WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural housing pattern

  1. Climatization, energy and design in rural housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroztegui, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Work analyzes the possibilities to influence in the energy inputs of the air conditioning in the rural housing through architectonic project decisions. It presents a methodology to guide the first project decisions and to evaluate the future of the housing behavior

  2. Rural Cultural Houses (A New Approach to Rural Youth Work in Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Cyrus

    Based on field work in rural areas of Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran in 1973-74, an examination of the nature of rural cultural houses in Iran was undertaken. Set up by royal decree in 1968, the rural cultural houses have had as their objective to assist peasantry in general and rural youth in particular to achieve a socially enriched…

  3. Globalización, paisaje y vivienda rural / Globalization, landscape and rural housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Silva, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las transformaciones del paisaje rural de Chile Central durante los últimos veinte años, el surgimiento de una arquitectura diferente de la vivienda rural, los nuevos patrones de organización espacial y los cambios en el uso del suelo, son algunos de los resultados que pueden ser explicados como una consecuencia de la globalización. (Proyecto DI – U.CHILE, MULT 04/29 – 2./The rural landscape changes during the last twenty years in Central Chile, the emergence of a different architecture to the rural housing, the new patterns of space organization and land use changes, are some of the effects that can be explained as a consequence of a globalization process. (Proyecto DI – U.CHILE, MULT 04/29 – 2

  4. 78 FR 26559 - Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Rural Housing Stability Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Rural Housing Stability Assistance Program and Revisions to the Definition of ``Chronically Homeless'' Extension of Public Comment Only for Rural... proposed revisions to the definition of ``chronically homeless.'' This document announces that HUD is...

  5. Evaluating Housing Problems through Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Whether in research, development or policy analysis, in social, forestry, irrigation ... Action, Participatory Rural Appraisal involves interaction between the planners and the ..... Park, Obasanjo Layout, the Kogi People Consumer Shops as well as the confluence .... The institutional arrangements under which a person gains ...

  6. Evaluating Housing Problems through Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lokoja, a medium sized community in the Middle Belt of Nigeria experienced a massive influx of population in the last twelve years. This study examined housing problems that resulted thereafter. Through a participatory appraisal using group discussion and brainstorming, transect walk and matrix ranking, a sampled ...

  7. Climatization, energy and design in rural housing; Climatizacion, energia y diseno en la vivienda rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroztegui, J [Facultad de Arquitectura, Montevideo, (Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The Work analyzes the possibilities to influence in the energy inputs of the air conditioning in the rural housing through architectonic project decisions. It presents a methodology to guide the first project decisions and to evaluate the future of the housing behavior.

  8. 76 FR 34839 - Establishment of the White House Rural Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... of America and in order to enhance Federal engagement with rural communities, it is hereby ordered as... Quality; (24) the White House Office of Public Engagement and Intergovernmental Affairs; (25) the White... part of the member's department, agency, or office, and who is a full-time officer or employee of the...

  9. Cardboard Houses with Wings: The Architecture of Alabama's Rural Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botz-Bornstein, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    The Rural Studio, an outreach program of Auburn University, designs innovative houses for poor people living in Alabama's Hale County by using "junk" such as car windshields, carpet tiles, baled cardboard, and old license plates. The article theorizes this particular architecture in terms of Critical Regionalism, developed by…

  10. Rural - Urban differential in housing characteristics in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural - Urban differential in housing characteristics in Nigeria: Empirical evidence. EC Nwogu, IS Iwueze. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 5 (2) 2006: pp. 83-89. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. A Spatial Analysis of Population Distribution and Housing Patterns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population is a vital componentof development in any country including Nigeria. Housing is a physical andsocial necessity of life which holds a place of strategic importance indevelopment. However, the high rate of population growth in Nigeria (3.2%)and associated rural-urban migration contribute largely to housing needs ...

  12. 76 FR 9588 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Awards for the Rural Housing and Economic Development Program; Fiscal Year 2009 AGENCY: Office of the... Housing and Economic Development, Office of Community Planning and Development, 451 Seventh Street, SW... Rural Housing and Economic Development program was authorized by the Department of Veterans Affairs...

  13. The influence of housing characteristics on rural migrants’ living condition in Beijing Fengtai District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the influence of housing characteristics on rural migrants’ living condition in Beijing Fengtai District, China. The researcher will identify rural migrants in Beijing, examine their housing characteristics (housing crowding, housing privacy and housing facility and the influence on their living condition. Also, some suggestions are given to improve their housing characteristics and living condition. The government should revise the migrant housing policy and hukou management. Also, the rural migrants should try to increase their education level and social skills. For the occupation, the local government should give the rural migrants more job opportunity. These issues are analyzed in relation to local government attitudes toward the rural migrants. The analysis is based on data collected from two types of interviews: rural migrants and management interviews which examine the rural migrants’ housing and managerial aspects of this research, respectively. It is also supported by the utilization of secondary data. The findings of the study indicate that the rural migrants’ housing characteristics (housing crowding, housing privacy and housing facility highly influence their living condition in Beijing Fengtai District. Therefore, the local government should give some assistance to this group people in the big cities. This paper reports on the findings of a study to seek acknowledged definitions of the terms Project and Project Management. The study was based on a conventional review and analysis of the definitions from a series of texts.

  14. Identification of Spacial Pattern in Productive House of Pottery Craftsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Kusuma Wardhani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research goals were to identify a spacial pattern in craftsmen house and to see its relevance to the social-cultural life of the craftsmen. The existence of domestic and economic activity in craftsmen house creates a spacial pattern with particular characteristics. Data were collected through direct observation, interviews, and visual documentation to record productive house, settlement condition, and sequences of pottery production. The in-depth interview focused on the use of time, space, and house modification in craftsmen house. House in the craftsmen settlement was growing gradually by adjusting to the inhabitant's needs. This research was included in qualitative research that described observation results and then analyzed spacial pattern formed in craftsmen house. Research results show that in this settlement beside the mixed, balanced, and separated type of productive house, there is also pottery collectors house type. The changes in the productive house are related to housing adaptation or house adjustment to accommodate production process. The settlement orientation is along the streets, but the existence of open space in the form of pottery kiln and hay storage become the main orientation for productive spaces inside the craftsmen house. Pottery kiln and hay storage have become open cultural space that characterizes the pottery craftsmen settlement. 

  15. Implementing Housing First in Rural Areas: Pathways Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Benjamin F.; Melton, Hilary; Shin, Soo-Min; Lawrence-Gomez, Rebeka; Tsemberis, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of Pathways Housing First in addressing chronic homelessness for persons with severe mental illness have been well established. However, the implementation and effectiveness of such programs in rural areas has yet to be examined. We described the model’s adaptations in Vermont, including the use of hybrid assertive community treatment–intensive case management teams, which consisted of service coordinators with geographically based caseloads (staff/client ratio of 1:20) and regional multidisciplinary specialists. The program’s innovative and widespread inclusion of technology into operations facilitated efficiency and responsiveness, and a pilot telehealth initiative supplemented in-person client visits. The program achieved a housing retention rate of 85% over approximately 3 years, and consumers reported decreased time spent homeless, demonstrating that program adaptations and technological enhancements were successful. PMID:24148038

  16. A Type of Rural Houses or a Cultural Heritage That Tending to Disappear: Beehive Houses of Suruç

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sait Şahinalp

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Beehive houses of Suruç are completely built from sun dried mudbrick. Traditionally, rural house of Suruç plain is beehive houses. It has known that these houses have been used for centuries. These houses rooms have square plan and each room have conical roof. In terms of their own characteristic, Suruç beehive houses different from other conical or dome roofed houses such as beehive house of Harran, Trullo and Clochán. Basically there are four usage spaces; living rooms, designs of granaries, barn or folds and haylofts which are respectively arranged from south to north. These usage spaces are connected to each other with eyvans or gates without door. As requirement of rural life, these houses have some outbuildings such as tendur (tandoor, kadin (hayloft, gom (open folder, ça’l, lod and seki (terrace. Due to some environmental and socio-economic problems have caused migration from countryside to cities during the last 30 years. As a result of this, the Suruç beehive houses have either disused or abandoned completely. In addition, especially in last 30 years, the villagers in the area have begun to prefer building the reinforced concrete houses. This has led some of the Suruç beehive houses either to be destroyed or abandoned. Recent survived examples of these houses can be seen in Kara, Yatırtepe and Boztepe villages

  17. Innovate the Land Supply Pattern and Stabilize the Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junjie; Chen haibo

    2015-01-01

    In the process of building a harmonious socialist society, the protection of people' s livelihood is the priority, and to solve the housing problem of over one billion residents is the top priority. The present thesis begins with the land supply mechanism, and do researches on the style, the source and the type of land supply. With the analysis of land finance, the present thesis finally put forward the measures to innovate the land supply pattern, to increase the supply of low-income housing, to reform the way of land supply and to explore the circulating pattern of normative collective construction land that comes to is on the market. Meanwhile, it combines the present house property tax reform, putting forward the idea that imposing land property tax should be a way to inhibit the behavior of speculation. The present thesis aims at keeping the housing price at a reasonable level so that the purpose of stabilizing the housing price can he achieved.

  18. Rural/Nonrural Differences in College Attendance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J; Meece, Judith L

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance patterns among rural students differed from those among their non-rural counterparts and which factors explained these rural/nonrural differences. Results showed that rural youth were less likely than their nonrural counterparts to attend a selective institution. In addition, rural youth were more likely to delay entry to postsecondary education, compared to their urban counterparts. Finally, rural students were less likely than their urban counterparts to be continuously enrolled in college. Much of these rural/nonrural disparities in college attendance patterns were explained by rural/nonrural differences in socioeconomic status and high school preparation. Policy implications, limitations of the study, and future research directions are also discussed.

  19. Analysis of Sustainability of New Rural Housing (Case of ole Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyran Chamcham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of rural housing based on the principles of sustainability is one of the most important prerequisites for achieving sustainable development in rural areas. This can only be achieved by knowing the exact status of rural housing and its range of stability. And rural planning is not possible without it. On the other hand, survey of the stability of the different aspects of rural housing will have a decisive role in decisions related to how to promote this project aimed at sustainable rural development. Therefore, this study we have investigated and compared the economic, Social, environmental, technical and physical aspects of new rural housing with sustainability approach, quantitative paradigm and the case study method. The statistical population in the study were all the people of Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village from which a number were selected who had reconstructed their homes. The results are shown in 4 dimensions of new housing's economic, social, environmental, technical and physical aspects in the Baba Hoseyn Bridge Village although they have very little inclination towards sustainability. Despite this, the hybrid economic index for reconstruction of rural housing turned out to be more stable than other metrics.

  20. Rural Depopulation Pattern at Yogyakarta Special Province (DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Baiquni

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on a secondary data research i.e. statistical data at rural levels in Yogyakarta, thematics maps and other documents. Statistical methodes and map pattern analysis are employed to analysis data. The result of this research are as follows: a the rural depopulation in DIY can be found in 189 rural areas of 393 rural areas (48.09%; b the spatial distribution of the rural depopulation are in Gunung Kidul District (80 rural areas, Kulon Progo District (59 rural areas Sleman District (33 rural areas, and Bantul District (17 rural areas; c the rural depopulation in Yogyakarta at least related to six factors whih have been identified as out – migration, local resources, carrying capacity, geographycal location or accessibility, rural infrastructure, and service availability.

  1. Changing Housing Patterns in Metropolitan Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, George; Grier, Eunice

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes extensive studies of changing minority residential patterns in metropolitan Washington and less extensive studies of other groups; the prospects for future desegregation and for using the growing economic potential of minority families…

  2. Spatial Patterns and the Regional Differences of Rural Settlements in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial patterns of rural settlements are important for understanding the drivers of land use change and the relationship between human activity and environmental processes. It has been suggested that the clustering of houses decreases the negative effects on the environment and promotes the development of the countryside, but few empirical studies have quantified the spatial distribution patterns of houses. Our aim was to explore the regional differences in rural settlement patterns and expand our understanding of their geographic associations, and thus contribute to land use planning and the implementation of the policy of “building a new countryside”. We used spatial statistical methods and indices of landscape metrics to investigate different settlement patterns in three typical counties within different environments in Jilin Province, Northeast China. The results indicated that rural settlements in these three counties were all clustered, but to a varied degree. Settlement density maps and landscape metrics displayed uniformity of the settlement distributions within plain, hill, and mountainous areas. Influenced by the physical environment, the scale, form, and degree of aggregation varied. Accordingly, three types of rural settlements were summarized: a low-density, large-scale and sparse type; a mass-like and point-scattered type; and a low-density and high cluster-like type. The spatial patterns of rural settlements are the result of anthropogenic and complex physical processes, and provide an important insight for the layout and management of the countryside.

  3. Pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... among rural dwellers: Case of women pastoralists in ... The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ... production, storage or trade but also and perhaps more ... overall rural development and poverty eradication, ... panying pressures to raise productivity and efficiency and.

  4. The Effects of Rent Restructuring on Social Housing in English Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…

  5. 78 FR 53423 - Section 538 Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Program for Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... 3560.406) of existing direct Section 515 and Section 514/516 Farm Labor Housing (FLH) (transfer costs... is taken to extend the eligible properties to include Rural Development financed Farm Labor Housing...) program. Equity payment, as stipulated in 7 CFR 3560.406, in the transfer of existing direct Section 515...

  6. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster ris...

  7. The integration of traditional and advanced design in the formation of sustainable New Rural Housing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khai Tran, Van

    2018-04-01

    Socio-economic growth in Vietnam greatly depends on the new rural development process in this country; the work is considered a strategic position in national development. Thus, the study of the principles of the architectural design of new rural housing solutions in accordance with the New Rural Environment as required by the Vietnam Ministry of Construction has become urgent. Climate change has become a global concern, so the creation of significant impacts by architectural designs to respond to climate change and make the living environment of rural people better is a major demand. Experience has shown that the dogmatic application of current urban-type housing does not reach the requirements of New Rural Housing. This research intends to show that the solutions of the traditional Vietnamese rural house, which retains the advantages of traditional architecture with excellent characteristics that have been challenged over thousands of years, when combined with advanced design methodologies and technologies, will be the appropriate solution for ‘New Rural Housing’.

  8. The Patterns of Unemployment and the Geography of Social Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    . Although statistics of unemployment have already demonstrated the unequal incidence of the phenomenon in social groups, the issue of uneven territorial impact on the phenomenon at intra-urban level remains relatively unknown. The purpose of this article is to show and to interpret the spatial patterns...... of unemployment in the city of Porto using GIS (Geographic Information System - GIS) technology. Under this analysis the overlap of the spatial patterns of unemployment with the spatial distribution of social housing, allows the discussion of the relationship that occurs between these patterns and the reasons...

  9. Affordable house designs to improve health in rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    . In the modified houses, major structural problems such as leaking roofs were repaired, windows screened, open eaves blocked with bricks and mortar, cement floors repaired or constructed, and rain gutters and a tank for water storage added. Prototype houses were randomly allocated to village households through...

  10. The interplay of rural issues, mental illness, substance use and housing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca; Reupert, Andrea; Sutton, Keith; Maybery, Darryl

    2014-12-01

    People with mental illness and substance use problems form a significant subgroup of the homeless population. International research has begun to document the complex experiences of this vulnerable group; however, less attention has focused on those living in rural areas. This study sought to determine the experiences of people with mental illness and/or substance use issues, experiencing significant housing problems in rural areas. Within a qualitative framework, individual interviews were conducted with 40 respondents in Australia. Themes generated a discussion around three main areas; (1) current housing problems, (2) pathways into unsuitable housing, and (3) factors contributing to appropriate accommodation. The need for agency staff to identify and assist with the housing issues of their clients is underscored.

  11. Farmers' willingness to convert traditional houses to solar houses in rural areas: A survey of 465 households in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuesong; Li, Hao; Wang, Xingwu

    2013-01-01

    In rural China, reducing low-quality fuel consumption and adopting solar technologies can mitigate pollution problems and improve farmers' living conditions. Before advising farmers to convert traditional houses to solar houses, it is necessary to understand their willingness to do so. Based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this study examined nine factors related to farmers' willingness (FW). A survey was conducted in Chongqing with 465 participants. Nine hypotheses were proposed based on literature studies. A binary logistic regression model was constructed to test the data with the SPSS software package. Three of the nine factors had positive and significant impacts on FW, which were quality of life, government commitments and neighbours'/friends' assessments; two factors had negative and significant impacts, which were additional monthly out-of-pocket expenses and switching cost; and the remaining four factors had no significant impacts, which were durability, popularity, timing and local solar market maturity. Based on the findings, suggestions are made to properly introduce solar houses to Chinese farmers and to quickly stimulate market activities. - Highlights: • We study farmers' willingness to convert traditional houses to solar houses. • We have nine hypotheses and test nine associated factors. • Three factors positively and significantly impact farmers' willingness. • Other two factors negatively and significantly impact farmers' willingness. • Remaining four factors do not significantly impact farmers' willingness

  12. 7 CFR 2.49 - Administrator, Rural Housing Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... housing disaster program under sections 232, 234, and 253 of the Disaster Relief Act of 1970 (Pub. L. No... title VI of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5195 et seq... 116(a) of the Act (42 U.S.C. 9616(a)), with respect to preliminary assessment and site inspection of...

  13. Residential mobility after Hukou reform : Housing strategies of rural-urban migrants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores rural-urban migrants’ residential mobility in China, particularly their housing strategies and related outcomes. One way for migrants to obtain formal residential registration status (hukou in Chinese) is to purchase an apartment in the city. Moving voluntarily through

  14. The willingness to pay for in-house piped water in urban and rural Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suparman, Yusep; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H. L.

    This paper analyses household preferences for in-house pipedwater in urban and rural Indonesia via a hedonic price model, specified as a constrained autoregression-structural equation model (ASEM). ASEM reduces bias due to time-varying omitted variables and measurement errors. In addition, it

  15. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-03

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  16. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  17. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  18. THE HOUSING SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN THE SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Stolarska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  The basic research material comprised empirical data on household budgets conducted by CSO (The Central Statistical Offi ce. The analysed housing conditions of 15 742 rural households in 2012 in Poland. Attention is paid to some households in poor housing situation. Diversity of housing situation and factors affecting this state of affairs is presented. We observe not only the diversity of household wealth, but there are also disparities in housing situation. Disturbing and contrary to the principles of sustainable development and sustainable consumption is the fact that there are signifi cant differences in the size (10–900 m2 and quality of fl ats. Some have more than one house, others are not able to meet their basic needs. Until 13% fl ats of rural households had leaky roofs, damp walls or rotting windows and fl oors. Nearly 1.3% of them also was too tight and located in an area with a low level of infrastructure. It was associated with poor revenue situation, but also the type of the main source of income, family situation and who was the owner of the apartment. Approx. 1.4% of the fl ats had no running water, and almost 18% were heated using heating furnaces, which are not only a nuisance in operation, but also emit carbon dioxide harmful to the environment. Some rural households (5% had credit, but they have better fi nancial situation than others.

  19. Soil Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Rural Anthropogenic Activity across Tiaoxi Watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Jiang, Diwei; Christakos, George; Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping

    2016-01-01

    Soil sealing (loss of soil resources due to extensive land covering for the purpose of house building, road construction etc.) and subsequent soil landscape pattern changes constitute typical environmental problems in many places worldwide. Previous studies concentrated on soil sealing in urbanized regions, whereas rural areas have not been given sufficient attention. Accordingly, this paper studies soil landscape pattern dynamics (i.e., landscape pattern changes in response to rural anthropogenic activities) in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China), in which surface sealing is by far the predominant component of human forcing with respect to environmental change. A novel approach of quantifying the impacts of rural anthropogenic activities on soil resources is presented. Specifically, quantitative relationships were derived between five soil landscape pattern metrics (patch density, edge density, shape index, Shannon’s diversity index and aggregation index) and three rural anthropogenic activity indicators (anthropogenic activity intensity, distance to towns, and distance to roads) at two landscape block scales (3 and 5 km) between 1985 and 2010. The results showed that the Tiaoxi watershed experienced extensive rural settlement expansion and high rates of soil sealing. Soil landscapes became more fragmented, more irregular, more isolated, and less diverse. Relationships between soil landscape pattern changes and rural anthropogenic activities differed with the scale (spatial and temporal) and variable considered. In particular, the anthropogenic activity intensity was found to be the most important indicator explaining social development intensity, whereas the other two proximity indicators had a significant impact at certain temporal interval. In combination with scale effects, spatial dependency (correlation) was shown to play a key role that should be carefully taken into consideration in any relevant environmental study. Overall, the

  20. Factors influencing indoor PM2.5 concentration in rural houses of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyan; Chen, Bin

    2018-02-01

    In traditional houses in rural areas of Northern China, most traditional heating systems, heated by mini-stove in the kitchen, usually take agricultural residues as fuels resources. Besides, burning cave under the ground-floor of a rural house is also widely used. The higher PM2.5 concentration is crisis for human health. In this study, PM2.5 concentration, temperature, relative humidity inside and outside the houses have been measured, moreover the factors impact on I/O rate coefficient has been discussed. The results show that the I/O rate coefficient in the evening is 2.5 times greater than the I/O rate coefficient in the daytime. I/O rate coefficient of PM2.5 concentration is positive related to air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor. In addition, the impact of outdoor wind speed and predominant wind direction on the PM2.5 emission has been studied.

  1. Affordable house designs to improve health in rural Africa: a field study from northeastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ikonomidis, Konstantin; Mshamu, Salum; Nkya, Theresia E; Mukaka, Mavuto; Pell, Christopher; Lindsay, Steven W; Deen, Jacqueline L; Kisinza, William N; Knudsen, Jakob B

    2017-08-01

    The population of sub-Saharan Africa is currently estimated to be 1245 million and is expected to quadruple by the end of the century, necessitating the building of millions of homes. Malaria remains a substantial problem in this region and efforts to minimise transmission should be considered in future house planning. We studied how building elements, which have been successfully employed in southeast Asia to prevent mosquitos from entering and cooling the house, could be integrated in a more sustainable house design in rural northeastern Tanzania, Africa, to decrease mosquito density and regulate indoor climate. In this field study, six prototype houses of southeast Asian design were built in in the village of Magoda in Muheza District, Tanga Region, Tanzania, and compared with modified and unmodified, traditional, sub-Saharan African houses. Prototype houses were built with walls made of lightweight permeable materials (bamboo, shade net, or timber) with bedrooms elevated from the ground and with screened windows. Modified and unmodified traditional African houses, wattle-daub or mud-block constructions, built on the ground with poor ventilation served as controls. In the modified houses, major structural problems such as leaking roofs were repaired, windows screened, open eaves blocked with bricks and mortar, cement floors repaired or constructed, and rain gutters and a tank for water storage added. Prototype houses were randomly allocated to village households through a free, fair, and transparent lottery. The lottery tickets were deposited in a bucket made of transparent plastic. Each participant could draw one ticket. Hourly measurements of indoor temperature and humidity were recorded in all study houses with data loggers and mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors using Furvela tent traps and were identified with standard taxonomic keys. Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex were identified to species using PCR. Attitudes towards the new house

  2. Rural-Nonrural Differences in College Attendance Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Meece, Judith L.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance…

  3. Pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers case of women pastoralist was carried out in Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 100 women. The women are purposively sampled such that their husbands were pastoralists or that they are involved in pastoral farming.

  4. The Housing Pattern and Entrepreneurship in Polish Suburban Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk-Peczek, Justyna; Peczek, Grzegorz; Martyniuk, Olga

    2017-10-01

    Housing stimulates the development of SMEs (small and medium enterprises) in the suburbs. The multidisciplinary research in fields of urban planning and economics, carried out by the Authors, confirms this trend. The purpose of this paper is to present the multidisciplinary results of the research on the determinants of SME localization in the suburban areas of Gdansk, Gdynia and Sopot (the Metropolitan Area Gdansk-Gdynia-Sopot - MAGGS). Many of researchers attach great significance to the term of urban sprawl. Most authors agree that this phenomenon is multidimensional. It also varies in the global perspective. The conducted research showed that urban sprawl in Poland had a positive impact on the development of entrepreneurship, leading to a situation when the SME location quotient (LQ) in some suburban areas is higher, in comparison to the core city itself. The communities characterized by an LQ significantly higher than in the core city have been identified by Authors as ‘entrepreneurship nests’. To identify the research problem, a two-pronged research in the fields of urban and architectural design as well as economics was adopted. The charter of suburban landscape was determined by site analysis and through a study of the architectural form. The results confirmed that more than 80% of the parcels, which encompass economic activity, also exhibit a residential function. Our study confirms that urban sprawl, with its characteristic housing patterns, stimulates business activity in the suburbs. According to our results, this phenomenon is not only determined by financial factors, but also results from social and spatial reasons.

  5. The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratana Somrongthong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand.

  6. THE RURAL IMAGINARY OF THE URBAN READER: The mythic dream of a house in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt, within a socio-anthropological
    approach, to understand an apparently common phenomenon: the dream many urban dwellers have of owning a house in the country. The investigation is carried out among readers of the Globo Rural magazine, a publication which specializes in agricultural matters. The subscribers live in the city of São Paulo and they do not own any kind of property in rural areas. The purpose of this study is to try to apprehend the motives of this imaginary vision, thus contributing to the debate on the relations between country and town, as well as to an understanding of the interaction between subjects and symbolic cultural products in contemporary urban daily life. Faced with the complex relationship between man and nature and the historical condition experienced in a metropolis at this turn of the century, it is perceived that when dreaming of a house in the country, urban readers of the magazine do not simply turn nostalgically to a rural past. In fact, they express their deep criticism of the civilizing model of urbanity in the metropolis at the present time, and, looking ahead, they imagine a better future away
    from the city in a rural environment, closer to nature, in a place with more solidarity, away from violence, heavy traffic, pollution, and therefore with improved quality of life.

  7. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sun exposure is the main etiology of skin cancer. Differences in skin cancer incidence have been observed between rural and urban populations. OBJECTIVES: As sun exposure begins in childhood, we examined summer UVR exposure doses and sun behavior in children resident in urban, suburban......, and rural areas. METHODS: Personal, electronic UVR dosimeters and sun behavior diaries were used during a summer (3.5 months) by 150 children (4-19 years of age) resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. RESULTS: On school/kindergarten days rural children spent more time outdoors and received higher UVR...... doses than urban and suburban children (rural: median 2.3 h per day, median 0.9 SED per day, urban: median 1.3 h per day, median 0.3 SED per day, suburban: median 1.5 h per day, median 0.4 SED per day) (p ≤ 0.007). Urban and suburban children exhibited a more intermittent sun exposure pattern than rural...

  8. Rainfall Patterns and U.S. Migration from Rural Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M.; Murray, Sheena; Riosmena, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In many rural regions of developing countries, natural resource dependency means changes in climate patterns hold tremendous potential to impact livelihoods. When environmentally-based livelihood options are constrained, migration can become an important adaptive strategy. Using data from the Mexican Migration Project, we model U.S. emigration from rural communities as related to community, household and climate factors. The results suggest that households subjected to recent drought conditions are far more likely to send a U.S. migrant, but only in communities with strong migration histories. In regions lacking such social networks, rainfall deficits actually reduce migration propensities, perhaps reflecting constraints in the ability to engage in migration as a coping strategy. Policy implications emphasize diversification of rural Mexican livelihoods in the face of contemporary climate change. PMID:25473143

  9. The clash of rural-urban migrants and real estate investors on Phnom Penh's housing market: Prospects for garment workers

    OpenAIRE

    Buttmann, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Housing markets of large cities around the world, particularly in so-called developing and emerging countries, are currently experiencing a clash: On the one hand, large numbers of labour migrants arrive from rural areas and need cheap rental housing. On the other hand, international real estate investment, particularly in the upper market segment, is strong. The resulting mismatch of housing demand and supply increases segregation, marginalises the vulnerable and leads to massive urban devel...

  10. Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy for Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security and Equitability of Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates on how Malaysia’s development landscapes has been poweredby cheap oil and gas making it dependent and addicted on using large amounts of fossil fuels. As acountry that is primarily depended on fossil fuels for generating power supply, Malaysia needs tocogitate of long-term energy security due to fossil fuel depletion and peak oil issues. Loss of theseresources could leadto thereduction of power generation capacitywhich will threaten the stabilityof the electricity supply in Malaysia. This could potentially influence in an increase in electricitycosts which lead to a phase of power scarcity and load shedding for the country. With the risk ofinterrupted power supplies, rural households, especially those of low-income groups areparticularly vulnerable to the post-effects of a power outage and an inequitable distribution to thepeople. Distributed generation of electricity by solar PVs diminishes the vulnerability of thesehouseholds and can also offer an income to them by feeding the power supply to the national gridthrough Feed-in Tariff scheme. At the moment, the deployment of solar PV installations is still inthe introductory stage in Malaysia, where roof-mounted PV panels are only available to commercialand urban residential buildings. This is due to the lack of a suitable renewable energy policy forrural households and the high cost of the solar PV technology. This paper will put forward ananalysis for incorporating solar photovoltaic on roofs of rural houses by identifying the energyconsumption of these households and the extent to which PVs can alleviate electricity insecurity.The results present significant potential for distributed PV power generation in rural areas inMalaysia which shown a considerable amount of electricity needed to be harvested from roofmountedsolar PV for rural people in Malaysia.

  11. Pre-Design of Transitional Rural Housing for Syria with Recycled Rubble from Destroyed Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Naomi; Haj Ismail, Salah; Cetin, Rukiye

    2017-10-01

    The scale of destruction caused by seven years of on-going war in Syria has caused mass migration of the Syrian people within and outside of Syria. The situation calls for a means to provide the internally displaced persons (IDPs) within Syria with humane post-war affordable housing that can be quickly and easily built with few resources. Fossil fuel resources are not only scarce because of the war, but are also being used as a valuable commodity to finance the war economy, and thus, housing should minimize consumption of energy for heating and cooling because of the fossil fuel scarcity while providing high thermal comfort to the inhabitants. The housing parameters for the proposed solution are to integrate as much of the local building materials in the Aleppo region as possible using existing regional building traditions. Imported products such as building materials, machinery, equipment, as well as foreign labour and knowhow are to be kept to a minimum while incorporating recycled rubble from destroyed buildings. A comparative study of current disaster relief housing illustrates the appropriateness of each design solution in relation to the above-proposed housing parameters. A detailed analysis of the physical properties of an existing case study building in Dabiq, a town 40 km northeast of Aleppo, outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the building tradition to determine which aspects of the construction may be improved for better thermal comfort and resistance against earthquakes. The simulation results from WUFI Plus show the building behaviour of the case study house. This paper offers a concept for transitional single-family housing for IDPs based upon the adobe tradition in the rural areas of Aleppo. Reducing the heating and cooling loads can also drastically reduce fossil fuel requirements during the construction and operation phases of the single-family homes while maintaining a high level of indoor thermal comfort. Traditional construction techniques

  12. Poverty, housing, and the rural slum: policies and the production of inequities, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sarah M; Villarejo, Don

    2012-09-01

    We studied historical materials to examine the conditions that gave rise to California's rural slums, the consequences of their emergence, and how interpretations of housing, health, and welfare policies by government officials, and public health officials in particular, produced health inequities for residents of these communities. For more than a century, successive groups of immigrants and domestic migrant laborers have worked on California's farms and faced numerous challenges, among them a lack of safe and affordable housing, poor working conditions, and denial of public services. Although these experiences are not new, nor are they unique to agricultural workers, they illustrate a longer history in which inequities and injustices have been rooted in the exploitation and disposability of labor. Ameliorating or even redressing inequities will require understanding the social determinants of health through ecological approaches that can overcome the historical, social, and political causes of inequity.

  13. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  14. Improving the Distribution of Rural Health Houses Using Elicitation and GIS in Khuzestan Province (the Southwest of Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Valinejadi, Ali; Sakipour, Sara; Hemmat, Morteza; Zarei, Javad; Askari Majdabadi, Hesamedin

    2017-08-27

    Rural health houses constitute a major provider of some primary health services in the villages of Iran. Given the challenges of providing health services in rural areas, health houses should be established based on the criteria of health network systems (HNSs). The value of these criteria and their precedence over others have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The present study was conducted to propose a model for improving the distribution of rural health houses in HNSs. The present applied study was conducted in Khuzestan province in the southwest of Iran in 2014-2016. First, the descriptive and spatial data required were collected and entered into ArcGIS after modifications, and the Geodatabase was then created. Based on the criteria of the HNS and according to experts' opinions, the main criteria and the sub-criteria for an optimal site selection were determined. To determine the criteria's coefficient of importance (ie, their weight), the main criteria and the sub-criteria were compared in pairs according to experts' opinions. The results of the pairwise comparisons were entered into Expert Choice and the weight of the main criteria and the sub-criteria were determined using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The application layers were then formed in geographic information system (GIS). A model was ultimately proposed in the GIS for the optimal distribution of rural health houses by overlaying the weighting layers and the other layers related to villages and rural health houses. Based on the experts' opinions, six criteria were determined as the main criteria for an optimal site selection for rural health houses, including welfare infrastructures, population, dispersion, accessibility, corresponding routes, distance to the rural health center and the absence of natural barriers to accessibility. Of the main criteria proposed, the highest weight was given to "population" (0.506). The priorities suggested in the proposed model for establishing rural

  15. Rural-urban migration in Nigeria: consequences on housing, health-care and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnnie, P B

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the results of an on-going longitudinal study in selected high-density areas of Port Harcourt metropolis involving 240 respondents from 4 groups. When respondents in the 1st cohort (watchnights, laborers, and messengers) were asked what motivated them to move from rural areas to the city, 94% said to get better jobs and increase their earnings. 98% of the clerks migrated to Port Harcourt for better jobs and to find employment. All 40 school leavers confirmed that they had moved to the city to find jobs. In spite of the various statutory provisions and policy statements relating to housing in Nigeria there still exists an acute and noticeable shortage both in rural and urban housing. There not only exists a dearth of residential accommodation in these urban centers, but there is also a seemingly atrocious disparity in housing conditions between a large majority of poor urban dwellers and a negligible number of urban residents who are reasonably wealthy. With the growing number of persons migrating from the rural areas to the urban centers, there are also likely to be problems of overcrowding which would exacerbate the problems of communicable diseases and pollution. In terms of the allocation of medical personnel, equipment, and drugs, there is a disproportionately skewed distribution in favor of urban dwellers. 1 important cause of urban employment problems is the phenomenal growth in urbanization and the inability of these urban centers to be able to utilize or absorb the urban labor that was created through the process of urbanization. The other problem is the extremely slow pace of industrialization as compared to urbanization . A serious malady responsible for urban unemployment is the staggering rate at which young school leavers migrate to the city. Nigeria as a nation state has assumed the most dangerous dimensions of capitalism by deliberately erecting inequality and poverty in society. 1 way by which the state, controlled by the

  16. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Hernando Pardo

    Full Text Available The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142 than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52; similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105 than at the rear side (n = 37. Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2% of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%. Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

  17. Entering and exiting behaviour of the phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia longiflocosa (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural houses of the sub-Andean region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Raúl Hernando; Santamaría, Erika; Cabrera, Olga Lucia

    2017-01-01

    The present study identified the entering and exiting sites for Lutzomyia longiflocosa in rural houses of the sub-Andean region in Colombia. Entering sites were identified with sticky traps set up outside the bedrooms, around the eave openings, and with cage traps enclosing the slits in the doors and windows inside the bedrooms. Exiting sites were identified by releasing groups of females indoors. These females were blood fed and marked with fluorescent powders. Females were recaptured with the trap placement described above but set up on the opposite sides of the openings. In the entering experiment, a significantly higher number of females were captured in the sticky traps at the zone nearest the eave openings (n = 142) than those captured in the other zones of the trap (n = 52); similarly, a higher number of females were captured on the front side of the house (n = 105) than at the rear side (n = 37). Only two females were collected in the cage trap. In the exiting experiment, at the ceiling, the highest percentage (86.2%) of females was recaptured with sticky traps nearest the eave openings and on the front side of the house (70.0%). Seven females were collected in the cage trap. Lu. longiflocosa entered and exited houses primarily through the eave openings in a non-random pattern in relation to the sides of the house.

  18. Situational Influences on the Morale of Older Rural Adults in Child-Shared Housing: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Vira R.; Learner, R. Max

    1982-01-01

    Results showed no significant difference in the morale scores of older rural adults living with children (N=97) and those in other arrangements (N=243) when health was controlled. However, more than twice as much variance in morale scores could be explained for parents in child-shared housing as for other parents. (Author)

  19. A community survey of the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban south western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Ojo, Ololade Olusola; Ariyibi, Ebenezer Kayode; Kolawole, Tolutope Fasanmi; Ogunleye, Ayodele Idowu

    2012-01-01

    The use of solid fuels for cooking is associated with indoor pollution and lung diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the pattern and determinants of household sources of energy for cooking in rural and urban South Western, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study of households in urban (Ado-Ekiti) and rural (Ido-Ekiti) local council areas from April to July 2010. Female respondents in the households were interviewed by trained interviewers using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 670 households participated in the study. Majority of rural dwellers used single source of energy for cooking (55.6%) and urban dwellers used multiple source of energy (57.8%). Solid fuel use (SFU) was higher in rural (29.6%) than in urban areas (21.7%). Kerosene was the most common primary source of energy for cooking in both urban and rural areas (59.0% vs.66.6%) followed by gas (17.8%) and charcoal (6.6%) in the urban areas, and firewood (21.6%) and charcoal (7.1%) in the rural areas. The use of solid fuel was strongly associated with lack of ownership of dwellings and larger household size in urban areas, and lower level of education and lower level of wealth in the rural areas. Kerosene was associated with higher level of husband education and modern housing in urban areas and younger age and indoor cooking in rural areas. Gas was associated with high income and modern housing in the urban areas and high level of wealth in rural areas. Electricity was associated with high level of education, availability of electricity and old age in urban and rural areas respectively. The use of solid fuel is high in rural areas, there is a need to reduce poverty and improve the use of cleaner source of cooking energy particularly in rural areas and improve lung health.

  20. Systematic temporal patterns in the relationship between housing development and forest bird biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Radeloff, Volker C; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Wood, Eric M; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B

    2014-10-01

    As people encroach increasingly on natural areas, one question is how this affects avian biodiversity. The answer to this is partly scale-dependent. At broad scales, human populations and biodiversity concentrate in the same areas and are positively associated, but at local scales people and biodiversity are negatively associated with biodiversity. We investigated whether there is also a systematic temporal trend in the relationship between bird biodiversity and housing development. We used linear regression to examine associations between forest bird species richness and housing growth in the conterminous United States over 30 years. Our data sources were the North American Breeding Bird Survey and the 2000 decennial U.S. Census. In the 9 largest forested ecoregions, housing density increased continually over time. Across the conterminous United States, the association between bird species richness and housing density was positive for virtually all guilds except ground nesting birds. We found a systematic trajectory of declining bird species richness as housing increased through time. In more recently developed ecoregions, where housing density was still low, the association with bird species richness was neutral or positive. In ecoregions that were developed earlier and where housing density was highest, the association of housing density with bird species richness for most guilds was negative and grew stronger with advancing decades. We propose that in general the relationship between human settlement and biodiversity over time unfolds as a 2-phase process. The first phase is apparently innocuous; associations are positive due to coincidence of low-density housing with high biodiversity. The second phase is highly detrimental to biodiversity, and increases in housing density are associated with biodiversity losses. The long-term effect on biodiversity depends on the final housing density. This general pattern can help unify our understanding of the relationship

  1. Clustering of housing and household patterns using 2011 population census

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available the clusters to measure the effects of urban growth boundaries on land development patterns. Vickers and Rees (2007) clustered the 2001 census data from the UK National Statistics Office to provide area classifications that could be distributed by the Office... of National Statistics via their website. Cluster analysis is also commonly applied inter- nationally to land-use data for many different types of studies, including: to derive landscape ty- pologies (Van Eetvelde and Antrop, 2009), to differentiate between...

  2. Patterns and risk factors for helminthiasis in rural children aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. Corresponding author: ... in rural Bangladesh using data in a birth cohort in rural Mirzapur.18 ... intervention strategies to control STH.

  3. Transformation of traditional houses in the development of sustainable rural tourism, case study of Brayut Tourism Village in Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasurya, V. R.; Hardiman, G.; Sari, S. R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to reveal local values used by Brayut villagers to maintain the existence of the traditional house as a dwelling. The transformation of traditional houses goes as time passes, influenced by internal aspects related to the needs of residents and external aspects related to the regional development by the government. Traditional Javanese house as a cultural identity of Javanese people, especially in the village, has also experienced the transformation phenomenon. Modernization affects local residents’ needs and the Government’s Development Program for tourism village influences demands of change. An unfocused transformation can lead to a total change that can eliminate the cultural identity of the rural Java community. The method used is the case study by taking three models of Javanese house in Brayut Village. Brayut Tourism Village is a cultural tourism village that relies on tradition as a tourist attraction. The existence of traditional Javanese house is an important asset for retaining its authenticity as a dwelling. Three models taken as the case studies represent the traditional Javanese house types. The result obtained is that the family bond is a major factor in preserving the traditional Javanese house in Brayut Village, Yogyakarta.

  4. Indoor radon and its progeny levels in new type houses in rural area of Hubei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Quan; Xiong Zhaoxing; He Zuan; Zheng Youqing

    1993-01-01

    Using Cluster Sampling method, indoor radon of 54 rooms and radon progeny potential alpha-energy concentrations of 200 rooms were measured in the new type brick-concrete 2-storey flats and old type brick-wood single-storey residences in the rural area. Instant and cumulative samplings and measurements were made. The average per capita residential area of the surveyed houses was 28.1 m 2 , clear height 3.6 m. The geometric means of indoor radon concentration were 18.22 Bq.m -3 and 15.93 Bq.m -3 for storied and single-storey buildings, respectively; radon progeny potential alpha-energy concentrations were 2.62 mWL and 2.54 mWL, correspondingly. In storied buildings, the arithmetic mean of indoor cumulative radon concentration was 25.56 Bq.m -3 in summer, and 37.94 Bq.m -3 in winter. The annual effective dose equivalent of radon progeny inhaled indoors and outdoors was 0.80 mSv. (orig.). (6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.)

  5. Carnivore distributions across chaparral habitats exposed to wildfire and rural housing in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, P.A.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Deutschman, D.H.; Tremor, S.; Spencer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in southern California support biologically diverse plant and animal communities. However, native plant and animal species within these shrubland systems are increasingly exposed to human-caused wildfires and an expansion of the human–wildland interface. Few data exist to evaluate the effects of fire and anthropogenic pressures on plant and animal communities found in these environments. This is particularly true for carnivore communities. To address this knowledge gap, we collected detection–non-detection data with motion-sensor cameras and track plots to measure carnivore occupancy patterns following a large, human-caused wildfire (1134 km2) in eastern San Diego County, California, USA, in 2003. Our focal species set included coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis). We evaluated the influence on species occupancies of the burned environment (burn edge, burn interior and unburned areas), proximity of rural homes, distance to riparian area and elevation. Gray fox occupancies were the highest overall, followed by striped skunk, coyote and bobcat. The three species considered as habitat and foraging generalists (gray fox, coyote, striped skunk) were common in all conditions. Occupancy patterns were consistent through time for all species except coyote, whose occupancies increased through time. In addition, environmental and anthropogenic variables had weak effects on all four species, and these responses were species-specific. Our results helped to describe a carnivore community exposed to frequent fire and rural human residences, and provide baseline data to inform fire management policy and wildlife management strategies in similar fire-prone ecosystems.

  6. Rural-Urban Differences of Dietary Patterns, Overweight, and Bone Mineral Status in Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China is an urban and rural social model country. In the past three decades, the developing speed of rural areas has been much slower than urban areas, which may lead to the differences in dietary patterns. This study aimed to investigate the disparities of dietary structures from urban and rural children, and to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns on their adverse outcome. Among 1590 students, aged 11 years to 17 years, from primary and middle schools, a cross-sectional study was conducted. There were three dietary patterns recognized: Westernization structure, meat diet structure, and Western and Chinese structure. Compared with rural students, more urban students were in the highest categories of the whole dietary patterns (p < 0.001. Overweight/obesity and central adiposity were more prevailing among urban students, while rural students had a more prevailing risk of bone fracture (p < 0.05. Through the adjustment for all confounding factors, the Westernization structure could increase the risk of overweight/obesity and central adiposity, the meat structure could increase the risk of elevated blood pressure/hypertension, while the risk of low bone mineral quality could be reduced by the Chinese and Western structure. In conclusion, a rural-urban disparity in dietary patterns was found in our study, and different dietary patterns were associated with the risk of some adverse outcomes. Therefore, there were different prevalences of the adverse outcomes between rural and urban students.

  7. Knowledge, awareness, and utilization pattern of services under Janani Suraksha Yojana among beneficiaries in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Lal Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe motherhood is perceived as a human right, and the health sector is always encouraged to provide quality services to ensure the same. Government of India launched a scheme called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY on April 11, 2005, under the flagship of National Rural Health Mission to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, by promoting institutional deliveries for which financial incentives are provided to mothers delivering in the health facilities. Objective: To study the knowledge, awareness, and utilization pattern of services under JSY among the beneficiaries in rural area of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the 78 JSY beneficiaries residing in the rural field practice area of Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. These beneficiaries were interviewed with pretested, predesigned, semi-structured close ended questionnaire by house-to-house visits, after obtaining informed consent. Results: Majority of the JSY beneficiaries (50; 64% were in the age group of 20–25 years and 43 (55.1% of them heard about the JSY scheme before the present pregnancy. Anganwadi workers 78 (100% and female health workers (62; 79.5% were the main sources of information. More than half of the study participants (44; 56% had good knowledge about the scheme and 42 (53.85% registered their name in health institution during thefirst trimester of last pregnancy. Forty-four (56.4% beneficiaries had undergone three antenatal checkups and only 11 (14.1% of them received three postnatal (PN visits. All the beneficiaries received the JSY incentives 1-week the following delivery. Conclusions: Awareness regarding the JSY scheme, early antenatal registration, minimum three antenatal care visits, and three PN visits is still low among rural women which needs strengthening through intensification of IEC activities.

  8. Comparison and Research on New Rural Community Management Patterns of Shan Dong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomei

    Rural community is an important institutional innovation,which has important effect and edification to future new rural management.There are three new rural community management patterns in shandong province:divisions of the village community,many villages community and village merge community. This article not only introduce three models,but also compare them in four aspects: community scale, community management,infrastructure,resource utilization.Pointing out the strength and weakness of three models.Drawing a conclusion that village merge community is the active reaction for rural urbanization. And could be the important recommended breed.

  9. Patterns of residential crowding among Hispanics in later life: immigration, assimilation, and housing market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E; Gerst, Kerstin

    2010-11-01

    We describe patterns of residential crowding among older Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. We also examine hypotheses about the relationship of residential crowding with assimilation (language and duration of residence) and housing market characteristics. We employ a multilevel research design, using data from the 2000 U.S. Census of Population. Hierarchical linear models are utilized to estimate the association between residential crowding and both individual and housing market factors. Approximately one third of older Hispanics in metropolitan areas live in crowded housing compared with only one tenth of older non-Hispanic Whites. Foreign-born older persons report higher levels of crowding than U.S.-born older persons. Residential crowding differences between older Hispanics and non-Hispanics are not eliminated after controls are included. Older Hispanics who report better English language skills and a longer duration of residence in the United States live in less crowded housing. We do not find evidence for a relationship between crowding and residential segregation, but we find consistent evidence for an association between residential crowding and relative size of the Hispanic population. The forces that shape household composition and access to housing among older Hispanics appear to result in higher levels of residential crowding for this population.

  10. Patterns of drug use among nonmetropolitan and rural adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, E; Donnermeyer, J F

    1998-08-01

    This article examines illegal drug use among adults living in nonmetropolitan and rural areas of the United States using data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Subjects were classified into three categories by residence: nonmetropolitan-urban, metropolitan-rural, and nonmetropolitan-rural. Respondents indicate about 10% of adults were current users of marijuana or other illegal drugs. Discriminant analysis was used to examine differences among groups of individuals classified as current users, past users, and nonusers. For both marijuana and other illegal drugs, the variables that accounted most for group differences were age, marital, status, employment status, occupation, and income. Only minor differences in drug use were exhibited across the three residential categories. It is recommended that future research on the rural and nonmetropolitan adult population incorporate both structural level measures of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of localities, and individual level measures of peer influence, work stress, family factors, and psychosocial characteristics.

  11. Evaluation of Student Care Process in Urban and Rural Health Care Centers and Health House in Tabriz Using Tracer Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Kabiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Tracer methodology is a novel evaluation method which its purpose is to provide an accurate assessment of systems and processes for the delivery of care, treatment, and services at a health care organization. This study aimed to assess student care process in Tabriz using Tracer methodology. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in autumn 1391. Population study consisted of all the students who were covered by Tabriz health care center and study sample included an urban health care center, a rural health care center, a health house, and two schools in urban and rural areas which were selected by simple sampling method. Also, all the complicated and problematic processes were chosen to be assessed. Data were collected by interviewing, observing, and surveying documents and were compared with current standards. Results : The results of this study declared the percentage of points that each target group gained from tracer evaluation in student care process was 77% in health house, 90% in rural health care center and 83% in urban health care center. Findings indicated that documentation was the main weak point. Conclusion : According to the results of this study, student care process is sufficient; despite the fact that there are some deficiencies in caring process, as it may be improved through appropriate strategies. Furthermore, tracer methodology seems to be a proper method to evaluate various levels of health care system. ​

  12. Smoking and heavy drinking patterns in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: the PERU MIGRANT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taype-Rondan, Alvaro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alvarado, Germán F; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-02-03

    Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006-2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64-3.20), but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99). Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26-4.16), and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03-7.34). Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural), while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the urban group. In addition, our results suggest that different

  13. Smoking and heavy drinking patterns in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants: the PERU MIGRANT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Taype-Rondan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found mixed results about cigarette and alcohol consumption patterns among rural-to-urban migrants. Moreover, there are limited longitudinal data about consumption patterns in this population. As such, this study aimed to compare the smoking and heavy drinking prevalence among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru, as well as the smoking and heavy drinking incidence in a 5-year follow-up. Methods We analyzed the PERU MIGRANT Study data from rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrant populations in Peru. The baseline study was carried out in 2006–2007 and follow-up was performed five years later. For the baseline data analysis, the prevalence of lifetime smoking, current smokers, and heavy drinking was compared by population group using prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. For the longitudinal analysis, the incidence of smoking and heavy drinking was compared by population group with risk ratios (RR and 95% CI. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to calculate both PRs and RRs. Results We analyzed data from 988 participants: 200 rural dwellers, 589 migrants, and 199 urban dwellers. Compared with migrants, lifetime smoking prevalence was higher in the urban group (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.64–3.20, but lower in the rural group (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31–0.99. Compared with migrants, the urban group had a higher current smoking prevalence (PR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.26–4.16, and a higher smoking incidence (RR = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.03–7.34. Current smoking prevalence and smoking incidence showed no significant difference between rural and migrant groups. The prevalence and incidence of heavy drinking was similar across the three population groups. Conclusions Our results show a trend in lifetime smoking prevalence (urban > migrant > rural, while smoking incidence was similar between migrant and rural groups, but higher in the

  14. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  15. Rural Student Vocational Program (RSVP) [and] Housing Guide for Parents and Students [and] Work Supervisor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rural Student Vocational Program, Wasilla, AK.

    The purpose of the Rural Student Vocational Program (RSVP) is to provide rural high school vocational students with work and other experiences related to their career objective. Students from outlying schools travel to Anchorage, Fairbanks, or Juneau (Alaska) to participate in two weeks of work experience with cooperating agencies and businesses.…

  16. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...

  17. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  18. Affordable house designs to improve health in rural Africa : a field study from northeastern Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Von Seidlein, L.; Ikonomedis, K.; Mshamu, S.; Nkya, T.E.; Mukaka, M.; Pell, C.; Lindsay, S.W.; Deen, J.; Kisinza, W.N.; Knudsen, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background The population of sub-Saharan Africa is currently estimated to be 1245 million and is expected to quadruple by the end of the century, necessitating the building of millions of homes. Malaria remains a substantial problem in this region and efforts to minimise transmission should be considered in future house planning. We studied how building elements, which have been successfully employed in southeast Asia to prevent mosquitos from entering and cooling the house, could be inte...

  19. Impacts of alternative residential energy standards - Rural Housing Amendments Study, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balistocky, S.; Bohn, A.A.; Heidell, J.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lee, A.D.; Pratt, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1985-11-01

    This report has examined the role of manufactured housing in the housing market, the energy impacts of three manufactured housing standards and three site-built standards in 13 cities, and the economic impacts of those standards in 6 cities. The three standards applied to manufactured housing are the HUD Title VI standard (Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards, or MHCSS), the Hud Title II-E standard, and the existing FmHA Title V standard. Those applied to site-built homes are the HUD Minimum Property Standards (MPS), the ASHRAE 90A-80 standard, and the FmHA Title V standard. Based on energy consumption alone, these analyses show that the FmHA Title V standard is the most stringent standard for both housing types (a single-section menufactured home and a single-story detached ''ranch house''). The HUD Title VI standard is the least stringent for manufactured homes, while the HUD Minimum Property Standards are the least stringent for site-built homes. Cost-effectiveness comparisons required by the Act were made for the two prototypical homes. Results of this preliminary economic analysis indicate that none of the site-built standards reflect minimum life-cycle cost as a basic criterion of their development. For manufactured homes, both the FmHA standard and the HUD Title II-E standard reduce life-cycle cost and effect positive first-year cash flows in all cities analyzed when electric resistance heating is assumed. When natural gas heating is used, both standards pass the life-cycle cost test in all cities, but the FmHA standard fails the cash flow test in all but one city. However, in the worst case, net monthly expenditures in the first year are increased by less than $9.

  20. Risk factors for house-entry by culicine mosquitoes in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasseh Momodou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening doors, windows and eaves of houses should reduce house entry by eusynanthropic insects, including the common African house mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and other culicines. In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against mosquito house entry, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors influencing house entry by culicines of nuisance biting and medical importance. These factors were house location, architecture, human occupancy and their mosquito control activities, and the number and type of domestic animals within the compound. Results 40,407 culicines were caught; the dominant species were Culex thalassius, Cx. pipiens s.l., Mansonia africanus, M. uniformis and Aedes aegypti. There were four times more Cx. pipiens s.l. in Farafenni town (geometric mean/trap/night = 8.1, 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 7.2–9.1 than in surrounding villages (2.1, 1.9–2.3, but over five times more other culicines in the villages (25.1, 22.1–28.7 than in town (4.6, 4.2–5.2. The presence of Cx. pipiens s.l. was reduced in both settings if the house had closed eaves (odds ratios, OR town = 0.62, 95% CIs = 0.49–0.77; OR village = 0.49, 0.33–0.73, but increased per additional person in the trapping room (OR town = 1.16, 1.09–1.24; OR village = 1.10, 1.02–1.18. In the town only, Cx. pipiens s.l. numbers were reduced if houses had a thatched roof (OR = 0.70, 0.51–0.96, for each additional cow tethered near the house (OR = 0.73, 0.65–0.82 and with increasing distance from a pit latrine (OR = 0.97, 0.95–0.99. In the villages a reduction in Cx. pipiens s.l. numbers correlated with increased horses in the compound (OR = 0.90, 0.82–0.99. The presence of all other culicines was reduced in houses with closed eaves (both locations, with horses tethered outside (village only and with increasing room height

  1. Rural Asthma: Current Understanding of Prevalence, Patterns, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Robin Dawson; Ownby, Dennis R

    2017-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of children and adolescents in the USA. While asthma has been understood to disproportionately affect urban dwellers, recent investigations have revealed rural pediatric asthma prevalence to be very similar to urban and to be more closely correlated with socioeconomic and environmental factors than geographic location or population density. Rural children experience factors unique to location that impact asthma development and outcomes, including housing quality, cigarette smoke exposure, and small/large-scale farming. Additionally, there are challenging barriers to appropriate asthma care that frequently are more severe for those living in rural areas, including insurance status, lack of primary care providers and pulmonary specialists, knowledge deficits (both patient and provider), and a lack of culturally tailored asthma interventions. Interventions designed to address rural pediatric asthma disparities are more likely to be successful when targeted to specific challenges, such as the use of school-based services or telemedicine to mitigate asthma care access issues. Continued research on understanding the complex interaction of specific rural environmental factors with host factors can inform future interventions designed to mitigate asthma disparities.

  2. Patterns of Life Events Preceding the Suicide in Rural Young Chinese: A Case Control Study1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide. Aim We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts. Methods Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol. Results We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims. Conclusions Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts. PMID:22595373

  3. Comparing the Pattern of Menopausal Symptoms, Concern and Attitudes in Urban and Rural Postmenopausal Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Sevil; Haggi, Hurieh Badali; Shojai, Shayan Kamali; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Farhan, Faranak

    2018-04-01

    Although hormonal changes during menopause are inevitable in this period, the severity of the menopausal symptoms can be controlled. Accepting menopause and having a positive attitude toward it can also help. Given the results of previous studies, and since environmental factors affect the pattern of menopausal symptoms the present study was conducted to compare the pattern of menopausal symptoms, concern and attitudes in urban and rural postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted on urban and rural postmenopausal women residing in and around Tabriz, Iran. Cluster sampling was used to select the subjects. The data collection tools used included a demographic questionnaire to assess women's experiences during menopause. This study examined 544 urban and rural postmenopausal women between March and September 2015. The women had a mean age of 51.8 ± 3.1. After adjusting the basic variables, the mean scores of menopausal symptoms and their subscales showed significantly higher scores in the physical and psychological subscales in the urban women, while the rural women had significantly higher scores in the concern subscale. Rural women were significantly different from urban women in terms of menopausal symptoms, concern and attitudes. Hot flushes, a common menopausal symptom, and decreased sexual desire were more common in the urban women; in contrast, the rural women experienced more concern about menopause and its consequences.

  4. Sustainable fuelwood use in rural Mexico. Volume 1: Current patterns of resource use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, O.

    1993-04-01

    The present report summarizes the results of the first phase of a project of cooperation between the Mexican National Commission for Energy Conservation (CONAE) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) on sustainable biofuel use in rural Mexico. This first phase has been devoted to (i) conducting an in-depth review of the status of fuelwood use in rural and peri-urban areas of Mexico, (ii) providing improved estimates of biomass energy use, (iii) assessing the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of fuelwood use, and (iv) identifying preliminary potential lines of action to improve the patterns of biomass energy use in Mexico; in particular, identifying those interventions that, by improving living conditions for rural inhabitants, can result in global benefits (such as the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions). A comprehensive review of the existing documentation of biofuel use in rural and peri-urban Mexico was conducted. Reports from official, academic, and non-governmental organizations were gathered and analyzed. A computerized rural energy database was created by re-processing a national rural energy survey. Because of the paucity of information about biofuel use in small rural industries, most of the analysis is devoted to the household sector.

  5. 'The house cannot stay empty': a case of young rural Nepalis negotiating multilocal househoulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina; Agergaard, Jytte

    2017-01-01

    , with a particular focus on the dynamics of multilocal householding. We argue that a common agreement between generations and siblings that ‘the house cannot stay empty’ reinforces the importance of the household as a meaningful place exercised through the maintenance of traditional intra- and intergenerational...... contracts and the practice of rotating presence and absence....

  6. The influence of age-specific migration on housing growth in the rural Midwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohan Lee; Claire A. Montgomery; Jeff Kline

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource policymakers and planners increasingly rely on regional and national-level spatial data describing projections of future housing growth, to anticipate development impacts on natural resources and identify policy and planning needs. Such projections have not always been well-grounded in demographic and other factors that influence population and thus...

  7. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Policy Support Among Public Housing Authority Residents in Rural and Tribal Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lisa M; Reidmohr, Alison A; Helgerson, Steven D; Harwell, Todd S

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that multi-unit housing (MUH) residents are at risk of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, which can transfer between units. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure and examine attitudes towards smoking policies among public housing authority (PHA) residents in rural and tribal settings. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 895 adult tenants (41 % response rate) living in PHA multiunit buildings in Montana in 2013. Our primary outcome was tenant support of smoke-free policies; our secondary outcome was exacerbation of child asthma symptoms due to SHS exposure. In 2014, we used multiple logistic regression models to test associations between independent variables and outcomes of interest. The majority (80.6 %) of respondents supported having a smoke-free policy in their building, with support being significantly higher among nonsmokers [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5-11.6] and among residents living with children (aOR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.3-6.2). Tribal residents were as likely to support smoke-free policies as non-tribal residents (aOR 1.4; 95 % CI 0.5-4.0). Over half (56.5 %) of respondents reported SHS exposure in their home; residents in a building with no smoke-free policy in place were significantly more likely to report exposure (aOR 3.5, 95 % CI 2.2-5.5). SHS exposure was not significantly associated with asthma symptoms. There is a significant reduction in exposure to SHS in facilities with smoke-free policies and there is strong support for such policies by both tribal and non-tribal MUH residents. Opportunities exist for smoke-free policy initiatives in rural and tribal settings.

  8. Urban en rural dietary patterns in Greece in the years 1957-2008; an economic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gikas, G.; Hyz, A.; Vasileiou, K.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Sotiropoulos, I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe and study in detail the evolution of urban and rural dietary patterns in Greece during the period 1957-2008, in terms of natural and technical features. Natural features refer to the consumption of animal versus plant products, while technical features pertain to

  9. Disease patterns in the medical wards of a rural South African hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension dominated the disease pattern followed by pulmonary tuberculosis, gastro-enteritis, pneumonia, diabetes, and asthma. The findings of this study suggest that diseases prominent in the affluent urban population affect patients seen at this rural hospital. The focus of primary care physicians should be to manage ...

  10. Social Isolation and Physical Barriers in the Houses of Stroke Survivors in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifang; Yan, Tiebin; You, Liming; Li, Kun; Gao, Yan

    2016-12-01

    To describe the home barriers and social isolation of stroke survivors in the rural areas of China and to explore which home barriers are associated with social isolation. Cross-sectional survey. Structured interviews and observation in the participants' homes. Community-dwelling stroke survivors in the rural areas of China (N=818). Not applicable. Physical barriers in rural homes were surveyed using a home fall hazards assessment. Social isolation was identified if ≥2 of the following indicators were observed: low frequency of getting out of the home, lacking leisure activities, and living alone in the previous 3 months. The prevalence rates of 18 among 30 home barriers were >20%, and the highest was 93% (lack of handrails in the bathroom). The prevalence of social isolation was 30%. Three home barriers were independently related to social isolation. These were a distant toilet (odds ratio [OR], 2.363; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.527-3.658; Psocial isolation. Eliminating or decreasing home barriers could be a feasible and effective approach to reducing social isolation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-26

    Feb 26, 2013 ... Abstract. Introduction: The period from birth to two years of age is a "critical window" of opportunity for the promotion of optimal growth, health and behavioral development of children. Poor child feeding patterns combined with household food insecurity can lead to malnutrition which is a major public health ...

  12. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim Tasnim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. Methods This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3. Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor. The statistical analysis used Cox regression. Results A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; p<0.001, a lack of latrine availability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001, and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02 significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively. Conclusions Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children’s nutritional status. Children’s health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  13. Housing Conditions Contribute to Underweight in Children: An Example From Rural Villages in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnim, Tasnim; Dasvarma, Gouranga; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of underweight in children under 5 years of age is anomalously high in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This state of affairs may be related to poor housing conditions, such as limited access to clean water, the absence of a sanitary latrine, and the use of poor housing materials. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of housing conditions on underweight in under-5 children in Konawe District. This study was conducted in 2013 in 5 health centres in Konawe District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, and used a case-control study design. The study recruited 400 under-5 children, including 100 of whom were cases and 300 of whom were age-matched controls (1:3). Cases were underweight children, while the controls were children with a normal nutritional status. The independent variables were the availability and types of water and latrine facilities and housing materials (roof, wall, and floor). The statistical analysis used Cox regression. A lack of water availability (odds ratio [OR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7 to 9.5; pavailability in the home (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.0; p<0.001), and poor-quality roofing materials (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.02) significantly contributed to underweight in children. In contrast, the walls and the floors did not contribute to under-5 year children being underweight (p=0.09 and p=0.71, respectively). Sanitation facilities and roofing were identified as important factors to address in order to improve children's nutritional status. Children's health status was directly impacted by food intake via their nutritional status.

  14. Housing Density and Ecosystem Function: Comparing the Impacts of Rural, Exurban, and Suburban Densities on Fire Hazard, Water Availability, and House and Road Distance Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukomanovic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many amenity-rich regions are experiencing rapid land-use change through low-density residential development or exurbanization. Those same natural-resource amenities that attracted migration are often degraded by housing growth and associated development. This study examines the impacts of exurbanization on three ecosystem indicators (fire hazard, water availability, and generalized distance effects of houses and roads and compares them to areas with rural and suburban housing densities in the Sonoita Plain, southeastern Arizona. We found that although they support significantly lower population densities, exurban areas have impacts on ecosystem function comparable to suburban areas. Exurban areas had the highest potential for fire, suggesting that it is the presence of people rather than the density that increases fire hazard. The increase in the number of wells in exurban areas far exceeded suburban areas and matched increases for agricultural use in rural areas. When the impacts of houses and roads on ecosystem function were considered, 98% of exurban areas were “highly” or “very highly” impacted, compared to 100% for suburban areas and 35% for rural areas. Since development in the area is not readily visible, assessing the spatial extent of impacts is important for understanding the vulnerability of systems and guiding decisions about development.

  15. Energy in rural Ethiopia: consumption patterns, associated problems, and prospects for a sustainable energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulugetta, Y.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides a picture of energy resources and their current use in rural Ethiopia and presents an analysis of energy supply patterns and consumption trends. This exercise aims to build an empirical knowledge of ''real'' energy systems in the country and also to synthesize and analyze the general and specific problems that exist within the current energy system. Based on these lines of analysis, a series of technical and policy-oriented recommendations for rural energy development are discussed. (author)

  16. State of the Irish housing stock—Modelling the heat losses of Ireland's existing detached rural housing stock and estimating the benefit of thermal retrofit measures on this stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, Ciara; Griffiths, Philip; O'Flaherty, Micheál

    2013-01-01

    Ireland's housing stock has been identified as being amongst the least energy efficient in Northern Europe. Consequently, atmospheric emissions are greater than necessary. Government funded schemes have been introduced to incentivise the uptake of thermal retrofit measures in the domestic Irish market. A study of Ireland's housing highlights the dominance of detached houses (43%), 72% of which are rurally located and are predominantly heated with fuel oil. This paper investigates the economic and carbon case for thermal retrofit measures to the existing detached, oil centrally heated, rural housing stock. The study found the case for energy efficiency measures to be categorical and supports the Irish Government's focus on energy efficiency policy measures. Thermal retrofit measures in the detached housing stock have the potential to realise an averaged 65% theoretical reduction in heating costs and CO 2 emissions for houses constructed prior to 1979 (coinciding with the introduction of building regulations) and around 26% for newer homes, thus offering a significant contribution (44%) to Ireland's residential carbon abatement projections and hence in meeting the EU's directives on energy and carbon. The greatest savings (36%) of Ireland's carbon abatement projections result from improving the energy efficiency of the pre 1979 stock. - Highlights: ► Model constructs base geometry of detached rural Irish dwellings by age band. ► Model quantifies savings to this stock via The National Insulation Scheme. ► Results offer significant contribution to Ireland's carbon abatement projections. ► Greatest savings result from retrofitting the pre 1979 stock. ► Government needs to introduce PAYS scheme or similar to engage public at large

  17. Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human-wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Evans, Joshua D

    2017-02-08

    Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan. Fieldwork comprised participant observation, semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys and a review of resources including the personal and public records of wasp collectors. The practice of keeping wasps in hive boxes has historical roots and has changed significantly within living memory. Current attempts to further develop the practice involve collectors' great efforts to keep new queens during their hibernation. Collectors have also tried, still without success, to keep wasps living within a human-made enclosure for their entire life cycle. These and other practices are costly in both time and money for collectors, who emphasise enjoyment as their primary motivation. At the same time, they also engage in practices such as pesticide use that they recognise as damaging to wasp ecology. These practices can be understood to some extent in domesticatory terms, and in terms of care. We develop a framework for understanding domesticatory practices of insect care, discuss how this case contributes to ongoing debates within domestication studies, and recommend further research to be pursued.

  18. Patterns of life events preceding the suicide in rural young Chinese: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies on the Chinese suicide found some life events prior to the suicide different from those in the West, but there is a lack of summary of the Chinese life event patterns to better understand the effects of the social structure on Chinese suicide. We tried to identify the life events that precede the Chinese rural youth suicides and compare them with what are found in the West, so as to find the patterns that are particularly true in the Chinese culture contexts. Suicide cases were investigated with a psychological autopsy study in rural China, and local community living controls were also interviewed with the same protocol. We collapsed 64 negative life events into six categories: (1) Marriage/Love, (2) Family/Home, (3) Work/Business, (4) Health/Hospital, (5) Law/Legal, (6) Friend/Relationship. About 92.3% of the suicides studied had experienced at least one type of negative life events. The three most common negative life events categories in the past one year were Family/Home (60.7%), Health/Hospital (53.8%) and Marriage/Love (51.3%) in the rural young suicide victims. Among the negative life events, those related to family relations, love affairs, and marital issues were most likely to precede a suicide of rural suicides in China, and it is especially true of rural young women. Family is an important social institution in rural China for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Prediction method of rural landscape pattern evolution based on life cycle: a case study of Jinjing Town, Hunan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiang; Liu, Li-Ming; Li, Hong-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Taking Jinjing Town in Dongting Lake area as a case, this paper analyzed the evolution of rural landscape patterns by means of life cycle theory, simulated the evolution cycle curve, and calculated its evolution period, then combining CA-Markov model, a complete prediction model was built based on the rule of rural landscape change. The results showed that rural settlement and paddy landscapes of Jinjing Town would change most in 2020, with the rural settlement landscape increased to 1194.01 hm2 and paddy landscape greatly reduced to 3090.24 hm2. The quantitative and spatial prediction accuracies of the model were up to 99.3% and 96.4%, respectively, being more explicit than single CA-Markov model. The prediction model of rural landscape patterns change proposed in this paper would be helpful for rural landscape planning in future.

  20. Comparison of patterns of substance abuse disorders in urban and rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morad Rasouli-Azad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of the prevalence of substance abuse in rural and urban population in different countries revealed variable results regarding to the study method, study population, age group and measuring tools. The purpose of this research is to compare the patterns of substance abuse disorders in urban and rural population in Mashhad.Materials and Method: Two groups consecutively admitted patients who referred to substance treatment clinics of Mashhad, were selected (110 urban and 100 rural patients. Samples were evaluated with structured demographic questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview (SCID for DSM-IV. Data were analyzed by χ2 and independent t-test.Results: This study showed statistically significant differences between two groups in marital status, education level, monthly income and job. Also the samples were differed in substance type, history of injection and quit, abuse of nicotine, cannabis and alcohol in long life. Conclusion: Rural and urban societies have differences in patterns of substance abuse that can be originated from social-context differences

  1. Daily rhythms of behavioral and hormonal patterns in male dromedary camels housed in boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydiane Aubè

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Daily rhythmicity has been observed for a number of hormonal and behavioral variables in mammals. It can be entrained by several external factors, such as light-dark cycle and scheduled feeding. In dromedary camels, daily rhythmicity has been documented only for melatonin secretion and body temperature. In this study, the daily rhythmicity of behavioral repertoire, cortisol and testosterone levels was investigated in captive male camels. Methods Six clinically healthy male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius were used. The animals were housed in single boxes for 24 h daily and fed twice a day. Over a period of 48 h, behavioral observations were made and blood samples taken every two hours. The data were analyzed using diurnality index, conisor analysis and PROC mixed procedure. Results The diurnality index for rumination and lying down was close to 0 (respectively, 0.09 and 0.19, while the indices for stereotypy, standing, feeding and walking were close to 1 (respectively, 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85. Cosinor analysis revealed daily rhythmicity for all behaviors and for cortisol levels (acrophase at 12:57 but not for testosterone. Rumination and lying down (inactive behaviors reached a peak during the scotophase, whereas feeding, walking and stereotypy (active behaviors reached a peak during the photophase around midday. Cortisol level and expression of stereotypies peaked before and after food distribution and were negatively correlated (r =  − 0.287, P = 0.005. Testosterone levels and expression of sexual behaviors were stimulated by the visual and olfactory contacts with the females and were positively correlated (r = 0.164, P = 0.040. Testosterone was also negatively correlated with cortisol (r =  − 0.297; P = 0.003. Discussion These preliminary results provided new knowledge about the daily rhythm of behaviors in camels housed in boxes, suggesting that camels exhibit diurnal behavior pattern in the maintenance

  2. Building Energy Consumption Pattern Analysis of Detached Housing for the Policy Decision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jiyoun; Lee, Seung-Eon

    2018-03-01

    The Korean government announced its plan to raise the previous reduction goal of greenhouse gas emission from buildings by 26.9% until 2020 on July 2015. Therefore, policies regarding efficiency in the building energy are implemented fast, but the level of building owners and market understanding is low in general, and the government service system which supports decision making for implementing low-energy buildings has not been provided yet. The purpose of this study is to present the design direction for establishing user customized building energy database to perform a role to provide autonomous ecosystem of low-energy buildings. In order to reduce energy consumption in buildings, it is necessary to carry out the energy performance analysis based on the characteristics of target building. By analysing about 20-thousand cases of the amount of housing energy consumption in Korea, this study suggested the real energy consumption pattern by building types. Also, the energy performance of a building could be determined by energy consumption, but previous building energy consumption analysis programs required expert knowledge and experience in program usage, so it was difficult for normal building users to use such programs. Therefore, a measure to provide proper default using the level of data which general users with no expert knowledge regarding building energy could enter easily was suggested in this study.

  3. The environment and the university - On purpose of the development pattern and of the rural sector in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Acosta, Jairo

    2001-01-01

    The author in his report includes topics of environmental politics and the rural problem and the violence, the environment and the development pattern, the investigation and the environment among others

  4. Measuring rural allied health workforce turnover and retention: what are the patterns, determinants and costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Marita; Russell, Deborah; Humphreys, John

    2011-04-01

    To measure variations in patterns of turnover and retention, determinants of turnover, and costs of recruitment of allied health professionals in rural areas. Data were collected on health service characteristics, recruitment costs and de-identified individual-level employment entry and exit data for dietitians, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, podiatrists, psychologists, social workers and speech pathologists employed between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2009. Health services providing allied health services within Western Victoria were stratified by geographical location and town size. Eighteen health services were sampled, 11 participated. Annual turnover rates, stability rates, median length of stay in current position, survival probabilities, turnover hazards and median costs of recruitment were calculated. Analysis of commencement and exit data from 901 allied health professionals indicated that differences in crude workforce patterns according to geographical location emerge 12 to 24 months after commencement of employment, although the results were not statistically significant. Proportional hazards modelling indicated profession and employee age and grade upon commencement were significant determinants of turnover risk. Costs of replacing allied health workers are high. An opportunity for implementing comprehensive retention strategies exists in the first year of employment in rural and remote settings. Benchmarks to guide workforce retention strategies should take account of differences in patterns of allied health turnover and retention according to geographical location. Monitoring allied health workforce turnover and retention through analysis of routinely collected data to calculate selected indicators provides a stronger evidence base to underpin workforce planning by health services and regional authorities. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. Simulation and optimization study on a solar space heating system combined with a low temperature ASHP for single family rural residential houses in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    A pilot project of the solar water heating system combined with a low temperature air source heat pump (ASHP) unit was established in 2014 in a detached residential house in the rural region of Beijing, in order to investigate the system application prospect for single family houses via system...... optimization design and economic analysis. The established system was comprised of the glass heat-pipe based evacuated tube solar collectors with a gross area of 18.8 m2 and an ASHP with a stated heating power of 8 kW for the space heating of a single family rural house of 81.4 m2. The dynamic thermal...... with good building insulation were undertaken to figure out the system economical efficiency in the rural regions of Beijing. The results show that the payback periods of the solar space heating system combined with the ASHP with the collector areas 15.04-22.56 m2 are 17.3-22.4 years for the established...

  6. The spatio-temporal dynamic pattern of rural domestic solid waste discharge of China and its challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guangjin; Kong, Lingqiang; Liu, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Wenping

    2018-04-01

    At present, construction of rural domestic waste treatment facilities is seriously lagging, and in many cases, treatment facilities do not yet exist in some villages of China. Serious rural waste pollution has not only impacted the quality of surface water and groundwater but also the atmosphere and the living environment of farmers of China. There are relatively few studies of rural domestic waste pollution, especially with respect to the spatio-temporal dynamic pattern of rural domestic waste discharge. Using survey data and income per capita, we calculated rural domestic waste discharge per capita per day. From this, we calculated provincial rural domestic waste discharge. According to our study, rural domestic waste discharge was 1.42 × 10 8 t/year in 2000. This number increased to 2.3 × 10 8 t/year in 2006 and to 2.47 × 10 8 t/year in 2010. Rural domestic waste increased dramatically while the actual rural population and the proportion of the rural population declined. When examining the eight regions, the rural domestic waste discharge of northeastern China, Qinghai-Tibet, middle China, and southwestern China had increased dramatically, while that of northern China, southern China, and eastern China increased relatively slowly. The economies of northern China, southern China, and eastern China are more developed; their rural domestic waste discharge has been high since 2000 and has continued to increase slowly. In northeastern China, Qinghai-Tibet, middle China, and southwestern China, rural domestic waste discharge was low in 2000; however, in the ten-year period from 2000 to 2010, their rural domestic waste discharge increased dramatically.

  7. 7 CFR 1944.664 - Housing preservation and replacement housing assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Housing preservation and replacement housing...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing...

  8. Techno-economic study of a distributed hybrid renewable energy system supplying electrical power and heat for a rural house in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jindou; Xu, Jinliang; Wang, Yaodong

    2018-03-01

    Energy saving and emission reduction have become targets for modern society due to the potential energy crisis and the threat of climate change. A distributed hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) consists of photovoltaic (PV) arrays, a wood-syngas combined heat and power generator (CHP) and back-up batteries is designed to power a typical semi-detached rural house in China which aims to meet the energy demand of a house and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Based on the annual load information of the house and the local meteorological data including solar radiation, air temperature, etc., a system model is set up using HOMER software and is used to simulate all practical configurations to carry out technical and economic evaluations. The performance of the whole HRES system and each component under different configurations are evaluated. The optimized configuration of the system is found

  9. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact.

  10. STUDY ON THE HOUSING COMFORT IN BOTH SUMMER AND WINTER IN HANZHONG'S RURAL HOUSES%汉中市农村房屋冬夏季舒适度探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜平; 陈婕; 钟莎

    2018-01-01

    The housing situation in rural areas of Hanzhong was investigated in terms of natural geography and climate characteristics in this paper.During the coldest and hottest periods through the year,the indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity of two counties were measured.The results show that the rural housing comfort of Hanzhong is extremely poor in winter and summer.And the numerical also explained the underlying reasons for poor housing comfort while the overall climate in Hanzhong proved to be desirable.Based on how to improve quality of the self-built housing under the construct-ing the new country policy,solutions are proposed from aspects of government and individual, which are supposed to provide a fundamental reference to improve housing comfort of rural houses in both summer and winter.%针对汉中市的自然地理现状和气候特征,调研了汉中市农村的住房现状,并通过一定的手段测试了汉中市两个县区冬季、夏季最冷、最热时段中农村房屋室内外温度和湿度数值,分析得出了"夏热冬冷"区域的汉中市农村住房冬夏两季室内舒适度极差的现实;同时从多个方面客观分析了汉中整体气候良好,而冬夏两季农村房屋室内舒适度较差的原因;最后从政府和农民主体两个层面入手给出了在建设新农村的道路上,如何提高农民自建房屋的品质,从根本上解决汉中市农村住房冬夏季舒适度差的方法措施.

  11. Once an Outsider, Always an Outsider? The Accessibility of the Dutch Rural Housing Market among Locals and Non-Locals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Carola; Daalhuizen, Femke B. C.; van Dam, Frank; Mulder, Clara H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most pressing questions in the rural gentrification literature is whether rural residents face difficulties in finding a home within their locality due to the influx of more wealthy newcomers. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which intended local movers and intended non-local movers have realised their rural residential…

  12. Water-contact patterns and schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural community in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mota

    1987-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the influence of water-related human activities, contaminative behaviour, house location, education and socio-economic status on endemic Schistosoma mansoni infection. The study was conducted in a hilry non-irrigated area of rural northeast Brazil amongst a defined population of subsistence farmers, of whom 93% were infected by age 20. The area was mapped, water bodies were surveyed, and a detailed questionnaire was performed on each household. Infection was assessed by duplicate stool examinations using the sensitive Bell technique to quantify egg excretion. For each household, and index of intensity of infection was computed by grouping individual log-transformed egg counts as an age-sex adjusted Z score. Few households had a sanitary installation or a domestic water supply. However, neither water-contact nor contaminative behavior were indiscriminate. The people made considerable effort to defaecate far from a water source, to obtain household drinking water from the cleanest source, and to bathe only at certain sites where privacy is assured. Land ownership and literacy correlated poorly with the household index of intensity of infection. The key influence on infection status was the relative location of the house and snail-free or snail colonized water sources. In this area, a safe domestic water supply is the critical input needed to achieve definitive control of endemic Schistosomiasis.

  13. Changing energy profiles and consumption patterns following electrification in five rural villages, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madubansi, M.; Shackleton, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Following the democratic transition in South Africa in the early 1990s the government has implemented a widespread electrification programme, as well as introduced a free basic electricity allowance as a means of poverty alleviation. Yet there are limited longitudinal studies on the impacts of the introduction of electricity on the patterns of household energy use, and even more so in the neglected rural sector. This study reports on the patterns of household energy use in five rural settlements in 1991 and again in 2002. Results indicate a changing pattern of energy use for lighting and powering entertainment appliances, more specifically from dry-cell batteries and paraffin to electricity. Yet for thermal needs, most notably cooking, fuelwood has remained the most widespread fuel, and the amount used per month has not changed, despite increasing scarcity of wood in the local environment. There has been an increase in the proportion of households purchasing fuelwood as opposed to collecting their own. Overall, the mean total number of fuel types used per household has increased, indicating that electricity is simply viewed as an additional energy, rather than an alternative. Yet, electricity accounted for approximately 60% of expenditure on energy sources in 2002, despite the government's policy of a free basic allowance of 5-6 kWh per month. This has implications for energy supply costing, as well as the poverty alleviation dimensions of the whole programme

  14. EFFECT OF INTERNET MARKETING ON THE PURCHASE PATTERN OF THE HOUSE-HOLDS OF TOWNS IN JABALPUR

    OpenAIRE

    Uma V.P.Shrivastava; Dilip Singh Hazari

    2014-01-01

    Combining the traditional methods with online information marketers has discovered a successful marketing pattern. The traditional marketing methods of print, television, and direct mailings are being complemented with the use of e-marketing strategies; thus saving time and money. Over the last two decades it has been noticed that the human lifestyles are changing faster than their thoughts. This study is focused on the middle income house-holds with a monthly income ranging from 30k to 60k. ...

  15. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Danesh; Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul; Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina; Shin, Man Yong

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization.

  16. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Danesh [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Yong Shin, Man [Department of Forest Science, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization. (author)

  17. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  18. Repellent plants provide affordable natural screening to prevent mosquito house entry in tropical rural settings--results from a pilot efficacy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C Mng'ong'o

    Full Text Available Sustained malaria control is underway using a combination of vector control, prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases. Progress is excellent, but for long-term control, low-cost, sustainable tools that supplement existing control programs are needed. Conventional vector control tools such as indoor residual spraying and house screening are highly effective, but difficult to deliver in rural areas. Therefore, an additional means of reducing mosquito house entry was evaluated: the screening of mosquito house entry points by planting the tall and densely foliated repellent plant Lantana camara L. around houses. A pilot efficacy study was performed in Kagera Region, Tanzania in an area of high seasonal malaria transmission, where consenting families within the study village planted L. camara (Lantana around their homes and were responsible for maintaining the plants. Questionnaire data on house design, socioeconomic status, malaria prevention knowledge, attitude and practices was collected from 231 houses with Lantana planted around them 90 houses without repellent plants. Mosquitoes were collected using CDC Light Traps between September 2008 and July 2009. Data were analysed with generalised negative binomial regression, controlling for the effect of sampling period. Indoor catches of mosquitoes in houses with Lantana were compared using the Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR relative to houses without plants in an adjusted analysis. There were 56% fewer Anopheles gambiae s.s. (IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.68, p<0.0001; 83% fewer Anopheles funestus s.s. (IRR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.32, p<0.0001, and 50% fewer mosquitoes of any kind (IRR 0.50, 95% CI 0.38-0.67, p<0.0001 in houses with Lantana relative to controls. House screening using Lantana reduced indoor densities of malaria vectors and nuisance mosquitoes with broad community acceptance. Providing sufficient plants for one home costs US $1.50 including maintenance and labour costs, (30 cents per person. L

  19. Dietary patterns and household food insecurity in rural populations of Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Edward Ntwenya

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community.Three hundred and seven (307 randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February-May and post harvest season (September-October in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score.Four food consumption patterns namely (I Meat and milk; (II Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III fish (and other sea foods, roots and tubers; (IV Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest-seasons, respectively (P = 0.01. Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity.Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at alleviating household food insecurity could

  20. Micro-evolutionary divergence patterns of mandible shapes in wild house mouse (Mus musculus populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautz Diethard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insights into the micro-evolutionary patterns of morphological traits require an assessment of the natural variation of the trait within and between populations and closely related species. The mouse mandible is a particularly suitable morphological trait for such an analysis, since it has long been used as a model to study the quantitative genetics of shape. In addition, many distinct populations, sub-species and closely related species are known for the house mouse. However, morphological comparisons among wild caught animals require an assessment in how far environmental and technical factors could interfere with the shape change measurements. Results Using geometric morphometrics, we have surveyed mandible shapes in 15 natural populations of the genus Mus, with a focus on the subspecies Mus musculus domesticus. In parallel we have carefully assessed possibly confounding technical and biological factors. We find that there are distinct differences on average between populations, subspecies and species, but these differences are smaller than differences between individuals within populations. Populations from summer-dry regions, although more ancestral, are less distinct from each other than are populations from the more recently colonized northern areas. Populations with especially distinct shapes occur in an area of sympatry of M. m. domesticus and M. spretus and on recently colonized sub-antarctic islands. We have also studied a number of inbred strains to assess in how far their mandible shapes resemble those from the wild. We find that they fall indeed into the shape space of natural variation between individuals in populations. Conclusions Although mandible shapes in natural populations can be influenced by environmental variables, these influences are insufficient to explain the average extent of shape differences between populations, such that evolutionary processes must be invoked to explain this level of diversity

  1. [Presence of Triatoma infestans in relation to various cultural patterns in a rural population of the Province of San Juan, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvé, S; Schweigmann, N; Petersen, R; García Piñeiro, C; Travaini, A; Vázquez, F; Solarz, N; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports results from a punctual epidemiological survey performed in San Juan, at Bermejo, a rural village located 100 km east from the provincial capital, in December 1987. The village had been rebuilt after almost complete destruction by an earthquake, in 1977. According to a census performed by local Primary Health Care Agents, there were 82 households, where 72 (88%) of them were inhabited, with a total human population of 198 people. Forty-eight from those inhabited dwellings (67%) were visited, and a general questionnaire was completed. Information gathered included, sex, age, working activity, number of people and domestic animals at the house, construction patterns of houses and outdoor premises, resting habits of animals, specially dogs, domestic use of insecticides and migration patterns of inhabitants. A timed collection of triatomines (man-hour method) was undertaken in 17 out of 48 of the visited households. Sampled triatomines were kept and classified by collection site, instar, and sex at the field. Species identification, microscopical examination of fecal contents to detect trypanosomes and blood-meals identification, were performed at the laboratory. Sixty-nine per cent (33/48) of the dwellings were "ranchos" with mud-brick ("adobe") and cane walls, roofs made of cane and mud dirt floors. The remainder were as follows: 11 (23%), partially improved houses and 4 (8%) had brick walls and were tiled or had zinc roofs. Data of migration patterns of local population were obtained in 31 (65%) out of 48 households. Seasonal movements within San Juan Province, mainly related to vintage were reported in 20/31 (65%) families.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Morbidity Pattern Among Elderly Population In A Rural Area Of Dehradun In Uttaranchal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Negi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : What is the morbidity pattern among elderly people in rural area of Dehradun?Objectives :(1     To assess the morbidity pattern among elderly population.(2     To assess the psycho-social problems among elderly people.(3     To assess the relationship between addiction and hypertension among them.Study design : Cross-Sectional.Setting : Atturwala - a rural area of district Dehradun in Uttaranchal.Participants : 332 elderly people aged 60 years and above.Statistical Analysis : Proportions, Chi-Square test.Results ; It was observed that 78.3% elderly had ophthalmic problem, 69.3% elderly had psycho-social problems followed by hypertension (49.1%, Chronic bronchitis (22% and asthma (12%. A significant relation was found between hypertention and addiction i. e. smoking and / or alcohol (p<.001. Respiratory diseases were found in 47.3% elderly persons. Depression was highly dominating problem among elderly (59.6%.

  3. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.659 Replacement housing...

  4. Rural wood consumption patterns of local and immigrant households with differentiated access to resources in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Charlotte Filt; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; He, Jun; Neergaard, Andreas de

    2015-01-01

    In Xishuangbanna, China, rubber production has spread rapidly, resulting in extensive land use changes and an increasing influx of migrant workers who have come to find work on the plantations. These migrant workers have limited access to subsidies and the local collective forest due to the household registration system in China called hukou. To assess how these policy-based restrictions on access affect wood consumption and local communities, a case study was conducted in Manlin village, Xishuangbanna, undertaking a household and weight survey with local and immigrant households. The results show no significant difference in firewood consumption between the subpopulations, despite predominantly more local than immigrant households have access to subsidised alternative energy sources. On the other hand, limited access to the collective forest is found to influence the choice of housing materials and living standards in immigrant households as they cannot access timber or afford brick houses. This paper highlights rural issues connected to the hukou system and suggests that rural energy and resource policies should take the growing population of immigrant workers into consideration in future to expand the reach of the polices to the de facto and not only de jure rural population and thus optimise policy efficiency. - Highlights: • The hukou system directly affects rural wood access and consumption. • Immigrant households have little or no access to timber. • Registration status does not have a significant effect on firewood consumption. • Excluding immigrant households will limit policy outreach and efficiency

  5. Breastfeeding Patterns in the Rural Community of Hilo, Hawai‘i: An Exploration of Existing Data Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Jeanie L

    2013-01-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai‘i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai‘i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in...

  6. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the age and gender distribution of small, rural areas: A case study of the local expert procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada

  7. Exposure to Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae sand flies in rural areas of Bihar, India: the role of housing conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritosh Malaviya

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is a vector-borne infectious disease, caused by the protozoan Leishmania donovani, which is transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. In an earlier study in Bihar, India, we found an association between incidence of VL and housing conditions. In the current study we investigated the influence of housing structure and conditions in and around the house on the indoor abundance of Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of VL in this area.In each of 50 study villages in Muzaffarpur district, we randomly selected 10 houses. Light traps were installed in each house for one night during three annual peaks of sand fly density over two successive years. Sand flies captured were morphologically identified and segregated by species, sex and feeding status. Data on housing conditions and socio-economic status were also collected. We fitted a linear mixed-effects regression model with log-transformed P. argentipes counts as outcome variable and village as random effect.P. argentipes was found in all but four of the 500 households. There was considerable variability between the years and the seasons. On bivariate analysis, housing structure, dampness of the floor, keeping animals inside, presence of animal dung around the house, and socio-economic status were all significantly associated with sand fly density. Highest sand fly densities were observed in thatched houses. In the multivariate model only the housing structure and socio-economic status remained significant.Better housing conditions are associated with lower sand fly densities, independent of other socio-economic conditions. However, in this area in Bihar even in the better-built houses sand flies are present.

  8. Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesser yellow house bat, Scotophilus viridis. F.P.D. Cotterill c/o Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town,. Cape Town. S.R. Giddings·. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 June 1986; accepted 23 July 1986. The activity pattems of the lesser yellow ...

  9. Patterns of activity and use of time in rural Bangladesh: class, gender, and seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, H

    1995-04-01

    Tarapur is a village in the district of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, covering an area of 821.05 acres. 342 households with a total population of 1981 were identified in the village by the 1985 census. The author investigated the use of time during 1984 and 1985 in busy, intermediate, and slack seasons among the village population to examine the variation in time use by gender and social class. Activity patterns were found to vary from one season to another, and also across social classes. The study highlights the need to refine some of the conceptual and methodological issues in the collection of data on women and work. The study also presents useful data on home-based production and market-oriented work. It could be useful to adopt an anthropological approach in order to understand the allocation of time by men and women from the perspective of household production and the local economy and culture. Study findings focus upon the following policy issues: the need for a better understanding and recognition of the significant role of women in field agriculture and postharvest processing, creation of further nontraditional employment and business opportunities for poor women in rural areas, and consciousness-raising and the challenge of cultural barriers affecting women. Rural women, especially those in need of employment and involved in market-oriented production, should be the target of mainstream development activities in future planning.

  10. Differences in Pattern and Driving Forces between Urban and Rural Settlements in the Coastal Region of Ningbo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization on the coast of China has attracted much attention. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in dynamics and related driving forces between urban and rural settlements. Applying the quantitative method, we demonstrate that substantial heterogeneity in settlement growth, landscape pattern metrics, change, land sources and driving forces is exhibited across the different types of urban and rural settlements. The spatial growth of urban settlements is dominated by in situ expansion, while rural settlements tend to be scattered and shrinking rapidly. The sprawl of human settlements has mainly occupied farm land, but reclamation projects are increasingly becoming important land sources for urban settlements. Local government has played a critical role in urban settlements, while the expansion of rural settlements is mainly driven by individual choice and village collective organizations. Such differences may account for differential options for the management of human settlements scientifically.

  11. Predicting Substance Use Patterns Among Rural Adults: The Roles of Mothers, Fathers, and Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Cucciare, Michael A; Booth, Brenda M; Timko, Christine

    2018-04-16

    This study examined the role of parenthood and parental influences on substance use patterns for 710 stimulant users age 18-61 living in the rural Midwest and Mid-south U.S. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that a maternal history of drug use was associated with increased baseline drug use severity, lesser declines in severity, and greater plateau of drug use severity over time. Parental conflict was associated with lesser declines in drug use severity, and drug use severity declined more steeply for participants who were themselves parents. Participants with two parents having a history of alcohol use had a greater baseline severity of alcohol use, with paternal history of drug use associated with lower baseline alcohol use severity. These findings demonstrate the importance of identifying parental influences in evaluating adult substance use, and point to the inclusion of parents in efforts to prevent and treat substance use disorders. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  12. Urban-rural difference in the determinants of dietary and energy intake patterns: A case study in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Satoko; Suda, Kazuhiro; Gunawan, Budhi; Raksanagara, Ardini; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored differences in the determinants of individual dietary/energy intake patterns between urban and rural areas. To examine whether the associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake patterns differ between urban and rural areas in West Java, Indonesia. A 3-day weighed food record, interviews, and anthropometric measurements were conducted in Bandung (urban area; n = 85) and Sumedang (rural area; n = 201). Total energy intake and intake from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were calculated. Food items were grouped into dietary categories based on the main ingredients to calculate their share of total energy intake. The associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake were examined by fitting regression models. Models that also included education and body mass index (BMI) were fitted to adult samples only. In Sumedang, the total energy intake and energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and grain/tubers were significantly associated with age and occupation. In Bandung, energy intake from grain/tubers and vegetables/legumes was related to sex and occupation, while other indicators showed no associations. Among adults, BMI was associated with the total energy intake and educational level was associated with energy intake from vegetables/legumes (both only in Sumedang). The relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and dietary/energy intake patterns differs in rural versus urban areas in West Java. These results suggest that different strategies are needed in rural and urban areas to identify and aid populations at risk of diet-related diseases.

  13. Breast-feeding patterns of ethnic groups in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Wang, Ting; Liu, Fang; Dang, Shaonong; Zeng, Lengxia; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To determine the breast-feeding pattern of four main ethnic groups (the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang) living in rural western China. The study utilized a cross-sectional design. Forty-five counties in ten provinces in western China in 2005. A sample of 11 783 children younger than 36 months old (8960 Han, 1281 Uygur, 792 Tibetan and 750 Zhuang) and their mothers were recruited using a stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling method. The rates of exclusive breast-feeding of children at 6 months of age in the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups were 11.6 %, 0.8%, 4.4% and 13.8%, respectively. The rates of any breast-feeding for children at 24 months of age were 8.5%, 25.7%, 3.0% and 4.3% in the four ethnic groups, respectively. After adjusting for related factors, Zhuang children had a higher odds ratio of exclusive breast-feeding to 6 months compared with Han children, whereas Uygur and Tibetan children had lower odds ratio (Zhuang: OR=1.291; 95% CI 1.006, 1.657; Uugur: OR=0.062; 95% CI 0.032, 0.121; Tibetan: OR=0.323; 95% CI 0.220, 0.475). Uygur children had a lower hazard ratio of discontinued breast-feeding compared with Han children, whereas Tibetan children had a higher hazard ratio (Uygur: HR=0.368; 95% CI 0.333, 0.408; Tibetan: HR=1.366; 95% CI 1.244, 1.500). The breast-feeding pattern differed among the Han, Uygur, Tibetan and Zhuang ethnic groups. The results suggest that health education regarding the benefits of breast-feeding is needed in rural western China.

  14. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  15. Blood pressure patterns in rural, semi-urban and urban children in the Ashanti region of Ghana, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Redekop, William K.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    High blood pressure, once rare, is rapidly becoming a major public health burden in sub-Saharan/Africa. It is unclear whether this is reflected in children. The main purpose of this study was to assess blood pressure patterns among rural, semi-urban, and urban children and to determine the

  16. 7 CFR 1955.113 - Price (housing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Price (housing). 1955.113 Section 1955.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property...

  17. Conservation value of clustered housing developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenth, Buffy A; Knight, Richard L; Gilgert, Wendell C

    2006-10-01

    Traditionally, exurban lands in Colorado have been subdivided into a grid of parcels ranging from 2 to 16 ha. From an ecological perspective, this dispersed pattern of development effectively maximizes the individual influence of each home on the land. Clustered housing developments, designed to maximize open space, are assumed to benefit plant and wildlife communities of conservation interest. They have become a popular alternative for rural development despite the lack of empirical evidence demonstrating their conservation benefits. To better inform rural land-use planning, we evaluated clustered housing developments by comparing their spatial pattern with that of dispersed housing developments and by comparing their conservation value with that of both dispersed housing developments and undeveloped areas in Boulder County, Colorado. We used four indicators to assess conservation value: (1) densities of songbirds, (2) nest density and survival of ground-nesting birds, (3) presence of mammals, and (4) percent cover and proportion of native and non-native plant species. Clustered and dispersed housing developments did not differ on the majority of variables we examined. Both types of housing development had significantly higher densities of non-native and human-commensal species and significantly lower densities of native and human-sensitive species than undeveloped areas. More rigorous ecological guidelines and planning on a regional scale may help create clustered developments with higher conservation value.

  18. AGE AT MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY PATTERN OF ADOLESCENT MARRIED WOMEN IN RURAL BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Ahmed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in two purposively selected rural areas of Faridpur district - Alfadanga and Boalmari. The objectives were to find out the age at marriage and fertility pattern amongst the adolescent married women residing in the study areas. A total of 426 women were selected purposively and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Most (97.2% were in the age group of 15-19 years, being married by 15.5 ± 1.5 years. Although 57.5% had a secondary level education, almost all (97% were found to be housewives. Monthly income was between Taka 2001-4000 in 41.3% of the households. Regarding fertility pattern, 19% of the adolescent women were found to be pregnant at the time of survey. The total fertility rate (TFR among this age group was estimated to be 2.6 per woman. To help improve the situation, awareness on the negative consequences of early marriage and consequent childbearing needs to be created not only among the young adolescent girls but should be targeted towards their parents too. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2007; 1(2: 9-12

  19. Intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue among married rural-to-urban migrant workers, the largest group of internal migrants in China. This study aims to explore the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhejiang province in China between July 2015 and April 2016, and a total of 1,744 married rural-to-urban migrant workers ultimately took part in the study. Conflict Tactics Scales and several short demographic questions were applied. Data were principally analyzed with logistic regression. Results The majority of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were middle-aged couples with a low education level and a relatively long-term duration of migration in fixed migrant cities. Nearly 45% of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. The joint occurrence of multiple forms of violence is the most commonly reported features of intimate partner violence, especially three overlapping patterns of intimate partner violence. Some individual (education and age, relationship (marital satisfaction, premarital sex and extramarital affairs and social (duration of migration and number of migratory cities factors of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers. Conclusion The results indicated that one out of two married rural-to-urban migrant workers experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months in China. Accordingly, there is an obvious demand of intervention and treatment activities to prevent and reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence among the millions of migrant workers in China.

  20. Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic factors among rural school-aged children in Bijar, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of major dietary patterns using factor analysis can provide information about health status of children by obtaining an overall picture of the person's diet. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and to identify socioeconomic factors affecting them in school age children in rural areas of Bijar, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 255 rural school age children living rural areas of Bijar were selected by simple random sampling. Dietary intakes during the past year and assessment of socioeconomic information were examined. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis and their relation to socioeconomic factors was investigated. Results: Three major dietary patterns," traditional", "modern" and "mixed", were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnic and energy intake, Age of mother (b= 0.03, CI=0.00_0.05 was positively associated and age of father (b= -0.03, CI=-0.05_-0.01, laboring Job for father (b= -0.24, CI=-0.44_-0.03 and higher education of parents (b= -0.20, CI=-0.35_-0.05 were negatively associated with traditional dietary pattern. In addition, higher education of parents (b= 0.27, CI=0.11_0.44 was positively associated and age of mother (b= -0.03, CI=-0.06_0.00 was negatively associated with mixed dietary pattern. Conclusion: Some socio-economic variables such as maternal age, parental education, parental occupation and economic conditions can have effect on major dietary patterns among rural children.

  1. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David; Azher, Shifa; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5%) were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36). In 511 (76%) cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67) of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91) purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46%) or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%). Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment. PMID:19889236

  2. Relationship between Pesticide Metabolites, Cytokine Patterns, and Asthma-Related Outcomes in Rural Women Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein H. Mwanga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to organophosphate (OP and pyrethroid (PYR pesticides with serum cytokine patterns and asthma-related outcomes among rural women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among rural women (n = 211, including those working and living on farms and nearby town dwellers. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolite concentrations of OP and PYR pesticides. Health outcome assessment was ascertained through the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaire, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, and serum cytokines associated with asthma. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 11%, adult-onset asthma 9%, and current asthma 6%. In this population, the proportion of T helper type 2 (Th2 cytokines (interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 detectable in subjects was between 18% and 40%, while the proportion of non-Th2 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and interferon gamma was between 35% and 71%. Most Th2 and non-Th2 cytokines were positively associated with either OP or PYR metabolites. Non-Th2 cytokines showed much stronger associations with OP metabolites (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.54–11.65 than Th2 cytokines (Dimethyl phosphate OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 0.83–3.46. This study suggests that exposure to most OP and some PYR pesticides may be associated with asthma-related cytokines, with non-Th2 cytokines demonstrating consistently stronger relationships.

  3. 7 CFR 3565.252 - Housing types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing types. 3565.252 Section 3565.252 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.252 Housing types. The property may...

  4. Pattern and Trend of Substance Abuse in Eastern Rural Iran: A Household Survey in a Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ziaaddini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Substance abuse imposes hazards on human health in all biopsychosocial aspects. Limited studies exist on epidemiology of substance abuse and its trend in rural areas. The present study aimed to compare substance abuse in one of the rural areas of southeast Iran, in a 12-year period (2000 and 2012. Design and Methods. In a household survey conducted in 2012, in Dashtkhak/Kerman, 1200 individuals above 12 years of age completed a questionnaire to determine their frequency of substance abuse. The questionnaire included the following three areas: demographic characteristics, frequency of substance abuse and ease of access to various drugs. Results. Among 900 completed questionnaires, majority of the participants (61.8% were below 30 years of age and among them 54.4% were male. Cigarette (17.0%, opium (15.7% and opium residue (9.0% were the most frequent substances abused on a daily basis. Based on the participant’s opinion, we conclude that the ease of access to cigarette, waterpipe and opium contributed to their increase in consumption compared with earlier years. Discussion and Conclusion. The steady rise in substance abuse in rural communities demands immediate attention and emergency preventive measures from policy makers.

  5. 77 FR 16203 - Section 538 Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Program 2012 Industry Forums-Open Teleconference and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    .... However, if it appears that existing capabilities may prevent the Agency from accommodating all requests... Section 515 developments. The impact of Low Income Housing Tax Credits program changes on Section 538..., genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual's income is...

  6. 76 FR 8712 - Section 538 Guaranteed Rural Rental Housing Program 2011 Industry Forums-Open Teleconference and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... existing capabilities may prevent the Agency from accommodating all requests for one form of participation... developments. The impact of Low Income Housing Tax Credits program changes on Section 538 financings. USDA... information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual's income is derived from any...

  7. Patterned Inequalities and the Inequality Regime of a Swedish Housing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Boréus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors analyze inequalities between different groups of employees at a housing company in a larger Swedish city. The concept of inequality regime is taken as a point of departure. The purposes of the article are three: first, to add to knowledge of how inequality is generated at an organizational level at specific workplaces; second, to contribute to the understanding of how different practices, processes, and meanings of inequality regimes may interact to create and reinforce inequalities between natives and immigrants; and, third, to contribute to the empirical usefulness of the concept of inequality regime by demonstrating how it can be operationalized and combined with other concepts in the analysis. The study shows how the practices, processes, and meanings at the given workplace generated and reproduced different kinds of inequalities: unequal wages, an ethnic division of labor, unequal influence and job security, and unequal opportunities to capitalize on useful skills (i.e., language competence. Important conclusions are that different kinds of inequalities may reinforce each other by creating vicious circles, and subtler forms of inequality may partly explain explicit wage inequalities.

  8. Orientation Use of Houses in Rural - Urban (A Case Study in the Eastern District of Kartasura, Sukoharjo 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirul Amin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Kartasura, seen formspace point of view, has special position because it is located in the corridor intersection between Semarang – Surakarta – Yogyakarta. Which becomes three central developing cities in central part of Java. This study is carried out in border town area in east part of Kartasura, which consist of four village – Pabelan, Gonilan, Gumpang, and Makamhaji. That are growing fast due to the effect of urban characteristic from Surakarta. The orientation phenomena of the use of house (OPR, the urban population that led to the commercial use is an interesting fact dealing with the influence of urban activities in those areas. The goal of this study is to know the kindsand the spread of the space of OPR population in east part of Kartasura and the factors, which is studied, is the houses in the research areas and the respondents are the owner of the houses. The sampling uses systematic proportional random sampling. The location of house sample (UMS, UNS, Islamic Boarding Shcool of Assalam, health services (RSIS and RSO, and commercial services (ALFA, UMS stores. All of them are located in Pabelan and Makamhaji. While industrial center consist of PT Tyfountex and small industries around it in Gumpang. Every central activities is divided into two cluster based on the relative distance from central activities (far and near, so as a whole there are four clusters which made up of two clusters in service center and the other in industrial center. Sample at every cluster is taken proportional about 2,5% based on homogenity consideration, whether the selecction of house sampling is taken randomly. The numbers of samples as a whole 175 respondents. The collected data are prensented in the form of frequency and cross table. Qualitative data analysis uses logical thought, deductive induccctive, analogy and comparison, while quantitative data analysis is done using frequency table analysis and cross table. The use of both analysis is sadapted

  9. Pattern of Injuries from Road Traffic Accidents Presented at a Rural Teaching Institution of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to study the pattern of injuries from road traffic accidents presented at the emergency department of a rural teaching institution in Karachi. This descriptive case series was conducted prospectively in the Emergency Department of Fatima Hospital and Baqai Medical University from 1 January 2012 to 21 March 2013. There were 385 patients in the series. All of the patients with recent injuries from road traffic accidents were included. Cases with injuries more than 72 h old were excluded. The majority of patients had lower limb injuries 172 (44.7%), followed by head and neck injuries 107 (27.8%), multiple injuries 62 (16.1%), upper limb injuries 22 (5.7%), abdominoperineal injuries 19 (5%), and chest injuries 3 (0.8%). Majority (229, 59.5%) of patients were given first aid treatment and discharged, while 151 (39.3%) patients were either admitted or referred to better equipped hospitals. Three patients were brought dead, and two patients left against medical advice. The lower limb injuries were the commonest road traffic accidental injuries, followed by head and neck injuries, multiple injuries, upper limb injuries, abdominoperineal injuries, and chest injuries.

  10. Ice and the outback: Patterns and prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; McEntee, Alice

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether lifetime and recent methamphetamine use (including crystal methamphetamine) differed among city, regional and rural residents and whether particular subpopulations were more at-risk. Secondary analyses of the last three National Drug Strategy Household Surveys and corresponding Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Sets (AODTS NMDS). Australian general population. Australians who completed the 2007 (n = 22 519), 2010 (n = 25 786) and 2013 (n = 23 512) NDSHS (aged 14 + ); and treatment episodes where the principal drug of concern was recorded in the 2006/2007 (n = 139 808), 2009/2010 (n = 139 608) and 2012/2013 (n = 154 489) AODTS NMDS. To determine whether rural Australians were more likely to use methamphetamine than non-rural counterparts. Lifetime and recent methamphetamine and recent crystal methamphetamine use were significantly higher among rural than other Australians. Significantly more rural men and employed rural Australians used methamphetamine than their city, regional or Australian counterparts. Rural Australians aged 18-24 and 25-29 years were significantly more likely to have used methamphetamine in their lifetime than city or Australian residents. Rural Australians aged 18-24 years were significantly more likely to have recently used crystal methamphetamine. Interventions tailored to address the specific and unique circumstances of rural settings are required to reduce and prevent methamphetamine use, particularly crystal methamphetamine. Scope exists to focus prevention efforts on rural workplaces and primary care settings. Greater understanding of the higher prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural areas is required, plus implementation of comprehensive strategies and optimised treatment utilisation. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  11. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis

    2012-10-02

    Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and

  12. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos-Fita Dídac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg. The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by

  13. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-10-06

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems.

  14. The changes of densities and patterns of roads and rural buildings: a case study on Dongzhi Yuan of the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Ge, Jianping

    2010-05-01

    Roads and buildings are considered as primary causes of rural landscape changes. In this study, linear regression models were used to analyze the dynamic influences of environmental factors and variables on roads and rural buildings from 1979 to 2005 in Dongzhi Yuan (tableland) of the Loess Plateau, China. The relationship between roads and rural buildings and their effects on Dongzhi Yuan are discussed also. The results showed that three environmental factors (topography, land cover, and development level) explained roads better than rural buildings referring densities and patterns. The environmental variables significantly related to roads have decreased, whereas those related to rural buildings have increased over time. Among these significant variables, percent of farmland mostly determined the densities and patterns of both roads and rural buildings. There was significant correlation between roads and rural buildings in terms of density and pattern. In addition, roads and rural buildings have increased greatly in gully areas of this region. Therefore, more attention should be paid to planning of roads and rural buildings in Dongzhi Yuan.

  15. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqing Wei; Ping Yin; Ian M. Newman; Ling Qian; Duane F. Shell; Lok-wa Yuen

    2017-01-01

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural res...

  16. Leisure Patterns and Needs of the Elderly in Rural Galicia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Maria Dapia

    2012-01-01

    A large percentage of the Galician population is aged and lives in rural environments--parishes, hamlets, and villages. This study employed semistructured interviews and focus groups to obtain a qualitative assessment both of (a) the opinions of the elderly living in rural areas regarding their leisure and recreational habits and the provision…

  17. Assessing patterns and determinants of latrine use in rural settings: A longitudinal study in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Antara; Nagel, Corey L; Schmidt, Wolf P; Torondel, Belen; Boisson, Sophie; Routray, Parimita; Clasen, Thomas F

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring of sanitation programs is often limited to sanitation access and coverage, with little emphasis on use of the facilities despite increasing evidence of widespread non-use. We assessed patterns and determinants of individual latrine use over 12 months in a low- income rural study population that had recently received latrines as part of the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in coastal Puri district in Odisha, India. We surveyed 1938 individuals (>3years) in 310 rural households with latrines from 25 villages over 12 months. Data collection rounds were timed to correspond with the seasons. The primary outcome was reported use by each member of the household over the prior 48h. We classified use into three categories-"never", "sometimes" and "always/usually". We also assessed consistency of use over six days across the three seasons (dry cold, dry hot, rainy). We explored the association between individual and household-level variables and latrine use in any given season and longitudinally using multinomial logistic regression. We also inquired about reasons for non-use. Overall, latrine use was poor and inconsistent. The average response probability at any given round of never use was 43.5% (95% CI=37.9, 49.1), sometimes use was 4.6% (95% CI=3.8, 5.5), and always/usual use was 51.9% (95% CI=46.2, 57.5). Only two-thirds of those who reported always/usually using a latrine in round one reported the same for all three rounds. Across all three rounds, the study population was about equally divided among those who reported never using the latrine (30.1%, 95% CI=23.0, 37.2), sometimes using the latrine (33.2%, 95% CI=28.3, 38.1) and always/usually using the latrine (36.8%, 95% CI=31.8, 41.8). The reported likelihood of always/usually versus never using the latrine was significantly greater in the dry cold season (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.18, 1.89, p=0.001) and in the rainy season (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.07, 1.69, p=0.012), than in the dry hot season

  18. The impact of the built environment on young people's physical activity patterns: a suburban-rural comparison using GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Lyons, Mark

    2012-08-24

    The built environment in which young people live has a significant influence on their physical activity (PA). However, little is known regarding how youth from suburban and rural settings utilise their surrounding environments to participate in free-living PA. 50 adolescents aged 13-14 years old (22 rural; 28 suburban) wore an integrated GPS and heart rate device during non-school hours and completed a daily PA diary over 7 days. Descriptive statistics and analyses of variance were used to explore differences in the amount and location of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between genders and youth from different geographical settings. Suburban youth participated in significantly (p = 0.004) more daily PA (52.14 minutes MVPA) and were more extensive in their utilisation of their surroundings, compared to rural youth (26.61 minutes MVPA). Suburban youth visited more public recreational facilities and spent significantly more time outdoors and on local streets (109.71 minutes and 44.62 minutes, respectively) compared to rural youth (55.98 minutes and 17.15 minutes, respectively) during weekdays. Rural youth on average spent significantly more time within the home (350.69 minutes) during weekends compared to suburban youth (214.82 minutes). Rural females were the least active group of adolescents, participating in the least amount of daily PA (20.14 minutes MVPA) and spending the least amount of time outdoors (31.37 minutes) during weekdays. Time spent outdoors was positively associated with PA. The findings highlight the disparity in PA levels and the utilisation of the surrounding built environment between youth from two different geographical settings and possible environmental causes are discussed. The study supports the use of GPS (combined with other methods) in investigating geographical differences in young people's PA and movement patterns. This method provides a wealth of information that may assist future policies and interventions in identifying

  19. 76 FR 53880 - Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This notice corrects the scoring...

  20. Micro-Study of the Evolution of Rural Settlement Patterns and Their Spatial Association with Water and Land Resources: A Case Study of Shandan County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libang Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The balance between population and water and land resources is an important part of regional sustainable development. It is also significant for the ecological civilization in China and can help solve the Three Rural Issues (agriculture, countryside and farmers in China. The Silk Road Economic Belt and Maritime Silk Road in twenty-first Century Strategy have brought new opportunities for the Hexi Corridor, which is facing challenges in the sustainable development of rural settlements. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal-spatial differentiation of rural settlement patterns in Shandan County of Hexi Corridor and studied the spatial association between rural settlements and water-land resources. Results show that the total area of rural settlement patches (CA, the number of rural settlement patches (NP, the mean patch area (MPS, the maximum patch areas (MAXP, the minimum patch areas (MINP and the density of rural settlement patches (PD changed more rapidly from 1998 to 2008 than from 2008 to 2015. In the second period, the indices mentioned before did not change significantly. The kernel density of rural settlements is basically consistent in three periods. Rural settlements mainly distribute along major roads and the hydrographic network and the kernel density of rural settlements decreases in the direction away from these roads and the hydrographic network. In addition, rural settlements in Shandan County are densely distributed in some regions and sparsely distributed in other regions. The dispersion degree of rural settlements increased from 1998 to 2008 and tended to be stable after 2008. These lead to the dispersion, hollowing and chaos of rural settlements in Shandan County. The spatial distribution of rural settlements in Shandan County is closely related to that of cultivated land and the hydrographic network. Our results might provide a theoretical basis for the reasonable utilization of water and land resources in Shandan County

  1. Breastfeeding Patterns in the Rural Community of Hilo, Hawai‘i: An Exploration of Existing Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai‘i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai‘i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai‘i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai‘i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data. PMID:23520565

  2. Breastfeeding patterns in the rural community of Hilo, Hawai'i: an exploration of existing data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Jeanie L

    2013-03-01

    Before any breastfeeding promotion effort, an understanding of the existing breastfeeding patterns is essential. Hawai'i County is a rural, ethnically diverse, medically underserved community. The purpose of this study was to describe the breastfeeding patterns of women living in Hilo, Hawai'i. Data from several existing national, state, and local data sets were accessed to identify and describe the breastfeeding patterns of women in this community. Available breastfeeding data about women in Hilo was obtained from the Hawai'i WIC program and includes initiation, duration, exclusivity of breastfeeding, and reasons for not breastfeeding. These data were compared to data from published reports available at the county, state, and national level. The State of Hawai'i and Hilo exceed national targets for breastfeeding initiation; however, rates soon drop following delivery, and mixed feedings of infants is common. The highest percentage of mothers weaned their infants within the first four weeks postpartum. The reasons the majority of the mothers gave for weaning were tied to breastfeeding situations that are amenable to skilled lactation support (eg, milk supply issues and latch or sucking problems). While available data sets offer valuable information on the breastfeeding patterns in this rural community, there are limitations to their usefulness, primarily due to the inconsistent operational definitions of infant feeding variables used in the surveys, and the lack of availability of community level data.

  3. Genome patterns of selection and introgression of haplotypes in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Staubach

    Full Text Available General parameters of selection, such as the frequency and strength of positive selection in natural populations or the role of introgression, are still insufficiently understood. The house mouse (Mus musculus is a particularly well-suited model system to approach such questions, since it has a defined history of splits into subspecies and populations and since extensive genome information is available. We have used high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing arrays to assess genomic patterns of positive selection and introgression of alleles in two natural populations of each of the subspecies M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus. Applying different statistical procedures, we find a large number of regions subject to apparent selective sweeps, indicating frequent positive selection on rare alleles or novel mutations. Genes in the regions include well-studied imprinted loci (e.g. Plagl1/Zac1, homologues of human genes involved in adaptations (e.g. alpha-amylase genes or in genetic diseases (e.g. Huntingtin and Parkin. Haplotype matching between the two subspecies reveals a large number of haplotypes that show patterns of introgression from specific populations of the respective other subspecies, with at least 10% of the genome being affected by partial or full introgression. Using neutral simulations for comparison, we find that the size and the fraction of introgressed haplotypes are not compatible with a pure migration or incomplete lineage sorting model. Hence, it appears that introgressed haplotypes can rise in frequency due to positive selection and thus can contribute to the adaptive genomic landscape of natural populations. Our data support the notion that natural genomes are subject to complex adaptive processes, including the introgression of haplotypes from other differentiated populations or species at a larger scale than previously assumed for animals. This implies that some of the admixture found in inbred strains of mice

  4. The determinants and engagement patterns of chaperones and chauffeurs by Australian doctors in after-hours house-call services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifediora, Chris Onyebuchi

    2017-01-01

    The use of escorts (chauffeurs and chaperones) while on duty in after-hours-house-call (AHHC) is one key protective option available to doctors in the service, and has been linked to low burnout and increased satisfaction in AHHC. This study aims to explore the patterns of engagement of escorts in Australian AHHC. This is a questionnaire-based, electronic survey of all 300 doctors involved in AHHC through the National Home Doctor Service (NHDS), Australia's largest providers of the service. The survey explored the doctor's experiences over the 12-month period from October 2013 to September 2014. This survey received a total of 168 valid responses, giving a response rate of 56%. Nearly 61% of the doctors involved in AHHC engaged escorts (chauffeurs and chaperones). Of those doctors that engage chauffeurs, three-quarters do so "all or most times", while only one-quarter engaged chaperones to the same degree of frequency. Hiring escorts is very popular among Brisbane (91.7%) and Sydney-based (88.2%) practitioners, but is unpopular in the City of Gold Coast (26.1%). There were moderate patronages in Adelaide (52.9%) and Melbourne Area (46.4%). Compared to males, females were less likely to drive themselves without escorts (OR 0.20; P  doctors involved in the Australian AHHC, particularly given their proven benefits in the service. Future studies may be needed to fully explore the real reasons behind the significant associations identified in this study.

  5. Care-seeking patterns among families that experienced under-five child mortality in rural Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabo, Daniel M; Kirk, Catherine M; Bakundukize, Benjamin; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Gupta, Neil; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Ingabire, Willy C; Rouleau, Dominique; Nkikabahizi, Fulgence; Mugeni, Catherine; Sayinzoga, Felix; Amoroso, Cheryl L

    2018-01-01

    Over half of under-five deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and appropriate, timely, quality care is critical for saving children's lives. This study describes the context surrounding children's deaths from the time the illness was first noticed, through the care-seeking patterns leading up to the child's death, and identifies factors associated with care-seeking for these children in rural Rwanda. Secondary analysis of a verbal and social autopsy study of caregivers who reported the death of a child between March 2013 to February 2014 that occurred after discharge from the child's birth facility in southern Kayonza and Kirehe districts in Rwanda. Bivariate analyses using Fisher's exact tests were conducted to identify child, caregiver, and household factors associated with care-seeking from the formal health system (i.e., community health worker or health facility). Factors significant at α = 0.10 significance level were considered for backwards stepwise multivariate logistic regression, stopping when remaining factors were significantly associated with care-seeking at α = 0.05 significance level. Among the 516 eligible deaths among children under-five, 22.7% (n = 117) did not seek care from the health system. For those who did, the most common first point of contact was community health workers (45.8%). In multivariate logistic regression, higher maternal education (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.89, 5.98), having diarrhea (OR = 4.21, 95%CI: 1.95, 9.07) or fever (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.11, 3.72), full household insurance coverage (3.48, 95%CI: 1.79, 6.76), and longer duration of illness (OR = 22.19, 95%CI: 8.88, 55.48) were significantly associated with formal care-seeking. Interventions such as community health workers and insurance promote access to care, however a gap remains as many children had no contact with the health system prior to death and those who sought formal care still died. Further efforts are needed to respond to urgent cases in communities and further

  6. External wall structure of green rural houses in Daqing, China, based on life cycle and ecological footprint theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Daqing is situated in one of the severely cold regions of China. The living environment in this region is extremely poor because of the harsh climate and the backward economy. The external wall is an important component of the external envelope of buildings, and it greatly contributes to the indoor thermal environment. By taking the external wall as the research object, this study summarizes the characteristics of the external wall structure and analyzes the common materials used in existing rural residences. Specifically, we combine life cycle theory and ecological footprint (EF theory and introduce the green external wall structure, as well as its application in practice, in accordance with the local ecosystem. Results show that anecological residence offers a better environment and greater economic benefits than a traditional residence. The annual energy consumption, CO2 consumption, and EF of the ecological residence in this study are lower than those of the traditional residence by 69.61%, 17.5 t, and 99.47%, respectively.

  7. Pattern of Eye Diseases in Kaduna State – A rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Senile cataract and anterior segment eye infection were the two eye diseases most frequently seen in Giwa community. The lack of trachoma seems to indicate that the rural water supplies were relatively clean and safe. The majority of eye problems were age-related, and preventable. Objective: The aim of the study was to ...

  8. Patterns and Determinants of Double-Burden of Malnutrition among Rural Children: Evidence from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition-coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017 from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight, over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity, paradox (stunted overweight, with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys' higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children's nutritional status in

  9. Patterns and Determinants of Double-Burden of Malnutrition among Rural Children: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani

    2016-01-01

    Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition-coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017) from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight), over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity), paradox (stunted overweight), with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages) were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys' higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children's nutritional status in China

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of surface water quality and ichthyotoxicity in urban and rural river basins in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Meyer, Matthew D.; Cox, Stephen B.; Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    The Double Mountain Fork Brazos River (Texas, USA) consists of North (NF) and South Forks (SF). The NF receives urban runoff and twice-reclaimed wastewater effluent, whereas the SF flows through primarily rural areas. The objective of this study was to determine and compare associations between standard water quality variables and ichthyotoxicity at a landscape scale that included urban (NF) and rural (SF) sites. Five NF and three SF sites were sampled quarterly from March 2008 to March 2009 for specific conductance, salinity, hardness, pH, temperature, and turbidity; and a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo bioassay was used to determine ichthyotoxicity. Metal and nutrient concentrations at all sites were also measured in addition to standard water quality variables in spring 2009. Principal component analyses identified hardness, specific conductance, and salinity as the water variables that best differentiate the urban NF (higher levels) from rural SF habitat. Nutrient levels were also higher in the NF, but no landscape scale patterns in metal concentrations were observed. Ichthyotoxicity was generally higher in NF water especially in winter, and multiple regression analyses suggested a positive association between water hardness and ichthyotoxicity. To test for the potential influence of the toxic golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) on overall ichthyotoxicity, a cofactor known to enhance golden alga toxin activity was used in the bioassays. Golden alga ichthyotoxicity was detected in the NF but not the SF, suggesting golden alga may have contributed to overall ichthyotoxicity in the urban but not in the rural system. In conclusion, the physicochemistry of the urban-influenced NF water was conducive to the expression of ichthyotoxicity and also point to water hardness as a novel factor influencing golden alga ichthyotoxicity in surface waters.

  11. Level, pattern, and determinants of polypharmacy and inappropriate use of medications by village doctors in a rural area of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasu RS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rafia S Rasu,1 Mohammad Iqbal,2 SMA Hanifi,2 Ariful Moula2 Shahidul Hoque,2 Sabrina Rasheed,2 Abbas Bhuiya2 1School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2Centre for Equity and Health System, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research (ICDDR,B, Dhaka, Bangladesh Objective: Village doctors, informal health care providers practicing modern medicine, are dominant health care providers in rural Bangladesh. Given their role, it is important to examine their prescription pattern and inappropriate use of medication. Methods: These cross-sectional study data were collected through surveys of patients seen by village doctors during 2008 and 2010 at Chakaria, a typical rural area of Bangladesh. Categorization of appropriate, inappropriate, and harmful prescriptions by disease conditions was based on guidelines defined by the World Health Organization (WHO, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF, and the Government of Bangladesh. Analytical categorization of polypharmacy was defined when five or more medications were prescribed for a patient at a single visit. Findings: A total of 2,587 prescriptions were written by village doctors during the survey periods. Among the prescriptions were appropriate (10%, inappropriate (8%, combination of appropriate and inappropriate (63%, and harmful medications (19%. Village doctors with more than high school education were 53% less likely (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26–0.86 to give polypharmacy prescriptions than those with less than high school education. While exploring determinants of prescribing inappropriate and harmful medications, this study found that polypharmacy prescriptions were six times more likely [OR: 6.00, 95% CI: 3.88–9.29] to have harmful medications than prescriptions with <5 medications. Conclusion: Village doctors’ training and supervision may improve the quality of services and establish accountability for the

  12. Patterns Of Fulfillment Basic Needs On Rural Area Based On Palm Oil Plantation Community In Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Yani Iyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution pattern stabilization of the availability of basic needs of rural communities based on oil palm commodities in Riau Province. The analytical method used is descriptive analysis. The data obtained is processed and tabulated into the frequency distribution which is then presented in the form of tables graphs and charts to explain the behavior of the variables studied. The results show that the pattern of distribution of basic needs in rural areas based on oil palm commodities in Riau Province is generally taken by land with the road surface conditions are relatively good and can be passed throughout the year. Distribution of basic necessities used in the form of shops grocery stores shopping groups to minimarket and permanent and non permanent markets. The prices of basic commodities are relatively fluctuating and tend to increase but they are still in a stable category. The availability of basic needs sources is seen from the area of land harvest and production decreased while consumption as the population increase. So that the supply of basic needs from outside the region is the road taken to ensure the availability of sufficient stock of basic needs.

  13. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns

    OpenAIRE

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V.; Kosinski, Karen C.; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N.; Ayamgah, Gilbert A.; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M.; Plummer, Jeanine D.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. Despite providing the highest and most flexible level of service with better microbiological water quality to their users, these systems remain vulnerable to rural water sustainability challenges. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public stan...

  14. Adaptive Cycle as a Tool to Select Resilient Patterns of Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Salvia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in agriculture, including simultaneous intensification and abandonment, have significantly shaped the evolution of rural areas. The assessment of resilience in agricultural systems could provide insights into the ability of many rural areas to survive and regain competitiveness following disturbances. The aim of this study is to use the adaptive cycle heuristic as a diagnostic tool to study dynamics of change in two agricultural sectors (durum wheat/sheep and goat farming in the Basilicata region of Southern Italy over the last seventy years. The heuristic was applied through a participatory approach in a community of stakeholders who have conceived, in collaboration with researchers, the Manifesto “Let’s Think Basilicata” as a regional instrument of analysis and a laboratory of ideas and development of proposals. Despite some methodological difficulties, the adaptive cycle heuristic proved useful to describe processes of change in the socio-ecological system and could have enormous potential in shaping policy instruments for rural areas. However, much greater research is needed, both in terms of theory and methodology, before policy impacts on resilience in socio-ecological systems can be fully understood.

  15. Dietary patterns differ between urban and rural older, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer and are associated with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Morey, Miriam C; Hartman, Terry J; Snyder, Denise C; Sloane, Richard; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2012-06-01

    Older adult cancer survivors are at greater risk of cancer recurrence and other comorbidities that can be prevented through improved diet and weight management. The tertiary prevention needs of rural-dwelling survivors can be even greater, yet little is known about rural and urban differences in lifestyle factors among this high-risk population. To compare dietary patterns of urban and rural cancer survivors and to examine associations of dietary patterns with body mass index (BMI). A secondary analysis was performed of baseline data from the Reach Out to Enhance Wellness (RENEW) trial, a diet and exercise intervention among overweight, long-term (≥5 years), older survivors of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Survivors in the present analysis (n=729) underwent two 45- to 60-minute telephone surveys, which included two 24-hour dietary recalls. Principal components analysis and multivariable general linear models were used to derive dietary patterns and to evaluate associations between dietary patterns and BMI, respectively. Principal components analysis identified three primary dietary patterns among rural dwellers (high sweets and starches, high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits, and mixed) and three among urban dwellers (high fruits and vegetables, high meat and refined grains, and high sugar-sweetened beverages). Among rural survivors, greater adherence to the high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits pattern was positively associated with lower BMI (P trend pattern was associated with greater BMI (P trend pattern among urban survivors was inversely associated with BMI (P trend dietary intake behavior should be considered in designing public health interventions among the increasing population of older cancer survivors. In addition, targeting overall dietary patterns might be one approach to help reduce the burden of obesity among this population. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Patterns and Determinants of Double-Burden of Malnutrition among Rural Children: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani

    2016-01-01

    Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition—coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017) from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight), over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity), paradox (stunted overweight), with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages) were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys’ higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children’s nutritional status in China

  17. The determinants and engagement patterns of chaperones and chauffeurs by Australian doctors in after-hours house-call services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Onyebuchi Ifediora

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The use of escorts (chauffeurs and chaperones while on duty in after-hours-house-call (AHHC is one key protective option available to doctors in the service, and has been linked to low burnout and increased satisfaction in AHHC. This study aims to explore the patterns of engagement of escorts in Australian AHHC. Method This is a questionnaire-based, electronic survey of all 300 doctors involved in AHHC through the National Home Doctor Service (NHDS, Australia’s largest providers of the service. The survey explored the doctor’s experiences over the 12-month period from October 2013 to September 2014. Results This survey received a total of 168 valid responses, giving a response rate of 56%. Nearly 61% of the doctors involved in AHHC engaged escorts (chauffeurs and chaperones. Of those doctors that engage chauffeurs, three-quarters do so “all or most times”, while only one-quarter engaged chaperones to the same degree of frequency. Hiring escorts is very popular among Brisbane (91.7% and Sydney-based (88.2% practitioners, but is unpopular in the City of Gold Coast (26.1%. There were moderate patronages in Adelaide (52.9% and Melbourne Area (46.4%. Compared to males, females were less likely to drive themselves without escorts (OR 0.20; P < 0.01; CI [0.07–0.57], but more likely to engage chauffeurs (OR 5.87; P = 0.03; CI [1.16–29.77]. Practitioners who were apprehensive were three times more likely to either engage escorts as chauffeurs (OR 3.10; P = 0.04; CI [1.05–9.15] or as an accompanying chaperone if they self-drive (OR 3.03; P = 0.02; CI [1.16–7.89]. Conclusion More needs to be done to increase the engagement of escorts by doctors involved in the Australian AHHC, particularly given their proven benefits in the service. Future studies may be needed to fully explore the real reasons behind the significant associations identified in this study.

  18. Care-seeking patterns for fatal non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shegufta S; Labrique, Alain B; Ullah, Barkat; Mehra, Sucheta; Rashid, Mahbubur; Ali, Hasmot; Jahan, Nusrat; Shamim, Abu A; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2012-08-15

    Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. The majority of women (94%) sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified providers in advanced stages of disease, they were usually told that

  19. Care-seeking patterns for fatal non-communicable diseases among women of reproductive age in rural northwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Shegufta S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though non-communicable diseases contribute to an increasing share of the disease burden in South Asia, health systems in most rural communities are ill-equipped to deal with chronic illness. This analysis seeks to describe care-seeking behavior among women of reproductive age who died from fatal non-communicable diseases as recorded in northwest rural Bangladesh between 2001 and 2007. Methods This analysis utilized data from a large population-based cohort trial in northwest rural Bangladesh. To conduct verbal autopsies of women who died while under study surveillance, physicians interviewed family members to elicit the biomedical symptoms that the women experienced as well as a narrative of the events leading to deaths. We performed qualitative textual analysis of verbal autopsy narratives for 250 women of reproductive age who died from non-communicable diseases between 2001 and 2007. Results The majority of women (94% sought at least one provider for their illnesses. Approximately 71% of women first visited non-certified providers such as village doctors and traditional healers, while 23% first sought care from medically certified providers. After the first point of care, women appeared to switch to medically certified practitioners when treatment from non-certified providers failed to resolve their illness. Conclusions This study suggests that treatment seeking patterns for non-communicable diseases are affected by many of the sociocultural factors that influence care seeking for pregnancy-related illnesses. Families in northwest rural Bangladesh typically delayed seeking treatment from medically certified providers for NCDs due to the cost of services, distance to facilities, established relationships with non-certified providers, and lack of recognition of the severity of illnesses. Most women did not realize initially that they were suffering from a chronic illness. Since women typically reached medically certified

  20. Quantifying the Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization along Urban-Rural Gradient with a Roadscape Transect Approach: A Case Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the landscape pattern change can effectively demonstrate the ecological progresses and the consequences of urbanization. Based on remotely sensed land cover data in 1994, 2000, 2006 and a gradient analysis with landscape metrics at landscape- and class- level, we attempted to characterize the individual and entire landscape patterns of Shanghai metropolitan during the rapid urbanization. We highlighted that a roadscape transect approach that combined the buffer zone method and the transect-based approach was introduced to describe the urban-rural patterns of agricultural, residential, green, industrial, and public facilities land along the railway route. Our results of landscape metrics showed significant spatiotemporal patterns and gradient variations along the transect. The urban growth pattern in two time spans conform to the hypothesis for diffusion–coalescence processes, implying that the railway is adaptive as a gradient element to analyze the landscape patterns with urbanization. As the natural landscape was replaced by urban landscape gradually, the desakota region expanded its extent widely. Suburb areas witnessed the continual transformation from the predominantly rural landscape to peri-urban landscape. Furthermore, the gap between urban and rural areas remained large especially in public service. More reasonable urban plans and land use policies should push to make more efforts to transition from the urban-rural separation to coordinated urban-rural development. This study is a meaningful trial in demonstrating a new form of urban–rural transects to study the landscape change of large cities. By combining gradient analysis with landscape metrics, we addressed the process of urbanization both spatially and temporally, and provided a more quantitative approach to urban studies.

  1. Pattern of Road Traffic Injuries in Rural Bangladesh: Burden Estimates and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Baset, Md Kamran; Rahman, Aminur; Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Rahman, Fazlur

    2017-11-07

    Globally, road traffic injury (RTI) causes 1.3 million deaths annually. Almost 90% of all RTI deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. RTI is one of the leading causes of death in Bangladesh; the World Health Organization estimated that it kills over 21,000 people in the country annually. This study describes the current magnitude and risk factors of RTI for different age groups in rural Bangladesh. A household census was carried out in 51 unions of seven sub-districts situated in the north and central part of Bangladesh between June and November 2013, covering 1.2 million individuals. Trained data collectors collected information on fatal and nonfatal RTI events through face-to-face interviews using a set of structured pre-tested questionnaires. The recall periods for fatal and non-fatal RTI were one year and six months, respectively. The mortality and morbidity rates due to RTI were 6.8/100,000 population/year and 889/100,000 populations/six months, respectively. RTI mortality and morbidity rates were significantly higher among males compared to females. Deaths and morbidities due to RTI were highest among those in the 25-64 years age group. A higher proportion of morbidity occurred among vehicle passengers (34%) and pedestrians (18%), and more than one-third of the RTI mortality occurred among pedestrians. Twenty percent of all nonfatal RTIs were classified as severe injuries. RTI is a major public health issue in rural Bangladesh. Immediate attention is needed to reduce preventable deaths and morbidities in rural Bangladesh.

  2. Household food insecurity and dietary patterns in rural and urban American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Mosso, Kathryn L; Cronin, Kate A; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Parker, Tassy; Yaroch, Amy L; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-06-30

    High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2-5 years old) from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61%) and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05). Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p insecurity. The prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households in our sample is extremely high, and geographic designation may be an important contributing factor. Moreover, food insecurity had a significant negative influence on dietary intake for families. Understanding strategies employed by households may help inform future interventions to address food insecurity. ( NCT01776255 ). Registered: January 16, 2013. Date of enrollment

  3. Fertility Trend and Pattern in a Rural Area of South Africa in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous sommes très peu renseignés sur les dynamiques de la transition de la fertilité en Afrique du Sud quoique les études récentes aient commencé à jeter une lumière sur les transformations démographiques dans le pays. Cette étude présente les tendances et les traits de fertilité observés auprès d\\'une population rurale ...

  4. Household food insecurity and dietary patterns in rural and urban American Indian families with young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Tomayko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Methods Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2–5 years old from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. Results A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61% and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05. Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p < 0.05 and higher intakes of fruit juice (<0.001, other sugar-sweetened beverages (p < 0.05, and fried potatoes (p < 0.001 than food secure adults. Food insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p < 0.05, soda (p = 0.01, and sports drinks (p < 0.05. Focus group participants indicated different strategies were used by urban and rural households to address food insecurity. Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity in

  5. Registered Trademarks… Reflections on the use of trademarks, consumption patterns and marketing strategies in rural areas of Argentina (1900-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lluch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Trademarks are highly valuable devices that serve a relevant purpose in trade and consumption patterns. However, trademarks have been largely neglected by Argentina's economic history historiography. This article discusses how and when trademarks emerged and spread in Argentina's rural area in the early 20th century. It describes this gradual process, pointing out that, by the late 1920s, trademarks had already become a prominent feature in rural marketing strategies and consumption patterns. The study also analyzes how these processes contributed to shaping retailers' business practices as well as generic consumer goods' marketing channels (particularly, in the food and beverage industries

  6. Energy house - dream house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    An energy house a prefabricated house with an extensive minimization of heat losses, is air-conditioned by means of a combined heating system consisting of hot water cycle and recirculating heating. The energy system is trivalent: wind power, solar energy with heat pumps and normal oil heating.

  7. Changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes in young adults from the rural area of baluchistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawad, A.; Alvi, S.F.D.; Hakeem, R.; Basit, A.; Ahmedani, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes in young adults in the rural area of Baluchistan. Methods: A community based observational study was carried out in the rural area of Baluchistan by conducting two surveys, in the years 2002 and 2009 respectively. The survey was further subdivided into two groups i.e. young adults (15-25 years) and adults (>25 years). In this study, data of young adults was analyzed. Data obtained in 2002 was also analyzed according to the current guidelines and compared with 2009 survey. Results: A total of 230 and 197 young adults participated in 2002 and 2009 surveys respectively. Obesity increased significantly (p <0.001) from 20 (10.15%) young adults in the year 2002 to 64 (27.82%) in 2009. Similarly 15 (7.61%) young adults were overweight in 2002 which increased to 24 (10.43%) in 2009 (p <0.317). Smoking increased from 8 (4.06%) to 49 (21.3%) in 2009 (p <0.001). Family history of diabetes mellitus also showed a significant increase (p <0.005). Hypertension increased from 13 (6.6%) young adults in 2002 survey to 17 (7.39%) in 2009, the increase was not statistically significant (p <0.749). Conclusion: The present study showed that risk factors for diabetes such as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes increased over time in the young adults of rural Baluchistan. (author)

  8. Subjective wellbeing and income: Empirical patterns in the rural developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Babigumira, Ronnie; Pyhälä, Aili; Wunder, Sven; Zorondo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Angelsen, Arild

    2016-01-01

    A commonality in the economics of happiness literature is that absolute income matters more for the subjective wellbeing of people at low income levels. In this article, we use a large sample of people in rural areas of developing countries with relatively low income levels to test whether subjective wellbeing an increasing function of absolute income in our sample, and to analyze the existence of adaptation and social comparison effects on subjective wellbeing. Our sample includes 6973 rural households in 23 countries throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The average total income per adult equivalent in our sample was US$1555, whereas levels of subjective wellbeing resembled levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We find that, despite low levels of absolute income, levels of subjective wellbeing of our respondents resemble levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We also find remarkable similarities in many of the determinants of subjective wellbeing previously tested. Our data show that absolute income covariates with subjective wellbeing, but -as for richer samples- the magnitude of the association is lower once we control for adaptation and social comparison. Finally, our results suggest that social comparison has a stronger effect than adaptation in explaining the subjective wellbeing of our sample. Our findings highlight the importance of adaptation and social comparison even at low levels of absolute income. PMID:27642259

  9. Movement patterns of rural and suburban white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, C.R.; DeStefano, S.

    2005-01-01

    We used satellite land cover data and the program FRAGSTATS toquantify land cover types and calculate the amount of forest edge available in suburban and rural regions of northeastern and northwestern Massachusetts. Cover categories included forest cover, open canopy vegetation, and non-deer habitat. We calculated all edge segments where forest cover abutted open canopy cover. Our open canopy vegetation category was calculated both with and without low intensity suburban development. We then compared these findings to movement data from 53 (13 males, 40 females) adult radio-marked white-tailed deerOdocoileus virginianusmonitored biweekly and diurnally from January 2001 to January 2003. The range of movements of suburban deer in eastern Massachusetts showed no difference to that of suburban deer in western Massachusetts (P = 0.7). However, the ranges for suburban deer in both eastern and western Massachusetts were 10 times less than those of deer in rural western Massachusetts (P = 0.001).Our findings suggest that landscape configuration, as described by the amount and distribution of edge due to suburban development, which is related to the amount and distribution of resources such as food and cover, affects migratory behavior of white-tailed deer, allowsdeer to have smaller ranges, and contributes to high deer densities.Inclusion of suburban edge in habitat models will increase our understanding of deer-habitat relationships for management of deer in urbanizing environments. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  10. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban and rural contexts within Rome province, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Laura; Marini, Francesca; Bongiorno, Gioia; Facchinelli, Luca; Pombi, Marco; Caputo, Beniamino; Maroli, Michele; Della Torre, Alessandra

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the frequency of contact between a mosquito species and its different hosts is essential to understand the role of each vector species in the transmission of diseases to humans and/or animals. However, no data are so far available on the feeding habits of Aedes albopictus in Italy or in other recently colonized temperate regions of Europe, due to difficulties in collecting blood-fed females of this diurnal and exophilic species. We analyzed Ae. albopictus host-feeding patterns in two urban and two rural sites within the area of Rome (Italy). Ae. albopictus was collected using sticky-traps and the blood-meal origin of 303 females was determined by direct dot-ELISA. The blood-fed sample, although representing only 4% of the total Ae. albopictus collected, demonstrates the useful application of sticky-trap in studying the feeding behavior of the species. The human blood index was significantly different among sites, ranging from 79-96% in urban sites to 23-55% in rural sites, where horses and bovines represented the most bitten hosts. The results obtained confirm the plastic feeding behavior shown by Ae. albopictus in its original range of distribution and highlights the high potential of this species as a vector of human pathogens in urban areas of Italy, where both humans and the mosquito itself may reach very high densities.

  11. Epidemiological patterns of mental disorders and stigma in a community household survey in urban slum and rural settings in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiso, Victoria N; Musyimi, Christine W; Tomita, Andrew; Loeffen, Lianne; Burns, Jonathan K; Ndetei, David M

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and rural (Kibwezi) selected health facilities in Kenya. All households within the two sites served by the selected health facilities were included in the study. To select the main respondent in the household, the oldest adult who could speak English, Kiswahili or both (the official languages in Kenya) was selected to participate in the interview. The Opinion about Mental Illness in Chinese Community (OMICC) questionnaire and the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus Version 5 (MINI) tools were administered to the participants. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare prevalence according to gender, while adjusted regression models examined the association between mental illness and views about mental illness, stratified by gender. The overall prevalence of mental illness was 45%, showing gender differences regarding common types of illness. The opinions about mental illness were similar for men and women, while rural respondents were more positively opinionated than urban participants. Overall, suffering from mental illness was associated with more positive opinions among women and more negative opinions among men. More research is needed into the factors explaining the observed differences in opinion about mental illness between the subgroups, and the impact of mental illness on stigma in Kenya in order to create an evidence-based approach against stigma.

  12. Effects of diurnal emission patterns and sampling frequency on precision of measurement methods for daily ammonia emissions from animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estelles, F.; Calvet, S.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia concentrations and airflow rates are the main parameters needed to determine ammonia emissions from animal houses. It is possible to classify their measurement methods into two main groups according to the sampling frequency: semi-continuous and daily average measurements. In the first

  13. Patterns and Determinants of Physical Inactivity in Rural and Urban Areas in Peru: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Avilez, Jose L; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban). Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study's baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood's safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%-94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%-10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%-43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P physical inactivity relative to highly urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01-1.54). Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

  14. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self......-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed...... the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46%) or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%). CONCLUSION: Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity...

  15. Transmission pattern of drug-resistant tuberculosis and its implication for tuberculosis control in eastern rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Transmission patterns of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB may be influenced by differences in socio-demographics, local tuberculosis (TB endemicity and efficaciousness of TB control programs. This study aimed to investigate the impact of DOTS on the transmission of drug-resistant TB in eastern rural China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of all patients diagnosed with drug-resistant TB over a one-year period in two rural Chinese counties with varying lengths of DOTS implementation. Counties included Deqing, with over 11 years' DOTS implementation and Guanyun, where DOTS was introduced 1 year prior to start of this study. We combined demographic, clinical and epidemiologic information with IS6110-based restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and Spoligotyping analysis of MTB isolates. In addition, we conducted DNA sequencing of resistance determining regions to first-line anti-tuberculosis agents. RESULTS: Of the 223 drug-resistant isolates, 73(32.7% isolates were identified with clustered IS6110RFLP patterns. The clustering proportion among total drug-resistant TB was higher in Guanyun than Deqing (26/101.vs.47/122; p,0.04, but not significantly different among the 53 multidrug-resistant isolates (10/18.vs.24/35; p,0.35. Patients with cavitary had increased risk of clustering in both counties. In Guanyun, patients with positive smear test or previous treatment history had a higher clustering proportion. Beijing genotype and isolates resistant to isoniazid and/or rifampicin were more likely to be clustered. Of the 73 patients with clustered drug-resistant isolates, 71.2% lived in the same or neighboring villages. Epidemiological link (household and social contact was confirmed in 12.3% of the clustered isolates. CONCLUSION: Transmission of drug-resistant TB in eastern rural China is characterized by small clusters and limited geographic spread. Our observations highlight the need for supplementing DOTS

  16. Genetic structure and contrasting selection pattern at two major histocompatibility complex genes in wild house mouse populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, Dagmar; Goüy de Bellocq, J.; Baird, S. J. E.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Bryja, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2011), s. 727-740 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : MHC * house mouse * selection * population structure * trans-species polymorphism Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.597, year: 2011

  17. Access to Educational Opportunity in Rural Communities: Alternative Patterns of Delivering Vocational Education in Sparsely Populated Areas. Volume 2: The Heartland Vocational Center: A Decentralized Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruth G.; And Others

    One of the four case studies addressing access of rural students to vocational education through inter-school district cooperation, the Heartland case study represents the decentralized variation of the center cooperative school pattern, identifies essential features of this form of cooperation, details factors facilitating/impeding the…

  18. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (_75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n=270; mean±SD age: 78.6±3.9 years)....

  20. Pattern of Weight Gain in Pregnant Women in a Rural Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal nutritional state is important for the health and quality of life of women. Nutritional status of women has been considered an important prognostic indicator of pregnancy outcome. The study aims to show the pattern of weight gain during pregnancy. Methodology: Five hundred (500) women attending ...

  1. Pattern of HIV/AIDS infection in Irrua, a rural community in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to observe the pattern of HIV infection in Irrua Hospital records of patients diagnosed and managed with HIV/AIDS between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrieved and subjected to statistical analysis. The results show that females have statistically significant lower age; more incidence of double ...

  2. Community patterns of stigma towards persons living with HIV: A population-based latent class analysis from rural Vietnam

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pharris, Anastasia

    2011-09-18

    Abstract Background The negative effects of stigma on persons living with HIV (PLHIV) have been documented in many settings and it is thought that stigma against PLHIV leads to more difficulties for those who need to access HIV testing, treatment and care, as well as to limited community uptake of HIV prevention and testing messages. In order to understand and prevent stigma towards PLHIV, it is important to be able to measure stigma within communities and to understand which factors are associated with higher stigma. Methods To analyze patterns of community stigma and determinants to stigma toward PLHIV, we performed an exploratory population-based survey with 1874 randomly sampled adults within a demographic surveillance site (DSS) in rural Vietnam. Participants were interviewed regarding knowledge of HIV and attitudes towards persons living with HIV. Data were linked to socioeconomic and migration data from the DSS and latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine stigma group sub-types and factors associated with stigma group membership. Results We found unexpectedly high and complex patterns of stigma against PLHIV in this rural setting. Women had the greatest odds of belong to the highest stigma group (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), while those with more education had lower odds of highest stigma group membership (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62 for secondary education; OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.35 for tertiary education). Long-term migration out of the district (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.4-0.91), feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.66), having heard of HIV from more sources (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.3-0.66), and knowing someone with HIV (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99) were all associated with lower odds of highest stigma group membership. Nearly 20% of the population was highly unsure of their attitudes towards PLHIV and persons in this group had significantly lower odds of feeling at-risk for HIV (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.90) or of knowing

  3. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiqing; Yin, Ping; Newman, Ian M; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F; Yuen, Lok-Wa

    2017-09-22

    About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually) is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu), either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China. Interviews were conducted with 3298 individuals in 21 towns/villages in 10 counties in the Hubei, Anhui, and Hebei provinces in the People's Republic of China. Unrecorded bai jiu drinkers chose it because of its taste and its low price. It was consumed mostly by older men, mostly at home with family, more regularly and at higher alcohol by volume (ABV) compared to recorded alcohol. Recorded bai jiu drinkers were more likely to drink away from their homes, consumed more bai jiu at memorable drinking occasions, and reported feeling sick after drinking more often than unrecorded bai jiu drinkers. This comparison of patterns of use of unrecorded bai jiu and recorded bai jiu does not suggest that unrecorded bai jiu is more problematic for drinkers.

  4. Comparison of Patterns of Use of Unrecorded and Recorded Spirits: Survey of Adult Drinkers in Rural Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqing Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available About 70% of the beverage alcohol consumed in China annually is spirits. Recorded spirits make up most spirit consumption, but about 25% of total alcohol consumption (1.7 L pure alcohol per capita annually is unrecorded spirits (bai jiu, either homemade or made in unregulated distilleries. In some parts of China, the consumption of unrecorded spirits is higher than average. This paper compares the patterns of use of unrecorded distilled spirits and recorded distilled spirits among rural residents in Central China. Interviews were conducted with 3298 individuals in 21 towns/villages in 10 counties in the Hubei, Anhui, and Hebei provinces in the People’s Republic of China. Unrecorded bai jiu drinkers chose it because of its taste and its low price. It was consumed mostly by older men, mostly at home with family, more regularly and at higher alcohol by volume (ABV compared to recorded alcohol. Recorded bai jiu drinkers were more likely to drink away from their homes, consumed more bai jiu at memorable drinking occasions, and reported feeling sick after drinking more often than unrecorded bai jiu drinkers. This comparison of patterns of use of unrecorded bai jiu and recorded bai jiu does not suggest that unrecorded bai jiu is more problematic for drinkers.

  5. Patterns and drivers of land use change in selected European rural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Busck, Anne Gravsholt; van der Sluis, Theo

    2016-01-01

    concerns are less dominant and many landscape and land use changes are undertaken to improve public goods or fulfil personal and family ambitions and values. This paper investigates the patterns of farm-level land use changes that occurred between 2002 and 2012 in three different landscape regions...... with their engagement in land use changes. Common to all areas is that agricultural production is under pressure due to physical or socio-economic challenges. The results indicate that relatively more nature or landscape features have been added by landowners than removed by them in the six study areas. Furthermore......, the analysis revealed that full-time landowners were responsible for the largest proportion of landscape change and that the areas involved differed greatly. The analysis also underlined the variety of European landscapes, as many landscape activities exhibited strong geographical patterns. A multivariate...

  6. Subsistence patterns and blood pressure variation in two rural Caboclo communities of Marajó Island, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton P; Crews, Douglas E; Neves, Walter A

    1995-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) increases with age in westernized societies, is higher in men, and is correlated with the body mass index (BMI). Traditional societies present more variable patterns of BP. In 1991, BP and anthropometric data from two "Caboclo" (rural populations of mixed ancestry) groups from Marajó Island, Brazil, were collected: The Paricatuba group, (N = 20;12 women), with a subsistence base of fishing, collection of palm fruits, and traditional gardening; and the Praia Grande group (N = 26; 14 women), where subsistence is based on mechanized agriculture. In Paricatuba, mean BP is 109/74 mmHg in men and 101/70 mmHg in women. There are no significant differences between BP of men and women, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases with age. Both SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are associated with weight, but only DBP is associated with the BMI, while SBP is associated with stature. In Praia Grande, mean BP is 120/76 mmHg in men and 118/70 mmHg in women, with no significant differences between the sexes. In Praia Grande, SBP is higher than in Paricatuba, and both SBP and DBP are associated with age. Compared with urban groups, both Caboclo samples have low BP. Still, differences in BP and body habitus between the two groups support a hypothesis that degree of westernization influences mean levels of BP in rural Amazonian populations. Further, the results also may be interpreted as suggesting that associations of sex, age, and BMI with BP, commonly reported in urban samples, are a byproduct of westernization rather than a result of genetic factors. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  7. Understanding the rural population migration pattern of Uttarakhand using Geophysical, Geological and Socio-Economical BigData

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Kausik; Chattopadhyay, Pallavi

    2017-04-01

    Uttarakhand, a Himalayan state of India is facing a worst scenario of rural population migration for the past few decades from hill regions to the planes. While urbanization is believed to be one of the major factors for migration, how geo scientific parameters can impact the population to redraw the demographies of the hills is studied in this research. An attempt is made using density based clustering and Apriori association rule mining on 45 derived variables with a time series of 30 years to understand the rural population migration pattern. Both zone identification and origin-destination pair extraction are formulated as spatial-temporal point clustering problem and DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) is applied to solve them. Specifically the population migration is formulated as a 4D point clustering problem and the relative distance between two origin - destination pair with a preference factor is used to fine tune the cluster length. In Apriori, threshold values for confidence and J-measure are kept same as for rule extraction. Rules with maximum confidence level and J-measure are obtained for an antecedent window of 18 months, consequent window of 4 months and time lag of 2 months. From the rules extracted, it can be demonstrated that almost all the geoscience indices are occurring as antecedents for migration episodes. The result demonstrates that the three districts that have registered the highest migration rates are also the districts that have witnessed maximum depletion in water sources. Even though some districts have higher number of landslide incidents, their out migration is less compared to other hill districts. However districts experiencing higher number of earthquakes are experiencing higher out migration. Upper hill region with higher precipitation experience higher migration compared to their lower hill counterpart. However this is not true when compared to the counter parts in the plane regions. Even

  8. Velocity measurements and flow patterns within the hinge region of a Medtronic Parallel bileaflet mechanical valve with clear housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J T; Healy, T M; Fontaine, A A; Saxena, R; Yoganathan, A P

    1996-11-01

    During recent clinical trials the Medtronic Parallel bileaflet mechanical heart valve was found to have an unacceptable number of valves with thrombus formation when implanted in the mitral position. Thrombi were observed in the hinge region and also in the upstream portion of the valve housing in the vicinity of the hinge. It was hypothesized that the flow conditions inside the hinge may have contributed to the thrombus formation. In order to investigate the flow structures within the hinge, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were conducted in both steady and pulsatile flow at approximately 70 predetermined sites within the hinge region of a 27 mm Medtronic Parallel mitral valve with transparent housing. The pulsatile flow velocity measurements were animated in time using a graphical software package to visualize the hinge flow field throughout the cardiac cycle. The LDA measurements revealed that mean forward flow velocities through the hinge region were on the order of 0.10-0.20 m/s. In the inflow channel, a large vortical structure was present during diastole. Upon valve closure, peak reverse velocity reached 3 m/s close to the housing wall in the inflow channel. This area also experienced high turbulent shear stresses (> 6000 dynes/cm2) during the leakage flow phase. A disturbed, vortical flow was again present in the inflow channel after valve closure, while slightly above the leaflet peg and relief the flow was essentially stagnant. The high turbulent stresses near the top of the inflow channel, combined with a persistent vortex, implicate the inflow channel of the hinge as a likely region of thrombus formation. This experimental investigation revealed zones of flow stagnation in the inflow region of the hinge throughout the cardiac cycle and elevated turbulent shear stress levels in the inflow region during the leakage flow phase. These fluid mechanic phenomena are most likely a direct result of the complex geometry of the hinge of this valve

  9. Frequency of metabolic syndrome and the food intake patterns in adults living in a rural area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Fedrigo Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, is related to an inadequate food intake pattern. Its incidence is increasing among Brazilian adults, including those living in rural areas. Our aim was not only to describe the frequency of MetS in adults with or without MetS but also to compare their food intake pattern as assessed by the healthy eating index (HEI and serum albumin and C reactive protein (CRP levels. METHODS: Men and women (n = 246 living in a small village in Brazil were included. MetS was characterized according to the adult treatment panel (ATP III criteria. Groups were compared by chi-square, student t or Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: MetS was diagnosed in 15.4% of the cases. The MetS group showed higher CRP (1.8±1.2 vs. 1.0±0.9 mg/dl and lower albumin (4.3±0.3 vs. 4.4±0.3 g/dl serum levels compared to the control group. Additionally, the MetS group showed lower scores (median[range] in the HEI compared to the control group (53.5[31.2-78.1] vs 58[29.7-89.5], respectively. The MetS group also had decreased scores for total fat and daily variety of food intake. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that adults with MetS displayed chronic mild inflammation and a poorer food intake pattern than the control group.

  10. Heterogeneous Feeding Patterns of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti, on Individual Human Hosts in Rural Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Laura C.; Fleisher, Andrew; Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Vermeylen, Francoise; Wa, Chrystal V.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Edman, John D.; Clark, John M.; Jones, James W.; Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Scott, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquito biting frequency and how bites are distributed among different people can have significant epidemiologic effects. An improved understanding of mosquito vector-human interactions would refine knowledge of the entomological processes supporting pathogen transmission and could reveal targets for minimizing risk and breaking pathogen transmission cycles. Methodology and principal findings We used human DNA blood meal profiling of the dengue virus (DENV) vector, Aedes aegypti, to quantify its contact with human hosts and to infer epidemiologic implications of its blood feeding behavior. We determined the number of different people bitten, biting frequency by host age, size, mosquito age, and the number of times each person was bitten. Of 3,677 engorged mosquitoes collected and 1,186 complete DNA profiles, only 420 meals matched people from the study area, indicating that Ae. aegypti feed on people moving transiently through communities to conduct daily business. 10–13% of engorged mosquitoes fed on more than one person. No biting rate differences were detected between high- and low-dengue transmission seasons. We estimate that 43–46% of engorged mosquitoes bit more than one person within each gonotrophic cycle. Most multiple meals were from residents of the mosquito collection house or neighbors. People ≤25 years old were bitten less often than older people. Some hosts were fed on frequently, with three hosts bitten nine times. Interaction networks for mosquitoes and humans revealed biologically significant blood feeding hotspots, including community marketplaces. Conclusion and significance High multiple-feeding rates and feeding on community visitors are likely important features in the efficient transmission and rapid spread of DENV. These results help explain why reducing vector populations alone is difficult for dengue prevention and support the argument for additional studies of mosquito feeding behavior, which when integrated with a

  11. Heterogeneous feeding patterns of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, on individual human hosts in rural Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Harrington

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito biting frequency and how bites are distributed among different people can have significant epidemiologic effects. An improved understanding of mosquito vector-human interactions would refine knowledge of the entomological processes supporting pathogen transmission and could reveal targets for minimizing risk and breaking pathogen transmission cycles.We used human DNA blood meal profiling of the dengue virus (DENV vector, Aedes aegypti, to quantify its contact with human hosts and to infer epidemiologic implications of its blood feeding behavior. We determined the number of different people bitten, biting frequency by host age, size, mosquito age, and the number of times each person was bitten. Of 3,677 engorged mosquitoes collected and 1,186 complete DNA profiles, only 420 meals matched people from the study area, indicating that Ae. aegypti feed on people moving transiently through communities to conduct daily business. 10-13% of engorged mosquitoes fed on more than one person. No biting rate differences were detected between high- and low-dengue transmission seasons. We estimate that 43-46% of engorged mosquitoes bit more than one person within each gonotrophic cycle. Most multiple meals were from residents of the mosquito collection house or neighbors. People ≤ 25 years old were bitten less often than older people. Some hosts were fed on frequently, with three hosts bitten nine times. Interaction networks for mosquitoes and humans revealed biologically significant blood feeding hotspots, including community marketplaces.High multiple-feeding rates and feeding on community visitors are likely important features in the efficient transmission and rapid spread of DENV. These results help explain why reducing vector populations alone is difficult for dengue prevention and support the argument for additional studies of mosquito feeding behavior, which when integrated with a greater understanding of human behavior will refine estimates of

  12. Housing consumption and urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Gracia, Nancy; Young, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa places immense pressure on urban services to meet the needs of the burgeoning urban population. Although several country- or city-level reports offer insight into the housing challenges of specific places, little is known about regional patterns affecting housing markets. This lack of clear knowledge on the relative importance of the factors influen...

  13. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Song, Qingkun; Lao, Xiangqian; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China. A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1) and one year later (FFQ2) to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs) were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ) statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake. Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern) to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern). Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0

  14. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China.A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1 and one year later (FFQ2 to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake.Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern. Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged

  15. Pattern of Self Prescribed Analgesic Use in a Rural Area of Delhi: Exploring the Potential Role of Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Anjali; Gupta, Tanya

    2017-07-01

    Analgesics are the most common self prescribed drugs. Although considered to be relatively safe, side effects are often seen when these drugs are used for prolonged period, in high doses or used where contraindicated. Majority of the consumers are not aware of the side effects. These days ample amount of information is available on web, it is important to explore its role in educating the population regarding the safe use of self prescribed analgesics. To explore pattern of analgesic use, to identify population at risk of developing side effects related to analgesic use, awareness of side effects and potential role of internet to bring awareness about safe use of self prescribed analgesic drugs in a rural area of Delhi. A cross-sectional survey based study was done on 500 adults in the age group of 18-65 years of Madanpur Khadar area of South Delhi, India. Data collection was done by conducting visits to pharmacy shops from the people who were buying drugs without prescription and taking face to face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive tests with Microsoft office excel 2007. Results of our study showed that among all the self prescribed analgesics paracetamol (57%) was used most frequently followed by aspirin and other NSAIDs. It was found that 9.6% of the consumers were having associated co-morbid illness, 11.4% were simultaneously taking other drugs and 15.2% were alcoholics. Majority (65.4%) of the buyers were not aware about any kind of side effects of the analgesics. Internet friendly consumers were found to be 44%. Ability to use internet and education level were found to be directly related (r=0.802). The pattern of analgesic consumption in the rural population of Delhi shows that a large number of consumers may be at risk of developing side effects of self prescribed analgesics. The awareness about the side effects is limited. A significant number of consumers are internet friendly. Hence

  16. Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 482 TB suspects were identified and smear microscopy and culture was done for 428 TB suspects. Counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS was done for all TB suspects. Spoligotyping was done to characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Results Majority of the TB suspects were females (60.7% and non-literates (83.6%. Using smear microscopy, a total of 5 new and 4 old cases of pulmonary TB cases were identified making the prevalence of TB 30 per 100,000. However, using the culture method, we identified 17 new cases with a prevalence of 76.1 per 100,000. There were 4.3 undiagnosed pulmonary TB cases for every TB case who was diagnosed through the passive case detection mechanism in the health facility. Eleven isolates (64.7% belonged to the six previously known spoligotypes: T, Haarlem and Central-Asian (CAS. Six new spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not present in the international database (SpolDB4 were identified. None of the rural residents was HIV infected and only 5 (5.5% of the urban TB suspects were positive for HIV. Conclusion The prevalence of TB in the rural community of Southwest Ethiopia is low. There are large numbers of undiagnosed TB cases in the community. However, the number of sputum smear-positive cases was very low and therefore the risk of transmitting the infection to others may be limited. Active case finding through health extension workers in the community can improve the low case detection rate

  17. A one-year community study of under-fives in rural Ethiopia: patterns of morbidity and public health risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhe, L; Byass, P; Freij, L; Sandström, A; Wall, S

    1995-03-01

    A prospective weekly home surveillance study was undertaken to determine morbidity patterns within the Butajira Rural Health project in central Ethiopia. Overall prevalence of illness was 5.8% in 1216 person-years observed among rural Ethiopian children aged under 5 years. Acute respiratory infections (ARI) (prevalence 2.8%) and acute diarrhoea (2.4%) were the commonest conditions. Episodes of illness were distributed unequally among children, with a mean of 2.34 episodes per child. These included an average of 1.13 episodes of ARI (of which 0.16 had lower respiratory symptoms [ALRI]) and 1.17 episodes of acute diarrhoea. Sanitation factors were the principal risks for gastroenteritis, while living in rural areas predisposed children to ARI. Parental factors such as illiteracy were also linked to morbidity.

  18. Resolution pattern of jaundice among children presenting with severe malaria in rural South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osonuga, O A; Osonuga, A; Osonuga, A A; Osonuga, I O

    2012-07-01

    To compare the pattern of jaundice resolution among children with severe malaria treated with quinine and artemether. Thirty two children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study from two hospitals with intensive care facilities. They were divided into two groups; 'Q' and 'A', receiving quinine and artemether, respectively. Jaundice was assessed by clinical examination. Sixteen out of 32 children recruited (representing 50%) presented with jaundice on the day of recruitment. The mean age was (7.00°C2.56) years. On day 3, four patients in 'A' and six patients in 'Q' had jaundice. By day 7, no child had jaundice. The study has shown that both drugs resolve jaundice although artemether relatively resolves it faster by the third day.

  19. Dietary pattern and practices during pregnancy and in puerperium a rural study

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    N Bhardwaj

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available An longitudinal study was carried out for a period of one year from May 1987 to April 1988. 212 pregnant women were registered, in the Jaxuan block of district Aligarh in Western Uttar Pradesh for studying their dietary pattern 81 dietary practices in pregnancy and inpuerperim respectively. There was no significant change in diet during pregnancy but during puerperium there was increase in food consumption as a traditional practice. The mean caloric consumption in various social classes showed a consistent rise with increase in socio-economic status and ranged from 1850 calories in social class V to 2375 calories in social class I. Since 68.6% of women belong to social class IV8iV, the single most important determinent for inadequate calorie intake was poverty. Out of208 babies born, 52 babies could only be weighed Si they were all low birth weight babies with an average weight of2.1 kg.

  20. Effects of age, season, gender and urban-rural status on time-activity: CanadianHuman Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Carlyn J; Stieb, David M; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-02-19

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010-2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.

  1. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents. PMID:24557523

  2. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyn J. Matz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2 was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011 provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%, most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8% or in a vehicle (5.3%. Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.

  3. Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Cláudio Casanova

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

  4. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md.Danesh; Foysal, Muhammad Abul; Koike, Masao; Kobayashi, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month -1 in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month -1 . This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: →The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. → Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. → Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).→ Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.→ The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  5. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md.Danesh, E-mail: danesh@cu.ac.bd [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Foysal, Muhammad Abul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Kobayashi, Hajime [Laboratory of Forest Environment and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month{sup -1} in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month{sup -1}. This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: >The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. > Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. > Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).> Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.> The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  6. Patterns of domestic water use in rural areas of Zimbabwe, gender roles and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Fungai S.; Manase, Gift; Ndamba, Jerry

    This paper presents practical experiences into the pattern of domestic water use, benefits and the gender realities. The study was undertaken in two districts of Zimbabwe, Mt Darwin and Bikita covering a total of 16 villages. The study aimed to assess the patterns of domestic water use, benefits derived from its use among the gender groups. Methodology for participatory assessment (MPA) was used for data collection and was done in a participatory manner. Traditionally most people in Zimbabwe are subsistence farmers who rely on rain fed agriculture. Where primary water sources are available such as shallow wells, family wells, deep wells and boreholes households use the water for household water and sanitation, irrigate small family gardens as well as their livestock. The survey established that women and men usually rank uses of water differently. In the two districts it was evident that women are playing more roles in water use and it is apparent that women are most often the users, managers and guardians of household water and hygiene. Women also demonstrated their involvement in commercial use of water, using water for livestock watering (20%) as well as brick moulding (21%). These involvement in commercial use were influenced by survival economics as well as the excess and reliability of the supply. The different roles and incentives in water use of women and men was demonstrated in how they ranked the benefits of water and sanitation. Men ranked clean drinking water among others as a top priority while women ranked improved health and hygiene and reduced distance as top priority. Overall the benefits highlighted by the communities and especially women were meeting the practical needs such as better access to water and reducing their work load. The assessment demonstrated the active role of women in water sources management highlighting quality, reliability and restrictions to their use. Though the communities gave the impression that decision making in the

  7. Fuelwood consumption pattern at different altitudes in rural areas of Garhwal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Munesh [Department of Forestry, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal 246 174 (India); Sharma, C.M. [Department of Botany, HNB Garhwal University, Post Box 76, Srinagar, Garhwal 246 174 (India)

    2009-10-15

    The use of fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic use is causing severe deforestation in Garhwal Himalaya. In the present study fuelwood consumption patterns have been studied in six villages; two each in tropical (Ganga Bhogpur and Kunow), sub-tropical (Bhainswara and Ghargoan) and temperate (Dhaulana and Chunnikhal) regions under various ecological and socio-economic conditions. The total average fuelwood consumption in the present study was observed to be highest for Ganga Bhogpur (2.52 kg per capita per day) in the tropical region, whereas, lowest for Ghargoan (1.63 kg per capita per day) in the sub-tropical region. The labour energy expenditure for fuelwood collection was greatest for Dhaulana (146.62 MJ per capita per day) in the temperate region, and lowest for Ganga Bhogpur (88.80 MJ per capita per day) in the tropical region. The fuelwood consumption rate oscillated considerably across the different seasons. The tree and shrub species preferred by the inhabitants for fuelwood were Holoptelea integrifolia, Anogeissus latifolia and Lantana camara in the tropical region; A. latifolia, Acacia catechu and Carissa spinarum in the sub-tropical region; and Quercus leucotrichophora, Myrica esculenta and Pyracantha crenulata in the temperate region, respectively. (author)

  8. Urban–Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu U. Onyeonoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization's STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. Results In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0% were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. Conclusions Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system.

  9. Urban–Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Ukegbu, Andrew U.; Chukwuonye, Innocent I.; Madukwe, Okechukwu O.; Moses, Akhimiem O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization’s STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. RESULTS In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system. PMID:27721654

  10. Urban-Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Ukegbu, Andrew U; Chukwuonye, Innocent I; Madukwe, Okechukwu O; Moses, Akhimiem O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization's STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system.

  11. Assessing spatial patterns of HIV knowledge in rural Mozambique using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Charlotte P; Blevins, Meridith; Ossemane, Ezequiel B; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Vermund, Sten H; Sidat, Mohsin; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D

    2015-03-01

    To conduct a cross-sectional mapping analysis of HIV knowledge in Zambézia Province, Mozambique, and to examine spatial patterns of HIV knowledge and associated household characteristics. A population-based cluster survey was administered in 2010; data were analysed from 201 enumeration areas in three geographically diverse districts: Alto Molócuè, Morrumbala and Namacurra. We assessed HIV knowledge scores (0-9 points) using previously validated assessment tools. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we mapped hot spots of high and low HIV knowledge. Our multivariable linear regression model estimated HIV knowledge associations with distance to nearest clinic offering antiretroviral therapy, respondent age, education, household size, number of children under five, numeracy, literacy and district of residence. We found little overall HIV knowledge in all three districts. People in Alto Molócuè knew comparatively most about HIV, with a median score of 3 (IQR 2-5) and 22 of 51 (43%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 of 9 points. Namacurra district, closest to the capital city and expected to have the best HIV knowledge levels, had a median score of 1 (IQR 0-3) and only 3 of 57 (5%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 points. More HIV knowledge was associated with more education, age, household size, numeracy and proximity to a health facility offering antiretroviral therapy. HIV knowledge is critical for its prevention and treatment. By pinpointing areas of poor HIV knowledge, programme planners can prioritize educational resources and outreach initiatives within the context of antiretroviral therapy expansion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Privacy at home: Analysis of behavioral patterns in the spatial configuration of traditional and modern houses in the city of Hamedan based on the notion of space syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Alitajer

    2016-09-01

    The findings indicate that the spatial configurations of houses have changed in the course of time. In terms of the indices of spatial configurations, however, the striking difference between traditional and modern houses in Hamedan revolves around the integration and equivalence of all spaces in a house. In other words, the hierarchy of access to spaces and the recognition of territories are limited in modern houses. Hence, privacy in modern houses fades.

  13. Patterns and determinants of care seeking for obstetric complications in rural northwest Bangladesh: analysis from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Shegufta S; Labrique, Alain B; Craig, Ian M; Wakil, Mohammad Abdul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Mehra, Sucheta; Wu, Lee; Shaikh, Saijuddin; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-04-18

    In communities with low rates of institutional delivery, little data exist on care-seeking behavior for potentially life-threatening obstetric complications. In this analysis, we sought to describe care-seeking patterns for self-reported complications and near misses in rural Bangladesh and to identify factors associated with care seeking for these conditions. Utilizing data from a community-randomized controlled trial enrolling 42,214 pregnant women between 2007 and 2011, we used multivariable multinomial logistic regression to explore the association of demographic and socioeconomic factors, perceived need, and service availability with care seeking for obstetric complications or near misses. We also used multivariable multinomial logistic regression to analyze the factors associated with care seeking by type of obstetric complication (eclampsia, sepsis, hemorrhage, and obstructed labor). Out of 9,576 women with data on care seeking for obstetric complications, 77% sought any care, with 29% (n = 2,150) visiting at least one formal provider and 70% (n = 5,149) visiting informal providers only. The proportion of women seeking at least one formal provider was highest among women reporting eclampsia (57%), followed by hemorrhage (28%), obstructed labor (22%), and sepsis (17%) (p s literacy (RRR of 1.21; 95% CI of [1.05-1.42]), and women's employment (RRR of 1.10; 95% CI of [1.01-1.18]) were significantly associated with care seeking from formal providers. Service factors including living less than 10 kilometers from a health facility (RRR of 1.16; 95% CI of [1.05-1.28]) and facility availability of comprehensive obstetric services (RRR of 1.25; 95% CI of 1.04-1.36) were also significantly associated with seeking care from formal providers. While the majority of women reporting obstetric complications sought care, less than a third visited health facilities. Improvements in socioeconomic factors such as maternal literacy, coupled with improved geographic access and

  14. Patterns of clinical presentation of adult coeliac disease in a rural setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Souza Charles

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been increasing recognition that the pattern of presentation of coeliac disease may be changing. The classic sprue syndrome with diarrhoea and weight loss may be less common than the more subtle presentations of coeliac disease such as an isolated iron deficiency anaemia. As a result, the diagnosis of this treatable condition is often delayed or missed. Recent serologic screening tests allow non-invasive screening to identify most patients with the disease and can be applied in patients with even subtle symptoms indicative of coeliac disease. Both benign and malignant complications of coeliac disease can be avoided by early diagnosis and a strict compliance with a gluten free diet. Aim The aim of this study is to evaluate the trends in clinical presentation of patients diagnosed with adult coeliac disease. In addition, we studied the biochemical and serological features and the prevalence of associated conditions in patients with adult coeliac disease. Methods This is an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional review of the medical notes of 32 adult patients attending the specialist coeliac clinic in a district general hospital. Results Anaemia was the most common mode of presentation accounting for 66% of patients. Less than half of the patients had any of the classical symptoms of coeliac disease and 25% had none of the classical symptoms at presentation. Anti-gliadin antibodies, anti-endomysial antibody and anti-tissue transglutaminase showed 75%, 68% and 90% sensitivity respectively. In combination, serology results were 100% sensitive as screening tests for adult coeliac disease. Fifty nine percent patients had either osteoporosis or osteopenia. There were no malignant complications observed during the follow up of our patients. Conclusion Most adults with coeliac disease have a sub clinical form of the disease and iron deficiency anaemia may be its sole presenting symptom. Only a minority

  15. Appropriate technology for solar energy system aiming water heating for human bath in houses of rural areas; Tecnologia apropriada para sistema de energia solar visando aquecimento de agua para o banho humano em moradias do meio rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, Italo Alberto Gatica [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], e-mail: gatica@dglnet.com.br; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian land receives a great amount of solar radiation all over the year, therefore, because both the culture and practical aspects, Brazilians use in a non-moderate way the electricity to boil the water for human bath in the rural homes, in the lower income residences even at part of the medium class homes. That happens due to the very low price of an electrical shower, about US$ 6,5. In fact, that way of heating water is largely used because, besides the very low electrical shower price, it is not necessary to install a complete hot water both hydraulic and electrical building systems, but just both single hydraulic pipes and electrical devices. On the other hands, at rural regions where the electricity does not achieve the rural people uses firewood in order to get hot water for human bath. At the rural places the use of electrical showers has meaning an increase in the electrical transformers powers, heavier electrical transmission rural lines, with greater prices and, at the urban zones, the use of electrical showers in the lower social classes has contributed to a more expressive electrical load at the nacional electrical system load peck, between 5:30 to 8:30 a.m. The public administration, mostly, does not take into account both social, economic and environmental costs in order to think about the electricity offer. The solar heating systems, generally used in Brazil, conserves the same reservoirs used in France at 1880. Therefore, this paper presents some technical subsidies applied to rural homes, even to lower income people's homes aiming to stimulate the Brazilian public authorities to make a public police to facilitate both the industrialization and dissemination of solar heating systems, appropriate to the rural area, with lower costs, compounded by good technology equipment, with guarantee of lasting and quality. (author)

  16. Contrasting patterns of polymorphism and selection in bacterial-sensing toll-like receptor 4 in two house mouse subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fornůsková, Alena; Bryja, Josef; Vinkler, M.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 14 (2014), s. 2931-2944 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : adaptive evolution * arms race * directional selection * host–pathogen interaction * MAMPs * Mus musculus * parasite-mediated selection * pattern-recognition receptors Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2014

  17. Modeling the effects of palm-house proximity on the theoretical risk of Chagas disease transmission in a rural locality of the Orinoco basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Erazo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chagas disease is a major public health concern in Latin America and it is transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae, including Rhodnius spp. Since palm trees are ubiquitous in Colombia and a habitat for Rhodnius spp., the presence of palms near villages could increase contact rates between vectors and humans. Therefore, knowing whether a relationship exists between the proximity of palms to villages and the abundance and distribution of vectors therein, may be critical for Chagas disease prevention programs. Adapting a mathematical model for R. prolixus population dynamics in a small village, we model the implications of changing distances between palms and dwellings, to the risk of Chagas disease infection. Methods We implemented a mathematical model that reflects R. prolixus population dynamics in a small village located in the department of Casanare (Colombia to study the role of palm-house proximity. We varied the distance between palms and houses by monitoring the network global efficiency metric. We constructed 1,000 hypothetical villages varying distances and each one was run 100 times. Results According to the model, as palm-house proximity increases, houses were more likely to be visited by triatomine bugs. The number of bugs per unit time increased progressively in a non-linear fashion with high variability. We stress the importance of village configuration on the model output. Conclusions From a theoretical perspective, palm-house proximity may have a positive effect on the incidence of Chagas disease. The model predicts a 1% increase in new human cases per year when houses and palms are brought closer by 75%.

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart A of... - Guidelines for Seasonal Farm Labor Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... occupancy of more than one family or for separate occupancy of male and/or female groups. Common bath spaces...

  19. Lay discourses of the rural and stated and revealed preferences for rural living; some evidence of the existence of a rural idyll in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van F.; Heins, S.; Elbersen, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    Dutch rural areas have changed into a post-modern countryside and have become marketable commodities. The demand for rural space and rural amenities has increased, with concomitant tensions on the rural housing market, tensions which are enhanced by the restrictive spatial policy in Dutch rural

  20. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. On-farm labor housing must meet the requirements of...

  1. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Marshall L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, Abby [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, Sydney G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface)—a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team—to rehabilitate 418 low-income multifamily rental apartments located at 14 properties in Georgia (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zones 2–4). These 22-year-old units with individual utility meters were arranged in row house or townhouse style. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, which partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide; this housing includes more than 14,000 existing multifamily housing developments. In 2012, more than $100 million in grants and loans were allocated for that purpose.

  2. Residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation of organophosphates and piriproxifen on the mortality of deltamethrin resistant Triatoma infestans populations in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Gemio Alarico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bolivian Chaco is part of the endemic region of Chagas disease and an area where pyrethroid resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae populations has been reported. The World Health Organization identified these resistant populations as an important focus for research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation containing organophosphate active ingredients and a juvenile hormone analogue (Inesfly 5A IGR on the mortality of T. infestans. Studies took place in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco that were treated up to 34 months before and evaluated the susceptibility to pyrethroids of the offspring of field collected insects. Thirty houses were randomly selected within three communities to carry out wall bio-assays with T. infestans nymphs. Mortality was recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after wall contact. Eggs laid by females collected in the area were used to obtain first-instar nymphs and carry out pyrethroid susceptibility tests. The wall bio-assays showed that the micro-encapsulated insecticide eliminates T. infestans populations and produces detectable mortality of insects exposed to walls treated 34 months prior to the tests. The discriminant dose of deltamethrin (0.01 mg/mL showed 65% nymph survival, whereas at the highest tested dose (1.0 mg/mL 14% of the nymphs survived. These results show that Inesfly 5A IGR is an appropriate tool for the elimination of intradomestic and peridomestic populations of T. infestans resistant to pyrethroids.

  3. Do different parenting patterns impact the health and physical growth of 'left-behind' preschool-aged children? A cross-sectional study in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiuting; Xu, Lingzhong; Luo, Huiwen; Wang, Xinhai; Zhang, Furong; Gai Tobe, Ruoyan

    2016-02-01

    Many migrants from rural China seek work in urban areas and leave their children in their home villages to be raised by relatives. These children are often referred to as 'left-behind children'. Parental migration tends to have a profound impact on a child's growth. This study sought to assess the prevalence of illness and malnutrition among children in rural areas raised with different parenting patterns and to explore factors affecting their health and development. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the physical health of children raised with different parenting patterns and to explore associated risk factors. In total, this study examined 735 children ages 3-6 years in eight rural villages in two counties of Shandong Province. Their primary caregivers were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of the children were taken and their nutritional status was determined according to WHO Child Growth Standards. This study found a relatively high prevalence of wasting, overweight and obesity among left-behind children. After potential confounders were controlled for, the parenting pattern, annual household income and health literacy of the primary caregiver significantly influenced the health and developmental indicators of children. This study highlighted the impact of the characteristics of the primary caregiver on a child's health and development and the importance of practical interventions for preschool-aged children who are left behind and raised with different parenting patterns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Deep Learning and Supervised Learning Methods to Recognize Nonlinear Hidden Pattern in Water Stress Levels from Spatiotemporal Datasets across Rural and Urban US Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhart, T.; Josset, L.; Rising, J. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    In the wake of recent water crises, the need to understand and predict the risk of water stress in urban and rural areas has grown. This understanding has the potential to improve decision making in public resource management, policy making, risk management and investment decisions. Assuming an underlying relationship between urban and rural water stress and observable features, we apply Deep Learning and Supervised Learning models to uncover hidden nonlinear patterns from spatiotemporal datasets. Results of interest includes prediction accuracy on extreme categories (i.e. urban areas highly prone to water stress) and not solely the average risk for urban or rural area, which adds complexity to the tuning of model parameters. We first label urban water stressed counties using annual water quality violations and compile a comprehensive spatiotemporal dataset that captures the yearly evolution of climatic, demographic and economic factors of more than 3,000 US counties over the 1980-2010 period. As county-level data reporting is not done on a yearly basis, we test multiple imputation methods to get around the issue of missing data. Using Python libraries, TensorFlow and scikit-learn, we apply and compare the ability of, amongst other methods, Recurrent Neural Networks (testing both LSTM and GRU cells), Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines to predict urban water stress. We evaluate the performance of those models over multiple time spans and combine methods to diminish the risk of overfitting and increase prediction power on test sets. This methodology seeks to identify hidden nonlinear patterns to assess the predominant data features that influence urban and rural water stress. Results from this application at the national scale will assess the performance of deep learning models to predict water stress risk areas across all US counties and will highlight a predominant Machine Learning method for modeling water stress risk using spatiotemporal

  5. Rural settlements transition (RST) in a suburban area of metropolis: Internal structure perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqiu; Jiang, Guanghui; Wang, Deqi; Li, Wenqing; Guo, Hongquan; Zheng, Qiuyue

    2018-02-15

    Rural settlements transition (RST) is one of the most significant indices for understanding the phenomena of rural reconstruction and urban-rural transformation in China. However, a systematic overview of RST is missing, and there is a lack of evidence regarding its characteristics from the internal structure perspectives. In this paper, we systematically explore the RST regarding spatio-temporal change characteristics of internal structure, patterns and impacts on rural environment and development by using practical survey internal land-use data from 2005 to 2015. The results show that the temporal change characteristics of the internal structure of rural settlements demonstrate a tendency for housing land to decrease and other land-use types to increase. The spatial change characteristics reveal that the structure inclines to more complexity and diversity from an exurban area to an urban-rural fringe area. Based on this finding, we identify that rapid development of rural industrialization, more agglomerate and effective industrial land-use, and improved public infrastructure construction are the general RST patterns. Spatially, there exists a physical decay pattern in the exurban area, thereby resulting in the hollowing-out of rural industries and of the population. In addition, the extensive and disorderly pattern in the suburban area causes low efficiency output and serious environmental pollution. The RST pattern in the urban hinterland promoted the "men-environment" compatible development. The study concludes that regional differentiation in patterns and impacts are significant in the process of RST. Future adaptive strategies for rural settlements adjustment should be conducted according to regional characteristics, including socio-economic status, physical geography condition and economic location to improve the rural environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. House Sparrows Do Not Constitute a Significant Salmonella Typhimurium Reservoir across Urban Gradients in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Lens, Luc; Haesendonck, Roel; Teyssier, Aimeric; Hudin, Noraine Salleh; Strubbe, Diederik; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades major declines in urban house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations have been observed in north-western European cities, whereas suburban and rural house sparrow populations have remained relatively stable or are recovering from previous declines. Differential exposure to avian pathogens known to cause epidemics in house sparrows may in part explain this spatial pattern of declines. Here we investigate the potential effect of urbanization on the development of a bacterial pathogen reservoir in free-ranging house sparrows. This was achieved by comparing the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhimurium in 364 apparently healthy house sparrows captured in urban, suburban and rural regions across Flanders, Belgium between September 2013 and March 2014. In addition 12 dead birds, received from bird rescue centers, were necropsied. The apparent absence of Salmonella Typhimurium in fecal samples of healthy birds, and the identification of only one house sparrow seropositive for Salmonella spp., suggests that during the winter of 2013-2014 these birds did not represent any considerable Salmonella Typhimurium reservoir in Belgium and thus may be considered naïve hosts, susceptible to clinical infection. This susceptibility is demonstrated by the isolation of two different Salmonella Typhimurium strains from two of the deceased house sparrows: one DT99, typically associated with disease in pigeons, and one DT195, previously associated with a passerine decline. The apparent absence (prevalence: house sparrows and the association of infection with clinical disease suggests that the impact of Salmonella Typhimurium on house sparrows is largely driven by the risk of exogenous exposure to pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains. However, no inference could be made on a causal relationship between Salmonella infection and the observed house sparrow population declines.

  7. Dietary patterns and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A population-based case-control study in a rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Wang, Xiaorong; Lin, Sihao; Lao, Xiangqian; Zhao, Jin; Song, Qingkun; Su, Xuefen; Tak-Sun Yu, Ignatius

    2017-02-01

    Few studies were available in exploring the roles of dietary patterns in the development of esophageal cancer, especially in China. This study aimed to investigate the roles of dietary patterns in the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Chinese rural population. A population-based cases-control study was designed and conducted in Yanting County, Sichuan Province of China during two years (between June 2011 and May 2013). A total of 942 pairs of ESCC cases and controls were recruited. A food frequency questionnaire was adopted to collect information of dietary consumption. Dietary patterns were extracted by using principle component and factor analysis based on 24 dietary groups. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by using logistic regression model, with adjustment for possible confounding variables. Four major dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as "prudent", "vegetable and fruits", "processed food" and "alcohol drinking". In comparison of the highest with the lowest quartiles of pattern scores, the processed food pattern (OR: 2.84, 95% CI: 2.13-3.80) and alcohol drinking pattern (OR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.95-3.71) were significantly associated with an increased risk of ESCC, while the vegetable and fruit pattern (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92) was associated with reduced risk by 30%. The prudent pattern was associated with a reduced risk by 33% (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50-0.88) in a multivariate logistic regression model, but no statistical significance was reached in a composite model. The results suggest an important role of dietary patterns in ESCC. Diets rich in vegetables and fruits may decrease the risk of ESCC, whereas diets rich in processed food and drinking alcohol may increase the risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Changing patterns in electrical burn injuries in a developing country: should prevention programs focus on the rural population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Surendra B; Khare, Nishant Anil; Jaiswal, Sumeet; Jain, Arvind; Chitranshi, Anurag; Math, Mahantesh

    2010-01-01

    In the developing world, the incidence of electrical injuries has increased in the past few years. This study attempts to identify the causative and demographic risk factors that can help in formulating a targeted prevention program. The study was conducted prospectively and retrospectively from 2004 to 2009. Eighty-four consecutive patients with electrical burn injuries were analyzed for their demographic profile, age, sex, occupation, rural-urban distribution, mode of injury, and place of injury. The patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their awareness about electrical burn injuries, and the results were tabulated. The age of presentation ranged from 3 to 61 years. The most frequently affected age group was the second decade of life (33.3%). Of 84 patients studied, 71 were male and 13 female. Fifty-nine patients were from the urban area, while 25 were from the surrounding rural area. Students including children and adolescents were the most common affected single group (22.5%). Contact with live wire or contact with an object that was in contact with a live wire (secondary contact) accounted for 43 of 84 cases (51%). Home was the most common location where injury occurred (51.2%). Twenty-one of 59 cases (35.6%) reported from the urban area and 3 of 25 cases (12%) from the rural area had specific knowledge about prevention of electrical burn injury. Forty-one patients (69.4%) from the urban area and 22 (88%) from the rural area believed that adequate information regarding electrical burn injury was not available. Thirty-six patients (61%) from the urban area and 24 (96%) from the rural area believed that they would have behaved differently if the information had been available. The authors recommend that prevention programs should be modified to cater to the specific needs of the younger age groups and the rural population.

  9. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1...

  10. Climate shocks and rural-urban migration in Mexico: Exploring nonlinearities and thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; DeWaard, Jack; Bakhtsiyarava, Maryia; Ha, Jasmine Trang

    2016-01-01

    Adverse climatic conditions may differentially drive human migration patterns between rural and urban areas, with implications for changes in population composition and density, access to infrastructure and resources, and the delivery of essential goods and services. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this notion. In this study, we investigate the relationship between climate shocks and migration between rural and urban areas within Mexico. We combine individual records from the 2000 and 2010 Mexican censuses (n=683,518) with high-resolution climate data from Terra Populus that are linked to census data at the municipality level (n=2,321). We measure climate shocks as monthly deviation from a 30-year (1961-1990) long-term climate normal period, and uncover important nonlinearities using quadratic and cubic specifications. Satellite-based measures of urban extents allow us to classify migrant-sending and migrant-receiving municipalities as rural or urban to examine four internal migration patterns: rural-urban, rural-rural, urban-urban, and urban-rural. Among our key findings, results from multilevel models reveal that each additional drought month increases the odds of rural-urban migration by 3.6%. In contrast, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration is nonlinear. After a threshold of ~34 heat months is surpassed, the relationship between heat months and rural-urban migration becomes positive and progressively increases in strength. Policy and programmatic interventions may therefore reduce climate induced rural-urban migration in Mexico through rural climate change adaptation initiatives, while also assisting rural migrants in finding employment and housing in urban areas to offset population impacts. PMID:28435176

  11. Spatial patterns of rural poverty: an exploratory analysis in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Oliveira Torres

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização e a análise da distribuição espacial da pobreza podem ser úteis na apli-cação de programas voltados para a redução de pobreza já que possibilitam a identificação de áreas onde a incidência é maior e cuja ex-tensão muitas vezes ultrapassa as linhas ter-ritoriais oficiais. Nesse contexto, este artigo usa os mais recentes dados sobre pobreza rural municipal no Brasil para identificar os padrões espaciais de pobreza rural na Bacia do Rio São Francisco (BRSF. Indicadores de autocorrelação espacial I de Moran são gera-dos e usados para a construção de um mapa de clusters de pobreza rural. Os resultados indicam que a pobreza rural é espacialmen-te autocorrelacionada em algumas áreas da BRSF, nas quais municípios mais (menos pobres tendem a se localizar perto de municí-pios mais (menos pobres. Mais importante, talvez, os resultados sugerem a necessidade de se usar metodologias de análise que consi-derem explicitamente a localização como um fator explanatório da pobreza rural na bacia, como, por exemplo, econometria espacial.

  12. Patterns of type 2 diabetes monitoring in rural towns: How does frequency of HbA1c and lipid testing compare with existing guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine L; Piterman, Leon; Shaw, Jonathan E; Kirby, Catherine; Barker, Daniel; Robinson, Jennifer; Forshaw, Kristy L; Sikaris, Kenneth A; Bisquera, Alessandra; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W

    2016-12-01

    To indicate levels of monitoring of type 2 diabetes in rural and regional Australia by examining patterns of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood lipid testing. Retrospective analysis of pathology services data from twenty regional and rural towns in eastern Australia over 24 months. Of 13 105 individuals who had either a single HbA1c result ≥7.0% (53 mmol mol -1 ); or two or more HbA1c tests within the study period. Frequency of testing of HbA1c and blood lipids (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides) were compared with guideline recommendations. About 58.3% of patients did not have the recommended 6-monthly HbA1c tests and 30.6% did not have annual lipid testing. For those who did not receive tests at the recommended interval, the mean between-test interval was 10.5 months (95% CI = 7.5-13.5) rather than 6 months for HbA1c testing; and 15.7 (95% CI = 13.3-18.1) months rather than annually for blood lipids. For those with at least one out-of-range test result, 77% of patients failed to receive a follow-up HbA1c test and 86.5% failed to receive a follow-up blood lipid test within the recommended 3 months. Patients less than 50 years of age, living in a more remote area and with poor diabetes control were less likely to have testing at the recommended intervals (P < 0.0001). Although poor diabetes testing is not limited to rural areas, more intensive diabetes monitoring is likely to be needed for patients living in non-metropolitan areas, particularly for some subgroups. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  14. Morbidity pattern and their socio-demographic co-relates among rural primary school children in eastern Uttar Pradesh: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the morbidity pattern among primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what their socio-demographic co-relates are? Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates associated with morbidity. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were included in the study by total enumeration of the students present on the day of survey. Results: The present cross-sectional study revealed overall more prevalence of morbidity among female students (86.1% as compared to their male counterparts (84.4%. Children belonging to scheduled caste, socio-economic status class IV, those whose parents were illiterate and those belonging to joint family had higher prevalence of any morbidity. Caste, socio-economic status, parents’ education and type of family were significantly associated with morbidity among school children. Conclusion:  Prevalence of morbidities was found to be 2.3 morbidities per child (prevalence and 2.8 morbidities per sick child. Female students suffered more in comparison to their male counterparts. Nutritional deficiencies were most prevalent. Socio-economic status, caste, literacy of parents and type of family had significant association with morbidity.

  15. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  16. Knowledge, awareness, and utilization pattern of services under Janani Suraksha Yojana among beneficiaries in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Prem Lal Chauhan; Dineshwar Dhadwal; Anjali Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Safe motherhood is perceived as a human right, and the health sector is always encouraged to provide quality services to ensure the same. Government of India launched a scheme called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) on April 11, 2005, under the flagship of National Rural Health Mission to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, by promoting institutional deliveries for which financial incentives are provided to mothers delivering in the health facilities. Objective: To study the kno...

  17. Elevated dry-season malaria prevalence associated with fine-scale spatial patterns of environmental risk: a case-control study of children in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, Lindsay R; Mwandama, Dyson; Mathanga, Don P; Wilson, Mark L

    2013-11-11

    Understanding the role of local environmental risk factors for malaria in holo-endemic, poverty-stricken settings will be critical to more effectively implement- interventions aimed at eventual elimination. Household-level environmental drivers of malaria risk during the dry season were investigated in rural southern Malawi among children Authority (TA) regions dominated by small-scale agriculture. Ten villages were randomly selected from TA Sitola (n = 6) and Nsamala (n = 4). Within each village, during June to August 2011, a census was conducted of all households with children under-five and recorded their locations with a geographic position system (GPS) device. At each participating house, a nurse administered a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to children under five years of age, and a questionnaire to parents. Environmental data were collected for each house, including land cover within 50-m radius. Variables found to be significantly associated with P. falciparum infection status in bivariate analysis were included in generalized linear models, including multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and multi-level multivariate logistic regression (MLLR). Spatial clustering of RDT status, environmental factors, and Pearson residuals from MLR and MLLR were analysed using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Of 390 children enrolled from six villages in Sitola (n = 162) and four villages in Nsamala (n = 228), 45.6% tested positive (n = 178) for Plasmodium infection by RDT. The MLLR modelled the statistical relationship of Plasmodium positives and household proximity to agriculture ( 2.58, p < 0.01) predominantly within TA Sitola, while residuals from MLLR showed no such clustering. This study provides evidence for significant, dry-season heterogeneity of malaria prevalence strongly linked to peridomestic land use, and particularly of elevated risk associated with nearby crop production.

  18. Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The members of the Swain family- Dr. Charles "Bill" Swain, wife Elaine, daughter Carol, 17, son "Chuck", 12, and dog Susie have an interesting assignment. They are active participants in an important NASA research program involving the application of space-age technology to home construction. b' Transplanted Floridians, the Swains now reside in NASA's Tech House, loatedat Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Their job is to use and help evaluate the variety of advanced technology systems in Tech House. A contemporary three-bedroom home, Tech House incorporates NASA technology, the latest commercial building techniques and other innovations, all designed to reduce energy and water consumption and to provide new levels of comfort, convenience, security and fire safety. Tech House equipment performed well in initial tests, but a house is not a home until it has people. That's where the Swains come in. NASA wants to see how the various systems work under actual living conditions, to confirm the effectiveness of the innovations or to determine necessary modifications for improvement. The Swains are occupying the house for a year, during which NASA engineers are computer monitoring the equipment and assembling a record of day-to-day performance. . Tech House is a laboratory rather than a mass production prototype, but its many benefits may influence home design and construction. In a period of sharply rising utility costs, widespread adoption of Tech House features could provide large-scale savings to homeowners and potentially enormous national benefit in resources conservation. Most innovations are aerospace spinoffs: Some of the equipment is now commercially available; other systems are expected to be in production within a few years. Around 1980, a Tech House-type of home could be built for $45-50,000 (1 976 dollars). It is estimated that the homeowner would save well over $20,000 (again 1976 dollars) in utility costs over the average mortgage span of 20 years.

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart N of... - Amendment to Housing Preservation Grant Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE...,” or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 hereby amends the Housing Preservation Grant... _________, properly attested to and its corporate seal affixed by its duly authorized ________. Attest: Grantee: By...

  20. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  1. Home health care agency staffing patterns before and after the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, by rural and urban location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, William J; Spector, William; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 and other recent policies have led to reduced Medicare funding for home health agencies (HHAs) and visits per beneficiary. We examine the staffing characteristics of stable Medicare-certified HHAs across rural and urban counties from 1996 to 2002, a period encompassing the changes associated with the BBA and related policies. Data were drawn from Medicare Provider of Service files and the Area Resource File. The unit of analysis was the 3,126 counties in the United States, grouped into 5 categories: metropolitan, nonmetropolitan adjacent, and 3 nonmetropolitan nonadjacent groups identified by largest town size. Only relatively stable HHAs were included. We generated summary HHA staff statistics for each county group and year. All staff categories, other than therapists, declined from 1997 to 2002 across the metropolitan and nonmetropolitan county groupings. There were substantial population-adjusted decreases in stable HHA-based home health aides in all counties, including remote counties. The limited presence of stable HHA staff in certain nonmetropolitan county types has been exacerbated since implementation of the BBA, especially in the most rural counties. The loss of aides in more rural counties may limit the availability of home-based long-term care in these locations, where the need for long-term care is considerable. Future research should examine the degree to which the presence of HHA staff influences actual access and whether other paid and unpaid sources of care substitute for Medicare home health care in counties with limited supplies of HHA staff.

  2. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.578 - Financial management of labor housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.578 Financial management of labor housing. The requirements established in subpart G of this part...

  4. 76 FR 31217 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 1980 RIN 0575-AC83 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program... the Rural Housing Service (RHS) Section 502 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) by eliminating the lender's published Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) rate for first mortgage loans with no...

  5. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  6. Patterns and risk factors of helminthiasis and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community in Zanzibar, in the context of helminth control programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Knopp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The control of helminth infections and prevention of anemia in developing countries are of considerable public health importance. The purpose of this study was to determine patterns and risk factors of helminth infections and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community of Zanzibar, Tanzania, in the context of national helminth control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study in 454 individuals by examining at least two stool samples with different methods for soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura and one urine sample for Schistosoma haematobium. Finger-prick blood was taken to estimate anemia levels and to detect antibody reactions against ascariasis, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA approach. Parasitological methods determined a helminth prevalence of 73.7% in the rural, and 48.9% in the peri-urban setting. Most helminth infections were of light intensity with school-aged children showing the highest intensities. Multiple helminth species infections were pervasive in rural dwellers regardless of age. More than half of the participants were anemic, with a particularly high prevalence in the peri-urban setting (64.7%. Risk factors for helminth infections were age, sex, consumption of raw vegetables or salad, recent travel history, and socio-economic status. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: After several years of chemotherapy-based morbidity control efforts in Zanzibar, helminth prevalences are still high and anemia is common, but helminth infection intensities are low. Hence, chemotherapy should be continued, and complemented with improved access to clean water, adequate sanitation, and health education, along with poverty alleviation measures for a more enduring impact.

  7. A Mediterranean diet pattern with low consumption of liquid sweets and refined cereals is negatively associated with adiposity in adults from rural Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, C; Darmon, N; Salameh, P; Maillot, M; Batal, M; Lairon, D

    2011-02-01

    The beneficial impact of the traditional Mediterranean diet pattern on adiposity is still under debate, and this has never been assessed in a developing Mediterranean country. To assess the relationships between adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet and adiposity indexes, that is, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), in a sample from rural Lebanon. A sample of 798 adults, aged 40-60 years, was selected in continental rural areas of Lebanon for a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, anthropometric and dietary sections. The daily consumption frequencies of selected food groups, categorized as positive or negative components, were calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using six a priori scores; including the widely used Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Associations between diet scores and BMI and WC were assessed. Overall, the diet of the study sample only partially matched the traditional Mediterranean diet. A total of 17.0% of men and 33.7% women were obese. The MDS was negatively associated (Pwomen. The constructed composite Mediterranean score combining positive components of the diet (whole cereals, vegetables, legumes and fruit, olive oil and fish) and negative components adapted to this sample (refined cereals and pastries, and liquid sweets) was consistently and negatively associated with both BMI and WC for men and women in multivariate models. A 2-point increase in that score was associated with a decrease in BMI of 0.51 and 0.78 kg m(-2) and a decrease in WC of 2.77 and 4.76 cm in men and women, respectively. The results demonstrate that a Mediterranean diet is negatively associated with obesity and visceral adiposity in a rural population of a developing Mediterranean country.

  8. Determining the prevalence of patterns of pregnancy-induced pelvic girdle pain and low back pain in urban and rural populations: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati Mahishale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical changes during pregnancy impose postural deviations, leading to various musculoskeletal pain syndromes. Commonly noted pain syndromes are the pelvic girdle pain (PGP and low back pain (LBP, which were experienced by pregnant women globally. There is a prevalence of pregnancy-related PGP (PPGP and pregnancy-related LBP (PLBP in Western population. Data of the same in Indian pregnant population lack evidence. Objective: To find the rates of incidence and prevalence of different patterns of PPGP and PLBP in the urban and rural pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 580 pregnant women were screened for inclusion criteria. Confirmation of diagnosis of PGP and LBP was done for 457 subjects using Modified Oswestry Disability Index (MODI questionnaire and the pelvic girdle questionnaire (PGQ. Once diagnosed, all participants were subjected to nine clinical tests to differentiate the site of pain and to classify them accordingly into three different groups, namely group A (LBP, group B [posterior pelvic pain (PPP], and group C [anterior pelvic pain (APP]. Results: The point prevalence of pain in group A (LBP was 31%, in group B (PPP was 65%, and in group C (APP was 15%. The prevalence of PGP and LBP was 75% in the urban pregnant population and 25% in the rural pregnant population. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of PPP (65% is higher than that of LBP (31% and APP (15%. Also PPP is reported to be highest in primiparous with gestational age of 38 weeks. The urban population showed 75% and rural population showed 25% of PGP and LBP.

  9. Patterns and risk factors of helminthiasis and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community in Zanzibar, in the context of helminth control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Stothard, J Russell; Khamis, I Simba; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-05-11

    The control of helminth infections and prevention of anemia in developing countries are of considerable public health importance. The purpose of this study was to determine patterns and risk factors of helminth infections and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community of Zanzibar, Tanzania, in the context of national helminth control programs. We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study in 454 individuals by examining at least two stool samples with different methods for soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura) and one urine sample for Schistosoma haematobium. Finger-prick blood was taken to estimate anemia levels and to detect antibody reactions against ascariasis, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach. Parasitological methods determined a helminth prevalence of 73.7% in the rural, and 48.9% in the peri-urban setting. Most helminth infections were of light intensity with school-aged children showing the highest intensities. Multiple helminth species infections were pervasive in rural dwellers regardless of age. More than half of the participants were anemic, with a particularly high prevalence in the peri-urban setting (64.7%). Risk factors for helminth infections were age, sex, consumption of raw vegetables or salad, recent travel history, and socio-economic status. After several years of chemotherapy-based morbidity control efforts in Zanzibar, helminth prevalences are still high and anemia is common, but helminth infection intensities are low. Hence, chemotherapy should be continued, and complemented with improved access to clean water, adequate sanitation, and health education, along with poverty alleviation measures for a more enduring impact.

  10. Economic Activities, Illness Pattern and Utilisation of Health Care Facilities in the Rural Population of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The study was undertaken among the rural and black communities of the Uthungulu health district of the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Method A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study was conducted. A multi-stage sampling strategy was adopted to obtain a representative sample of the communities. Results The mean age of the population was 27 years and majority was female (54%). Among the adult population only 30% were educated, 19% were engaged in some form of economic activities while 9% were in the formal employment sector. The average monthly income per household was R1 301 (95% CI, R1 283; R1 308). The illnesses were reported by 27% of the total population over a period of one month. Notably higher rates of female individuals (29%) were sick compared to males (24%, p < 0.001). The rates of illnesses among adult females (39%) were also significantly higher than among males (31%, p < 0.009). Most of them (69%) attended primary health care (PHC) clinics for medical services, while 67% reported chronic conditions. Age (OR = 1.4), gender (OR = 0.711), education (OR = 0.64) and economic activities (OR = 1.9) were found to be associated with being ill or not. Conclusion The rural black communities are underdeveloped and deprived, which results in higher prevalence of illnesses; however, the utilisation of PHC facilities is comparatively higher than in the rest of the province and other parts of the country. Interventions to improve community health care services among the deprived population should be focused through public health strategies such as all-encompassing PHC that includes health promotion, education and basic essential amenities.

  11. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  12. Analysis of the effects of change in cropping pattern due to drought on saffron production in rural areas of the Zebarkhan district villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Sojasi Qidari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of a given cropping pattern can have serious results on the farmers’ life and rural society because of the multi dimensionality of agriculture. However, in many cases, farmers are inclined to change the cropping pattern because of changes in natural situations, changes in demand and consumption, etc. One of the most important and effective factors of change cropping pattern amongst Iranian farmers in recent years is the drought problem. One of the more current cultural method changes in the Khorasan region is inclination to saffron cultivation that can have various economic, social and environmental effects. Thus, this research paid attention to the investigation of changes from cultivation method from drought to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of saffron production amongst the villagers of the Zebarkhan district of the Khorasan Razavi province. Analytical-description methodology was used for this purpose. Data collection was done using the library- field methodology with researcher’s questionnaire whose narrative is 0.78 according to Cronbach's alpha method. Therefore, by using the Cochran formula with the intended level of 0.05, 142 farmers have been selected by available sampling method that have changed their cropping pattern to saffron production because of water shortages and drought. Then, their ideas were analyzed considering cases of economic, social and environmental effects of cropping pattern change to saffron production. The results showed meaningful changes in all research indices except for increase of cultivation surface area. Moreover, the most important changes of cropping pattern and switching over to saffron production have been identified using the Shannon entropy weighing method. In addition, the shown the revealed with continuation of differences of the changes in cropping pattern of saffron between the various villages were analyzed by using the multi-index TOPSIS. Finally, it was shown

  13. Factors associated with patterns of plural healthcare utilization among patients taking antiretroviral therapy in rural and urban South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshabela, Mosa; Schneider, Helen; Silal, Sheetal P; Cleary, Susan M

    2012-07-02

    In low-resource settings, patients' use of multiple healthcare sources may complicate chronic care and clinical outcomes as antiretroviral therapy (ART) continues to expand. However, little is known regarding patterns, drivers and consequences of using multiple healthcare sources. We therefore investigated factors associated with patterns of plural healthcare usage among patients taking ART in diverse South African settings. A cross-sectional study of patients taking ART was conducted in two rural and two urban sub-districts, involving 13 accredited facilities and 1266 participants selected through systematic random sampling. Structured questionnaires were used in interviews, and participant's clinic records were reviewed. Data collected included household assets, healthcare access dimensions (availability, affordability and acceptability), healthcare utilization and pluralism, and laboratory-based outcomes. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of healthcare pluralism and associations with treatment outcomes. Prior ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Nineteen percent of respondents reported use of additional healthcare providers over and above their regular ART visits in the prior month. A further 15% of respondents reported additional expenditure on self-care (e.g. special foods). Access to health insurance (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6.15) and disability grants (aOR 1.35) increased plural healthcare use. However, plural healthcare users were more likely to borrow money to finance healthcare (aOR 2.68), and incur catastrophic levels of healthcare expenditure (27%) than non-plural users (7%). Quality of care factors, such as perceived disrespect by staff (aOR 2.07) and lack of privacy (aOR 1.50) increased plural healthcare utilization. Plural healthcare utilization was associated with rural residence (aOR 1.97). Healthcare pluralism was not associated with missed visits or biological outcomes. Increased plural

  14. Access to Educational Opportunity in Rural Communities: Alternative Patterns of Delivering Vocational Education in Sparsely Populated Areas. Volume 5: Clay-Wayne County Joint Agreement: A Decentralized Noncenter Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruth G.; And Others

    A decentralized noncenter agreement pattern of inter-school district cooperation is examined in this final of four case studies addressing access of rural students to vocational education. The report identifies essential features of this form of cooperation, details factors facilitating/impeding the operation/maintenance of the cooperative…

  15. Patterns and Determinants of Care-Seeking for Antepartum and Intrapartum Complications in Rural Bangladesh: Results from a Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Rasheda; Creanga, Andreea A; Koffi, Alain K; Mitra, Dipak K; Mahmud, Arif; Begum, Nazma; Moin, Syed Mamun Ibne; Ram, Malathi; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Saha, Samir K; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-01-01

    The burden of maternal complications during antepartum and intrapartum periods is high and care seeking from a trained provider is low, particularly in low middle income countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Identification of barriers to access to trained care and development of strategies to address them will contribute to improvements in maternal health. Using data from a community-based cohort of pregnant women, this study identified the prevalence of antepartum and intrapartum complications and determinants of care-seeking for these complications in rural Bangladesh. The study was conducted in 24,274 pregnant women between June 2011 and December 2013 in rural Sylhet district of Bangladesh. Women were interviewed during pregnancy to collect data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; prior miscarriages, stillbirths, live births, and neonatal deaths; as well as data on their ability to make decision to go to health center alone. They were interviewed within the first 7 days of child birth to collect data on self-reported antepartum and intrapartum complications and care seeking for those complications. Bivariate analysis was conducted to explore association between predisposing (socio-demographic), enabling (economic), perceived need, and service related factors with care-seeking for self-reported antepartum and intrapartum complications. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was performed to examine the association of selected factors with care-seeking for self-reported antepartum and intrapartum complications adjusting for co-variates. Self-reported antepartum and intrapartum complications among women were 14.8% and 20.9% respectively. Among women with any antepartum complication, 58.9% sought care and of these 46.5% received care from a trained provider. Of the women with intrapartum complications, 61.4% sought care and of them 46.5% did so from a trained provider. Care-seeking for both antepartum and intrapartum complications from

  16. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Aurpibul

    Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  17. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  18. Exploring Socio-Cultural Patterns of Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural and Semi-urban Sri Lankan Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt

    2015-01-01

    and drug use typically took place after working hours in groups away from home. While women were not in favor of daily drinking and its consequences on family life, men drinking at functions and social occasions were highly accepted by both genders and all ages. Types and patterns of alcohol and drug...

  19. Epidemiological patterns of mental disorders and stigma in a community household survey in urban slum and rural settings in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutiso, Victoria N.; Musyimi, Christine W.; Tomita, Andrew; Loeffen, Lianne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Ndetei, David M.

    Purpose: This study investigated the epidemiological patterns of mental illness and stigma in community households in Kenya using a cross-sectional community household survey among 846 participants. Methods: A cross-sectional community household survey was conducted around urban slum (Kangemi) and

  20. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  1. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  2. Patterns and predictors of personal exposure to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion among women and children in rural China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J. (Univ. of Minnesota. Institute on the Environment, St. Paul, MN (United States)); Patz, J.; Bautista, L.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin. Dept. of Population Health Sciences, Madison, WI (United States)); Schauer, J.J. (Univ. of Wisconsin. Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, Madison, WI (United States)); Ezzati, M. (MRC-HPA Center for Environment and Health, Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)); Lu, L.; Cheng, C. (Yunnan Provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Yunnan (China))

    2011-12-15

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) from domestic biomass combustion is an important health risk factor, yet direct measurements of personal IAP exposure are scarce. We measured 24-h integrated gravimetric exposure to particles <2.5 mum in aerodynamic diameter (particulate matter, PM{sub 2.5}) in 280 adult women and 240 children in rural Yunnan, China. We also measured indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in a random sample of 44 kitchens. The geometric mean winter PM{sub 2.5} exposure among adult women was twice that of summer exposure [117 mug/m3 (95% CI: 107, 128) vs. 55 mug/m3 (95% CI: 49, 62)]. Children's geometric mean exposure in summer was 53 mug/m3 (95% CI: 46, 61). Indoor PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were moderately correlated with women's personal exposure (r = 0.58), but not for children. Ventilation during cooking, cookstove maintenance, and kitchen structure were significant predictors of personal PM{sub 2.5} exposure among women primarily cooking with biomass. These findings can be used to develop exposure assessment models for future epidemiologic research and inform interventions and policies aimed at reducing IAP exposure. (Author)

  3. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; McDonald, Jordan; Ford, Hannah; Connelly, Paige; Gillespie, Rachel; Liu, Emily; Bush, Heather; Brancato, Candace; Babatande, Toyin; Mullins, Janet

    2017-10-21

    Background : Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods : A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina). Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica) and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results : Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.99, 3.82)]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44)] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [-0.001 (95% CI -0.001, 0.0001)] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions : There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results informed the

  4. 75 FR 34421 - Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year (FY... the timeframe to submit pre-applications for section 514 Farm Labor Housing (FLH) loans and section...

  5. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Marshall L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, Abby [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, Sydney G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC, (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface) on the rehabilitation of 418 low-income rental multifamily apartments located at 14 different properties in Georgia (Climate Zones 2-4). These 22-year old, individually-metered units were arranged in rowhouse or townhouse style units. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, who partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide. In 2012, over $100 million was allocated in grants and loans. Due to the unique financing mechanism as well as long-term ownership requirements, property owners are especially motivated to invest in upgrades that will increase durability and tenant retention. These buildings represent a large stock of rural affordable housing that have the potential for significant energy and cost savings for property owners and tenants. Southface analyzed the energy upgrade potential of one stereotypical property in the Rea Ventures portfolio. This study will provide insight into the most cost-effective, implementable energy efficiency and durability upgrades for this age multifamily housing, having an enormous impact not only on the portfolio of Rea Ventures but on the vast USDA and larger Federal portfolio. Additionally, Southface will identify gaps in the current capital needs assessment process, examine available audit and simulation tools and protocols, and evaluate additional auditor training or certification needs.

  6. Evaluation Of Prescription Pattern And Medication Adherence Of Antihypertensive Drugs In Stage 1 Essential Hypertensive Patients At Rural Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan S. Urade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives- To study the prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs and analyze the medication adherence to antihypertensive drugs at rural tertiary care teaching hospital.Materials and Methods- Prospective, observational, 12 weeks, questionnaire based study, conducted in rural tertiary care teaching hospital of central India. 214 antihypertensive prescriptions were analyzed by Morisky medication adherence scale. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel and Graph pad prism 6.0.Results- 28.03% patients were not aware about the medicines taken, 29.90% patients were unacquainted about dose and route of administration whereas 32.71% patients were unfamiliar about frequency of administration of medicines. 53.27% patients were unaware about precautions to be taken while consuming medicines.  58.68% & 12.67% patients consumed amlodipine & atenolol respectively. In 16.43% patients, atenolol + amlodipine combination therapy was prescribed.  Amongst 214 patients 12, 58 & 144 showed high, medium & low adherence respectively.  No significant difference was found on gender basis at any level of adherence.Conclusion- In this study, physicians given preference to amlodipine than other antihypertensive drugs. However, thiazide is a first line drug in stage 1 hypertension, recommended by JNC VII guideline. This indicates that there is need of creating awareness about current management of hypertension to clinicians by organizing various workshops. We observed only 5.60% patients showed high adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Therefore educational strategies must be carried out for physicians focusing on causes for nonadherence to antihypertensive medications. Also raising patient trust in their physicians may improve patient motivation to prescribed medication. 

  7. Patterns of geohelminth infection, impact of albendazole treatment and re-infection after treatment in schoolchildren from rural KwaZulu-Natal/South-Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvalsvig Jane D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Department of Health of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN established in 1998 a programme for helminth control that aimed at regularly treating primary school children for schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths. This article describes the baseline situation and the effect of treatment on geohelminth infection in a rural part of the province. Methods Grade 3 schoolchildren from Maputaland in northern KZN were examined for infections with hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura, treated twice with 400 mg albendazole and re-examined several times over one year after the first treatment in order to assess the impact of treatment and patterns of infection and re-infection. Results The hookworm prevalence in the study population (83.2% was considerably higher than in other parts of the province whereas T. trichiura and especially A. lumbricoides prevalences (57.2 and 19.4%, respectively were much lower than elsewhere on the KZN coastal plain. Single dose treatment with albendazole was very effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides with cure rates (CR of 78.8 and 96.4% and egg reduction rates (ERR of 93.2 and 97.7%, respectively. It was exceptionally ineffective against T. trichiura (CR = 12.7%, ERR = 24.8%. Re-infection with hookworm and A. lumbricoides over 29 weeks after treatment was considerable but still well below pre-treatment levels. Conclusion High geohelminth prevalences and re-infection rates in the study population confirm the need for regular treatment of primary school children in the area. The low effectiveness of single course albendazole treatment against T. trichiura infection however demands consideration of alternative treatment approaches.

  8. Daily Dietary Intake Patterns Improve after Visiting a Food Pantry among Food-Insecure Rural Midwestern Adults

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    Breanne N. Wright

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Emergency food pantries provide food at no cost to low-resource populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-day dietary intake patterns before and after visiting a food pantry among food-secure and food-insecure pantry clients. This observational cohort study comprised a paired, before-and-after design with a pantry visit as the intervention. Participants (n = 455 completed a demographic and food security assessment, and two 24-h dietary recalls. Adult food security was measured using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Dietary intake patterns were assessed using Automated Self-Administered 24-h Recall data and classified by Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores, dietary variety, number of eating occasions, and energy intake. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared outcomes before and after a pantry visit. Mean dietary variety increased after the pantry visit among both food-secure (p = 0.02 and food-insecure (p < 0.0001 pantry clients. Mean energy intake (p = 0.0003, number of eating occasions (p = 0.004, and HEI-2010 component scores for total fruit (p < 0.001 and whole fruit (p < 0.0003 increased among food-insecure pantry clients only. A pantry visit may improve dietary intake patterns, especially among food-insecure pantry clients.

  9. Malaria in rural Burkina Faso: local illness concepts, patterns of traditional treatment and influence on health-seeking behaviour

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    Kouyaté Bocar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on health care seeking behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa for children suffering from malaria is quite extensive. This literature, however, is predominately quantitative and, inevitably, fails to explore how the local concepts of illness may affect people's choices. Understanding local concepts of illness and their influence on health care-seeking behaviour can complement existing knowledge and lead to the development of more effective malaria control interventions. Methods In a rural area of Burkina Faso, four local concepts of illness resembling the biomedical picture of malaria were described according to symptoms, aetiology, and treatment. Data were collected through eight focus group discussions, 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants, and through the analysis of 100 verbal autopsy questionnaires of children under-five diagnosed with malaria. Results Sumaya, dusukun yelema, kono, and djoliban were identified as the four main local illness concepts resembling respectively uncomplicated malaria, respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, and severe anaemia. The local disease categorization was found to affect both treatment and provider choice. While sumaya is usually treated by a mix of traditional and modern methods, dusukun yelema and kono are preferably treated by traditional healers, and djoliban is preferably treated in modern health facilities. Besides the conceptualization of illness, poverty was found to be another important influencing factor of health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion The findings complement previous evidence on health care-seeking behaviour, by showing how local concepts of illness strongly influence treatment and choice of provider. Local concepts of illness need to be considered when developing specific malaria control programmes.

  10. Electrification situation in MEVIR housing collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopitsch, R.

    1994-01-01

    MEVIR: The Movement of Erradication of the Rural unhealthy housing has made high-priority to build decorous and economic housings in the rural means as well as it has acted as nexus between UTE and the field to be able to take the electric power to different communities. It is in San Gregorio of Polanco (Dept. of Lavalleja). Through a program of the National Directorate of Energy and with financing of the European Economic Community it outlines the option of installing a hybrid system of eolic and fotovoltaic energy. The presents work studies the details of this project

  11. Smart Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  12. An integrated village maternity service to improve referral patterns in a rural area in West-Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisjahbana, A; Williams, C; Dharmayanti, R; Hermawan, D; Kwast, B E; Koblinsky, M

    1995-06-01

    The Regionalization of Perinatal Care, an intervention study carried out in Tanjungsari, a subdistrict in rural West Java, aimed to develop a comprehensive maternal health program to improve maternal and perinatal health outcomes. The main inputs included training at all levels of the health care system (informal and formal) and the establishment of birthing homes in villages to make services more accessible. Special attention was given to referral, transportation, communication and appropriate case management, A social marketing program was conducted to inform people of the accessible birthing homes for clean delivery, located near the women, and with better transportation and communications to referral facilities should complications arise. The study design was longitudinal, following all pregnant women from early pregnancy until 42 days postpartum in an intervention and a comparison area. The population was +/- 90,000 in the intervention area and 40,000 in the comparison area. Inclusion criteria were all mother and infant units delivered between June 1st, 1992 and May 31st, 1993. Analysis showed the following results: Most women sought antenatal care (> 95%). In Tanjungsari, nearly 90% sought such care from professional providers as versus 75% in the control area of Cisalak. Most women with bleeding or bleeding and edema during pregnancy sought professional assistance in both the study and control areas. However, fever for more than 3 days received more attention in the study area versus control area (93 vs. 69%). Greater than 85% of deliveries in both areas were conducted by TBAs. However, in the study area, nearly one-third of those with intrapartum complications (17%) delivered in a health facility compared to one-tenth in the control area. This meant a hospital delivery, primarily with assistance of a doctor or doctor/midwife combination. Overall referral rates by TBAs were low -13% of women with complications in Tanjungsari and 6% in Cisalak. More women

  13. Household energy consumption pattern and socio-cultural dimensions associated with it: A case study of rural Haryana, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joon, Vinod; Chandra, A. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas 110 016, New Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, M. [National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka 110067, New Delhi (India)

    2009-11-15

    A survey of household energy consumption pattern was carried out in a village of Jhajjhar district of Haryana, India in the year 2007. The households surveyed covered heterogeneous population belonging to different income, educational and social groups. There was more availability and utilization of solid biomass fuels as energy resources in domestic sector as compared to the commercial fuels. Dung cakes, crop residues and firewood were found to be the three main fuels used for cooking, though LPG was also used along with biomass fuels. But complete conversion to cleaner fuels has not taken place yet even in households that has been using LPG for many years. Income was an important factor determining the choice of fuel for cooking, but there were some socio-cultural factors which were equally important in making fuel preferences at household level. (author)

  14. Mapping rural community and dairy cow heat stress in Southern Ontario: A common geographic pattern from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Kelton, David F

    2016-07-03

    Climate change has increased the occurrence of heat waves, causing heat stress among humans and livestock, with potentially fatal consequences. Heat stress maps provide information about related health risks and insight for control strategies. Weather data were collected throughout Southern Ontario, and the heat stress index (HSI) was estimated for 2010-2012. Geostatistical kriging was applied to map heat stress, heat waves, and control periods. Average HSI for each period ranged from 55 to 78 during control periods, and from 65 to 84 during heat waves, surpassing levels where morbidity is known to increase substantially. Heat stress followed a temporally consistent geographic pattern. HSI maps indicate high-risk areas for heat-related illness and indicate areas where agriculture and human health may be at increased risk in future.

  15. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a rural tertiary care centre, southern India

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    Jayarama N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common secondary cause of hyperlipidaemia, particularly, if glycaemic control is poor, which in-turn is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The spectrum of dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus can include all the various types of dyslipidemia identified in the general population Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a cross sectional study, done on type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 to April 2012 . All the patients were interviewed with pre-designed Performa. Fasting lipid profile and Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of patients were measured. Patients suffering from other causes of secondary dyslipidemia were excluded. Patients having one or more parameters outside the targets recommended by American Diabetes Association (ADA were considered to have dyslipidemia. Results: A total of 820 type 2 DM patients (533 males and 287 females were studied. Prevalence of dyslipidemia among diabetic males was 95.4 % and 86.75% in females. Among males with dyslipidemia the proportion of patients with mixed dyslipidemia, combined two parameter dyslipidemia and isolated single parameter dyslipidemia were 24.5%, 44.2%, and 31.2% respectively. Figures for the same among female patients stood at 27.3%, 42.97% and 29.7% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of type 2 diabetic patients were dyslipidimic. The most common pattern of dyslipidemia among males was combined dyslipidemia with high triglycerides (TG and low High density lipoprotein (HDL and in females it was high Low density lipoprotein (LDL and low HDL. The most prevalent lipid abnormality in our study was low HDL followed by high TG. No significant relation was found between HbA1c and serum lipid parameters

  16. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a rural tertiary care centre, southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayarama N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common secondary cause of hyperlipidaemia, particularly, if glycaemic control is poor, which in-turn is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The spectrum of dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus can include all the various types of dyslipidemia identified in the general population Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a cross sectional study, done on type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 to April 2012 . All the patients were interviewed with pre-designed Performa. Fasting lipid profile and Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of patients were measured. Patients suffering from other causes of secondary dyslipidemia were excluded. Patients having one or more parameters outside the targets recommended by American Diabetes Association (ADA were considered to have dyslipidemia. Results: A total of 820 type 2 DM patients (533 males and 287 females were studied. Prevalence of dyslipidemia among diabetic males was 95.4 % and 86.75% in females. Among males with dyslipidemia the proportion of patients with mixed dyslipidemia, combined two parameter dyslipidemia and isolated single parameter dyslipidemia were 24.5%, 44.2%, and 31.2% respectively. Figures for the same among female patients stood at 27.3%, 42.97%and29.7%respectively. Conclusion: Majority of type 2 diabetic patients were dyslipidimic. The most common pattern of dyslipidemia among males was combined dyslipidemia with high triglycerides (TG and low High density lipoprotein (HDL and in females it was high Low density lipoprotein (LDL and low HDL. The most prevalent lipid abnormality in our study was low HDL followed by high TG. No significant relation was found between HbA1c and serum lipid parameters.

  17. Urban/rural interface: Governing the chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. An important issue in what concerns urban sprawl is the interface between the urban and the rural territories. Being an extremely dynamic landscape, and assuring some quality of life and buffering some of the pervasive negative impacts of urban areas in terms of disrupting the function of the natural ecosystems, in limit situations this interface can act as a conveyor belt of catastrophic events originated in the rural world, into the urban space. The Coimbra 2005 wildfire is a fine example of how a poorly managed urban/rural interface can put populations in danger, by allowing the fire to spread towards the urban green infrastructure, burning houses in the process. Major river flows that flood urban areas are also good examples of the lack of management and planning can result in the loss of assets and even put in danger human lives. This presentation reviews the impact of extreme events and the transmission from the urban to the rural worlds, but also from the rural to the urban territories, and establishes the need to govern risk at various levels and using the full range of governance tools.

  18. Do Not "Let Them Eat Cake": Correlation of Food-Consumption Patterns among Rural Primary School Children from Welfare and Non-Welfare Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Daniel; Ervin, Kaye; Soutter, Erin; Spiller, Renata; Dalle Nogare, Nicole; Hamilton, Andrew John

    2016-12-28

    Physical and financial access impacts food choice and consumption, while educational attainment, employment, income, gender, and socioeconomic status are also influential. Within this context, the aim of the paper is to examine the association between various foods consumed and eating patterns of children between low and higher income households. A paper-based survey was completed by parents/carers of children in 41 primary schools in rural and regional areas of Victoria. Data collected included demographics and the consumption of fruit, vegetable, and other foods including drinks. Ordinal data were analysed using Spearman's rank-order correlation. The main findings were that children who consumed more fruit and vegetables tended to have a higher intake of healthy drinks (plain milk and water) as well as a lower intake of unhealthy snacks and drinks (sugar sweetened drinks). Those who perceived that fruit and vegetables cost too much reported greater consumption of unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages, which was more prominent in low-income households. Changing food consumption behaviours requires a complex systems-based approach that addresses more than just individual issues variables. A participatory approach that works with local communities and seeks to build an understanding of unique challenges within sub-groups has potential for embedding long-lasting and meaningful change in eating behaviours.

  19. Age At Marriage, Gauna (Effective Marriage And First Child Birth In Rural Women- Changing Pattern In Various Marriage Cohorts By Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Neeraj K

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility patterns of a community depend upon several factors. Strict enforcement of legislation is amongst its important determinants. The Government proposes to enact a deterrent law, which will replace the loophole â€" ridden Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1978. In India, there exists a long established custom to enter into effective marriage several years after marriage. This is called ‘gauna’. Studying the various marriage cohorts by decades, the present communication comments on the age at marriage, age at gauna and age at first childbirth amongst 843 rural women in Delhi. The study shows that over the last six decades, there has been a gradual rise of age at marriage from 10.5 years to 16.5 years. However, this slope is less steep with age at gauna and almost non- existent for age at first childbirth. This in turn has narrowed the gap between age at gauna and age at first childbirth. Age at first childbirth has remained more or less constant at 19-20 years. This fining, if corroborated elsewhere also, may be of great significance and raise questions on the validity of the current strategy of increasing marriage age to 18 years in order to reduce fertility.

  20. Do Not “Let Them Eat Cake”: Correlation of Food-Consumption Patterns among Rural Primary School Children from Welfare and Non-Welfare Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Terry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical and financial access impacts food choice and consumption, while educational attainment, employment, income, gender, and socioeconomic status are also influential. Within this context, the aim of the paper is to examine the association between various foods consumed and eating patterns of children between low and higher income households. A paper-based survey was completed by parents/carers of children in 41 primary schools in rural and regional areas of Victoria. Data collected included demographics and the consumption of fruit, vegetable, and other foods including drinks. Ordinal data were analysed using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. The main findings were that children who consumed more fruit and vegetables tended to have a higher intake of healthy drinks (plain milk and water as well as a lower intake of unhealthy snacks and drinks (sugar sweetened drinks. Those who perceived that fruit and vegetables cost too much reported greater consumption of unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages, which was more prominent in low-income households. Changing food consumption behaviours requires a complex systems-based approach that addresses more than just individual issues variables. A participatory approach that works with local communities and seeks to build an understanding of unique challenges within sub-groups has potential for embedding long-lasting and meaningful change in eating behaviours.

  1. Menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The World Health Organization (WHO has defined adolescence as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents in India comprise 19.3% of the total Indian population. Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child becomes an adult. It is characterized by rapid growth and development; physiologically, psychologically and socially. This period is marked by the onset of menarche. Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by all adolescent girls and women in reproductive age. Objectives To study the menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana. Methods There were 18 government high and senior secondary schools in block Lakhanmajra. Out of these 5 were exclusively girls’ schools, 10 were co-ed schools and 3 were exclusively boys’ schools. All the 5 schools meant exclusively for girls were included in the study. All girls studying in 6th to 12th classes from these schools, after applying the exclusion criteria were included in the study. Results The mean age at menarche was 12.83±1.326 years. The inter-menstrual interval was 21 to 35 days in majority (80.1% of the adolescent girls and the duration of menstruation was more than 7 days in 9.4% of the girls. Majority of the girls (52.1% reported the duration of menstruation to be 2-3 days.

  2. [Ecological risk assessment of rural-urban ecotone based on landscape pattern: A case study in Daiyue District of Tai' an City, Shandong Province of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao-Peng; Yu, Kai-Qin; Feng, Yong-jun

    2013-03-01

    Based on the remote sensing data in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this paper analyzed the variation trends of the land use type and landscape pattern in Daiyue District of Tai' an City from 2000 to 2010. The ecological risk index was built, that of the District was re-sampled and spatially interpolated, and the spatiotemporal pattern of the ecological risk in the rural-urban ecotone of the District was analyzed. In 2000-2010, the main variation trend of the land use type in the District was the shift from natural landscape to artificial landscape. The intensity of human disturbance was larger in cultivated land, garden plot, and forestland than in other landscape types, while the human disturbance in water area was smaller. The ecological loss degree of cultivated land and water area decreased somewhat, while that of the other land use types presented an increasing trend. The ecological risk distribution in the District was discrete in 2000 and 2010, but most centralized in 2005. The ecological risk of each ecological risk sub-area had an increasing trend in 2000-2005, but was in adverse in 2005-2010. In 2000-2010, the ecological risk of the District was mainly at medium level. Spatially, the distribution of the ecological risk in the District had an obvious differentiation, with an overall diffusive increasing from forestland as the center to the surrounding areas. In the District, the ecological risk was mainly at medium and higher levels, the area with lower ecological risk had an obvious dynamic change, while that with the lowest and highest ecological risk had less change.

  3. Geospatial and age-related patterns of Taenia solium taeniasis in the rural health zone of Kimpese, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinga, Joule; Kanobana, Kirezi; Lukanu, Philippe; Abatih, Emmanuel; Baloji, Sylvain; Linsuke, Sylvie; Praet, Nicolas; Kapinga, Serge; Polman, Katja; Lutumba, Pascal; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Harrison, Wendy; Gabriel, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium infections are mostly endemic in less developed countries where poor hygiene conditions and free-range pig management favor their transmission. Knowledge on patterns of infections in both human and pig is crucial to design effective control strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution of taeniasis in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), in the prospect of upcoming control activities. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24 villages of the health zone of Kimpese, Bas Congo Province. Individual and household characteristics, including geographical coordinates were recorded. Stool samples were collected from willing participants and analyzed using the copro-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-Ag ELISA) for the detection of taeniasis. Blood samples were collected from pigs and analyzed using the B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based antigen ELISA (sero-Ag ELISA) to detect porcine cysticercosis. Logistic regression and multilevel analysis were applied to identify risk factors. Global clustering and spatial correlation of taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis were assessed using K functions. Local clusters of both infections were identified using the Kulldorff's scan statistic. A total of 4751 participants above 5 years of age (median: 23 years; IQR: 11-41) were included. The overall proportion of taeniasis positivity was 23.4% (95% CI: 22.2-24.6), ranging from 1 to 60% between villages, with a significant between-household variance of 2.43 (SE=0.29, pTaeniasis was significantly associated with age (ptaeniasis (ptaeniasis in the study area. The role of age in taeniasis patterns and significant spatial clusters of both taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis were evidenced, though no spatial correlation was found between human and pig infections. Urgent control activities are needed for this endemic area. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Water-contact patterns and risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural village of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Antônio Augusto Moura da

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni in the Serrano village, municipality of Cururupu, state of Maranhão, Brazil, is a widely spread disease. The PECE (Program for the Control of Schistosomiasis, undertaken since 1979 has reduced the prevalence of S. mansoni infection and the hepatosplenic form of the disease. Nevertheless piped water is available in 84% of the households, prevalence remains above 20%. In order to identify other risk factors responsible for the persistence of high prevalence levels, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in a systematic sample of 294 people of varying ages. Socioeconomic, environmental and demographic variables, and water contact patterns were investigated. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed by the Kato-Katz technique. Prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 24.1%, higher among males (35.5% and between 10-19 years of age (36.6%. The risk factors identified in the univariable analysis were water contacts for vegetable extraction (Risk Ratio - RR = 2.92, crossing streams (RR = 2.55, bathing (RR = 2.35, fishing (RR = 2.19, hunting (RR = 2.17, cattle breeding (RR = 2.04, manioc culture (RR = 1.90 and leisure (RR = 1.56. After controlling for confounding variables by proportional hazards model the risks remained higher for males, vegetable extraction, bathing in rivers and water contact in rivers or in periodically inundated parts of riverine woodland (swamplands

  5. Sydney Opera House Rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House".......Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House"....

  6. Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicaemia in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is not much published literature on neonatal septicemia available for the Sub-Himalayan region of North India. Hence, we undertook this study to find out the bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of neonatal septicemia in the neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Material and Methods: Blood cultures were performed for all clinically suspected neonatal septicemia cases for 1-year. Identification of all pathogenic isolates was followed by antibiotic sensitivity testing. Results: We did blood cultures for 450 neonates and 42% were culture positive. Early onset sepsis were 92 (49% and 96 (51% were late onset sepsis. Gram-positive isolates were 60% and 40% were Gram-negative. Staphylococcus aureus (40%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (16%, non-fermenter group of organisms (NFGOs (15%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10% were the main isolates. Nasal cannula 101 (54%, birth asphyxia 91 (48%, and prematurity 73 (38% were the prominent risk factors associated with septicemia. Gram-positive organisms were highly resistant to penicillin (87% whereas Gram-negative isolates showed high resistance to third generation cephalosporins (53–89% and aminoglycosides (50–67%. The S. aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant in 41% whereas extended spectrum beta lactamase production was seen in 48% Gram-negative isolates.Conclusion: Our study highlights the recent emergence of Gram-positive organisms as predominant cause of neonatal septicemia in this part of Sub-Himalayan region, along with the review of literature which shows similar results from North India and rest of the world too. Though Gram-negative bacteria still remain the main cause of mortality in neonatal septicemia, we want to dispel the common notion among practitioners that they are the predominant isolates in neonatal septicemia.

  7. Nuptiality pattern in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Baldo, M H; Aziz, K M; al-Shehri, S N

    1995-01-01

    The data of this work are based on the 'Saudi Maternal and Child Health Survey' conducted in 1991. This was a nationwide house to house field survey. The study included 6294 ever-married Saudi female in the childbearing age who represent the target population. They were randomly selected from both urban and rural settings of the five geographical areas of Saudi Arabia. The mean current age of the sample of ever-married women was 31 years and the mean age at first marriage was 17 and 16 years for urban and rural females, respectively. Education was associated with upward shift of the age at first marriage. About 20 per cent of the sampled ever-married Saudi females got married before their 15th birthday and 83 per cent before reaching 20 years of age. These percentages are even higher in rural than urban settings. The overall percentage of women who were currently married at the time of the survey was 96 per cent. The divorced and widowed women of childbearing age were 2 and 3 per cent, respectively, of the total. Husband's educational level had positive impact on the frequency of divorce. The latter was highest among women married to illiterate husbands with a dose response pattern. Comparison has been made with the situation 4 years ago. An increase in literacy rates among Saudi ever-married women and their husbands was observed, however, a significant (P < 0.05) difference still exists between female and male literacy rates (38 and 71 per cent, respectively). The events of early marriage, before the age of 15 years, became less frequent. There is an overall decline in teenage marriages which explains a large part of the recent changes observed in nuptiality and pattern of birth in Saudi Arabia.

  8. The impact of housing policies and housing markets on ethnic spatial segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how ethnic segregation is connected to an ethnic division of the housing market and a spatial separation of different housing tenures in four Nordic cities. Explanations for the differences across the cities are found by comparing housing markets and housing policies....... The housing markets are in all four cities ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. We further discuss the reasons for the observed pattern. The paper shows that the spatial distribution...... housing, while co-operative housing is crucial in the fourth. It is also shown that a policy of neighbourhood tenure mix in one of the cities has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations of immigrants in social/public housing....

  9. Housing markets and housing policies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Piyush; Rao, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Issues of housing in India are synonymous with ignorance of housing in active government involvement at the policy and program formulation levels. They are also due to the problems that unplanned urbanization, income disparity, poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment brought. These issues extenuated the housing problem, causing a housing shortage of 51 million in 2011. Though India has a long history of establishing policies, programs, and institutions to cater to housing, without allocating ad...

  10. A household study of the pattern of utilization of mother and child health services in rural Greece and variation by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumaka-Bakoula, C G; Lovel, H J

    1983-01-01

    A household study of all families with children under age 6 in 3 villages in rural northwest Greece was conducted during August-September 1981. 94 mothers were interviewed about each of their children to find out who they had consulted seeking advice and care during pregnancy, for delivery, during the postnatal period, for child immunization, and in cases of mild or severe child illness. All 142 children were examined physically and developmentally. Information was also collected on the socioeconomic status of the family. Particular causes for concern were the findings that 30% of the mothers said they experienced at least 1 induced abortion; 5% had delivered without the help of any trained birth attendant; most of those who delivered in the district town (usually the more affluent) had not received postnatal care; 37% of the children had not seen a doctor during their 1st year of life either for sickness or for a developmental assessment. Only 41% of the children were fully immunized for their age, and 23% of those who should have begun their immunizations had not. Most of the 30 children who had been severely or chronically ill had bypassed the local doctor and sought services in the district town. There was clear variation in the pattern of health services use and socioeconomic status as shown by the availability of household facilities including water and electricity. The poorer mothers (30% of the sample) were more likely than the more affluent mothers to have delivered at home. Many had had the help of the local midwife, but those who had no help from a trained attendant came from poorer families. Postnatal care was provided to most (79%) of the families by the midwife. The poorer the family, the more likely that a sick child would be treated with a home remedy. Children from poor families were likely never to have seen a doctor and if a child did go, it was likely to be older at the time of the 1st visit. Very few poor families had ever consulted a

  11. The Teacherage in American Rural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxcy, Spencer J.

    1979-01-01

    Traces the historical evolution of the teacherage, initially proposed as a solution to the problem of housing teachers and as a model home for the edification of rural families. Pinpoints the conceptual connection between the teacherage and the parsonage--each linking the institution to the rural community. (CAM)

  12. Rural Teachers' Experiences: Lessons for Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Betsy

    1986-01-01

    Compares and contrasts first year teaching experiences of a grandmother (1919) and granddaughter (1980) in small, isolated, rural New Mexico schools. Offers suggestions for improving recruitment and retention of rural teachers in areas of salary, housing conditions, school philosophy and morale, student population, and community life. (NEC)

  13. Perfil alimentario de Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en ámbitos peridomiciliarios, de una localidad rural de Uruguay Feeding patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in peridomestic habitats, in a rural area of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available En una localidad con población rural dispersa ("La Bolsa", 3ª seccional, dpto. de Artigas, Uruguay se estudió, en ámbitos peridomiciliarios, el perfil alimentario de T. rubrovaria (triatomíneo silvestre y potencial vector secundario de colonización intradomiciliaria, utilizándose la técnica de doble difusión en agar, enfrentando contenido promesentérico frente a un panel de 13 sueros. Se pudo detectar en 120 insectos 251 identificaciones de fuente hematofágica con alimentación predominante en mamíferos (73%, pero marcado eclectismo alimentario (mamíferos, aves, reptiles y cucarachas, incluyendo hematofagia sobre seres humanos en un 8% de las identificaciones totales. La micropredación de hemolinfa lo ubicaría en una situación evolutiva primitiva, intermedia entre predator/entomófago y triatomineo/hematófago, que comparte con T. circunmaculata. Los mamíferos detectados con mayor frecuencia fueron dasipódidos y bóvidos, aunque la fuente hematofágica, salvo en los adultos alados, se constituye en un fenómeno de proximidad ocasional por cohabitación de un mismo habitat. La frecuencia de alimentación sobre hombre, hallada en un ambiente peridomiciliario, aporta un importante elemento a su capacidad vectorial potencial. En el análisis espacial de las dietas se muestra al peridomicilio como un área de interacción de hospederos domésticos, silvestres y sinantrópicos. La infección tripanosómica fue mínima comparada con las altas tasas de infección de ámbitos silvestres.It has been studied the feeding patterns of Triatoma rubrovaria (wild triatominae bug, and intradomiciliary secondary vector of T. cruzi in a rural area of "La Bolsa" (Department of Artigas. Agar double diffusion test were used for analyze the blood meal, from 120 insects, which were confronted to 13 antisera. It has 251 identify blood meals, and the most frequently was mamalian host (73%, but it has a variable source of feeding (mammals, birds, reptils

  14. 7 CFR 1955.111 - Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of... Housing Act of 1949, as amended, (RH property). Single family units (generally which secured loans made...

  15. The Impact of Urbanization on Housing Development: The Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of rapid population growth on housing development in a developing economy is usually a consequence of the push of the rural areas and the pull of the town. There is always an upsurge and conglomeration of people in city centres with the resultant effects on housing growth arising from acute unemployment.

  16. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section 1940.589 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.589 Rural Business Enterprise Grants. (a) Amount available for...

  17. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Gustafson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods: A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina. Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results: Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval 0.99, 3.82]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [−0.001 (95% CI −0.001, 0.0001] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions: There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results

  19. Consumption Over Life Cycle: How Different is Housing?

    OpenAIRE

    Fang (Annie) Yang

    2006-01-01

    Micro data over the life cycle shows different patterns of consumption for housing and non-housing goods: the consumption profile of non-housing goods is hump-shaped while the consumption profile for housing first increases monotonically and then flattens out. These patterns hold true at each consumption quartile. This paper develops aquantitative, dynamic general equilibrium model of life-cycle behavior, which generates consumption profiles consistent with the observed data. Borrowing constr...

  20. Patterns of genic diversity and structure in a species undergoing rapid chromosomal radiation: an allozyme analysis of house mice from the Madeira archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton-Davidian, J; Catalan, J; Lopez, J; Ganem, G; Nunes, A C; Ramalhinho, M G; Auffray, J C; Searle, J B; Mathias, M L

    2007-10-01

    The chromosomal radiation of the house mouse in the island of Madeira most likely involved a human-mediated colonization event followed by within-island geographical isolation and recurrent episodes of genetic drift. The genetic signature of such processes was assessed by an allozyme analysis of the chromosomal races from Madeira. No trace of a decrease in diversity was observed suggesting the possibility of large founder or bottleneck sizes, multiple introductions and/or a high post-colonization expansion rate. The Madeira populations were more closely related to those of Portugal than to other continental regions, in agreement with the documented human colonization of the island. Such a Portuguese origin contrasts with a study indicating a north European source of the mitochondrial haplotypes present in the Madeira mice. This apparent discrepancy may be resolved if not one but two colonization events took place, an initial north European introduction followed by a later one from Portugal. Asymmetrical reproduction between these mice would have resulted in a maternal north European signature with a nuclear Portuguese genome. The extensive chromosomal divergence of the races in Madeira is expected to contribute to their genic divergence. However, there was no significant correlation between chromosomal and allozyme distances. This low apparent chromosomal impact on genic differentiation may be related to the short time since the onset of karyotypic divergence, as the strength of the chromosomal barrier will become significant only at later stages.

  1. 78 FR 33800 - Notice of Funding Availability: Section 515 Multi-Family Housing Preservation Revolving Loan Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Housing Tax Credits (LIHTC) assistance, when a tenant receives such housing benefits. Additional tenant... matching funds from third parties, including housing tax credits for rural housing assistance and to... unqualified audited opinion signed by an independent Certified Public Accountant (CPA) acceptable to the...

  2. Assessing habitat quality of farm-dwelling house sparrows in different agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Post, Maria; Borgström, Pernilla; Smith, Henrik G; Olsson, Ola

    2012-04-01

    Having historically been abundant throughout Europe, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) has in recent decades suffered severe population declines in many urban and rural areas. The decline in rural environments is believed to be caused by agricultural intensification, which has resulted in landscape simplification. We used giving-up densities (GUDs) of house sparrows feeding in artificial food patches placed in farmlands of southern Sweden to determine habitat quality during the breeding season at two different spatial scales: the landscape and the patch scale. At the landscape scale, GUDs were lower on farms in homogeneous landscapes dominated by crop production compared to more heterogeneous landscapes with mixed farming or animal husbandry. At the patch level, feeding patches with a higher predation risk (caused by fitting a wall to the patch to obstruct vigilance) had higher GUDs. In addition, GUDs were positively related to population size, which strongly implies that GUDs reflect habitat quality. However, the increase followed different patterns in homogeneous and heterogeneous landscapes, indicating differing population limiting mechanisms in these two environments. We found no effect of the interaction between patch type and landscape type, suggesting that predation risk was similar in both landscape types. Thus, our study suggests that simplified landscapes constitute a poorer feeding environment for house sparrows during breeding, that the population-regulating mechanisms in the landscapes differ, but that predation risk is the same across the landscape types.

  3. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  4. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  5. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  6. In-Migration and Housing Choice in Ho Chi Minh City: Toward Sustainable Housing Development in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducksu Seo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the initiation of Vietnam’s Doi Moi policy in 1986, the rate of urbanization has rapidly increased with a great influx of immigrants from rural areas. With such migration becoming a large acceleration factor for urban growth, the shortage of housing has become a critical problem in the cities. The Vietnamese government encouraged self-built housing and public–private partnerships to produce different types of housing stock. There are few available academic studies about housing choice in Vietnam to help understand movement dynamics and to foster sustainable housing development. The purpose of this study is to analyze housing choice and moving determinants in Ho Chi Minh City, and thereby establish recommendations for sustainable housing development in Vietnam. For an empirical study, a citizen questionnaire survey was conducted in HCMC and an in-depth analysis was carried out. The results indicate that the row house type for single-family housing is strongly preferred, but a preference for apartments is also observed for future planning. The factors influencing housing choice and movement are family income, housing ownership, housing typology, and commuting environment. These phenomena suggest that the government should prudently consider affordable housing development in many districts. The results of this study will help to establish policies for sustainable housing development in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

  7. The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Anne Louise; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dullyperadis, Saovalux

    2014-01-01

    Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand...... for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred...

  8. Rural Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  9. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The Chairman, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight; the Chairman, House Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and Criminal Justice, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight...

  10. Some Enlightenments of "Beautiful Rural Construction" on Rural Energy Policy in Beijing—Applying Informatization Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wang; Kongan, Wu

    2018-06-01

    "Beautiful rural construction" is a systematic project, rural energy is one of the important contents of its construction. In accordance with the concept of eco-friendly construction, Beijing carried out a thorough "structural adjustment of rural energy optimization," "Earthquake energy-saving projects of rural housing" and other measures. By conventional heating technology research in Beijing 13 counties and 142 villages, we predict the future of rural energy will further the implementation of solar heating, electric heating and other new green energy technologies. It is suggested to establish the "Beijing Rural Information Service Platform" and "Beautiful Rural Information Resource Bank" through the means of informatization, which will greatly strengthen the regulation and control of rural people-land relationship and realize the systematic optimization, making the cities and villages have. Space for human survival and sustainable development.

  11. Analysis of the special consequences of the Barij essence industrial complex of Kashan in the development of neighboring rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shaterian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the late decades, the development of industrial activities in the rural areas of Iran have caused some changes in different aspects of these areas which influence the special patterns of rural areas. This article aims to identify the changes that have been the results of industrial development and it’s reflection in the development of rural residential areas. The main intention of this study is to analyze the special consequences (economic, social and anatomical of the industrial center of Kashan in the development of neighboring rural areas. The industrial center consists of three factories that are for making essence, making equipment for gardeners and distillers and the Barij Company. All of the above companies are called the Industrial Center of Barij Essence. It has employed 1050 workers from amongst whom 120 people were identified and the questionnaires were randomly distributed among these workers. To analyze the data based on the measurement variables, descriptive and analytic methods (T were used. The results showed that economically, having rural industries has led to an increase in the people’s intake of  calories, seeing more consumption in long lasting goods and more satisfaction in the native people of the area. In addition, there is more social involvement,  improvements in not wasting the residents’ free time, decreasing of  natives immigration out of the rural areas and finally anatomically, quantity and quality improvement in the rural houses.

  12. Tobacco use patterns, knowledge, attitudes towards tobacco and availability of tobacco control training among school personnel from a rural area in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco-free school environment as well as non-smoking teachers and school personnel provide positive role models for children and young people. In Poland, smoking should be banned in colleges, schools, educational establishments and educational care facilities. However, for the existing law to be effective, awareness of all people in school curriculum and enforcement of the law are crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate tobacco use patterns, knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco as well as availability of tobacco control training among school personnel in a rural area in Poland. Moreover, compliance with tobacco control policies and their enforcement were assessed. The study was carried out in Piotrkowski district between November 2014 and May 2015 in accordance with the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) methodology. Sixty schools participated in the survey (92% of the schools from the region) with involvement of 1044 teachers and 500 non-teaching staff (the response rate - 83.1%). The multivariate linear regression analyses were applied to study factors linked to the need for anti-tobacco training dedicated to the youth and teachers' knowledge as well as activities to educate the students about tobacco use and its prevention. About 24% of the school personnel were current and 9% were ex-smokers. Significantly more teachers than the non-teaching staff indicated that the schools had a policy prohibiting tobacco use among students. In addition, 6% of the study participants indicated everyday violations of the tobacco control policy by the school personnel. More than 80% of the teaching personnel indicated the need for training dedicated to the youth to prevent their tobacco use. In the multivariate linear regression model, longer duration of working experience predicted higher levels of knowledge and more activities performed to teach the youth about tobacco use and its prevention. The smokers comparing to the non-smokers perceived the need for anti

  13. Parental migration patterns and risk of depression and anxiety disorder among rural children aged 10-18 years in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Gao, Jing; Liang, Zenzen; Wang, Youjie; Du, Yukai; Stallones, Lorann

    2015-12-29

    This study aims to explore the prevalence of depression and anxiety in left-behind children, and to identify patterns of parents' migration and relative factors associated with depression and anxiety risk in this population. A cross-sectional survey using a school-based sample was conducted in Puyang, Hebei, North China in December 2012. 2283 students aged 10-18 years. Parental migration status, depression and anxiety disorder. 61.2% of participants were left-behind children. The prevalence rate of depression among left-behind children with both parents migrating (14.2%) was higher than that of children with one parent migrating (11.7%) and no parent migrating (12.6%). The prevalence rate of anxiety disorder for children with no parent migrating (25.1%) was higher than that for children living with one or neither parent (22.2% and 22.0%). The risk factors for depression were low-level social support (OR=3.46, 95% CI 2.00 to 6.01), average academic performance (OR=2.37, 95% CI 1.7 to 3.3) and low academic performance (OR=3.01, 95% CI 1.92 to 4.72), staying up late (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.39), having difficulty falling asleep (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.82) and being an only child (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.89). The factors associated with anxiety disorder were being female (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.66), being in high school (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.36), physical abuse (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.15), having difficulty falling asleep (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.33 to 2.10) and low-level social support (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.44 to 3.28) and middle-level social support (OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.56). Parents' migration was not associated with depression and anxiety in rural children aged 10-18 years, but academic performance at school, sleep problems and lack of social support were associated with depression and anxiety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny Frank

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  15. Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  16. Spatial Heterogeneity of Sustainable Transportation Offer Values: A Comparative Analysis of Nantes Urban and Periurban/Rural Areas (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bulteau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovative solutions have been implemented to promote sustainable mobility in urban areas. In the Nantes area (northwestern part of France, alternatives to single-occupant car use have increased in the past few years. In the urban area, there is an efficient public transport supply, including tramways and a “busway” (Bus Rapid Transit, as well as bike-sharing services. In periurban and rural areas, there are carpool areas, regional buses and the new “tram-train” lines. In this article, we focus on the impact on house prices of these “sustainable” transportation infrastructures and policies, in order to evaluate their values. The implicit price of these sustainable transport offers was estimated through hedonic price functions describing the Nantes urban and periurban/rural housing markets. Spatial regression models (SAR, SEM, SDM and GWR were carried out to capture the effect of both spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. The results show patterns of spatial heterogeneity of transportation offer implicit prices at two scales: (i between urban and periurban/rural areas, as well as (ii within each territory. In the urban area, the distance to such offers was significantly associated with house prices. These associations varied by type of transportation system (positive for tramway and railway stations and negative for bike-sharing stations. In periurban and rural areas, having a carpool area in a 1500-m buffer around the home was negatively associated with house prices, while having a regional bus station in a 500-m buffer was non-significant. Distance to the nearest railway station was negatively associated with house prices. These findings provide research avenues to help public policy-makers promote sustainable mobility and pave the way for more locally targeted interventions.

  17. Family Open House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Family Open House Join us for an afternoon of science fun. The Fermilab Family Open House is a party for children of all ages to learn about the world of physics. The Open House is supported by Open House? Check out our YouTube video to learn more! Explore physics concepts with hands-on

  18. Children and Families in the Midwest: Employment, Family Services and the Rural Economy. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (Galesburg, IL, August 11, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    The House select committee met to hear testimony from parents, children, service providers, and researchers concerning the effects of job and income loss on families in central Illinois. The testimony of the first panel consisted of personal narratives. A high school student whose parents may move the family in order to find better paying jobs…

  19. In-school Snacking, Breakfast Consumption, and Sleeping Patterns of Normal and Overweight Iranian High School Girls: A Study in Urban and Rural Areas in Guilan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Mohsen; Rashidi, Arash; Mohammadpour, Behnoush; Vafa, Reza; Karandish, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of snacking during school hours, sleep time, and breakfast consumption by weight status of Iranian high school girls in urban and rural areas in Guilan Province, Iran. Design: Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire and measure of body weight and height. Setting: High schools in urban and…

  20. Innova House - Ottawa`s advanced house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-31

    A pilot program was developed to provide the housing industry with a means to field test innovative technologies, products and building systems, and to evaluate their overall performance. Under Canada`s Advanced House Program, ten demonstration houses were designed, built and monitored. Ottawa`s Innova House, was one of the ten houses built for this program. The innovative energy saving features of the house included (1) air distribution with small diameter ducts and an electronically commutated motor, a 2.6 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system, (3) an energy recovery ventilator (ERV) with free-cooling mode, (4) a 94 per cent efficient integrated gas heating and hot water system, (5) airtight drywall construction, (6) CFC-free exterior insulation, (7) a natural-gas-engine heat pump for air conditioning, (8) a prototype sealed combustion gas range and clothes dryer, and (9) a manifold plumbing system to conserve water. It was designed to consume one half of the energy consumed in an R-2000 home and one third of the energy of a conventional house. Several of the mechanical elements did not perform at expected levels, (lower than expected efficiencies from the heating and cooling systems and a malfunctioning ERV), nevertheless, overall performance of the house was still very close to the targets. The construction and operation of the house was described. tabs., figs.

  1. 7 CFR 1955.72 - Utilization of inventory housing by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or under a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Family Housing Servicing and Property Management (SFH/SPM) Division in the National Office. [54 FR 20523... Management Agency (FEMA) or under a Memorandum of Understanding between the Agency and the Department of... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...

  2. Essays on Housing Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Claes

    In Denmark and in many countries around the world, housing markets are of considerable importance for households and policy-makers alike. As the boom and bust in the US and Danish housing market so aptly demonstrated, disruptions in the housing market potentially have wide-ranging consequences...... for individual households and for the aggregate economy. Housing is important because we all have to live somewhere, but also because it serves as a considerable source of both wealth and debt. As such, housing market policy can not only create vast benefits for many, but can also have substantial negative...... impacts for all, and should therefore be a topic of major interest for economists and policy makers alike. This Ph.D. thesis, entitled “Essays on Housing Markets”, analyzes the Danish housing market during the 2000s, with a focus on how policy changes affected house prices and how changes in house prices...

  3. The bishops and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellabarger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    According to Catholic social teaching, housing is not a commodity but a human right. To ensure that all people--especially low-income elderly and other vulnerable populations--have access to affordable housing, the church has established a variety of programs, services, and advocacy efforts. Much of this work is based on key concepts: preserving existing housing stock, creating new programs to provide more options for the underserved, empowering residents and communities to deal with housing issues, establishing partnerships to make organizations' efforts more successful, making housing affordable, and ending discrimination in housing. Although church ministries, community groups, the private sector, and other players must work together to find solutions to the housing crisis, federal leadership is essential. Especially with the housing affordability gap growing and the U.S. population aging, the federal government must provide the resources, leadership, and direction for effective housing solutions.

  4. Research on the evaluation method of rural hollowing based on RS and GIS technology: a case study of the Ningxia Hui autonomous region in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kai; Wen, MeiPing; Zhang, FeiFei; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Xiupeng

    2016-10-01

    With the acceleration of urbanization in China, most rural areas formed a widespread phenomenon, i.e., destitute village, labor population loss, land abandonment and rural hollowing. And it formed a unique hollow village problem in China finally. The governance of hollow village was the objective need of the development of economic and social development in rural area for Chinese government, and the research on the evaluation method of rural hollowing was the premise and basis of the hollow village governance. In this paper, several evaluation methods were used to evaluate the rural hollowing based on the survey data, land use data, social and economic development data. And these evaluation indexes were the transition of homesteads, the development intensity of rural residential areas, the per capita housing construction area, the residential population proportion in rural area, and the average annual electricity consumption, which can reflect the rural hollowing degree from the land, population, and economy point of view, respectively. After that, spatial analysis method of GIS was used to analyze the evaluation result for each index. Based on spatial raster data generated by Kriging interpolation, we carried out re-classification of all the results. Using the fuzzy clustering method, the rural hollowing degree in Ningxia area was reclassified based on the two spatial scales of county and village. The results showed that the rural hollowing pattern in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region had a spatial distribution characteristics that the rural hollowing degree was obvious high in the middle of the study area but was low around the study area. On a county scale, the specific performances of the serious rural hollowing were the higher degree of extensive land use, and the lower level of rural economic development and population transfer concentration. On a village scale, the main performances of the rural hollowing were the rural population loss and idle land. The

  5. Housing and  Social Cohesion in Densely Settled Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2009-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the economic, political and social issues facing housing in Denmark in a Nordic and Baltic context. After a brief historical introduction of the tenure structure and settlement pattern the chapter describe and analyses the changing policy and practice of housing in Denmark....... Until 2001 housing and housing policy questions were rather neglected subjects in the Danish policy debate. For a number of years the focus had mainly been on urban and urban policy questions. But increasing difficulties for households gaining access to affordable housing in economic pressure areas like...... Copenhagen spurred a heated debate. The non-availability of private rented housing, long waiting lists for non-profit housing, the increasing house prices in the owner occupied sector and the concentration of socially deprived and ethnic minorities on an increasing number of non-profit housing estates all...

  6. Situation-Based Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen......Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen...

  7. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  8. Active house concept versus passive House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Vehler, R.; Verhoeven, M.; Fremouw, M.

    2009-01-01

    The passive house concept is the present trend in energy efficient sustainable dwellings. Within the passive house concept every effort is made to minimize the energy use. Substantial savings can be achieved by passive energy systems, especially natural ventilation, summer shading and winter solar

  9. Rural-Urban Differences in Household Treatment-Seeking Behaviour for Suspected Malaria in Children at Bata District, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Romay-Barja

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District.A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively.Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata.The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors.

  10. Lifestyle Patterns and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Rural School Children of Age 6 to 9 Years of District Una, Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Choudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from urban areas as well as of underweight or malnutrition from rural areas. With changing lifestyles everywhere, a need was felt to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural children also. METHODOLOGY: Present cross-sectional study was planned involving 210 school children (103 boys and 107 girls of age 6-9 years from various private schools of district Una, Himachal Pradesh, India. IOTF (International Obesity Task Force cutoffs for BMI were used. Information about lifestyle, eating habits, physical activity and socio-economic status was collected through well designed questionnaire, which was filled by the parents of the children. The population studied mostly belonged to lower and upper middle class. SPSS version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Overweight and obesity among children was found to be 14.8%. Time spent in physical activity has reduced greatly; also there was increased sedentary lifestyle among rural children. 93.5% of overweight and obese children were considered fine (according to their weight by their parents. The children, who did not have their food timely, ate less frequently and ate junk food more than 3-times a week, were found to be more overweight and obese. CONCLUSION: Percentage of overweight and obese children (14.8% seen in the study has provided evidence that it is not only the urban population or the higher socioeconomic class groups that are affected with the lifestyle related problems but changing lifestyle has affected rural children also.

  11. What are Pregnant Women in a Rural Niger Delta Community's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.

  12. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  13. Allegheny County Older Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Older housing can impact the quality of the occupant's health in a number of ways, including lead exposure, housing quality, and factors that may exacerbate...

  14. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  15. THE HOUSE AS SUPPORT OF GENDER RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA JACOB LARIONESCU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the relationship home – gender, using a fieldwork carried out between 2009 and 2011 in the Romanian village of Marginea, a rural community strongly affected by the international migration. I show that migrants from Marginea, even by changing the configuration of their homes, still continue to preserve some old practices related to gender relations such as the responsibility of the man and his family to build the new house or the newlyweds’ settlement in the boy’s house. While home furnishing and decoration are supposed to be performed largely by women, the construction process is related to men. However, today, with the feminization of international labor migration, women are taking a more active role in both house design and construction process.

  16. Radon in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.; Essling, M.A.; Markun, F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the concentrations of 222 Rn and its short-lived daughter products in the air of single-family houses in the midwestern US. During the past year, more than 200 houses were added to the study, resulting in a total of more than 400 houses. So far, results are available for 270 of these houses, equally divided between the Chicago area and Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania. 6 refs

  17. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... as social initiatives in the existing stock....

  18. Smart Solar Housing Renovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.; Bruijn, de D.M.P.; Vos, S.J.H.; Weijers, K.A.M.; Straver, M.C.W.; Scartezzini, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    After World War II, the demand for houses in the Netherlands was enormous. Large housing construction programs were established in the fifties, sixties and seventies. Nowadays, these houses are facing some societal, economic and technological problems. On the other hand, many of the occupants are

  19. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  20. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-...

  1. State-level employment, accessibility and rurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey Abington

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Employment and economic growth in rural areas as a policy issue has been recently highlighted by the federal government. In August 2011, the White House released a report entitled “Jobs and Economic Security for Rural America”. While the document listed various programs and policies that have reportedly benefited rural America, it also stated that rural communities are still facing many challenges. For example, many rural communities have lower incomes and higher poverty rates than more urban areas. One possible reason for rural communities being at a disadvantage compared to urban areas involves transportation, especially in terms of journey to work. Thus, one can ask how employment rates vary with accessibility, as measured by journey to work times, as well as location (rural versus urban. Using 2007 state level data, OLS analysis is used to examine the relationship between employment rates and journey to work times and rurality. The analysis confirms that employment rates decrease with increased journey to work times. However, measures of rurality were only marginally significant and the negative coefficient on each measure indicates that employment rates decrease with greater urbanization. Improving accessibility between (very rural and larger areas might improve employment opportunities. Although weighing the benefits of such (reduced unemployment against the costs of providing better highways or public transit might lead to a different conclusion.

  2. Assessment of rural energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity

  3. Mexico Financial Sector Assessment Program : Housing Finance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group; International Finance Corporation

    2016-01-01

    Housing needs are high in Mexico despite quantitative progress in the last 10 years.Global data hide mismatches between housing demand and supply. First, urban growth relied for a long time on a pattern of urban sprawl, with mass-scale developments of individual units were built outside cities where land is affordable, but far from jobs and services and with related high transportation cos...

  4. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  5. Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okanlawon

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... Housing and Health: The relationship between housing ... The authors in chapter one, deal extensively with historical context of housing and health chronologically ... Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action.

  6. Rural Tourism - Alternative to the Development of Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PAIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism through its content and its features is a distinct component in the economy of a region, and the sustainable, efficient use of local tourism resources can be an extremely important activity by: adding added value, boosting productivity, employment and increasing the living standard of the population. Rural tourism is considered a lever to mitigate local imbalances and besides attracting touristic areas in the circuit, it also has consequences on territorial development: housing construction, road development, development of public services and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Consequently, rural tourism has an impact on a country's economic and social development strategy, but also on a branch level.

  7. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Ståhl, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction patterns of lysozyme and insulin were recorded on a standard in-house powder diffractometer. The experimental powder diffraction patterns were compared with patterns calculated from Protein Data Bank coordinate data. Good agreement was obtained by including straightforward...... to include calculated H-atom positions did not improve the overall fit and was abandoned. The method devised was shown to be a quick and convenient tool for distinguishing precipitates and polymorphs of proteins....

  8. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  9. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  10. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    The research employed a mixed method approach by collecting both quantitative and qualitative data which were analysed using descriptive analysis in SPSS. The results are ... critical examination of mass housing design in. Nigeria will show ...

  11. A cross-sectional study to determine the pattern, health-related problems and social aspects associated with alcohol use among adults of the rural population in Pune, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar K More

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing production, distribution, promotion and easy availability of alcohol have resulted in alcohol-related problems emerging as a major public health concern. It is a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries and results in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. It is also a known risk factor for increasing crime, work absenteeism, loss of productivity, damage to property and physical and emotional abuse of women and children. Objectives: The aim was to find out the pattern, health related problems and social aspects associated with alcohol use among adults of a rural population of Pune, Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural field practice area of the Medical College in Pune among 300 respondents during January 12 and February 12. Pretested WHO designed alcohol survey questionnaire was used for collecting data by interview after obtaining informed consent. Results: Out of 300 respondents 45.7% (137 were found to be alcohol-user. Among these 35.77% were "daily drinkers.′ The most common alcoholic drink consumed was desi (country liquor (33.5%. Daily drinking was found to be related to adverse health related events. Poor health status, deprivation of family, increasing occurrence of unintentional and intentional injury, the greater extent of health problems were significantly higher among users. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption was high among adults in rural population. The study has also revealed negative impact of alcohol on both, user and their family.

  12. Rural Gentrification and Linked Migration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter B.; Oberg, Alexander; Nelson, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Although gentrification is a process commonly associated with urban landscapes, rural areas in advanced economies have also experienced gentrification over the past two decades. Largely based on case study approaches, the Rural Studies literature describes transformations in the housing market, changed cultural attitudes toward the environment,…

  13. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  14. 76 FR 38352 - Notice of Funding Availability: Rural Development Voucher Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... available to low income tenants of Rural Development-financed multifamily properties where the Section 515... Development's Section 515 Rural Rental Housing Program (515 property) who may be subject to economic hardship through prepayment of the Rural Development mortgage. When the owner of a 515 property pays off the loan...

  15. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE... State under subpart B of part 1900 of this chapter. (k) Fund disbursement. Grant funds will be disbursed... owned banks can be obtained from the Office of Minority Business Enterprises, Department of Commerce...

  16. Evaluation of a Novel Single-administration Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Seasonally Varied Dietary Patterns among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca K; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Christian, Parul; Leclerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Wu, Lee S F; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    Novel dietary assessment methods are needed to study chronic disease risk in agrarian cultures where food availability is highly seasonal. In 16,320 rural Nepalese women, we tested a novel food frequency questionnaire, administered once, to assess past 7-day intake and usual frequency of intake throughout the year for year-round foods and when in season for seasonal foods. Spearman rank correlations between usual and past 7-day intakes were 0.12-0.85 and weighted kappa statistics, representing chance-corrected agreement, were 0.10-0.80, with better agreement for frequently consumed foods. The questionnaire performed well, but may require refinement for settings of extremely low dietary diversity.

  17. The impact of self-interviews on response patterns for sensitive topics: a randomized trial of electronic delivery methods for a sexual behaviour questionnaire in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Harling

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-interviews, where the respondent rather than the interviewer enters answers to questions, have been proposed as a way to reduce social desirability bias associated with interviewer-led interviews. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI are commonly proposed since the computer programme can guide respondents; however they require both language and computer literacy. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using electronic methods to administer quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in the Somkhele demographic surveillance area (DSA in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We conducted a four-arm randomized trial of paper-and-pen-interview, computer-assisted personal-interview (CAPI, CASI and audio-CASI with an age-sex-urbanicity stratified sample of 504 adults resident in the DSA in 2015. We compared respondents’ answers to their responses to the same questions in previous surveillance rounds. We also conducted 48 cognitive interviews, dual-coding responses using the Framework approach. Results Three hundred forty (67% individuals were interviewed and covariates and participation rates were balanced across arms. CASI and audio-CASI were significantly slower than interviewer-led interviews. Item non-response rates were higher in self-interview arms. In single-paper meta-analysis, self-interviewed individuals reported more socially undesirable sexual behaviours. Cognitive interviews found high acceptance of both self-interviews and the use of electronic methods, with some concerns that self-interview methods required more participant effort and literacy. Conclusions Electronic data collection methods, including self-interview methods, proved feasible and acceptable for completing quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in a poor, rural South African setting. However, each method had both benefits and costs, and the choice of method should be based on context-specific criteria.

  18. The effects of housing stability on service use among homeless adults with mental illness in a randomized controlled trial of housing first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, Nick; Sylvestre, John; Aubry, Tim; Distasio, Jino

    2018-03-20

    Housing First is an effective intervention to stably house and alter service use patterns in a large proportion of homeless people with mental illness. However, it is unknown whether there are differences in the patterns of service use over time among those who do or do not become stably housed and what effect, if any, Housing First has on these differing service use patterns. This study explored changes in the service use of people with mental illness who received Housing First compared to standard care, and how patterns of use differed among people who did and did not become stably housed. The study design was a multi-site randomized controlled trial of Housing First, a supported housing intervention. 2039 participants (Housing First: n = 1131; standard care: n = 908) were included in this study. Outcome variables include nine types of self-reported service use over 24 months. Linear mixed models examined what effects the intervention and housing stability had on service use. Participants who achieved housing stability, across the two groups, had decreased use of inpatient psychiatric hospitals and increased use of food banks. Within the Housing First group, unstably housed participants spent more time in prison over the study period. The Housing First and standard care groups both had decreased use of emergency departments and homeless shelters. The temporal service use changes that occurred as homeless people with mental illness became stably housed are similar for those receiving Housing First or standard care, with the exception of time in prison. Service use patterns, particularly with regard to psychiatric hospitalizations and time in prison, may signify persons who are at-risk of recurrent homelessness. Housing support teams should be alert to the impacts of stay-based services, such as hospitalizations and incarcerations, on housing stability and offer an increased level of support to tenants during critical periods, such as discharges. ISRCTN

  19. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  20. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-01] Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan- Cooperatives/Condominiums AGENCY: Office of...

  1. The Housing Finance Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Richard K. Green; Susan M. Wachter

    2007-01-01

    While other countries dismantled their segmented housing finance systems and linked housing finance to capital markets through deregulated depositories, the US linked housing finance to capital markets through depository deregulation and securitization. Elsewhere securitization has not developed. The US provided the underpinnings for its mortgage security infrastructure with the creation of FNMA in 1938 and in order to create liquidity in the mortgage market required the standardization of mo...

  2. The architects house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings...... for everyone. In 1924 he designed a house for himself and his family: one of the first examples of functionalism in Denmark....

  3. 24 CFR 91.205 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeless needs. The plan must provide a concise summary of the nature and extent of homelessness (including rural homelessness and chronically homeless persons), addressing separately the need for facilities and...) who are currently housed but threatened with homelessness. The plan also must contain a brief...

  4. Thermographic survey of two rural buildings in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Ocana, S.; Canas Guerrero, I. [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez Requena, I. [Departamento de Materiales y Produccion Aeroespacial, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Two common housing prototypes of existing buildings in Spanish rural areas were surveyed by infrared inspection. The aim of the study is to assess the usefulness of infrared thermography as a technique for the detection of the thermal performance of rural buildings. For the traditional house the best results were obtained in the thermographic survey carried out in the evening. Contrarily, for the modern house the thermographic survey at daybreak provided more information. Infrared thermography allowed the comparison of the thermal performance of two buildings. (author)

  5. Work Release In A Rural State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, John L.; Pasewark, Richard A.

    1977-01-01

    Work release in a rural state has functioned successfully for two years with a halfway-house-type model. Initial results suggest there is greater success in units isolated from the prison and participation should be restricted to persons having six months or less to serve on prison terms. (Author)

  6. Between the city and the rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    Usually, Danish suburban history is told as a journey towards light, airy, green spaces. However, suburban housing areas can be seen in the context of processes of urbanization, where the boundary between urban and rural is dissolving. What does this mean for residential identities? This article...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart L of... - Housing in Underserved Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... metropolitan statistical area that has a population exceeding 1 million; 3. Is designated by the State or... percent or more of their population at, or below, poverty level and 13 percent or more of their occupied... concentrations of poverty and substandard housing and have severe, unmet rural housing needs. B. To provide for...

  8. Balancing housing growth and land conservation: Conservation development preserves private lands near protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Sarah E. Reed; Liba Pejchar; Jessica Salo

    2017-01-01

    Housing development has emerged as a primary driver of land-use change around the world. In the United States, there is particular concern about low-density residential development on rural lands, which often occurs in places with abundant natural amenities. Conservation development (CD), housing development that incorporates protected open space, has emerged as a tool...

  9. A housing stock model of non-heating end-use energy in England verified by aggregate energy use data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorimer, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a housing stock model of non-heating end-use energy for England that can be verified using aggregate energy use data available for small areas. These end-uses, commonly referred to as appliances and lighting, are a rapidly increasing part of residential energy demand. This paper proposes a model that can be verified using aggregated data of electricity meters in small areas and census data on housing. Secondly, any differences that open up between major collections of housing could potentially be resolved by using data from frequently updated expenditure surveys. For the year 2008, the model overestimated domestic non-heating energy use at the national scale by 1.5%. This model was then used on the residential sector with various area classifications, which found that rural and suburban areas were generally underestimated by up to 3.3% and urban areas overestimated by up to 5.2% with the notable exception of “professional city life” classifications. The model proposed in this paper has the potential to be a verifiable and adaptable model for non-heating end-use energy in households in England for the future. - Highlights: ► Housing stock energy model was developed for end-uses outside of heating for UK context. ► This entailed changes to the building energy model that serves as the bottom of the stock model. ► The model is adaptable to reflect rapid changes in consumption between major housing surveys. ► Verification was done against aggregated consumption data and for the first time uses a measured size of the housing stock. ► The verification process revealed spatial variations in consumption patterns for future research.

  10. Housing Survey. Campus Housing: Finding the Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Depending on where you look for statistics, the number of students enrolling in colleges or universities is increasing, decreasing or remaining the about the same. Regardless of those trends, campus housing is a marketing tool for institutions looking to draw students to and keep them on campus. Schools need to offer sufficient beds and…

  11. A Painted House In Ankara: Dedebayrak House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Karaaslan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservative family lifestyle in the Ottoman State affected the ways that houses were planned and decorated. Different decorative programs emerged with major differences in each period. New techniques and styles began to be seen in the 18th century thanks to the influence of the West. This article will focus on the decoration of Dedebayrak House in Ankara. Decoration in the architecture found within the boundaries of Ankara consist mostly of geometrical or floral decorations and various inscriptions. The Dedebayrak House not only has these kind of decorations, but also it has these decorations in its architectural descriptions, so it makes this house the only one to have survived in Ankara. Moreover, this building is especially important as the décor included work belonging to Nakkaş Mustafa. However, these decorative features do not remain today. The situation in Turkey is such that architecture is not conserved, which leads to many historically important buildings vanishing. Neither local authorities, nor the owner of these buildings look after these buildings properly, leading their specific historical features to be lost. This situation both damages the urban fabric and harms the historical heritage of the city. Therefore, decorative features in the building will be analysed both on their own and compared to other buildings in Ankara in order to create an overall picture.

  12. The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Bačka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Uglješa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Average rural household in Bačka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Bačka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Bačka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

  13. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...

  14. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.

    1986-01-01

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  15. House of tomorrow today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenberg, J.J.N.; Ham, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    The House of Tomorrow Today is a project focussing on a healthy, energy producing dwelling to be realized with today¿s proven technology. The project aims at an energy plus level based on the principles as formulated in SmartBuilding (Slimbouwen) [1] ActiveHouse [2] and HoTT [3] It can be seen as

  16. The Index House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pennsylvania Radon Research and Demonstration Project. The project involved the monitoring of the Index House for indoor radon, and was one of the earliest programs involving indoor radon contamination. The history of the house, the investigation, and testing and remediation procedures are discussed

  17. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  18. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  19. THE PATTERNS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PERI-URBAN SETTLEMENT IN EAST UNGARAN DISTRICT, SEMARANG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrina Sri Arta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available East Ungaran District is a peri-urban area arising from the urban-rural interaction between Semarang City and Semarang Regency. Interaction of these two regions is supported with the accessibility that is characterized by high commuting flows. The impact of this interaction is mix of urban and rural characteristics in East Ungaran District. This conditions will also affect land use in East Ungaran District, such as housing, economic facilities, and residential infrastructure. The increase of unplanned settlements has the potential to lead to inefficient land use, particularly in residential infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to examine patterns and characteristics of settlements in the East Ungaran District in 2015. This research uses descriptive quantitative with a spatial approach using remote sensing techniques. The results show that there are two types of settlement patterns in East Ungaran District, i.e, clustered pattern and random pattern. The characteristics of settlements are medium up to the good socio-economic condition (such as high income, good education, certificate ownership, permanent construction of housing, and good health and good condition in infrastructure (determined by road conditions, sources of clean water, waste disposal systems, and sanitary systems. © 2015 GJGP UNDIP. All rights reserved.

  20. Green migration into rural America: The new frontier of environmentalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Emmet Jones; J. Mark Fly; James Talley; H. Ken Cordell

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes that shifts in rural population and economic growth patterns may help explain rising levels of support for environmental values in many rural areas. In particular, it assesses a model of "green migration" that assumes that domestic in-migration, with its impacts on the character and composition of rural communities, is one of the reasons...

  1. Genital Ulcers and Sexual Transmitted Disease in Rural Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casual sex was a dominant behavioural pattern. The phenomenon of denial was encountered in females. STDs are not uncommon in rural Nigeria. Integration of Sexual health in rural health, family health, and school health is urgently needed. Key Words: Genital ulcers, STDs, Rural Nigeria Jnl of Medical Investigation and ...

  2. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  3. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  4. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of the average family's lifestyle. These dwellings were ground-breaking when they were built, but today are clearly a product of their time. The reaction to functionalism and the postwar mass production gave rise to flexible dwelling with countless possibilities for room division. The housing of this period has...... characteristics which in the long run have proven to be unfortunate both in terms in terms of durability and architectural quality. Today there is a focus on the development of more open and functionally non-determined housing. A number of new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen reveal a variety...... of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...

  5. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  6. Comparison of prescribing and adherence patterns of anti-osteoporotic medications post-admission for fragility type fracture in an urban teaching hospital and a rural teaching hospital in Ireland between 2005 and 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, B

    2013-03-13

    INTRODUCTION: Poor adherence reduces the potential benefits of osteoporosis therapy, lowering gains in bone mineral density resulting in increased risk of fractures. AIM: To compare prescribing and adherence patterns of anti-osteoporotic medications in patients admitted to an urban teaching hospital in Ireland with a fragility type fracture to patients admitted to a rural hospital in the North Western region. METHODOLOGY: We identified all patients >55 years admitted to Sligo General Hospital between 2005 and 2008 with a fragility fracture (N = 744) using the hospital in-patient enquiry system (HIPE). The medical card number of those patients eligible for the primary care reimbursement services scheme (PCRS) facilitated the linkage of the HSE-PCRS scheme database to the HIPE database which enabled a study to identify persistence rates of patients prescribed osteoporosis therapy after discharge. The results were compared to the findings of a similar study carried out in St. James\\'s Hospital, Dublin. RESULTS: The 12 months post-fracture prescribing increased from 11.0 % (95 % CI 9.6, 12.4) in 2005 to 47 % (95 % CI 43.6, 50.3) in 2008 in the urban setting and from 25 % (95 % CI 21.5, 28.9) to 39 % (95 % CI 34.5, 42.7) in the rural setting. Adherence levels to osteoporosis medications at 12 months post-initiation of therapy was <50 % in both study groups. Patients on less frequent dosing regimes were better adherers. CONCLUSION: The proportion of patients being discharged on anti-osteoporosis medications post-fragility fracture increased between 2005 and 2008 in both patient groups. Sub-optimal adherence levels to osteoporosis medications continue to be a major concern.

  7. Health performance of housing. Indicators and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselaar, E.

    2009-01-01

    Occupants and housing managers deal with several environmental problems in dwellings. To support the diagnosis of cause and effect and to promote good communication about health hazards, indicators of the relationship between physical properties, occupancy patterns and health risks are needed. The

  8. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  9. Economic activities, illness pattern and utilisation of health care facilities in the rural population of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Hoque

    2009-06-01

    Method: A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study was conducted. A multi-stage sampling strategy was adopted to obtain a representative sample of the communities. Results: The mean age of the population was 27 years and majority was female (54%. Among the adult population only 30% were educated, 19% were engaged in some form of economic activities while 9% were in the formal employment sector. The average monthly income per household was R1 301 (95% CI, R1 283; R1 308. The illnesses were reported by 27% of the total population over a period of one month. Notably higher rates of female individuals (29% were sick compared to males (24%, p < 0.001. The rates of illnesses among adult females (39% were also significantly higher than among males (31%, p < 0.009. Most of them (69% attended primary health care (PHC clinics for medical services, while 67% reported chronic conditions. Age (OR = 1.4, gender (OR = 0.711, education (OR = 0.64 and economic activities (OR = 1.9 were found to be associated with being ill or not. Conclusion: The rural black communities are underdeveloped and deprived, which results in higher prevalence of illnesses; however, the utilisation of PHC facilities is comparatively higher than in the rest of the province and other parts of the country. Interventions to improve community health care services among the deprived population should be focused through public health strategies such as all-encompassing PHC that includes health promotion, education and basic essential amenities.

  10. Rural transformations in the context of changing rural-urban connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Ørtenblad, Sinne Borby; Msese, Lukelo

    , the infrastructure, including road systems and means of communication, has in general increased and improved. This development has among a number of other things caused changing patterns of mobility. These changes are highly interrelated and connected to changing rural-urban linkages, which include flows of people......, capital, resources, agricultural commodities, goods, services, technology and information, between rural and urban locations. We emphasize that the rural-urban connections go beyond the spatial dichotomy and that the linkages often occur in a dynamic rural-urban continuum. Influenced by these changes......, this paper sets out to elucidate patterns and dynamics of rural transformation in Tanzania in the context of changing rural-urban linkages by presenting data from a particularly dynamic region; namely Njombe Region in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Based on fieldwork conducted during 2014 and 2015...

  11. Housing And Mounting Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Baca, Johnny R.F.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Miller, Gregory V.; Peterson, David W.; Smith, Terrance T.

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  12. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  13. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  14. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  15. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of colonizing Streptococcus pneumoniae among young child-mother pairs in the rural highlands of the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Leigh; Edwards, Kathryn; Griffin, Marie; Gil, Ana; Minaya, Gina; Mercado, Erik; Ochoa, Theresa; Lanata, Claudio; Grijalva, Carlos G

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains an important cause of pneumonia. Prior to widespread PCV use, we found a high prevalence of nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization with pneumococcus resistant to multiple antibiotic classes among young children in the rural highlands of Peru. We sought to confirm contemporary resistance profiles among young children, their mothers, and animal contacts in the post-PCV era. Methods We enrolled eligible members of Peruvian households whose children had participated in our previous study. Mothers were questioned about antibiotic use for themselves and their children age <3 years. NP samples were collected from children, mothers, and their animal contacts including cows, guinea pigs, and dogs, when available. Samples were cultured for pneumococcus using standard methods and routine disk antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed. Drinking water and milk samples were tested, when available, for the presence of β-lactam and tetracycline residues (IDEXX Β-Tetra testing kit; Westbrook, ME). Results Members of 47 households were enrolled, including 50 children and 47 mothers (3 sibling pairs). The median (IQR) age of children was 1.2 years (0.6-2.2) and number of household members was 5 (4-6). Sixteen of 50 (32%) children and 7/47 (15%) mothers had received antibiotics in the prior 6 months (Fig 1). Pneumococcus was detected in 31/50 (62%) children, 9/47 (19%) mothers, and 1/31 (3%) guinea pigs. Pneumococci were not detected in dogs (n = 29) or cows (n = 7). Resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics, including TMP-SMX, tetracyclines, and β-lactams, was common among children and adults (Fig 2). No antibiotic residues were detected in water (n = 41) or milk (n = 7) samples. Conclusion Pneumococcal colonization was common among young children, less prevalent among adults, and rare among animals. Resistance to macrolides and

  16. City of Ljubljana: Its housing, population and housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Filipovič

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of key aspect of housing in Municipality of Ljubljana. The characteristics of households, of housing and their relation influence the housing situation in the city. Characteristic of housing refer mainly to quality of the dwellings, affordability and correspondence to the wishes of the inhabitants. The second important dimensions are households and their characteristics. In Europe and Slovenia increase in number of household can be observed, which in turn are becoming smaller. The housing policy has a role in establishing a balance between households and housing, i.e. ensuring that housing corresponds to the needs of individual households and to their number. For achieving this, knowledge and appropriate data are of vital importance. In the article we present the results of the Housing survey 2005. We observe housing conditions in a comparative perspective (Ljubljana in comparison to Maribor, Slovenia and selected European cities and according to three dimensions: housing fund, households and housing conditions.

  17. Exploring how residential mobility and migration influences teenage pregnancy in five rural communities in California: youth and adult perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diana; Decker, Martha J; Brindis, Claire D

    2016-09-01

    Teenage birth rates among young people aged 15-19 years in California, USA, have declined from 47 births per 1000 in 2000 to 24 per 1000 in 2013. Nevertheless, the US counties with the highest teenage birth rates are predominantly rural and have a high proportion of Latinos/as. We conducted 42 interviews with key stakeholders and 12 focus groups with 107 young people in five rural communities to better understand local migration patterns and their influence on intermediate and proximate variables of pregnancy, such as interaction with role models and barriers to access contraception. The migration patterns identified were: residential mobility due to seasonal jobs, residential mobility due to economic and housing changes and migration from other countries to California. These patterns affect young people and families' interactions with school and health systems and other community members, creating both opportunities and barriers to prevent risky sexual behaviours. In rural areas, residential mobility and migration to the USA interconnect. As a result, young people dually navigate the challenges of residential mobility, while also adapting to the dominant US culture. It is important to promote programmes that support the integration of immigrant youth to reduce their sense of isolation, as well as to assure access to sexual health education and reproductive health services.

  18. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  19. Finn Juhl's House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.; Ottensten, Lizette

    Introduction to the architecture, interior design and design items of the Danish designer Finn Juhl's own house, built 1942 in Ordrup, north of Copenhagen. The interior setting is interpreted on the background of Juhl's many writings on design....

  20. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... When designing sustainable housing, energy optimization and satisfactory indoor climates are central issues that need to be incorporated from early design phases if to reach a coherent design. It might also be argued that the energy consumption of contemporary buildings only plays a rela-tively minor...

  1. The Eco House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbett, A. (Leicester Ecology Trust (United Kingdom))

    The Eco House is a former park keeper's lodge on the periphery of Leicester's largest public park. Taken over by Leicester Ecology Trust in 1990, the Eco House was a successor to the Trust's earlier low energy house. This has been a local authority decant house, retrofitted to show the potential for increased energy efficiency in older buildings. Many of the ideas from the earlier project were adopted by the new with a widening of its remit to include all matters of environmental concern connected with people's homes. So in addition to energy efficiency, other issues addressed include conservation of resources, wildlife, organic gardening, food production, water, environmental consumerism, recycling and health. Given that the use of energy is regarded by many environmentalists to be the single most important environmental issue today, and one which is easiest for households to address, it remains the project's dominant theme. (author)

  2. Allegheny County Housing Tenure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Home ownership provides a number of financial, social, and health benefits to American families. Especially in areas with housing price appreciation, home ownership...

  3. House of Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    only the benefits of living close to the family. The Aarhus Municipality project "House of Generations" is a vision for creating a framework for relationships across all generations, for meaningful encounters and for rewarding neighbourliness. Three of Aarhus Municipality's magistrate departments...... participate in the project: Health and Care, Children and Youth, and Social Conditions and Employment. A public housing association that provides student dorms also participates in the project. The physical framework will be a building with a total area of approx. 25,000 m², located at Pier 4, at Aarhus......' harbour areas. The building will be a multi-generational house comprising a mixture of flexible public housing units for students, the elderly and residents who require care (elderly disabled people and people with acquired brain injuries). The building will be connected with common areas located in close...

  4. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... the buildings is essential for improving the overall quality of the neighbourhoods both socially and physically. Achieving this in a holistic sustainable manner illustrates that there are alternatives to demolition and new builds, as the answer to the current housing shortage problems. New Zealand is confronted...... with the dilemma of what to do with existing government-funded housing which are no longer socially or physically suitable for the current demographic. New Zealand has a large cultural diversity with many new immigrants from the Pacific Islands and Asia. There is a need for culturally flexible and inclusive...

  5. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  6. access to adequate housing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicola Smit

    chauffeurs and restaurant/hotel workers approached the Development Action ..... 10 Ibid. 11 Budget speech by LN Sisulu, Minister of Housing, 28 May 2008, available at .... exorbitantly high property prices in the Cape Town CBD and environs, ...

  7. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  8. Radiation protection housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, A

    1975-04-10

    The radiation protection housing consists of a foot rim with castor swivel wheels, a tubular frame tapering off at the top, and a crown. In the upper part of the tubular frame a lead glass window is permanently installed. The sides are covered with radiation attenuating curtains of leaded rubber. The housing has the shape of a truncated pyramid which can be dismantled into its constituent parts. It is used for protection from radiation encountered in X-ray facilities in dental radiology.

  9. Housing Characteristics, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report on energy consumption in the residential sector covers the following topics: housing trends 1980--1990, new housing trends, availability and usage of natural gas by households, changes in appliance usage (refrigerators, entertainment appliances, cooking appliances, convenience appliances), age of major household appliances and equipment, household energy conservation activities, demand-side management programs, and a portrait of households using solar or wood as a source of energy

  10. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  11. Housing and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E

    2013-09-01

    The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  13. Housing management and maintenance practise of Dutch housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    This paper summarises the state-of-the-art in housing management and maintenance practise of Dutch housing associations based on a survey conducted among almost all housing associations. We address the question what the current developments are in housing management and maintenance practice in the

  14. Understanding Housing Delays and Relocations Within the Housing First Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, Suzanne; Pridham, Katherine Francombe; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Hwang, Stephen W; O'Campo, Patricia; Kohli, Jaipreet; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This study explores factors contributing to delays and relocations during the implementation of the Housing First model in Toronto, Ontario. While interruptions in housing tenure are expected en route to recovery and housing stability, consumer and service provider views on finding and keeping housing remain largely unknown. In-person interviews and focus groups were conducted with 48 study participants, including 23 case managers or housing workers and 25 consumers. The following three factors contributed to housing delays and transfers: (1) the effectiveness of communication and collaboration among consumers and service providers, (2) consumer-driven preferences and ambivalence, and (3) provider prioritization of consumer choice over immediate housing access. Two strategies--targeted communications and consumer engagement in housing searches--supported the housing process. Several factors affect the timing and stability of housing. Communication between and among providers and consumers, and a shared understanding of consumer choice, can further support choice and recovery.

  15. Migration, Health, and Gender and Its Effects on Housing Security of Ghanaian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Richter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored how migration influences our understanding of health and housing security of women who have or have not migrated to find work in Ghana. This article focuses on housing security. We used a multisite ethnographic research design. The setting was two distinct contexts in Ghana: a rural village and an urban context. We interviewed 44 women. Thematic content analysis was conducted. The main themes that emerged were decisions influencing migration, housing security, and the relationship between housing and health. Women voiced concerns about health related to housing conditions – for example, its effect on upper respiratory infections. We conclude that improving housing and services to the urban poor can have a positive impact on their health. Available, affordable, suitable, and adequate housing has the potential to contribute to economic growth, create more jobs, and improve the well-being of migrant women and, subsequently, their families in Northern Ghana.

  16. Household Portfolio Choice Before and After House Purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Ran Sun; Zhou, Jie

    2017-01-01

    around 61% of them to down payments when buying a house. Liquid wealth stay low after a house purchase and start to increase 3 years later; (ii) the risky asset participation rate drops 2 percentage points – a 6.2% decline – at the year of house purchase. The drop is larger for households with wealth...... above the median level; and (iii) conditional on participation, the risky asset share decreases and reaches the lowest point 1 year before a house purchase, but it jumps immediately after. This suggests that of the three channels identified in the literature that could affect the conditional risky share......We study the temporal patterns of household portfolio choice of liquid wealth over a 7-year period around house purchase, using unique administrative panel data from Denmark. We find that (i) households accumulate significantly more liquid wealth in a few years before a house purchase and convert...

  17. Project experimental house in Caceres; Proyecto vivienda experimental en Caceres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamero, E.; Mendez, L.

    2008-07-01

    The project envisages to develop and efficient methodology for the design and building of social housing in the region of Extremadura, with the aim to obtaining sustainable buildings, with a better energy behaviour, and the use of renewable energy sources, in addition to ensuring a substantial increase of the quality of construction. the project is based on the construction of two isolated houses which will have the same geographical orientation and equal structural system, so they both will be subject to the same climate conditions. One of the houses (pattern house) will be built following exactly the construction being used for the Special Housing Plan, whilst the second on (Experimental house) will serve as a laboratory where to test and demonstrate different sustainability measures and renewable energy sources. (Author)

  18. Constructing passive houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehler, S. [Oehler Faigle Archkom Solar Architektur, Bretten (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Everybody can learn to build energy-efficient. It needs theoretical and practical experience. 1997 we built the first freestanding Passive House in Europe, the Passive House Oehler. There had been a lot of questions, starting with the insecurity, whether the calculation program of the Passive House Institute, the PHPP, is working properly in our case. Nobody knew at that time because nobody tried it out before. It took us a lot of time to find out and every detail of the construction hat to be invented to meet the very high demand of thermal quality. All the following houses needed less time and had fewer open questions, adding one piece of experience with every building. 2002 we realised the biggest Passive House, the office building Energon Ulm with 420 working spaces. In the meantime we have learned a lot like how to produce prefabricated timber elements for the facades, providing good insulation, air tightness and avoiding serious thermal bridges. We have proofed, that any kind of building type can be a Passive House. And with increasing experience the freedom of design and construction is growing. Even the economical efficiency increased. The Energon Ulm is providing a much better indoor climate than any other office building and was build 10 % cheaper than an average German office building. At present the Passive House Standard is the most efficient solution for the user to live in the desired comfort zone between 20 C and 25 C. This zone of individual feeling-well can be described with the term ''operative temperature''. This term is defined by factors like air temperature, radiation temperature of warm and cold surfaces, air speed and humidity. The result of all these factors has to be within 18 C to 25 C without accepting one of the factors getting extreme.

  19. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  20. STUDY REGARDING THE ROMANIAN RURAL TOURISM FINANCING AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BALTEŞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism and agricultural tourism are activities, which generate alternative incomes, a fact that offers development possibilities to the rural space, due to the unique landscapes, large semi-natural areas, the inhabitants' born hospitality in the rural surroundings. From this perspective, a modernization, development and innovation process for the Romanian rural tourism is required. All these aspects, however, require financing. Therefore, a pre-accession financing source of the rural tourism was the SAPARD programme, a programme which "offered the opportunity" to many business people to start their business in this field. The paper shows the evolution of the rural boarding houses between 2003-2007, with analyses on the number, type of financing, development region.

  1. Urban housing experiments in Yugoslavia 1948-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 1948 to 1970 urban housing architecture in Yugoslavia had a distinctly experimental character as it strived intensively towards research and establishment of new architectural patterns and values that would mark the period of economic growth of the country. In conditions of mass housing construction, initiated by the devastated urban housing fund after the Second World War, significant influx of population to towns and the state directed its socialist aspirations at alloting every family acceptable living space. The period of the so-called “directed housing construction“, whose imperative was to establish the limits of existential minimum in collective housing, maximal space “packing“ and optimal functionality of flats, at the same time represents the most significant period in the development of housing architecture in Yugoslavia. The architects focused their interests in housing in mainly three directions: a the creation and application of new prefabrication systems, b innovative application of modernistic patterns in aestheticization of architecture and c experimenting with space units which will enable a higher level of privacy in high-density housing conditions. The first direction of research emerged in the context of post-war housing construction of a wide scope, which encouraged the advance of technological research in areas of prefabrication and practical application of achieved results on the whole territory of Yugoslavia. The second direction dealt with architectural planning which was strictly subordinated to social and ideological sphere with domineering socialist monumentalism and artistic and sculptural approach to architecture. The third was related to experimental tendency with new urban housing patterns which aimed to search and find more pragmatic, humane solutions within mass high-density housing constructions which were the first to utilize and show examples of “double-tract” buildings. These

  2. Housing and family: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Lauster, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the Housing Studies special issue 'Housing and Family'. The issue consists of a collection of papers in which a number of connections between housing and family issues are highlighted. Three themes are addressed: the influence of the family of origin on housing characteristics

  3. Mudanças no padrão epidemiológico da malária em área rural do médio Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira: análise retrospectiva Changes in the epidemiological pattern of malaria in a rural area of the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazon: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos casos de malária ocorridos entre 1992 e 2004 no Município de Barcelos, Amazonas, Brasil, aprofundando as informações existentes na área altamente endêmica do Rio Padauri, afluente do Rio Negro. Foram identificados 16.795 casos de malária, sendo 61,4% (10.318 da área rural e 38,6% (6.477 da área urbana, com uma incidência parasitária anual média de 136,7 por mil habitantes na área urbana e 613,6 na área rural. A incidência parasitária anual média no Rio Padauri foi de 708,9/1.000. Nesse rio, foram diferenciados dois períodos epidemiológicos, sendo um denominado epidêmico (1992-1998 e outro pós-epidêmico (1999-2004. Comparando os dois períodos, a proporção homem/mulher mudou de 1,8 para 1,14, a média de idade dos pacientes passou de 17,9 para 14,8, o percentual de casos por Plasmodium falciparum reduziu-se de 51,9% para 23,7, e o percentual de lâminas com baixa densidade parasitária de P. falciparum passou de 35,3% para 44,9%, e as de P. vivax de 24% para 35%. Todas essas diferenças foram estatisticamente significativas (p A retrospective study on reported malaria cases in the municipality (county of Barcelos, Amazonas State, Brazil, was performed from 1992 to 2004, emphasizing the high endemic area along the Padauiri, an affluent of the Rio Negro. 16,795 cases were reported, 10,318 (61.4% from the rural area and 6,477 (38.6% from the urban area. Mean annual parasite index for the period was 136.7 per 1,000 inhabitants in the urban area and 613.6 per 1,000 in the rural area of Barcelos and 708.9 per 1,000 in the Padauiri area. In the latter area, two periods were considered: one epidemic, from 1992 to 1998, and the other post-epidemic, from 1999 to 2004. Comparing the two periods, the male/female ratio changed from 1.8 to 1.14, mean patient age from 17.9 to 14.8, proportion of Plasmodium falciparum cases from 51.9% to 23.7%, proportion of slides with low P. falciparum parasite

  4. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-03-22

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study's aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution.

  5. Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Wang, Dongyan; Wang, Qing; Liu, Shuhan; Zhu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study’s aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution. PMID:28327541

  6. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated. PMID:27223285

  7. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  8. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  9. Control rod housing alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for measuring the vertical alignment between a hole in a core plate and the top of a corresponding control rod drive housing within a boiling water reactor. It comprises: providing an alignment apparatus. The alignment apparatus including a lower end for fitting to the top of the control rod drive housing; an upper end for fitting to the aperture in the core plate, and a leveling means attached to the alignment apparatus to read out the difference in angularity with respect to gravity, and alignment pin registering means for registering to the alignment pin on the core plate; lowering the alignment device on a depending support through a lattice position in the top guide through the hole in the core plate down into registered contact with the top of the control rod drive housing; registering the upper end to the sides of the hole in the core plate; registering the alignment pin registering means to an alignment pin on the core plate to impart to the alignment device the required angularity; and reading out the angle of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate through the leveling devices whereby the angularity of the top of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate can be determined

  10. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    -profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy......The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  11. Impact of rural health development programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran on rural-urban disparities in health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A; Mehryar, A H; Ahmadnia, S; Kazemipour, S

    2007-01-01

    By 1979 50 years of uneven development and modernization by governments prior to the Islamic Revolution had left rural parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran with extremely low economic and health status. This paper reports on the impact of the rural health development programme implemented as an effective and inexpensive way to improve the heath of the rural population, especially mothers and children. It describes the system of rural health centres, health houses and community health workers (behvarz) and demonstrates the effectiveness of the programme through declining measures of rural-urban disparities in health indicators. The implications of inexpensive rural health policies for other countries in the region such as Afghanistan and Central Asian countries with a similar sociocultural structure are discussed.

  12. The economics of social housing : implications for welfare, consumption, and labor market composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, M.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first part considers social housing from a microeconomic perspective and looks at the self-selection into social housing, as well as at how this influences consumption patterns, household mobility within and from the social housing sector, and the wage

  13. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...

  14. The pattern of moderate acute malnutrition in a rural area of Sri Lanka: Integrated approach is needed to address the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiris, Dilka; Nandasena, Sumal

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Sri Lanka has a well-established preventive health care system. Irrespective of well-established preventive health care system, malnutrition of children is yet a public health challenge in Sri Lanka. Aims: To assess the current nutritional status and associated factors with the malnutrition in Nawagaththegama area, Sri Lanka. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of children under 5 years (total population = 1434). Twenty five clusters were selected by probability proportionate to the size of the under five children in 19 Gramasewa Niladari Divisions (the smallest administrative division in the area). Height and weight of children under 5 years were measured according to the WHO protocol, and an interviewer administered questionnaires was used to ascertain socio demographic characteristics, feeding practices, common morbidities of children and health service utilization pattern. WHO Standards were used to assess the nutritional status. Hemoglobin levels were assessed in a subsample. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 493 children. Weight, height, hemoglobin was measured among 442, 419, 120 children respectively. Out of weight measured children, 24.7% (confidence interval (CI) = 19.4 – 30.8) had weight for age <-2SD and 4.8% (CI = 2.5 - 8.8) had weight for age < -3SD. Out of height measured children, 16.5% (CI = 13.1 – 20.5) had height for age < -2SD and 4.1% (CI = 2.2 - 7.4) had height for age < -3SD. Global acute malnutrition (GAM) was 18.5% (CI= 2.3% -26.9%) and Moderate Acute malnutrition is 15.6% where as Severe Acute Malnutrition is (SAM) was 2.9% (CI = 1.3% - 5.9%) . Lowest percentage having the weight for age <-2SD and weight for height/length was reported from the age group of 1 – 6 months (11.8 % (CI = 4.6 -27.1))and 12.9% (CI = (3.4% - 38.1%)). Over 99% of children were continue to have the breast milk at the completed 6 months while 4.2 % gives the formula milk and

  15. Ideas about housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2009-01-01

    This booklet is a project documentation of a short-term project titled ‘IDEAS ABOUT HOUSING Arkitektkonkurrencernes boligløsninger’. Architectural competitions have been used to develop new living concepts reacting on current political, economical and social flows. Participation in an architectural...... an important part of the world of architecture and planning in Denmark. Competitions, sponsored by government organizations, housing associations, or private business, are usually requests to make proposals for a specific project, but they are also sometimes used to elicit ideas about a general project type...

  16. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  17. Urbanization, housing and environment: Megacities of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Oladapo Makinde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a look at urbanization, housing and environment in Africa megacities; it enumerates the problems caused by the continued influx of migrant into cities, and state the government, private and public organization effort in solving these challenges. It found out that with proper management, the chilling prospect of a serious deterioration in quality of life could be averted. The report noted that continuing migration from rural to urban areas will expand the number of megacities, and it concedes that megacities are often plagued by environmental deterioration, inadequate housing, traffic congestion, social alienation slums, crime and homelessness. Etc. The paper, observed that megacities are important to a country's economic development, and also provide residents with a satisfying quality of life, if properly managed. The report looked for ways of solving the problems to a significant degree and observed that nearly in all cases, the gaps between demand and supply are management related, and recommends ways of improving the quality of citizen life by provision of adequate and quality housing, reduction in land costs, healthy environment, clean water and sanitation services, security within the city, employment opportunity, bolstering urban farming, and improving public transportation and make sure that the megacities are beneficial to the environment as well as to the national economy. The paper admits that the solutions are far from easy. It is difficult to predict what will happen if there are shortfalls in the financing of megacity growth and management.

  18. State and the Low Cost Housing for the Poor: Fall of Bashentek Rehabilitation Project (BRP) in Dhaka City--Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rasel; Saha, Amit Kumar; Rabbani, Golam; Pervin, Irin; Shamma, Wasifa Tasnim; Khan, Sazzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    In the era of neoliberalism now the people especially the lower income group of people is suffering a lot for the scarcity of housing. After migrating from the rural areas for a better life they discovered themselves in the slum like areas of the city as they are not capable to afford housing in the influential areas of the city due to higher…

  19. Urban-Rural Variation in the Occurrence of Neural Tube Defects in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the pattern and magnitude of urban-rural variation in anencephaly, spina bifida without anencephaly, and encephalocele in Texas using four different indicators of urban-rural status for the period 1999 to 2003.

  20. Are Rural Costs of Living Lower? Evidence from a Big Mac Index Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Loveridge; Dusan Paredes

    2015-01-01

    Rural leaders can point to low housing costs as a reason that their area should be competitive for business attraction. To what extent do rural housing costs offset transportation and other locational disadvantages in costs structures? The US lacks information to systematically answer the question. We adapt a strategy employed by The Economist in exploring purchasing power parity: the Big Mac Index. We gather information on Big Mac prices with a random sample of restaurants across the contigu...

  1. Housing Problems of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  2. The Helpful House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Many everyday tasks are difficult—even impossible for people confined to wheelchairs.Now a unique house near Baltimore,Md., demonstrates how technology can make a building truly accessible. Developed by Volunteers for Medical Engineering in conjunction with several nonprofit organizations, Future Home takes advantage of off-the-shelf electronic controls that operate nearly all electrical and mechanical systems.

  3. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  4. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...

  5. Woodworking & housing: impacts & actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Karen. Koenig

    2015-01-01

    The woodworking industry relies heavily on the construction-based markets, particularly those companies involved in cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. Market conditions, trends and investments all have an impact. It's against this backdrop, that the sixth annual housing market study was conducted in early 2015. A joint effort by Virginia Tech, the U.S...

  6. Housing, neighbourhoods and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood; Matthieu Permentier; with contributions from Fenne Pinkster

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Wonen, wijken en interventies Current Dutch neighbourhood policy is aimed at improving the position of 'priority neighbourhoods'. How successful is the policy proving? Does restructuring and the sale of social housing help? Does increasing the amount of green space and building

  7. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  8. Interactive Mold House Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Get a quick glimpse of some of the most important ways to protect your home from mold by this interactive tour of the Mold House. Room-by-room, you'll learn about common mold issues and how to address them.

  9. Housing First i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Dyrby, Therese Marie; Enemark, Morten Holm

    Rapporten er en evaluering af arbejdet med at udbrede og forankre Housing First-indsatsen og tre evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder. Hovedprincippet i Housing First er, at udsatte borgere, der er endt i hjemløshed, får et permanent sted at bo allerede i starten af et indsatsforløb, samtidig med...... at borgeren får en intensiv social støtte i hverdagen. De evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder, der er anvendes sammen med Housing First-tilgangen er Critical Time Intervention (CTI), Intensive Case Management (ICM) og Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Rapporten beskriver erfaringer omkring de ledelsesmæssige...... og organisatoriske rammer, målgruppen for indsatserne og om de konkrete indsatser i kommunerne. Evalueringen viser, at både borgere og kommuner har gode erfaringer med Housing First, men at især manglen på billige og passende boliger er en alvorlig barriere for udbredelsen af indsatsen. Evalueringen...

  10. The Chinese House Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

  11. Housing and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    OECD economies, in aggregate, have been sluggish; unemployment remains high in several countries, and minimal gross domestic product gains are forecast for the Euro area through 2016. Recession, sovereign debt problems and lethargic economies continue to constrain Europe’s housing construction market; no improvement is expected before 2015 or...

  12. 24 CFR 982.608 - Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing Types Congregate Housing § 982.608 Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Voucher housing assistance payment. 982.608 Section 982.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  13. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  14. 'It's because I like things… it's a status and he buys me airtime': exploring the role of transactional sex in young women's consumption patterns in rural South Africa (secondary findings from HPTN 068).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; MacPhail, Catherine; Stöckl, Heidi; Silverwood, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Selin, Amanda; Xavier Gómez-Olivé, F; Watts, Charlotte; Pettifor, Audrey

    2018-05-29

    'Transactional sex', defined as a non-marital, non-commercial sexual relationship in which money or material goods are exchanged for sex, is associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV infection. Existing research illustrates that the motivations for transactional sex are complex. The fulfilment of psycho-social needs such as the need to belong to a peer group are important factors underlying young women's desires to obtain certain consumption items and thus engage in transactional sex. We use a mixed-methods approach to explore the relationship between transactional sex and consumption patterns among young women in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. In the secondary analysis of 693 sexually active young women, we use factor analysis to group the different consumption items and we use multivariable logistic regression to demonstrate the relationship between transactional sex and consumption patterns. The qualitative study uses five focus group discussions and 19 in-depth interviews to explore further young women's motivations for acquiring different consumption items. The quantitative results show that young women that engage in transactional sex have higher odds of consuming items for entertainment (e.g., movie tickets) than on practical items (e.g., food and groceries). The qualitative findings also revealed that young women's perceptions of items that were considered a 'need' were strongly influenced by peer pressure and a desire for improved status. Further, there was a perception that emerged from the qualitative data that relationships with sugar daddies offered a way to acquire consumer goods associated with a 'modern lifestyle', such as items for personal enhancement and entertainment. However, young women seem aware of the risks associated with such relationships. More importantly, they also develop relationship with partners of similar age, albeit with the continued expectation of material exchange, despite engaging in the

  15. In-house characterization of protein powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Christian Grundahl; Harris, Pernille; Ståhl, Kenny

    2011-01-01

    . For safe identification of the crystal form the experimental patterns have to be compared with patterns calculated from known crystal structures. Very good agreement with Protein Data Bank data was obtained after including corrections for background, unit cell parameters, disordered bulk......Collecting protein powder diffraction data on standard in-house powder diffractometers requires careful handling of the samples. Specially designed sample holders combined with optimized collimation were found to be the key factors in improving the data quality and reducing the data collection time......-solvent, and geometric factors. The data collection and correction procedures were demonstrated by the identification of three different crystal forms of insulin....

  16. 75 FR 71722 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Emergency Comment Request Rural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... distress and community poverty in rural areas and promote economic development and entrepreneurship as... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-111] Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Emergency Comment Request Rural Innovation Fund; Notice of Proposed...

  17. 77 FR 16519 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Rural Community Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... renewable energy, food production, rural tourism, natural resources, and advanced manufacturing. Qualified... Rural Housing Service (RHS) or its successor. Beneficiary--Entities or individuals that receive benefits... with those of State and local governments, educational institutions, and the private and nonprofit...

  18. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  19. Assessment of housing design decisions in informal housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid urbanisation of cities in developing countries has witnessed a growth in the volume of housing construction in the urban areas. The demand for housing and the inability of government to meet this demand has encouraged the growth of informal housing. The concept of healthy buildings is of great importance, ...

  20. 24 CFR 1715.27 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair housing. 1715.27 Section 1715.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  1. Demograficheskie izmenenija v Germanii i novaja territorial'naja struktura starenija [Demographic change in Germany and reversal of spatial ageing patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiaczny Frank

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the result of a spatial analysis considering the effect of demographic ageing and ageing-in-place processes in Germany according to spatially differentiated ageing patterns among urban, sub-urban and rural counties up to 2025. As to the latest official population forecast counties of urban core regions will undergo a slower ageing process than other types of counties, resulting in a reversal of ageing patterns. Urban core areas in this analysis will gain demographically from their net migration surplus while suburban housing locations of the past will be no longer able to attract enough young migrants to compensate for their now rapidly ageing baby boomer generation. The process presented is typical for the fate of (suburban housing areas with homogenous populations under conditions of ageing and shrinking if spatial mobility in ageing population groups is declining.

  2. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  3. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  4. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  5. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  6. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  7. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the beaches of Normandy, from t... [...] Read Article House Doubles Down on Commitment to Veterans 08 Nov ... R-Tenn.) released the following statement after the House of Representatives passed nine veterans bills Tuesday and ...

  8. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  9. The rural pipeline to longer-term rural practice: General practitioners and specialists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella M S Kwan

    Full Text Available Rural medical workforce shortage contributes to health disadvantage experienced by rural communities worldwide. This study aimed to determine the regional results of an Australian Government sponsored national program to enhance the Australian rural medical workforce by recruiting rural background students and establishing rural clinical schools (RCS. In particular, we wished to determine predictors of graduates' longer-term rural practice and whether the predictors differ between general practitioners (GPs and specialists.A cross-sectional cohort study, conducted in 2012, of 729 medical graduates of The University of Queensland 2002-2011. The outcome of interest was primary place of graduates' practice categorised as rural for at least 50% of time since graduation ('Longer-term Rural Practice', LTRP among GPs and medical specialists. The main exposures were rural background (RB or metropolitan background (MB, and attendance at a metropolitan clinical school (MCS or the Rural Clinical School for one year (RCS-1 or two years (RCS-2.Independent predictors of LTRP (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] were RB (2.10 [1.37-3.20], RCS-1 (2.85 [1.77-4.58], RCS-2 (5.38 [3.15-9.20], GP (3.40 [2.13-5.43], and bonded scholarship (2.11 [1.19-3.76]. Compared to being single, having a metropolitan background partner was a negative predictor (0.34 [0.21-0.57]. The effects of RB and RCS were additive-compared to MB and MCS (Reference group: RB and RCS-1 (6.58[3.32-13.04], RB and RCS-2 (10.36[4.89-21.93]. Although specialists were less likely than GPs to be in LTRP, the pattern of the effects of rural exposures was similar, although some significant differences in the effects of the duration of RCS attendance, bonded scholarships and partner's background were apparent.Among both specialists and GPs, rural background and rural clinical school attendance are independent, duration-dependent, and additive, predictors of longer-term rural practice. Metropolitan

  10. Measuring the attractiveness of rural communities in accounting for differences of rural primary care workforce supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew R; Wingrove, Peter M; Petterson, Stephen M; Humphreys, John S; Russell, Deborah J; Bazemore, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    Many rural communities continue to experience an undersupply of primary care doctor services. While key professional factors relating to difficulties of recruitment and retention of rural primary care doctors are widely identified, less attention has been given to the role of community and place aspects on supply. Place-related attributes contribute to a community's overall amenity or attractiveness, which arguably influence both rural recruitment and retention relocation decisions of doctors. This bi-national study of Australia and the USA, two developed nations with similar geographic and rural access profiles, investigates the extent to which variations in community amenity indicators are associated with spatial variations in the supply of rural primary care doctors. Measures from two dimensions of community amenity: geographic location, specifically isolation/proximity; and economics and sociodemographics were included in this study, along with a proxy measure (jurisdiction) of a third dimension, environmental amenity. Data were chiefly collated from the American Community Survey and the Australian Census of Population and Housing, with additional calculated proximity measures. Rural primary care supply was measured using provider-to-population ratios in 1949 US rural counties and in 370 Australian rural local government areas. Additionally, the more sophisticated two-step floating catchment area method was used to measure Australian rural primary care supply in 1116 rural towns, with population sizes ranging from 500 to 50 000. Associations between supply and community amenity indicators were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients and ordinary least squares multiple linear regression models. It was found that increased population size, having a hospital in the county, increased house prices and affluence, and a more educated and older population were all significantly associated with increased workforce supply across rural areas of both countries

  11. Risk shocks and housing markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeenko, Viktor; Lee, Gabriel S.; Salyer, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of uncertainty in a multi-sector housing model with financial frictions. We include time varying uncertainty (i.e. risk shocks) in the technology shocks that affect housing production. The analysis demonstratesthat risk shocks to the housing production sector are a quantitatively important impulse mechanism for the business cycle. Also, we demonstrate that bankruptcy costs act as an endogenous markup factor in housing prices; as a consequence, the volati...

  12. Renovation of social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rask; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    consumption in the building sector. This planned transformation towards a more energy-efficient building mass involves changes in the building envelope and, as such, is likely to influence the experience of the built environment dramatically, both interior and exterior. Recent research shows, however...... in the renovation of social housing. Methodologically, this hypothesis is investigated by re-reading the task of energy renovation through the lens of tectonic architectural theory. Specifically, Eduard Sekler’s etymological distinction between structure, construction, and tectonics is developed as a framework...... for addressing the spatial implications and potentials of technical initiatives in contemporary energy renovations within the continuum described by Scott. The framework is applied in two case studies of recent energy renovations of social housing dwellings. Finally, the paper discusses whether the technical...

  13. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  14. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  15. Analysis of USAREUR Family Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Standard Installation/Division Personnel System SJA ................ Staff Judge Advocate SPSS ............... Statistical Package for the...for Projecting Family Housing Requirements. a. Attempts to define USAREUR’s programmable family housing deficit Sbased on the FHS have caused anguish ...responses using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) computer program. E-2 ANNEX E RESPONSE TO ESC HOUSING QUESTIONNAIRE Section Page I

  16. Belgrade: Waning houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Milica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In some streets of Belgrade we can still find old houses, which hold an ancient dream of dignity, comfort and beauty. They probably live their last days, staring somewhere in the distance - into foggy spaces of their forgetfulness. They stand in fragile rows, increasingly dilapidated disappearing one by one, pretty and sad in their loneliness. They fade attacked by winds, by sunshine, by rains, sorrowed by coldness of their empty rooms. We have no right to let them disappear without any remembrance, to allow them to vanish from of our lives, because - if that happens - that will make poorer both our legacy and us for the future. Thus, we must find ways to hold these old houses, to read and understand their messages, to keep the prints of their spirit and shapes. How to achieve that? If it is true that the beauty of the landscape is hidden in the eyes, which look at it, then drawing is certainly one of the modes to record the wonderful secret of these pretty old houses, silently disappearing from the urban life.

  17. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  18. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  19. A Persistent Disparity: Smoking in Rural Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Keisa; McElroy, Jane A; Johnson, Andrew O; Munk, Niki; Everett, Kevin D

    2015-03-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) smoke cigarettes at higher rates than the general population. Historically, research in SGM health issues was conducted in urban populations and recent population-based studies seldom have sufficient SGM participants to distinguish urban from rural. Given that rural populations also tend to have a smoking disparity, and that many SGM live in rural areas, it is vitally important to understand the intersection of rural residence, SGM identity, and smoking. This study analyzes the patterns of smoking in urban and rural SGM in a large sample. We conducted an analysis of 4280 adult participants in the Out, Proud, and Healthy project with complete data on SGM status, smoking status, and zip code. Surveys were conducted at 6 Missouri Pride Festivals and online in 2012. Analysis involved descriptive and bivariate methods, and multivariable logistic regression. We used GIS mapping to demonstrate the dispersion of rural SGM participants. SGM had higher smoking proportion than the non-SGM recruited from these settings. In the multivariable model, SGM identity conferred 1.35 times the odds of being a current smoker when controlled for covariates. Rural residence was not independently significant, demonstrating the persistence of the smoking disparity in rural SGM. Mapping revealed widespread distribution of SGM in rural areas. The SGM smoking disparity persists among rural SGM. These communities would benefit from continued research into interventions targeting both SGM and rural tobacco control measures. Recruitment at Pride Festivals may provide a venue for reaching rural SGM for intervention.

  20. Space-time patterns in maternal and mother mortality in a rural South African population with high HIV prevalence (2000-2014): results from a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlou, B; Sartorius, B; Tanser, F

    2017-06-03

    International organs such as, the African Union and the South African Government view maternal health as a dominant health prerogative. Even though most countries are making progress, maternal mortality in South Africa (SA) significantly increased between 1990 and 2015, and prevented the country from achieving Millennium Development Goal 5. Elucidating the space-time patterns and risk factors of maternal mortality in a rural South African population could help target limited resources and policy guidelines to high-risk areas for the greatest impact, as more generalized interventions are costly and often less effective. Population-based mortality data from 2000 to 2014 for women aged 15-49 years from the Africa Centre Demographic Information System located in the Umkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa were analysed. Our outcome was classified into two definitions: Maternal mortality; the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of cessation of pregnancy, regardless of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or exacerbated by the pregnancy or its management but not from unexpected or incidental causes; and 'Mother death'; death of a mother whilst child is less than 5 years of age. Both the Kulldorff and Tango spatial scan statistics for regular and irregular shaped cluster detection respectively were used to identify clusters of maternal mortality events in both space and time. The overall maternal mortality ratio was 650 per 100,000 live births, and 1204 mothers died while their child was less than or equal to 5 years of age, of a mortality rate of 370 per 100,000 children. Maternal mortality declined over the study period from approximately 600 per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 400 per 100,000 live births in 2014. There was no strong evidence of spatial clustering for maternal mortality in this rural population. However, the study identified a significant spatial cluster of mother deaths in childhood (p