts in western Uganda. They were selected from a client visitation list of the home-based care program for AIDS patients, based on volunteer participation. Family caregivers reported huge problems associated with providing the necessary psychological, social, and economic care. They also said that the physical and emotional demands of caregiving are overwhelming daily challenges. Most support to AIDS patients provided by family, friends, and the churches. The study highlights the great burden of caregivers, in sub-Saharan Africa who most often are elderly women and young girls. This study examine, the burden and related health issues of family caregivers, primarily women, for AIDS patients in Uganda. It was part of a broad research project using qualitative methods on family caregiving in the home environment in sub-Saharan Africa. As the requirements for family care giving are often overwhelming for women under the conditions as they exist in Uganda and in other developing countries, it constitutes a gender issue of great importance that has not been appreciated fully in the international literature. Family caregiving is also of international relevance, as HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic of previously unknown proportions. In many poor countries, family caregiving is the most common and often the only care that AIDS patients receive, because clinic-based care often is not available close to home or is not affordable. Therefore, family caregiver support programs to alleviate this burden are essential for all those countries where HIV/AIDS is prevalent. Family caregiver burden encompasses medical, social, and economic issues at the household level, which requires an interdisciplinary approach in order to fully understand and appreciate the different dimensions of the family caregiver burden and its negative impact on the lives of so many women in so many countries.
This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.
Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Vasudevan, Anil; Thomas, Tinku; Anand, Sonia S; Desai, Dipika; Gupta, Milan; Menezes, Gladys; Kurpad, Anura V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari
High frequency of low birth weight (LBW) is observed in rural compared with urban Indian women. Since maternal BMI is known to be associated with pregnancy outcomes, the present study aimed to investigate factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy of urban and rural South Indian women. Prospective observational cohort. A hospital-based study conducted at an urban and a rural health centre in Karnataka State. Pregnant women (n 843) aged 18-40 years recruited in early pregnancy from whom detailed sociodemographic, environmental, anthropometric and dietary intake information was collected. A high proportion of low BMI (32 v. 26 %, Pwomen were younger, had lower body weight, tended to be shorter and less educated. They lived in poor housing conditions, had less access to piped water and good sanitation, used unrefined fuel for cooking and had lower standard of living score. The age (β=0·21, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·29), education level of their spouse (β=1·36, 95 % CI 0·71, 2·71) and fat intake (β=1·24, 95 % CI 0·20, 2·28) were positively associated with BMI in urban women. Our findings indicate that risk factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy are different in rural and urban settings. It is important to study population-specific risk factors in relation to perinatal health.
De Winter, A. M.
Decision-making and family planning were studied in the rural city of Durazno, Uruguay, by means of answers to questions by both husbands and wives. A sample size of 268 couples in which at least one partner was between 21 and 50 years of age was used. Data were collected by means of a pretested and precoded interview schedule. Major conclusions…
Zhu, Yun; Yang, Jingyun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying
Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The effect of genetic variants involved in nicotine metabolism on obesity or body composition has not been well studied. Though many genetic variants have previously been associated with adiposity or body fat distribution, a single variant usually confers a minimal individual risk. The goal of this study is to evaluate the joint association of multiple variants involved in cigarette smoke or nicotine dependence with obesity-related phenotypes in American Indians. To achieve this goal, we genotyped 61 tagSNPs in seven genes encoding nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in 3,665 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Single SNP association with obesity-related traits was tested using family-based association, adjusting for traditional risk factors including smoking. Joint association of all SNPs in the seven nAChRs genes were examined by gene-family analysis based on weighted truncated product method (TPM). Multiple testing was controlled by false discovery rate (FDR). Results demonstrate that multiple SNPs showed weak individual association with one or more measures of obesity, but none survived correction for multiple testing. However, gene-family analysis revealed significant associations with waist circumference (p = 0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.0001), but not body mass index (p = 0.20) and percent body fat (p = 0.29), indicating that genetic variants are jointly associated with abdominal, but not general, obesity among American Indians. The observed combined genetic effect is independent of cigarette smoking per se. In conclusion, multiple variants in the nAChR gene family are jointly associated with abdominal obesity in American Indians, independent of general obesity and cigarette smoking per se.
Full Text Available One of the significant changes witnessed in the labour markets in India has been the entry of women IT professionals in the rapidly growing software services sector. As the women take on the role of working professional in addition to their traditional role of the homemaker, they are under great pressure to balance their work and personal lives. This study attempts to understand how work and family related factors influence the work–family balance of Indian women IT professionals. The study is based on an exploratory qualitative study of 13 women IT professionals in the software sector in Bangalore, India. The narratives reveal six major themes: familial influences on life choices; multi-role responsibilities and attempts to negotiate them; self and professional identity; work–life challenges and coping strategies; organisational policies and practices; and social support.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity among American Indian adults living on a rural, U.S. Northern Plains reservation using the nominal group technique (NGT. NGT is a method of data generation and interpretation that combines aspects of qualitative (free generation of responses and quantitative (systematic ranking of responses methodologies. Adults participated in one of two NGT sessions asking about either barriers to (n = 6, or facilitators of (n = 5, being physically active. Participants nominated and ranked 21 barriers and 18 facilitators. Barriers indicated lack of knowledge of how to fit physical activity into a daily schedule, work, caring for family members, and prioritizing sedentary pursuits. Other responses included environmental barriers such as lack of access and transportation to a gym, unsafe walking conditions, and inclement weather. Facilitators to following recommendations included knowledge of health benefits of physical activity and the perception of physical activity as enjoyable, including feeling good when working out. Environmental facilitators included being outdoors walking and biking as well as parks and exercise facilities. Responses provided direction for locally designed community-based programs to promote facilitators and decrease barriers to individual’s engagement in physical activity.
Full Text Available Introduction: Following hip fracture surgery, patients often experience multiple transitions through different care settings, with resultant challenges to the quality and continuity of patient care. Family caregivers can play a key role in these transitions, but are often poorly engaged in the process. We aimed to: (1 examine the characteristics of the family caregivers’ experience of communication and information sharing and (2 identify facilitators and barriers of effective information sharing among patients, family caregivers and health care providers.Methods: Using an ethnographic approach, we followed 11 post-surgical hip fracture patients through subsequent care transitions in rural Ontario; in-depth interviews were conducted with patients, family caregivers (n = 8 and health care providers (n = 24.Results: Priority areas for improved information sharing relate to trust and respect, involvement, and information needs and expectations; facilitators and barriers included prior health care experience, trusting relationships and the rural setting.Conclusion: As with knowledge translation, effective strategies to improve information sharing and care continuity for older patients with chronic illness may be those that involve active facilitation of an on-going partnership that respects the knowledge of all those involved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Following hip fracture surgery, patients often experience multiple transitions through different care settings, with resultant challenges to the quality and continuity of patient care. Family caregivers can play a key role in these transitions, but are often poorly engaged in the process. We aimed to: (1 examine the characteristics of the family caregivers’ experience of communication and information sharing and (2 identify facilitators and barriers of effective information sharing among patients, family caregivers and health care providers. Methods: Using an ethnographic approach, we followed 11 post-surgical hip fracture patients through subsequent care transitions in rural Ontario; in-depth interviews were conducted with patients, family caregivers (n = 8 and health care providers (n = 24. Results: Priority areas for improved information sharing relate to trust and respect, involvement, and information needs and expectations; facilitators and barriers included prior health care experience, trusting relationships and the rural setting. Conclusion: As with knowledge translation, effective strategies to improve information sharing and care continuity for older patients with chronic illness may be those that involve active facilitation of an on-going partnership that respects the knowledge of all those involved.
PROF. BARTH EKWEME
This study was conducted to provide empirical evidence of the effect of farming on the poverty status of rural farm families in Uyo, Akwa ... Reducing poverty in developing economies is a ... is one of the poorest among the poor countries of the.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1 household income; (2 family history of diabetes; (3 physical activity; (4 smoking status; (5 alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. <2000 intermediate (Rs. 2000-5000` and high (Rs. 5000-20000. Results: The prevalence rates of DM were 12.0%, 18.4% and 21.7% in low, intermediate and high social class, respectively (P < 0.001. A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]. The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016 when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087. Conclusion: An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.
Larsson, Laura S; Champine, Dorothy; Hoyt, Dee; Lin, Lillian; Salois, Emily; Silvas, Sharon; Tail, Terri Weasel; Williams, Matthew
To compare three variants of a culturally relevant and theoretically based message to determine the most influential risk-framing approach for improving intention to place dental sealants for preschool children. A convenience sample of adult, American Indian participants (n = 89) attending a community health fair were assigned to view a gain-framed, loss-framed, or mix-framed dental sealant message. We compared participants' scores on a 46-item survey to determine the relative effect of the frame assignment on seven indices of behavior change. The mean difference in participants' stage-of-change scores (x = 1.17, n = 89, SD = 1.90) demonstrated a significant improvement for all groups after watching the dental sealant message t88 = 5.81, p mix-framed message resulted in the highest scores. The gain-framed message was the least influential on four constructs. This finding is in contrast to findings that gain-framed oral health messages are most influential (Gallagher & Updegraff, 2012; O'Keefe & Jensen, 2007). Community advisory board members determined to use the mix-framed approach in an oral health social marketing campaign with a rural, American Indian audience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha
About 20% of children in the United States have been reported to live in rural communities, with child poverty rates higher and geographic isolation from resources greater than in urban communities. There have been surprisingly few studies of children living in rural communities, especially poor rural communities. The Family Life Project helped fill this gap by using an epidemiological design to recruit and study a representative sample of every baby born to a mother who resided in one of six poor rural counties over a 1-year period, oversampling for poverty and African American. 1,292 children were followed from birth to 36 months of age. This monograph described these children and used a cumulative risk model to examine the relation between social risk and children's executive functioning, language development, and behavioral competence at 36 months. Using both the Family Process Model of development and the Family Investment Model of development, observed parenting was examined over time in relation to child functioning at 36 months. Different aspects of observed parenting were examined as mediators/moderators of risk in predicting child outcomes. Results suggested that cumulative risk was important in predicting all three major domains of child outcomes and that positive and negative parenting and maternal language complexity were mediators of these relations. Maternal positive parenting was found to be a buffer for the most risky families in predicting behavioral competence. In a final model using both family process and investment measures, there was evidence of mediation but with little evidence of the specificity of parenting for particular outcomes. Discussion focused on the importance of cumulative risk and parenting in understanding child competence in rural poverty and the implications for possible intervention strategies that might be effective in maximizing the early development of these children.
Caxaj, C Susana; Gill, Navjot K
Belonging is linked to a variety of positive health outcomes. Yet this relationship is not well understood, particularly among rural immigrant diasporas. In this article, we explore the experiences of community belonging and wellbeing among a rural Indian-Canadian diaspora in the Interior of British Columbia, Canada, our central research questions being, "What are the experiences of belonging in this community? How does a sense of belonging (or lack of) shape mental health and wellbeing among local residents?" Using a situational analysis research approach, our findings indicate that local residents must navigate several tensions within an overarching reality of finding a space of our own. Such tensions reveal contradictory experiences of tight-knitedness, context-informed notions of cultural continuity, access/acceptability barriers, particularly in relation to rural agricultural living, and competing expectations of "small town" life. Such tensions can begin to be addressed through creative service provision, collaborative decision making, and diversity-informed program planning.
Fauk, Nelsensius Klau; Mwakinyali, Silivano Edson; Putra, Sukma; Mwanri, Lillian
The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them. This study employed a qualitative method for data collection (one-on-one in-depth interviews). The respondents included 12 male and 8 female heads of families that provide essential care for AIDS-orphaned children in Mbeya Rural District in Tanzania. The framework approach was used to analyse the data that were collected from 15 July to 15 August 2010. The study findings revealed that adoptive families faced several challenges including financial constraints due to increased needs for basic essentials such as health care expenses, school fees and food. Further impacts on adoptive families included shortage of work opportunities and limited time to address these challenges. To mitigate these challenges, adoptive families employed a range of coping strategies including selling family assets and renting out parts of cultivable land for extra cash. Task reallocation which involved the AIDS-orphaned children entering the labour force was also employed as a strategy to mitigate challenges and involved de-enrolling of children from schools so they could take part in income-generating activities in order to earn supplementary family income. The creation of additional income-generating activities such as poultry farming were other coping mechanisms employed, and these received support from both non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governmental organisations, including the Isangati Agricultural Development Organization (local
Etokidem, A J; Ndifon, W; Etowa, J; Asuquo, E F
Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the seventh most populous in the world. Despite a high fertility rate of 5.5 per woman and a high population growth rate of 3.2%, Nigeria's contraceptive prevalence is 15%, which is one of the lowest in the world. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of family planning and family planning preferences and practices of rural community women in Cross River State of Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving 291 rural women. Convenience sampling method was used. The women were assembled in a hall and a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to every consenting woman until the sample size was attained. Data obtained from the study were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 and presented in tables as frequencies and percentages as well as figures. Association between categorical variables was explored using chi-square test. Binary logistic regression was also performed to determine predictors of use of at least one family planning method at some point in time. Fifty (17.2%) respondents were using at least one family planning method. One hundred and ninety-eight (68.3%) respondents had used at least one family planning method at some point in time. Reasons given for not using any family planning method included "Family planning is against my religious beliefs" (56%); "it is against our culture" (43.8%); "I need more children" (64.9%); "my partner would not agree" (35.3%); "family planning does not work" (42.9%); "it reduces sexual enjoyment" (76%); and "it promotes unfaithfulness/infidelity" (59%). Binary logistic regression conducted to predict the use of at least one family planning method at some point in time using some independent variables showed that who makes the decision regarding family planning use was the strongest predictor of family planning use (OR = 0.567; 95% CI = 0.391-0.821). This suggests that family planning uptake is more
A questionnaire was used to discover what 350 rural Tswanas believed the ideal number of children to be; results were tabulated according to age and sex. It appears· that older people tend to want more children and, more surprisingly, that men and women agree on the ideal number of children in a family; this is contrary to ...
Avery, Daniel M., Jr.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; McKnight, Jerry T.; Ballard, Brent G.; Chen, Jia
Purpose: The Rural Medical Scholars Program (RMSP) was created to increase production of rural family physicians in Alabama. Literature review reveals reasons medical students choose careers in family medicine, and these reasons can be categorized into domains that medical schools can address through admission, curriculum, and structural…
Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Pollard, Megan; Morrison, Megan; Coombs-Thorne, Heidi; Dubrowski, Adam
To examine perceived communication barriers between urban consultants and rural family physicians practising routine and emergency care in remote subarctic Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through exploratory surveys, comprised of closed and open-ended questions. The quantitative data was analysed using comparative statistical analyses, and a thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. 52 self-identified rural family physicians and 23 urban consultants were recruited via email. Rural participants were also recruited at the Family Medicine Rural Preceptor meetings in St John's, NL. Rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL completed a survey assessing perceived barriers to effective communication. Data confirmed that both groups perceived communication difficulties with one another; with 23.1% rural and 27.8% urban, rating the difficulties as frequent (p=0.935); 71.2% rural and 72.2% urban as sometimes (p=0.825); 5.8% rural and 0% urban acknowledged never perceiving difficulties (p=0.714). Overall, 87.1% of participants indicated that perceived communication difficulties impacted patient care. Primary trends that emerged as perceived barriers for rural physicians were time constraints and misunderstanding of site limitations. Urban consultants' perceived barriers were inadequate patient information and lack of native language skills. Barriers to effective communication are perceived between rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Abhisek Kumar Tripathi
The rural market in Indian economy can be classified under two broad categories. These are the market for consumer goods that comprise of both durable and non-durable goods and the market for agricultural inputs that include fertilizers, pesticides, seeds Key words: rural marketing, marketing, challenges in rural marketing, rural marketing environment
Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. S.1214 to Establish Standards for the Placement of Indian Children in Foster or Adoptive Homes, to Prevent the Breakup of Indian Families, and for Other Purposes. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs and Public Lands of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session (February 9 and March 9, 1978).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.
Testimonies were heard by the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs and Public Lands in reference to the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, which establishes standards for the placement of Indian children in foster or adoptive homes to prevent the breakup of Indian families. Representatives from the following organizations testified: Administration for…
Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund
Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical.......001). A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk......AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban...
Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John
The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.
Vlasova, N.V.; Rozhko, A.V.; Stavrov, V.V.
Full text: Despite correct evaluation of agricultural land contamination of a settlement and the activity of foodstuffs, it is impossible to explain dose formation in rural community. And without this knowledge it is impossible to estimate correctly decision-making. The dose formation research was provided earlier in rural community based on the concept describing that the individual with his personal characteristics, social and economic statuses during his practical activity interacting with the contaminated environment, actively contributes to dose formation. Such approach only partly allows revealing dose formation mechanisms though there are some unclear issues: for example, high doses at some children. At the same time children, as well as all residents are the members of families. Direct consumption of food stuffs is provided within a family. It is preceded with the formation of psycho-emotional perception of radiation danger factor. There have been used the data of internal doses of the inhabitants obtained by the results of WBC-measurements. Simultaneously with performing of WBC measurements by interviewing of adult members of a family there was revealed the frequency of visits to forest and consumption rate of its 'gifts'. The method of a family analysis of internal dose formation is the classification of families by set of the informative attributes describing dose formation in a family such as an average internal dose at a member of a family; family total dose; the description of a family 'contact' with a forest; the number of family members; the number of children in a family; average age and the educational level of adult members of a family; gender and occupation of the head of a family; age and education of the head of a family. As a result of multivariate classification of families in the settlement there was obtained 10 different classes providing complete imagination about a variety of families' types. The average doses in classes essentially
... reservations and in rural communities, mostly in the western United States and Alaska. The American Indian and ... Office of Finance and Accounting - 10E54 Office of Human Resources - 11E53A Office of Information Technology - 07E57B Office of ...
This paper analyzes the effects of family decisions and individual decisions on rural-urban migration in India under 2 different rural institutions--family farm and wage labor systems. An analytical framework for explaining family migration decisions reveals that whenever a member of the extended family migrates, he gives up his share in the produce of the family farm. When this happens, the number of adult members on the farm goes down and the total product is affected. 3 case studies of Indian villages are analyzed for this study. 2 empirical relations are examined: 1) if individual migration decisions are predominant, and 2) if family decisions are important in determining the overall flow of migration. Relationships between migration decisions and other variables, such as: 1) number of males in urban areas; 2) urban wages; 3) daily wage rate; 4) average agricultural income; 5) railway distance between rural and urban areas; 6) size of the labor market in destination region; 7) probability that a migrant arriving in an urban area will find a job; and 8) comsumption expenditure, in urban areas estimated by working class consumer price index, are determined. Results show that: 1) the market determined wage variable does not play a very significant role in migration decisions; 2) distance is one of the most important variables in analyzing migration; and 3) the aggregate flow of migration is affected if migration decisions are predominantly family decisions. These findings have relevant policy implications for less developed countries (LDCs), especially because large flows of rural-urban migration in recent years have forced governments to adopt policies for controlling the flows to reduce the burden of unemployment in the urban areas. Government policies affecting rural institutions will have an impact on migration flow; those that lead to a reduction of uncertainty in agriculture will affect average per-capita consumption levels in family farms and hence
Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita
A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.
Wen, Ming; Lin, Danhua
Using recent cross-sectional data of rural children aged from 8 to 18 in Hunan Province of China, this article examines psychological, behavioral, and educational outcomes and the psychosocial contexts of these outcomes among children left behind by one or both of their rural-to-urban migrant parents compared to those living in nonmigrant families. The results showed that left-behind children were disadvantaged in health behavior and school engagement but not in perceived satisfaction. The child's psychosocial environment, captured by family socioeconomic status, socializing processes, peer and school support, and psychological traits, were associated with, to varying extent, child developmental outcomes in rural China. These influences largely remain constant for the sampled children regardless of their parents' migrant status. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Since 2001 the World Health Organization Europe's family health nurse (FHN) role has been developing in remote and rural areas of Scotland. In 2003, an independent evaluation identified a need for facilitation of the FHN role and family-health orientated approaches with local primary health care teams. The Scottish Executive Health Department appointed three part-time, regionally-based family health practice development facilitators (FHPDFs) in December 2003 to work over an 18-month period. This article presents findings from a small study which sought these FHPDFs' judgements on individual FHN autonomy and supportive colleague action at 24 sites where FHNs were practising. These judgements reveal a picture of mixed progress that is consistent with findings from other related research. This collective overview is presented in the form of a new typology and the resultant implications for future development of family health nursing are discussed.
Home; Journals; Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series. F FAMILY. Articles written in Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series. Volume 1 Issue 1 December 2017 pp 221-224 Proceedings of the Conference on Perspectives in Nonlinear Dynamics - 2016. Transport in ratchets with single-file constraint.
Full Text Available Inherited channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from dysfunction of ion channels in cellular membranes. They may manifest as diseases affecting skeletal muscle contraction, the conduction system of the heart, nervous system function, and vision syndromes. We describe a family of South Indian descent with hypokalemic periodic paralysis in which four members also have idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a genetically heterogeneous channelopathy that has been linked to mutations in genes encoding three ion channels CACNIAS, SCN4A, and KCNJ2 predominantly. Although data on specific gene in idiopathic generalized epilepsy is relatively scarce, mutations of voltage gated sodium channel subunit genes (CACNB4 and nonsense mutations in voltage gated calcium channels (CACNA1A have been linked to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in two families. We speculate that gene mutations altering the ability of the beta subunit to interact with the alpha subunit of the CaV1.1 channel and mutations in the pore-forming potassium channel subunit may be possible explanations for the combined manifestation of both diseases. Functional analysis of voltage gated calcium channel and other ion channels mutations may provide additional support and insight for the causal role of these mutations. The understanding of mutations in ion-channel genes will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of such inherited channelopathies.
Centre for Rural and Cryogenic Technologies, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India; Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India; Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of ...
References contained in this bibliography focus on rural regional development in India during the past fifteen years. They include works on administration, administrative law, agriculture, business, community development, decision making, demography, development indicators, development planning, economic development, economic policy, education, employment and labor utilization, energy, family planning, finance and taxation, geography, health, housing, human settlements, income distribution, industry, institutional development, intergovernmental relations, land reform, location and space economy, migration, models, national planning, plan implementation, planning and programming techniques, politics and government, popular participation, population policy, poverty, project and program evaluation, public works, reference works, regional analysis, regional development, regional planning, rural development, science and technology, social communication, social development, social integration and welfare, social policy, socioeconomic diagnosis, subregional planning, systems approach, tourism and recreation, training techniques, and utilities. The information sources are primarilly Indian, but a few significant documents of foreign imprints have also been included. All documents referred to are in English and include reference works, government publications, scholarly works (monographs), conference proceedings, and periodical articles.
Teufel, Nicolette I; Perry, Cheryl L; Story, Mary; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Levin, Sarah; Clay, Theresa E; Davis, Sally M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Altaha, Jackie; Pablo, Juanita L
The goal of the feasibility phase of the Pathways family intervention was to work with families of third-grade American Indian children to reinforce health behaviors being promoted by the curriculum, food service, and physical activity components of this school-based obesity prevention intervention. Family behaviors regarding food choices and physical activity were identified and ranked according to priority by using formative assessment and a literature review of school-based programs that included a family component. The family intervention involved 3 primary strategies designed to create an informed home environment supportive of behavioral change: 1) giving the children “family packs” containing worksheets, interactive assignments, healthful snacks, and low-fat tips and recipes to take home to share with their families; 2) implementing family events at the school to provide a fun atmosphere in which health education concepts could be introduced and reinforced; and 3) forming school-based family advisory councils composed of family members and community volunteers who provided feedback on Pathways strategies, helped negotiate barriers, and explored ideas for continued family participation. For strategy 2, a kick-off Family Fun Night provided a series of learning booths that presented the healthful behaviors taught by Pathways. At an end-of-year Family Celebration, a healthy meal was served, students demonstrated newly learned Pathways activities, and certificates were presented in recognition of completion of the Pathways curriculum. Based on evaluation forms and attendance rosters, strategies 1 and 2 were more easily implemented and better received than strategy 3. Implications for developing family involvement strategies for intervention programs are discussed. PMID:10195606
M C Abdulla
Full Text Available Muckle - Wells syndrome (MWS is a rare autosomal dominant disease that belongs to a group of hereditary periodic fever syndromes. It is part of the wider spectrum of the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS which has only rarely been described in non-Caucasian individuals. It is characterized by recurrent self-limiting episodes of fever, urticaria, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis from childhood. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss and amyloidosis are two late complications. MWS is caused by gain of function mutations in the NLRP3 gene, which encodes cryopyrin, a protein involved in regulating the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We report two patients with MWS in an Indian family associated with the p.D303N mutation in the NLRP3 gene. These findings promote awareness of these hereditary periodic fever syndromes as a cause for recurrent fevers from childhood in the Indian population.
Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Shanthi Rani, Coimbatore Subramanian; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Sudha, Vasudevan; Divya Nair, Haridas; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Subhashini, Sivasankaran; Binu, Valsalakumari Sreekumarannair; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Mohan, Viswanathan
There are few data on the incidence rates of diabetes and prediabetes (dysglycemia) in Asian Indians. This article presents the incidence of diabetes and prediabetes and the predictors of progression in a population-based Asian Indian cohort. Data on progression to diabetes and prediabetes from 1,376 individuals, a subset of 2,207 of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) cohort (phase 3) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes at baseline, who were followed for a median of 9.1 years (11,629 person-years), are presented. During follow-up, 534 died and 1,077 with NGT and 299 with prediabetes at baseline were reinvestigated in a 10-year follow-up study. Diabetes and prediabetes were diagnosed based on the American Diabetes Association criteria. Incidence rates were calculated and predictors of progression to prediabetes and/or diabetes were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. The incidence rates of diabetes, prediabetes, and "any dysglycemia" were 22.2, 29.5, and 51.7 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Among those with NGT, 19.4% converted to diabetes and 25.7% to prediabetes, giving an overall conversion rate to dysglycemia of 45.1%. Among those with prediabetes, 58.9% converted to diabetes. Predictors of progression to dysglycemia were advancing age, family history of diabetes, 2-h plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), low HDL cholesterol, and physical inactivity. Asian Indians have one of the highest incidence rates of diabetes, with rapid conversion from normoglycemia to dysglycemia. Public health interventions should target modifiable risk factors to slow down the diabetes epidemic in this population. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
R. Vidya Bharathi
Major conclusions: Family history was found to have a strong association in incidence and manifestation of the disorder. Stress was found to set off the symptoms pertaining to PCOS. We also noticed that the awareness, among the rural population especially, was very minimum and thus they were not oblivious of diagnosis.
M. Mala; Dr. G. Vasanthi
Financial inclusion means connecting all individuals, who are in the remote rural areas, to a well-functioning financial system. During post liberalization period the Indian post offices are providing banking services to the all section of people of the society since 1882. Indian post served Indian villagers as banker much before financial inclusion become buzzword and Indian post claims to be the pioneer of financial inclusion in India. The paper aims to focus on utilizing the India Post Off...
Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo
Many studies have identified urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk. Hypothetical underlying cause(s) may include toxic exposures, diet, infections, and selective migration. The authors investigated whether the underlying cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences were rooted...... evaluated whether the nearest older sibling's place of birth had an independent effect on schizophrenia risk. If the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences are rooted in individuals only, the nearest older sibling's place of birth should have no independent effect. In this analysis....... Some of the cause(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk are rooted in families, but some might also be rooted in individuals....
Ramanathan, Subha; Crocker, Peter R E
In this study we explored the role of personal, familial, and cultural attitudes and social norms for physical activity (PA) on actual PA behavior among female adolescents of the Indian diaspora. Six girls, 15 to 19 years of age, from a spiritual center participated in interviews and a focus group. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were high in familism, and felt that PA was important for physical and mental health, and to strengthen relationships with family. Fathers and brothers were considered most influential on PA patterns. Differentiated gender roles in PA emerged: boys were deemed more aggressive and competitive, and girls were perceived to promote fun-based learning environments. The importance of religion and spirituality as influences on PA emerged among participants with strong affinities for Indian cultures. Results show that cultural heritage impacts PA norms, attitudes, and patterns, and must be considered when evaluating adolescent PA participation in multicultural societies.
Hirchak, Katherine A; Murphy, Sean M
Opioid misuse is a large public health problem in the United States. Residents of rural areas and American Indian (AI) reservation/trust lands represent traditionally underserved populations with regard to substance-use disorder therapy. Assess differences in the number of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) facilities and physicians with Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) waivers for rural versus urban, and AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land areas in Washington State. The unit of analysis was the ZIP code. The dependent variables were the number of OAT facilities and DATA-waivered physicians in a region per 10,000 residents aged 18-64 in a ZIP code. A region was defined as a ZIP code and its contiguous ZIP codes. The independent variables were binary measures of whether a ZIP code was classified as rural versus urban, or AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land. Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions with robust standard errors were estimated. The number of OAT clinics in a region per 10,000 ZIP-code residents was significantly lower in rural versus urban areas (P = .002). This did not differ significantly between AI reservation/trust land and non-AI reservation/trust land areas (P = .79). DATA-waivered physicians in a region per 10,000 ZIP-code residents was not significantly different between rural and urban (P = .08), or AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land areas (P = .21). It appears that the potential for Washington State residents of rural and AI reservation areas to receive OAT is similar to that of residents outside of those areas; however, difficulties in accessing therapy may remain, highlighting the importance of expanding health care insurance and providing support for DATA-waivered physicians. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.
Mittal, Srabani; Das, Samiran
Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS), measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children's exposure to SHS at home. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7%) was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Women's initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.
Full Text Available Context: Since the home is the primary source of exposure of children to second-hand smoke (SHS, measures to restrict smoking at home should be introduced to protect children from its adverse health consequences. Aims: Objectives of the study were to assess the level of awareness of rural Indian women on the health impacts of SHS on children and to look into the strategies they used to reduce children′s exposure to SHS at home. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 438 rural women using a survey questionnaire. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on specific health effects of SHS on children, and attitude toward having a smoke-free home were collected. The perceived reasons that made it difficult to have smoke-free homes were also explored. Results: A total of 75.8% of women agreed that SHS was a serious health risk for children. Knowledge on health impacts of SHS on children identified asthma as the most common problem. Smoking by husbands (89.7% was the major source of exposure to SHS at home. While 67.6% of women reported having taken measures to limit SHS exposure in their homes, only 12.8% of them had tried to introduce a complete ban on smoking at home. On a five-point evaluation scale, 73.3% of the women indicated a failure of their initiatives to have smoke-free homes. Conclusions: Women′s initiatives to introduce restrictions on smoking at home had very limited success and did not produce an appreciable change in smoking behavior at home. Lack of empowerment of women in rural India probably rendered the interventional measures ineffective.
Research has identified the lack of acceptance of a two-child-family norm as the biggest obstacle to achieving replacement-level fertility in Egypt. This analysis examines norms about desired family size for 1,366 males and 1,367 females aged 15-24 in 2004 in rural Minya governorate. Two-level random-effects multivariate logistic regression models, stratified by sex and grouped by neighborhood, are used to assess normative influence at the household and neighborhood levels, controlling for individual- and household-level covariates. In the final model, young males in neighborhoods where more people desire a small family are 33 percent more likely to desire a small family than are young males in other neighborhoods. Young females in households with one or more adults preferring a small family are 78 percent more likely to desire a small family, and young females in households with one or more young people who prefer a small family are 37 percent more likely to desire a small family themselves, compared with those living with adults or with young people, respectively, who do not prefer a small family. Programs aiming to reduce fertility should be aware of gender differences in the sources of normative influence on desired family size.
To identify the impact of family life on the ways women practice rural medicine and the changes needed to attract women to rural practice. Census of women rural doctors in Victoria in 2000, using a self-completed postal survey. General and specialist practice. Two hundred and seventy-one female general practitioners and 31 female specialists practising in Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area Classifications 3-7. General practitioners are those doctors with a primary medical degree and without additional specialist qualifications. Interaction of hours and type of work with family responsibilities. Generalist and specialist women rural doctors carry the main responsibility for family care. This is reflected in the number of hours they work in clinical and non-clinical professional practice, availability for on-call and hospital work, and preference for the responsibilities of practice partnership or the flexibility of salaried positions. Most of the doctors had established a satisfactory balance between work and family responsibilities, although a substantial number were overworked in order to provide an income for their families or meet the needs of their communities. Thirty-six percent of female rural general practitioners and 56% of female rural specialists preferred to work fewer hours. Female general practitioners with responsibility for children were more than twice as likely as female general practitioners without children to be in a salaried position and less likely to be a practice partner. The changes needed to attract and retain women in rural practice include a place for everyone in the doctor's family, flexible practice structures, mentoring by women doctors and financial and personal recognition. Women make up less than a quarter of the rural general practice workforce and an even smaller percentage of the specialist rural medical workforce. As a result their experiences are not well articulated in research on rural medical practice and their needs are
Hande, H. Harish
The following thesis presents the concept of a Rural Energy Service Company in India, known as SELCO. The model is being set up as a sustainable proposition for the implementation of solar photovoltaics as a viable alternative to provide reliable home lighting in the rural areas of India. The SELCO approach has already achieved noteworthy social and commercial results. Institutional, policy and operational problems have long plagued the rural electrification programs in India, resulting in thousands of villages without access to electricity. SELCO is a solar energy service company operating in Southern India since 1995, focusing on the enormous untapped market for home lighting where thousands of households have no access to electricity and severe power shortages face those already connected to the electric grid. The Company has installed nearly 2,000 solar home lighting systems. From a modest two employees company in 1995, it has grown to 35 in 1997 and from one office to eight. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is that in rural India, in a market not subsidized by the government, a solar service company with available loans from local banks and cooperatives and with sales, installation, and maintenance personnel in the villages can be successful in introducing photovoltaic systems to provide basic amenities such as lighting and water pumping for the improvement of the quality of life, public health, and the environment. The initial success of SELCO lends considerable evidence to the acceptance of the hypothesis. To accomplish its mission, SELCO works with commercial, retail, and rural development banks with large rural branch networks to stimulate loans to SELCO's customers based on a standard set of attractive financing terms. SELCO through its successful model has convinced the policy makers that a way to increase rural families' access to consumer financing for solar home lighting systems is through the existing financial network available in the
Taylor, A E; Sandeep, M N; Janipalli, C S; Giambartolomei, C; Evans, D M; Kranthi Kumar, M V; Vinay, D G; Smitha, P; Gupta, V; Aruna, M; Kinra, S; Sullivan, R M; Bowen, L; Timpson, N J; Davey Smith, G; Dudbridge, F; Prabhakaran, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Reddy, K S; Ebrahim, S; Chandak, G R
Few studies have investigated the association between genetic variation and obesity traits in Indian populations or the role of environmental factors as modifiers of these relationships. In the context of rapid urbanisation, resulting in significant lifestyle changes, understanding the aetiology of obesity is important. We investigated associations of FTO and MC4R variants with obesity traits in 3390 sibling pairs from four Indian cities, most of whom were discordant for current dwelling (rural or urban). The FTO variant rs9939609 predicted increased weight (0.09 Z-scores, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.15) and BMI (0.08 Z-scores, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14). The MC4R variant rs17782313 was weakly associated with weight and hip circumference (P < .05). There was some indication that the association between FTO and weight was stronger in urban than that in rural dwellers (P for interaction = .03), but no evidence for effect modification by diet or physical activity. Further studies are needed to investigate ways in which urban environment may modify genetic risk of obesity.
A. E. Taylor
Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the association between genetic variation and obesity traits in Indian populations or the role of environmental factors as modifiers of these relationships. In the context of rapid urbanisation, resulting in significant lifestyle changes, understanding the aetiology of obesity is important. We investigated associations of FTO and MC4R variants with obesity traits in 3390 sibling pairs from four Indian cities, most of whom were discordant for current dwelling (rural or urban. The FTO variant rs9939609 predicted increased weight (0.09 Z-scores, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.15 and BMI (0.08 Z-scores, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.14. The MC4R variant rs17782313 was weakly associated with weight and hip circumference (P<.05. There was some indication that the association between FTO and weight was stronger in urban than that in rural dwellers (P for interaction = .03, but no evidence for effect modification by diet or physical activity. Further studies are needed to investigate ways in which urban environment may modify genetic risk of obesity.
Kano, Miria; Silva-Bañuelos, Alma Rosa; Sturm, Robert; Willging, Cathleen E
Individuals among gender/sexual minorities share experiences of stigma and discrimination, yet have distinctive health care needs influenced by ethnic/racial minority and rural realities. We collected qualitative data from lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) and queer persons across the largely rural, multicultural state of New Mexico, particularly those from understudied ethnic groups, regarding factors facilitating or impeding patient-centered primary care. The themes identified formed the basis for a statewide summit on LGBT health care guidelines and strategies for decreasing treatment gaps. Three to 15 individuals, ages 18 to 75 years, volunteered for 1 of 4 town hall dialogues (n = 32), and 175 people took part in the summit. Participants acknowledged health care gaps pertinent to LGBT youth, elders, American Indians, and Latinos/Latinas, expressing specific concern for rural residents. This preliminary research emphasizes the need to improve primary care practices that treat rural and ethnic-minority LGBT people and offers patient-driven recommendations to enhance care delivery while clinic-level transformations are implemented. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Hannum, Emily; Kong, Peggy; Zhang, Yuping
In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of 9-12-year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected 7 years later. We complement our main analysis with two illustrative case studies of rural families drawn from 11 months of fieldwork conducted in rural Gansu between 2003 and 2005 by the second author.In 2000, most mothers expressed egalitarian views about girls' and boys' rights and abilities, in the abstract. However, the vast majority of mothers still expected to rely on sons for old-age support, and nearly one in five mothers interviewed agreed with the traditional saying, "Sending girls to school is useless since they will get married and leave home." Compared to boys, girls faced somewhat lower (though still very high) maternal educational expectations and a greater likelihood of being called on for household chores than boys. However, there was little evidence of a gender gap in economic investments in education. Girls rivaled or outperformed boys in academic performance and engagement. Seven years later, boys had attained just about a third of a year more schooling than girls-a quite modest advantage that could not be fully explained by early parental attitudes and investments, or student performance or engagement. Fieldwork confirmed that parents of sons and daughters tended to have high aspirations for their children. Parents sometimes viewed boys as having greater aptitude, but tended to view girls as having more
Nduwimana, Estella; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Ng, Lauren C; Kirk, Catherine M; Bizimana, Justin I; Betancourt, Theresa S
Fostering children is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but few studies examine these children's mental health needs. This study investigated the impact of living in a foster family on the mental health of HIV-positive, HIV-affected and HIV-unaffected children (n = 681 aged 10-17) in rural Rwanda. Regression analyses assessed the impact of living in a foster family on mental health, parenting, and daily hardships; multiple mediation analyses assessed whether family factors mediated the association between foster status and mental health. HIV-positive children were eight times more likely to live in foster families than HIV-unaffected children. Being HIV-affected was predictive of depression and irritability symptoms after controlling for family factors. Controlling for HIV-status, foster children had more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and irritability than non-fostered children. Positive parenting fully mediated the association between foster status and mental health. Mental health and parenting interventions for foster children and HIV-affected children may improve child outcomes.
Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille
Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....
Kapoor, Saketh; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Taly, Arun B; Sinha, Sanjib; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Rani, S Vasantha; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Kumar, Arun
Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects of the eye, skin, and hair. It is caused by mutations in one of the following genes: PAX3 (paired box 3), MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), EDN3 (endothelin 3), SNAI2 (snail homolog 2, Drosophila) and SOX10 (SRY-box containing gene 10). Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic causes of WS and DMD in an Indian family with two patients: one affected with WS and DMD, and another one affected with only WS. Blood samples were collected from individuals for genomic DNA isolation. To determine the linkage of this family to the eight known WS loci, microsatellite markers were selected from the candidate regions and used to genotype the family. Exon-specific intronic primers for EDN3 were used to amplify and sequence DNA samples from affected individuals to detect mutations. A mutation in DMD was identified by multiplex PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method using exon-specific probes. Pedigree analysis suggested segregation of WS as an autosomal recessive trait in the family. Haplotype analysis suggested linkage of the family to the WS4B (EDN3) locus. DNA sequencing identified a novel missense mutation p.T98M in EDN3. A deletion mutation was identified in DMD. This study reports a novel missense mutation in EDN3 and a deletion mutation in DMD in the same Indian family. The present study will be helpful in genetic diagnosis of this family and increases the mutation spectrum of EDN3.
RANJIT SINGH GHUMAN
Full Text Available The paper highlights a case study of a rural girls college located in a remote village of Gurdaspur district in Indian Punjab. The idea of this unique college was conceptualised by one Baba Aya Singh, a social and religious activist, from a village near the college way back in 1925. It was really a revolutionary idea because female education in India, particularly higher education, was a distant dream at that time. The college was, however, started with only 14 rural girls after about half-a-century when the great visionary Baba Aya Singh had a dream to educate the rural girls. Access to and affordability of higher education is the uniqueness of this college. The student has to pay only Rs. 5800 (about US $ 65 per annum, which includes both the tuition fee and boarding and lodging. It is equally significant to note that the entire expenses of the college are met by this and the produce of agricultural land of the college. The college does not take any outside help. The meritorious senior class students teach the junior class students. The college in its own humble, but significant, way made a revolutionary contribution to the education of poor rural girls who, otherwise, would not have dreamt of college education. Apart from, class-room teaching and bookish knowledge, the students are taught social, ethical and management skills in a most natural manner. The product of the college has proved to be the agents of change and rural transformation.
Whitley, Heather P.
Purpose: To quantify the monetary value of medications provided to rural Alabamians through provision of pharmaceutical manufacturer-sponsored prescription assistance programs (PAPs) provided by a clinical pharmacist in a private Black Belt family medicine clinic during 2007 and 2008. Methods: Patients struggling to afford prescription medications…
India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family
Chen, Feinian; Korinek, Kim
This article investigates the effect of family life course transitions on labor allocation strategies in rural Chinese households. We highlight three types of economic activity that involve reallocation of household labor oriented toward a more diversified, nonfarm rural economy: involvement in wage employment, household entrepreneurship, and/or multiple activities that span economic sectors. With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997, 2000, and 2004), our longitudinal analyses of rural household economic activity point to the significance of household demography, life course transitions, and local economic structures as factors facilitating household labor reallocation. First, as expected, a relatively youthful household structure is conducive to innovative economic behavior. Second, household entrances and exits are significant, but their impacts are not equal. Life events such as births, deaths, marriage, or leaving home for school or employment affect household economy in distinctive ways. Finally, the reallocations of household labor undertaken by households are shaped by local economic structures: in particular, the extent of village-level entrepreneurial activity, off-farm employment, and out-migration.
North, Kari E; Howard, Barbara V; Welty, Thomas K; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Yeh, J L; Fabsitz, Richard R; Roman, Mary J; MacCluer, Jean W
The aims of the Strong Heart Family Study are to clarify the genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in American Indians and to map and identify genes for CVD susceptibility. The authors describe the design of the Strong Heart Family Study (conducted between 1998 and 1999) and evaluate the heritabilities of CVD risk factors in American Indians from this study. In the first phase of the study, approximately 950 individuals, aged 18 years or more, in 32 extended families, were examined. The examination consisted of a personal interview, physical examination, laboratory tests, and an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries. The phenotypes measured during the physical examination included anthropometry, lipoproteins, blood pressure, glycemic status, and clotting factors. Heritabilities for CVD risk factor phenotypes were estimated using a variance component approach and the program SOLAR. After accounting for the effects of covariates, the authors detected significant heritabilities for many CVD risk factor phenotypes (e.g., high density lipoprotein cholesterol (heritability = 0.50) and diastolic blood pressure (heritability = 0.34)). These results suggest that heredity explains a substantial proportion of the variability of CVD risk factors and that these heritabilities are large enough to warrant a search for major risk factor genes.
Juliana Correa Bernardes
Full Text Available Through contemporary analysis, it was noted that the countryside of São Paulo experienced drastic transformation and demanded rural family farmers to adapt themselves to technological innovations, where the most striking is the use of the internet in search of information to the sustainable development of rural property. The research adopted a methodological way of exploratory, through the case study, which analyzed the general objective the dissemination and usability of information and communication technologies in rural areas in the interior of forms-based applied to farmers in the family farms belonging to theAssociation of banana growers of Tupã. In seeking to achieve this goal, reflected on the use of internet in rural areas and measured-factors that enhance digital communication barriers in rural addressing the digital divide becomes a limiting factor to access. In this sense, the rural communication emerges as relational link mediating solutions and incorporating the diffusion of innovations in the pursuit of digital literacy of farmers contributing to the democratization of society in the information age.
Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.
Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…
Sileo, Katelyn M; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Kiene, Susan M
Uganda has one of the highest unmet needs for family planning globally, which is associated with negative health outcomes for women and population-level public health implications. The present cross-sectional study identified factors influencing family planning service uptake and contraceptive use among postpartum women in rural Uganda. Participants were 258 women who attended antenatal care at a rural Ugandan hospital. We used logistic regression models in SPSS to identify determinants of family planning service uptake and contraceptive use postpartum. Statistically significant predictors of uptake of family planning services included: education (AOR = 3.03, 95 % CI 1.57-5.83), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 7.15, 95 % CI 1.58-32.37), partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.36-2.37), and perceived need of contraceptives (AOR = 2.57, 95 % CI 1.09-6.08). Statistically significant predictors of contraceptive use since delivery included: education (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.05-3.95), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 10.79, 95 % CI 1.40-83.06), and partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.34-2.44). Education, partner communication, and perceived need of family planning are key determinants of postpartum family planning service uptake and contraceptive use, and should be considered in antenatal and postnatal family planning counseling.
Jammeh, Sulayman S S; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lee-Hsieh, Jane
Family planning services have been free of charge and available in all the health facilities in the Gambia since 1975 yet contraceptive prevalence is only 17.5% and even 6% in some areas. Since the last census in 2003, there existed no available data on married couples' contraception status. To explore married couples' family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices in rural and urban Gambia and to analyze what factors may affect such knowledge, attitudes and practices. Quantitative cross-sectional study design was used. Through convenience sampling, 176 men and 235 women representing a total of 176 couples participated. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The mean scores of the married couples family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices were 19.00 ± 6.11(ranging from 0 to 64), 6.90 ± 3.08 (0 to 14) and 4.69 ± 3.3 (0 to 19) respectively. Urban residents had higher scores on family planning practice than rural residents (pfamily planning knowledge, attitude and practice in Gambia", as well as suggesting broader health intervention programs in health education and promotion.
Background: Recruitment and retention of medical staff are important issues in rural ... was to describe and understand the perceptions of women doctors working in ... the environment and security, and that the proximity of home and work gives a .... Black. White. Indian. White. White. White. White. Black. Indian. White. White.
Goodluck, Charlotte Tsoi
This training manual demonstrates the utilization of two family assessment tools with American Indian rehabilitation clients. The manual begins with an overview of general systems theory, family systems theory, and family assessment theory. The genogram is then defined as a type of family tree covering at least three generations, offering a map of…
Suk, Min Hyun; Oh, Won-Oak; Im, YeoJin
With the recent growth of multicultural families in the Korean society, the importance of the role of qualified visiting nurses in the delivery of culturally sensitive health care has grown dramatically. As the primary health care provider for multicultural families enrolled in public community-based health care centers, the cultural competence of visiting nurses is an essential qualification for the provision of quality health care for multicultural families, especially in rural areas. Cultural competence of visiting nurses is based on their cultural awareness and empathetic attitude toward multicultural families. This study aimed to examine the levels of cultural competence, empowerment, and empathy in visiting nurses, and to verify the factors that affect the cultural competence of visiting nurses working with rural multicultural families in South Korea. Employing a cross-sectional descriptive study design, data from 143 visiting nurses working in rural areas were obtained. Data collection took place between November 2011 and August 2012. The measurement tools included the modified Korean version of the Cultural Awareness Scale, the Text of Items Measuring Empowerment, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index to measure the level of empathy of visiting nurses. Analyses included descriptive statistics, a t-test, an ANOVA, a Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, and a multiple linear regression analysis. The cultural competence score of the visiting nurses was 3.07 on a 5-point Likert scale (SD = 0.30). The multiple regression analysis revealed that the cultural competence of visiting nurses was significantly influenced by experience of cultural education, empathy, and scores on the meaning subscale of the empowerment tool (R 2 = 10.2%). Institutional support to enhance visiting nurses' empowerment by assuring the significance of their job and specific strategies to enhance their empathy would be helpful to improve the cultural competence of visiting
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important duties of a family physician is to provide primary health care. This is completely considered in the Family Physician Program for a target population. The aim of this study was to systematically review the Family Physician and Referral System strength and weakness in rural area of Iran. Methods: In this systematic review, Scientific Information Database (SID, Science Direct, and PubMed databases were searched and Google search engine was employed using key words such as family medicine, family physician, and referral system for the period of January 2005 to June 2013, both in English and Persian. For identifying duplicated references, Endnote Software was used and for summarizing results of fully assessed articles extraction table was employed. Results: Strengths and weaknesses of Family Physician Program and referral system in rural areas of Iran were extracted from 28 studies. In total, 115 weaknesses (3.96 per study and 103 strengths (3.55 per study were obtained. Content analysis was used and 218 items were summarized into 29 items. Strengths of Family Physician Program were: access of villagers to health services, filling health document for clients, improving services for pregnant mothers, and family planning; while its obvious weaknesses included repeated unnecessary referral of clients as well as lack of providing job stability. Conclusion: Results of studies conducted in Iran showed that Family Physician and Referral System in rural area of Iran could not be successful enough and has many shortcomings. Therefore, a growing body of effective changes must be made for a better performance and to obtain better outcomes.
Wulifan, Joseph K; Jahn, Albrecht; Hien, Hervé; Ilboudo, Patrick Christian; Meda, Nicolas; Robyn, Paul Jacob; Saidou Hamadou, T; Haidara, Ousmane; De Allegri, Manuela
Unmet need for family planning has implications for women and their families, such as unsafe abortion, physical abuse, and poor maternal health. Contraceptive knowledge has increased across low-income settings, yet unmet need remains high with little information on the factors explaining it. This study assessed factors associated with unmet need among pregnant women in rural Burkina Faso. We collected data on pregnant women through a population-based survey conducted in 24 rural districts between October 2013 and March 2014. Multivariate multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between unmet need for family planning and a selection of relevant demand- and supply-side factors. Of the 1309 pregnant women covered in the survey, 239 (18.26%) reported experiencing unmet need for family planning. Pregnant women with more than three living children [OR = 1.80; 95% CI (1.11-2.91)], those with a child younger than 1 year [OR = 1.75; 95% CI (1.04-2.97)], pregnant women whose partners disapproves contraceptive use [OR = 1.51; 95% CI (1.03-2.21)] and women who desired fewer children compared to their partners preferred number of children [OR = 1.907; 95% CI (1.361-2.672)] were significantly more likely to experience unmet need for family planning, while health staff training in family planning logistics management (OR = 0.46; 95% CI (0.24-0.73)] was associated with a lower probability of experiencing unmet need for family planning. Findings suggest the need to strengthen family planning interventions in Burkina Faso to ensure greater uptake of contraceptive use and thus reduce unmet need for family planning.
An Examination of the Mediating Effect of Acculturation on the Relationship between Parenting Style, Academic Experience, and Resilience among Second and Third Generations West Indian College Students and Their Families
Greene, Makeda Jacqueline
With the increase of West Indian families of African descent acculturating into new communities and cultivating spaces for their cultures and customs to flourish, there is an increased significance for continued quantitative analyses to examine the cultural patterns, values and practices that take place within the West Indian familial structures…
Flávio Sacco dos Anjos
Full Text Available The article is based on qualitative research carried out in the southern extreme of the Rio Grande do Sul state and explores the transformations on the practices of self-consumption production in the context of familiar agriculture, essentially, under the impacts of the process of commoditization of agriculture and the rural life. The self-consumption practices present a cultural matrix among rural families, in spite of the symbolic value attributed to products generated within the very rural establishment, as compared to the ones which are acquired externally in usual commerce or from other units of production. The field-work was performed within thirty family agricultural establishments whose main commercial activity lies on the milk, peach and tobacco production. The authors discuss the impacts of the commoditization of agriculture on the practical of self-consumption production.
Full Text Available Biswajit Chakrabarti1, Sabita Purkait2, Punyabrata Gun2, Vicky C Moore3, Samadrita Choudhuri4, MJ Zaman5,6, Christopher J Warburton1, Peter MA Calverley7, Rahul Mukherjee3 1Aintree Chest Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK; 2Moitri Swasthya Kendra, Shramajibi Swasthya Udyog, Chengail, West Bengal, India; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine and Physiology, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK; 4National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal; 5Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College, London, UK; 6The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia; 7Clinical Sciences Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK Purpose: Respiratory conditions remain a source of morbidity globally. As such, this study aimed to explore factors associated with the development of airflow obstruction (AFO in a rural Indian setting and, using spirometry, study whether underweight is linked to AFO. Methods: Patients > 35 years old attending a rural clinic in West Bengal, India, took a structured questionnaire, had their body mass index (BMI measured, and had spirometry performed by an ancillary health care worker. Results: In total, 416 patients completed the study; spirometry was acceptable for analysis of forced expiratory volume in 1 second in 286 cases (69%; 16% were noted to exhibit AFO. Factors associated with AFO were: increasing age (95% confidence interval (CI 0.004–0.011; P = 0.005, smoking history (95% CI 0.07–0.174; P = 0.006, male gender (95% CI 0.19–0.47; P = 0.012, reduced BMI (95% CI 0.19–0.65; P = 0.02, and occupation (95% CI 0.12–0.84; P = 0.08. The mean BMI in males who currently smoked (n = 60; 19.29 kg/m2; standard deviation [SD] 3.46 was significantly lower than in male never smokers (n = 33; 21.15 kg/m2 SD 3.38; P < 0.001. AFO was observed in 27% of subjects with a BMI <18.5 kg/m2, falling to 13% with a BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 (P = 0.013. AFO was observed in 11% of housewives, 22% of farm
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of Public awareness on AIDS in a rural community and to what extent the government and non-government agencies have played their role in creating the awareness? Objectives: (i To study the public awareness on AIDS in a rural community (ii To Study role of government and non-government agencies in creating the awareness on AIDS. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Rural area under S. V. Medical College Triputi (AP Participants: 100 males (15-45 yrs and 100 females (15-45 yrs. Study variables: Awareness on AIDS, Government and non-government agencies. Statistical Analysis: Percentages Results: Most of the persons interviewed had minimal knowledge on AIDS. Quite a large section of the â€˜ study population was ignorant over the safety offered by condoms in preventing AIDS. Doordarshan and Newspaper agencies played much role in creation the awareness on AIDS, while the non-government agencies like Lionsâ€ Club, Rotary Club. Indian Junior Chamber etc. played no role in creating the awareness on AIDS in the study area. Recommendations: Government health sector should take more responsibility in educating the people and creating adequate awareness on AIDS. Non-government agencies should involve themselves in creating awareness on AIDS.
Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R
Beliefs about the causation of schizophrenia could influence the attitudes patients' families adopt towards the patient and may also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Indian families have been typically described as often believing in causes like supernatural forces and therefore seeking help from magico-religious healers. In the changing mental health scenario in India, this impression needs verification. Key relatives living with 254 chronic schizophrenia patients were interviewed and asked to name the causes they believed were behind the illness. A list of possible causes was provided for the families to select from, and relatives were also encouraged to mention other possible causes, not featured in the list. The possible causes identified and the factors related to attributions made were analysed. A supernatural cause was named by only 12% of the families and as the only cause by 5%. Psychosocial stress was most commonly cited cause, followed by personality defect and heredity. A small number of families (14%) could not name any cause and 39% named more than one cause. Patient gender and education, duration of illness and the key relative's education and the nature of relationship were related to the type of causal attributions made. Families living with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia receiving treatment in urban India rarely subscribe to the idea of supernatural causation of the illness. The causal attributions made by them are fairly rational and understandable, given the relative lack of exposure to proper information about the illness.
Lent, Megan D; Petrovic, Lindsay E; Swanson, Josephine A; Olson, Christine M
Little is known about the causal relationship between and the mechanisms linking depression and food insecurity. Our purpose was to examine these knowledge gaps. Chi-squared analysis of longitudinal data from 29 rural upstate New York families followed for three years and qualitative analysis of interviews were used to identify associations and mechanisms. Depressive symptoms (p=.009) and poor mental health (p=.01) in mothers limited the likelihood families would leave food insecurity. This relationship was mediated through limiting the employment of adult family members and operated in three ways: preventing the depressed household member from working, preventing a different household member from working, and limiting access to childcare for depressed children so adults could work. Poor mental health is associated with keeping families food-insecure by limiting their employment. High-quality, accessible mental health care is needed for poverty-associated food insecurity to be alleviated.
In rural Australia, education beyond year 10 involves leaving home. Rural families may influence young people to stay home. Family influence and culture should not always be considered a deficit, for the family provides support when jobs are scarce. Rural families' social capital and rural resilience should be considered in developing rural school…
Ghosh, Tamal; Nath, Saswata; Chakraborty, Tanmoy
This study attempts to establish the challenges associated to solar energy scenario in rural living of south-east of Indian province namely West Bengal and to suggest an inexpensive solar artifact with an aim to cater to the areas which are scarcely electrified and primarily in countryside. Stockpile of fossil fuels are depleting and there is an urgent need of promoting renewable energy products that can pertinently be supported by this clean energy. Renewable energy is alternate source of energy or non-conventional energy such as, solar energy, water energy, wind energy, biomass and bio-gas energy, tidal energy, Geo-thermal energy, hydrogen energy. Scope of this article converges on disregarded demand scenario of rural inhabitants and fostering inexpensive appropriate solar technology based product. For subsequent investigation a critical socio-technical survey has also been conducted in the rural Sundarban area of Southern part of West Bengal, with an aim to acquire the glimpse of the presently operating government project on solar technology and to identify the demand and solar product there for.
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
Considering such factors as disruption of Indian families caused by Anglo educational programs (missionary schools, BIA boarding schools), by Indian relocation programs, and other non-Indian institutions, many of today's abusive and neglectful Indian parents were victims as children in these same institutions. The 9-page information sheet offers a…
Chang, Feng; Paramsothy, Thivaher; Roche, Matthew; Gupta, Nishi S
Aim To conduct an environmental scan of a rural primary care clinic to assess the feasibility of implementing an e-communications system between patients and clinic staff. Increasing demands on healthcare require greater efficiencies in communications and services, particularly in rural areas. E-communications may improve clinic efficiency and delivery of healthcare but raises concerns about patient privacy and data security. We conducted an environmental scan at one family health team clinic, a high-volume interdisciplinary primary care practice in rural southwestern Ontario, Canada, to determine the feasibility of implementing an e-communications system between its patients and staff. A total of 28 qualitative interviews were conducted (with six physicians, four phone nurses, four physicians' nurses, five receptionists, one business office attendant, five patients, and three pharmacists who provide care to the clinic's patients) along with quantitative surveys of 131 clinic patients. Findings Patients reported using the internet regularly for multiple purposes. Patients indicated they would use email to communicate with their family doctor for prescription refills (65% of respondents), appointment booking (63%), obtaining lab results (60%), and education (50%). Clinic staff expressed concerns about patient confidentiality and data security, the timeliness, complexity and responsibility of responses, and increased workload. Clinic staff members are willing to use an e-communications system but clear guidelines are needed for successful adoption and to maintain privacy of patient health data. E-communications might improve access to and quality of care in rural primary care practices.
Hirchak, Katherine A.; Murphy, Sean M.
Background Opioid misuse is a large public health problem in the United States. Residents of rural areas and American Indian (AI) reservation/trust lands represent traditionally underserved populations with regard to substance-use-disorder therapy. Purpose Assess differences in the number of opioid agonist therapy (OAT) facilities and physicians with Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) waivers for rural versus urban, and AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land areas in Washington State. Methods The unit of analysis was the zip code. The dependent variables were the number of OAT facilities and DATA-waivered physicians in a region per 10,000 residents aged 18–64 in a zip code. A region was defined as a zip code and its contiguous zip codes. The independent variables were binary measures of whether a zip code was classified as rural versus urban, or AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land. Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions with robust standard errors were estimated. Results The number of OAT clinics in a region per 10,000 zip-code residents was significantly lower in rural versus urban areas (P = .002). This did not differ significantly between AI reservation/trust land and non-AI reservation/trust land areas (P = .79). DATA-waivered physicians in a region per 10,000 zip-code residents was not significantly different between rural and urban (P = .08), or AI reservation/trust land versus non-AI reservation/trust land areas (P = .21). Conclusions It appears that the potential for Washington State residents of rural and AI reservation areas to receive OAT is similar to that of residents outside of those areas; however, difficulties in accessing therapy may remain, highlighting the importance of expanding health care insurance and providing support for DATA-waivered physicians. PMID:26987797
Previous research on digital storytelling (DST) has focused chiefly on children and youth, but we know little about how it is used in non-formal adult education. This article analyzes a DST class in rural Ireland, which was organized by a family literacy program and offered for parents at an elementary school. Data sources included fieldnotes,…
Nuño, Tomas; Gerald, Joe K; Harris, Robin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco
Rural Hispanic and American Indian (AI) women are at risk of non-participation in cancer screening programs. The objective of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States to their urban counterparts and to assess characteristics that influence cancer screening. This study utilizes Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2006 to 2008 for Arizona and New Mexico. The BRFSS is a federally funded telephone survey to collect data on risk factors contributing to the leading causes of death and chronic diseases. Rural Hispanic and AI populations reported some differences in screening rates compared with their urban counterparts. Among Hispanic women, 58 % of rural residents reported having had a mammogram within the past year, compared with 66 % of urban residents. Among AI women, 81 % of rural residents had ever had a mammogram, compared with 89 % of urban residents. Rural AI women were less likely to have ever had a mammogram (OR = 0.5; 95 % CI = 0.3-0.9) compared with urban AI women. Rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a mammogram within 1 year (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.5-0.9) compared with urban Hispanic women. Results suggest that rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a Pap smear within 3 years (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.4-1.3) compared with urban Hispanic women. Our results provide some evidence that Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening use compared with their urban counterparts. Special efforts are needed to identify ways to overcome barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for rural Hispanic and AI women.
Full Text Available Tadpoles of the monotypic Indian dancing frog family Micrixalidae have remained obscure for over 125 years. Here we report the discovery of the elusive tadpoles of Micrixalus herrei from the sand beds of a forested stream in southern Western Ghats, and confirm their identity through DNA barcoding. These actively burrowing tadpoles lead an entirely fossorial life from eggs to late metamorphic stages. We describe their internal and external morphological characters while highlighting the following features: eel-like appearance, extensively muscularized body and tail, reduced tail fins, skin-covered eyes, delayed development of eye pigmentation in early pre-metamorphic stages (Gosner stages 25-29, prominent tubular sinistral spiracle, large transverse processes on vertebrae II and III, ankylosed ribs on transverse processes of vertebra II, notochord terminating before the atlantal cotyle-occipital condyle junction, absence of keratodonts, serrated well-formed jaw sheaths, and extensive calcified endolymphatic sacs reaching sacrum posteriorly. The tadpole gut contains mostly fine sediments and sand. We discuss the eel-like morphology and feeding habits of M. herrei in the context of convergence with other well-known fossorial tadpoles. This discovery builds the knowledge base for further comparative analyses and conservation of Micrixalus, an ancient and endemic lineage of Indian frogs.
Huber, Douglas; Saeedi, Nika; Samadi, Abdul Khalil
Afghan women have one of the world's highest lifetime risks of maternal death. Years of conflict have devastated the country's health infrastructure. Total fertility was one of the world's highest, contraceptive use was low and there were no Afghan models of success for family planning. We worked closely with communities, providing information about the safety and non-harmful side-effects of contraceptives and improving access to injectable contraceptives, pills and condoms. Regular interaction with community leaders, mullahs (religious leaders), clinicians, community health workers and couples led to culturally acceptable innovations. A positive view of birth spacing was created by the messages that contraceptive use is 300 times safer than pregnancy in Afghanistan and that the Quran (the holy book of Islam) promotes two years of breastfeeding. Community health workers initiated the use of injectable contraceptives for the first time. The non-for-profit organization, Management Sciences for Health, Afghan nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Public Health implemented the Accelerating Contraceptive Use project in three rural areas with different ethnic populations. The contraceptive prevalence rate increased by 24-27% in 8 months in the project areas. Men supported modern contraceptives once they understood contraceptive safety, effectiveness and non-harmful side-effects. Injectable contraceptives contributed most to increases in contraceptive use. Community health workers can rapidly increase contraceptive use in rural areas when given responsibility and guidance. Project innovations were adopted as best practices for national scale-up.
Rourke, James; Asghari, Shabnam; Hurley, Oliver; Ravalia, Mohamed; Jong, Michael; Graham, Wendy; Parsons, Wanda; Duggan, Norah; O'Keefe, Danielle; Moffatt, Scott; Stringer, Katherine; Sturge Sparkes, Carolyn; Hippe, Janelle; Harris Walsh, Kristin; McKay, Donald; Samarasena, Asoka
Rural recruitment and retention of physicians is a global issue. The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada, was established as a rural-focused medical school with a social accountability mandate that aimed to meet the healthcare needs of a sparse population distributed over a large landmass as well as the needs of other rural and remote areas of Canada. This study aimed to assess whether Memorial medical degree (MD) and postgraduate (PG) programs were effective at producing physicians for their province and rural physicians for Canada compared with other Canadian medical schools. This retrospective cohort study included medical school graduates who completed their PG training between 2004 and 2013 in Canada. Practice locations of study subjects were georeferenced and assigned to three geographic classes: Large Urban; Small City/Town; and Rural. Analyses were performed at two levels. (1) Provincial level analysis compared Memorial PG graduates practicing where they received their MD and/or PG training with other medical schools who are the only medical school in their province (n=4). (2) National-level analysis compared Memorial PG graduates practicing in rural Canada with all other Canadian medical schools (n=16). Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Overall, 18 766 physicians practicing in Canada completed Canadian PG training (2004-2013), and of those, 8091 (43%) completed Family Medicine (FM) training. Of all physicians completing Canadian PG training, 1254 (7%) physicians were practicing rurally and of those, 1076 were family physicians. There were 379 Memorial PG graduates and of those, 208 (55%) completed FM training and 72 (19%) were practicing rurally, and of those practicing rurally, 56 were family physicians. At the national level, the percentage of all Memorial PG graduates (19.0%) and FM PG graduates (26.9%) practicing rurally was significantly better than the national average for PG (6.4%, p<0.000) and FM (12
Full Text Available Objective : To ascertain the perceptions and experiences of women regarding menstruation. Methods : An integrated qualitative and quantitative study on reproductive health of Indian women was conducted in two primary health centre areas of rural north India. Present article reports on the perceptions of 1205 women regarding various aspects of menstruation. Results : Major source of information about menarche/menstruation was friends/relatives (72%. Mean age at menarche was ~ 15 years. Very few women (0.4% used sanitary napkins. Majority of women had strong beliefs about effect of diet on menstruation. Most of them considered menstruation a dirty act and indulged in various taboo behaviours. Initial reaction was of fear/apprehension at menarche in majority of girls. Conclusion: Women in rural north India still hold tranditional beliefs regarding menstruation. Provision of a balanced and healthy family health education package to all girls is recommended.
Full Text Available In this article we aim to study how Dutch children’s individual destinies result from the complex interplay of family setting and local conditions in a rural environment. We focus on their final move from the parental home, and we will analyse not only timing and incidence of leaving, but also the destinations. To do this, we propose a multi-level competing risk analysis of migration destinations. We focus on two groups: the children of farmers and those of rural workers. Dutch farmers and workers differ in the type of family economy in which children were integrated, and contrasting them will allow us to explain the speed, the directions, and the individual and family backgrounds of the process of leaving agriculture. We make use of the Historical Sample of the Netherlands to analyse last migrations of 8,338 children of farmers and rural workers. As we cover the entire country, we can study the full impact of regional differences on type of agriculture and inheritance, in combination with the family composition. Our results indicate significant effects of specialised versus traditional, mixed farming on the migration behaviour of farmers’ and rural workers’ children, as well as the importance of the number of siblings of the same sex and birth order. The variations in the effects of the sibship among regions with different agricultural systems demonstrate the importance of gender-specific divisions of labour on leaving home.
Full Text Available Research Questions: 1. To what extent do rural eligible couples accept the small family norm? 2. What are the factors which influence the adoption of small family norm by these couples? Objectives: 1. To determine the extent of adoption of small norm among family planning service acceptors (2 To identify factors influencing adoption of small family norm. Study Design: Cross sectional Study Setting: 2 villages- a PHC village and one 5 kms away of Block Sonarpur. Participants: 312 eligible couples of these villages. Study Variables: Socio â€" economics status, literacy of the wives, type of family, religion, number of children, type of family planning method. Outcome Variables: Prevalence of contraceptive method use, reasons for not using family planning methods. Statistical Analysis: Proportions Results : The prevalence of contraceptive use was 44.9% but the Effective Couple Protection Rate was only 20.5% and the Crude Birth Rate was still high (35/1000. This was because 40% of the couples had more then 2 children and of them 38% were still exposed to the risk of conception. Muslim couples had a lower contraceptive acceptance rate than Hindu couples. The more literate the wife, the greater the acceptance of the small family norm. Male preference pressure from elders and fear about contraception were the main reasons for non acceptance of family planning methods: The health teams were the main source of information to these couples. Recommendations: There is an urgent need to increase the emphasis on the 2 child family norm. The IEC activities of the health team should be strengthened.
Perrine, J. R.
The rural sector of the US is examined from the point of view of whether telecommunications technology can augment the development of rural education. Migratory farm workers and American Indians were the target groups which were examined as examples of groups with special needs in rural areas. The general rural population and the target groups were examined to identify problems and to ascertain specific educational needs. Educational projects utilizing telecommunications technology in target group settings were discussed. Large scale regional ATS-6 satellite-based experimental educational telecommunications projects were described. Costs and organizational factors were also examined for large scale rural telecommunications projects.
Full Text Available Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.
Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying
Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.
Buck-McFadyen, Ellen V
More than 1 in 10 Canadians experience food insecurity, and a growing number of families rely on food banks each month. This ethnographic study aimed to give voice to rural families about their experiences with food insecurity while situating the findings within the broader social, political and economic context. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with women who had children living at home, and interviewer observations within the food bank were recorded as field notes. Content analysis was combined with the constant comparison method of data analysis to identify common themes regarding the experience of living with food insecurity and the influence of public policy. Seven female participants described the emotional toll that food insecurity had on their well-being and relationships, with stress and depression common to many women. Strategies used to stretch resources included cooking from scratch, growing produce, stocking up on sale items, hunting and fishing, and paying half-bills. Many participants described going without food so that their children could eat first, and three participants went without prescription medications. Rurality and social programs were identified as both supports and barriers to overcoming food insecurity. Participants in this study were highly skilled in attempting to feed their families with limited resources, although this proved inadequate to overcome their food insecurity. This highlights the need for policy initiatives to address the root causes of food insecurity and health inequities, including access to rural employment and high-quality child care, drug benefits and guaranteed annual income programs.
Diana Milena Soler Fonseca
Full Text Available In the rural municipality of Paipa, Boyaca many families rely on cattle breeding to obtain from this activity, suficient income and resources to meet their basic needs, however little is known about the true role of this species in the nourishment safety of rural families in the municipality of Paipa in Boyacá, for that reason, this study aimed to analyze the importance of general breeding cattle in the nourishment safety of thirty peasant families in the municipality of Paipa, Boyacá and get to know the social and cultural roles that are generated by this livestock activity. The obtained result was that the cale are raised as a second choice in the pursuit of economic resources, after the birds. In cattle production an average of five animals per farm are raised, the widely used breeds are the Normando, Holstein and crosses between them; milk production dominates with an average yield of 150 liters/week per family; income and costs production depend on the number of cattle raised, the gained income is used to purchase food for home, but savings are not encouraged; the consumption of dairy products is very low and beef cattle is not consumed within the household; animals management is in charge of all family members (both genders. In general, cattle farming make interesting economic contributions to the countryside families, but these revenues are used to purchase food of high nutritional value, also a2ecting the nourishment safety of the studied families.
Mahadevan, Meena; Blair, Dorothy; Raines, Emily Rose
This study was conducted to explore the perceptions of 20 South Indian Hindu Brahmin women on the factors influencing their food habits upon immigrating to America. The competing demands of juggling a new career and managing their family's nutritional needs at the same time, all without the support of extended family members, played an important role in steering these women away from cooking traditional healthy meals, and resorting to fast foods instead. Intervention strategies should be directed toward improving the barriers to eating healthy that were specifically identified within the confines of shifting gender roles and limited family support networks.
Mutombo, Namuunda; Bakibinga, Pauline; Mukiira, Carol; Kamande, Eva
The last two decades have seen an increase in literature reporting an increase in knowledge and use of contraceptives among individuals and couples in Kenya, as in the rest of Africa, but there is a dearth of information regarding knowledge about benefits of family planning (FP) in Kenya. To assess the factors associated with knowledge about the benefits of FP for women and children, among women in rural Western Kenya. Data are drawn from the Packard Western Kenya Project Baseline Survey, which collected data from rural women (aged 15-49 years). Ordinal regression was used on 923 women to determine levels of knowledge and associated factors regarding benefits of FP. Women in rural Western Kenya have low levels of knowledge about benefits of FP and are more knowledgeable about benefits for the mother rather than for the child. Only age, spousal communication and type of contraceptive method used are significant. Women's level of knowledge about benefits of FP is quite low and may be one of the reasons why fertility is still high in Western Kenya. Therefore, FP programmes need to focus on increasing women's knowledge about the benefits of FP in this region.
Farmers or rural workers? A current social characterization of rural families of Atamisqui Department, Santiago del Estero ¿Campesinos o asalariados rurales? Una caracterización social actual de las familias rurales del Departamento de Atamisqui, Santiago del Estero
Full Text Available It is often said that Santiago del Estero concentrates a large number of farmers. In this paper, we present a first approach to the subject in order to begin to demystify the idea. To do this, we use data obtained from the Familiar Characterization Form prepared by PROINDER in 2009 - implemented by the Secretariat for Family Agriculture and Rural Development, Delegation Santiago del Estero- and interviews conducted in villages of Atamisqui department in April 2010. The form used allows us, among other things, measure the weight that have different sources of income in total household income. This, together with the evidence gathered in interviews, allows us to know how live analyzed families. It notes that the most important support comes from the seasonal employee working developed in different rural activities (though especially in the deflowering of corn and harvesting blueberries and various transfers (pensions, social benefits, remittances. These data would indicate, in this particular case, that the subject usually characterized as farmer hides, in reality, the atamisqueña rural working class.Suele afirmarse que Santiago del Estero concentra un elevado número de campesinos. En este artículo presentamos una primera aproximación al tema con el propósito de comenzar a desmitificar dicha idea. Para ello, recurrimos a datos arrojados por el Formulario de Caracterización Familiar del PROINDER, año 2009 -ejecutado desde la Subsecretaría de Desarrollo Rural y Agricultura Familiar de Santiago del Estero- y entrevistas realizadas en parajes rurales del departamento de Atamisqui en abril del 2010. El Formulario utilizado nos permite, entre otras cosas, mensurar el peso que las distintas fuentes de ingreso tienen en el total del ingreso familiar. Esto, junto a los testimonios recogidos en las entrevistas, nos permite conocer de qué viven las familias analizadas. Se observa que el sustento más importante proviene del trabajo estacional
Rasam Indian Restaurant
Rasam Indian Restaurant is located in the Glasthule, a suburb of Dublin and opened in 2003. The objective is to serve high quality, authentic Indian cuisine. "We blend, roast and grind our own spices daily to provide a flavour that is unique to Rasam. Cooking Indian food is founded upon long held family traditions. The secret is in the varying elements of heat and spices, the tandoor clay oven is a hugely important fixture in our kitchen. Marinated meats are lowered into the oven on long m...
Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study
Trappmann, Jessica L.; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Davis, Sally M.
Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian He...
John, Aesha; Bower, Kori; McCullough, Samie
Although Asian Indians constitute one of the largest immigrant groups in the USA, research examining wellbeing among Indian immigrant families caring for a child with a developmental disability is relatively scarce. In response, this study examined the stressors and perceived quality of social support among Indian immigrant families of children…
Wetherill, Marianna S; Williams, Mary B; Hartwell, Micah L; Salvatore, Alicia L; Jacob, Tvli; Cannady, Tamela K; Standridge, Joy; Fox, Jill; Spiegel, Jennifer; Anderson, Natia; Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird
In rural American Indian (AI) communities, access to affordable, healthy foods is often limited. Understanding AI food choice considerations when selecting foods, such as sensory appeal, cost, or health, is an important yet understudied topic for eliminating persistent AI health disparities. In partnership with the Chickasaw Nation and Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, we administered a modified version of the Food Choice Values (FCV) Questionnaire to a cross-sectional sample of 83 AI patrons shopping at tribally-owned convenience stores ≥3 times per week. The FCV Questionnaire uses 25 items to assess eight FCV subscales related to buying and eating food, including sensory appeal; safety; accessibility; convenience; health/weight control; organic; tradition; and comfort. We compared mean scores for each FCV subscale by demographic groups using t-tests and ANOVA. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine how well the data from this population fit FCV subscale constructs. We then used cluster analysis, MANOVA, and discriminant analysis to characterize distinct segments of the population based on patterns of FCV endorsement. Appeal, safety, and access FCVs were most strongly endorsed across the sample. Prioritization of FCVs varied by age, gender, income, and education. Our cluster analysis identified four groups, or segments, each with distinct patterns of FCV endorsement: limited endorsement of any FCVs (23.3%); safety and sensory appeal (32.9%); health/weight control (17.8%); and broad endorsement of FCVs (26.0%). These groups varied by age and employment status. Findings from this analysis informed the design and implementation of a healthy retail intervention comprised of new healthful foods and beverages, product placement and marketing strategies within four tribally-owned and operated convenience stores. Public health interventions aimed at reducing nutrition-related disparities in rural AI populations may benefit from assessing food choice
Harrison, Emmett; Dhillon, Paul B A
Rural family physicians are often required to meet a wide variety of medical service demands that are otherwise the responsibility of specialty physicians in urban centres. However, many rural physicians enjoy the practice variety and ability to meet patients' medical needs through this wider spectrum of care. We aimed to quantify and summarize the workload and clinical disorders seen by rural family physicians in Saskatchewan relative to urban family physicians. We used Saskatchewan Ministry of Health billing data for 2015/16 to compare rural and urban care provision. The data were summarized in a graphic 1-month format to portray a typical month in the life of a rural physician in the province. In the office setting, rural family physicians saw 16.8% more cardiac presentations in adults over 65 years of age than did urban family physicians; otherwise, there were no significant differences in the top office diagnosis categories seen by the 2 groups. Differences were apparent, however, in the hospital setting: urban family physicians saw more patients presenting with pain and, reflective of centralization of obstetric delivery services, performed more deliveries than did rural physicians. There are differences in the clinical presentations seen by rural and urban family physicians, and these need to be considered by new physicians considering rural practice. Our simple visual depiction of average workload, vacation and activity levels of rural physicians can further inform medical residents on the realities of working in rural Saskatchewan as a family physician. A more complete understanding of clinical workload expectations may promote recruitment of resident physicians.
Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the usefulness of the Indian diabetes risk score for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the rural area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health centers (Chunampett and Annechikuppam, Tamil Nadu, covering a population of 35000 from February to March 2008 by using a predesigned and pretested protocol to find out the prevalence and the risk of diabetes mellitus in general population by using Indian diabetes risk score. Results: 1936 respondents comprising 1167 (60.27% females and 769 (39.73% males were studied. Majority 1203 (62.50% were Hindus. 1220 (63.% had studied up to higher secondary. 1200 (62% belonged to lower and lower-middle socio-economic class. A large number of the subjects 948 (50% were below 35 years of age. Most of the respondents 1411 (73% indulged in mild to moderate physical activity. 1715 (87.91% had no family history of diabetes mellitus. 750 (39.64% individuals were in the overweight category (>25 BMI. Out of these overweight persons, 64% had high diabetic risk score. It is observed that chances of high diabetic score increase with the increase in BMI. Prevalence of diabetes in studied population was 5.99%; out of these, 56% known cases of diabetes mellitus had high (>60 IDRS. Co-relation between BMI and IDRS shows that, if BMI increases from less than 18.50 to more than 30, chances of high risk for developing diabetes mellitus also significantly increase. Conclusion: This study estimates the usefulness of simplified Indian diabetes risk score for identifying undiagnosed high risk diabetic subjects in India. This simplified diabetes risk score has categorized the risk factors based on their severity. Use of the IDRS can make mass screening for undiagnosed diabetes in India more cost effective.
Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; James, Aimee S; Brown, Travis; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Choi, Won S; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M
Screening, especially screening mammography, is vital for decreasing breast cancer incidence and mortality. Screening rates in American Indian women are low compared to other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, American Indian women are diagnosed at more advanced stages and have lower 5-year survival rate than others. To better address the screening rates of American Indian women, focus groups (N=8) were conducted with American Indian men (N=42) to explore their perceptions of breast cancer screening for American Indian women. Our intent was to understand men's support level toward screening. Using a community-based participatory approach, focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a text analysis approach developed by our team. Topics discussed included breast cancer and screening knowledge, barriers to screening, and suggestions to improve screening rates. These findings can guide strategies to improve knowledge and awareness, communication among families and health care providers, and screening rates in American Indian communities.
Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Sarvalingam, A
When ever the Planning Commission of India releases the poverty data, that data is being criticised by experts and economists. The main criticism is underestimation of poverty especially in rural India by the Planning Commission. This paper focuses on that criticism and compares the Indian Planning Commission’s 2004-05 rural poverty data with the India’s 2400 kcal poverty norms, World Bank’s US $1.08 poverty concept and Asian Development Bank’s US $1.35 poverty concept.
In India 60-70% of the population live in rural villages. The rural population suffers from a burden of disease and disorders due to the non-availability of appropriate healthcare personnel and facilities. Since 1950, the Indian Government has responded with a series of five-year plans but has been unable to address the lack of healthcare professionals prepared to work in isolated and rural areas. The use of biotelemetry is proposed as a solution, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The development of biotelemetry in India will improve healthcare for the rural and remote population and ease the effects of the shortage of rural healthcare professionals. However, a number of questions remain and require further consideration.
Larson, Nicole; Wang, Qi; Berge, Jerica M; Shanafelt, Amy; Nanney, Marilyn S
Although existing evidence links breakfast frequency to better dietary quality, little is known specifically in regard to the benefits associated with eating breakfast together with one's family. The present study describes the prevalence and experience of having family meals at breakfast among rural families and examines associations between meal frequency and adolescent diet quality. Data were drawn from Project BreakFAST, a group-randomized trial aimed at increasing school breakfast participation in rural Minnesota high schools, USA. Linear mixed models were used to examine associations between student reports of family breakfast frequency and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores while accounting for clustering within schools, demographics and household food security. Adolescent students from sixteen schools completed online surveys, height and weight measurements, and dietary recalls at baseline in 2012-2014. The sample included 827 adolescents (55·1 % girls) in grades 9-10 who reported eating breakfast on at most three days per school week. On average, adolescents reported eating breakfast with their family 1·3 (sd 1·9) times in the past week. Family breakfast meals occurred most frequently in the homes of adolescents who reported a race other than white (P=0·002) or Hispanic ethnicity (P=0·02). Family breakfast frequency was directly associated with adolescent involvement in preparing breakfast meals (Pfood patterns at breakfast. Additional research is needed to better inform and evaluate strategies.
Goodluck, Charlotte T.
The purpose of this research project was to investigate the utility of the genogram and eco-map as family assessment tools for working with American Indian vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients who are referred for rehabilitation services, and to describe changes in the family system after VR services have been delivered by evaluating information…
Heisler, Jean; Huber, Thomas; Huntington, Mark K
The healthcare workforce is a priority in South Dakota. It has been estimated that 8,000 additional healthcare workers beyond those in practice in 2010 will be needed by 2020. In 2016, the South Dakota Department of Health included in its budget funds for the development of a new Rural Family Medicine Residency Training Program as one of the steps toward addressing the physician component of these workforce needs. This new program has just received its accreditation and is recruiting the inaugural class of resident physicians for the spring of 2018. This article provides a concise overview of the program's initial development. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.
Jennings, Elyse A; Barber, Jennifer S
Large families can have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women, children, and their communities. Seventy-three percent of the individuals in our rural Nepalese sample report that two children is their ideal number, yet about half of the married women continue childbearing after their second child. Using longitudinal data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, we explore the influence of women's and neighbors' family size preferences on women's progression to high parity births, comparing this influence across two cohorts. We find that neighbors' family size preferences influence women's fertility, that older cohorts of women are more influenced by their neighbors' preferences than are younger cohorts of women, and that the influence of neighbors' preferences is independent of women's own preferences. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.
Sano, Yoshie; Richards, Leslie N.; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.
Guided by symbolic interactionism, this qualitative study based on interviews with 83 rural mothers investigated mothers' perceptions of nonresident fathers' involvement in low-income families. Contrary to some fathers' claims that mothers "gatekeep" their access to children, the majority of mothers in our study wanted increased father…
The quantity of the received calories by families is one of the important debates in public and development economic context. This is an attractive subject for government officials and policy makers in different countries. In the current paper, the impacts of households' income shocks, price and food commodity subsidies on the quantity of the received amount of calories in the rural parts of Iran are studied. For this purpose, we used time series data of 1961-2011 in the vector auto-regressive (VAR model. The results indicated that the impact period of the applied shock on the quantity of paid subsidies to agricultural sector is shorter than the period of price and income shocks. Besides, the most sensitivity of calorie demand is related to the income factor. According to the research findings, we can conclude that for creating food security, we should create economic stability in the market and consider the final effect of changes in nutrition pattern when determining the policies regarding market regulation, subsidies and taxation regardless of income growth that affect rural households and will have a serious negative impact on calories.
Adilson R. Paz Stamberg
Full Text Available This paper focuses on understanding the rationality of production management and available resources in agricultural production unit (UPA, identifying its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics in order to make a diagnosis to subsidize the rural manager in decision making.This study was part of the extension project approved in the Institutional Incentive Extension Program of the Farroupilha Federal Institute (Brazil, prioritizing as object of study a family UPA in the municipality of Santo Antônio das Missões/RS/Brazil, being conducted between October-November 2014.As methodological procedure a survey was done with qualitative and quantitative data, such as natural resources, utilized agricultural area, herd, plant, machinery and equipment, availability of labor force and yields of the various cultivation subsystems, breeding and processing. This data was organized in a spreadsheet, which identifies the adopted production system and its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics. As proposed, technical and managerial intervention in the production system, proposed strategically to enhance milk production opposed to the soybean production, considering its high contribution in relation to the value added per unit area.Key Words: Rural Administration - Production management - Systemic approach.
Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kurpas, Donata; Tsiligianni, Ioanna; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Jacquet, Jean-Pierre; Buono, Nicola; Lopez-Abuin, Jose; Lionis, Christos
Research in family medicine is a well-established entity nationally and internationally, covering all aspects of primary care including remote and isolated practices. However, due to limited capacity and resources in rural family medicine, its potential is not fully exploited yet. An idea to foster European rural primary care research by establishing a practice-based research network has been recently put forward by several members of the European Rural and Isolated Practitioners Association (EURIPA) and the European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN). Two workshops on why, and how to design a practice-based research network among rural family practices in Europe were conducted at two international meetings. This paper revisits the definition of practice-based research in family medicine, reflects on the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice, and discusses a rationale for practice-based research in rural family medicine. A SWOT analysis was used as the main tool to analyse the current situation in Europe regarding the research in rural family practice at both meetings. The key messages gained from these meetings may be employed by the Wonca Working Party on research, the International Federation of Primary Care Research Network and the EGPRN that seek to introduce a practice-based research approach. The cooperation and collaboration between EURIPA and EGPRN creates a fertile ground to discuss further the prospect of a European practice-based rural family medicine research network, and to draw on the joint experience.
Two generations of a family who lived in mid-nineteenth rural Sweden are described. Domestic violence was a common feature in the first generation family. The salient feature there was undoubtedly the incestuous father-daughter relationships. The way incest appeared in Sweden about 150 years ago, the role of local authorities, and the serious consequences to those victimized is analyzed with reference to both the cultural context of that time and to modern theories of incest. Seemingly puzzling violence committed by a second generation family member is related to the domestic violence in the previous generation. Due to the extraordinary character of the incest cases and the specific church council sessions in which the incest case was treated, aspects of family life normally hidden behind curtains of conventions were made public. Reaction patterns drawn from this case indicate a patriarchal system of oppression and badly-directed considerations.
Jayanta Kumar Rout
Full Text Available Context: For any given body mass, Asian Indians have higher central obesity than Europeans. A periodic measurement of body mass index (BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR is practically more feasible than other parameters of metabolic syndrome by repeated blood collection. However, few studies are available on the relative importance of BMI and WHR as markers of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in schizophrenia patients stabilized on second generation antipsychotics in Indian population. Aim: We conducted the present study on such patients to examine whether BMI or WHR can better predict dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in these patients in a rural area. Settings and Design: The study was a hospital based case control study under rural settings on 38 schizophrenia patients stabilized on olanzapine and 30 matched controls. Materials and Methods: Fasting concentrations of blood glucose, lipid parameters and serum insulin were assessed. Data for Homeostatic model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, BMI, and WHR were obtained to assess the insulin resistance, overall body fat distribution and abdominal fat dispensation respectively. Statistical analysis used: ′t′ test was performed to assay any difference in corresponding mean values between cases and controls. Dependence of HOMA-IR on key parameters was assessed by analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA study. Results: Cases exhibited significantly higher values for HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc with a significantly lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc level. ANCOVA study reflected that irrespective of age and sex, HOMA-IR was dependent on serum triglyceride level and WHR (F=8.3 and 5.7 respectively, P<0.05, but not on BMI (F<0.001, P=0.997. Conclusions: Central obesity could be more closely associated with the pathogenesis of prediabetic state in our case group. So, WHR is a better anthropometric parameter than BMI for an early
Full Text Available India accounts for the highest number of maternal and child deaths globally. A large body of empirical research suggests that improvement in the coverage of institutional delivery is essential to reduce the burden of maternal and child death. However the dynamics of choice of place of delivery is poorly understood. Using qualitative survey data consisting of twelve focus group discussions, conducted in a rural setting of West Bengal, India, this study aims to understand the reasons behind preferring home or institution for delivery. Findings reveal that some women who underwent an institutional delivery preferred to deliver their baby at home. On the other hand, of women who delivered their baby at home, 60% wanted to deliver their babies in institutions but could not do so, primarily due to the unwillingness of family members and misreporting of the onset of true labour pain. With the help of Accredited Social Health Activists, the village level health workers, there is need for an intervention that focuses on educating household members (essentially targeting husbands and mother-in-laws about birth preparedness, and identification of true labour pain.
GJB2 and GJB6 gene mutations found in Indian probands with congenital hearing impairment .... and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to .... Tetrasomy 18p in a male dysmorphic child in southeast Turkey.
Rainsford, Suzanne; MacLeod, Roderick D; Glasgow, Nicholas J; Wilson, Donna M; Phillips, Christine B; Wiles, Robert B
The 'good death' is one objective of palliative care, with many 'good death' viewpoints and research findings reflecting the urban voice. Rural areas are distinct and need special consideration. This scoping review identified and charted current research knowledge on the 'good' rural death through the perspectives of rural residents, including rural patients with a life-limiting illness, to identify evidence and gaps in the literature for future studies. A comprehensive literature search of English language articles (no date filter applied) was conducted in 2016 (2 January to 14 February) using five library databases. Reference lists of included articles, recent issues of eight relevant journals and three grey literature databases were also hand-searched. Twenty articles (for 17 studies and one systematic review) were identified after a two-phase screening process by two reviewers, using pre-determined inclusion criteria. Data from each study were extracted and charted, analysed using a thematic analysis of the included articles' content, and with a quantitative analysis of the scoping review. These papers revealed data collected from rural patients with a life-limiting illness and family caregivers, rural healthcare providers, the wider rural community, rural community leaders and rural health administrators and policy makers. Rural locations were heterogeneous. Residents from developed and developing countries believe a 'good death' is one that is peaceful, free of pain and without suffering; however, this is subjective and priorities are based on personal, cultural, social and religious perspectives. Currently, there is insufficient data to generalise rural residents' perspectives and what it means for them to die well. Given the extreme importance of a 'good death', there is a need for further studies to elicit rural patient and family caregiver perspectives. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Blusi, Madeleine; Asplund, Kenneth; Jong, Mats
The aim of this intervention study was to illuminate the meaning of ICT-based caregiver support as experienced by older family carers living in vast rural areas, caring for a spouse at home. In order to access, the support service participants were provided with a computer and high speed Internet in their homes. Semi structured webcam-interviews were carried out with 31 family carers. A strategy for webcam interviewing was developed to ensure quality and create a comfortable interview situation for the family carers. Interviews were analysed using content analyses, resulting in the themes: Adopting new technology with help from others and Regaining social inclusion . The results indicate that ICT-based support can be valuable for older family carers in rural areas as it contributes to improve quality in daily life in a number of ways. In order to fully experience the benefits, family carers need to be frequent users of the provided support. Adequate training and encouragement from others were essential in motivating family carers to use the support service. Access to Internet and webcamera contributed to reducing loneliness and isolation, strengthening relationships with relatives living far away and enabled access to services no longer available in the area. Use of the ICT-service had a positive influence on the relationship between the older carer and adult grandchildren. It also contributed to carer competence and promote feelings of regaining independence and a societal role.
Kalokhe, Ameeta S; Stephenson, Rob; Kelley, Mary E; Dunkle, Kristin L; Paranjape, Anuradha; Solas, Vikram; Karve, Latika; del Rio, Carlos; Sahay, Seema
The high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) among married women in India and associated negative health repercussions highlight the need for effective prevention strategies and tools to measure the efficacy of such interventions. Literature supporting differing manifestations of DV by culture underscores the need for a culturally-tailored scale to more effectively measure DV in the Indian context. We therefore aimed to develop and validate such a tool, the Indian Family Violence and Control Scale (IFVCS), through a mixed-methods study. The psychometric development of IFVCS is herein discussed. After field pre-testing and expert review, a 63-item questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 630 married women from May-July 2013 in Pune, India. The item response theory approach for binary data to explore the IFVCS structure suggested that IFVCS is reliable, with the majority of items having high (>0.5) and significant factor loadings. Concurrent validity, assessed by comparing responses to IFVCS with the validated, abridged Conflict Tactics Scale-2, was high (r = 0.899, p<0.001) as was the construct validity, demonstrated by its significant association with several established DV correlates. Therefore, initial assessment of the IFVCS psychometric properties suggests that it is an effective tool for measuring DV among married women in India and speaks to its capacity for enhancing understanding of DV epidemiology and for evaluating the effectiveness of future DV interventions.
P.A. Arora (Payal)
textabstractThe Indian healthcare sector provides ripe ground for development as access to high-quality and timely medical diagnosis remains unrequited among its vast rural populace. With an acute shortage of doctors in rural areas, medical diagnostic software has been created as a surrogate,
Hossain, Mian B
With a population of over 131 million and a fertility rate of 29.9 per 1000, population growth constitutes a primary threat to continued economic growth and development in Bangladesh. One strategy that has been used to cease further increases in fertility in Bangladesh involves using family planning outreach workers who travel throughout rural and urban areas educating women regarding contraceptive alternatives. This study uses a longitudinal database to assess the impact of family planning outreach workers' contact upon contraceptive switching and upon the risk of an unintended pregnancy. Using longitudinal data on contraceptive use from the Operations Research Project (ORP) of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B) in Bangladesh, multiple decrement life table analysis and multilevel, discrete-time competing risk hazards models were used to estimate the cumulative probabilities of switching to an alternative form of contraceptive use after a woman engaged in a discussion with an outreach worker. After controlling for the effects of socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the analysis revealed that family planning outreach workers' contact with women significantly decreases the risk of transitioning to the non-use of contraceptives. This contact also reduces the risk of an unintended pregnancy. Family planning workers' contact with women is associated with the increased risk of a woman switching from one modern method to another modern method. The study results indicate that side-effects and other method-related reasons are the two primary reasons for contraceptive discontinuation in rural Bangladesh.
Wenghofer, Elizabeth F; Hogenbirk, John C; Timony, Patrick E
The "rural pipeline" suggests that students educated in rural, or other underserviced areas, are more likely to establish practices in such locations. It is upon this concept that the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) was founded. Our analysis answers the following question: Are physicians who were educated at NOSM more likely to practice in rural and northern Ontario compared with physicians who were educated at other Canadian medical schools? We used data from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. We compared practice locations of certified Ontario family physicians who had graduated from NOSM vs. other Canadian medical schools in 2009 or later. We categorized the physicians according to where they completed their undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) training, either at NOSM or elsewhere. We used logistic regression models to determine if the location of UG and PG training was associated with rural or northern Ontario practice location. Of the 535 physicians examined, 67 had completed UG and/or PG medical education at NOSM. Over two thirds of physicians with any NOSM education were practicing in northern areas and 25.4% were practicing in rural areas of Ontario compared with those having no NOSM education, with 4.3 and 10.3% in northern and rural areas, respectively. Physicians who graduated from NOSM-UG were more likely to have practices located in rural Ontario (OR = 2.57; p = 0.014) whereas NOSM-PG physicians were more likely to have practices in northern Ontario (OR = 57.88; p education was associated with an increased likelihood of practicing in rural (NOSM-UG) and northern (NOSM-PG) Ontario.
Lalwani, A K; Attaie, A; Randolph, F T; Deshmukh, D; Wang, C; Mhatre, A; Wilcox, E
Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an autosomal-dominant neural crest cell disorder phenotypically characterized by hearing impairment and disturbance of pigmentation. A presence of dystopia canthorum is indicative of WS type 1, caused by loss of function mutation in the PAX3 gene. In contrast, type 2 WS (WS2) is characterized by normally placed medial canthi and is genetically heterogeneous; mutations in MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor) associated with WS2 have been identified in some but not all affected families. Here, we report on a three-generation Indian family with a point mutation in the MITF gene causing WS2. This mutation, initially reported in a Northern European family, creates a stop codon in exon 7 and is predicted to result in a truncated protein lacking the HLH-Zip or Zip structure necessary for normal interaction with its target DNA motif. Comparison of the phenotype between the two families demonstrates a significant difference in pigmentary disturbance of the eye. This family, with the first documented case of two unrelated WS2 families harboring identical mutations, provides additional evidence for the importance of genetic background on the clinical phenotype.
Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.
Hughes, Sheryl O; Hayes, Jenna T; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; VanBrackle, Angela
Objective To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Methods Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five states. Using previously validated instruments, means, standard deviations, and ranges for general parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices were explored. Results In general, most caregivers reported healthy feeding practices. Most caregivers scored higher on responsive compared to restrictive or permissive in general parenting. Of the sample, 12 caregivers (52.2 %) were classified in the indulgent feeding style category, 5 caregivers (21.7 %) were classified as authoritative, 5 (21.7 %) uninvolved, and 1 (4.3 %) authoritarian. Conclusions More investigations are needed to explore questions raised by this study about using common tools that measure childhood obesity with American Indian families.
Randall, Ellen; Crooks, Valorie A; Goldsmith, Laurie J
Most Canadians receive basic health services from a family physician and these physicians are particularly critical in the management of chronic disease. Canada, however, has an endemic shortage of family physicians. Physician shortages and turnover are particularly acute in rural regions, leaving their residents at risk of needing to transition between family physicians. The knowledge base about how patients manage transitioning in a climate of scarcity remains nascent. The purpose of this study is to explore the experience of transitioning for chronically ill, rurally situated Canadian women to provide insight into if and how the system supports transitioning patients and to identify opportunities for enhancing that support. Chronically ill women managing rheumatic diseases residing in two rural counties in the province of Ontario were recruited to participate in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically to identify emergent themes associated with the transitioning experience. Seventeen women participated in this study. Ten had experienced transitioning and four with long-standing family physicians anticipated doing so soon. The remaining three expressed concerns about transitioning. Thematic analysis revealed the presence of a transitioning trajectory with three phases. The detachment phase focused on activities related to the termination of a physician-patient relationship, including haphazard notification tactics and the absence of referrals to replacement physicians. For those unable to immediately find a new doctor, there was a phase of unattachment during which patients had to improvise ways to receive care from alternative providers or walk-in clinics. The final phase, attachment, was characterized by acceptance into the practice of a new family physician. Participants often found transitioning challenging, largely due to perceived gaps in support from the health care system. Barriers to a smooth transition
Full Text Available Crime in the family constitutes one of the major concerns of recent years in Albania. Violence in Albanian families remains unnoticed and is not declared by the majority of those affected. The worst is that there are deep rural areas where violence is accepted as normal within a family. Many studies have come to the conclusion that women who have higher education tend to be better prepared to cope with domestic disputes and solve the problems with communication, so are less likely to be victims of physical violence. The economic, cultural, emotional and social factors are sources that generate violence or crime within the family. The transition from a totalitarian to a democratic society brought not only functional changes, but also differences in their implementation. This was accompanied by misunderstandings of the individual crisis and human rights. This misunderstanding is often associated with deviant behavior or by criminal acts. Poverty, unemployment, jealousy, alcohol and drugs are some of the main reasons that cause domestic violence. Albania has long been considered a patriarchal society where men have more rights than women. This difference has led to a situation where husbands continue to see themselves as more superior, and tend to violate their women or children. In recent years poverty has even increased bringing domestic violence to alarming levels. But besides the major problem of growing violence within the family, the biggest problem is the failure of declaration, because of the mentality, shame, lack of trust in government bodies etc. This problem is even greater in rural areas, where there is a lack of police structures, while NGOs cannot cover the whole country. This study was concentrated in the city of Durres, where 600 surveys were undertaken to people of different ages. This paper is focused in the way of how domestic violence is seen by citizens of the city of Durres and those coming from rural areas.
Barik, Anamitra; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Chowdhury, Abhijit
To examine alcohol use and related problems among a rural subset of the Indian population. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used as part of Health and Demographic Surveillance of 36,611 individuals aged ≥18 years. From this survey data on 3671 current alcohol users were analysed using bivariate and multivariate ordered logit regression. Over 19% of males and 2.4% of females were current alcohol users. Mean ethanol consumption on a typical drinking day among males was estimated to be higher (96.3 gm) than females (56.5 gm). Mean AUDIT score was 11 among current alcohol users. AUDIT showed in the ordered logit regression estimated alcohol use-related problems to be low among women, Scheduled Tribes and unmarried people, whereas alcohol use-related problems registered high among Muslims. This rural population appears to be in need of an effective intervention program, perhaps targeting men and the household, aimed at reducing the level of alcohol use and related problems. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Radhika C G Raj
Full Text Available Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMMS is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by multiple melanocytic nevi, usually more than 50, and a family history of melanoma. It is known to be associated with carcinoma of pancreas and other malignancies involving gastrointestinal tract, breast, lung, larynx, and skin in the kindred. There is no published report of FAMMMS in dark-skinned individuals. We report a case of FAMMMS in a dark-skinned adult Indian male, who had multiple extensive nevi all over the body and oral mucosa; associated with malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (Marjolin′s ulcer, and carcinoma of pancreas. His father had died of carcinoma of lung and his sister had a partial phenotypic expression. The clinical presentation of the case is discussed with review of literature.
McGrail, Matthew R; Russell, Deborah J; O'Sullivan, Belinda G
Reduced opportunities for children's schooling and spouse's/partner's employment are identified internationally as key barriers to general practitioners (GPs) working rurally. This paper aims to measure longitudinal associations between the rurality of GP work location and having (i) school-aged children and (ii) a spouse/partner in the workforce. Participants included 4377 GPs responding to at least two consecutive annual surveys of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) national longitudinal study between 2008 and 2014. The main outcome, GP work location, was categorised by remoteness and population size. Five sequential binary school-age groupings were defined according to whether a GP had no children, only preschool children (aged 0-4 years), at least one primary-school child (aged 5-11 years), at least one child in secondary school (aged 12-18 years), and all children older than secondary school (aged ≥ 19). Partner in the workforce was defined by whether a GP had a partner who was either currently working or looking for work, or not. Separate generalised estimating equation models, which aggregated consecutive annual observations per GP, tested associations between work location and (i) educational stages and (ii) partner employment, after adjusting for key covariates. Male GPs with children in secondary school were significantly less likely to work rurally (inclusive of > 50 000 regional centres through to the smallest rural towns of locations were not significantly associated with the educational stage of their children. Having a partner in the workforce was not associated with work location for male GPs, whereas female GPs with a partner in the workforce were significantly less likely to work in smaller rural/remote communities (location is related to key family needs which differ according to GP gender and educational stages of children. Such non-professional factors are likely to be dynamic across the GP's lifespan and
Fusaro, R M; Johnson, J A
Hereditary polymorphic light eruption (HPLE) occurs unique ly in the American Indian and Inuit and exhibits autosomal dominant transmission. Because the cutaneous expression of HPLE resembles that of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) and because many non-Indians in the United States have American Indian heritage, some instances of PLE may actually be HPLE. Our purpose was to determine whether non-Indian patients with PLE have characteristics suggestive of HPLE. We surveyed in Nebraska 25 European-Caucasian and 36 African-American patients with PLE for American Indian heritage and photosensitive relatives. Nonphotosensitive subjects (52 Caucasians and 40 African Americans) were surveyed for American Indian heritage. American Indian heritage occurred in 11 Caucasian patients (44%); of those, seven (64%) had photosensitive relatives. Likewise, 29 African Americans (81%) had American Indian heritage; 19 (66%) of those had photosensitive relatives. American Indian heritage occurred in 10 Caucasian control subjects (19%) and in 34 African-American control subjects (85%). If American Indian heritage and a family history of photosensitivity are definitive for HPLE, seven (28%) of our Caucasian patients and 19 (53%) of our African-American patients have HPLE rather than PLE. We urge physicians who suspect PLE in non-Indians to ask about American Indian heritage and photosensitive relatives and to screen their present patients with PLE for such characteristics.
Kahansim, Makshwar L; Hadejia, Idris S; Sambo, Mohammed N
The total fertility rate of Nigerian women has remained high at 5.7. This is even higher for women in rural areas. Men and women in rural areas desire more children than those in urban areas. This study was aimed at describing and comparing the factors that influence family size decisions among men and women in Bokkos, a rural Local Government Area in Plateau state, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive comparative study was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Seventy two percent of women and 83.6% of men who desire to have 1-4 children had at least a secondary school education. Close to seventy percent of both men and women would have fewer children if they are certain of their survival to adulthood. Over 50% of the respondents believe that the husbands should have the final say on family size decisions. Preference for male children influences decisions on family size among men and women in the study population.
Chen, Yintao; Yu, Shasha; Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Li, Yuan; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian
In China, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing and is showing an epidemic accelerating trend. However, there is a lack of studies reporting the hypertension status of rural residents with minimum living allowances. We performed a cross-sectional study including 11,435 (5285 men and 6150 women) from the general population aged ≥35 years in the Liaoning Province of China from 2012 to 2013, of which 1258 (11.0%) participants came from minimal assurance families. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory examinations and self-reported lifestyle factor information were collected by trained personnel. Multivariate logistic regression was used to detect the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of hypertension. We found that the prevalence of hypertension was as high as 61.9% in participants from minimal assurance families and the odd ratio for hypertension was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.15-1.52). The awareness, treatment, and control rates among treated hypertensive participants did not increase with higher level of income and education. In the total sample, the lower income levels increased the risk for hypertension, but education didn't show a significant association with hypertension. Thus, there is a severe hypertension situation in the Liaoning rural population of minimal assurance families, which need more attention and prevention and control measures for hypertension.
Ameeta S Kalokhe
Full Text Available The high prevalence of domestic violence (DV among married women in India and associated negative health repercussions highlight the need for effective prevention strategies and tools to measure the efficacy of such interventions. Literature supporting differing manifestations of DV by culture underscores the need for a culturally-tailored scale to more effectively measure DV in the Indian context. We therefore aimed to develop and validate such a tool, the Indian Family Violence and Control Scale (IFVCS, through a mixed-methods study. The psychometric development of IFVCS is herein discussed. After field pre-testing and expert review, a 63-item questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 630 married women from May-July 2013 in Pune, India. The item response theory approach for binary data to explore the IFVCS structure suggested that IFVCS is reliable, with the majority of items having high (>0.5 and significant factor loadings. Concurrent validity, assessed by comparing responses to IFVCS with the validated, abridged Conflict Tactics Scale-2, was high (r = 0.899, p<0.001 as was the construct validity, demonstrated by its significant association with several established DV correlates. Therefore, initial assessment of the IFVCS psychometric properties suggests that it is an effective tool for measuring DV among married women in India and speaks to its capacity for enhancing understanding of DV epidemiology and for evaluating the effectiveness of future DV interventions.
Rasam Indian Restaurant
Rasam Indian Restaurant is located in the Glasthule, a suburb of Dublin and opened in 2003. The objective is to serve high quality, authentic Indian cuisine. "We blend, roast and grind our own spices daily to provide a flavour that is unique to Rasam. Cooking Indian food is founded upon long held family traditions. The secret is in the varying elements of heat and spices, the tandoor clay oven is a hugely important fixture in our kitchen. Marinated meats are lowered into the oven on lon...
Pember, Mary Annette
American Indian women are not strangers to leadership and power. In traditional tribal culture, women often hold positions of authority, participating in decisions affecting their families and communities. They are responsible for preserving values and culture as well as caring for their families. Many tribes use a matrilineal system in…
Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed.
Danes, Sharon M.; Garbow, Jennifer; Jokela, Becky Hagen
Study investigates distal and proximal contextual influences of the American Indian culture that affect financial decisions and behaviors. Primary household financial managers were interviewed. Study was grounded in Deacon and Firebaugh's "Family Resource Management" theory. Findings indicated that American Indians view many concepts…
Meckstroth, Alicia; Burwick, Andrew; Ponza, Michael; Marsh, Shawn; Novak, Tim; Phillips, Shannon; Diaz-Tena, Nuria; Ng, Judy
Helping low-income families in rural areas find gainful employment and achieve economic self-sufficiency is an ongoing policy concern. The Rural Welfare-to-Work Strategies demonstration is using rigorous experimental designs to build knowledge about how to help low-income families in rural areas strive toward sustained employment and…
Panwar, N.L.; Kothari, Surendra; Kaushik, S.C.
Utilisation of animal draft power in agricultural operation and milk production is highly dependent on the feed and fodder. Properly cooked feed is digestive in nature and enhance milk production. Solar energy is promising option for slow cooking. Keeping this in view a masonry animal feed solar cooker (AFSC) was developed. It helps in the number of ways to improve the living standard of rural farmers and also reduce the CO 2 emission by replacing conventional fossil fuel. The AFSC can replace the 100 per cent biomass and save about 424.80 kg of CO 2 on annual basis and save about 24 INR per day. Usually women prepare animal feed in rural areas, hence cooking with AFSC save time and this time can be spear to take care of her family or in agricultural operation. This paper presents fuel replacement and reduction of carbon dioxide on annual basis and economic evaluation of AFSC. - Highlights: ► Considerable amount of energy can be saved on annual basis. ► This also helps to save the time and money of rural farmer. ► AFSC helps to reduce the greenhouse gas.
Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.
The objectives of this study are to develop a scale of gender role ideology appropriate for assessing Quality of Care in family planning services for rural China. Literature review, focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews with service providers and clients from two counties in eastern and western China, as well as experts’ assessments, were used to develop a scale for family planning services. Psychometric methodologies were applied to samples of 601 service clients and 541 service providers from a survey in a district in central China to validate its internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity with realistic and strategic dimensions. This scale is found to be reliable and valid, and has prospects for application both academically and practically in the field. PMID:23573222
Differences in Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders Among Children Aged 2-8 Years in Rural and Urban Areas - United States, 2011-2012.
Robinson, Lara R; Holbrook, Joseph R; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Hartwig, Sophie A; Kaminski, Jennifer W; Ghandour, Reem M; Peacock, Georgina; Heggs, Akilah; Boyle, Coleen A
Mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) begin in early childhood and often affect lifelong health and well-being. Persons who live in rural areas report more health-related disparities than those in urban areas, including poorer health, more health risk behaviors, and less access to health resources. 2011-2012. The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) is a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents or guardians that collects information on noninstitutionalized children aged health and well-being, health care access, and family and community characteristics. Using data from the 2011-2012 NSCH, this report examines variations in health care, family, and community factors among children aged 2-8 years with and without MBDDs in rural and urban settings. Restricting the data to U.S. children aged 2-8 years with valid responses for child age and sex, each MBDD, and zip code resulted in an analytic sample of 34,535 children; MBDD diagnosis was determined by parent report and was not validated with health care providers or medical records. A higher percentage of all children in small rural and large rural areas compared with all children in urban areas had parents who reported experiencing financial difficulties (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as food and housing). Children in all rural areas more often lacked amenities and lived in a neighborhood in poor condition. However, a lower percentage of children in small rural and isolated areas had parents who reported living in an unsafe neighborhood, and children in isolated areas less often lived in a neighborhood lacking social support, less often lacked a medical home, and less often had a parent with fair or poor mental health. Across rural subtypes, approximately one in six young children had a parent-reported MBDD diagnosis. A higher prevalence was found among children in small rural areas (18.6%) than in urban areas (15.2%). In urban and the majority of rural
Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a multifaceted disorder characterized by varying clinical presentations. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine urban and rural differences in the burden of polycystic ovarian syndrome among Indian adolescent females aged 12 to 19 years. Methods. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of one month (August-September 2013 at Balaji Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. The final sample included 126 study participants located in various urban (50%, n=63 and rural (50%, n=63 settings. Information was gathered on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical history, occurrence of acne and hirsutism, serum testosterone levels, obstetric history, family history of chronic diseases, menstrual history, physical activity, and dietary intake. Results. Eighteen percent of the participants were confirmed of having PCOS by recent guidelines of Rotterdam Consensus for adolescent diagnosis of PCOS (presence of all three elements. Majority of the individuals with PCOS had an average age of 16 (SD = 2 (P=.02 years with an average age of menarche 12 years (SD = 1. Conclusion. The proportion of participants diagnosed with PCOS was higher among urban participants in comparison to rural participants.
... entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one Indian tribe, is the approval of... Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.56 If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...
Full Text Available Research was carried out in 2006 in three gminas (administrative boroughs of the Małopolska Province – Dębno, Wieliczka, and Zabierzów. 40 multigeneration rural families were selected in each gmina. Interviews were conducted with them on the basis of a questionnaire made up of three parts focused on the representatives of three genera-tions: grandparents, parents, and grandchildren. 360 people were surveyed in total. The results of the research, which are presented here, will try to provide an answer to the ques-tion of how critical a role tradition plays in the life of multigeneration rural families, and also to what extent they cherish the customs and habits which they have inherited from previous generations.
Power shortages result in power outages for period of 8 to 10 Hrs aday in rural areas due to significant gap between electricity demandand supply. Rural banking is one of the sectors severely affected by power. Majority of population in emerging markets like India livein rural areas. Therefore,
Gueye, E H
Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable.
Hiratani, Yuko; Hohashi, Naohiro
Nursing interventions that aim to enhance the family environment are necessary to help single-parent families with children to improve family functioning. The cultural and social factors that are unique to Japan's remote islands should be considered to assess the influence of this unique setting on family functioning. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the family functioning of child-rearing single-parent families living in different environments and to investigate the association between family demographics and family functioning. A self-administered questionnaire, the Japanese version of the Survey of Family Environment, was used to evaluate the sufficiency of family functioning. The participants were families with children enrolled in nurseries and kindergartens who were either living in remote, rural islands or in an urban city on the mainland in Japan. Family functioning was significantly higher for single-parent families living on the islands than for those living in the city in terms of media use, participation in community activities, and the collaboration of family members in child-rearing. Family functioning of single-parent families correlated significantly with household income, the parent's gender, family members' health, and family life cycle. Single-parent families living on Japanese offshore islands maintained family functioning through mutual support and the effective use of information technology. Nevertheless, single-parent families require additional support to improve their healthcare and financial situations.
Mejia Alfonso Miguel Fernando
Full Text Available family: ";Arial";,";sans-serif";; font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: MinionPro-Regular; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">
family: ";Arial";,";sans-serif";; font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: MinionPro-Regular; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">The municipality of Sutatenza (Boyaca, constitutes an important reference for rural education in Colombia due to “Radio Sutatenza” (Educational Radio and the People’s Cultural Action in the mid-twentieth century. Currently, in the same town, a process called the Campesina Community School del Valle de Tenza has been brewing, under an agroecological approach, guided in its work to the cultural and productive Andean farmers, their families and their young people to cultivate in them a return the field. This article addresses this educational experience for contrasting approaches of “development” with the perceptions and visions that emerge from the rural world, without being radically different, it raises important questions for the call for and controversy of development, from the local.
Emond, Jennifer A; Bernhardt, Amy M; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D
To assess the associations between children's exposure to television (TV) networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. One hundred parents of children 3-7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's TV viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (aOR 2.84 for each 1-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, P restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emond, Jennifer A.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.
Objective To assess the associations between children's exposure to TV networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. Study design One hundred parents of children 3–7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's television viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Results Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (adjusted odds ratio 2.84 for each one-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, prestaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. PMID:26526362
Janicke, David M.; Sallinen, Bethany J.; Perri, Michael G.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Brumback, Babette
Purpose: To compare the costs of parent-only and family-based group interventions for childhood obesity delivered through Cooperative Extension Services in rural communities. Methods: Ninety-three overweight or obese children (aged 8 to 14 years) and their parent(s) participated in this randomized controlled trial, which included a 4-month…
Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K
American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.
Bhavnani, Suresh K.; Chavan, Apala L.; Jain, Isha; Maroo, Sudhanshoo
The growing influx of information and communication technologies (ICTs) into rural India provides new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of diseases across millions of residents. However, little is known about how rural Indians with little or no exposure to computers perceive computers and their uses, and how best to elicit those perceptions. Such perceptions could lead to new insights for using ICTs to affect health behavior change in developing countries. We therefore developed a semi-structured interview approach to probe how residents of a north Indian village perceived computers and their uses. The results suggest that besides helping to overturn several assumptions of the researchers through unexpected insights, the approach could be easily implemented in rural settings, which could lead to deeper insights for developing future culturally and medically-relevant ICTs for rural residents. PMID:22195062
Kurpad, A.V.; Caszo, B.; Raj, T.; Vaz, M.
Helicobacter pylori infection has been established as a major cause of chronic gastritis in adults, and it has been implicated in the genesis of gastric carcinomas and the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers. It is now postulated that neatly 90% of the adult population in developing countries may be affected with the infection since childhood. Earlier studies on Indians using serology and endoscopic biopsy have shown a high incidence of H. pylori infection in small numbers of patients. The 13 C-urea breath test, which is simple, specific and non-invasive, is also increasingly being used to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Preliminary data from India has shown a high prevalence in the urban Indian environment, and there is an urgent need to quantify the prevalence of H. pylori infections on an epidemiological basis in both urban and rural settings. It is also important to study the possible impact of this infection on growth in children, particularly in environments with low sanitation and high crowding. In this paper, we outline a proposal to study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in children from the following different environments: urban middle socio-economic class, urban slum, rural middle socio-economic class and rural village. (author)
Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua
A pilot project of the solar water heating system combined with a low temperature air source heat pump (ASHP) unit was established in 2014 in a detached residential house in the rural region of Beijing, in order to investigate the system application prospect for single family houses via system...... optimization design and economic analysis. The established system was comprised of the glass heat-pipe based evacuated tube solar collectors with a gross area of 18.8 m2 and an ASHP with a stated heating power of 8 kW for the space heating of a single family rural house of 81.4 m2. The dynamic thermal...... with good building insulation were undertaken to figure out the system economical efficiency in the rural regions of Beijing. The results show that the payback periods of the solar space heating system combined with the ASHP with the collector areas 15.04-22.56 m2 are 17.3-22.4 years for the established...
Andersen, Hans Skifter; Nørgaard, Helle
Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older...... couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due...... to low housing prices. This article explores which groups of people move to rural, peripheral areas and why they chose to do so....
The main objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between workplace social support and work-family conflict among employees who were married, living with a partner, or had at least one child or dependent living at home and worked a minimum of 20 h/week in Rural Water and Wastewater Company employees Kermanshah, Iran. The relation between workplace social support and work–family conflict (WFC) was examined using a two-dimensional measure of WFC and both global and sum...
Haddad, Slim; Narayana, Delampady; Mohindra, Ks
Inadequate public action in vulnerable communities is a major constraint for the health of poor and marginalized groups in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The south Indian state of Kerala, known for relatively equitable provision of public resources, is no exception to the marginalization of vulnerable communities. In Kerala, women's lives are constrained by gender-based inequalities and certain indigenous groups are marginalized such that their health and welfare lag behind other social groups. The goal of this socially-engaged, action-research initiative was to reduce social inequalities in access to health care in a rural community. Specific objectives were: 1) design and implement a community-based health insurance scheme to reduce financial barriers to health care, 2) strengthen local governance in monitoring and evidence-based decision-making, and 3) develop an evidence base for appropriate health interventions. Health and social inequities have been masked by Kerala's overall progress. Key findings illustrated large inequalities between different social groups. Particularly disadvantaged are lower-caste women and Paniyas (a marginalized indigenous group), for whom inequalities exist across education, employment status, landholdings, and health. The most vulnerable populations are the least likely to receive state support, which has broader implications for the entire country. A community based health solidarity scheme (SNEHA), under the leadership of local women, was developed and implemented yielding some benefits to health equity in the community-although inclusion of the Paniyas has been a challenge. The Canadian-Indian action research team has worked collaboratively for over a decade. An initial focus on surveys and data analysis has transformed into a focus on socially engaged, participatory action research. Adapting to unanticipated external forces, maintaining a strong team in the rural village, retaining human resources capable of analyzing
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate public action in vulnerable communities is a major constraint for the health of poor and marginalized groups in low and middle-income countries (LMICs. The south Indian state of Kerala, known for relatively equitable provision of public resources, is no exception to the marginalization of vulnerable communities. In Kerala, women’s lives are constrained by gender-based inequalities and certain indigenous groups are marginalized such that their health and welfare lag behind other social groups. The research The goal of this socially-engaged, action-research initiative was to reduce social inequalities in access to health care in a rural community. Specific objectives were: 1 design and implement a community-based health insurance scheme to reduce financial barriers to health care, 2 strengthen local governance in monitoring and evidence-based decision-making, and 3 develop an evidence base for appropriate health interventions. Results and outcomes Health and social inequities have been masked by Kerala’s overall progress. Key findings illustrated large inequalities between different social groups. Particularly disadvantaged are lower-caste women and Paniyas (a marginalized indigenous group, for whom inequalities exist across education, employment status, landholdings, and health. The most vulnerable populations are the least likely to receive state support, which has broader implications for the entire country. A community based health solidarity scheme (SNEHA, under the leadership of local women, was developed and implemented yielding some benefits to health equity in the community—although inclusion of the Paniyas has been a challenge. The partnership The Canadian-Indian action research team has worked collaboratively for over a decade. An initial focus on surveys and data analysis has transformed into a focus on socially engaged, participatory action research. Challenges and successes Adapting to
Marta Julia Marques Lopes
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyze sociodemographic characteristics of rural women working in family livestock, inserted in Brazil without Poverty Plan in Encruzilhada do Sul. This type of work is culturally defined as masculine as well, the question is how women in it operate. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southern half has in beef cattle the main productive activity which alludes to a supposed production homogeneity. This condition challenges and boost research that shows the multiplicity of experiences of livestock rural families. Thus, the motivation of this article also is based on the problem of discussion little debated on family livestock, for example, the sexual division of labor and women's participation in the activity. So it was found the presence of women in family livestock and their inclusion in the Brazil without Poverty Program. The information analyzed shows that 92.31% of ownership in the program are women, 6.59% of men and 1.10% for both. This reality leads the female role of idea in action, however it is necessary to consider other issues that contribute to other explanatory possibilities of this condition. The trajectory and the sexual division of labor "earmarking" women to the most precarious jobs, it may be a potential answer. Thus, the recognition of women's work is hindered in social practices and intra-family and sexual division of labor is reaffirmed by the notions of what is "man of affairs and women's things". The issues that emerge interrelate livestock, poverty and gender, since most of the families of the Brazil without Poverty is also included in the livestock. We question the extent to which livestock is male activity and poverty would be a "parameter" to characterize rural activities, including livestock, as female?
Jul 14, 2014 ... cultural and Rural Management) in Thailand, which provides training for ... family system, as the family in the Indian context usually represents ...... crimination in Southeast Asia: Past Successes and Future Priorities, New York,.
Maternal mortality rates in rural Tanzania are high. In preparation for the introduction of an intervention to reduce maternal deaths by distribution of misoprostol and erythromycin to women living in rural Rorya District, Mara Region, Tanzania, we conducted a limited verbal autopsy by surveying family members of women ...
Liu, Mugen; Wang, Xu; Cai, Zhou; Tang, Zhaohui; Cao, Kangsheng; Liang, Bo; Ren, Xiang; Liu, Jing Yu; Wang, Qing K
Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1) is caused by mutations in the Indian hedgehog gene, IHH, on chromosome 2q35-36. In this study, a large five-generation Chinese family with BDA1 was identified and characterized. All affected family members demonstrated significant homogeneous phenotype and some unique clinical features different from those associated with the reported BDA1 mutations in IHH. Linkage analysis showed that the BDA1 gene in the family was linked to marker D2S126 close to IHH with a LOD score of 4.74 at a recombination fraction of 0. DNA sequence analysis revealed a heterozygous C to T transition at nucleotide 461 of IHH, resulting in a novel T154I substitution. The T154I mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals in the family, and was not present in normal family members or 200 normal controls. These results expand the spectrum of clinical phenotype associated with IHH mutations.
Yore, Jennifer; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusadana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Raj, Anita
Globally, 41% of all pregnancies are unintended, increasing risk for unsafe abortion, miscarriage and maternal and child morbidities and mortality. One in four pregnancies in India (3.3 million pregnancies, annually) are unintended; 2/3 of these occur in the context of no modern contraceptive use. In addition, no contraceptive use until desired number and sex composition of children is achieved remains a norm in India. Research shows that globally and in India, the youngest and most newly married wives are least likely to use contraception and most likely to report husband's exclusive family planning decision-making control, suggesting that male engagement and family planning support is important for this group. Thus, the Counseling Husbands to Achieve Reproductive Health and Marital Equity (CHARM) intervention was developed in recognition of the need for more male engagement family planning models that include gender equity counseling and focus on spacing contraception use in rural India. For this study, a multi-session intervention delivered to men but inclusive of their wives was developed and evaluated as a two-armed cluster randomized controlled design study conducted across 50 mapped clusters in rural Maharashtra, India. Eligible rural young husbands and their wives (N = 1081) participated in a three session gender-equity focused family planning program delivered to the men (Sessions 1 and 2) and their wives (Session 3) by village health providers in rural India. Survey assessments were conducted at baseline and 9&18 month follow-ups with eligible men and their wives, and pregnancy tests were obtained from wives at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Additional in-depth understanding of how intervention impact occurred was assessed via in-depth interviews at 18 month follow-up with VHPs and a subsample of couples (n = 50, 2 couples per intervention cluster). Process evaluation was conducted to collect feedback from husbands, wives, and VHPs on program
Ko, Eunjeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Ramirez, Carlos; Lopez, Denicka; Martinez, Stephanie
Family caregivers play an important role in end-of-life (EoL) decision making when the patient is unable to make his/her own decisions. While communication about EoL care between patients and family is perhaps a first step toward advance care planning (ACP)/EoL decisions, not every culture puts great value on open communication about this topic. The aims of the present study were to explore EoL communication and the aspects of communication among caregivers of Latino patients in the rural United States (U.S.)-Mexico border region. This study analyzed data from a hospice needs assessment collected from 189 family caregivers of Latino patients at a home health agency in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region. Bivariate tests and logistic regression were used to address our aims. About half of the family caregivers (n = 96, 50.8%) reported to have ever engaged in EoL discussion with patients. Significant predictors of EoL discussion included life-sustaining treatment preference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44, p EoL communication. Also, caregivers who worried that physicians might want to stop treatments (i.e., "pull the plug") too soon were less likely to do so. Conversely, caregivers who had knowledge about ADs were more likely to engage in EoL communication. EoL communication is a complex process influenced by individual, social, and cultural values and the beliefs of both the patient and his/her family. Inclusion of family caregivers in the ACP process and facilitating culturally tailored EoL communication between patients and family caregivers is important.
DeSouza, Sherwin I.; Rashmi, M. R.; Vasanthi, Agalya P.; Joseph, Suchitha Maria; Rodrigues, Rashmi
Background Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. Objectives To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. Methods This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. Results The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98%) of our respondents, 424 (89%) preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. Conclusion The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context. PMID
DeSouza, Sherwin I; Rashmi, M R; Vasanthi, Agalya P; Joseph, Suchitha Maria; Rodrigues, Rashmi
Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%). Text messaging (SMS) was used by only 70 (14%) of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%), were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98%) of our respondents, 424 (89%) preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75%) were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian context.
Sherwin I DeSouza
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the ubiquity of mobile phones, their use to support healthcare in the Indian context is inevitable. It is however necessary to assess end-user perceptions regarding mobile health interventions especially in the rural Indian context prior to its use in healthcare. This would contextualize the use of mobile phone communication for health to 70% of the country's population that resides in rural India. OBJECTIVES: To explore the acceptability of delivering healthcare interventions through mobile phones among users in a village in rural Bangalore. METHODS: This was an exploratory study of 488 mobile phone users, residing in a village, near Bangalore city, Karnataka, South India. A pretested, translated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data on mobile phone usage patterns and acceptability of the mobile phone, as a tool for health-related communication. The data is described using basic statistical measures. RESULTS: The primary use of mobile phones was to make or receive phone calls (100%. Text messaging (SMS was used by only 70 (14% of the respondents. Most of the respondents, 484 (99%, were willing to receive health-related information on their mobile phones and did not consider receiving such information, an intrusion into their personal life. While receiving reminders for drug adherence was acceptable to most 479 (98% of our respondents, 424 (89% preferred voice calls alone to other forms of communication. Nearly all were willing to use their mobile phones to communicate with health personnel in emergencies and 367 (75% were willing to consult a doctor via the phone in an acute illness. Factors such as sex, English literacy, employment status, and presence of chronic disease affected preferences regarding mode and content of communication. CONCLUSION: The mobile phone, as a tool for receiving health information and supporting healthcare through mHealth interventions was acceptable in the rural Indian
... affordable housing activities? 1000.104 Section 1000.104 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Activities § 1000.104 What families are eligible for affordable housing activities? The following families... Indian area. (b) A non-low income Indian family may receive housing assistance in accordance with § 1000...
Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chin, Chong-Hee
Focusing on the family as a context for the development of life plans by youth, this report summarizes findings of a 14-year longitudinal study on the educational and occupational life plans and achievement of youth in rural low-income areas in six southeastern states. Specific attention is given to (1) how parental educational and occupational…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who should receive Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.400 Section 20.400 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.400 Who...
Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.
Sneha, Latha M; Sai, Jeyanth; Ashwini, S; Ramaswamy, Sunitha; Rajan, Mahalakshmi; Scott, Julius X
Life-saving cancer therapy is costly and may result in financial burden for these families. Financial costs for treating childhood cancer care are traditionally assessed based on the amount spent for diagnostic tests, hospitalization, and chemotherapy. The financial costs for travel, accommodation, out-of-pocket expenses for food, phone bills, and loss of income due to reduction or termination of parental employment are hidden nonmedical expenses that are rarely accounted for. Studies on the financial implications of pediatric cancer treatment are based on the Western model of healthcare with good government/state insurance coverage and hence literature on lifestyle implications for families in developing nations with limited resources is still scarce. The aim of this study is to find out the details of out-of-pocket expenses incurred by the families during their treatment of cancer children and its implications on their quality of life. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in a tertiary care center for pediatric malignancies for over 1-year period. About seventy families whose children were diagnosed with acute leukemia and undergoing treatment at our center were asked to fill a questionnaire detailing their out-of-pocket expenses. Nonmedical expenses accounts for about 46% of their monthly household income of parents from rural areas and 22% of their household income from urban areas. On an average, a family from rural area spends four times the normal amount spent on home for their daily food expenditure. Thirty-eight percent of families have borrowed money from money lenders with an average interest rate of about 12.5% which pushes them to a state of debt for the next few years. Out-of-pocket expenses contribute a significant proportion to the financial burden of the families with childhood malignancies and these invisible expenses should be recognized and provide adequate support to lessen the burden of this economic impact.
This paper tells a tentative story from the preliminary findings of The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore, 2006 (SSS 2006). Though the main study reports on language use amongst Chinese, Malay and Indian communities, my focus is only on Indian homes. The paper reports results from five domains: school, family and friends, media, public space and…
Hoogsteen, Lindsey; Woodgate, Roberta L
The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of Canadian parents living in rural areas who were parenting a child with autism. A phenomenological design described by van Manen was applied to guide this study. This study took place in rural communities of Western Canada. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 26 families parenting a child with autism in rural communities. Participants ranged in age from 26 to 50 years old and lived an average of 197 kilometres away from an urban city. Parents of children with autism took part in audio-taped, in-depth interviews. A total of 26 open-ended interviews were completed over four months with an average of 83 minutes per interview. All interviews and field notes were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using van Manen's selective highlighting approach. When describing the characteristics of living rurally while parenting a child with autism, parents reported that the rural community had (i) less of everything, (ii) safety and familiarity, and (iii) a family of support. Parents believed that although there were disadvantages to living in a rural community, parents felt isolated in terms of services but not in terms of the support received by the community. The results of this study add to our knowledge of parenting experiences with attention to the rural experience and furthermore, recommendations for nurses and health care professionals were provided. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Differences in Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders Among Children Aged 2–8 Years in Rural and Urban Areas — United States, 2011–2012
Holbrook, Joseph R.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Hartwig, Sophie A.; Kaminski, Jennifer W.; Ghandour, Reem M.; Peacock, Georgina; Heggs, Akilah; Boyle, Coleen A.
Problem/Condition Mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) begin in early childhood and often affect lifelong health and well-being. Persons who live in rural areas report more health-related disparities than those in urban areas, including poorer health, more health risk behaviors, and less access to health resources. Reporting Period 2011–2012. Description of System The National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) is a cross-sectional, random-digit–dial telephone survey of parents or guardians that collects information on noninstitutionalized children aged health and well-being, health care access, and family and community characteristics. Using data from the 2011–2012 NSCH, this report examines variations in health care, family, and community factors among children aged 2–8 years with and without MBDDs in rural and urban settings. Restricting the data to U.S. children aged 2–8 years with valid responses for child age and sex, each MBDD, and zip code resulted in an analytic sample of 34,535 children; MBDD diagnosis was determined by parent report and was not validated with health care providers or medical records. Results A higher percentage of all children in small rural and large rural areas compared with all children in urban areas had parents who reported experiencing financial difficulties (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as food and housing). Children in all rural areas more often lacked amenities and lived in a neighborhood in poor condition. However, a lower percentage of children in small rural and isolated areas had parents who reported living in an unsafe neighborhood, and children in isolated areas less often lived in a neighborhood lacking social support, less often lacked a medical home, and less often had a parent with fair or poor mental health. Across rural subtypes, approximately one in six young children had a parent-reported MBDD diagnosis. A higher prevalence was found among children in small rural areas
This study focuses on divorce patterns in 10 rural villages near Shimla town, the capital of Himachal Pradesh, India. Data were obtained from a survey conducted in 1988 among 338 ever married women. Most villagers are Hindus. Caste groups include Brahmins (13%), Rajputs (45%), and Sudras (42%). Indian divorce consists in a permanent separation without legal formalities or an informal process within the panchayat judicial system. Large national studies indicate low levels of divorce, while local anthropological studies indicate high levels in some areas. This study in 1988 indicates that over 17% of women (58 out of 338) in Himachal villages were divorced at least once. Evidence suggests that divorces by cohort were higher prior to 1960. About 30% of women who married during 1951-60, 13% of women who married during 1971-80, and 3% of women who married during 1981-88 were divorced at least once. The mean age of marriage for ever divorced women was much lower than for never divorced women. The mean age at divorce was also much lower than the mean age at marriage among never divorced women. The variables associated with divorce at the 0.05 level of significance were marriage age, level of female education, age difference of spouses, and level of education of spouse and caste. Women who married before the age of 13 years were three times more likely to divorce than women who married at ages 13-15 years. Women with at least 5 years of education were four times less likely to divorce than uneducated women. Brahmin women were less likely to divorce. Women with uneducated husbands had a 50% greater chance of being divorced than women with primary educated husbands. Women who were younger by 10 years than their spouse were six times more likely to divorce.
Vissing, Yvonne M.
Despite stereotypes to the contrary, homelessness is as prevalent in rural as urban areas. This digest examines the implications of homelessness for rural children and youth and discusses possible actions by rural educators. An estimated half of the rural homeless are families with children. Compared to urban counterparts, rural homeless families…
Full Text Available In the Polish Second Republic, so in the country rebom afiter one hundred twenty three years of captivity, the role of a woman as a woman-mother, was significantly emphasized. Press, literature, researchers have proved that safety and order in the whole country depend on safety and order in individual families. The key notion became: „from education of a mother to education of a child”. While analyzing sources such as newspapers, magazines, diaries, guidebooks, I noticed the following values for which mothers in rural families were held to be responsible: 1 ,value of work connected with obligation in farm and household, so role of mother asahousewife; 2.the value of the family as a community and the mother's role in it. Mother was the first protector, tutor, patron of a child. Mother took care of child and other members in the family, she helped them, she guaranteed the positive atmosphere at home, took care of safety in a wide context. It was significant that mother appealed in the process of socialization to common traditions and experiences; 3.value of education and social consciousness, so the role of the mother in shaping social consciousness; 4.patriotic value, so the role of the mother in shaping patriotic attitude
Das, Ashavaree; Sarkar, Madhurima
Understanding health information-seeking behaviors and barriers to care and access among pregnant women can potentially moderate the consistent negative associations between poverty, low levels of literacy, and negative maternal and child health outcomes in India. Our seminal study explores health information needs, health information-seeking behaviors, and perceived information support of low-income pregnant women in rural India. Using the Wilson Model of health information-seeking framework, we designed a culturally tailored guided interview to assess information-seeking behaviors and barriers to information seeking among pregnant women. We used a local informant and health care worker to recruit 14 expectant women for two focus group interviews lasting 45 minutes to an hour each. Thirteen other related individuals including husbands, mothers, mothers-in-law, and health care providers were also recruited by hospital counselors for in-depth interviews regarding their pregnant wives/daughters and daughters-in-law. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by coding the data into thematic categories. The data were coded manually and emerging themes included pregnancy-related knowledge and misconceptions and personal, societal, and structural barriers, as well as risk perceptions and self-efficacy. Lack of access to health care and pregnancy-related health information led participants to rely heavily on information and misconceptions about pregnancy gleaned from elder women, friends, and mothers-in-law and husbands. Doctors and para-medical staff were only consulted during complications. All women faced personal, societal, and structural level barriers, including feelings of shame and embarrassment, fear of repercussion for discussing their pregnancies with their doctors, and inadequate time with their doctors. Lack of access and adequate health care information were of primary concern to pregnant women and their families. Our study can help inform policies and multi
namely, Bio-Physical vulnerability index and Socio-Economic vulnerability index to develop the final overall vulnerability index. ... Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy more spe- cifically of the rural livelihood security system. ... of the total workforce) in spite of the diversification of eco- nomic activity. It is also an ...
The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…
Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer
To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in
Summary. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major problem in migrant ... Indians in the metropolitan area of Durban to determine the prevalence and ... and judging by the high MRs for all three cardiovascular diseases ... circumstances than the indigent rural populations in Iridia, had very ..... Left ventricular hypertrophy.
Nedungadi, Prema; Mulki, Karunya; Raman, Raghu
Reduction of teacher and student absenteeism, together with consistent teacher support and training, are critical factors in improving the quality of education in rural India. As part of an ongoing project involving schools and educational centers in rural areas spread across 21 Indian states, this study investigated how implementation of two…
Luciano Zanetti Pessôa Candiotto
Full Text Available Considering the expansion of rural tourism in the world and in Brazil and the incentive of public and private sectors to family farms open their properties to tourism, we wrote this article to presents and discuss the implications of rural tourism and to emphasize their consequences in family farms. So, we worked with brazilian and foreigners literature that analyses the spatial implications and changes of this activity and try to present our impressions about rural tourism, which may grow in rural spaces and modify its social and spatial dynamics. Keywords: tourism; rural space; social and spatial implications; family farm; family unity of production and life (UPVF.
Sandra L Laston
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify genetic factors associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD and related cardiometabolic phenotypes among participants of the Genetics of Kidney Disease in Zuni Indians study. The study was conducted as a community-based participatory research project in the Zuni Indians, a small endogamous tribe in rural New Mexico. We recruited 998 members from 28 extended multigenerational families, ascertained through probands with CKD who had at least one sibling with CKD. We used the Illumina Infinium Human1M-Duo v3.0 BeadChips to type 1.1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Prevalence estimates for CKD, hyperuricemia, diabetes and hypertension were 24%, 30%, 17% and 34%, respectively. We found a significant (p<1.58 × 10-7 association for a SNP in a novel gene for serum creatinine (PTPLAD2. We replicated significant associations for genes with serum uric acid (SLC2A9, triglyceride levels (APOA1, BUD13, ZNF259, and total cholesterol (PVRL2. We found novel suggestive associations (p<1.58 × 10-6 for SNPs in genes with systolic (OLFML2B, and diastolic blood pressure (NFIA. We identified a series of genes associated with CKD and related cardiometabolic phenotypes among Zuni Indians, a population with a high prevalence of kidney disease. Illuminating genetic variations that modulate the risk for these disorders may ultimately provide a basis for novel preventive strategies and therapeutic interventions.
Radha Rama Devi, A; Ananthalakshmi, Y; Srimannarayana Rao, K
The primary objective was to evaluate the feasibility of setting up newborn screening in rural areas in India. Secondary objective was to enhance the knowledge and awareness towards early detection of diseases by newborn screening, management of the affected baby and to impart genetic counseling. Awareness programs were conducted at different mandals in the district for the medical practioners during the preparatory phase of the Task Force Project. Educative lectures and clinical meetings regarding the importance and relevance of newborn screening were held every 3 months initially and half yearly later. Families were counselled during antenatal check-ups. Good co-operation was obtained from medical doctors and their willingness to participate in sample collection from the hospitals. Families accepted screening after an initial period of resistance. The fact that screening of this kind will help their babies made a positive impact. Many families started promoting newborn screening to their friends and relations. Confirmation of diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up were satisfactory with almost negligible number of cases lost to follow-up. With proper planning and commitment on the part of health authorities, it is possible to implement newborn screening in rural areas in India as well.
Agricultura familiar, multifuncionalidade da agricultura e ruralidade: interfaces de uma realidade complexa Family farming, multifunctionality of agriculture and rurality: interfaces of a complex reality
Regina Aparecida Leite de Camargo
Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, assistimos à revitalização do debate em torno da agricultura familiar pela incorporação das discussões sobre as múltiplas funções da agricultura num rural que não pode mais ser visto como domínio exclusivo da atividade agrícola e dos agricultores. No contexto brasileiro, acreditamos que essa discussão deva ser permeada pela análise de como processos diferenciados de distribuição fundiária e desenvolvimento econômico e o tipo de agricultura resultante geram ruralidades específicas com características como, no caso da agricultura familiar, a manutenção de práticas sociais e de trabalho marcadas pelas relações de parentesco e vizinhança presentes numa sociedade de interconhecimento. Partindo desse princípio, este trabalho analisa a agricultura familiar de um bairro rural do município de Ouro Fino - MG, sua herança histórica e sua participação na criação de uma paisagem natural e humana que muito contribui para a atratividade da região.The last decades witnessed the revitalization of the debate around family farming with the addition of discussions regarding the multiple functions of agriculture, given the fact that rural areas are longer devoted exclusively to agricultural activities. In the Brazilian context, we believed that this debate must be permeated by analyses of how differentiated processes of land distribution and economic development, and the resulting types of agriculture, generate specific ruralities with characteristics such as, in the case of family farming, the maintenance of social and work practices marked by the relations among relatives and neighbours. It is in this light that this research analyses family agriculture in a rural area of Ouro Fino-MG, its historical heritage, and its participation in the creation of a physical and human landscape that greatly contributes to the attractiveness of the region.
Full Text Available This paper presents a sociological view of possibilities for the development of sustainable rural tourism in Koprivnica-Krizevci county, which is located in the north-western part of Croatia. The possibilities for developing rural tourism within the concept of sustainable development have been researched through qualitative empirical research interview method. Research subjects were the owners of tourist farms, decision makers, experts and other stakeholders in the tourism development. Rural tourism represents an alternative to maritime tourism and is relatively undeveloped but important in terms of development of rural areas and family farms. This paper enables an insight into an integrated sustainability of rural tourism which consists of four dimensions: biologicalecological, economic, socio-cultural and political sustainability. In conclusion, integral sustainability in rural tourism is not achieved in all dimensions. Therefore, rural tourism could be a strategy for sustainable development for rural areas and also could be a tool for product differentiation for area that are at stagnation stage.
Bingle, G J; Niswander, J D
Polydactyly has an incidence in the American Indian twice that of Caucasians. A minimum estimate of this incidence is 2.40 per 1,000 live births. Preaxial type 1 has an incidence three to four times that reported for Caucasians or Negroes. The overall sex ratio in Indians is distorted with more males affected than females. The preaxial type 1 anomaly has a strong predilection for the hands and always is unilateral in contrast to postaxial type B where more than one-half are bilateral. The evidence to date, consisting of varying incidences of specific types of polydactyly among American whites, Negroes, and Indians in varying enviroments, suggests different gene-frequencies for polydactyly in each population. The incidence in Indians with 50% Caucasian admixture suggests that the factors controlling polydactyly are in large part genetically determined. Family studies and twin studies reported elsewhere offer no clear-cut genetic model which explains the highly variable gene frequencies.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What...
Peterson, Barbara; Bornemann, Greta; Lydon, Cheryl; West, Kimberly
In rural settings, leaving for college can mean a young person's first step in leaving home forever (Sherman & Sage, 2011). That presents a serious challenge for college recruiters as they ask parents from Indian reservations or close-knit Hispanic or rural farming communities to allow their children to consider postsecondary opportunities. In…
Maxcy, Spencer J.
Traces the historical evolution of the teacherage, initially proposed as a solution to the problem of housing teachers and as a model home for the edification of rural families. Pinpoints the conceptual connection between the teacherage and the parsonage--each linking the institution to the rural community. (CAM)
Thurston, Wilfreda E; Leach, Belinda; Leipert, Beverly
... about reduction of government funding and access to health care, and about the shortage of new volunteers to replace them when they burn out. These are a few of the stories told in the chapters of this book. This ground-breaking collection of essays identifies priority issues that must be addressed to ensure rural women's well-being, and offers innovative ideas for improvement and further research. Rural women play a critical role within their families and communities, and the health of these wome...
Kumar, Channaveerachari Naveen; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Suresha, Kudumallige Krishnappa; Venkatesh, Basappa K; Kishorekumar, Kengeri V; Arunachala, Udupi; Gangadhar, Bangalore N
A few studies have examined the factors associated with schizophrenia patients remaining untreated in India. We identified 184 schizophrenia patients in a rural community, offered the treatment with antipsychotics and followed them up in their Primary Health Centers for 1-year. Twenty-nine (15.8%) patients remained untreated at both the baseline and 1-year follow-up despite our best attempts to keep them under the treatment umbrella. They were interviewed in detail regarding the reasons for remaining untreated. This group was compared with another group of patients (n = 69) who had stopped the treatment at baseline but were successfully brought under the treatment umbrella throughout the 1-year follow-up period. The reasons for remaining untreated were (n; %): (a) Unsatisfactory improvement with previous treatment attempts (19; 65.5%), (b) poor bond between the patients and the families (6; 20.7%), (c) active symptoms not allowing any treatment efforts from the family members (6; 20.7%), (d) magico-religious beliefs about the illness and its treatment (4; 13.8%), (e) poor social support (3; 10.3%), (f) adverse effects of the medications (2; 6.9%), and (g) perception of recovery and cure (1; 3.4%). For many patients, a constellation of these reasons was responsible for them remaining untreated. In contrast, the common reasons for those who restarted medications to have stopped the treatment at some time were the lack of awareness, the need to continue medications (47; 68.1%), and the financial constraints (28; 40.6%). The predominant reason for schizophrenia patients not remaining on the treatment in this rural community was the families' lack of faith in antipsychotic treatment. Provision of comprehensive treatment package including medical, psychosocial and rehabilitative services, and sensitizing the community about benefits of the treatment may help in ensuring that all patients with psychosis receive the best care.
Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Ernst, E J; Keenan, Colleen; Suresh, P; Sinha, Sanjeev; Ganguly, Kalyan; Ramakrishnan, Padma; Liu, Yihang
In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, correlates of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were assessed using a baseline questionnaire among 68 rural women living with AIDS (WLA) in India. Unadjusted analyses revealed positive relationships of ART adherence with Hindu religion, and support from spouses and parents, whereas negative associations were found with depression, poor quality of life, and having ten or more HIV symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis also revealed that WLA who were Hindu, not depressed, had ART support from spouses and parents, and perceived some benefit from ART were more adherent to ART than their respective counterparts. This study reveals the unique challenges which rural WLA experience and the need to mitigate these challenges early in ART treatment. Further, the findings enable the refinement of an intervention program which will focus on strengthening ART adherence among rural WLA.
Fong, M S
An overview of the relationship between demographic factors and rural poverty in developing countries is presented. The author examines both the micro- and macro-level perspectives of this relationship and the determinants and consequences of population growth. The author notes the prospects for a rapid increase in the rural labor force and considers its implications for the agricultural production structure and the need for institutional change. Consideration is also given to the continuing demand for high fertility at the family level and the role of infant and child mortality in the poverty cycle. "The paper concludes by drawing attention to the need for developing the mechanism for reconciliation of social and individual optima with respect to family size and population growth." The need for rural development projects that take demographic factors into account is stressed as is the need for effective population programs. (summary in FRE, ITA) excerpt
Mönkediek, Bastian; Kok, Jan; Mandemakers, Kees
In this article we aim to study how Dutch children’s individual destinies result from the complex interplay of family setting and local conditions in a rural environment. We focus on their final move from the parental home, and we will analyse not only timing and incidence of leaving, but also the
Xiao, S H
After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful.
Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Brown, Molly E.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Barlow, Mathew; Howell, Andrew
Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high and declining per capita agricultural capacity retards progress towards Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation identify another problematic trend. Main growing season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus late 20th century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling millions of undernourished people as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people. On the other hand, modest increases in per capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.
Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C
This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families.
Salma B. Galal
Conclusion: Urban families have less health complaints than rural; however, rural families recover sooner. Families bypass often public primary health care services. Urban families overuse outpatient clinics in public hospitals.
The emergence of the work class "family farmer" as individuals with rights in the path of the Brazilian rural syndicalism A emergência dos "agricultores familiares" como sujeitos de direitos na trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro
Everton Lazzaretti Picolotto
Full Text Available The process of the family farmers' recognition as individuals with rights demonstrates having their first roots, in spite of being recent, if compared to the history of the Brazilian rural syndicalism, still in the constitution of the labor-syndical legislation in 1930. Therefore, seeking to explore that process the present paper has as objective to analyze the family farmers' emergence as individuals of rights in the contemporary Brazilian society, analyzing the processes of formation of the rural syndicalism and the expansion of the labor law for the rural workers as a form of accomplishment of a "regulated citizenship" until the decade of 1970; the urge to the official syndicalism, the structuring of a "new syndicalism" and the new social actors' appearance in the field, which made possible the enlargement of the citizenship spaces in the period of re-democratization in Brazil; the "crisis" of the new syndicalism, the creation of new syndical structures "apart" of the official structure (syndicalism of the family agriculture and the emergency of the "family farmers" as subject of rights in the recent periodO processo de reconhecimento dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos apesar de ser recente quando pensado a partir da trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro demonstra ter suas primeiras raízes ainda na constituição da legislação trabalhista-sindical dos anos de 1930. Visando explorar esse processo o artigo tem por objetivo analisar a emergência dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos na sociedade brasileira contemporânea. Analisa-se os processos de formação do sindicalismo rural e de expansão da legislação trabalhista para os trabalhadores rurais como forma de realização de uma "cidadania regulada" até a década de 1970; o questionamento do sindicalismo oficial, a estruturação de um "novo sindicalismo" e a emergência de novos atores sociais no campo, que possibilitaram a ampliação dos
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.
Barik, Anamitra; Sarkhel, Sujit; Basu, Saugata; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar
India faces multiple challenges to mitigate a high burden of psychiatric disorders. The risk of developing psychiatric disorder among the rural Indian population is poorly investigated. This study aims to understand the factors associated with probable psychiatric disorder (PPD) among a select rural Indian population. Data from the Birbhum population project of the society for health and demographic surveillance, West Bengal, India, were utilized. Cross-sectional data covering a sample of 31,135 respondents (male 15,384 and female 15,751) aged ≥ 16 years were used. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was administered and the responses were computed into three categories: psychological case, psychological caseness, and normal. Bivariate and multivariate ordered logit regression analyses were applied to attain the study objective. Of the total population, 26% of respondents were identified with PPD. People aged ≥ 60 years, females, divorced/separated/widowed individuals, the unemployed and people with no formal education, individuals from the poorest economic group, and people with a history of selling or mortgaging assets towards their healthcare expenditure had a higher prevalence of psychiatric case within their respective group. A high burden of PPD was estimated in the select rural community. While designing an intervention for measuring and addressing psychiatric disorders, the socioeconomic gradient of PPD could be helpful.
Casual sex was a dominant behavioural pattern. The phenomenon of denial was encountered in females. STDs are not uncommon in rural Nigeria. Integration of Sexual health in rural health, family health, and school health is urgently needed. Key Words: Genital ulcers, STDs, Rural Nigeria Jnl of Medical Investigation and ...
Arnot, Madeleine; Naveed, Arif
Education for all as a global agenda has particular repercussions for those living in rural poverty. By adopting a Bourdieusian framework to analyse interview data collected from fathers, mothers, sons and daughters in 10 rural Punjabi households, we expose the intersections of education, gender, poverty and rurality. The concept of a "rural…
Sano, Yoshie; Manoogian, Margaret M.; Ontai, Lenna L.
This qualitative study examined the nature of partnerships among 28 rural low-income mothers who experienced partnership transitions across three waves of annual interviews. Guided by "lens of uncertainty" and "boundary ambiguity theory," the authors specifically explored (a) how low-income mothers in rural communities experience partnership…
Vanessa Aparecida Moreira de Barros
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The universalization of the right to social security for rural producers and rural workers is a recent victory for Brazilian society. The implementation of this benefit began in the early 1990s. This article aimed to analyze the effects of rural social security on the lifestyle of families with retirees. The research was conducted in two small municipalities with agricultural economies from Zona da Mata Mineira region. The research used cross-sectional data collection procedures by applying a survey with open and closed-ended questions about consumption and living. The research sample was representative of the study population, comprising 117 rural elderly people, 64 from Piranga City and 53 from São Miguel do Anta City. Data obtained were categorized, analyzed and tested using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. The survey results highlighted routine behavior and a predisposition to act based on a long term planning system, supported by the certainty of receiving the pension. Planned and long-term investments became a reality, including home improvement projects and acquisition of durable goods. Concerns about immediate family maintenance gave way to a perspective based on future planning.
Utilisation of family planning by women will promote sustainable development and general wellbeing of women at the rural community. The study assessed utilization of family planning techniques among women in the rural area of Lagos state. Sixty respondents were randomly selected for the study. Structured interview ...
Le Bot, Y
Important rural Indian movements appeared almost simultaneously in the early 1970s in 3 countries, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Guatemala, which had the distinction of remaining the most rural and the most Indian countries of Latin America. A similar movement with similar characteristics arose in a rural and Indian region of Colombia, a largely urban and mestizo country. Each movement constituted a particular response to the same problems in different contexts. This work provides a comparative analysis of the historical context, development, constitution, and functioning of Bolivian katarisme, the Ecuarrunari movement in Ecuador, the Regional Committee of the Indigenous of Cauca (CRIC) in Colombia, and the Committee of Peasant Unity (CUC) in Guatemala. The indigenous peasant movements were defined in relation to national-populist models of development and integration: limitations and failures of national-populism in Bolivia and to some extent also in Ecuador, marginalization of the Indian populations vis a vis modernization processes in Ecuador and Colombia, or a crisis caused by blockage of participation in the sociopolitical system in Guatemala. The movements appeared in the context of strong peasant communities left at the margin of processes of integration, but also in contexts where the social dynamics were reinforced by reforms and modernization during a long period of precarious reconstitution of communities sometimes dating back to the 1930s. Another contributing factor in some cases was the dissolution of peonage and other forms of servitude on the great estates. An Indian elite whose emergence was related to modernization of the communities is present in all the movements. It is composed of educated and partially urbanized young people who have maintained ties to the communities, of leaders trained in cooperative or union activity, of promoters of new religious currents, and others affected by change. The leaders belong to modern organizations that wish to make
Masand, Rupesh; Yadav, Ritesh; Purohit, Alok; Tomar, Balvir Singh
Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness which has been reported from various parts of India with Rajasthan recently joining the list of affected states. To report a series of paediatric scrub typhus cases from rural Rajasthan. Retrospective review of children with scrub typhus admitted to the wards and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary-care hospital. The study was undertaken over an 8-month period from May to December 2013. All patients with a clinical presentation and/or serological confirmation of scrub typhus who tested negative for malaria, enteric fever, dengue, leptospirosis and urinary tract infection (UTI) were included. A range of investigations were undertaken including IgM-ELISA for scrub typhus, followed by appropriate medical management. Thirty patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The mean (SD, range) age of the patients was 8·56 (3·43, 3-16) years. The most common clinical features were fever (n = 30, 100%), headache (n = 20, 66%), myalgia (n = 15, 50%), hepatosplenomegaly (n = 18, 60%) and pallor (n = 5, 16%). Typical features such as eschar and rash were observed in only one (3·3%) and three (10%) patients, respectively; none had generalised lymphadenopathy or conjunctival congestion. IgM-ELISA for scrub typhus was positive in 28 patients (93·3%) and 27 responded to doxycycline within 24-72 hours. One of the three patients who required PICU support responded to intravenous chloramphenicol and, of the other two (6·6%), one died of acute respiratory distress syndrome and the other owing to acute renal failure. A high index of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in scrub typhus together with prompt referral from rural areas to a higher centre. Awareness of the disease manifestations may further help to prevent excessive investigations in patients presenting with non-specific febrile illness and reduce the economic burden to the family and society in resource
Daswani, Poonam G; Gholkar, Manasi S; Birdi, Tannaz J
The rural population in India faces a number of health problems and often has to rely on local remedies. Psidium guajava Linn. (guava), a tropical plant which is used as food and medicine can be used by rural communities due to its several medicinal properties. A literature search was undertaken to gauge the rural health scenario in India and compile the available literature on guava so as to reflect its usage in the treatment of multiple health conditions prevalent in rural communities. Towards this, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, google scholar were scanned. Information on clinical trials on guava was obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrial.gov. The literature survey revealed that guava possesses various medicinal properties which have been reported from across the globe in the form of ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological surveys, laboratory investigations and clinical trials. Besides documenting the safety of guava, the available literature shows that guava is efficacious against the following conditions which rural communities would encounter. (a) Gastrointestinal infections; (b) Malaria; (c)Respiratory infections; (d) Oral/dental infections; (e) Skin infections; (f) Diabetes; (g) Cardiovascular/hypertension; (h) Cancer; (i) Malnutrition; (j) Women problems; (k) Pain; (l) Fever; (m) Liver problems; (n) Kidney problems. In addition, guava can also be useful for treatment of animals and explored for its commercial applications. In conclusion, popularization of guava, can have multiple applications for rural communities.
Jul 4, 2015 ... About 18% of Indian population speak Dravidian language. Linguistic ... Military conquests by Arabs and Turks. British colonization. Among several ... 132 individuals. 25 populations. 15 states. All the language families. 560,123 SNPs. HGDP & HapMap. PCA - EIGENSOFT. Autosomal SNPs. Affymetrix 6.0 ...
Brandt, C.C.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.; Simmons, B.
The Quechua Indians of the Peruvian Andes are an example of a human population which has developed special cultural adaptations to deal with hypocaloric stress imposed by a harsh environment. A highly detailed human ecosystem model, NUNOA, which simulates the yearly energy balance of individuals, families, and extended families in a hypothetical farming and herding Quechua community of the high Andes was developed. Unlike most population models which use sets of differential equations in which individuals are aggregated into groups, this model considers the response of each individual to a stochastic environment. The model calculates the yearly energy demand for each family based on caloric requirements of its members. For each family, the model simulates the cultivation of seven different crops and the impact of precipitation, temperature, and disease on yield. Herding, slaughter, and market sales of three different animal species are also simulated. Any energy production in excess of the family's energy demand is placed into extended family storage for possible redistribution. A family failing to meet their annual energy demand may slaughter additional herd animals, temporarily migrate from the community, or borrow food from the extended family storage. The energy balance is used in determining births, deaths, marriages, and resource sharing in the Indian community. In addition, the model maintains a record of each individual's ancestry as well as seven genetic traits for use in tracing lineage and gene flow. The model user has the opportunity to investigate the effect of changes in marriage patterns, resource sharing patterns, or subsistence activities on the ability of the human population to survive in the harsh Andean environment. In addition, the user may investigate the impact of external technology on the Indian culture.
Vora, Kranti Suresh; Koblinsky, Sally A; Koblinsky, Marge A
India leads all nations in numbers of maternal deaths, with poor, rural women contributing disproportionately to the high maternal mortality ratio. In 2005, India launched the world's largest conditional cash transfer scheme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to increase poor women's access to institutional delivery, anticipating that facility-based birthing would decrease deaths. Indian states have taken different approaches to implementing JSY. Tamil Nadu adopted JSY with a reorganization of its public health system, and Gujarat augmented JSY with the state-funded Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) scheme, contracting with private physicians for delivery services. Given scarce evidence of the outcomes of these approaches, especially in states with more optimal health indicators, this cross-sectional study examined the role of JSY/CY and other healthcare system and social factors in predicting poor, rural women's use of maternal health services in Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Using the District Level Household Survey (DLHS)-3, the sample included 1584 Gujarati and 601 Tamil rural women in the lowest two wealth quintiles. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined associations between JSY/CY and other salient health system, socio-demographic, and obstetric factors with three outcomes: adequate antenatal care, institutional delivery, and Cesarean-section. Tamil women reported greater use of maternal healthcare services than Gujarati women. JSY/CY participation predicted institutional delivery in Gujarat (AOR = 3.9), but JSY assistance failed to predict institutional delivery in Tamil Nadu, where mothers received some cash for home births under another scheme. JSY/CY assistance failed to predict adequate antenatal care, which was not incentivized. All-weather road access predicted institutional delivery in both Tamil Nadu (AOR = 3.4) and Gujarat (AOR = 1.4). Women's education predicted institutional delivery and Cesarean-section in Tamil Nadu, while husbands
Congdon, J G; Magilvy, J K
The culture and diversity of rural life and limitations of rural health systems to meet the changing health needs of an aging population lead to problems of obtaining appropriate care in rural America. In a program of nursing research involving three ethnographic studies in rural Colorado, transitions of older adults across differing levels of heath care were explored. The sample totaled 425 participants, of whom 25% were Hispanic. Five major themes emerged: circles of formal and informal care; integration of faith, spirituality, and family with health status; crisis nature of health care transitions; nursing homes as a housing option; and changing spirit of traditional rural nursing. Recommendations for providers included making their practices congruent with rural culture, being fully informed of available resources, facilitating acceptable health care decisions, and integrating physical, mental, and spiritual health care for elders and their families.
Kaduvettoor-Davidson, Anju; Inman, Arpana G.
This study explored the relationship between the family environments and coping styles and the cultural values conflicts of 110 Asian Indian women. Results indicated that women perceiving supportive family environments had less sex role conflict. Additionally, avoidant and emotion-focused coping predicted high conflict regarding intimate relations…
As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States.
Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1982–1992, the Maternal and Child Health Family Planning (MCH-FP Extension Project (Rural of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB, implemented a series of interventions in Sirajganj Sadar sub-district of Sirajganj district. These interventions were aimed at improving the planning mechanisms and for reviewing the problem-solving processes to build an effective monitoring system of the interventions at the local level of the overall system of the MOHFW, GoB. Methods The interventions included development and testing of innovative solutions in service-delivery, provision of door-step injectables, and strengthening of the management information system (MIS. The impact of an in-built monitoring system on the overall performance was assessed during the period from June 1995 to December 1996, after the withdrawal of the interventions in 1992. Results The results of the assessment showed that Family Welfare Assistants (FWAs increased household-visits within the last two months, and there was a higher use of service-delivery points even after the withdrawal of the interventions. The results of the cluster surveys, conducted in 1996, showed that the selected indicators of health and family-planning services were higher than those reported by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 1996–1997. During June 1995-December, 1996, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR increased by 13 percentage points (i.e. from 40% to 53%. Compared to the national CPR (49%, this increase was statistically significant (p Conclusion The in-built monitoring systems, including effective MIS, accompanied by rapid assessments and review of performance by the programme managers, have potentials to improve family planning performance in low-performing areas.
Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata
This paper explores motivations of Indian partner in mixed Indian-Danish couples living in Denmark. One of the characteristics of modernity is increased movements across borders, leading to increased intimate relationships across national/ethnic borders. The main research question here deals...... with the reasons for couple ‘getting together’. How do motives interplay with the gender- and the family generational, socio -economical categories? The paper draws from an explorative study conducted in Denmark among intermarried couples, consisting of in-depth interviews with ten ‘ordinary’ intermarried couples...... (TEM), transnationalism and a phenomenological approach to sexual desire and love. We find that there are three different pathways, highlighting commonality of work identity, a cosmopolitan identity and academic interests, where differential changing patterns of privileges and power are also evoked...
Rodríguez Adolfo Hernandez
Full Text Available
family: ";Arial";,";sans-serif";; font-size: 10pt; mso-fareast-font-family: MinionPro-Regular; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">The challenge of rural development in the Municipality of Medellin has to do with a political decision to assess processes based on participation and innovation in rural communities. The authorities have the opportunity to establish a territory in order to guarantee stability and consolidation of the populations considering their many activities when the districts are threatened by rampant urban sprawl. The opportunity exists to rebuild civil society in the territory based on cultural identity and to build new spaces without exclusion.
Full Text Available Background & purpose: Since 2005, a reform known as Rural Insurance and Family Medicine Scheme has introduced to primary health care network in Iran in rural areas and small towns. The content of the reform implies a substantial change in those aspects of health centers that mainly could be categorized as structural quality. Although, this is the requirement of all health care providers, they are not identical in those items. In this article, we have tried to report the relation between structural quality of health centers and utilization of curative care in Mazandran province. Materials & Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. Secondary and routinely collected data was used to answer the research questions. The source of original data was provincial health authority’s data set. A check list containing pre-identified variables was used to extract the data. Using SPSS software package, regression analysis was run to measure the role of different independent variable on dependent variable. Results: There were 215 rural health centers affiliated to 16 cities or small towns that the reform has taken place. The outreach area population of these health centers was 1ˏ330ˏ212 of which 834ˏ189 (62.71% were covered by rural insurance solely. Health centers are not identical in terms of the characteristics of health centers and their utilization. Among the variables with significant impact on the utilization of outpatient care, except for number of physician in each health centre and existence of state owned pharmacy that were found in some health centers, the rest of variables had significant positive impact on the demand for physician visit. Conclusion: Structural quality has significant impact on the utilization of curative care of primary healthcare units at rural area in Iran. The reform seems well targeted the quality improvement and utilization of effective primary health care.
Roseamelia, Carrie; Greenwald, James L; Bush, Tiffany; Pratte, Morgan; Wilcox, Jessica; Morley, Christopher P
Rural tracks (RTs) exist within medical schools across the United States. These programs often target those students from rural areas and those with primary care career interests, given that these factors are robust predictors of eventual rural practice. However, only 26% to 64% of graduates from RTs enter eventual rural practice. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory study of medical students enrolled in one school's RT, examining their interests in rural training, specialization, and eventual rural practice, via open coding of transcripts from focus groups and in-depth individual interviews, leading to identification of emerging themes. A total of 16 out of 54 eligible first- and second-year preclinical medical students participated in focus group sessions, and a total of seven out of 17 eligible third- and fourth-year medical students participated in individual interviews. Analyses revealed the recognition of a "Rural Identity," typical characteristics, and the importance of "Program Fit" and "Intentions for Practice" that trended toward family medicine specialization and rural practice. However, nuances within the comments reveal incomplete commitment to rural practice. In many cases, student preference for rural practice was driven largely by a disinterest in urban practice. Students with rural and primary care practice interests are often not perfectly committed to rural practice. However, RTs may provide a haven for such students within medical school.
Gu, Hai; Kou, Yun; Yan, Zhiwen; Ding, Yilei; Shieh, Jusheng; Sun, Jun; Cui, Nan; Wang, Qianjing; You, Hua
Catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) puts a heavy disease burden on patients' families, aggravating income-related inequality. In an attempt to reduce the financial risks of rural families incurring CHE, China began the New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) on a trial basis in 2003 and has raised the reimbursement rates continuously since then. Based on statistical data about rural families in sample area of Jiangsu province, this study measures the incidence of CHE, analyzes socioeconomic inequality related to CHE, and explores the influences of the NCMS on the incidence of CHE. Statistical data were acquired from two surveys about rural health care, one conducted in 2009 and one conducted in 2010. In 2009, 1424 rural families were analyzed; in 2010, 1796 rural families were analyzed. An index of CHE is created to enable the evaluation of the associated financial risks. The concentration index and concentration curve are used to measure the income-related inequality involved in CHE. Multiple logistic regression is utilized to explore the factors that influence the incidence of CHE. The incidence of CHE decreased from 13.62% in 2009 to 7.74% in 2010. The concentration index of CHE was changed from -0.298 (2009) to -0.323 (2010). Compared with rural families in which all members were covered by the NCMS, rural families in which some members were not covered by the NCMS had a lower incidence of CHE: The odds ratio is 0.65 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.43 to 1.00. For rural families in which all members were covered by the NCMS, the increase in reimbursement rates is correlated to the decline in the incidence of CHE if other influencing factors were controlled: The odds ratio is 0.48 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.36 to 0.64. Between 2009 and 2010, the incidence rate of CHE in the sampled area decreased sharply, CHE was more concentrated among least wealthy and inequality increased during study period. As of 2010, the poorest rural families still had
Maria Alexandrovna Vorobyeva
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the evolution of the leading Indian business-groups under the conditions of economical liberalization. It is shown that the role of modern business-groups in the Indian economy is determined by their high rate in the gross domestic product (GDP, huge overall actives, substantial pert in the e[port of goods and services, as well as by their activities in modern branch structure formatting, and developing labor-intensive and high-tech branches. They strongly influence upon economical national strategies, they became a locomotive of internationalization and of transnationalization of India, the basis of the external economy factor system, the promoters of Indian "economical miracle" on the world scene, and the dynamical segment of economical and social development of modern India. The tendencies of the development of the leading Indian business groups are: gradual concentration of production in few clue sectors, "horizontal" structure, incorporation of the enterprises into joint-stock structure, attraction of hired top-managers and transnationaliziation. But against this background the leading Indian business-groups keep main traditional peculiarities: they mostly still belong to the families of their founders, even today they observe caste or communal relations which are the basis of their non-formal backbone tides, they still remain highly diversificated structures with weak interrelations. Specific national ambivalence and combination of traditions and innovations of the leading Indian business-groups provide their high vitality and stability in the controversial, multiform, overloaded with caste and confessional remains Indian reality. We conclude that in contrast to the dominant opinion transformation of these groups into multisectoral corporations of the western type is far from completion, and in the nearest perspective they will still possess all their peculiarities and incident social and economical
Grant, Monica J; Yeatman, Sara
Despite the frequency of divorce and remarriage across much of sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about what these events mean for the living arrangements of children. We use longitudinal data from rural Malawi to examine the effects of family transitions on the prevalence and incidence of child fostering, or children residing apart from their living parents. We find that between 7 % and 15 % of children aged 3-14 are out-fostered over the two-year intersurvey period. Although divorce appears to be a significant driver of child fostering in the cross-sectional analysis, it is not significantly associated with the incidence of out-fostering. In contrast, maternal remarriage has both a lagged and an immediate effect on the incidence of out-fostering. Furthermore, the likelihood of out-fostering is even higher among children whose mother remarried and had a new child during the intersurvey period. Using longitudinal data collected from living mothers rather than from children's current foster homes offers new insights into the reasons children are sent to live with others besides their parents.
Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D; Michaelsen, Joel C; Verdin, James P; Brown, Molly E; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew
Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling "millions of undernourished people" as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.
A Kiosk Owner/Operator · Kiosk: Bouquet of Services (besides telephony) · Slide 26 · E-government services at a Village · The Dream · Rural Micro-Enterprises are the Wealth Creators · Operations Project Summary & Plans · Technologies & people behind n-Logue · Technologies in Use · corDECT Wireless in Local Loop.
Shumer, Gregory; Warber, Sara; Motohara, Satoko; Yajima, Ayaka; Plegue, Melissa; Bialko, Matthew; Iida, Tomoko; Sano, Kiyoshi; Amenomori, Masaki; Tsuda, Tsukasa; Fetters, Michael D
There is growing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) throughout the world, however previous research done in Japan has focused primarily on CAM use in major cities. The purpose of this study was to develop and distribute a Japanese version of the International Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q) to assess the use of CAM among people who visit rural Japanese family medicine clinics. Using a Japanese version of the International Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q), a cross-sectional survey was conducted in three rural family medicine clinics. All patients and those accompanying patients who met inclusion criteria were eligible to participate. Data were entered into SPSS Statistics and analyzed for use by age, gender, and location. Of the 519 respondents who participated in the project, 415 participants reported CAM use in the past 12 months (80.0%). When prayer is excluded, the prevalence of CAM use drops to 77.3% in the past year, or 403 respondents. The most common forms of CAM used by respondents were pain relief pads (n = 170, 32.8%), herbal medicines/supplements (n = 167, 32.2%), and massage by self or family (n = 166, 32.0%). Female respondents, individuals with higher levels of education, and those with poorer overall health status were more likely to use CAM than respondents without these characteristics. Only 22.8% of CAM therapies used were reported to physicians by survey participants. These data indicate that CAM use in rural Japan is common. The results are consistent with previous studies that show that Japanese individuals are more interested in forms of CAM such as pain relief pads and massage, than in mind-body forms of CAM like relaxation and meditation. Due to the high utilization of certain CAM practices, and given that most CAM users do not disclose their CAM use to their doctors, we conclude that physicians in rural Japan would benefit by asking about CAM use
Kumar, Arun; Babu, Mohan; Kimberling, William J; Venkatesh, Conjeevaram P
Usher syndrome (USH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deafness and retinitis pigmentosa. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic cause of USH in a four generation Indian family. Peripheral blood samples were collected from individuals for genomic DNA isolation. To determine the linkage of this family to known USH loci, microsatellite markers were selected from the candidate regions of known loci and used to genotype the family. Exon specific intronic primers for the MYO7A gene were used to amplify DNA samples from one affected individual from the family. PCR products were subsequently sequenced to detect mutation. PCR-SSCP analysis was used to determine if the mutation segregated with the disease in the family and was not present in 50 control individuals. All affected individuals had a classic USH type I (USH1) phenotype which included deafness, vestibular dysfunction and retinitis pigmentosa. Pedigree analysis suggested an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of USH in the family. Haplotype analysis suggested linkage of this family to the USH1B locus on chromosome 11q. DNA sequence analysis of the entire coding region of the MYO7A gene showed a novel insertion mutation c.2663_2664insA in a homozygous state in all affected individuals, resulting in truncation of MYO7A protein. This is the first study from India which reports a novel MYO7A insertion mutation in a four generation USH family. The mutation is predicted to produce a truncated MYO7A protein. With the novel mutation reported here, the total number of USH causing mutations in the MYO7A gene described to date reaches to 75.
Daniela Dias Kühn
Full Text Available The development expression has been increasingly used and consolidated in the study of socioeconomic realities. However, there is still to limit the scope of the term as well as qualification. This article discusses the significance of rural development expression, bringing together authors and seeking foregrounding of the concepts involved in the expression. The main objective of this work is, from a literature review of the concept of rural development and a context of the Capability Approach, indicate how this approach can contribute to the construction of a rural development concept better suited to the diversity inherent in the environment under review. For this, a brief review was made of what has been discussed about the development process and how this process is associated with rural expression. The term development is analyzed from the construction of their interpretations of concepts and theoretical development. It was possible to recognize the main adjectives, as well as the evolution of these discussions over the last 30 years. Finally, it identified a concept associated with the Capability Approach, presented by the Indian economist Amartya Sen. The idea of rural development associated with the Capability Approach, leads to a design that identifies rural development as an increase in choice of individuals residing in environments made up of socio-economic, geographical and cultural relations that show through the landscape, use and (or preservation of aspects related to nature whose reproduction is not entirely dependent and (or conditioned by human action.
Full Text Available We study the association between family CEO and firm value on a sample of 288 family firms during the 6-year period, from 2009 to 2014. The sample is drawn from domestic private companies belonging to non-financial services sector included in the NSE CNX 500 index. We find that family CEO has no significant association with firm value, when the family is not the majority shareholder. Family shareholding has positive relationship with firm value, but does not moderate the relationship of family CEO with firm value. We show that family CEO and firm value are negatively related when the family does not hold majority equity stake in the family firm. While family shareholding has no significant relationship with firm value, it has a negative interaction effect on the relationship between family CEO and firm value. The research findings have important implications for family firms as well as the nonfamily investors in the family firms.
Beekman, Gonne; Gatto, Marcel; Nillesen, Eleonora
This study investigates the relationship between family network density and income hiding in rural Liberia. We link people's behaviour in a modified lottery experiment and a time preference game to detailed information about their family networks. We find that individuals with a dense family
Some of the factors involved in securing the well being of an Indian rural population in a sustainable and environmentally sound fashion are discussed. Population pressure on the land and declining productivity threaten the balance between man and nature. The options are to provide outside technological inputs and/or to empower the rural population who may be able to provide an intimate knowledge of the local environment and must be organized and motivated to value and protect their resource base. Attention in paid to the Indian caste system, resource use diversification, group size and range, group dynamics, elites and the ecosystem, the drain on rural resources, the iron triangle of beneficiaries of subsidies, of administrators of subsidies, and of politicians, and the growing strife. The Indian caste system is differentiated by its subgroups which maintain communication within the subgroup, and resource access is determined by an individual's affiliation with the subgroup. It is not a smooth continuum between subgroups. Inequalities in resource access can create social tensions and/or partitioning of resources. The example is given of the subgroups Gavlis and Kunbis, in the Western Ghats in Pune district of Maharashtra, where exchanges are made for livestock or surplus grain, and the multicaste system of 40 subgroups in Uttara Kannada, with occupations specific to each subgroup. In order to function effectively as a subgroup the numbers must be limited or splinter groups develop. Several estimates of possible ranges are given, i.e., an upper limit of 10,000 or the equivalent of a subcaste and 10-20 endogenous groups/larger village with an area of 1000 km. Mergers and group splits are described among the Gavlis in Western Ghat and Tirumal Nadivallas and settlers of the Andaman Islands. Historically, communities were self-sufficient and surrounded elite communities; they had their own self-government and organized local resources for sustainable use, even though
Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Whyte, Susan R.
prevention and screening, we investigated the resemblance of T2D risk factors at household level and by type of familial dyadic relationship in a rural Ugandan community. Methods: This cross-sectional household-based study included 437 individuals ≥13 years of age from 90 rural households in south......-western Uganda. Resemblance in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness status and sitting time were analysed using a general mixed model with random effects (by household or dyad) to calculate household intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and dyadic regression coefficients...... (ICC=0.24), HbA1c (ICC=0.18) and systolic blood pressure (ICC=0.11). Regarding dyadic resemblance, the highest standardised regression coefficient was seen in fitness status for spouses (0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.76), parent–offspring (0.41, 95% CI 0.28 0.54) and siblings (0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0...
Rajendran, Bhagya; Janakarajan, Veeramahali Natarajan
Polymorphisms in aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL) gene, the key component of circadian clock manifests circadian rhythm abnormalities. As seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is associated with disrupted circadian rhythms, the main objective of this study was to screen an Indian family with SAD for ARNTL gene polymorphisms. In this study, 30 members of close-knit family with SAD, 30 age- and sex-matched controls of the same caste with no prior history of psychiatric illness and 30 age- and sex-matched controls belonging to 17 different castes with no prior history of psychiatric illness were genotyped for five different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ARNTL gene by TaqMan allele-specific genotyping assay. Statistical significance was assessed by more powerful quasi-likelihood score test-XM. Most of the family members carried the risk alleles and we observed a highly significant SNP rs2279287 (A/G) in ARNTL gene with an allelic frequency of 0.75. Polymorphisms in ARNTL gene disrupt circadian rhythms causing SAD and genetic predisposition becomes more deleterious in the presence of adverse environment.
The present study investigates the socioeconomic risk factors of anaemia among women belonging to eastern Indian states. An attempt has been made to find out differences in anaemia related to social class and place of residence, and age and marital status. It was hypothesized that rural women would have a higher prevalence of anaemia compared with their urban counterparts, particularly among the poorest social strata, and that ever-married women would be at elevated risk of anaemia compared with never-married women, particularly in the adolescent age group. Using data from National Family Health Survey-3, 2005-6, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey that provided information on anaemia level among 19,695 women of this region, the present study found that the prevalence of anaemia was high among all women cutting across social class, location and other attributes. In all 47.9% were mildly anaemic (10.0-11.9.9 g/dl), 16.1% were moderately anaemic (7.0-9.9 g/dl) and 1.6% were severely anaemic (nutritional status of women throughout the life-cycle.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of schizophrenia is thought to be higher in population isolates that have recently been exposed to major and accelerated cultural change, accompanied by ensuing socio-environmental stressors/triggers, than in dominant, mainstream societies. We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of schizophrenia in 329 females and 253 males of a Southwestern American Indian tribe, and in 194 females and 137 males of a Plains American Indian tribe. These tribal groups were evaluated as part of a broader program of gene-environment investigations of alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Methods Semi-structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to allow diagnoses utilizing standardized psychiatric diagnostic criteria, and to limit cultural biases. Study participants were recruited from the community on the basis of membership in pedigrees, and not by convenience. After independent raters evaluated the interviews blindly, DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned by a consensus of experts well-versed in the local cultures. Results Five of the 582 Southwestern American Indian respondents (prevalence = 8.6 per 1000, and one of the 331 interviewed Plains American Indians (prevalence = 3.02 per 1000 had a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lifetime prevalence rates of schizophrenia within these two distinct American Indian tribal groups is consistent with lifetime expectancy rates reported for the general United States population and most isolate and homogeneous populations for which prevalence rates of schizophrenia are available. While we were unable to factor in the potential modifying effect that mortality rates of schizophrenia-suffering tribal members may have had on the overall tribal rates, the incidence of schizophrenia among the living was well within the normative range. Conclusion The occurrence of schizophrenia among members of these two tribal population groups is consistent with prevalence rates reported for
Campbell, R. L.
The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. Using satellite imagery and software to render these images is a cost effective way to investigate this growth. Also, using remotely sensed data and a GIS (geographic information system) package can address different issues that concern people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of my project is to observe land use change on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using Geographic Information Systems such as; ARCGis 9, ENVI, and Multispec, along with Landsat 4, 5, and 7 imagery over the past 20 years.
Byrne, Anne; O'Mahony, Deirdre
In this article, the authors explore the consequences of an American 1930s classic anthropological study for a contemporary rural community in the west of Ireland. The contribution of family, kin, and community relations to sustaining a rural way of life was the primary focus of Arensberg and Kimball's study of Irish farm families published as…
Presenting national statistics on single-parent families, this article illustrates the need for serious study of this phenomenon, suggesting that changing divorce laws, increased single-parent adoptions, and an increase in the number of supportive services for single-parent families are contingencies having significant bearing upon the…
Full Text Available Objective: The object of this study was the identification of effective factors and the prevalence of drug use among rural youths. Method: The study was a scientific-comparative research. The sample was 450 rural youths from the city of Isfahan. The related questionnaires were collected in 15 villages of Isfahan city. Findings: Results showed that between family factors and consumption rate, family rift and family dependency and father's occupational status were effective ones. Also, among the social and emotional factors anomaly, tendency to religious issues and friendship with those addicted to drugs have been effective in getting addiated of rural youths. Among personal factors, the increase of education level can act as an effective factor. Conclusion: the results showed that between tnndency to religious factors and consumption rate there is a negative meaning. Similarly, there is a positive meaning among unemployment, stablishing friendship with addicted, being close to urban places and addiction to drugs.
Holt, Nicholas L; Neely, Kacey C; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie; Pynn, Shannon R; Boyd, Kassi A; Ingstrup, Meghan; Robinson, Zac
Children's engagement in active free play has declined across recent generations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of intergenerational changes in active free play among families from rural areas. We addressed two research questions: (1) How has active free play changed across three generations? (2) What suggestions do participants have for reviving active free play? Data were collected via 49 individual interviews with members of 16 families (15 grandparents, 16 parents, and 18 children) residing in rural areas/small towns in the Province of Alberta (Canada). Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis guided by an ecological framework of active free play. Factors that depicted the changing nature of active free play were coded in the themes of less imagination/more technology, safety concerns, surveillance, other children to play with, purposeful physical activity, play spaces/organized activities, and the good parenting ideal. Suggestions for reviving active free play were coded in the themes of enhance facilities to keep kids entertained, provide more opportunities for supervised play, create more community events, and decrease use of technology. These results reinforce the need to consider multiple levels of social ecology in the study of active free play, and highlight the importance of community-based initiatives to revive active free play in ways that are consistent with contemporary notions of good parenting.
Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P
Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under
Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable
Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; Baskaran, M; Arvind, Hemamalini; Raju, Prema; Ramesh, S Ve; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine
To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in an urban population and compare the same with that of our published rural population data in southern India. Population-based cross-sectional study. Four thousand eight hundred subjects 40 years or older were selected using a multistage random cluster sampling procedure in Chennai city. Three thousand eight hundred fifty (80.2%) subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, pachymetry, optic disc photography, and automated perimetry. Glaucoma was diagnosed using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification. The distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) was obtained from the right eye of the 2532 subjects with normal suprathreshold visual fields. Mean IOP was 16.17+/-3.74 mmHg (97.5th and 99.5th percentiles, 24 mmHg and 30 mmHg). The mean VCDR was 0.43+/-0.17 (97.5th and 99.5th percentiles, 0.7 and 0.8). One hundred thirty-five (64 men, 71 women) subjects had POAG (3.51%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-4.0). Primary open-angle glaucoma subjects (58.4+/-11.3 years) were older (P or =40-year-old south Indian urban population was 3.51%, higher than that of the rural population. The prevalence increased with age, and >90% were not aware of the disease.
Saúde de famílias do Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem Terra e de bóias-frias, Brasil, 2005 Salud de familias del Movimiento de Trabajadores Sin Tierra y de trabajadores rurales "jornaleros", Brasil, 2005 Health of families from the Landless Workers' Movement and temporary rural workers, Brazil, 2005
Fernando Ferreira Carneiro
del Movimiento de los Trabajadores Rurales Sin Tierra, el hecho de ser del Movimiento y estar organizado mejora sus perspectivas de salud, en comparación a los "jornaleros". Los resultados de la modernización conservadora en el campo brasileño ha empeorado las condiciones de vida de los trabajadores rurales "jornaleros" generando una superexplotación del trabajo humano, mientras que la Reforma Agraria ha hecho posible una mejor calidad de vida y salud para las familias, cuando comparadas en las áreas estudiadas.OBJECTIVE: To assess the health conditions of families from the Landless Rural Workers' Movement and temporary rural workers. METHODS: The research involved a comparative study of three populations: a settlement and a camp linked to the Rural Workers' Movement, and the families of temporary rural workers in a city of Southeast Brazil, in 2005. Information relating to sociodemographic characteristics and families were collected by means of questionnaires that were put to 202 families. In addition, structured observation and group discussions were used. A discriminative factor analysis was carried out to confirm differences between the communities. RESULTS: The three communities scored an average of 89%, which implies that they are distinct groups and supports the hypothesis that there are real differences between them when it come to health and lifestyle conditions. There was a high rate of food insecurity (39.5% among temporary rural workers, almost double that of families who were camping and four times greater than those living on settlements. Temporary rural workers' salaries were low and fluctuate, meaning that they were more exposed to pesticides than the families living on settlements or in camps. A striking characteristic of families living on the settlement was that they all practiced animal rearing, unlike the families of temporary rural workers, practically none of whom were able to do so in the city. The perceptions of most families who were
Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.
Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher
Despite the recent surge in society's interest in human violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining the closely related phenomenon of animal cruelty. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents have led to their abuse of animals. Using survey data from 261 inmates, the authors investigate how demographic, familial differences and species type have contributed to the frequency of acts of animal cruelty. In general, early exposure to animal abuse is a strong predictor of the subsequent behavior. However, rural inmates learned to be cruel by watching family members exclusively, whereas urban inmates learned from family members and friends. Moreover, urban inmates chose dogs, cats, and wild animals as their target animals; however, rural inmates chose only cats.
Vishnu Prasad, R; Venkatachalam, J; Singh, Zile
Global contraceptive usage was 63.3 % in 2010 which was 9 % more than that in 1990. NFHS-III 2005-2006 revealed that the contraceptive prevalence rate was 56 % while in the past decade it was 48 %. In India, female sterilization is the most commonly preferred method of contraception accounting for 76 %, while in Tamil Nadu it was 90 %. Thus, this study aims at measuring the prevalence of unmet needs of family planning and its determinants in a rural area of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. The study was carried out as a community-based cross-sectional study in Chunambed panchayat, a rural area in Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India, among 505 women of age group 15-49 years. Cluster random sampling was done to select the households to include in the study. In every household, all the available and eligible women were explained about the study and recruited after obtaining informed consent. Chi-square test was applied for finding the difference in proportion, and p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of unmet need for family planning in our study population was nearly 31 %; it was even more for younger age groups and for the women whose family size was less. 51.7 % of the participants were currently using a contraceptive measure and very few of their partners used contraception. Government health facilities were the major source of contraceptive service and majority of our participants were well aware about the various contraceptive methods. Unmet needs of family planning were high in our study population, and the knowledge about the contraceptive use and family planning was found to be fairly adequate.
Verma, Shyam; Pasternack, Sandra M.; Rütten, Arno; Ruzicka, Thomas; Betz, Regina C.; Hanneken, Sandra
Galli Galli disease (GGD) is the name given to a rare form of acantholytic Dowling-Degos disease. (DDD), the latter itself being a rare condition. We believe we are describing for the first time in Indian dermatologic literature a case of GGD in a family where 25 persons have DDD and have been able to document a KRT5 mutation in four members of the family. Whereas reticulate pigmentation is a hallmark of DDD there are rare reports of mottled pigmentation with multiple asymptomatic hypopigmented macules scattered diffusely along with the pigmentation. All the cases described here show a mottled pigmentation comprising hypo and hyperpigmented asymptomatic macules. After the clinical diagnosis was made by one of the authors (SV) in India, the German authors repeated histological examination and successfully demonstrated a heterozygous nonsense mutation, c.C10T (p.Gln4X), in exon 1 of the KRT5 gene, from various centers in Munich, Bonn, Dusseldorf and Friedrichschafen in Germany. PMID:25284854
Pesut, B; Hooper, B P; Robinson, C A; Bottorff, J L; Sawatzky, R; Dalhuisen, M
Healthcare models for the delivery of palliative care to rural populations encounter common challenges: service gaps, the cost of the service in relation to the population, sustainability, and difficulty in demonstrating improvements in outcomes. Although it is widely agreed that a community capacity-building approach to rural palliative care is essential, how that approach can be achieved, evaluated and sustained remains in question. The purpose of this community-based research project is to test the feasibility and identify potential outcomes of implementing a rural palliative supportive service (RPaSS) for older adults living with life-limiting chronic illness and their family caregiver in the community. This paper reports on the feasibility aspects of the study. RPaSS is being conducted in two co-located rural communities with populations of approximately 10 000 and no specialized palliative services. Participants living with life-limiting chronic illness and their family caregivers are visited bi-weekly in the home by a nurse coordinator who facilitates symptom management, teaching, referrals, psychosocial and spiritual support, advance care planning, community support for practical tasks, and telephone-based support for individuals who must commute outside of the rural community for care. Mixed-method collection strategies are used to collect data on visit patterns; healthcare utilization; family caregiver needs; and participant needs, functional performance and quality of life. A community-based advisory committee worked with the investigative team over a 1-year period to plan RPaSS, negotiating the best fit between research methods and the needs of the community. Recruitment took longer than anticipated with service capacity being reached at 8 months. Estimated service capacity of one nurse coordinator, based on bi-weekly visits, is 25 participants and their family caregivers. A total of 393 in-person visits and 53 telephone visits were conducted between
Phillips, J F; Hossain, M B; Arends-Kuenning, M
Experimental studies demonstrating the effectiveness of nonclinical distribution of contraceptives are typically conducted in settings where contraceptive use is low and unmet need is extensive. Determining the long-term role of active outreach programs after initial demand is met represents an increasingly important policy issue in Asia, where contraceptive prevalence is high and fixed service points are conveniently available. This article examines the long-term rationale for household family planning in Bangladesh-where growing use of contraceptives, rapid fertility decline, and normative change in reproductive preferences are in progress, bringing into question the rationale for large-scale deployment of paid outreach workers. Longitudinal data are analyzed that record outreach encounters and contraceptive use dynamics in a large rural population. Findings demonstrate that outreach has a continuing impact on program effectiveness, even after a decade of household visitation. The policy implications of this finding are reviewed.
Howard Barbara V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Body fat mass distribution and deposition are determined by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. We previously identified evidence for genotype-by-diabetes interaction on obesity traits in Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS participants. To localize these genetic effects, we conducted genome-wide linkage scans of obesity traits in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, and in the combined sample while modeling interaction with diabetes using maximum likelihood methods (SOLAR 2.1.4. Methods SHFS recruited American Indians from Arizona, North and South Dakota, and Oklahoma. Anthropometric measures and diabetes status were obtained during a clinic visit. Marker allele frequencies were derived using maximum likelihood methods estimated from all individuals and multipoint identity by descent sharing was estimated using Loki. We used variance component linkage analysis to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs influencing obesity traits. We tested for evidence of additive and QTL-specific genotype-by-diabetes interactions using the regions identified in the diabetes-stratified analyses. Results Among 245 diabetic and 704 non-diabetic American Indian individuals, we detected significant additive gene-by-diabetes interaction for weight and BMI (P P Conclusion These results suggest distinct genetic effects on body mass in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, and a possible role for one or more genes on chromosome 1 in the pathogenesis of obesity.
Funk, Chris C.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Brown, Molly E.; Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew
Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high, and declining per-capita agricultural capacity retards progress toward Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation have identified another problematic trend: main growing-season rainfall receipts have diminished by ???15% in food-insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain-fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus, late 20th-century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling 'millions of undernourished people' as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed, and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people by 2030. On the other hand, modest increases in per-capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.
Mccarthy, Mary C; Bowers, Howard E; Campbell, Damon M; Parikh, Priti P; Woods, Randy J
Dynamic assessment of the effective surgical workforce recommends 27,300 general surgeons in 2030; 2,525 more than are presently being trained. Rural shortages are already critical and there has been insufficient preparation for this need. A literature review of the factors influencing the choice of rural practice was performed. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed and the Web of Science to identify applicable studies in rural practice, surgical training, and rural general surgery. These articles were reviewed to identify the pertinent reports. The articles chosen for review are directed to four main objectives: 1) description of the challenges of rural practice, 2) factors associated with the choice of rural practice, 3) interventions to increase interest and preparation for rural practice, and 4) present successful rural surgical practice models. There is limited research on the factors influencing surgeons in the selection of rural surgery. The family practice literature suggests that physicians are primed for rural living through early experience, with reinforcement during medical school and residency, and retained through community involvement, and personal and professional satisfaction. However, more research into the factors drawing surgeons specifically to rural surgery, and keeping them in the community, is needed.
Full Text Available Instead of looking at slums as strictly ‘urban problems’ requiring ‘urban solutions’, this paper attempts to build a structural link between growth of slums in urban areas and, what can be called, the ‘decay’ of the rural in India. It contends that uneven development of Indian cities with great spatial disparities – made evident by increasing number of slums – is related to uneven development between rural and urban areas. Thus, in order to grapple with the ‘enigma’ of slums, the political economy of rural areas – from where the migrants living in slums ‘originally’ belong – becomes the essential site to engage with. The paper foregrounds the need to study transformations in the rural domain in order to make sense of the growth of slums in cities. In a nutshell, the argument is that the ‘decay’ of the rural and the ‘swelling’ of the city are to be visualised in hyphenated terms since the rural-urban divide is at the heart of the ‘great urban divide’.
Stephen, R.; Devi, K.S.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Saraswathy, M.
The distribution of calanoid copepods is discussed based on the subsorted taxa of the International Indian Ocean Expedition samples. Of the 32 calanoid taxa only 17 groups were considered as significant components. The family Eycalanidae...
Nicholas E. Hagemeier
Full Text Available Purpose: Practice-based research networks (PBRN seek to shorten the gap between research and application in primary patient care settings. Inclusion of community pharmacies in primary care PBRNs is relatively unexplored. Such a PBRN model could improve care coordination and community-based research, especially in rural and underserved areas. The objectives of this study were to: 1 evaluate rural Appalachian community pharmacy key informants’ perceptions of PBRNs and practice-based research; 2 explore key informants’ perceptions of perceived applicability of practice-based research domains; and 3 explore pharmacy key informant interest in PBRN participation. Methods: The sample consisted of community pharmacies within city limits of all Appalachian Research Network (AppNET PBRN communities in South Central Appalachia. A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from November 2013 to February 2014. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between key informant and practice characteristics, and PBRN interest and perceptions. Findings: A 47.8% response rate was obtained. Most key informants (88% were very or somewhat interested in participating in AppNET. Enrichment of patient care (82.8%, improved relationships with providers in the community (75.9%, and professional development opportunities (69.0% were perceived by more than two-thirds of respondents to be very beneficial outcomes of PBRN participation. Respondents ranked time constraints (63% and workflow disruptions (20% as the biggest barriers to PBRN participation. Conclusion: Key informants in rural Appalachian community pharmacies indicated interest in PBRN participation. Integration of community pharmacies into existing rural PBRNs could advance community level care coordination and promote improved health outcomes in rural and underserved areas. Type: Original Research
Mohammad Jawed Quereishi
Full Text Available Background If many women in Chhattisgarh are not using family planning, it is not due to a lack of knowledge. Knowledge of contraception is nearly universal; 98 percent of currently married women know at least one modern family planning method. Women are most familiar with female sterilization (97 percent, followed by male sterilization (86 percent, the pill (68 percent, the condom (55 percent, and the IUD (40 percent. About two out of every five women (43 percent have knowledge of at least one traditional method. Yet only 45 percent of married women in Chhattisgarh are currently using some method of contraception, about the same as in Madhya Pradesh (44 percent but less than the national average (48 percent. Contraceptive prevalence in Chhattisgarh is considerably higher in urban areas (59 percent than in rural areas (42 percent. Objectives To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning methods, and factors that could affect their use, among the rural females of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Methods A total of 326 females of reproductive age group (15-49years from the rural areas of Bagbahara block of Mahasamund district in Chhattisgarh state were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of semi-structured interview schedule, which consists of demographic data, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practice of different contraceptive methods and factors affecting the use of these methods. Results Most of the respondents (79% were aware of at least one contraceptive method. The most common source of information on contraception was Health staffs (46%, followed by ASHA (Mitanin workers (42.5%, media (7.5% and relatives/friends (4%. Knowledge of non-contraceptive benefits of family planning methods was claimed by only 19% of the respondents, while knowledge about various adverse effects was reported by 32% of the respondents. About 62% of respondents showed favourable attitude towards family planning methods
A major stumbling block for the implementation of Mexico's Global Development Plan has been the country's large rural population of Indians. One government strategy to integrate this sector into the mainstream of society has been to teach Spanish, the official language, as a second language, while at the same time fostering ethnic pride. The…
ArulJothi, K N; Suruthi Abirami, B; Devi, Arikketh
Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a membrane bound receptor maintaining cholesterol homeostasis along with Apolipoprotein B (APOB), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and other genes of lipid metabolism. Any pathogenic variation in these genes alters the function of the receptor and leads to Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed at screening the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes in Hypercholesterolemic patients to define the genetic spectrum of FH in Indian population. Familial Hypercholesterolemia patients (n=78) of South Indian Tamil population with LDL cholesterol and Total cholesterol levels above 4.9mmol/l and 7.5mmol/l with family history of Myocardial infarction were involved. DNA was isolated by organic extraction method from blood samples and LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 gene exons were amplified using primers that cover exon-intron boundaries. The amplicons were screened using High Resolution Melt (HRM) Analysis and the screened samples were sequenced after purification. This study reports 20 variations in South Indian population for the first time. In this set of variations 9 are novel variations which are reported for the first time, 11 were reported in other studies also. The in silico analysis for all the variations detected in this study were done to predict the probabilistic effect in pathogenicity of FH. This study adds 9 novel variations and 11 recurrent variations to the spectrum of LDLR gene mutations in Indian population. All these variations are reported for the first time in Indian population. This spectrum of variations was different from the variations of previous Indian reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.
Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…
Sunil Kumar Raina
Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have largely focused on children in specific settings. The current scenario of research in ASDs is limited largely to clinic-based case reports, case series, and retrospective chart reviews. The present study is the first population-based prevalence study conducted across rural, urban, and tribal populations in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional two-phase study was conducted covering children in the age group of 1–10 years of age across geographical regions representing rural, urban, and tribal populations. The first phase (screening phase involved administration of the Hindi version of the Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism. Those identified as suspected of ASD and 10% of all classified as nonsuspects for autism were also evaluated by the clinical team in second phase (evaluation phase. Results: Forty-three children out of a total of 28,070 children in rural, urban, and tribal area in the age group of 1–10 years were diagnosed as cases of ASD yielding a prevalence of 0.15% (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.15–0.25. Logistic regression analysis showed a two times significantly higher risk of diagnosing ASD in rural area as compared to tribal (odds ratio [OR]; 95% CI = 2.17 [1.04–4.52], P = 0.04. Male sex and upper socioeconomic group of head of family/father had a higher risk of getting diagnosed as autism as compared to lower socioeconomic group (OR; 95% CI - 3.23; 0.24–44.28, P = 0.38. Conclusions: Estimation of true prevalence of ASD in India is going to improve policies on developmental disabilities.
This article talks about four Indian women--Sonia Gandhi, Jayalitha, Mayawati, and Mamta Banerjee--in contrast with India's stereotypes in the political realm. India is a land of mind-boggling diversity. Yet stereotypes about India, which reduce the Indian reality to a unidimensional monolith, hold powerful sway. One such powerful stereotype is that Indian women are brutally oppressed, denied a voice in their family and community, and marginalized in politics as in other power structures. Without doubt, there is much truth in this stereotype; but how can the current political scene be explained? A few women are holding the entire political establishment of India at ransom. The machinations of Sonia Gandhi, Jayalalitha, Mayawati, and Mamta Banerjee have caused enormous upheavals in the polity and recently brought about the fall of the BJP government. Powerful politicians dance to the erratic tunes of these women and are shamefully submissive to them.
Ponicki, William R; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Gaidus, Andrew; Gruenewald, Paul J; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S; Davids, Sharice; Tilsen, Nick
Despite high abstinence rates, American Indians experience elevated rates of many alcohol and other drug problems. American Indians also predominantly reside in poor and rural areas, which may explain some observed health disparities. We investigated whether geographic areas including reservations or large American Indian populations exhibited greater incidence of alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations. We obtained inpatient hospitalization records for 2 Northern Plain states (Nebraska and South Dakota) for the years 2007 to 2012. We constructed zip code counts for 10 categories of hospitalization with diagnoses or injury causation commonly associated with alcohol or drug use. We related these to community sociodemographic characteristics using Bayesian Poisson space-time regression models and examined associations with and without controls for whether each zip code was located within an American Indian reservation. Controlling for other demographic and economic characteristics, zip codes with greater percentage of American Indians exhibited greater incidence for all 10 substance abuse-related health outcomes (9 of 10 well supported); zip code areas within American Indian reservations had greater incidence of self-inflicted injury and drug dependence and abuse, and reduced incidence of alcohol cirrhosis and prescription opioid poisoning. However, the analyses generally demonstrated no well-supported differences in incidence associated with local residence percentages of American Indian versus African American. In our analyses, ethnicity or heredity alone did not account for alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations among Native populations. Aspects of social, economic, and political dimensions of Native lives must be considered in the etiology of alcohol- and drug-related problems for rural-dwelling indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Katre, Amar N; Damle, Sg
It is now understood and accepted that there is a direct transmission of mutans streptococci (MS) from the mother to the child. There is also a direct correlation between the levels of MS in the mother and the caries status of the child. Advanced technologies in molecular biology like chromosomal DNA fngerprinting have established beyond doubt that the mother and the child bear similar strains of MS. A study was designed with the aim of comparing the MS strains between the father, mother and the child in Indian families. A group of 20 Indian families comprising of the father, mother and child were selected and divided into caries free and caries active groups. Mixed salivary samples were collected from the individuals and were cultured for the growth of Mutans streptococci. The colonies were counted on a colony counter and a comparison was made between the mutans streptococcal counts of the mother and the caries status of the child. Further, the genotypes of the father, mother and the child were isolated and compared using the technique of chromosomal DNA fngerprinting. Following electrophoresis, the band pattern obtained was compared for similarities or differences. The results of the same were tabulated and evaluated statistically. When the colony counts of the mother (in CFU/ml) were compared with the 'dft' status of the child, a positive correlation was seen in group II. Intergroup comparison using the unpaired T test was statistically signifcant. Electrophoretic analysis of the chromosomal DNA on the agarose gels revealed identical band patterns in 13 mother-child pairs, which was statistically signifcant. Three of the father-child pairs showed identical band patterns, which was statistically signifcant. Intergroup comparison using Chi-square test was not statistically signifcant. One may conclude that irrespective of the caries status of the child, majority of the mother child pairs share identical strains of MS and hence the mother is the primary source of
Arscott-Mills, Tonya; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Tawana, Gothusang; Mbuka, Deogratias O; Makgabana-Dintwa, Orabile; Sebina, Kagiso; Kebaetse, Masego; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nkomazana, Oathokwa
Botswana's medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. This study explored the impact of rural training on students' attitudes towards rural practice. The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye. The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-year students were invited to complete a questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The thirty-six participants' age averaged 23 years and 48.6% were male. Thirtythree desired urban practice in a public institution or university. Rural training did not influence preferred future practice location. Most desired specialty training outside Botswana but planned to practice in Botswana. Professional stagnation, isolation, poorly functioning health facilities, dysfunctional referral systems, and perceived lack of learning opportunities were barriers to rural practice. Lack of recreation and poor infrastructure were personal barriers. Many appreciated the diversity of practice and supportive staff seen in rural practice. Several considered monetary compensation as an enticement for rural practice. Only those with a rural background perceived proximity to family as an incentive to rural practice. The majority of those interviewed plan to practice in urban Botswana, however, they did identify factors that, if addressed, may increase rural practice in the future. Establishing systems to facilitate professional development, strengthening specialists support, and deploying doctors near their home towns are strategies that may improve retention of doctors in rural areas.Keyords: rural health, student perceptions.
This article draws on ethnographic research to explore the impacts of the current economic crisis on Mexican migrant families in rural Montana. It looks specifically at the ways rural families negotiate gender roles and expectations as they devise survival strategies in response to major economic shifts. My analysis suggests that traditional…
Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. PRIYANKA SRIVASTAVA. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 95 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 905-909 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Novel mutations in the transmembrane natriuretic peptide receptor NPR-B gene in four Indian families with acromesomelic dysplasia, type ...
Income-generating projects in rural communities: from theory to practice - a personal report. ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and .... mine aspects of household resources management by women in one of the rural settlements ..... an administrative course presented by the support organisation to help them run the ...
McConaghy, Cathryn; Lloyd, Linley; Hardy, Joy; Jenkins, Kathy
The academic and social achievements of students in rural schools are very uneven and often absenteeism and suspension rates are high. Factors such as globalisation, economic restructuring, unemployment, youth suicide and family trauma, drought and environmental change (see Bourke & Lockie 2001) also impact on rural schooling and add further…
Nicholas L. Holt
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children’s engagement in active free play has declined across recent generations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of intergenerational changes in active free play among families from rural areas. We addressed two research questions: (1 How has active free play changed across three generations? (2 What suggestions do participants have for reviving active free play? Methods Data were collected via 49 individual interviews with members of 16 families (15 grandparents, 16 parents, and 18 children residing in rural areas/small towns in the Province of Alberta (Canada. Interview recordings were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic analysis guided by an ecological framework of active free play. Results Factors that depicted the changing nature of active free play were coded in the themes of less imagination/more technology, safety concerns, surveillance, other children to play with, purposeful physical activity, play spaces/organized activities, and the good parenting ideal. Suggestions for reviving active free play were coded in the themes of enhance facilities to keep kids entertained, provide more opportunities for supervised play, create more community events, and decrease use of technology. Conclusions These results reinforce the need to consider multiple levels of social ecology in the study of active free play, and highlight the importance of community-based initiatives to revive active free play in ways that are consistent with contemporary notions of good parenting.
Sandhu, Navjot; Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the entrepreneurship education and training (EET) needs of small family businesses operating in the agricultural sector of the Indian economy. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through a survey of 122 agricultural family firms in the Indian state of…
Suicides by young females in rural China contribute substantially to the high rate of suicide and the total number of suicides in China. Given the traditional familial structure that remains largely intact in rural China, this research focuses on whether being married is a risk or protective factor for suicide by young women. I examined 168 rural…
Kulis, Stephen S.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Harthun, Mary L.; Jager, Justin
Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10–17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t-tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen’s d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476
Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe
This study examined how Chinese and American Indian mothers support their young children's early literacy development in everyday interactions. Twenty mother-child dyads in each cultural community participated in the study. Analysis of videotaped interactions indicated that the mothers in the two communities differed greatly in the ways they…
Full Text Available Rural communities face significant challenges regarding the adequate availability of diagnostic-, treatment-, and support-services for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Specifically, a variety of factors, including geographic distance between families and service providers, low reliance on health care professionals, and cultural characteristics, contribute to the diminished availability and utilization of services. Together, these factors lead to risks for delayed ASD screening and diagnosis, yielding lower educational and functional outcomes. The purpose of this review is to outline the specific diagnosis and treatment barriers that affect individuals with ASD and their families in rural settings. Telehealth feasibility and efficacy research is also reviewed, suggesting that telecommunication services may offer an inroad for addressing the specific service barriers faced by rural communities. Together, the current review identifies specific needs for both research and support services that address the specific access barriers characteristic of rural settings.
This paper examines the roles of rural women in crops and poultry production in rural areas in Cross River State, and their contribution to food production and preservation. The paper also revealed that rural women participate in food production and bearing responsibility for food marketing and distribution, family health, ...
Genotype–phenotype relationship of F7 R353Q polymorphism and plasma factor VII coagulant activity in Asian Indian families predisposed to coronary artery ... 258/A, Bommasandra Industrial Area, Bangalore 560 099, India; Thrombosis Research Institute-London, Emmanuel Kaye Building, Manresa Road, Chelsea SW3 ...
Ghosh, Bhola Nath; De, Utpal Kumar
Women living in rural areas are closely associated with the natural environment. Poor families are mostly dependent on natural resources for their survival activities viz. grazing of cattle, collection of water for drinking and cooking purposes and collection of fuel wood. In the poor families due to the compulsion of earning, adult males mostly go for outside activities and sometimes female members of the family also join them. The aforementioned natural resource collection activities are considered to be inferior, less remunerative and hence suitable for the women or young kids to perform. Thus, they are found to be more close to the nature than men and this very close relationship makes them perfect managers of the eco-system in their vicinity. The life of rural women is so much intertwined with the environment that they can't even think of her survival without it. However, there might be significant inter-household differences in the distribution of such activities between male and female members of the families, depending upon their socio-economic characteristics, cultural and religious beliefs and attitude towards women and children. The involvement of women in such activities is also found to be more in the tribal dominated societies. This paper tried to examine the extent to which women in rural Jharkhand are involved in such natural resource collection and management activities. Also, we tried to unearth various economic and cultural reasons and their impact on the involvement of women in such activities across various social and economic groups. The analysis of primary data collected from the rural areas of tribal dominated Jharkhand reveals that income, occupation and status of the families have significant inverse link with the involvement of women and also of girl children at the cost of their educational prospects. Religious and cultural beliefs also enter in the determination of extent of involvement of women and children in the rural society. It is
Williams, Robert C; Elston, Robert C; Kumar, Pankaj; Knowler, William C; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon; Bowden, Donald W; Divers, Jasmin; Freedman, Barry I; Igo, Robert P; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K; Kimmel, Paul L; Klag, Michael J; Kohn, Orly; Langefeld, Carl D; Leehey, David J; Nelson, Robert G; Nicholas, Susanne B; Pahl, Madeleine V; Parekh, Rulan S; Rotter, Jerome I; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Kent D; Thameem, Farook; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Winkler, Cheryl A; Guo, Xiuqing; Zager, Phillip; Hanson, Robert L
The presence of population structure in a sample may confound the search for important genetic loci associated with disease. Our four samples in the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND), European Americans, Mexican Americans, African Americans, and American Indians are part of a genome- wide association study in which population structure might be particularly important. We therefore decided to study in detail one component of this, individual genetic ancestry (IGA). From SNPs present on the Affymetrix 6.0 Human SNP array, we identified 3 sets of ancestry informative markers (AIMs), each maximized for the information in one the three contrasts among ancestral populations: Europeans (HAPMAP, CEU), Africans (HAPMAP, YRI and LWK), and Native Americans (full heritage Pima Indians). We estimate IGA and present an algorithm for their standard errors, compare IGA to principal components, emphasize the importance of balancing information in the ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and test the association of IGA with diabetic nephropathy in the combined sample. A fixed parental allele maximum likelihood algorithm was applied to the FIND to estimate IGA in four samples: 869 American Indians; 1385 African Americans; 1451 Mexican Americans; and 826 European Americans. When the information in the AIMs is unbalanced, the estimates are incorrect with large error. Individual genetic admixture is highly correlated with principle components for capturing population structure. It takes ~700 SNPs to reduce the average standard error of individual admixture below 0.01. When the samples are combined, the resulting population structure creates associations between IGA and diabetic nephropathy. The identified set of AIMs, which include American Indian parental allele frequencies, may be particularly useful for estimating genetic admixture in populations from the Americas. Failure to balance information in maximum likelihood, poly-ancestry models creates biased
Ummenhofer, C. C.; England, M. H.; McIntosh, P. C.; Meyers, G. A.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.; Sen Gupta, A.; Taschetto, A. S.
Variability in the tropical Indian Ocean has widespread effects on rainfall in surrounding countries, including East Africa, India and Indonesia. The leading mode of tropical Indian Ocean variability, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), is a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode characterized by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of opposite sign in the east and west of the basin with an associated large-scale atmospheric re-organisation. Earlier work has often focused on the positive phase of the IOD. However, we show here that the negative IOD phase is an important driver of regional rainfall variability and multi-year droughts. For southeastern Australia, we show that it is actually a lack of the negative IOD phase, rather than the positive IOD phase or Pacific variability, that provides the most robust explanation for recent drought conditions. Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called "Big Dry". The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show that the "Big Dry" and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by tropical Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of characteristic Indian Ocean temperature conditions that are conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the "Big Dry", its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent above-average temperatures. Implications of recent non-uniform warming trends in the Indian Ocean and how that might affect ocean characteristics and climate in
Fahey, Nisha; Soni, Apurv; Allison, Jeroan; Vankar, Jagdish; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Byatt, Nancy; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar
Common mental disorders (CMD) are a constellation of mental health conditions that include depression, anxiety, and other related nonpsychotic affective disorders. Qualitative explanatory models of mental health among reproductive-aged women in India reveal that distress is strongly associated with CMD. The relationship of perceived stress and CMD might be attenuated or exacerbated based on an individual's sociodemographic characteristics. To screen for Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among reproductive-aged women from rural western India and explore how the relationship between perceived stress and CMD screening status varies by sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional survey of 700 women from rural Gujarat, India. CMD screening status was assessed using Self-Reported Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20). Factors associated with CMD screening status were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Effect modification for the relationship of perceived stress and CMD screening status was assessed using interaction terms and interpreted in terms of predicted probabilities. The analytic cohort included 663 women, with roughly 1 in 4 screening positive for CMD (157, 23.7%). Poor income, low education, food insecurity, and recurrent thoughts after traumatic events were associated with increased risk of positive CMD screen. Perceived stress was closely associated with CMD screening status. Higher education attenuated the relationship between high levels of stress and CMD screening status (82.3%, 88.8%, 32.9%; P value for trend: 0.03). Increasing income and age attenuated the link between moderate stress and CMD. Our findings suggest a high burden of possible CMD among reproductive-aged women from rural western India. Higher education might mitigate the association between elevated stress and CMD. Future efforts to improve mental health in rural India should focus on preventing CMD by enhancing rural women's self-efficacy and problem-solving capabilities to overcome
Full Text Available Background: The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East AfricanâIndian (EAI lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. Methods: The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unitâvariable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Results: Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%, having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. Conclusion: This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Keywords: East AfricanâIndian family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tropical Asian countries
Full Text Available Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India.
Sinha, Gita; Peters, David H; Bollinger, Robert C
The emergence of HIV in rural India has the potential to heighten gender inequity in a context where women already suffer significant health disparities. Recent Indian health policies provide new opportunities to identify and implement gender-equitable rural HIV services. In this review, we adapt Mosley and Chen's conceptual framework of health to outline determinants for HIV health services utilization and outcomes. Examining the framework through a gender lens, we conduct a comprehensive literature review for gender-related gaps in HIV clinical services in rural India, focusing on patient access and outcomes, provider practices, and institutional partnerships. Contextualizing findings from rural India in the broader international literature, we describe potential strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India, as responses to the following three questions: (1) What gender-specific patient needs should be addressed for gender-equitable HIV testing and care? (2) What do health care providers need to deliver HIV services with gender equity? (3) How should institutions enforce and sustain gender-equitable HIV services? Data at this early stage indicate substantial gender-related differences in HIV services in rural India, reflecting prevailing gender norms. Strategies including gender-specific HIV testing and care services would directly address current gender-specific patient needs. Rural care providers urgently need training in gender sensitivity and HIV-related communication and clinical skills. To enforce and sustain gender equity, multi-sectoral institutions must establish gender-equitable medical workplaces, interdisciplinary HIV services partnerships, and oversight methods, including analysis of gender-disaggregated data. A gender-equitable approach to rural India's rapidly evolving HIV services programmes could serve as a foundation for gender equity in the overall health care system. PMID:19244284
Arcury, Thomas A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Bell, Ronny A.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Reynolds, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.
Objectives This analysis delineates the predisposing, need, and enabling factors that are significantly associated with regular and recent dental care in a multi-ethnic sample of rural older adults. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Almost no edentulous rural older adults received dental care. Slightly more than one-quarter (27.1%) of dentate rural older adults received regular dental care and slightly more than one-third (36.7%) received recent dental care. Predisposing (education) and enabling (regular place for dental care) factors associated with receiving regular and recent dental care among dentate participants point to greater resources being the driving force in receiving dental care. Contrary to expectations of the Behavioral Model of Health Services, those with the least need (e.g., better self-rated oral health) received regular dental care; this has been referred to as the Paradox of Dental Need. Conclusions Regular and recent dental care are infrequent among rural older adults. Those not receiving dental care are those who most need care. Community access to dental care and the ability of older adults to pay for dental care must be addressed by public health policy to improve the health and quality of life of older adults in rural communities. PMID:22536828
Rinalini Pathak Kakati
Full Text Available With the liberalization of the Indian Economy in the mid 1990’s, substantial growth has been seen in the rural areas. Rural India which comprises around 70% of the total population of the country has become an emerging area for marketers. This study tries to identify key market variables that can help in crafting rural market segments. The socio-economic classification (SEC 2011 which segments the market based on education level and possession of consumer durables. This study examines income as another key market variable together with education in the creation of distinct segments or hybrid segments. It then further identifies important criteria like technical, promotional and social in influencing consumers’ behaviour in the context of the purchase of consumer durables which can thereby help to create segments. The study concludes that the increase in education level has higher impact than increase in income on the important identified purchase criteria.
Novel inhibitor of DNA ligase IV with a promising cancer therapeutic ... The complex history of the selective model of antibody formation .... Hypoxia influences expression profile of Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 in Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758): A .... Gene therapy in India: A focus.
Innes, Anthea; Szymczynska, Paulina; Stark, Cameron
This paper explores the reported difficulties and satisfactions with diagnostic processes and post-diagnostic support offered to people with dementia and their families living in the largest remote and rural region in Scotland. A consultation with 18 participants, six people with dementia and 12 family members, was held using semi-structured interviews between September and November 2010. Three points in the diagnostic process were explored: events and experiences pre-diagnosis; the experience of the diagnostic process; and post-diagnostic support. Experiences of people with dementia and their carers varied at all three points in the diagnostic process. Participant experiences in this study suggest greater efforts are required to meet Government diagnosis targets and that post-diagnostic support needs to be developed and monitored to ensure that once a diagnosis is given people are well-supported. Without post-diagnostic provision Government targets for diagnosis are just that, quota targets, rather than a means to improve service experiences.
Hardre, Patricia L.
Rural schools, students, teachers, administrators, families and community leaders face unique challenges from those of their urban and suburban counterparts. This paper investigates motivation in rural secondary schools, with a particular focus on mathematics, from teacher and student perspectives. It integrates recent research on math learning…
Vafaee-Najar, Ali; Nejatzadegan, Zohreh; Pourtaleb, Arefeh; Kaffashi, Shahnaz; Vejdani, Marjan; Molavi-Taleghani, Yasamin; Ebrahimipour, Hosein
Following the implementation of family physician plan in rural areas, the quantity of provided services has been increased, but what leads on the next topic is the improvement in expected quality of service, as well. The present study aims at determining the gap between patients' expectation and perception from the quality of services provided by family physicians during the spring and summer of 2012. This was a cross-sectional study in which 480 patients who referred to family physician centers were selected with clustering and simple randomized method. Data were collected through SERVQUAL standard questionnaire and were analyzed with descriptive statistics, using statistical T-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests by SPSS 16 at a significance level of 0.05. The difference between the mean scores of expectation and perception was about -0.93, which is considered as statistically significant difference (P≤ 0.05). Also, the differences in five dimensions of quality were as follows: tangible -1.10, reliability -0.87, responsiveness -1.06, assurance -0.83, and empathy -0.82. Findings showed that there was a significant difference between expectation and perception in five concepts of the provided services (P≤ 0.05). There was a gap between the ideal situation and the current situation of family physician quality of services. Our suggestion is maintaining a strong focus on patients, creating a medical practice that would exceed patients' expectations, providing high-quality healthcare services, and realizing the continuous improvement of all processes. In both tangible and responsive, the gap was greater than the other dimensions. It is recommended that more attention should be paid to the physical appearance of the health center environment and the availability of staff and employees.
Full Text Available Rural development policy deals with achieving goals for rural areas and a wide range of socio-economic activities are included within it. This work intends to connect rural development policies with the occurrence of domestic violence in rural areas. The area of research is the territory of Tuzla Canton, which is, by definition of OECD (less than 150 habitants/km2, a predominantly rural area. Domestic violence is a wide spread form of violence and a discrimination against women. Domestic violence includes all forms of violence occurring in the family, expanding the possibilities that perpetrators of violence and victims of violence may even be persons who do not live in the family but are related to family members, e.g. former partners, relatives, etc. Research results show that victims of domestic violence are in 90% of the cases women (wives, mothers, daughters, sisters, etc. and that domestic violence is constantly increasing each following year. All forms of violence over women come stem from a principal discrimination towards women which results in coerce or use of force. For that reason, violence over women is a manifestation of a fundamentally unequal position of women and men, and it represents a form of discrimination against women. This paper uses data acquired from Federal Office of Statistics of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and statistical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tuzla Canton. On the basis of the gathered data, we employed the descriptive method, the method of analysis and synthesis, as well as the comparative method of analysis. The hypothesis of this paper was the assumption that 'women in rural areas are more frequently victims of domestic violence than women living in urban areas'.
Harmon, Hobart; Tate, Veronica; Stevens, Jennifer; Wilborn, Sandy; Adams, Sue
The goal of the Rural Math Excel Partnership (RMEP) project, a development project funded by the U.S. Department of Education Investing in Innovation (i3) grant program, was to develop a model of shared responsibility among families, teachers, and communities in rural areas as collective support for student success in and preparation for advanced…
Rourke, James; Asghari, Shabnam; Hurley, Oliver; Ravalia, Mohamed; Jong, Michael; Parsons, Wanda; Duggan, Norah; Stringer, Katherine; O'Keefe, Danielle; Moffatt, Scott; Graham, Wendy; Sturge Sparkes, Carolyn; Hippe, Janelle; Harris Walsh, Kristin; McKay, Donald; Samarasena, Asoka
This report describes the community context, concept and mission of The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland (Memorial), Canada, and its 'pathways to rural practice' approach, which includes influences at the pre-medical school, medical school experience, postgraduate residency training, and physician practice levels. Memorial's pathways to practice helped Memorial to fulfill its social accountability mandate to populate the province with highly skilled rural generalist practitioners. Programs/interventions/initiatives: The 'pathways to rural practice' include initiatives in four stages: (1) before admission to medical school; (2) during undergraduate medical training (medical degree (MD) program); (3) during postgraduate vocational residency training; and (4) after postgraduate vocational residency training. Memorial's Learners & Locations (L&L) database tracks students through these stages. The Aboriginal initiative - the MedQuest program and the admissions process that considers geographic or minority representation in terms of those selecting candidates and the candidates themselves - occurs before the student is admitted. Once a student starts Memorial's MD program, the student has ample opportunities to have rural-based experiences through pre-clerkship and clerkship, of which some take place exclusively outside of St. John's tertiary hospitals. Memorial's postgraduate (PG) Family Medicine (FM) residency (vocational) training program allows for deeper community integration and longer periods of training within the same community, which increases the likelihood of a physician choosing rural family medicine. After postgraduate training, rural physicians were given many opportunities for professional development as well as faculty development opportunities. Each of the programs and initiatives were assessed through geospatial rurality analysis of administrative data collected upon entry into and during the MD program and PG training (L
Sahu, S. K.; Schultz, M. G.; Beig, G.
In recent years, India developed the world's 2nd largest telecom network based largely on mobile phone connections. The energy demand of the telecom sector especially in rural areas is mainly fueled by diesel combustion in mid-size generators due to either lack of grid power or unstable provision of electricity. This study quantifies the magnitude of emissions from the Indian telecom sector and presents a gridded inventory for the year 2011 with a spatial distribution derived on the provincial level including information on urban versus rural telecom installations. The estimated total NOx, PM, CO, BC, SO2, HC and CO2 emissions are found to be 295 ± 196 Gg/yr, 155 ± 108 Gg/yr, 61 ± 41 Gg/yr, 28 ± 18 Gg/yr, 114 ± 12 Gg/yr 19.50 ± 13 Gg/yr and 27.9 ± 12 million tons/yr, respectively. The future development of emissions from this sector will depend on the rate of electrification and possible market saturation. Air quality in rural areas of India could be improved by replacing diesel generators with renewable energy sources or electricity from the grid.
Samuelkamaleshkumar, Selvaraj; Radhika, Somasundaram; Cherian, Binu; Elango, Aarumugam; Winrose, Windsor; Suhany, Baby T; Prakash, M Henry
To explore community reintegration in rehabilitated South Indian persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to compare the level of community reintegration based on demographic variables. Survey. Rehabilitation center of a tertiary care university teaching hospital. Community-dwelling persons with SCI (N=104). Not applicable. Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique (CHART). The mean scores for each CHART domain were physical independence 98+/-5, social Integration 96+/-11, cognitive independence 92+/-17, occupation 70+/-34, mobility 65+/-18, and economic self sufficiency 53+/-40. Demographic variables showed no statistically significant difference with any of the CHART domains except for age and mobility, level of education, and social integration. Persons with SCI in rural South India who have completed comprehensive, mostly self-financed, rehabilitation with an emphasis on achieving functional ambulation, family support, and self-employment and who attend a regular annual follow-up show a high level of community reintegration in physical independence, social integration, and cognitive independence. CHART scores in the domains of occupation, mobility, and economic self-sufficiency showed lower levels of community reintegration. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Andrilla, C Holly A; Porter, Michael P; Rosenblatt, Roger A; Patel, Shilpen; Doescher, Mark P
Geographic barriers and limited availability of cancer specialists may influence early prostate cancer treatment options for rural men. This study compares receipt of different early prostate cancer treatments between rural and urban patients. Using 2004-2006 SEER Limited-Use Data, 51,982 early prostate cancer patients were identified (T1c, T2a, T2b, T2c, T2NOS; no metastases) who were most likely to benefit from definitive treatment (rural-urban residence overall, and for different sociodemographic and cancer characteristics, and different states based on logistic regression analyses, using general estimating equation methods to account for clustering by county. Adjusted definitive treatment rates were lower for rural (83.7%) than urban (87.1%) patients with early-stage prostate cancer (P ≤ .01). Rural men were more likely than urban men to receive non-definitive surgical treatment and no initial treatment. The lowest definitive treatment rates were among rural subgroups: 70 to 74 years (73.9%), African Americans (75.6%), American Indians/Alaska Natives (77.8%), single/separated/divorced (76.8%), living in New Mexico (69.3%), and living in counties with persistent poverty (79.6%). Between 2004 and 2006, this adjusted analysis found that men who were living in rural areas were less likely to receive definitive treatment for their early-stage prostate cancer than those living in urban areas. Certain rural patient groups with prostate cancer need particular attention to ensure their access to appropriate treatment. Rural providers, rural health care systems, and cancer advocacy and support organizations should ensure resources are in place so that the most vulnerable rural groups (men between 60 and 74 years of age; African American men; men who are single, separated, or divorced; and men living in rural New Mexico) can make informed prostate cancer treatment choices based on their preferences. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.
Full Text Available Introduction: Every family physician has a key role in achieving the goals of the family physician program (FPP. Low satisfaction of physicians in certain areas of Iran and their low maintenance level in the program is quite challenging. The aims of the present study were; (1 to assess the attitude of rural/rural-urban family physicians about FPP and (2 to investigate their interest toward participation in urban FPP and (3 to explore the influencing factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 137 family physicians who were working in rural/rural-urban FPP in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Iran. A self-designed valid and reliable questionnaire including demographic data and thirty questions on the participants' attitudes toward the FPP in Likert scale were used. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression models using SPSS software. Results: 49.3% of physicians were interested in continuing their cooperation in the urban-FPP. The mean total attitude score was 62.18 out of 100. The highest agreement and positive attitude of physicians were related to achievements of the program goals dimension. Multiple analyses showed that gender (odds ratio [OR] =5.5; male vs. female and employment status (OR = 16.7 and 10.9 for permanent employment and by contract compared to legal obligation, respectively were significantly associated with physicians' willingness toward participation in the urban-FPP. Conclusion: About half of the studied physicians were interested toward participation in the urban-FPP; Male physicians more than females and permanent employees more than others were willing and interested to participate in the urban-FPP.
Chen, Walter; Shiao, Wen-Been; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh
Different geographical areas with unique social cultures or societies might influence immigrant health. This study examines whether health inequities and different social factors exist regarding the health of rural and urban married Asian immigrants. A survey was conducted on 419 rural and 582 urban married Asian immigrants in Taiwan in 2009. Whereas the descriptive results indicate a worse mental health status between rural and urban married Asian immigrants, rural married immigrants were as mentally healthy as urban ones when considering different social variables. An analysis of regional stratification found different social-determinant patterns on rural and urban married immigrants. Whereas social support is key for rural immigrant physical and mental health, acculturation (i.e., language proficiency), socioeconomics (i.e., working status), and family structure (the number of family members and children living in the family) are key to the mental health of urban married immigrants in addition to social support. This study verifies the key roles of social determinants on the subjective health of married Asian immigrants. Area-differential patterns on immigrant health might act as a reference for national authorities to (re)focus their attention toward more area-specific approaches for married Asian immigrants.
Johnson, Amy Suzanne
This article considers the uses of literacy within the Jones family (all names are pseudonyms), an African American family who lives in the rural South of the United States. Drawing on life history data with three women in the Jones family--Harriet Jones (grandmother), Sally Harris (mother), and Lola Harris (granddaughter)--the author traces how…
Ramprasad, Vedam Lakshmi; Thool, Alka; Murugan, Sakthivel; Nancarrow, Derek; Vyas, Prateep; Rao, Srinivas Kamalakar; Vidhya, Authiappan; Ravishankar, Krishnamoorthy; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy
A four-generation family containing eight affected males who inherited X-linked developmental lens opacity and microcornea was studied. Some members in the family had mild to moderate nonocular clinical features suggestive of Nance-Horan syndrome. The purpose of the study was to map genetically the gene in the large 57-live-member Asian-Indian pedigree. PCR-based genotyping was performed on the X-chromosome, by using fluorescent microsatellite markers (10-cM intervals). Parametric linkage analysis was performed by using two disease models, assuming either recessive or dominant X-linked transmission by the MLINK/ILINK and FASTLINK (version 4.1P) programs (http:www.hgmp.mrc.ac.uk/; provided in the public domain by the Human Genome Mapping Project Resources Centre, Cambridge, UK). The NHS gene at the linked region was screened for mutation. By fine mapping, the disease gene was localized to Xp22.13. Multipoint analysis placed the peak LOD of 4.46 at DSX987. The NHS gene mapped to this region. Mutational screening in all the affected males and carrier females (heterozygous form) revealed a truncating mutation 115C-->T in exon 1, resulting in conversion of glutamine to stop codon (Q39X), but was not observed in unaffected individuals and control subjects. conclusions. A family with X-linked Nance-Horan syndrome had severe ocular, but mild to moderate nonocular, features. The clinical phenotype of the truncating mutation (Q39X) in the NHS gene suggests allelic heterogeneity at the NHS locus or the presence of modifier genes. X-linked families with cataract should be carefully examined for both ocular and nonocular features, to exclude Nance-Horan syndrome. RT-PCR analysis did not suggest nonsense-mediated mRNA decay as the possible mechanism for clinical heterogeneity.
Full Text Available Research Question: What are the social problems of aged persons in a rural population? Objectives: i To study social problems of aged. ii To identify measures to eliminate them. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of Machhra Rural Health & Training Centre attached with Deptt. of SPM, Medical College, Meerut. Participants: Population above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 1000 households from 5 villages, which had 464 participants. Study Variables: Chi- square test. Results: In all, 259 (55.8% aged persons were engaged in productive work while 205 (44.2% were not doing any productive work. Of 376 aged persons living in joint families, 207 (55% were being respected, 71(18.9% were indifferently treated and 98 (26.1% were being neglected by family members. Recommendations: It is a strong case for proper planning to improve the lot of old age population especially for their social problems at the earliest.
Zhang, Yuping; Kao, Grace; Hannum, Emily
In this article, the authors focus on a poor rural area in northwestern China and investigates whether the gender attitudes of mothers can be linked to their plans for educating their own children in the future. Using recent longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (GSCF), a survey of rural 9-12-year-old children, families,…
... (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS ORGANIZATION Functional Organization of the Rural Development Mission... oversight and leadership on major program functions. Major program functions include: Single Family and...
Rural Poverty is one of the greatest social problems confronting the world today. The problem is more pronounced in the developing countries. Ghana is no exception to this global problem of rural poverty. Ghana as a nation has adopted a lot of measures to address poverty. From the early 1980's to 2002, the country has ...
My family encouraged my school and college education. I did my bachelor's from ... In middle-class Bengali families it was not common for a girl to stay on her own in ... I joined the Indian Institute of Science as a research asso- ciate but fortunately ... on the other hand, I feel I have achieved many things in my aca- demic life ...
Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith
Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. The goal of the project was to identify differences in the beliefs and practices of Indian and Euro-Canadian mothers that would affect patterns of talk to children. A total of 47 Indian mothers and 51 Euro-Canadian mothers of preschool age children completed a written survey concerning child-rearing practices and beliefs, especially those about talk to children. Discriminant analyses indicated clear cross-cultural differences and produced functions that could predict group membership with a 96% accuracy rate. Items contributing most to these functions concerned the importance of family, perceptions of language learning, children's use of language in family and society, and interactions surrounding text. Speech-language pathologists who wish to adapt their services for families of Indian heritage should remember the centrality of the family, the likelihood that there will be less emphasis on early independence and achievement, and the preference for direct instruction.
Khan, Nikhat; Lipsa, Anuja; Arunachal, Gautham; Ramadwar, Mukta; Sarin, Rajiv
Colo-Rectal Cancer is a common cancer worldwide with 5-10% cases being hereditary. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) syndrome is due to germline mutations in the APC or rarely MUTYH gene. NTHL1, POLD1, POLE have been recently reported in previously unexplained FAP cases. Unlike the Caucasian population, FAP phenotype and its genotypic associations have not been widely studied in several geoethnic groups. We report the first FAP cohort from South Asia and the only non-Caucasian cohort with comprehensive analysis of APC, MUTYH, NTHL1, POLD1, POLE genes. In this cohort of 112 individuals from 53 FAP families, we detected germline APC mutations in 60 individuals (45 families) and biallelic MUTYH mutations in 4 individuals (2 families). No NTHL1, POLD1, POLE mutations were identified. Fifteen novel APC mutations and a new Indian APC mutational hotspot at codon 935 were identified. Eight very rare FAP phenotype or phenotypes rarely associated with mutations outside specific APC regions were observed. APC genotype-phenotype association studies in different geo-ethnic groups can enrich the existing knowledge about phenotypic consequences of distinct APC mutations and guide counseling and risk management in different populations. A stepwise cost-effective mutation screening approach is proposed for genetic testing of south Asian FAP patients.
Coverage of NJFP includes: Family medicine; Primary health care; District health; Rural health; Health promotion Prevention of disease and disability ;Community oriented primary care ;Education and training of professionals and health workers in primary health care and family medicine; Medical informatics and ...
Gallagher, Katherine Steiger; Davis, Ann McGrath; Malone, Brett; Landrum, Yasuko; Black, William
Objective To describe baseline characteristics of participants in a pediatric obesity intervention tailored specifically to rural families delivered via telemedicine. Methods Randomized-control trial comparing a family-based behavioral intervention to a usual care condition. Participants Fifty-eight first through fifth graders and their parents from the rural Midwest. Measures Demographic, body mass index (BMI), Actigraph activity monitor information, 24-h dietary recalls, Child Behavior Chec...
Ibrahim, I. M. Saleh; Kreama, N. M.; Khalat, M. A.
One of the obstacles in rural electrification is choosing the type of the electric source which best fits rural areas technically, socially, and economically. Renewable sources can be used to electrify rural areas. Rural electrification in Libya by photovoltaic systems in a national program which is devoted to electrify isolated villages, as part of this program the installation of 300 systems was started at the beginning of the year 2003 with a total power of 400 K Wp, the sizes of stand alone systems are 1.8 K Wp, 1.2 K Wp, 0.75 K Wp, and 0.15 K Wp, beside a hybrid system of diesel and PV. The systems was designed to supply different family needs a total of 5000 inhabitants will benefit from this project. In this paper we will introduce the rural photovoltaic electrification in Libya program, company the performance of three different PV sizes through the first two years of working. The systems performing well and with performance ratio much more than the deigned, very little power failure was reported, and there are social and technical issues to be addressed before, and after the installation of the PV system.(Author)
Amir Mozafar Amini
Full Text Available Nowadays, Internet access and use of information resources in all human societies are experiencing a rising trend, and different communities are used each with multiple infrastructures due to the benefits of ICT. The present study was based on applied research. In this research, a hybrid approach involving quantitative methods (survey and qualitative (observation, interviews was used. Statistical population of this study consists of two parts, the first part responsible for rural ICT offices, with a population of 125 people using Cochran Formula 80 subjects were selected as first sample, and the second part of the rural of first sample villages with a population of 84,836 people using Cochran formula and randomized-comparative method were studied as second sample. The questionnaire was subjected to reliability testing by using data collection in the pilot study with Cronbach’s Alpha value 0.73 to 0.95 for all variables. SPSS statistical software was used to analysis the data. The results of the study indicate that the overall performance of the agencies providing services to the rural was lower-middle in the offices in banking services has received first place, and the final ranking in the provision of health services. The results of study showed that rural employment, level education and family size effect on the rate of rural ICT offices.
Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Hossain, Mazeda; Topolska, Monika; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka
Violence against women in the aftermath of conflict represents a growing area of concern. However, little is known about violence perpetrated by a woman's in-laws and how these experiences may be related to adverse experiences during a crisis. Therefore, guided by the ecological model, the objectives of the following analysis were to (1) document adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women and (2) investigate the association between such experiences and abuse perpetrated by partners' extended families, among a sample of women residing in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Utilising data from a baseline survey conducted in 2010, we generated descriptive statistics and used generalised estimating equations to assess the relationships of interest. Women whose family was victimised during the crisis had 1.7 times the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to those women whose families did not experience such adversity (95% CI: 1.1-2.4), and women who experienced a personal form of adversity had twice the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to women who did not report victimisation (95% CI: 1.2-3.2). Being forced to flee was not statistically associated with in-law abuse. Findings underscore the importance of addressing in-law abuse in order to promote women's health in post-conflict settings.
Maia, Alexandre Gori; Sakamoto, Camila Strobl
This study analysed the impact of changing family structure on income distribution. Specifically, it analysed how changes in the proportions of different categories of family in the population contributed to increases in the income of the richest and poorest social strata in Brazil, and the consequent impacts on income inequality. Rural and urban families were compared in order to understand how these dynamics had different impacts on more developed (urban) and less developed (rural) areas. The results emphasize how changes observed in family structure are more pronounced among the richest families, contributing to an increase in (i) the income of the richest families and (ii) income inequality between the richest and poorest families, as well as between urban and rural areas.
Ghosh, P.; Arah, O. A.; Talukdar, A.; Sur, D.; Babu, G. R.; Sengupta, P.; Detels, R.
There is still a paucity of research on the sociodemographic and other underlying factors associated with HIV transmission among women in India. This study was designed to investigate such factors in sexually experienced Indian women. We used data from the National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS-3),
Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P
We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.
This resource guide outlines one of four units designed for grade 1. Some background material on the Quecha speaking Indians of Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador is presented for the teacher on the family structure and the economy, emphasizing subsistence, technology, clothing, division of labor, and sexual differentiation of labor. Major concepts…
Zhang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyu
Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide. We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what are found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts. Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol. We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims. Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ginorio, Angela B.; Huston, Michelle; Frevert, Katie; Seibel, Jane Bierman
The Rural Girls in Science (RGS) program was developed to foster the interest in science, engineering, and mathematics among rural high school girls in the state of Washington. Girls served include American Indians, Latinas, and Whites. This article provides an overview of the program and its outcomes not only for the participants (girls, teachers, counselors, and schools) but the researchers. Lessons learned from and about the participants are presented, and lessons learned from the process are discussed to illustrate how RGS moved from a focus on individuals to a focus on the school. The initial guiding concepts (self-esteem and scientific pipeline) were replaced by “possible selves” and our proposed complementary concepts: science-affirming and affirming science education.
Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.
Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…
who reside in the rural areas as family units (Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria ... cooperatives, individuals through private initiatives, corporate bodies as well as ..... from similar cultural background have many things in common.
Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke
to out-migration, although the hypothetical way of questioning leaves uncertainty about the actual scale of out-migration. Child families appear to be the most likely out-migrants. Elderly people may be hardest hit by a hospital closure, being most reliant on health care and least inclined to move away.......Rural hospital closures are high on the current health care agenda in Denmark. One raised concern is that rural hospital closures may further decrease population numbers in rural areas, as closures may induce some residents to move away from affected areas, i.e. closer to health care services...
Prasad, Shailendra; Hung, Peiyin; Henning-Smith, Carrie; Casey, Michelle; Kozhimannil, Katy
Workforce issues constrain obstetric care services in rural US hospitals, and one strategy hospitals use is to employ physicians to provide obstetric care. However, little is known about the relationship between hospital employment of maternity care physicians and use of obstetric care procedures in rural hospitals. We examined the association between obstetric physician employment and use of cesareans and nonindicated labor induction. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone survey of all 306 rural hospitals providing obstetric care in 9 states from November 2013 to March 2014 and linked the survey data (N = 263, 86% response rate) to all-payer childbirth data on maternity care utilization from 2013 Statewide Inpatient Database (SID) hospital discharge data. Using logistic regression models, we assessed the proportion of a hospital's maternity care physicians employed by the hospital and estimated its association with utilization of low-risk and nonindicated cesareans, and nonindicated labor induction. Rural hospitals that employed family physicians but not obstetricians had lower cesarean rates among low-risk pregnancies. Rural hospitals that employed only obstetricians did not show a relationship between employment and procedure utilization. Across hospitals with both obstetricians and family physicians, a 10% higher proportion of obstetricians employed was associated with 4.6% higher low-risk cesarean rates (4.6% [0.7%-8.4%]), while no significant relationship was found for the proportion of family physicians employed by a hospital. In rural US hospitals, associations between physician employment and obstetric procedure use differed by physician mix and the types of physicians employed. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.
Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; DeBruyn, Lemyra M.
Argues for the existence of historical unresolved grief among American Indians. Outlines the historical legacy of war, genocide, and boarding schools resulting in intergenerational trauma and a host of associated social problems. Suggests healing strategies that integrate modern and traditional approaches to healing at the individual, family, and…
Agte, Vaishali V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tarwadi, Kirtan V
To identify dietary, environmental and socio-economic factors associated with mild zinc deficiency, three zinc status indices; erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn), plasma zinc and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in free living and apparently healthy Indian population. Dietary patterns of 232 men and 223 women (20-65 yr) from rural, industrial and urban regions of Western India were evaluated by food frequency questionnaire. RBCMZn was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry, hemoglobin and serum ceruloplasmin by spectrophotometer. On a sub sample (48 men and 51 women) plasma zinc and SOD were also assessed. Mean RBCMZn was 0.5 +/- 0.1 micromols/g protein with 46% individuals showing zinc deficiency. Mean plasma zinc was 0.98 +/- 0.12 microg/mL with 25% men and 2.5% women having values below normal range. Mean SOD was 0.97 +/- 0.1 (u/mL cells). A significant positive correlation was observed between intakes of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and milk products with RBCMZn status (p plasma zinc (p > 0.2). Cereal and legume intakes were negatively correlated with RBCMZn (p plasma zinc (p 0.2). Fruit and other vegetable intake were positively correlated with SOD (p Plasma zinc indicated positive association with zinc, thiamin and riboflavin intakes (p plasma zinc and SOD. Prominent determinants of zinc status were intakes of beta-carotene and zinc along with environmental conditions and family size.
Morshed, Alexandra B.; Davis, Sally M.; Keane, Patricia C.; Myers, Orrin B.; Mishra, Shiraz I.
Background: The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise is a multicomponent obesity-prevention intervention, which was evaluated among Head Start (HS) centers in American Indian and predominantly Hispanic communities in rural New Mexico. This study examines the intervention's foodservice outcomes: fruits, vegetables, whole grains,…
Pachón Ariza Fabio Alberto
Full Text Available Rural development as the notion of development has been strongly influenced by the idea of economic growth. Conversely, the rural development road has been focus on agricultural modernization of production systems, intensive use of chemical inputs to increase levels and technology transfer. The actual rural reality has conducted to a revaluation of what rural means and therefore its development. In these sense has grown the importance of rural related activities linked to the diversification and generating of extra revenues for rural families. This could be one of the cases behind this change in perceptions on previous rural development, giving more importance to other aspects such as cultural diversity, community participation, decision taking, decentralization processes, cultural values, and in consequence hot associate rural development with agricultural development.El desarrollo rural al igual que el sólo desarrollo, ha estado fuertemente influenciado por la idea que lo liga con el crecimiento económico. Concebido de esta forma, la manera como se ha intentado alcanzar desarrollo rural ha sido por medio de la modernización de los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, del uso indiscriminado de insumos químicos para aumentar los niveles productivos y de transferencia de tecnología. La realidad que se vive en el sector rural ha hecho que se evolucione hacia una revaloración de lo que significa lo rural y, de esta manera, también su desarrollo. Por este camino han tomado más importancia actividades conexas a lo productivo agropecuario y también la diversificación de las formas de generación de ingresos para las familias rurales. Ésta podría ser una de las causas para que también cambie la percepción que existía sobre el desarrollo rural y se brinde más importancia a otros aspectos como la aceptación de la diversidad, la participación de la comunidad en la toma de decisiones, la descentralización de la administración, el
Singh, P N
3 phases can be identified in India's family planning program in the 4 decades since the country achieved its independence: a stage designed to improve the infrastructure of family planning; a phase of integration of different health and family welfare services; and an attempt of community involvement and universal coverage. At this time there is a widespread infrastructure and a growing awareness of family planning services. The birthrate has declined from 41.2/1000 in the 1960s to 33.3/1000 in the 1980s; the mortality rate declined from 27.4 to 14.2. The current facilities of family welfare services are inadequate, particularly in rural areas. The present provision of auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMS) at the rate of 1/5000 can cover effectively only 1/3 of eligible couples. Further, in rural areas, communication and motivational efforts are lacking as well as easy availability of personnel and medical supplies. Finally, about 40% of the rural population lives below the poverty line and have not reached the economic threshold which is essential for adoption of the small family norm. The primary issue is to deal with the problem of social development. The emphasis needs to be on an integrated and package approach to economic progress and social transformation coupled with the family planning program. The best way to bring about the needed socioeconomic change is to provide educational and gainful employment opportunities.
The social division of labour set the role of primary breadearnerfor the man while ascribed the role of home-manager andcaregiver to the woman. This arrangement has been questioned for having given rise to gender inequality and having generated gender role stereotypes for man and woman. The traditionally organized workplace is also predicated on the assumption that families with male bread winners and nonworking housewives constitute the predominant family form. This is no more true since the...
Full Text Available Background: As variability in the clinical profile of dementia subtypes had been reported with regional differences across the world, we conducted a retrospective hospital-based study in a North Indian population. Methods: We retrieved patient records from 2007 to 2014 for details of clinical evaluation, diagnosis, neuroimaging, biochemical investigations, and follow-up of 1,876 patients with dementia (PwD, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the total PwD, Alzheimer disease (AD accounted for 30% followed by vascular dementia (VaD 26%, mixed dementia (MD 21%, Parkinson-related dementia 11%, frontotemporal dementia (FTD 7%, and infective dementia 5%. Of all PwD excluding the infective group (n = 1,777, 63% were men, 39% were from rural areas, 87% had behavioral abnormalities along with cognitive deficits, and 73% had impaired ADLs. Among dementia subtypes, a positive family history, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, and behavioral abnormalities were found to be distributed. However, there existed a predominance of specific behavioral pattern in each subtype. The mean duration of follow-up varied from 2.9 ± 2.3 (VaD to 3.6 ± 2.1 (AD and greater than 30% were found to be stable on treatment (except in dementia with Lewy body. Conclusions: This large hospital-based study provides a distribution pattern and clinical spectrum of dementia subtypes in a North Indian population.
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
Informed by family language policy (FLP) as the theoretical framework, I illustrate in this paper how language ideologies can be incongruous and language policies can be conflicting through three multilingual families in Singapore representing three major ethnic groups--Chinese, Malay and Indian. By studying their family language audits, observing…
Full Text Available As an ardent cancer researcher, Dr. Smita Asthana has a vision to create wider awareness on cancer and its prevention, and aims to work on translational research to benefit the general public through the implementation of evidence-based research. “I have been associated with the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO since November 2004 and have progressed over a period of time from being a staff scientist to the current role of a senior scientist,” says Dr. Asthana, who is presently with NICPR’s Biostatistics and Epidemiology division.“I have been working in various positions that deal with the design, execution, and evaluation of medical projects. Recently, we have concluded two major cervical cancer screening projects and conducted a screening of 10,000 women in rural areas,” she tells AMOR. One project, funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, was carried out 100 km west of New Delhi in the rural town of Dadri “as part of an operational research to see the implementation of VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol's iodine screenings with the help of existing healthcare infrastructure,” she explains.As a leading researcher in cervical cancer screening, she completed an Indo-US collaborative project on the clinical performance of a human papillomavirus (HPV test, used as a strategy for screening cervical cancer in rural communities, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation via the international non-profit global health organization PATH. “The primary objective of the project was to observe the performance of careHPV, a new diagnostic kit, in a rural setup,” she says.CareHPV is a highly sensitive DNA test, which detects 14 different types of the human papillomavirus that cause cervical cancer, providing results more rapidly than other DNA tests and is designed especially for use in clinics
Full Text Available Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica is a member of the family of Old World porcupines (Hystricidae. Its body is covered with multiple layers of quills, which serve for warning and attack if animal is threatened. However, the literature data on injuries caused by Indian crested porcupine are absent. We describe pathomorphological lesions in an Indian crested porcupine from the Ljubljana Zoo, which died after a fight with a younger male that caused a perforative quill injury of the thoracic wall, followed by septicaemia. Macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological findings were detailed
Gibbons, Veronique; Lancaster, Gytha; Gosman, Kim; Lawrenson, Ross
INTRODUCTION Rural women face many challenges with regards to maternity services. Many rural primary birthing facilities in New Zealand have closed. The Lead Maternity Carer (LMC) model of maternity care, introduced in 1990, has moved provision of rural maternity care from doctors to independent midwifery services. Shortages of rural midwives in the Midland region led to rural maternity care being seen as a vulnerable service. AIM To understand the views and experiences of rural women concerning maternity care, to inform the future design and provision of rural maternity services. METHODS Participants were drawn from areas purposively selected to represent the five District Health Boards comprising the Midland health region. A demographic questionnaire, focus groups and individual interviews explored rural women's perspectives of antenatal care provision. These were analysed thematically. RESULTS Sixty-two women were recruited. Key themes emerging from focus groups and interviews included: access to services, the importance of safety and quality of care, the need for appropriate information at different stages, and the role of partners, family and friends in the birthing journey. While most women were happy with access to services, quality of care, provision of information, and the role of family in their care, for some women, this experience could be enhanced. CONCLUSION Midwives are the frontline service for women seeking antenatal services. Support for rural midwives and for local birthing units is needed to ensure rural women receive services equal to that of their urban counterparts.
Olson Robert A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective of this research was to assess the relationship between FPs’ knowledge of palliative radiotherapy (RT and referral for palliative RT. Methods 1001 surveys were sent to FPs who work in urban, suburban, and rural practices. Respondents were tested on their knowledge of palliative radiotherapy effectiveness and asked to report their self-assessed knowledge. Results The response rate was 33%. FPs mean score testing their knowledge of palliative radiotherapy effectiveness was 68% (SD = 26%. The majority of FPs correctly identified that painful bone metastases (91%, airway obstruction (77%, painful local disease (85%, brain metastases (76% and spinal cord compression (79% can be effectively treated with RT, though few were aware that hemoptysis (42% and hematuria (31% can be effectively treated. There was a linear relationship between increasing involvement in palliative care and both self-assessed (p Conclusions Self-assessed and tested knowledge of palliative RT is positively associated with referral for palliative RT. Since palliative RT is underutilized, further research is needed to assess whether family physician educational interventions improve palliative RT referrals. The current study suggests that studies could target family physicians already in practice, with educational interventions focusing on hemostatic and other less commonly known indications for palliative RT.
Schmid, Aloisio Leoni [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Arquitetura]. E-mail: email@example.com
Based both on the data available at the IBGE (Brazilian Geographic and Statistical Institute) Worldwide Web site from the Censo Agropecuario de 1996 and on the premise, that human energy is one of the most important energy sources in rural areas, the existence of a correlation of infant work and electric energy infrastructure in Brazilian rural properties was investigated. The verification was conducted first by Municipality, and second by product. Analysis covered agriculture, poultry and extractive practices. As a result, first part led to no correlation at all. However, the second part suggested a correlation to exist between share of rural workers under 14 and share of rural properties not having access to electric energy services. This correlation refers to the share of workers being both under 14 and belonging to the owner's family, corroborating the indication, in the literature, of infant work being a familiar tradition in the Brazilian countryside. Finally, the advance of the investigations with an approach more specific to region and character of economic activity is recommended. (author)
Aspects of Sedimentary Geology – A Tribute to S K Chanda. Tribute to ... a modest family of strong East Bengalee stock in. Dhaka ... much importance by the Indian geoscientists of .... relationship continued till the last day of his life, ... being reflected a genuine, genteel balance between ... Sarbani's manuscripts to work on.
Ndikum-Moffor, Florence M.; Braiuca, Stacy; Daley, Christine Makosky; Gajewski, Byron J.; Engelman, Kimberly K.
BACKGROUND American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have lower breast cancer (BCA) screening and 5-year survival rates than non-Hispanic Whites. Understanding reasons for low screening rates is important to combat later stage diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to assess mammography experiences and satisfaction among AI/AN women. METHODS Nine focus groups were held with rural (N=15) and urban (N=38) AI/AN women 40 years and older in Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri, living both near and far from Indian Health Service (IHS) and tribal facilities, to examine experiences and satisfaction with mammography. Transcripts were coded and themes identified using a community-based participatory research approach. FINDINGS Themes were classified under knowledge, communication, and awareness of breast cancer, barriers to mammography, mammogram facility size, impressions of mammogram technologist, motivations to getting a mammogram, and how to improve the mammogram experience. Participants had knowledge of prevention, but described cultural reasons for not discussing it and described better experiences in smaller facilities. Participants indicated having a mammogram technologist who was friendly, knowledgeable, respectful, competent, and explained the test was a determining factor in satisfaction. Other factors included family history, physician recommendation, and financial incentives. Barriers included transportation, cost, perceptions of prejudice, and time constraints. Participants on reservations or near IHS facilities preferred IHS over mainstream providers. Suggestions for improvement included caring technologists, better machines with less discomfort, and education. CONCLUSIONS Interventions to enhance the professionalism, empathy, and cultural awareness of mammogram technologists, reduce barriers, and provide positive expectations and incentives could improve satisfaction and compliance with screening mammography. PMID:24183414
Yang, Jing; Jiang, Feng; Guo, Hui; Soniya, Thadimacca; Yan, Chun-Xia; Tian, Zhu-Fang; Shi, Bing-Yin
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), one of the specific types of diabetes mellitus, is a monogenetic disorder characterized by an autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance and β-cell dysfunction. To study an Indian family with clinical diagnosis of MODY and detect the genetic mutations in the aspect of molecular mechanism, seven blood samples were obtained from the diabetic patients of this pedigree and genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes. The exon1, exon2 and exon4 of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Then the products were sequenced and compared with standard sequences on gene bank. As a result, two mutations were detected in exon1. That was CTC → CTG (Leu → Leu) in codon17 and ATC → CTC (Ile → Leu) in codon27. I27L was speculated to have a close relationship with the glycometabolism and the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus together with the putative novel mutation existed in this Indian pedigree. Meanwhile, one mutation of GGG → GGC (Gly → Gly) in codon288 of exon4 was detected in the proband. No mutations were found in exon2 but a G → T base substitution in the intron4 region among all seven samples was detected. It may have some potential effects on the onset of diabetes in this family, but we do not have any evidence right now. Although it requires further investigation on the function of mutations found in the intron region, our research may provide some clue for this issue and it deserves more attention.
This commentary sketches out the politics of the expansion of affordable, fast-moving nutraceutical products into rural India, with a focus on fortified foods and beverages. It examines the relationships between industry, government and humanitarian organisations that are being forged alongside the development of markets for nutraceuticals; the production of evidence and the harnessing of science to support nutraceutical companies' claims; the ways in which nutraceuticals are being marketed and distributed in rural areas; and the concepts of health and well-being that are being promulgated through those marketing campaigns. Lastly, it asks what kinds of impact fast-moving nutraceuticals are likely to have on the lives of India's rural poor. It concludes by questioning how smooth a transition to nutraceutical consumption Big Food marketing strategies can really facilitate and how readily low-income families seeking to feed their families and safeguard health will actually adopt concepts of wellness and internalise micro-nutrient associated risks.
Young, Louise; Lindsay, Daniel B; Ray, Robin A
Medical schools may select students for their attitudes towards rural medical practice, yet the rural-urban disparity in availability of medical practitioners and services has not diminished in recent times despite government initiatives and increasing numbers being trained for a career in medicine. One medical school, with a focus on rural and remote medicine, aims to select students with positive perceptions for rural medical practice. A research project collected data on the perceptions of these medical students in the first week of their medical studies. Students completed a low stakes essay on the life and work of a rural doctor. Initially, this formed part of a literacy assessment to determine any students requiring remediation. All students were asked if they would consent to their essay being reviewed for a research project. Data was obtained from those students who consented and handed their essays in for review. The 103 student essays underwent thematic analysis and sentences were coded into three main themes of rural lifestyle, doctor role and rural practice. Second level themes were further elicited and results were quantified according to whether they were positive or negative. Positive themes included rural lifestyle, doctor role, views of doctor, impact on community, broader work and skills knowledge, and better relationships with community and patients. Negative themes included doctor's health, pressure on doctor, family problems, greater workload, privacy and confidentiality issues, cultural issues, isolation, limited resources and financial impacts. Quantitisation of this data was used to transform essay sentences into a numerical form which allowed statistical analysis and comparison of perceptions using Z tests. No significant differences on the number of positive and negative responses for rural lifestyle and rural practice were found. The rural doctor role had a significantly more positive than negative views. Significant differences were
Zhang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyu
Background Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide. Aim We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts. Methods Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol. Results We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims. Conclusions Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts. PMID:22595373
Biedermann, N; Barria, C; Maass, J; Steil, W
Ten Mapuche indians have been studied with the purpose of observing the particularities of mental disorders in this ethnic group, composed of rural migrants. In each case a syndromatic and an etiological diagnosis has been made. Our cases correspond to six women and four men with an average age of 24.5 years. All are single with a low educational level. Our results show a great frequency of the acute oniroid psychotic syndrome. These results agree with a retrospective study made by Muñoz et al (1966) who found the same syndrome in 66.6% of their Mapuche patients against only 16.3% in non Mapuche chilean patients.
Wilkening, E. A.
The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…
Vaidya, Mugdha; Katoch, Meghna; Datta Gupta, Nabanita
This paper explores whether rural Indian households’ membership in community based organizations (CBOs) affect child human capital formation in terms of health and education. Using the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS), both OLS and IV models show that membership in one or more CBOs...... improves child educational performance. When considering specific CBOs, women’s groups (Mahila Mandal) emerge as being best at reducing child malnourishment while youth clubs are beneficial for both child health and education. Religious groups have a negative impact on child health but improve school...... performance. Caste associations have a detrimental effect on both health and education....
Full Text Available This research seeks to explore the critical success factors that influence the success of Indian small business owners in the largest metropolitan area in South Africa. To achieve this, the objective of the study was to confirm whether there are significant differences between a successful and less successful group of business owners in terms of general management skills, personal characteristics, and entrepreneurial orientation and financing of the business. Through analysing secondary evidence and empirical results it was possible to facilitate a better understanding of how Indian entrepreneurs operating in small and medium enterprises sustain success, thus contributing to the body of knowledge relating to entrepreneurship development in the domain of entrepreneurship. From the literature it became clear that cultural dimensions have an impact on the entrepreneurial process. The arrival of Indians in South Africa has contributed to a unique Indian culture. The characteristics that describe ethnic entrepreneurs and success factors attributed to their success are described. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are crucial for the development of any country as they offer benefits of economic growth and employment generation. The success factors to sustain SMEs are also described. The findings of the study indicate that there are no significant differences between the comparable groups in relation to management skills and finance factors. There are, however, significant differences relating to personal factors, such as the level of education, family support and experience. Finally, an important learning is that the Indian entrepreneurs in this study are similar to ethnic entrepreneurs reviewed in literature. The study was conducted in Tshwane, the largest metropolitan area in South Africa, and amongst the largest in the world. Keywords: Culture, ethnic entrepreneurship, Indian entrepreneurship, critical success factors, small and medium enterprises
Sharma, Himanshu; Jagdish, Vankar; Anusha, Prabhakaran; Bharti, Sharma
According to Hinduism, the main religion of India, the end-of-life (EOL) deals with good and bad death. The WHO definition of palliative care stresses on improving not only the quality of life of patients facing incurable diseases but also their families by providing relief from the pain and suffering that includes the psychosocial and spiritual needs as well. The Indian Society of Palliative Care has been doing a commendable work and appreciable efforts are being done by the Kerala model of delivering the EOL care. The spiritual, ethical issues and ethical challenges raised when the patients are in terminal phase are also reviewed keeping in mind the socio-cultural norms. The Indian Penal Code (IPC) has lacunae, which hamper the physicians from taking proper decision in the EOL care. Some of the sections like IPC 309 are defunct and need to be changed. The Indian Society for Critical Care Medicine has developed a position statement on the patient management of the terminally ill patient in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) which states that the society should move from the paternalistic model to the share based decision model of the West when deciding the fate of such patients. The literature review on the Indian research on palliative care shows very little emphatic results and the medical under graduates show illiteracy. To strengthen it Medical Council of India has included the palliative care in its curriculum by starting a PG course. Literature review revealed that more research from Indian perspective should be done in this area. This article studies the core issues of developing palliative care in Indian setting keeping in mind the ethical, spiritual and legal issues. PMID:23858271
Tamhankar, Parag M; Iyer, Shruti V; Ravindran, Shyla; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika; Nayak, Chitra; Kura, Mahendra; Sanghavi, Swapnil; Joshi, Rajesh; Chennuri, Vasundhara Sridhar; Khopkar, Uday
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by cutaneous and ocular photosensitivity and an increased risk of developing cutaneous neoplasms. Progressive neurological abnormalities develop in a quarter of XP patients. To study the clinical profile and perform a mutation analysis in Indian patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. Ten families with 13 patients with XP were referred to our clinic over 2 years. The genes XPA, XPB and XPC were sequentially analyzed till a pathogenic mutation was identified. Homozygous mutations in the XPA gene were seen in patients with moderate to severe mental retardation (6/10 families) but not in those without neurological features. Two unrelated families with a common family name and belonging to the same community from Maharashtra were found to have an identical mutation in the XPA gene, namely c.335_338delTTATinsCATAAGAAA (p.F112SfsX2). Testing of the XPC gene in two families with four affected children led to the identification of the novel mutations c.1243C>T or p.R415X and c.1677C>A or p.Y559X. In two families, mutations could not be identified in XPA, XPB and XPC genes. The sample size is small. Indian patients who have neurological abnormalities associated with XP should be screened for mutations in the XPA gene.
M.Ed. Poverty is a serious concern all over the world. This phenomenon hinders development, particularly in rural areas where the majority of families are living below the poverty line. In many rural communities the RDP programme did not reach the majority of people. The study is aimed at finding out the extent, perceived causes and consequences of poverty in Homu A and Homu C near Giyani. The families regarded as the more impoverished in the two villages were selected as participants of t...
Full Text Available Feeding habit of tuna in Indian Ocean has been described around Sri Lanka, Indian Waters, Andaman Sea, western Indian Ocean (Seychelles Islands, western equatorial Indian Ocean whereas the tunas feeding habit study in Eastern Indian Oceanis merely in existence. The purpose of this study is to investigate the stomach content of three tuna species (bigeye tuna, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack tuna, apex predator in the southern part of Eastern Indian Ocean. The study was conducted in March – April, 2010 on the basis of catches of commercial tuna longline vessel based in Port of Benoa. A total of 53 individual fishes were collected, consisting of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus, yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores, and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis. Stomach specimens were collected and analyzed.Analysis was conducted on the basis of index of preponderance method. The diet of the three tuna species showed fishes as the main diet (56–82%, followed by cephalopods (squids as the complementary diet (0–8%, and crustaceans (shrimps as the additional diet (2–4%. Fish prey composed of 6 families i.e. Alepisauridae, Bramidae, Carangidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae, and Scombridae.
Maya Khemlani David
Full Text Available Language choice in mixed marriages plays a crucial role in language maintenance. It helps in maintaining at least one or two languages from generation to generation. In this study an examination on the language choice of some Sino-Indian Malaysians in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, is explored to find out the language choice in a range of domains and with different speech partners. Sino-Indians are the offspring of marriages between Indians and Chinese. There were 30 participants consisting of 14 males and 16 females who took part in the study. A questionnaire consisting of 89 items was administered to the participants who were working or studying in Kuala Lumpur at that time. The findings reveal that language choice in some Sino-Indian families is influenced by factors such as age, domains of communication, attitudes towards the language, and identity. Age plays an important role in lan¬guage choice, particularly in the home domain. Some older Sino-Indian speakers are bilingual in English and Malay, the middle-aged speakers are trilingual and speak more in English and some Tamil and Chinese, and the younger speakers are multilingual but favour the use of English. This study has also examined how the Sino-Indian respondents viewed their dual heritage.
Benke, Carrie J.; Bailey, Sandra J.; Martz, Jill; Paul, Lynn; Lynch, Wesley; Eldridge, Galen
Planning youth and family programming in the 21st century is daunting given family members' busy schedules. This is even more challenging when planning programs in rural areas, where there are vast distances between communities. This article discusses a research and educational outreach project that uses best practices in program development…
San Antonio, Donna M.
Rural adolescents approach the transition out of high school with individual concerns about making an emotionally or financially expensive "mistake," family concerns about young people leaving home, and national and local concerns about declining rural economies and out-migration. The literature concerning this topic considers factors…
Bhatia, Triptish; Gettig, Elizabeth A; Gottesman, Irving I; Berliner, Jonathan; Mishra, N N; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Deshpande, Smita N
Schizophrenia (SZ) has an estimated heritability of 64-88%, with the higher values based on twin studies. Conventionally, family history of psychosis is the best individual-level predictor of risk, but reliable risk estimates are unavailable for Indian populations. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors are equally important and should be considered when predicting risk in 'at risk' individuals. To estimate risk based on an Indian schizophrenia participant's family history combined with selected demographic factors. To incorporate variables in addition to family history, and to stratify risk, we constructed a regression equation that included demographic variables in addition to family history. The equation was tested in two independent Indian samples: (i) an initial sample of SZ participants (N=128) with one sibling or offspring; (ii) a second, independent sample consisting of multiply affected families (N=138 families, with two or more sibs/offspring affected with SZ). The overall estimated risk was 4.31±0.27 (mean±standard deviation). There were 19 (14.8%) individuals in the high risk group, 75 (58.6%) in the moderate risk and 34 (26.6%) in the above average risk (in Sample A). In the validation sample, risks were distributed as: high (45%), moderate (38%) and above average (17%). Consistent risk estimates were obtained from both samples using the regression equation. Familial risk can be combined with demographic factors to estimate risk for SZ in India. If replicated, the proposed stratification of risk may be easier and more realistic for family members. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 5. First discovery of fossil winged seeds of Pinus L. (family Pinaceae) from the Indian Cenozoic and its palaeobiogeographic signiﬁcance. Mahasin Ali Khan Subir Bera. Volume 126 Issue 5 July 2017 Article ID 63 ...
The methods are described by which human and animal energies have been calculated for India. From an energy standpoint, rural India can be thought of as a partially closed ecosystem in which energy derived by people and animals from the photosynthetic products of plants is used to grow and prepare food for humans which in turn provides an essential energy input to grow more food, resulting in an endless cycle. The ecosystem is being disrupted by rapid population growth in India. The extent of the use of non-commercial fuels in villages and towns was determined by the Energy Survey of India Committee in the early 1960's. The committee reported utilization of about 120 million metric tons of wood, 50 million tons of dried dung, and 30 million tons of vegetable waste each year in villages and in urban areas. In terms of U.N. coal equivalents, the energy derived from burning wood, dung, and crop residues adds up to 227 kg per capita per year, or a total for rural India of 100 million tons, with an energy content of 7.53 x 10/sup 14/ kcal. It is projected that 90 percent of this is utilized for cooking and space heating and 10 percent for pottery and brickmaking, metalworking and blacksmithing, and sugar making. In terms of U.N. coal equivalents, the commercial energy use per capita in rural India in 1971 was 37 kg, and the total use in rural population was 16.3 million tons. It is projected here that 12 percent was used for cooking and space heating, 40 percent for lighting, and 48 percent for agriculture. A comparison of U.S. and Indian energy consumption is made. The conclusion that more energy will be needed to support the populace in India is discussed. (MCW)
Mosena, Patricia Wimberley
Results indicated that women whose desired family size is equal to or less than their actual family size have significantly greater frequencies practicing family planning than women whose desired size exceeds their actual size. (Author)
Smith, S. Harold, Ed.; And Others
Family relationships can be strengthened through recreation and leisure activities. Articles dealing with leisure research, values, computers, recreation in rural areas, and youth sports are offered for those interested in facilitating the development of strong families. (DF)
Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne T.
This paper identifies the prevalence and predictors of obesity among California’s American Indian adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 13 rural sites. Indian healthcare clinics served as the sampling frame and were selected because of their proximity and access to the target population. Four-hundred and fifty adult American Indians participated; 74 percent were female and 26 percent were male. The average age was 40, ranging from 18–74. Measures included socio-demographics, general health, BMI, type 2 diabetes, exercise and dietary habits. Eighty-two percent were overweight, obese or morbidly obese. Chi-square tests revealed three variables significantly associated with BMI categories: having type 2 diabetes, female gender and poor general health status. A logistic regression model for obese/morbidly obese (BMI > 30) versus overweight/normal (BMI < 30) persons found gender and diabetes status as significant predictors, while general health status showed trend. Females had 1.59 greater odds of being obese than males (p=0.04). Those that do not have diabetes are less likely to be obese (p=0.02). Those that do not have good general health were 2.5 times more likely to be obese than those that have good general health (p=0.06). Overall goodness of fit was significant (p=0.0009). It is important to identify individuals and population who are normal/overweight, obese/morbidly obese so support and interventions can be planned and implemented. PMID:21625381
Patrikar, Seema; Basannar, Dashrath; Bhatti, Vijay; Chatterjee, Kunal; Mahen, Ajoy
Violence against women cutting across diverse socio-economic classes is an under-recognized human rights violation in the world. This analysis was undertaken to examine the prevalence along with predictors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Indian ever-married women. The data obtained from 2005 to 2006 third round of National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) were used in this study. Analyses were conducted on ever-married women by linking individual women data including violence information and HIV test results. The analyses indicated all forms of violence to be prevalent in India. The prevalence of lifetime IPV reported was 35.3 per cent. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression identified younger age of women, higher number of children, low level of education of women as well as her partner, working status of women, higher spousal age, rural residence, alcohol consumption by husband, childhood witness of violence among parents, nuclear household and lower standard of living to be positively associated with the experience of IPV by the women (Panalysis showed a high prevalence of IPV in India.
Strickland, C June; Cooper, Michelle
Suicide rates among Indian youth in the United States are two to three times the national average. Although researchers have identified related risk and protective factors, they have limited understanding of the perspectives of youth at risk. In this descriptive, ethnographic study in a Pacific Northwest tribe, the goal was to gain an understanding of the life experiences of the youth. Focus groups and observations were conducted with 30 Indian youth aged between 14 and 19 years in a Pacific Northwest tribe. Youth were asked to talk about their stressors, sense of family/community support, and hopes for the future. Youth reported major stress and noted that friends and family were both a support and also a source of stress. They hoped for strengthening of cultural values, economic development, and opportunities to give their talents to the tribe. These findings provide further insight about suicide risk among Indian youth and advance the understanding of suicide prevention in a transcultural setting.
Roč. 13, - (2008), s. 109-158 ISSN 1210-8499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : social stratification * property transfers * rural family * the 18th century Subject RIV: AB - History
Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G
The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.
Socio-culturele structuur en innovatie : een structuur-vergelijkend onderzoek naar adoptie van family planning in de periode 1969 - 1973 door Sundanese echtparen in twee rurale gemeenschappen op West-Java
Norren, van B.
This publication contains a comparative study of socio- cultural influences on the process of family planning adoption during the period 1969-1973 in two rural communities in the regency of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. One community, to be called Cianyar, is a ward in an agrarian village, while
Full Text Available This qualitative research study used a phenomenological lens to examine the perspectives of familial caregivers in the Laikipia Region of Kenya. Through the narrative of the caregivers’ lived experience, key factors identified included social supports, rewards of caregiving, and lessons to others. Overarching basic themes centered on food insecurity, disease, rejection, lack of support, education challenges, inadequate land ownership, the absence of male support and neglect issues. These unique perspectives can contribute towards our understanding of policy and programming needs for orphaned children and familial caregivers in rural Kenya and within the rural areas of the East African context.