WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural energy survey

  1. Survey of rural household energy-consumption in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xh; Fend Zm [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., JS (China)

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive energy surveys of 3240 households in six different regions, we present the level and structure of rural household energy consumption. There are large differences among regions which depend on locality and available fuels. Energy consumption per household accounts for 700-1200 kgce (we use 7000 kcal/kgce), 40-60% of which is used for cooking; 60-90% of total household energy consumption is in the form of biomass. The average energy-conversion efficiency using biomass fuels is in the range 10-20%. Where the strain of traditional patterns of biomass use on the resource base became too severe, the balance between local agricultural and hillside ecosystems has unraveled and caused accelerating destruction of limited land resources. Higher income households need more commercial energy, especially in the form of electricity. Rural household energy will continue to depend mainly on biomass. (UK)

  2. Village energy survey reveals missing rural raw coal in northern China: Significance in science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Guorui; Zhang, Yayun; Sun, Jianzhong; Cheng, Miaomiao; Dang, Hongyan; Liu, Shijie; Yang, Junchao; Zhang, Yuzhe; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Shuyuan; Meng, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Burning coal for winter heating has been considered a major contributor to northern China's winter haze, with the district heating boilers holding the balance. However a decade of intensive efforts on district heating boilers brought few improvements to northern China's winter air quality, arousing a speculation that the household heating stoves mainly in rural area rather than the district heating boilers mainly in urban area dominate coal emissions in winter. This implies an extreme underestimation of rural household coal consumption by the China Energy Statistical Yearbooks (CESYs), although direct evidence supporting this speculation is lacking. A village energy survey campaign was launched to gather the firsthand information on household coal consumption in the rural areas of two cities, Baoding (in Hebei province) and Beijing (the capital of China). The survey data show that the rural raw coal consumption in Baoding (5.04 × 10(3) kt) was approximately 6.5 times the value listed in the official CESY 2013 and exceeded the rural total of whole Hebei Province (4668 kt), revealing a huge amount of raw coal missing from the current statistical system. More importantly, rural emissions of particulate matter (PM) and SO2 from raw coal, which had never been included in widely distributing environmental statistical reports, were found higher than those from industrial and urban household sectors in the two cities in 2013, which highlights the importance of rural coal burning in creating northern China's heavy haze and helps to explain why a number of modeling predictions on ambient pollutant concentrations based on normal emission inventories were more bias-prone in winter season than in other seasons. We therefore recommend placing greater emphasis on the "missing" rural raw coal to help China in its long-term ambition to achieve clean air in the context of rapid economic development.

  3. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  4. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Douglas F. [Senior Energy Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Khandker, Shahidur R. [Lead Economist, Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Samad, Hussain A. [Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. (author)

  5. Energy Consumption in Rural China: Analysis of Rural Living Energy in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Yifang, Liu; Wei, Zhu

    2017-08-01

    Under the pressure of climate change and international carbon reduction targets, long-neglected rural energy consumption needs to be given high priority. China’s rural energy consumption structure is in the transition from non-commercial to commercial sources, and rural energy has become a key determinant to slow down the carbon emission growth. This paper systematically calibrates the current situation of rural energy consumption in Beijing by using the survey data of 1866 households in 13 districts and counties in Beijing based on the trend of energy supply and demand change in China. To this end, the paper combines rural policy measures to assess the pressure on coal-burning and clean energy supply trends, puts forward the rural energy structure adjustment path, with a view to promoting the use of clean energy in rural areas and reduce the environmental consequences of coal-burning.

  6. Rural energy and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  7. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  8. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  9. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  10. 2007 Global Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzon, Jean-Claude; Preng, Richard; Sutton, Bob; Pavlovic, Bojan

    2007-06-15

    The World Energy Council (WEC), in partnership with Korn/Ferry International undertook a survey focussing on the topic ''Tackling the Three S's: Sustainability, Security and Strategy.'' More than 50 senior executives from the world's leading energy companies and their strategic suppliers were interviewed by Korn/Ferry International.

  11. The Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, T; Annis, J; Barlow, M; Bebek, C; Bigelow, B; Beldica, C; Bernstein, R; Bridle, S; Brunner, R; Carlstrom, J; Campbell, M; Castander, F; Cunha, C; Diehl, H T; Dodelson, S; Doel, P; Efstathiou, G P; Estrada, J; Evrard, A; Fernndez, E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J A; Gaztaaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gladders, M; Hu, W; Huterer, D; Jain, B; Karliner, I; Kent, S; Lahav, O; Levi, M; Lima, M; Lin, H; Limon, P; Martínez, M; McKay, T; McMahon, R; Merritt, W K; Miller, C; Miralda-Escudé, J; Mohr, J; Nichol, R; Oyaizu, H; Peacock, J; Peoples, John; Perlmutter, S; Plante, R; Ricker, P; Roe, N; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Selen, M; Sheldon, E S; Smith, C; Stebbins, A; Stoughton, C; Suntzeff, N; Sutherland, W; Takada, M; Tarle, G; Tecchio, M; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Viti, S; Walker, A; Wechsler, R; Weller, J; Wester, W

    2006-01-01

    We describe the Dark Energy Survey (DES), a proposed optical-near infrared survey of 5000 sq. deg of the South Galactic Cap to ~24th magnitude in SDSS griz, that would use a new 3 sq. deg CCD camera to be mounted on the Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Telolo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The survey data will allow us to measure the dark energy and dark matter densities and the dark energy equation of state through four independent methods: galaxy clusters, weak gravitational lensing tomography, galaxy angular clustering, and supernova distances. These methods are doubly complementary: they constrain different combinations of cosmological model parameters and are subject to different systematic errors. By deriving the four sets of measurements from the same data set with a common analysis framework, we will obtain important cross checks of the systematic errors and thereby make a substantial and robust advance in the precision of dark energy measurements.

  12. Towards standardising building rural clinics: energy requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (brick and mortar) and Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) and alternative off-grid services technologies (energy, water, and sanitation). The paper discusses the energy requirements of a conceptual design for a generic, basic rural clinic....

  13. Rural public acceptance of renewable energy deployment: The case of Shandong in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Wenling, Wenling; Wang Can,; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    China has set ambitious goals to increase the use of renewable energy. Developing renewables in rural areas is also one of the most important energy strategies. This paper examines rural social acceptance of renewable energy deployment taking Shandong as a case study via a field questionnaire survey

  14. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  15. Energy services and energy poverty for sustainable rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaygusuz, K. [Department of Chemistry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    In many rural areas, poor people still depend on wood and other biomass fuels for most of their household and income-generating activities. The difficult, time-consuming work of collecting and managing traditional fuels is widely viewed as women's responsibility, which is a factor in women's disproportionate lack of access to education and income, and inability to escape from poverty. Therefore, it is important for energy access programs to have a special focus on women. New options for energy access and sustainable livelihoods, like small-scale biofuels production, can have dramatic benefits for rural women, and their families and communities. Energy development, as both a driving force and a consequence of such tremendous changes, has had profound impact on economic, social, and environmental development. Rural energy has always been a critical issue due to years of energy shortage for both households and industries. Biomass, for long time, has been the only available fuel in many rural areas. The situation in rural areas is even more critical as local demand for energy outstrips availability and the vast majority of people depend on non-commercial energy supplies. Energy is needed for household uses, such as cooking, lighting, heating; for agricultural uses, such as tilling, irrigation and post-harvest processing; and for rural industry uses, such as milling and mechanical energy and process heat. Energy is also an input to water supply, communication, commerce, health, education and transportation in rural areas. (author)

  16. Rural energy - ODA`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolnough, D.

    1997-12-01

    The Overseas Development Administration has as a goal `to improve the quality of life of people in poorer countries by contributing to sustainable development and reducing poverty and suffering.` Rural energy fits into this goal as a means to an end. The emphasis is firmly on the service provided, with the aim being provision of basic needs as a part of rural development. ODA plays a role in this task on a number of fronts: research and development; support for NGO`s; aid in a bilateral or multilateral form. The view of ODA is that even rural energy projects must emphasize the service provided and must be economically sustainable. Within its sphere of influence, there is a clearly growing position for the employment of rural energy programs.

  17. Energy Balance of Rural Ecosystems In India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, A.; Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Garg, A.; Nag, T.; Bhaskara Rao, N.; Sharma, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    India is predominantly an agricultural and rural country. Across the country, the villages vary in geographical location, area, human and livestock population, availability of resources, agricultural practices, livelihood patterns etc. This study presents an estimation of net energy balance resulting from primary production vis-a-vis energy consumption through various components in a "Rural Ecosystem". Seven sites located in different agroclimatic regions of India were studied. An end use energy accounting "Rural Energy Balance Model" is developed for input-output analysis of various energy flows of production, consumption, import and export through various components of crop, trees outside forest plantations, livestock, rural households, industry or trade within the village system boundary. An integrated approach using field, ancillary, GIS and high resolution IRS-P6 Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data is adopted for generation of various model inputs. The primary and secondary field data collection of various energy uses at household and village level were carried out using structured schedules and questionnaires. High resolution multi-temporal Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data (2013-14) was used for generating landuse/landcover maps and estimation of above-ground Trees Outside Forests phytomass. The model inputs were converted to energy equivalents using country-specific energy conversion factors. A comprehensive geotagged database of sampled households and available resources at each study site was also developed in ArcGIS framework. Across the study sites, the estimated net energy balance ranged from -18.8 Terra Joules (TJ) in a high energy consuming Hodka village, Gujarat to 224.7 TJ in an agriculture, aquaculture and plantation intensive Kollaparru village, Andhra Pradesh. The results indicate that the net energy balance of a Rural Ecosystem is largely driven by primary production through crops and natural vegetation. This study provides a significant insight to policy

  18. Problems and Recommendations for Rural Statistics and Survey Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    With constant deepening of the reform and opening-up,national economic system has changed from planned economy to market economy,and rural survey and statistics remain in a difficult transition period. In this period,China needs transforming original statistical mode according to market economic system. All levels of government should report and submit a lot and increasing statistical information. Besides,in this period,townships,villages and counties are faced with old and new conflicts. These conflicts perplex implementation of rural statistics and survey and development of rural statistical undertaking,and also cause researches and thinking of reform of rural statistical and survey methods.

  19. Energy and spatial structure: a rural example

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    Energy requirements for the journey to work, resulting from alternative population and employment growth patterns in a rural area of England, are estimated and compared. Both the absolute and relative energy-efficiency of alternative land-use patterns are shown to depend on assumptions about future mobility, implying that ideal spatial structures cannot be defined without reference to other important factors affecting travel behaviour and life-styles. Current trends in the area are leading to...

  20. Drivers behind energy consumption by rural households in Shanxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Wik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is widely used by households for cooking and heating in rural China. Along with rapid economic growth over the last three decades, increasing rural households tend to use less biomass and more commercial energy such as coal and electricity. In this paper, we analyzed the key drivers behind energy consumption and switching by rural households based on survey data of energy consumption by rural households in ten villages of Shanxi province in China. Our econometric results show that income growth can induce less use of biomass and more use of coal and modern fuels. However, no evidence shows that even wealthy households has abandoned biomass use in Shanxi, mainly due to the “free” access to land and agricultural resources in these villages. Previous wealth of a household represented by house value can lead to more time spent on biomass collection. Access to land resources has positive effects on biomass use and collection. Other key variables include education, household size, the number of elderly members, and coal price. We also find huge differences between villages, indicating the importance of access to agricultural resources and markets.

  1. Rural Panel Surveys in Developing Countries: A Selective Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEIDONG; WANG; GUIHUA; XIE; LINGXIN; HAO

    2014-01-01

    Rural panel surveys are the most appropriate source of data for studying the unprecedented rapid migration and urbanization currently taking place in China and other developing countries. This paper provides a selective review, focusing on the panel survey methodologies of several studies, which are organized based on our proposed four key elements of panel surveys: representativeness, retrospect-prospect, multilevel tracking, and temporality. To maximize heterogeneity in urbanization and development over the last three decades, we select rural panel surveys from five Asian countries: India, Indonesia, Nepal, Thailand, and China. We analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the selected panel surveys to provide directions for designing future rural panel surveys in China and elsewhere in the developing world.

  2. Wind energy: An engineering survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahas, M.N.; Mohamad, A.S.; Akyurt, M.; El-Kalay, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive survey of literature about wind energy and wind machines, their design and their applications. The paper intends to provide those who plan for energy policy with thorough information about this renewable type of energy and the available machines that convert wind energy into useful mechanical or electrical work. The machines which are available at present range from the simple Savonius rotor to the powerful multi-blade windmills. The advantages and shortcomings of all types are discussed here.

  3. Thermographic survey of two rural buildings in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Ocana, S.; Canas Guerrero, I. [Departamento de Construccion y Vias Rurales, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez Requena, I. [Departamento de Materiales y Produccion Aeroespacial, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Two common housing prototypes of existing buildings in Spanish rural areas were surveyed by infrared inspection. The aim of the study is to assess the usefulness of infrared thermography as a technique for the detection of the thermal performance of rural buildings. For the traditional house the best results were obtained in the thermographic survey carried out in the evening. Contrarily, for the modern house the thermographic survey at daybreak provided more information. Infrared thermography allowed the comparison of the thermal performance of two buildings. (author)

  4. Photovoltaic energy for rural decentralized electrification; L`energie photovoltaique pour l`electrification rurale decentralisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diet, A.; Schmitt, A.; Soler, R. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Dept. Postes et Lignes; Marboeuf, G. [Electricite de France, 92 - Paris la Defense (France). Service International Distribution; Klein, B.; Pages, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction International

    1999-04-01

    What is at stake for the new coming century is to supply electricity and modernity to two billion of people in the rural areas of developing countries. To reach this goal it is necessary to organize the electrification of these countries. It means building electrification master plans and creating decentralized Services Companies. It is also necessary to ensure the quality of electrification systems using renewable energies. It is what the DRE Specifications written by EDF, ADEME and the French photovoltaic industry, are designed for. If these conditions are fulfilled, renewable energies seem to have a promising future in rural decentralized electrification. (authors)

  5. Rural electrification and energy poverty: Empirical evidences from Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Freitas, Marcos Aurelio Vasconcelos; da Silva, Neilton Fidelis [Energy Planning Program (PPE), Coordination of Post-Graduation Programs in Engineering of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Brazil., Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Bloco C, Sala C-211, Postal Code: 68565, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); International Virtual Institute of Global Change- IVIG, Centro de Tecnologia Bloco I - Sala 129, C.P. 68501 Cidade Universitaria, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on the reduction of energy poverty in Brazil through the analysis of 23,000 rural domiciles or rural properties between the years 2000 and 2004. The results indicate a fast change in the profile of energy consumption and a reduction of energy poverty. This new approach works as a complement, among other variables, to analyze and quantify the real economic, social and energy impacts in rural electrification programs, generally applied in developing countries. (author)

  6. Governance of Clean Energy in Rural Northwest Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayatullah Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective institutional arrangements at local and national levels are important for promotion of renewable energy in a country. The present study attempts to examine the institutional arrangements for development of domestic clean energy in rural northwest Pakistan. The survey data were collected from 100 randomly selected households in District Swat in northwest Pakistan. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test was applied wherever needed. The study describes that very limited number of public and private organizations were working on CD (Clean Development in the area. Surprisingly, no institutional arrangements exclusively meant for domestic clean energy promotion were observed in the area. The study concludes that the objectives of Kyoto Protocol in Pakistan can be achieved only if the government and NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations work together to initiate cost-effective renewable energy interventions, particularly in rural areas. This will not only improve the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the local context, but will play a key role in achieving the SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nation?s post-2015 development agenda.

  7. Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Cathy L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Stafford, Edwin R. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    When Renewable Energy for Rural Economic Development (RERED) began in 2005, Utah had no commercial wind power projects in operation. Today, the state hosts two commercial wind power plants, the Spanish Fork Wind Project and the Milford Wind Corridor Project, totaling 324 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity. Another project in San Juan County is expected to break ground very soon, and two others, also in San Juan County, are in the approval process. RERED has played a direct role in advancing wind power (and other renewable energy and clean technology innovations) in Utah through its education outreach and research/publication initiatives. RERED has also witnessed and studied some of the persistent barriers facing wind power development in communities across Utah and the West, and its research expanded to examine the diffusion of other energy efficiency and clean technology innovations. RERED leaves a legacy of publications, government reports, and documentary films and educational videos (archived at www.cleantech.usu.edu) to provide important insights for entrepreneurs, policymakers, students, and citizens about the road ahead for transitioning society onto a cleaner, more sustainable future.

  8. 2014 Rural Clinical School Training and Support Program Snapshot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Kumara; Greenhill, Jennene; Walker, Judi; Bailey, Jannine; Croft, Amanda; Doyle, Zelda; McCrossin, Timothy; Stevens, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The Rural Clinical Training and Support (RCTS) program is an Australian Government initiative to address the shortage of medical practitioners within rural and remote Australia. There is a large amount of published information about the RCTS program and rural medical student cohorts who have undertaken short- and long-term rotations. However, very little is known about the academic and professional staff involved in the program, a knowledge gap that may impact workforce and succession planning. To address this, the Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) initiated the pilot 2014 RCTS Snapshot survey to obtain data on the current RCTS workforce. All professional, academic and clinical academic staff (fixed-term and continuing, regardless of fraction) employed through the RCTS program were invited to complete a short, web-based survey. The survey was conducted from March to June 2014. The quantitative variables in the survey included demographics (age and gender), rural background and exposure, employment history in rural/regional areas and at rural clinical schools (RCS), experience and expertise, reasons for working at RCS, and future employment intentions. The last three questions also were of a qualitative open-ended format to allow respondents to provide additional details regarding their reasons for working at RCSs and their future intentions. The estimated total RCTS workforce was 970. A total of 413 responses were received and 316 (40.9%) complete responses analysed. The majority of respondents were female (71%), the 40-60-year age group was predominant (28%), and professional staff constituted the majority (62%). The below 40-year age group had more professionals than academics (21% vs 12%) and more than 62% of academics were aged above 50 years. Notably, there were no academics aged less than 30 years. The percentage of professional staff with a rural background was higher (62%) than that of academics with a rural background (42%). However

  9. Moving Forward on Sustainable Energy Transitions: The Smart Rural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Poggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the different aspects that promote Sustainable Development, energy is a critical concern to meet the needs of present and future generations in a global-scale and long-term vision. Going beyond the emergence of local responses such as “Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings” or “Smart Cities” models, a more comprehensive view on sustainable energy planning, which involves urban and rural areas as an energetically balanced whole, has to be promoted. Central to this approach is the concept of transition which urges to be conceived in a broader and incremental change of society as pleaded by Rob Hopkins in Transition Towns. Spatial planning is able to manage the complex relationships between environment, economy and society and can represent the driver to implement integrated approaches and adaptive strategies towards the transition from “the actual fossil fuels system” to “a future net zero fossil fuels system”. This paper presents how such questions are being addressed and developed within the field of the doctoral thesis entitled “Smart Rural: energy efficiency and renewable energies in rural areas”. The interdisciplinary research design flow and expected results that support the Smart Rural model are presented in order to debate the thesis statement : “Can an integrated planning process for energy efficiency and renewable energies in rural areas, support the “Net-Zero Energy” balance at the municipal scale?” Keywords: Sustainable energy; transition towns; smart rural; energy efficiency; renewable energies; energy balance.

  10. General surgery at rural Tennessee hospitals: a survey of rural Tennessee hospital administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Joseph B; Petros, Tommy J; Burkholder, Hans C; Clarke, P Chris

    2011-07-01

    Rural communities face an impending surgical workforce crisis. The purpose of this study is to describe perceptions of rural Tennessee hospital administrators regarding the importance of surgical services to their hospitals. In collaboration with the Tennessee Hospital Association, we developed and administered a 13-item survey based on a recently published national survey to 80 rural Tennessee hospitals in August 2008. A total of 29 responses were received for an overall 36.3 per cent response rate. Over 44 per cent of rural surgeons were older than 50 years of age, and 27.6 per cent of hospitals reported they would lose at least one surgeon in the next 2 years. The responding hospitals reported losing 10.4 per cent of their surgical workforce in the preceding 2 years. Over 53 per cent were actively recruiting a general surgeon with an average time to recruit a surgeon of 11.8 months. Ninety-seven per cent stated that having a surgical program was very important to their financial viability with the mean and median reported revenue generated by a single general surgeon being $1.8 million and $1.4 million, respectively. Almost 11 per cent of the hospitals stated they would have to close if they lost surgical services. Although rural Tennessee hospitals face similar difficulties to national rural hospitals with regard to retaining and hiring surgeons, slightly more Tennessee hospitals (54 vs 36%) were actively attempting to recruit a general surgeon. The shortage of general surgeons is a threat to the accessibility of comprehensive hospital-based care for rural Tennesseans.

  11. Rural energy for development: energetic investment evaluation using multi-sectorial models and the NTICs; Energie rurale pour le developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentaleb, N.

    2002-12-15

    Based on field work carry out in Africa as well as on theoretical analyses from the perspective of sectoral representation of economies, this dissertation examines the impacts of energetic investments. It is divided in two main parts. The first part of the dissertation situates the role that rural energy plays for development from the standpoint of offer. In this part, the energetic situation of Southern countries is examined through rural needs and in the context of growing environmental awareness (Chapter 1). Then, the different actors in the energy sector are presented, taking into account the failure of governments to create the necessary infrastructure themselves (Chapter 2). Finally, the object of this study is investigated through what can be learned from informal economics (Chapter 3). In the second part of the dissertation, Chapter 4 examines the advantages and disadvantages of using multi-sectoral models for the subject of evaluating energetic investments. In Chapter 5, the sectoral representation is specified in a social accounting matrix. In addition, the IRIS software is presented, which has been developed in the framework of this thesis. Finally, in Chapter 6, the results of surveys realized in Burkina Faso and Morocco are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Fossil energy and rural reconstruction: Potential for sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F.; van Lier, Hubert N. (Department of Physical Planning and Rural Development, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, (Netherlands))

    1993-12-01

    Environmental problems such as smog, acid rain and the greenhouse effect have drawn increased attention to the role of fossil energy. To obtain sustainable development, a reduction in fossil energy consumption is necessary, in urban as well as in rural areas. In rural areas, land use and land exploitation as well as energy consumption depend on such factors as soil properties, water management systems and physical layout. These factors, and in this way the energy consumption, can be influenced by rural reconstructions. Modern rural reconstructions aim at improvement of land and water use conditions, accessibility, and conditions for outdoor recreation and for nature development. Energy productivity and consumption for various land uses as related to reconstruction of the countryside have been studied. This research paper focuses on the improvement of water management and parcellation, the rural road system, outdoor recreation and landscape-ecological systems. Results are applied to the Melderslo Land Reallocation Project in the southern Province of Limburg, in the Netherlands. Environmental problems require a reduction in fossil energy consumption, part of which has to be achieved in rural areas. This study shows that rural reconstruction can contribute to this goal

  13. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  14. Evaluating tablet computers as a survey tool in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Steve M; Logan, Henrietta L; Guo, Yi; Marks, John G; Shepperd, James A

    2015-01-01

    Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants' responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer. We recruited a sample of low-income community members living in the rural southern United States. Participants were 170 residents (black = 49%; white = 36%; other races and missing data = 15%) drawn from 2 counties meeting Florida's state statutory definition of rural with 100 persons or fewer per square mile. We randomly assigned participants to complete scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and Regulatory Focus Questionnaire) along with survey format usability ratings via paper-and-pencil or tablet computer. All participants rated a series of previously validated posters using a tablet computer. Finally, participants completed comparisons of the survey formats and reported survey format preferences. Participants preferred using the tablet computer and showed no significant differences between formats in mean responses, scale reliabilities, or in participants' usability ratings. Overall, participants reported similar scales responses and usability ratings between formats. However, participants reported both preferring and enjoying responding via tablet computer more. Collectively, these findings are among the first data to show that tablet computers represent a suitable substitute among an underrepresented rural sample for paper-and-pencil methodology in survey research. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Energy for rural development; L'energie pour le developpement rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    One of the conclusions of the Earth Summit held in Johannesburg in 2002 is that energy lies, together with water, health and education, are the core of the sustainable development strategy. Indeed, energy is now considered as a priority in the fight against poverty. Since the last years, the number of rural energy programmes has been increased but it is essential to ensure their durability. For this reason, maintenance and training have to be integrated at the build-up stage. Two movies, based on concrete examples in Ivory Coast, Mali, Morocco, Zimbabwe, show that it is possible to improve efficiency by taking into account maintenance and training in the projects. The movies prove the impact of these two actions in the long term success of the projects. (author)

  16. Energy for rural development; L'energie pour le developpement rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    One of the conclusions of the Earth Summit held in Johannesburg in 2002 is that energy lies, together with water, health and education, are the core of the sustainable development strategy. Indeed, energy is now considered as a priority in the fight against poverty. Since the last years, the number of rural energy programmes has been increased but it is essential to ensure their durability. For this reason, maintenance and training have to be integrated at the build-up stage. Two movies, based on concrete examples in Ivory Coast, Mali, Morocco, Zimbabwe, show that it is possible to improve efficiency by taking into account maintenance and training in the projects. The movies prove the impact of these two actions in the long term success of the projects.

  17. Rural versus urban preferences for renewable energy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Ariel; Hanley, Nick [Environmental Economics Research Group, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Colombo, Sergio [Department of Agricultural Economics, Instituto Andaluz de Investigacion Agraria IFAPA, Huelva (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    Development of renewable energy resources, such as wind farms and hydro-electric schemes, are being promoted as a new method of expanding and diversifying employment in rural areas. However, such energy projects are associated with a range of environmental impacts which might be detrimental to other economic activities, such as those based on nature tourism. The authors use a Choice Experiment to quantify peoples' preferences over environmental and employment impacts that may result from the deployment of renewable energy projects in rural areas of Scotland, focussing in particular on any differences between the preferences of urban and rural dwellers, and on heterogeneity within these groups. Rural and urban households are shown to have different welfare gains which are dependent on the type of renewable energy technology and on the scale of project under consideration. (author)

  18. Smart sustainable energy for the rural built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available robust methodology to adapt innovative and renewable smart grid technologies to deliver real and sustainable decentralised energy solutions for remote and rural communities, thereby improving livelihoods and opportunities for inclusive growth...

  19. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  20. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hude Quan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  1. Health literacy in rural areas of China: hypertension knowledge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

    2013-03-18

    We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  2. Biogas as a source of rural energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalia, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    The hilly state of Himachal Pradesh, with nearly 2.15 million cattle and 0.7 million buffalo, has the potential to install 0.64 million biogas plants of 1 m{sup 3} size. These plants could generate nearly 4.90 x 105 m{sup 3} of biogas, equivalent to 3.07 x 10{sup 5} L kerosene per day to meet domestic energy needs of nearly one-fourth of its rural population. During 1982--1998, only 12.8% of this potential was achieved. The percent of possible potential achieved in plant installations in 12 districts of this state, namely, Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Kullu, Lahul-Spiti, Mandi, Shimla, Sirmour, Solan, and Una, are 35.35, 1.70, 20.96, 8.67, 1.54, 6.96, 0.00, 18.49, 3.84, 8.521, 18.29, and 13.23%, respectively. There is a need to strengthen biogas promotion, particularly in the districts of Kangra, Mandi, Solan, and Una, which range from mid-hill to low-hill terrain and which have large potential due to high concentration of bovine population. Increased costs and comparatively low rate of subsidies has resulted in a decreasing rate of plant installation annually, from 3,500 during 1987--1992 to fewer than 1,200 during 1995--1998. The percentage of functioning plants was 82% in 1987--1988 but has decreased to 63%. To ensure proper installation and functionality of plants, the authors discuss the needed improvements in the biogas promotion program.

  3. Sustainable Energy Solutions for Rural Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Riley [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Brutkoski, Donna [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Farnsworth, David [Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Larsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-22

    The state of Alaska recognizes the challenges these rural communities face and provides financial support via the Power Cost Equalization (PCE) program. The PCE subsidizes the electricity prices paid by customers of these high-cost utilities. The PCE program is designed to spread the benefits of Alaska’s natural resources more evenly throughout the state. Yet even with this subsidy, electricity is still much more expensive for these rural customers. And beyond the PCE, other forms of assistance to rural utilities are becoming scarce given the state’s current fiscal environment. Nearly 90 percent of Alaska’s unrestricted budget funds in recent years have been tied to oil royalties—a sector experiencing significant declines in production and oil prices. Consequently, as Alaska looks to tighten budgets, the challenge of lowering rural utility costs, while encouraging self-sufficiency, has become more urgent.This study examines reliability, capital and strategic planning, management, workforce development, governance, financial performance and system efficiency in the various communities visited by the research team. Using those attributes, a tier system was developed to categorize rural Alaska utilities into Leading and Innovating Systems (Tier I), Advanced Diesel Systems (Tier II), Basic Systems (Tier III), and Underperforming Systems (Tier IV). The tier approach is not meant to label specific utilities, but rather to provide a general set of benchmarks and guideposts for improvement.

  4. Integrated energy planning for sustainable development in rural areas: A case study from Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Singh, Usha Bajpai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy is required for every aspect of our daily life. At present, commercial energy consumption makes up about 65% of the total energy consumed in India. This includes coal with the largest share of 55%, followed by oil at 31%, natural gas at 11% and hydro energy at 3%. Non-commercial energy sources consisting of firewood, cow dung and agriculture wastes account for over 30% of the total energy consumption. The critical feature of India’s energy sector and linkages to economy is the import dependence on crude and petroleum products. Import bill is likely to grow to more than 100% in the near future because of population explosion and improved living standard in the country. Being a tropical country India has unlimited potential for producing renewable energy sources. These sources of energy can play an important role in the sustainable development by providing basic energy needs of rural and remote areas. A survey of energy consumption pattern has been carried out in different sector domestic, agricultural, transport, rural industries and miscellaneous uses in a cluster of 3 villages, district Ballia, Uttar Pradesh India during 2008. The questionnaires have been filled by gram pradhan, respective old persons and head of the family of the surveyed households. This paper discusses the current energy status, choice of energy options and potential of renewable energy systems for creating sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. The outline plan at decentralized level was prepared with the objective of providing energy security in villages by meeting total energy needs for cooking, lighting and motive power through various forms of available renewable energy sources.

  5. Rural renewable energy (prospects) in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomson, T. [Estonian Energy Research Institute, Tallinn (Estonia); Kaeaermann, L. [Estonian National Maritime Board, Tallinn (Estonia); Raesaar, P. [Tallinn Technological University, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Total potential share of renewables (biomass, wind, hydropower and solar) in Estonia is 35 %. Total real share (wood, wood chips) of renewables is only about 4.5 % (1995). The constrains and prospects of the development are discussed. The attention is focused on rural conditions

  6. Smart sustainable energy for rural community development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable access to electricity is a basic precondition for improving people’s lives in rural areas, for enhanced healthcare and education, and for growth within local economies. Currently more than 1.5 billion people worldwide do not have access...

  7. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selenge Tsend

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods: A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results: A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1, ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609 of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7 and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0. Conclusion: Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes.

  8. Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

  9. Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

  10. Managing energy vulnerability and resilience for rural communities in Northern Denmark by means of energy atlases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    heat supply. With little room for extending mortgage, investments in added insulation or efficient heating technology become less affordable. About a quarter of the Danish population lives in rural areas where energy efficient heat supply and low-energy buildings are outside reach. Typical current...... energy policy is established by showing the marginal impact of rural poor housing on national energy balances, and its meaning for the ambitious government targets....

  11. Wind energy literature survey no. 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2015-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawnfrom recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering andIndustrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of SolarEnergy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systemsalong with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list...

  12. Wind energy literature survey no. 34

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawnfrom recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering andIndustrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of SolarEnergy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systemsalong with a number of per...

  13. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, Zolzaya; Suuri, Bujinlkham; Dashbal, Enkhbayar; Oidov, Baatarkhuu; Roth, Felix; Zinstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Dambadarjaa, Davaalkham

    2014-01-01

    Background After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1), ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609) of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7) and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0). Conclusion Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes. PMID:25685600

  14. 2007 Survey of Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC study is a unique comprehensive compilation of global energy resources. Complementing the BP Statistical Review and the World Energy Outlook, it details 16 key energy resources with the latest data provided by 96 WEC Member Committees worldwide. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, NGOs, industry, academia and the finance community. This 21st edition is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy.

  15. Energy Consumption by Rural Households in Northern Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; ZHOU Jin; ZHANG Guo-qiang

    2009-01-01

    TKs study was conducted to investigate the household energy consumption in rural districts in northern Hunan and to help explore the sustainable and ecological energy policy.Questionnaires were used to ac-quire the details of energy consumption,and the electricity equivalent calculation was used in the energy statis-tics in four villages.The energy consumption in these four villages is influenced by the economic condition,geo-graphic position and landform and the local custom.The traditional biomass energy and coal briquette are the primary energy source for cooking and heating,but they are used in a very low efficiency and result in poorIAQ.For sustainability,further measures should be taken to optimize the energy consumption with the efficient use of biomass energy,coal and electricity.

  16. Yemen Arab Republic - energy survey 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    With the help of numerous data a short survey of the energy situation in Yemen is given. After some remarks on the energy policy the developments of the individual energy carriers and power generation are described. Furthermore, some remarks on foreign trade are made.

  17. Expanding Rural Access to Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Services Delivery Project (ESDP) in Sri Lanka was an exemplary renewable energy access programme. Consisting of a Credit Component, a Wind Farm Component and a Capacity Building Component, the $53.8 million ESDP successfully installed 21,000 off-grid Solar Home Systems (SHS), 31...... megawatts (MW) of grid-connected mini-hydro capacity, 574 kilowatts (kW) of off-grid village hydroelectric systems serving 2,897 households, and a 3MW grid-connected wind farm from 1997 to 2002. By the end of 2004, two years after the ESDP’s close, the Sri Lankan renewable energy industry boasted more than...

  18. Expanding Rural Access to Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Services Delivery Project (ESDP) in Sri Lanka was an exemplary renewable energy access programme. Consisting of a Credit Component, a Wind Farm Component and a Capacity Building Component, the $53.8 million ESDP successfully installed 21,000 off-grid Solar Home Systems (SHS), 31...... megawatts (MW) of grid-connected mini-hydro capacity, 574 kilowatts (kW) of off-grid village hydroelectric systems serving 2,897 households, and a 3MW grid-connected wind farm from 1997 to 2002. By the end of 2004, two years after the ESDP’s close, the Sri Lankan renewable energy industry boasted more than...

  19. Stroke in rural coastal Ecuador: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Santamaría, Milton; Zambrano, Mauricio; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Pow-Chon-Long, Freddy; Del Brutto, Victor J; Ochoa, Elio; Valdiviezo, Elsy; Santibáñez, Rocío

    2014-04-01

    Stroke will be South America's next epidemic. Therefore, information on stroke particularities in the region will help to overcome its impact burden. We evaluated prevalence, pattern of sub-types, and pathogenic mechanisms underlying stroke in Atahualpa, a village representative of rural coastal Ecuador. In a three-phase epidemiologic study, suspected cases were detected by a door-to-door survey (Phase I). Then, neurologists evaluated suspected cases and randomly selected negative persons (Phase II), and confirmed patients underwent complementary exams (Phase III). We found 20 stroke patients (mean age 70 years, 60% men) among 642 persons aged ≥40 years. Stroke prevalence was 31.15‰ that increased with age. Most patients had sub-cortical infarctions associated with leukoaraiosis or microbleeds. Hypertensive arteriolopathy was the most likely mechanism underlying strokes (55% patients). Intracranial arterial lesions were found in 47% cases. Extracranial atherosclerotic lesions or cardiac sources of emboli were not found in any case. Comparison of our findings with a previous survey performed in the same village showed an alarming increase in stroke prevalence (from 14.08‰ in 2003 to 31.15‰ in 2012, P = 0.03).

  20. 77 FR 2954 - Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program... Business-Cooperative Service (RBS) will hold meetings for stakeholders focusing on Rural Development's... Development State Directors. Stakeholders must contact the appropriate Rural Development State Office in...

  1. NSTA Conducts Nuclear Energy Survey for AIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A survey conducted to determine teacher's instructional resources, methods, materials, and attitudes toward various uses of nuclear energy resulted in nearly one thousand science teachers throughout the nation responding. Results of survey are presented and five recommendations for action are made. (DF)

  2. NSTA Conducts Nuclear Energy Survey for AIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A survey conducted to determine teacher's instructional resources, methods, materials, and attitudes toward various uses of nuclear energy resulted in nearly one thousand science teachers throughout the nation responding. Results of survey are presented and five recommendations for action are made. (DF)

  3. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  4. Reflections on Beijing Rural Energy Policies and New Rural Construction ——Using Digital Information Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wang

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the Beijing construction in accordance with the philosophy of environmental protection, solid depth to carry out a series of policies and measures, such as rural energy structure optimization and adjustment; rural residential seismic energy-saving; village green landscaping. If displaying and recording movement states and regulars of the beautiful countryside construction through this information process, It will greatly strengthen regulation of the relationship between new rural people, to realize system optimization, make urban and rural become conducive to human survival and sustainable development of space.

  5. Analysis on energy intakes survey of village residents in Shijiazhuang rural area%石家庄农民秋季能量摄入量抽点调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世联; 王薇; 卢振敏; 朴建华; 张建新; 卓勤; 何宇纳; 张帆

    2012-01-01

    目的 抽点调查分析石家庄农村成年人能量摄入量和能量构成情况,为我国修订新的营养标准提供科学依据.方法 抽取石家庄市某郊县,随机抽取32名散居成年人作为调查对象.采用24h膳食回顾法结合烹调油和食用糖记录法进行入户调查,通过查阅食物成分表计算每日的能量摄入量和能量成分.结果 每日能量摄入量男性为(11 449.4±2 538.8) kJ即(2 736.5±606.8) kcal,女性为(7 823.8±1 461.7)KJ即(1 869.9±349.3) kcal;每日摄入蛋白质、脂肪和碳水化合物男性组分别为(80.13±15.43)、(86.70±32.55)和(399.17±108.05)g;女性组分别为(53.84±11.68)、(64.67±23.38)和(272.92±46.64)g.与我国2000年制定的推荐摄入量(recommended nutrient intakes,RNI)比较,女性组能量摄入量低于轻体力活动RNI值,女性组蛋白质摄入量低于RNI值.结论 本抽点调查农村女性居民的能量摄入量低于我国轻体力活动RNI值,男女居民均需增加能量成分中蛋白质的比例.%Objective Energy intakes of adults in Shijiazhuang rural area were investigated as the basis of estimation in energy ingredients requirements. Methods Dietary intakes of 32 adults in Shijiazhuang rural area were investigated by 24 h dietary recall combined with oil and sugar recording methods. Results The day average energy intake were (11 449.4±2 538.8) kJ in male, (7 823.8±1 461.7) kJ in female respectively. The average protein, fat and carbohydrate intakes (g/d) were 80. 13±15.43, 86.70±32.55 and 399. 17±108.05 in male, 53.84±11.68, 64.67±23.38 and 272.92±46.64 in female respectively. The amount of energy intakes in female were lower than the recommended nutrient intakes ( RNI) of 2000. The ratio of protein intakes in female was lower than the recommended value of Chinese RNI. Conclusions The amount of energy intakes in female are lower than the RNI. Village residents need to increase the ratio of protein intakes.

  6. Energy use in rural building; Uso de energia em construcao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Alessandro Torres; Daga, Jacir [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), M.C. Rondon, PR (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisas em Ambiencia do Oeste do Parana], e-mail: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Saglietti, Jose Roberto Correa [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Campos, Aloisio Torres de [EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Campos, Diogo Santos [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2004-07-01

    The employed energy in agricultural systems study, its flows, distribution and conversion constitute important instrumental for evaluation of the sustainability of these systems; mainly is tended in bill the current crisis in the energy sections. This procedure facilitates the determination of the processes, materials and equipment of larger energy consumption, indicating economy options. One of the main lacks that is noticed in the literature is the lack of information concerning the energy consumptions for constructions and facilities used in the several agricultural productive processes in Brazil. The work had as objective to accomplish an estimate of the involved energy in the construction of a rural building, in the Intensive System of Milk Production of EMBRAPA Gado de Leite, in Coronel Pacheco-MG Brazil. For the development of the work the energy coefficients lifted by the Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais was used (CETEC). With the obtained results it could be observed that the energy index for construction area differentiated enough of those presented by the literature, being found values of 587,09 MJ.m-2, when the total area was linked and 622,23 MJ.m-2, when it was linked the useful hay storage static capacity area. The item of larger energy consumption for the analyzed type of rural building went to masonry wall (3,18 kJ.m-2), contributing with 46,77% of the total employed energy in the construction of the building. The covering structure, even considering included the structural elements, as pillars, it presented low energy consumption (50,35% of the total employed energy). The employed methodology confirmed its usefulness for the determination of materials and processes energy saving, in an ecological point of view. (author)

  7. Exploratory survey of informal vendor-sold fast food in rural South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploratory survey of informal vendor-sold fast food in rural South Africa. ... to understand access to food better and how this influences food choice in rural ... of the Witwatersrand-Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System ...

  8. Usefulness of a Survey on Underage Drinking in a Rural American Indian Community Health Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Roberts, Jennifer; Calac, Daniel; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of a survey on underage drinking in a rural American Indian community health clinic. One hundred ninety-seven youth (90 male, 107 female; age range 8-20 years) were recruited from clinic waiting rooms and through community outreach. The study revealed that the usefulness of the survey was twofold: Survey results…

  9. A preliminary study of the potential contribution of renewable energy to rural diversification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hislop, D.W.; Whitby, M. [Energy for Sustainable Development Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1995-09-01

    Results of a study of the socio-economic benefits of the development of renewable energy in rural areas are presented in this report. The characteristics of rural areas are examined, and the benefits of renewable energy to rural diversification are explored. Case studies are given, and modelling using the SAFIRE model is discussed. (UK)

  10. Use of ultralight aircraft for material location and road surveys in remote rural areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jones, DJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available of ultralight aircraft for material location and road surveys in remote rural areas. Proceedings 22nd ARRB Conference: Research into Practice. Canberra, Australia: Australian Road Research Board. (ISBN 1-876592-49-4). 22nd ARRB CONFERENCE... THE USE OF ULTRALIGHT AIRCRAFT FOR MATERIAL LOCATION AND ROAD SURVEYS IN REMOTE RURAL AREAS D JONES Transportek, CSIR. PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Tel (+2712) 841-3831. Fax (+2712) 841-3585. email djones@csir.co.za ABSTRACT...

  11. Energy saving scheme for internet provision in rural africa: LESS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available access in rural areas is expected to improve the lifestyles of the community. Such access will address digital divide problems in schools, local libraries, e-Health centres, small scale businesses and public safety. As a result, it is essential... – the longer the data exchange period (Phase II), the longer the sleeping or dozing time of the nodes. The longer the dozing time, more energy is saved since the sleeping nodes consumes little or no energy at all. As a result, or proposed LESS-MAC protocol...

  12. The role of renewables in meeting rural energy needs in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Pradeep [Indian Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, New Delhi (India)

    1999-01-01

    South Asia is the poorest and most deprived region in the world. Rural population represent upto 75% of its population. Traditionally the rural masses have been dependent on fuelwood and agro-residues - both due to poverty and due to lack of local fossil resources. South Asia is expected to continue its dependence on renewable sources of energy for meeting rural energy needs to the year 2010. New renewables are expected to enter rural markets as technology develops. (Author)

  13. Evaluation System for Farmers’ Satisfaction Degree in the Green Energy Saving Rebuilding of Rural Residence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In view of the present situation of measuring a green residence just by energy saving and environmental protection,we propose that we should build the rural residence more from the farmer’s view and set up an evaluation system based on farmers satisfaction.A total of 16 factors affecting the farmers’ satisfaction degree of green energy saving rebuilding of rural residence are selected.Questionnaire survey on 110 peasant households is carried out under different situations in Guanzhong region in Shaanxi Province,so as to obtain the importance score of evaluation index.During constructing the evaluation system for farmers’ satisfaction degree,Factor Analysis Method is used to classify the related influencing factors.Subjective analysis of Analytic Hierarchy Process and the objective analysis of Factor Analysis Method are combined together to determine the weights of factors at different grades.Then,the final evaluation model is obtained,which provides guidance for the further green energy saving rebuilding of rural residence in China.

  14. Rural tourism as a rural territorial development strategy: a survey for the Colombian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranda C. Yesid

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Involving the use of endogenous resources, know-how and territorial identity, Rural Territorial Development (RTD is a recent approach based on improving local productive systems competitiveness on the basis of regional inherent multifunctionality and pluriactivity. In recent years, rural tourism has become one of the strategies adopted for promotion, development and integration of local agents, leading not only to improved competitiveness but to higher income as well. Te current work presents recent trends and advances in the development of rural tourism as an income diversifcation strategy for local rural populations. It analyzes the impact of this activity in rural areas, together with its participation and importance in the tourism sector. Finally, some experiences in the development of rural tourism in Colombia and its normative and legal frame work are reviewed.

  15. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  16. Wind energy literature survey no. 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals, including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  17. Wind Energy literature survey no. 32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  18. Wind energy literature survey no. 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2015-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawnfrom recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering andIndustrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of SolarEnergy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systemsalong with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list...... is limitedexclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separatedinto broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the categorythought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  19. Wind Energy literature survey no. 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list...... is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  20. European Workshop on Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop is a part of the E.C. Thermie B project `Dissemination of Promising Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-Eastern Europe`. The presentations held in the workshop are collected in this publication. The subjects are: TEKES (Technology Development Centre) Boost Technology; Renewable Energy in Latvia; Rural Renewable energy (Prospects) in Estonia; Renewable energy from Rural Electrification; Techno-Economic Analysis published as a summary; Practical Experiences of Small-Scale Heat Generation from Fuelwood in Finland; Solar systems for Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Biomass for Energy: Small-Scale Technologies; Photovoltaic Applications for Rural Areas in the North-East Europe

  1. Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichel, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

  2. Orthopedic Surgery in Rural American Hospitals: A Survey of Rural Hospital Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichel, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Rural American residents prefer to receive their medical care locally. Lack of specific medical services in the local community necessitates travel to a larger center which is less favorable. This study was done to identify how rural hospitals choose to provide orthopedic surgical services to their communities. Methods: All hospitals in 5 states…

  3. Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy for Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security and Equitability of Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates on how Malaysia’s development landscapes has been poweredby cheap oil and gas making it dependent and addicted on using large amounts of fossil fuels. As acountry that is primarily depended on fossil fuels for generating power supply, Malaysia needs tocogitate of long-term energy security due to fossil fuel depletion and peak oil issues. Loss of theseresources could leadto thereduction of power generation capacitywhich will threaten the stabilityof the electricity supply in Malaysia. This could potentially influence in an increase in electricitycosts which lead to a phase of power scarcity and load shedding for the country. With the risk ofinterrupted power supplies, rural households, especially those of low-income groups areparticularly vulnerable to the post-effects of a power outage and an inequitable distribution to thepeople. Distributed generation of electricity by solar PVs diminishes the vulnerability of thesehouseholds and can also offer an income to them by feeding the power supply to the national gridthrough Feed-in Tariff scheme. At the moment, the deployment of solar PV installations is still inthe introductory stage in Malaysia, where roof-mounted PV panels are only available to commercialand urban residential buildings. This is due to the lack of a suitable renewable energy policy forrural households and the high cost of the solar PV technology. This paper will put forward ananalysis for incorporating solar photovoltaic on roofs of rural houses by identifying the energyconsumption of these households and the extent to which PVs can alleviate electricity insecurity.The results present significant potential for distributed PV power generation in rural areas inMalaysia which shown a considerable amount of electricity needed to be harvested from roofmountedsolar PV for rural people in Malaysia.

  4. Wind Energy literature survey no. 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  5. Wind Energy literature survey no. 27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  6. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  7. Wind energy literature survey no. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  8. Wind energy literature survey no. 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  9. Wind Energy literature survey no. 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  10. Wind Energy literature survey no. 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  11. Wind Energy literature survey no. 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and so on. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  12. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  13. Wind energy literature survey no. 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  14. Wind Energy literature survey no. 22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  15. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems, along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  16. Wind Energy literature survey no. 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  17. Wind energy literature survey no. 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  18. Wind Energy literature survey no. 29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  19. Wind Energy literature survey no. 26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  20. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  1. Wind Energy literature survey no. 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  2. Wind Energy literature survey no. 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  3. Wind Energy literature survey no. 20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    to journals not specifi cally devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fi t several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The list is limited exclusively...

  4. Wind Energy literature survey no. 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifi cally devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fi t several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  5. Empirical Research on Impact of Marketization of Agricultural Products on Income of Rural Households Based on Questionnaire Survey of Rural Household

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey and research on rural households in Changshu City and Jiangdu City of Jiangsu Province, this paper researches the microeconomic subject-commercial decision-making and production behaviours of the rural households, under the circumstance of development of agricultural product market in different regions. We conduct random sampling questionnaire survey on the rural households in 7 villages of Changshu City and Jiangdu City, Jiangsu Province, and obtain data, in order to judge and verify the theory, explore the relationship between market development of agricultural products, behaviours of rural households and income of rural households, and establish the econometric model of impact of market of agricultural products on income per capita of rural households. The research shows that there is difference in the level of socio-economic development in different regions of Jiangsu Province, and the effect of the same factors in different regions is not quite similar; the income structure of rural households and marketization development have great impact on total income per capita of rural households; the planting structure has significant impact on agricultural income per capita. Then the countermeasures and suggestions are put forward as follows: strengthen rural marketization building and broaden sales channel; reinforce information-based building and promote transparency and openness of rural market information; adjust the production structure of rural households rationally, coordinate agricultural production activities and non-agricultural activities of rural households, and balance the planting of cash crops and grain crops.

  6. Community biomass handbook. Volume 3: How wood energy is revitalizing rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan. Bihn

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended to help people better understand how wood energy is helping to revitalize rural Alaskan communities by reducing energy costs, creating jobs, and helping to educate the next generation. The village of Koyukuk shows how modern wood energy systems can meet the challenges of remote rural Alaska. To fully succeed, however, these...

  7. Policy implications and impact of household registration system on Peasants’ Willingness to return rural residential lands: Evidence from household survey in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengzhou Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a growing body of literature on China’s household registration system and rural land transfer, few studies have examined the impact of the household registration system on peasants’ willingness to return rural residential land. This paper aims to fill this gap and uses household survey data to measure the impacts of household registration system on peasants’ willingness to return rural residential land. The results show that the household registration system reduced the farmers’ enthusiasm to exit the rural residential land, that is, household registration system had a significant negative impact on farmers’ willingness to return rural residential land.

  8. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN): Customer satisfaction survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    1996-04-22

    The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) Customer Satisfaction Survey was developed and executed in support of EREN`s continuous quality improvement (CQI) plan. The study was designed to provide information about the demographic make up of EREN users, the value or benefits they derive from EREN, the kinds and quality of services they want, their levels of satisfaction with existing services, their preferences in both the sources of service and the means of delivery, and to provide benchmark data for the establishment of continuous quality improvement measures. The survey was performed by soliciting voluntary participation from members of the EREN Users Group. It was executed in two phases; the first being conducted by phone using a randomly selected group; and the second being conducted electronically and which was open to all of the remaining members of the Users Group. The survey results are described.

  9. Energy Sovereignty in Rural Areas: Off-Grid Paradigm for Strengthen the Use of Renewable Energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Dell’Anna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe policy guidelines for the UN General Assembly recognize the need of one universal and transformative agenda for sustainable development, based on the rights, and with people and the planet at the centre. This paper concerns a study of compact system designed to ensure energy independence and then energy sovereignty in marginal rural areas: the Off-Grid Box. This system is an integrated technical device, held in a 6 feet container, which provides - in a Plug&Play way – essential services and resources, namely electricity, hot water, rain water harvesting and storage for washing or irrigation and a water purification process to pasteurize or distil pure water (H2O. Key objectives are reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the exploitation of renewable energy sources, safeguarding the quality and the availability of clean water, promoting a more sustainable and healthy way of life. OGB can be modulated in different geographical contexts and demonstrate the feasibility and the strategic use of total off grid systems for individual units ensuring energy sovereignty of local communities. These systems should be designed in terms incorporated in the territory in order to realize the small-scale-smart-grid. These scenarios are interesting in rural areas especially for small family farms that adopt sustainable models and methods of production with low environmental impact and low energy demand. Keywords: Energy sovereignty, renewable energy, off-grid system, small scale farming, rural development.

  10. Leveraging rural energy investment for parasitic disease control: schistosome ova inactivation and energy co-benefits of anaerobic digesters in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Remais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooking and heating remain the most energy intensive activities among the world's poor, and thus improved access to clean energies for these tasks has been highlighted as a key requirement of attaining the major objectives of the UN Millennium Development Goals. A move towards clean energy technologies such as biogas systems (which produce methane from human and animal waste has the potential to provide immediate benefits for the control of neglected tropical diseases. Here, an assessment of the parasitic disease and energy benefits of biogas systems in Sichuan Province, China, is presented, highlighting how the public health sector can leverage the proliferation of rural energy projects for infectious disease control. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: First, the effectiveness of biogas systems at inactivating and removing ova of the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum is experimentally evaluated. Second, the impact of biogas infrastructure on energy use and environmental quality as reported by surveyed village populations is assessed, as is the community acceptance of the technology. No viable eggs were recovered in the effluent collected weekly from biogas systems for two months following seeding with infected stool. Less than 1% of ova were recovered viable from a series of nylon bags seeded with ova, a 2-log removal attributable to biochemical inactivation. More than 90% of Ascaris lumbricoides ova (used as a proxy for S. japonicum ova counted at the influent of two biogas systems were removed in the systems when adjusted for system residence time, an approximate 1-log removal attributable to sedimentation. Combined, these inactivation/removal processes underscore the promise of biogas infrastructure for reducing parasite contamination resulting from nightsoil use. When interviewed an average of 4 years after construction, villagers attributed large changes in fuel usage to the installation of biogas systems. Household coal usage decreased

  11. Leveraging rural energy investment for parasitic disease control: schistosome ova inactivation and energy co-benefits of anaerobic digesters in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remais, Justin; Chen, Lin; Seto, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Cooking and heating remain the most energy intensive activities among the world's poor, and thus improved access to clean energies for these tasks has been highlighted as a key requirement of attaining the major objectives of the UN Millennium Development Goals. A move towards clean energy technologies such as biogas systems (which produce methane from human and animal waste) has the potential to provide immediate benefits for the control of neglected tropical diseases. Here, an assessment of the parasitic disease and energy benefits of biogas systems in Sichuan Province, China, is presented, highlighting how the public health sector can leverage the proliferation of rural energy projects for infectious disease control. First, the effectiveness of biogas systems at inactivating and removing ova of the human parasite Schistosoma japonicum is experimentally evaluated. Second, the impact of biogas infrastructure on energy use and environmental quality as reported by surveyed village populations is assessed, as is the community acceptance of the technology. No viable eggs were recovered in the effluent collected weekly from biogas systems for two months following seeding with infected stool. Less than 1% of ova were recovered viable from a series of nylon bags seeded with ova, a 2-log removal attributable to biochemical inactivation. More than 90% of Ascaris lumbricoides ova (used as a proxy for S. japonicum ova) counted at the influent of two biogas systems were removed in the systems when adjusted for system residence time, an approximate 1-log removal attributable to sedimentation. Combined, these inactivation/removal processes underscore the promise of biogas infrastructure for reducing parasite contamination resulting from nightsoil use. When interviewed an average of 4 years after construction, villagers attributed large changes in fuel usage to the installation of biogas systems. Household coal usage decreased by 68%, wood by 74%, and crop waste by 6%. With

  12. UK energy policy: findings from two surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1996-08-01

    The paper summarises the results of two surveys, carried out in November 1992 and December 1994, of the opinions of UK energy professionals on the effectiveness of UK energy policy, what objectives energy policy should seek to achieve and how they should be achieved. Most respondents said that there should be a long term energy policy, at the level of both the UK and Europe. Such a policy should create a regulatory framework that complements market forces to improve the efficiency of energy use and environmental quality, to enhance security of supplies and to reduce the costs of energy supplies. Around two-thirds, however, said that existing UK energy policies were inappropriate and ineffective. There were serious doubts about the effectiveness of the regulation of gas and electricity, particularly the latter. Opinions tended to be somewhat more favourable in 1994 than in 1992. Just under half the respondents wanted nuclear power to occupy a special place in policy, while two-fifths wanted a special place for electricity from renewable sources. While the experts` desired energy policy objectives were broadly similar to those listed by the Government in 1994, the rankings were in many cases different. The energy professionals were not fully convinced that the objectives had been satisfactorily achieved. The paper also draws some wider lessons from the UK`s recent policy experience. 18 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  13. Urban-rural mental health differences in Great Britain: findings from the National Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paykel, E; Abbott, R; Jenkins, R; Brugha, T; Meltzer, H

    2003-01-01

    Studies of urban-rural differences in prevalence of non-psychotic mental disorder have not given consistent findings. Such differences have received relatively little study in Great Britain. Data from 9777 subjects in the Household Survey of the National Morbidity Survey of Great Britain were analysed for differences between urban, semi-rural, and rural areas. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed by scores on the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), together with alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and receipt of treatment from general practitioners. Associations with other characteristics were examined by logistic regression. Urban subjects had higher rates than rural of CIS-R morbidity, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence, with semi-rural subjects intermediate. Urban subjects also tended to be members of more deprived social groups, with more adverse living circumstances and greater life stress--factors themselves associated with disorder. Urban-rural differences in alcohol and drug dependence were no longer significant after adjustment for these factors by logistic regression, and differences on CIS-R morbidity were considerably reduced. There were no differences in treatment. There are considerable British urban-rural differences in mental health, which may largely be attributable to more adverse urban social environments.

  14. Rural energy balance of Colombia and its socioeconomic context 1981. Balance energetico rural de Colombia y su contexto socioeconomico 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report discusses the methodology used and results obtained from a two-year study of the energy behavior of family and production units in rural Colombia. It gives a brief outline of a theoretical discussion of methodology and then an analysis of the use of energy in a sociocultural, economic, and technological context in rural areas. The methodology used to select the sample of family and productive units is given as is the criteria in the design of the questionnaire. Then the results are given for the study of 2,018 homes, extrapolated for six different energy regions. Energy consumption for agricultural and agroindustrial activities is given for eleven cultivations, including coffee. Rural industry is scarce, mostly the production of mud bricks and tiles. The study confirms the importance of petroleum derivatives to agriculture in Colombia. All the above information is recapitulated in a countrywide conclusion.

  15. A Survey of Rural Hospitals’ Perspectives on Health Information Technology Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Murphy, Alison; McNeese, Nathan; Reddy, Madhu; Purao, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    A survey of rural hospitals was conducted in the spring of 2012 to better understand their perspectives on health information technology (HIT) outsourcing and the role that hospital-to-hospital HIT partnerships (HHPs) can play as an outsourcing mechanism. The survey sought to understand how HHPs might be leveraged for HIT implementation, as well as the challenges with forming them. The results suggest that HHPs have the potential to address rural hospitals’ slow rate of HIT adoption, but there are also challenges to creating these partnerships. These issues, as well as avenues for further research, are then discussed. PMID:24551373

  16. A survey of rural hospitals' perspectives on health information technology outsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Murphy, Alison; McNeese, Nathan; Reddy, Madhu; Purao, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    A survey of rural hospitals was conducted in the spring of 2012 to better understand their perspectives on health information technology (HIT) outsourcing and the role that hospital-to-hospital HIT partnerships (HHPs) can play as an outsourcing mechanism. The survey sought to understand how HHPs might be leveraged for HIT implementation, as well as the challenges with forming them. The results suggest that HHPs have the potential to address rural hospitals' slow rate of HIT adoption, but there are also challenges to creating these partnerships. These issues, as well as avenues for further research, are then discussed.

  17. The priorities of the energy infrastructure modernization in rural areas of the Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Viktorovna Chaika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the problems of development and modernization of energy infrastructure priorities in rural areas of the Komi Republic. For the most part of rural population the achieved level of energy supply is the necessary minimum for the needs, and it has the low parameters of the energy and economy efficiency. The main directions of the rural energy supply modernization should be: the gas supply system development, the electric grid capacity growth and the construction of the modern small energy technologies (small central heating and power plants, modular boiler plants, efficient solid fuel boilers

  18. Physical activity of rurally residing children with a disability: A survey of parents and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakely, Luke; Langham, Jessica; Johnston, Catherine; Rae, Kym

    2017-06-01

    Children residing in rural areas face unique barriers to physical activity participation. Further, while children with a disability who reside in metropolitan areas face barriers hindering physical activity, rurally residing children with a disability may face the augmented combination of these barriers that could have negative health implications. Parents are often the key advocates for children with disabilities and are likely to have valuable insight into the opportunities and barriers to physical activity for their child. The aim of this study was to investigate parents' perceptions of physical activity opportunities for their child with a disability in a rural area. A mixed method survey examining parent's perceptions of their child's physical activity and possible barriers to participation was mailed to rurally residing parents of children with a disability. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies and proportions. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. There were 34 completed surveys, a response rate of 37%. Participants' responses indicated 74% of children were not meeting daily recommendations of physical activity. Participation barriers including emotional, physical and environmental issues. Three main themes emerged from qualitative data; segregation, access to facilities and resources and barriers specific to the child. The children in this study were from rural areas and face similar barriers to children in metropolitan areas. However, they are also confronted with the same barriers children without a disability in rural areas face, participating in physical activity. This may have detrimental effects on their health and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Can solar -biogas hybrid systems be the solution to sustainable energy supply in rural areas?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Access to modern energy services is a fundamental prerequisite for property reduction and sustainable human development. Many remote rural South African communities are characterized by low energy demand and low population densities, making...

  20. Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: results of a survey of emergency managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Mai; Cooper, John; Simon, Matthew; Ricchetti-Masterson, Kristen; Grabich, Shannon; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county's hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups.

  1. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikram, Vinu; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Aleksic, J.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.

    2016-08-01

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from ‘Science Verification’, and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  2. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  3. Alleviating Energy Poverty through innovation: The case of Jyotigram Yojana (rural lighting scheme) of Gujarat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Access to electricity is important for alleviation energy poverty in rural areas of developing countries. In spite of rural electrification schemes people in numerous villages do not have access to electricity because of inadequate and erratic power supply. The Jyotigram Yojana (Rural Lighting Scheme) of Gujarat in India transformed the rural electricity distribution scenario creating immense opportunities for socio-economic development. It shows how vision and political will can transcend the boundaries of technical and financial expertise and systemic rigidities, and facilitate successful adoption of simple but innovative approaches for alleviation of energy poverty and bringing about socio-economic development.

  4. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Illinois U., Urbana; Barkhouse, Wayne; /North Dakota U.; Beldica, Cristina; /Illinois U., Urbana; Bertin, Emmanuel; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Dora Cai, Y.; /NCSA, Urbana; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Darnell, J.Anthony; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.; Daues, Gregory E.; /NCSA, Urbana; Jarvis, Michael; /Pennsylvania U.; Gower, Michelle; /NCSA, Urbana; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Observ.

    2008-07-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent.

  5. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, T; Allam, S; Aleksic, J; Amara, A; Bacon, D; Balbinot, E; Banerji, M; Bechtol, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Blazek, J; Dodelson, S; Bonnett, C; Brooks, D; Bridle, S; Brunner, R J; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Caminha, G B; Carlsen, J; Carnero-Rosell, A; Carollo, M; Carrasco-Kind, M; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; Clerkin, L; Collett, T; Conselice, C; Crocce, M; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Davis, T M; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Drlica-Wagner, A; Etherington, J; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Foley, R J; Frieman, J; Garcia-Bellido, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Giannantonio, T; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Guarnieri, P; Gutierrez, G; Hartley, W; Honscheid, K; Jain, B; James, D J; Jeltema, T; Jouvel, S; Kessler, R; King, A; Kirk, D; Kron, R; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Lima, M; Lin, H; Maia, M A G; Manera, M; Maraston, C; Marshall, J L; Martini, P; McMahon, R G; Melchior, P; Merson, A; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Mohr, J J; Morice-Atkinson, X; Naidoo, K; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Ostrovski, F; Palmese, A; Papadopoulos, A; Peiris, H; Peoples, J; Plazas, A A; Percival, W J; Reed, S L; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Ross, A; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E S; Sadeh, I; Sako, M; Sanchez, C; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Sheldon, E; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Soumagnac, M; Suchyta, E; Sullivan, M; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, R C; Tucker, D; Vieira, J D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wechsler, R H; Wester, W; Weller, J; Whiteway, L; Wilcox, H; Yanny, B; Zhang, Y; Zuntz, J

    2016-01-01

    This overview article describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterise dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper we focus on additional science with DES, emphasi...

  6. Development of a Survey to Assess the Acceptability of an Innovative Contraception Practice among Rural Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective contraceptive methods is needed in Canada, particularly in rural areas, where unintended pregnancy rates are high and specific sexual health services may be further away. A rural pharmacist may be the most accessible health care professional. Pharmacy practice increasingly incorporates cognitive services. In Canada many provinces allow pharmacists to independently prescribe for some indications, but not for hormonal contraception. To assess the acceptability for the implementation of this innovative practice in Canada, we developed and piloted a survey instrument. We chose questions to address the components for adoption and change described in Rogers’ “diffusion of innovations” theory. The proposed instrument was iteratively reviewed by 12 experts, then focus group tested among eight pharmacists or students to improve the instrument for face validity, readability, consistency and relevancy to community pharmacists in the Canadian context. We then pilot tested the survey among urban and rural pharmacies. 4% of urban and 35% of rural pharmacies returned pilot surveys. Internal consistency on repeated re-phrased questions was high (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.901. We present our process for the development of a survey instrument to assess the acceptability and feasibility among Canadian community pharmacists for the innovative practice of the independent prescribing of hormonal contraception.

  7. Organizing for rural energy development: Improved cookstoves, local organizations, and the state in Gujarat, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniates, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    Proponents of the sustainable development of Third World States frequently urge the integration of local non-government organizations (NGOs) into State-sponsored, centrally administered programs of rural-resource development. This study draws on literatures on energy use, biomass technologies, and organization theory, and on interviews, archival research, and organizational surveys of eight Gujarati NGOs conducted in India in 1986 and 1987. It concludes that the conventional wisdom guiding State-NGO collaboration is in important ways flawed. Though driven by political and fiscal imperatives to integrate local NGOs in State programs, national planners are ill-equipped to cope with the uncertainty and vulnerability such collaboration brings. Their understandable response is to structure collaboration in ways inimical to overarching goals of local participation and flexible administration. Simultaneously, at the local level, unmanaged systems of collaboration - organized around a view of local organizations as self-guiding and self-correcting - generates a degradation of capacity. Organizational assumptions driving the sustainable development of India's (and much of the Third World's) rural energy resources must be re-evaluated.

  8. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saud, T. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Pathak, H. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  9. Evaluating potential renewable energy resources in Poultney, Vermont: A GIS-based approach to supporting rural community energy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, John; Letendre, Steven (Green Mountain College, One Brennan Circle, Poultney, VT 05764, US)

    2010-09-15

    The current electricity infrastructure in the United States relies on a centralized distribution network that carries a heavy carbon footprint and is susceptible to disruption and failure. Rural communities are more susceptible to longer term interruption and should strive towards a local distributed energy model. This transition will require municipalities to engage with and seek input from community stakeholders. This paper describes a possible model for supporting rural community energy projects using a Geographic Information System (GIS), which was used to develop an inventory of energy resource potential in a rural Vermont town for biomass, wind, and solar technologies. (author)

  10. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Joseph J; Beldica, Cristina; Bertin, Emmanuel; Cai, Y Dora; da Costa, Luiz; Darnell, J Anthony; Daues, Gregory E; Jarvis, Michael; Gower, Michelle; Lin, Huan; Martelli, leandro; Neilsen, Eric; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ogando, Ricardo; Parga, Alex; Sheldon, Erin; Tucker, Douglas; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Stoughton, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at NCSA and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our appr...

  11. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tryjanowski

    Full Text Available Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas. The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  12. Winter Bird Assemblages in Rural and Urban Environments: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Sparks, Tim H; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Hetmański, Tomasz; Martyka, Rafał; Skórka, Piotr; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Myczko, Łukasz; Kunysz, Przemysław; Kawa, Piotr; Czyż, Stanisław; Czechowski, Paweł; Polakowski, Michał; Zduniak, Piotr; Jerzak, Leszek; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Goławski, Artur; Duduś, Leszek; Nowakowski, Jacek J; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Wysocki, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Urban development has a marked effect on the ecological and behavioural traits of many living organisms, including birds. In this paper, we analysed differences in the numbers of wintering birds between rural and urban areas in Poland. We also analysed species richness and abundance in relation to longitude, latitude, human population size, and landscape structure. All these parameters were analysed using modern statistical techniques incorporating species detectability. We counted birds in 156 squares (0.25 km2 each) in December 2012 and again in January 2013 in locations in and around 26 urban areas across Poland (in each urban area we surveyed 3 squares and 3 squares in nearby rural areas). The influence of twelve potential environmental variables on species abundance and richness was assessed with Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Principal Components and Detrended Correspondence Analyses. Totals of 72 bird species and 89,710 individual birds were recorded in this study. On average (± SE) 13.3 ± 0.3 species and 288 ± 14 individuals were recorded in each square in each survey. A formal comparison of rural and urban areas revealed that 27 species had a significant preference; 17 to rural areas and 10 to urban areas. Moreover, overall abundance in urban areas was more than double that of rural areas. There was almost a complete separation of rural and urban bird communities. Significantly more birds and more bird species were recorded in January compared to December. We conclude that differences between rural and urban areas in terms of winter conditions and the availability of resources are reflected in different bird communities in the two environments.

  13. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md.Danesh, E-mail: danesh@cu.ac.bd [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Foysal, Muhammad Abul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Kobayashi, Hajime [Laboratory of Forest Environment and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month{sup -1} in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month{sup -1}. This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: >The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. > Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. > Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).> Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.> The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  14. Neurocysticercosis an epidemiological survey in two small rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter O. Arruda

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the epidemiological findings related to human taeniasis and cysticercosis, and swine cysticercosis in two small rural communities, Postinho (P and Tigre (T, of South Brazil. The prevalence of epilepsy was 2.04% (P and 2.25% (T. The prevalence of neurocysticercosis was 0.47% (P and 0.93% (T, and prevalence of swine cysticercosis was 12.8% (P and 27.8% (T. Taenia sp. infestation wis detected in 4.3% (P and 4.6% (T of stool examinations. The hyperendemic human taeniasis and cysticercosis and swine cysticercosis seems to be related to poor hygienic habits of the population, and the free access to human excreta by the pigs.

  15. (Resurveying Mediterranean Rural Landscapes: GIS and Legacy Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Witcher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Legacy data have always been important for Mediterranean archaeologists. Over the past decade, one specific category of legacy data, that deriving from regional survey, has become particularly important. Not only has the scale of research questions become larger (requiring greater reliance on others' data, but the surface archaeological record is deteriorating (diminishing the ability to recover good data. The legacy data from many individual surveys have now been subject to digitisation and GIS analysis, successfully redeploying data collected for one purpose within new theoretical and interpretive frameworks. However, a key research focus is now comparative survey - using the results of many different Mediterranean surveys side-by-side to identify regional variability in settlement organisation, economy and demography. In order to overcome the significant methodological differences between these surveys, attention has focused on the documentation of metadata. Yet, many legacy data lack vital information about their creation and hence how they might be (reinterpreted and compared. GIS has been advanced as an environment in which to contain, order and analyse the data necessary for comparative survey. However, there is a danger that the technology will facilitate inappropriate use of these datasets in a way that fails to acknowledge and understand the very real differences between them. Here, emphasis is placed upon the use of GIS as a space for exploratory data analysis: a process that encompasses and emphasises the integral processes of digitisation, visualisation and simple analysis for the characterisation of datasets in order to derive an alternative form of metadata. Particular emphasis is placed upon the interaction of past human behaviour (e.g. in the Roman period and archaeological recovery (i.e. the behaviour of archaeologists in the present, or recent past; these two sets of 'social action' combine to create distinctive archaeological

  16. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  17. The influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon; Les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdem, Maxime; Edzengte, Joseph

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon. The method used is in two stages: the first stage is a statistical analysis that has allowed to determine the level of energy poverty in rural areas, which is 7.5%. The second stage assesses the influencing factors of this poverty type. The results show that the revenue impacts on energy poverty, as well as the size of the household, in which the arrival of an additional person increases by 1.16% the chances that the household will suffer from energy poverty. [French] L'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun. La methode mise en oeuvre procede en deux etapes : la premiere est une analyse statistique qui a permis de determiner le seuil de pauvrete energetique en milieu rural, qui se situe a 7,5%. La deuxieme etape evalue les determinants de ce type de pauvrete. Les resultats indiquent que le revenu explique la pauvrete energetique, de meme que la taille du menage dont l'arrivee d'une personne supplementaire accroit de 1,16% les chances de ce menage d'etre pauvre sur le plan energetique.

  18. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  19. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  20. Wind, Sun and Water: Complexities of Alternative Energy Development in Rural Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Thomas; Garwood, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on recent research with NGO-driven projects in rural Cajamarca, Peru, we examine the paradoxes of relying on wind, solar and micro-hydro generation of electricity for rural community development. In spite of cost, vagaries of these energy resources and limited material benefits, especially with wind and solar systems, villagers are eagerly…

  1. Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Networks: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Seyed Mahdi; Gomez, Carles

    2017-06-22

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained significant momentum. However, the original design of BLE focused on star topology networking, which limits network coverage range and precludes end-to-end path diversity. In contrast, other competing technologies overcome such constraints by supporting the mesh network topology. For these reasons, academia, industry, and standards development organizations have been designing solutions to enable BLE mesh networks. Nevertheless, the literature lacks a consolidated view on this emerging area. This paper comprehensively surveys state of the art BLE mesh networking. We first provide a taxonomy of BLE mesh network solutions. We then review the solutions, describing the variety of approaches that leverage existing BLE functionality to enable BLE mesh networks. We identify crucial aspects of BLE mesh network solutions and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we highlight currently open issues.

  2. Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Seyed Mahdi; Gomez, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained significant momentum. However, the original design of BLE focused on star topology networking, which limits network coverage range and precludes end-to-end path diversity. In contrast, other competing technologies overcome such constraints by supporting the mesh network topology. For these reasons, academia, industry, and standards development organizations have been designing solutions to enable BLE mesh networks. Nevertheless, the literature lacks a consolidated view on this emerging area. This paper comprehensively surveys state of the art BLE mesh networking. We first provide a taxonomy of BLE mesh network solutions. We then review the solutions, describing the variety of approaches that leverage existing BLE functionality to enable BLE mesh networks. We identify crucial aspects of BLE mesh network solutions and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we highlight currently open issues. PMID:28640183

  3. 77 FR 2948 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... system feasibility study applications: March 30, 2012. For energy audits and renewable energy development... efficiency improvement, and feasibility study applications, submit complete paper applications to the Rural.... Applications for renewable energy feasibility studies will be accepted up to March 30, 2012. Energy audit...

  4. Renewable energy for rural electrification in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Joy

    The environmental destruction caused by traditional methods of generating electricity and the environmental benefits of using renewable energy technologies are well-known. In additional to the environmental benefits, small, decentralized renewable energy systems are often the most economical way to electrify the rural areas of developing countries, where most of the world's unelectrified population lives. However, diffusion of these systems is proceeding very slowly and many of these projects have failed. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that an important determinant of the success of these projects is the extent to which they are compatible with the social and cultural attributes of the communities in which they are located. The hypothesis was examined by evaluating sixteen solar, wind and hybrid electrification projects in Mexico, using a procedure which rates projects according to criteria which reflect technical, economic and financial, environmental, and sociocultural factors deemed necessary to achieve success. Reasons for poor ratings within these criteria were then used to determine six preconditions for project success. The evaluation indicates that most of the wind and hybrid projects visited had low success ratings because of technical problems. The solar home system projects experienced few technical problems, yet many were unsuccessful. Most of the projects were unsustainable due to lack of financial resources, insufficient financial mechanisms, poor user training. In none of the communities were the projects economically viable, nor were they compatible with the needs of the users. The future success of even the most successful projects seen is doubtful because of the lack of provision for any maintenance by trained technicians and the scarcity of financial resources. A direct relationship between failure at the sociocultural criteria and overall project failure was not found. In most cases, failure at particular criteria could be attributed

  5. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    OpenAIRE

    Jizhong Shao; Huixian Chen; Ting Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named so...

  6. The Development, Validation and Use of the Rural and Remote Teaching, Working, Living and Learning Environment Survey (RRTWLLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Joy; Young, Janelle

    2015-01-01

    Research in rural and remote schools and communities of Queensland resulted in the development and validation of the Rural and Remote Teaching, Working, Living and Learning Environment Survey (RRTWLLES). Samples of 252 teachers and 191 community members were used to validate the structure of this questionnaire. It was developed within the standard…

  7. Selective solar absorbers: A cost effective solution for access to clean energy in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this present era of global energy crisis there is a greater need to turn to renewable, cost effective and sustainable energy resources. In rural Africa, in particular, the demand for domestic energy is even higher. This is exacerbated...

  8. Strengthening financial innovation in energy supply projects for rural exploitations in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez [Department of Business Administration, School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, Antonio San Segundo [Department of Business Administration, School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. San Luis, 77, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Sustainable energy supply models are needed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals established by the United Nations for 2015. On the other hand, sustainability of agricultural exploitations in rural areas is a pre-requisite to achieve the objective of halving the proportion of people that lives in poverty, and productivity of such exploitations is closely related to energy supply. This article analyses the results of a survey of experts, suggesting that there may be good chances to innovate in the financing of agricultural electrification projects in developing countries. The experts' opinion suggests that new sources of financing could be mobilised and oriented towards the promotion of sustainable initiatives in developing countries. Financial mechanisms should be adapted to the characteristics of decentralised systems of energy production with renewable sources or with mixed technologies, in order to overcome the barriers derived from the high initial price of the applications, and to the specific conditions of the agricultural sector. The participation of funds from the beneficiaries and the incorporation of the beneficiaries in the initial phases of project organisation would allow for the development of productive solutions with a higher potential to generate resources and to articulate sustainable proposals. (author)

  9. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  10. Supplementing energy demand of rural households in Bangladesh through appropriate biogas technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashekuzzaman, S.M.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Rafiqul Hoque, A.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has sought to show the potential of energy recovery from rurally available agro and household organic wastes and thus, the possible impact on supplementing energy demand, reducing deforestation, and replacing fossil fuel as well as avoided greenhouse gases. Results show that co......-digestion of a wide range of manure, crop residues and household wastes with cow manure was successful to produce increased gas yield than what would be if cow dung is digested separately and the energy value from this can supplement 57–79% of the rural energy demand, depending on the methane yield from organic waste...... mixtures. However, particularly considering for cooking purpose, it can save 1586–2213 Kg firewood/Household/year. Therefore, the results suggests that implementation of co-digestion in the centralized plant could be a viable solution to produce decentralized energy for the rural households in terms...

  11. Supplementing energy demand of rural households in Bangladesh through appropriate biogas technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashekuzzaman, S.M.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Rafiqul Hoque, A.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has sought to show the potential of energy recovery from rurally available agro and household organic wastes and thus, the possible impact on supplementing energy demand, reducing deforestation, and replacing fossil fuel as well as avoided greenhouse gases. Results show that co......-digestion of a wide range of manure, crop residues and household wastes with cow manure was successful to produce increased gas yield than what would be if cow dung is digested separately and the energy value from this can supplement 57–79% of the rural energy demand, depending on the methane yield from organic waste...... mixtures. However, particularly considering for cooking purpose, it can save 1586–2213 Kg firewood/Household/year. Therefore, the results suggests that implementation of co-digestion in the centralized plant could be a viable solution to produce decentralized energy for the rural households in terms...

  12. An epidemiological survey of cataract among adults aged 50 years and above in rural, Shaanxi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate prevalence of cataract and status surgery of cataract among adults aged 50 years and above in rural, Shaanxi Province, and to evaluate the rate of blindness caused by cataracts and postoperative effects.METHODS: Cluster sampling was used in randomly selection in Shaanxi Province from Jan. to Dec. in 2011, among the 3494 individuals from Liuba county, Huangling county, Lantian county and Baqiao district, 2124 aged 50 years and above received questionnaire survey and eye examination in the study. WHO diagnostic criteria and cataracts diagnostic criteria were used in the evaluation. RESULTS: Of 1912 participated the eye survey and response rate was 90%, the prevalence of cataracts was 36.66%, and the prevalence of cataracts among adults aged 50 years and above was 15.80%, the prevalence of cataracts among adults aged 70 years and above was 68.71%. The prevalence of age-related cataracts increased obviously with aging(PPCONCLUSION: Cataract blindness is a serious public health problem in rural, Shaanxi Province. Prevention of blindness in Shaanxi Province has made some achievements, and the prevalence of cataract and visual impairment have decreased to some extent. PHACO has been carried out in rural areas, however, the penetration and surgical techniques of PHACO should be further improved.

  13. Evaluation of the use of renewable energy sources and peat in rural municipal economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, E. A.; Ryapin, I. Yu.; Urvatsev, I. V.; Tsyba, V. Ye.

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness of the use of renewable energy sources (RES) and peat in production of electric and heat energy in rural places of the country by comparing tariffs (prices) of energy versus total expenditures on generation of electric and heat energy when using RES and peat. The appraisal of a cost-effective scale in application of energy plants working on RES and peat in the rural side in Russia is made by using a model-information set developed at the Energy Institute of the National Research University (Higher School of Economics). It is shown that with the current tariffs, the production by use of RES and peat may become economically effective, which means to achieve 1.8 billion kW/h of electric and 250 million GJ of heat energy per year, and, in the long run, 30 billion kW of electric and up to 400 million GJ per year. In comparison of total expenditures on production of electric and heat energy in rural areas (which are considerably above the established tariffs), it becomes cost effective to produce the electric energy of up to 12 billion kW in the nearest years and up to 80 billion kW in the long run. The need for the governmental policy motivating the projects based on use of RES and peat and the lines of this policy for the rural areas of the country are outlined.

  14. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, “Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China” [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article.

  15. Preliminary Possibility of Utilising Renewable Energy for Domestic Electricity Generation in Rural and Regional Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the applicability of domestic/home power generation technologies utilizing sustainable/renewable energies in rural and regional Australia. Applicability will cover several aspects such as sustainability and viability. The question is why renewable/sustainable energy? Energy is the keystone of nature and society. Human civilization was spawned eventually by building machines that could use energy stored in fossil fuels. Since the Industrial Revolution the population, econom...

  16. Energy stress during pregnancy and lactation: consequences for maternal nutrition in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, D.S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Yunus, M.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship of energy stress during pregnancy and lactation to maternal body stores in marginally nourished rural Bangladeshi women. Subjects and methods: Two-hundred and fifty-two women were followed from 5 - 7 months of pregnancy until 6 months postpartum. Energy intake w

  17. Energy conservation and self-sufficiency in rural property; Geracao e auto-suficiencia de energias em imovel rural familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, Sergio Luis [Instituto Paranaense de Assistencia Tecnica e Extensao Rural (EMATER), Toledo, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: slschuch@hotmail.com; Lawder, Jose Henrique [Evolucao Engenharia Eletrica, Toledo, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: jose_lawder@uol.com.br; Feiden, Armin; Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: armin_feiden@yahoo.com.br, cecn1@yahoo.com.br, jairsiqueira@unioeste.br

    2011-07-01

    This paper aims to highlight an innovative system designed to generate bioenergy in Toledo - PR, applied in a rural residential property. This system is composed by a simple digester model, because it eliminates masonry and hood storage. Cattle slurry and water from barn's floor cleaning are conducted to an anaerobic biodigester chamber. Biogas production is stored in a polypropylene canvas balloon. After compression, the biogas is used to replace liquefied petroleum gas in central water heating and cooking foods. The wood used in sugar cane molasses has been replaced with higher efficiency by biogas. Also was installed Otto engine providing thermal and electrical power generation at the same time. The electrical power output is biphasic and about 70 Amperes. This system deployed in rural property provides energy self-sufficiency and contribute to the reduction of operational costs of the property. (author)

  18. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC. METHODS: We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85% of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67 of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52 abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30 medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. CONCLUSIONS: Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4% for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  19. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V; Soon, Judith A; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  20. Barriers to Rural Induced Abortion Services in Canada: Findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578

  1. Constructing a survey over time: Audio-visual feedback and theatre sketches in rural Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Hertrich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge dissemination is an emerging issue in population studies, both in terms of ethics and data quality. The challenge is especially important in long term follow-up surveys and it requires methodological imagination when the population is illiterate. The paper presents the dissemination project developed in a demographic surveillance system implemented in rural Mali over the last 20 years. After basic experience of document transfer, the feedback strategy was developed through audiovisual shows and theatre sketches. The advantages and drawbacks of these media are discussed, in terms of scientific communication and the construction of dialogue with the target population.

  2. Diet and dyslipidemias in a Lithuanian rural population aged 25-64: the CINDI survey

    OpenAIRE

    Petkevičienė, Janina; Klumbienė, Jūratė; Ramažauskienė, Vitalija; Kriaučionienė, Vilma; Šakytė, Edita; Grabauskas, Vilius Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the dietary intake of a Lithuanian rural population and to assess the relationship between diet and dyslipidemias. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in 5 municipalities of Lithuania in 2007. The random sample was obtained from lists of 25- to 64-year-old inhabitants registered at primary health care centers (n=1739). The food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall was used for the evaluation of nutrition habits. The ...

  3. Mobile Health Access for Diabetics in Rural Areas of Turkey - Results of a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Emine; Savini, Marco

    Extending the reach of medical professionals in rural areas is one of the goals using mobile health technologies. This paper illustrates the results of a survey conducted in 2008 in Turkey asking medical professionals about their current ICT usage and opinions about using mobile technologies in order to help patients with diabetes. The goal is to reduce the information gap between patients and medical professionals by allowing sending the information electronically using mobile technologies. This will improve both the interaction between various actors and also improve the treatment, as important trends of this chronic disease can be discovered on time.

  4. Wind energy literature survey no. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    To keep readers up-to-date in the field, each issue of Wind Energy will contain a list of relevant published articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Also note that the inclusion in the list...

  5. Wind energy literature survey no. 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    To keep readers up-to-date in the field, each issue of Wind Energy will contain a list of relevant published articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Also note that the inclusion in the list...

  6. Energy Survey. Spring 2012; Energie Enquete. Voorjaar 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strijker, B. [VNU Exhibitions, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Elburg, A. [Energiemedia, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Nearly 5000 professionals in various branches in the Netherlands (Industry, Construction and real estate, Business services and consultancy, Government, Architecture) have been asked questions about their strategy in the field of energy saving and energy generation. Fourteen questions have been asked, divided into the following subcategories: Energy and energy saving in the organization; Current use of sustainable energy sources; Investing in energy saving and sustainable energy sources; Propositions [Dutch] Bijna 5000 professionals binnen verschillende branches in Nederland (Industrie, Bouw en vastgoed, Zakelijke dienstverlening en consultancy, Overheid, Architectuur) zijn ondervraagd over hun strategie op het gebied van energiebesparing en energieopwekking. De veertien vragen zijn ingedeeld in de volgende subcategorieen: Energie en energiebesparing binnen de organisatie; Huidig gebruik van duurzame energiebronnen; Investeringen in energiebesparing en duurzame energiebronnen; Stellingen.

  7. The dimensions of land use change in rural landscapes: lessons learnt from the GB Countryside Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Sandrine

    2009-07-01

    Rural landscapes are highly dynamic and their change impacts on a number of ecological processes such as the dynamics of biodiversity. Although a substantial amount of research has focused on quantifying these changes and their impact on biodiversity, most studies have focused on single dimensions of land use change. This lack of integration in land use change studies can be explained by the fact that data on the spatial, temporal, and ecological dimensions of land use are seldom available for the same geographical location. In this paper, the benefits of taking into account these three dimensions are illustrated with results derived from the Great Britain Countryside Surveys (CS), a large-scale monitoring programme designed to assess change in the extent and ecological condition of British habitats. The overview of CS results presented in this paper shows that (1) changes in land use composition will translate into a variety of spatial patterns; (2) the temporal stability of land use is often lower than can be expected; and (3) there can be large-scale shifts in the ecological condition of the land use types that form our rural landscapes. The benefits of integrated rural landscape studies are discussed in the context of other national monitoring programmes.

  8. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named solar energy block-based construction. The conscious approach of using volumetric blocks provides superior adaptability and expansibility in integration with a steel structure, thereby reducing the construction time and cost. Allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout, this approach can be customized to the end-user’s precise location and climate, making rural residential buildings much more flexible and modern. To take advantage of adequate solar energy resource in western China, the blocks are associated with active and passive solar energy technologies, thereby reducing pollution, mitigating global warming, and enhancing sustainability. Therefore, we concluded that solar energy block-based construction could bring significant benefits to the environment, economy, and society. It could also promote sustainable development in the rural regions of western China.

  9. The Problems in Rural English Teaching and the Optimization Path: A Study Based on the Chinese General Social Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The new curriculum, new ideas and new requirements concerning English teaching have made the rural English teaching face unprecedented challenges. There are many problems contributing to the poor effect of rural English teaching, such as outdated teaching equipment, unreasonable curriculum design, insufficient teaching staff, asymmetrical teaching content, family education and students' personal problems. Based on the Chinese General Social Survey data, it is found that in terms of English re...

  10. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Modeling of waste to energy systems for rural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namuli, Rachel; Pragasen, Pillay

    2010-09-15

    A system to convert waste into heat and electricity is presented, where biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of manure, and fed to an internal combustion engine and generator. An overall system model that would meet annual heating and electrical loads, is formulated. The model is suited to rural farms that have no access to electricity or are connected to a diesel grid. The system is applicable to warm and cold climates. The sizing of the engines is such that they will adequately meet the annual heating and electrical load profile according to a given biogas sharing ratio.

  12. The Problems in Rural English Teaching and the Optimization Path: A Study Based on the Chinese General Social Survey Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; TAN

    2014-01-01

    The new curriculum,new ideas and new requirements concerning English teaching have made the rural English teaching face unprecedented challenges. There are many problems contributing to the poor effect of rural English teaching,such as outdated teaching equipment,unreasonable curriculum design,insufficient teaching staff,asymmetrical teaching content,family education and students’ personal problems. Based on the Chinese General Social Survey data,it is found that in terms of English reading,English speaking or English writing,the current English level of China’s rural residents is lagging behind. From the average,the reading level of rural residents is better than the speaking and writing level,but the paired T-test results show that there are no significant differences between them,suggesting that under the current system of rural English teaching,the English level of rural residents is constrained to a low level. To improve the rural English teaching in the future,it is necessary to pay close attention to the following aspects: stabilizing the investment in rural education; optimizing the English teaching content; converting the philosophy of education; increasing teacher training; establishing the new linkage system.

  13. Population survey sampling methods in a rural African setting: measuring mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byass Peter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based sample surveys and sentinel surveillance methods are commonly used as substitutes for more widespread health and demographic monitoring and intervention studies in resource-poor settings. Such methods have been criticised as only being worthwhile if the results can be extrapolated to the surrounding 100-fold population. With an emphasis on measuring mortality, this study explores the extent to which choice of sampling method affects the representativeness of 1% sample data in relation to various demographic and health parameters in a rural, developing-country setting. Methods Data from a large community based census and health survey conducted in rural Burkina Faso were used as a basis for modelling. Twenty 1% samples incorporating a range of health and demographic parameters were drawn at random from the overall dataset for each of seven different sampling procedures at two different levels of local administrative units. Each sample was compared with the overall 'gold standard' survey results, thus enabling comparisons between the different sampling procedures. Results All sampling methods and parameters tested performed reasonably well in representing the overall population. Nevertheless, a degree of variation could be observed both between sampling approaches and between different parameters, relating to their overall distribution in the total population. Conclusion Sample surveys are able to provide useful demographic and health profiles of local populations. However, various parameters being measured and their distribution within the sampling unit of interest may not all be best represented by a particular sampling method. It is likely therefore that compromises may have to be made in choosing a sampling strategy, with costs, logistics the intended use of the data being important considerations.

  14. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  15. Awareness, knowledge, and practice: A survey of glaucoma in north Indian rural residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Rewri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies done on the prevalence of glaucoma have reported a high proportion of undiagnosed patients. Late diagnosis is related to increased risk of glaucoma associated with visual disability. Lack of awareness and non-availability of appropriate screening procedures are among the major reasons for non-diagnosis or late diagnosis of glaucoma. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the level of awareness about glaucoma among the North Indian rural population. Materials and Methods: A group-administered, questionnaire-based survey, involving 5000 rural residents (aged 20 and above was conducted through random sampling. The questionnaire was structured to evaluate the level of awareness and knowledge about glaucoma and the effect of gender, education status, and glaucoma diagnosis was also studied. The source of awareness about glaucoma was also questioned. Results: Of the 5000 individuals enrolled for the survey, responses from 4927 (98.5%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 98.2 - 98.9 participants, including 3104 males (63%; 95% CI: 61.7 - 64.3 and 1823 females (37%; 95% CI: 35.7 - 38.3 were evaluated. A total of 409 (~8.3%; 95% CI: 7.6 - 9.14 respondents were aware about glaucoma and only 93 (1.89%; 95% CI: 1.55 - 2.31 were qualified as having knowledge about glaucoma as per the set questionnaire. Education was the only variable significantly correlated (P value < 0.001 with the awareness and knowledge of glaucoma out of the parameters included in this study. Close acquaintance with a glaucoma patient was the most common source of information. Conclusions: There is a lack of awareness about glaucoma among the rural residents of North India. The study findings stress the need to spread awareness about glaucoma for prevention of glaucoma-related blindness.

  16. Equity of inpatient health care in rural Tanzania: a population- and facility-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Grace A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the equity of utilization of inpatient health care at rural Tanzanian health centers through the use of a short wealth questionnaire. Methods Patients admitted to four rural health centers in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania from May 2008 to May 2009 were surveyed about their illness, asset ownership and demographics. Principal component analysis was used to compare the wealth of the inpatients to the wealth of the region's general population, using data from a previous population-based survey. Results Among inpatients, 15.3% were characterized as the most poor, 19.6% were characterized as very poor, 16.5% were characterized as poor, 18.9% were characterized as less poor, and 29.7% were characterized as the least poor. The wealth distribution of all inpatients (p Conclusion The findings indicated that while current Tanzanian health financing policies may have improved access to health care for children under five, additional policies are needed to further close the equity gap, especially for obstetric inpatients.

  17. Renewable energy-based electricity for rural social and economic development in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a project whose goals include the establishment of a pilot renewable energy-based rural energy services enterprise to serve communities in the Mamprusi East District, focused on: economically productive activities; community services; household non-thermal energy. The program also seeks to establish the technical, economic, financial, institutional, and socio-cultural requirements for sustainability, to demonstrate bankability and financial sustainability, as a pre-investment prelude to commercial growth of such projects, and to establish technical, financial, and service performance standards for private sector rural energy service companies. This project is being implemented now because the government is undergoing structural reform, including privatization of the power sector, there is active foreign capital available for international development, and the government and people are committed to and able to pay for renewable energy services.

  18. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) conducted December 7--11, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with PETC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at PETC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site Survey activities at PETC. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the Plan's results will be incorporated into the PETC Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 64 refs., 23 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Small Hydro Power-An Important Renewable Energy Sources for Rural Electrification in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MamudaAbdullahi

    2005-01-01

    This paper is trying to highlight the importance of constructing small hydropower station as the alternative source of energy for rural electrification in Nigeria and stressedthe need for the Federal Government of Nigeria to provide a clear open policy that will make environment favourable and safe for local and foreign private investors on small Hydropower.

  20. Energy consumption in rural China: A household model for three villages in Jiangxi Province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.; Heerink, N.B.M.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2006-01-01

    In China, fuelwood and coal are the most important energy sources for rural households in poor areas. Along with population and economic growth, excessive fuelwood collection is a major cause of deforestation. Burning coal contributes to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and gr

  1. Television as a Means of Training Rural Young-Adult Apprentices in Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, Everett D.; Keaton, Laurie

    Using television as a means of delivery for an educational program in rural areas and looking at the media preferences of young adults, this study was conducted in a non-metropolitan area of northwestern New Mexico to examine the effectiveness of television and videotape to provide basic principles of solar energy to 15 young apprentices in a…

  2. Rural resilience and renewable energy in North-East Groningen, the Netherlands: in search of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerboer, Rozanne; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Zuidema, Christian; Grabski-Kieron, Ulrike; Mose, Ingo; Reichert-Schick, Anja; Steinführer, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Using renewable energy (RE) for solving area-based socio-economic issues and by extension making peripheral, rural places more resilient is increasingly signaled in academic literature. Furthermore, governance capacity surrounding RE production is also being increased by a growing number of local in

  3. The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed J.F. Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 310 participants in carbon sequestration project. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The stepwise method was used in the regression analysis. Results: The result indicates that 30% of the variance in the perception of respondents about role of extension in adopting solar energy could be explained by using educational films and slides, contacting with extension agents, visiting sample sites and providing lectures. Conclusion and Recommendations: The results demonstrated that success of solar energy will depend on the informing population about benefits and in this regard the authorities should provide accurate and on time information. There is no single and appropriate intervention for developing and protecting solar energy in rural areas and in view of the numerous and varied constraints and opportunities, there is need to develop location- specific strategies.

  4. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  5. 76 FR 21109 - Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... 20024. All written comments will be available for public inspection during regular work hours at the 300.... Hydroelectric energy, hydropower, ocean energy and small hydropower. These terms were added in response to the... limiting the size of eligible hydropower projects to those that have a rated power of 30 megawatts or less...

  6. 2010 survey of energy resources. 22nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    This, the 22nd edition of the World Energy Council's Survey of Energy Resources (SER), is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy. The Survey is a flagship publication of the World Energy Council (WEC), prepared triennially and timed for release at each World Energy Congress. It is a unique document in that no entity other than the WEC compiles such wideranging information on a regular and consistent basis. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, industry, investors, NGOs and academia.

  7. Energy and GHG Analysis of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government has taken great efforts to popularize rural household scale biogas digesters, since they are regarded as an effective approach to address energy shortage issues in rural areas and as a potential way of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical rural household biogas system, the aim of this study is to systematically quantify its total direct and indirect energy, concentrating on non-renewable energy and the associated GHG emission cost over the entire life cycle to understand its net dynamic benefits. The results show that the total energetic cost for biogas output is 2.19 J/J, of which 0.56 J is from non-renewable energy sources and the GHG emission cost is 4.54 × 10−5 g CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq, with respect to its design life cycle of 20 years. Correspondingly, a net non-renewable energy saving of 9.89 × 1010 J and GHG emission reduction of 50.45 t CO2-eq can be obtained considering the coal substitution and manure disposal. However, it must be run for at least 10 and 3 years, to obtain positive net non-renewable energy savings and GHG emission reduction benefits, respectively. These results have policy implications for development orientation, follow-up services, program management and even national financial subsidy methods.

  8. The feasibility of solar energy use in rural areas of Mongolia: solar ''Ger''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishjamts Gonchigbat; Zandaryaa Sarantuyaa [Mongolian Technical University, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Yutaka, Maemura [JICA, (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Mongolia, despite its heavy investment in energy sector, still faces difficulties to supply the rural population with electricity. The energy system of Mongolia is strongly dependent on indigenous coal and imported oil, and needs applications of emerging energy efficient technologies. Rural centers, which are still not connected to the centralized electricity system, supply their inhabitants with the electricity by diesel . However, the use of renewable energies is just being initiated designing solar panels and wind generators for nomads. At present, in rural areas some nomadic families depend on a simple petrol generator or a small wind generator. To avoid the environmental degradation and to improve life standards in rural areas, it is essential to supply the rural population with an appropriate electricity. This paper synthesizes the possible application of emerging technologies of photovoltaics and solar panels in nomadic families. (author)

  9. Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, energy of small hydroelectric power plants, etc. worldwide and in rural Serbian communities.

  10. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRIAN

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... Department of Food Science and Technology, Sokoine University of Agriculture,. P.O. Box ... caloric intake per capita and the WHO/FAO recommended energy ... The meals, drinks and activities done were monitored to ensure.

  11. The perspective of rural physicians providing abortion in Canada: qualitative findings of the BC Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Dressler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of Canadian induced abortions are performed in large urban areas. For unknown reasons the number of rural abortion providers in Canadian provinces, such as British Columbia (BC, has declined substantially. This study explored the experiences of BC rural and urban physicians providing abortion services. METHODS: The mixed methods BC Abortion Providers Survey employed self-administered questionnaires, distributed to all known current and some past BC abortion providers in 2011. The optional semi-structured interviews are the focus of this analysis. Interview questions probed the experiences, facilitators and challenges faced by abortion providers, and their future intentions. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using cross-case and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Twenty interviews were completed and transcribed, representing 13/27 (48.1% rural abortion providers, and 7/19 (36.8% of urban providers in BC. Emerging themes differed between urban and rural providers. Most urban providers worked within clinics and reported a supportive environment. Rural physicians, all providing surgical abortions within hospitals, reported challenging barriers to provision including operating room scheduling, anesthetist and nursing logistical issues, high demand for services, professional isolation, and scarcity of replacement abortion providers. Many rural providers identified a need to "fly under the radar" in their small community. DISCUSSION: This first study of experiences among rural and urban abortion providers in Canada identifies addressable challenges faced by rural physicians. Rural providers expressed a need for increased support from hospital administration and policy. Further challenges identified include a desire for continuing professional education opportunities, and for available replacement providers.

  12. Can A Galaxy Redshift Survey Measure Dark Energy Clustering?

    CERN Document Server

    Takada, M

    2006-01-01

    (abridged) A wide-field galaxy redshift survey allows one to probe galaxy clustering at largest spatial scales, which carries an invaluable information on horizon-scale physics complementarily to the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Assuming the planned survey consisting of z~1 and z~3 surveys with areas of 2000 and 300 square degrees, respectively, we study the prospects for probing dark energy clustering from the measured galaxy power spectrum, assuming the dynamical properties of dark energy are specified in terms of the equation of state and the effective sound speed c_e in the context of an adiabatic cold dark matter (CDM) model. The dark energy clustering adds a power to the galaxy power spectrum amplitude at spatial scales greater than the sound horizon, and the enhancement is sensitive to redshift evolution of the net dark energy density, i.e. the equation of state. We find that the galaxy survey, when combined with Planck, can distinguish dark energy clustering from a smooth dark energy model such ...

  13. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  14. Market survey Slovak Republic. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  15. Rural energy in the EU. Country studies for France, Germany, Italy, Poland and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Deng, Y.; Noothout, P.; Van den Bos, A.; Van Melle, T.

    2011-09-15

    A sustainable energy future for the European Union is important for all its citizens. Some areas within Europe are still deprived of access to a secure supply of clean and affordable energy. Gas and electricity networks are less well developed in rural areas, so the choice of fuel is more limited. Yet, these areas have also a role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% in 2020. To date, the role of energy in the development of rural areas in the EU has been less well considered than other aspects. A better insight is required into energy consumption patterns in these areas, and in differences between areas, to provide an evidence base for developing regional policies on sustainable energy supply. This report provides that insight based on analysis of national and subnational energy data and on interviews with national energy experts. It presents energy demand patterns in rural, intermediate, and urban areas and areas. We also provide an insight into the way lower economic activity in rural areas plays a role in energy demand patterns. The study shows how differences in the fuels used can lead to different emission levels, for greenhouse gases and for air pollutants such as SOx, NOx, and particulate matter (PM). Differences in the fuel mix will also have an economic effect because of different fuel prices, although detailed consideration of this effect was outside the scope of this study. The focus of this study was on five of the larger EU Member States: France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom. These countries represent 61% of the EU population, 61% of total final energy consumption in the EU, and 62% of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In this study, the transport and industry sectors were not analysed in detail. There are very few differences in the fuel mix used in the transport sector in urban and rural areas. In industry, differences in fuel mix are due primarily to the nature of an industry rather than its

  16. "Tele Pour Tous" in Rural Ivory Coast: Audience, Impact, Perceptions: Report of Two Surveys Conducted in January and April, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaix, Mireille; Lenglet, Frans

    This report presents the results of two surveys conducted in January and April 1977 in the Ivory Coast to assess the impact of the "Tele Pour Tous" programs on rural audiences in terms of awareness, learning, and action. Descriptions of the socio-economic characteristics of the audience and their viewing patterns were sought, and…

  17. Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

  18. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and albuminuria in rural Zambia: a hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Thomsen, Jakúp A; Rossing, Peter; Parkinson, Shelagh; Christensen, Dirk L; Bygbjerg, Ib C

    2013-09-01

    To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia. Albumin-creatinine ratio in one urine sample was used to assess albuminuria. Other information obtained included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), random capillary glucose, time since diagnosis, medication and family history of DM or HTN. A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DM group was younger and had lower BMI, WC and BP than the two other groups. In the DM group, HTN group and DM/HTN group, microalbuminuria was found in 12.1%, 19.6% and 29.4% (P = 0.11), and macroalbuminuria was found in 0.0%, 3.3% and 13.2% (P = 0.014), respectively. The urine albumin (P = 0.014) and albumin-creatinine ratio (P = 0.0006) differed between the three groups. This hospital-based survey in rural Zambia found a lower frequency of albuminuria among the participants than in previous studies of patients with DM or HTN in urban sub-Saharan Africa. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Biogas to Energy in Rural Romania. Scenarios of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN-MARIUS MOISOIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents four exploratory scenarios of sustainable development using the biogas to energy in animal farms in Romania. This research was part of the doctoral thesis of the author, entitled “The Economic Impacts of Climate Change”. The biomass sector is one of the most promising, but less developed fields of the Romanian energy sector. Based on a sectoral analysis of the biomass in Romania, with regards to the transition process towards the low-carbon economy, few scenarios were drafted, in order to provide the decision makers with eventual prospects and drivers in the field, in order to overcome with relevant policies. The study responds to the European Union’s climate action, resource efficiency and raw materials priority and climate change mitigation effort, together with fostering renewable energy technologies.

  20. Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, and lithium ions.

  1. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M.C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle, L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger.; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebbeca; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; /Fermilab /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /ANL /Texas A-M /Michigan U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Ohio State U. /University Coll. London /LBNL /SLAC /IFAE

    2012-06-29

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  2. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people's energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  3. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people`s energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  4. Probing Dark Energy with the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Lifan; Fan, Zuhui; Zhang, Xinmin

    2010-01-01

    Dark energy is an important science driver of many upcoming large-scale surveys. With small, stable seeing and low thermal infrared background, Dome A, Antarctica, offers a unique opportunity for shedding light on fundamental questions about the universe. We show that a deep, high-resolution imaging survey of 10,000 square degrees in \\emph{ugrizyJH} bands can provide competitive constraints on dark energy equation of state parameters using type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and weak lensing techniques. Such a survey may be partially achieved with a coordinated effort of the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope (KDUST) in \\emph{yJH} bands over 5000--10,000 deg$^2$ and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope in \\emph{ugrizy} bands over the same area. Moreover, the joint survey can take advantage of the high-resolution imaging at Dome A to further tighten the constraints on dark energy and to measure dark matter properties with strong lensing as well as galaxy--galaxy weak lensing.

  5. Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Our Nation faces the simultaneous challenges of increasing demand for energy, declining domestic production from existing oil and gas fields, and increasing expectations for environmental protection. The Energy Information Administration (2000) forecasts that worldwide energy consumption will increase 32 percent between 1999 and 2020 because of growth of the world economy. Forecasts indicate that in the same time period, U.S. natural gas consumption will increase 62 percent, petroleum consumption will increase 33 percent, and coal consumption will increase 22 percent. The U.S. Geological Survey provides the objective scientific information our society needs for sound decisions regarding land management, environmental quality, and economic, energy, and strategic policy.

  6. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: Dark Energy Science Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    This white paper describes the LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), whose goal is the study of dark energy and related topics in fundamental physics with data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). It provides an overview of dark energy science and describes the current and anticipated state of the field. It makes the case for the DESC by laying out a robust analytical framework for dark energy science that has been defined by its members and the comprehensive three-year work plan they have developed for implementing that framework. The analysis working groups cover five key probes of dark energy: weak lensing, large scale structure, galaxy clusters, Type Ia supernovae, and strong lensing. The computing working groups span cosmological simulations, galaxy catalogs, photon simulations and a systematic software and computational framework for LSST dark energy data analysis. The technical working groups make the connection between dark energy science and the LSST system. The working groups ha...

  7. Rural and remote Australian general practice nurses' sources of evidence for knowledge translation: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Field, John; Cant, Robyn

    2011-09-01

    This paper explores nurses' sources of knowledge for evidence-based practice, comparing rural/remote, urban and regional participants. A cross-sectional survey of practice nurses in the state of Victoria was conducted in 2008. The instrument used was the Developing Evidence-based Practice Questionnaire - Au, distributed to a convenience sample of nurses with response of 590 (33%). Survey data were stratified by geographical location for this exploratory report. The sample was representative of practice nurses, with half employed in either regional or rural and remote areas. Rural and remote nurses were less qualified in nursing than urban nurses. However, rural, remote and regional nurses were significantly less likely to apply experiential knowledge as evidence and were more likely to source knowledge from clinical nurse specialists or nurse practitioners, local audit reports or articles in research and medical journals. Nurses in each work category reported in-service training, conferences and information shared by colleagues as important in developing their knowledge for practice. According to participants, evidence-based practice would be promoted by allocation of work time, education and training in research skills, and improved access to resources. Rural and remote practice nurses prioritised the development of their skills in sourcing and appraising evidence for practice as a strategy to facilitate knowledge translation at the point of care. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2011 The Joanna Briggs Institute.

  8. Rural household energy consumption in Yangzhong county of Jiangsu province in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaohua; Feng Zhenming [Nanjing Agricultural University (China). Agricultural Engineering College

    1997-12-01

    A stratification sampling method has been applied to investigate 384 households in 12 villages of four towns in Yangzhong county. Responses to a questionnaire show that the average annual energy consumption per rural household is 298.7 kgce (we use 7000 kcal/kgce), with average energy of 0.59 kgce per day mainly in the form of straw. The average energy consumption depends on income, stalk yield, and number of persons and of pigs in a family. There is demand for high-quality supplies. (author)

  9. Solar energy and the Third World: Photovoltaic applications and their implications in rural settings for Zaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badibanga, Maurice Kalombay

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore and analyze the level of development attained by flat-plate photovoltaic systems operating around the world and to consider the possibility of using them as an energy solution for the rural areas of Zaire. Methodology. The study was conceived to answer research questions in the following areas: (1) Zaire's overall energy situation; (2) status of photovoltaic applications and their performance in other countries; (3) how the information from this study can be applied toward a possible solution of the energy problem in rural areas of Zaire. The Dual Case Study Method was the mainstay for data and information analysis, based principally on two plants: Tangaye Village PV in Burkina Faso and Kaw Village in French Guiana. Focused Synthesis was the main strategy used to gather the information and data. The analysis of information conveyed an idea of the level of technology readiness for flat-plate photovoltaics and the direction in which future research is headed. Findings and conclusions. The study found that (1) Zaire's rural areas (70 percent of the total population) are deficient in commercial energy provision, when compared to other countries; and (2) government policies, at the time the study took place, favored big projects which benefited mostly urban settings. The rural areas could benefit from photovoltaics, due to its modular and stand-alone characteristics, if it can be afforded by the government. Zaire's geographical position is conducive to successful implementation of the PV program, and is similar to the Tangaye and Kaw situations. Recommendations. (1) The government of Zaire should seriously assess its rural energy needs and consider photovoltaics as an energy solution. (2) Research and development work in the area of energy should be encouraged in the institutions of higher learning in Zaire, where efforts should be made to keep abreast of energy technology updates in developed countries. (3) Systems that

  10. A cross-sectional survey on the attitudes and interests of rural population towards expanded pharmacist prescribing in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Arief, Mohammad; Ahmad, Akram; Malik, Sadiqa; Gogoi, Lakhya Jyoti; Kalita, Manabendra; Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Background Shortage of qualified medical doctors and little or no access to basic medicines and medical facilities are the major rural health concerns in India. Expanding the role of pharmacists to provide prescribing services could improve rural health outcomes. Objective To assess the attitudes of rural population towards pharmacist prescribing and their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services. Setting Rural population of Assam, India. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 2 months from March to April 2016 in the State of Assam, India. A multi-stage sampling was used to recruit (n = 410) eligible participants. Main outcome measure Rural population attitudes towards, and interests in using, pharmacist prescribing services. Results The attitudes of participants were generally positive towards pharmacist prescribing. A large proportion of participants (81.5%) agreed that pharmacists should have a prescribing role in rural India. Participants indicated their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services, with greater interests in receiving medications in emergency situations (79.7%) and getting a treatment plan for their medical problem (75.6%). Participants with low income and tertiary education had better attitudes and showed more interest towards expanded pharmacist prescribing services (p < 0.05). Conclusions Most participants had positive attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing and were interested in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services.

  11. Sustainable development and energy solutions : small, rural communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flinn, D. [Energy Solutions Centre, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Yukon's isolation from major markets has resulted in a heavy reliance on imported services and finished goods. The absence of pipelines or integrated transmission systems has left energy sources stranded and underdeveloped. Despite the fact that the Yukon has an abundance of water resources suitable for hydroelectricity, plus significant coal, gas and oil reserves, and viable wind regimes, all refined fossil fuels are imported. Economic development in the past 30 years has resulted in energy deficient building stock and an electrical system that is designed around large industrial customers. The closure of mining properties has resulted in an oversupply of hydroelectricity, leaving the fixed costs to be assumed by other ratepayers. The paper presents a series of slides depicting the legacy of poor development during the Klondike Gold Rush when buildings were quickly constructed without regard for the extreme climate, permafrost or geology. Poor development continued with houses built in the early 1970s in the mining community of Faro. Despite stricter building codes, some designs still fail to account for the northern climate. National chains are major culprits for not addressing the challenges of the northern environment. These chains tend to replicate the same design for their buildings, and use the same energy source regardless of the local climate. The Green Power Initiative (GPI) promotes the development of small-scale renewable energy such as wind and micro-hydro projects to reduce the use of expensive diesel-generated electricity. The paper described the tangible results that have been produced by the wind development component of the GPI. The Energy Solution Centre is also promoting the wider use of photovoltaic systems for hot water heating to offset the use of imported fossil fuels. The Yukon is also addressing the stranded surplus of hydroelectricity by building new transmission lines to communities dependent on fossil fuel power. The construction

  12. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  13. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annecke, W. (Energy and Development Research Center, University of Cape Town, South Africa)

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  14. A tale of two land uses in the American West: rural residential growth and energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Montag, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a spatiotemporal land use map for a rural county in the western United States. Sublette County, Wyoming has undergone recent land use change in the form of heightened rural residential development on private land and increased energy development on both public and private land. In this study we integrate energy production data, population census data, ownership parcel data, and a series of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper scenes (over a 25-year period) to create a map that illustrates the changing landscape. Spatial change on the landscape is mapped at 30 square meters, congruent with a Landsat pixel. Sublette County has a wealth of wildlife and associated habitat which is affected by both types of growth. While we do not attempt to quantify the effect of disturbance on wildlife species, we believe our results can provide important baseline data that can be incorporated into land use planning and ecological-wildlife research at the landscape scale.

  15. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Hove, T

    2009-09-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  16. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  17. Energy efficiency and energy savings in Japanese residential buildings - research methodology and surveyed results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, L.; Hokoi, S.; Miura, H. [Kyoto University (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Architecture and Environmental Design; Shuhei, K. [Kansai Electric Power Company Inc., Amagasaki (Japan). Energy Use R and D Center

    2005-07-01

    Worldwide energy consumption has risen 30% in the last 25 years. Fossil fuels exploitation is causing depletion of resources and serious environmental problems. Energy efficiency improvement and energy savings are important targets to be achieved on every society as a whole and in residential buildings in particular. In this article, results of a survey and questionnaire on energy consumption and thermal environment held in Kansai area, Japan are reported. Energy savings potential was analyzed for the surveyed 13 houses focusing on certain electrical appliances e.g. TV, rice cooker and refrigerator. Residents' environmental awareness towards energy consumption was clarified through questionnaire. An energy information session towards residents was held, and the resulting changes in lifestyle and their implications on energy consumption were evaluated. (author)

  18. The Energy Networks Landscape. Impacts on Rural Land in the Molise Region

    OpenAIRE

    Donatella Cialdea; Alessandra Maccarone

    2014-01-01

    The paper concerns the study of the energy infrastructure that have the most impact on rural land. The analysis focuses on the systems for wind power and ground–mounted photovoltaic plants.The case study is the Region of Molise, in Southern Italy. This Region is an emblematic case because it has a significant number of installations as seen in relationship with the whole national territory. The case becomes even more special with reference to local guidelines that have undergone successive fo...

  19. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter-Aeby Tracy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general, while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253 reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user. The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%, to increase energy (65%, and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%. The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%. Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one

  20. A Survey of Obstetric Healthcare Utilization in the Rural Western Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Erica C; Uniyal, V P; Lanham, Michael; Heisler, Michele; Quasin, Shazia; Bisht, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To determine the socio-economic factors affecting access to antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum healthcare in the rural Western Indian Himalayas over the past 20 years. Methods Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 197 women in Chamoli District, Uttarakhand from October 2011 to May 2012. Participants who gave birth within the past 20 years were included in the final analysis (n = 158). Stratified odds ratios and analysis of variance were calculated. Results Among women who delivered in the prior 7 years, there was a nine-fold increase (95 % CI 4-20.8) in institutionalized births compared to women who delivered 8-20 years before the study. Among women who delivered 7 years prior to the study, low income increased the risk of home delivery (OR 3.07, 95 % CI 1.15-8.54). Low caste (OR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.04-7.72) and low level of education (OR 3.93 95 % CI 1.41-11.81) decreased the use of antepartum medications (vitamins and vaccines). Remote location among all participants was a risk factor for not seeking care for obstetric morbidities (OR 0.44 95 % CI 0.2-0.95). Conclusions The incidence of institutionalized delivery has increased over the past decade in rural Uttarakhand. Income, caste, education, and remote location correlated with poor access to antepartum and intrapartum healthcare. These correlations have increased in statistical significance over the past 20 years, except for location. This indicates that the Western Himalayas face similar challenges to obstetric service utilization as the north Indian plains and that several of these inequalities in healthcare access have become more pronounced in recent years.

  1. Biogas production: new trends for alternative energy sources in rural and Urban zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins das Neves, L.C.; Vessoni Penna, T.C. [Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Converti, A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Genoa (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    Biogas is a biofuel with a high energy value and basically consisting of methane, which can be used as a renewable energy source as a substitute for natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. It can be produced by anaerobic digestion of agricultural organic waste or manure in rural areas, where it can be used to generate electric, thermal or mechanical energy. It can also be generated in landfills from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and used as an alternative energy source in urban areas. Industrialized and urbanized areas are afflicted by serious environmental problems associated with the generation of organic residues. Anaerobic microorganisms can degrade pollutants resulting in two kinds of products, i.e., digested sludge and biogas, which can be exploited as a soil fertilizer and a renewable energy source, respectively. The correct management of residual waste involves high costs, and inadequate treatment and storage can compromise its quality. Environmental agencies have been encouraging the dissemination of anaerobic digesters to produce biogas from organic residues and the use of the resulting sludge as fertilizer since it is able to destroy pathogenic agents and reduce the humidity level. This review aims to evaluate the production capability of biogas and its application as an alternative energy source in rural and urban areas. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. The survey project: researching women’s everyday experience and envisioning modernity in rural Bohemia at the end of the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a survey of rural Czech women conducted in 1944–1945. It argues that the survey tells two very different stories. First, the survey provides an unvarnished look into the everyday material circumstances of a few rural Czech women. But for all they tell us about the material conditions of these rural women’s lives, the surveys tell us very little about their ideals, hopes, and dreams. The surveys do, however, reveal quite a bit about the inner motivations of the very different group of women who commissioned this research, a group known as the Women’s Center. Reading in between the lines of these texts shows how the activists of the Women’s Center imagined modernity in the countryside. Theirs was a vision of rational households, technological advances, and good taste, even in rural villages.

  3. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58......The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to make use of the possibility in the Danish Planning Law for a municipality to tighten the energy requirements in the local plan for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings were...

  4. The Dark Energy Survey and Operations: Years 1 to 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an operating optical survey aimed at understanding the accelerating expansion of the universe using four complementary methods: weak gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster counts, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Type Ia supernovae. To perform the 5000 sq-degree wide field and 30 sq-degree supernova surveys, the DES Collaboration built the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square-degree, 570-Megapixel CCD camera that was installed at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DES has completed its third observing season out of a nominal five. This paper describes DES “Year 1” (Y1) to “Year 3” (Y3), the strategy, an outline of the survey operations procedures, the efficiency of operations and the causes of lost observing time. It provides details about the quality of the first three season's data, and describes how we are adjusting the survey strategy in the face of the El Niño Southern Oscillation

  5. U.S. Geological Survey energy and minerals science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on current population and consumption trends, the Nation's use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth place further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting-edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to energy and minerals research are well established. Based on five interrelated goals, this plan establishes a comprehensive science strategy. It provides a structure that identifies the most critical aspects of energy and mineral resources for the coming decade. * Goal 1. - Understand fundamental Earth processes that form energy and mineral resources. * Goal 2. - Understand the environmental behavior of energy and mineral resources and their waste products. * Goal 3. - Provide inventories and assessments of energy and mineral resources. * Goal 4. - Understand the effects of energy and mineral development on natural resources. * Goal 5. - Understand the availability and reliability of energy and mineral resource supplies. Within each goal, multiple, scalable actions are identified. The level of specificity and complexity of these actions varies, consistent with the reality that even a modest refocus can yield large payoffs in the near term whereas more ambitious plans may take years to reach fruition. As such, prioritization of actions is largely dependent on policy direction, available resources, and the sequencing of prerequisite steps that will

  6. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  7. The participation of the sectors of electric energy consumption in a rural electrification cooperative; A participacao dos setores de consumo de energia eletrica em uma cooperativa de eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Cristiane Aparecida Pelegrin [Instituicao Toledo de Ensino (ITE), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Contabeis], e-mail: cristiane.higuchi@itelefonica.com.br; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], e-mail: jairsiqueira@fca.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br; Ielo, Frederico G. de Paula F. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

    2004-07-01

    This work had the objective of to evaluate the behavior of the electrical energy distribution in a Rural Electrification Cooperative, placed inside the State of Sao Paulo, embracing the region of the county of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema. Were appraised the electric energy distribution data of the Rural Electrification Cooperative of Itai, Avare and Paranapanema - CERIPA, during the years of 2000, 2001 and 2002. Was evaluated the sale of energy evolution, clearance evolution, general load factor and the electrical distribution for consumer type. The found results allowed to end that the Rural electrification Cooperative, show a good electric energy distribution in residential, rural and irrigation sectors. (author)

  8. Individual and district-level predictors of alcohol use: cross sectional findings from a rural mental health survey in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Kerry J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol use is a significant problem in rural and remote Australia. The factors contributing to patterns of alcohol use have not been adequately explained, yet the geographic variation in rates suggests a potential contribution of district-level factors, such as socio-economic disadvantage, rates of population change, environmental adversity, and remoteness from services/population centres. This paper aims to investigate individual-level and district-level predictors of alcohol use in a sample of rural adults. Methods Using baseline survey data (N = 1,981 from the population-based Australian Rural Mental Health Study of community dwelling residents randomly selected from the Australia electoral roll, hierarchal logistic regression models were fitted for three outcomes: 1 at-risk alcohol use, indicated by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores ≥8; 2 high alcohol consumption (> 40 drinks per month; and 3 lifetime consequences of alcohol use. Predictor variables included demographic factors, pre-dispositional factors, recent difficulties and support, mental health, rural exposure and district-level contextual factors. Results Gender, age, marital status, and personality made the largest contribution to at-risk alcohol use. Five or more adverse life events in the past 12 months were also independently associated with at-risk alcohol use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 3.3, 99%CI 1.2, 8.9. When these individual-level factors were controlled for, at-risk alcohol use was associated with having spent a lower proportion of time living in a rural district (AOR 1.7, 99%CI 1.3, 2.9. Higher alcohol consumption per month was associated with higher district-level socio-economic ranking, indicating less disadvantage (AOR 1.2, 99%CI 1.02, 1.4. Rural exposure and district-level contextual factors were not significantly associated with lifetime consequences of alcohol use. Conclusions Although recent attention has been

  9. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  10. Entrepreneurial Human Capital Accumulation and the Growth of Rural Businesses: A Four-Country Survey in Mountainous and Lagging Areas of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuras, Dimitris; Meccheri, Nicolas; Moreira, Manuel Belo; Rosell, Jordi; Stathopoulou, Sophia

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the processes of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation and its impact on rural business growth. Data are derived from four surveys on rural businesses in mountainous and less favoured areas in Southern Europe. Formal pathways of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation refer to education and training, while informal…

  11. On a Novel Energy Engineering Model from China’s Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Long Xie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive investigation of the ecological agriculture of quaternity, an innovative mode of energy engineering emerging in North China’s rural areas. A delineation and analysis of the composition, functions and principles for designing and working concerning this energy model is conducted. The input, output and input-output ratio with reference to energy in this system and its three subsystems is estimated, compared and discussed, based on the data from a trial sample. The study finds that this quaternity energy mode fulfills an organic integration of the planting industry and the breeding industry and also integration of production and life, affording self-sufficient materials for biogas fermentation and generating abundant organic fertilizers, thus to achieve benign circulation of energy and material flows and ultimately accomplish a high unification of energy, ecology, economic and social utilities. On the empirical evidence, the study exhibits that this model of energy engineering operates well and is energy-concentrated, with rationality in the agro-production structure and considerable comprehensive efficiency. Nevertheless, its energy productivity is merely at a middling level and the area and variety of crops is minor. The study concludes with pointing out proposals of improving and popularizing this energy engineering pattern.

  12. Renewable energy and its impact on rural development and sustainability in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the social and economic benefits of renewable energy by examining twelve case studies and applying the findings to the wider industry in order to forecast the effect of renewable energy on rural development. The UK government's policy on renewable energy development, the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation, and the effect of the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) on the market price for electricity are discussed. Details are given of the case studies concerning wind power, biomass, and wind and hydro schemes; the identification of the economic impacts, the workforce involved, and the expenditure in the local area; and the use of a Keynsian local economic multiplier model to evaluate the impact of the local expenditure and the incoming investment in renewable energy.

  13. Financial strain, social capital, and perceived health during economic recession: a longitudinal survey in rural Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Christine; Davis, Christopher G; Elgar, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Although the health consequences of financial strain are well documented, less is understood about the health-protective role of social capital. Social capital refers to a sense of community embeddedness, which is in part reflected by group membership, civic participation, and perceptions of trust, cohesion, and engagement. We investigated whether perceptions of social capital moderate the relation between financial strain and health, both mental and physical. This longitudinal study surveyed adults in two communities in rural Ontario where significant job losses recently occurred. Data were collected on financial strain, social capital, perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and physical health on three occasions over 18 months (N's = 355, 317, and 300). As expected, financial strain positively related to perceived stress, poor physical health and symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas social capital related to less stress, better physical health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Effects of financial strain on perceived stress and depressive symptoms were moderated by social capital such that financial strain related more closely to perceived stress and depressive symptoms when social capital was lower. The findings underscore the health-protective role of community associations among adults during difficult economic times.

  14. Validation of the food access survey tool to assess household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Muzi; Gross, Alden L; West, Keith P

    2015-09-07

    Perception-based Likert scale are commonly used to assess household food insecurity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and external construct validity of the 9-item Food Access Survey Tool (FAST) in a population-based randomized controlled trial. Participating women (n = 11,992) were asked to recall the frequencies of nine food insecurity experiences over the past 6 months on a 5-point Likert scale. The Rasch partial credit model was used to study the item category severity and differential item functioning (DIF) by literacy status, respondents' age, land ownership and household sizes. Principal component analysis (PCA), non-parametric methods, and cumulative ordinal logistic regression models were applied to examine the Rasch model assumptions, namely unidimensionality, monotonicity and measurement invariance (non-DIF). All items demonstrated good model fit with acceptable values of fit statistics (infit). PCA as well as other indices (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85, scalability coefficient = 0.48) indicated that all items fit in a single statistical dimension. The ordered responses of nine items displayed monotonic increasing item category severity as expected theoretically. All nine items were flagged with statistically significant DIF between key demographic-and socioeconomic subgroups (p FAST was inversely associated with household wealth, dietary diversity score and maternal body mass index, demonstrating external construct validity. The polytomous FAST is internally and externally valid tool to measure household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh. Validation of this type of studies are recommended for similar Likert food insecurity scales.

  15. The Dark Energy Survey Data Processing and Calibration System

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Joseph J; Bertin, Emmanuel; Daues, Gregory E; Desai, Shantanu; Gower, Michelle; Gruendl, Robert; Hanlon, William; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Lin, Huan; Marriner, John; Petravick, Don; Sevilla, Ignacio; Swanson, Molly; Tomashek, Todd; Tucker, Douglas; Yanny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a 5000 deg2 grizY survey reaching characteristic photometric depths of 24th magnitude (10 sigma) and enabling accurate photometry and morphology of objects ten times fainter than in SDSS. Preparations for DES have included building a dedicated 3 deg2 CCD camera (DECam), upgrading the existing CTIO Blanco 4m telescope and developing a new high performance computing (HPC) enabled data management system (DESDM). The DESDM system will be used for processing, calibrating and serving the DES data. The total data volumes are high (~2PB), and so considerable effort has gone into designing an automated processing and quality control system. Special purpose image detrending and photometric calibration codes have been developed to meet the data quality requirements, while survey astrometric calibration, coaddition and cataloging rely on new extensions of the AstrOmatic codes which now include tools for PSF modeling, PSF homogenization, PSF corrected model fitting cataloging and joint mode...

  16. A small-scale survey on the status of intestinal parasite infections in rural villages in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sim, Seobo; Lee, Jongweon; Ohrr, Heechoul; Kim, Myung-Ho; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2000-01-01

    The status of intestinal parasite infections was investigated in two rural villages (Chitrasar, Jerona) in Chitwan District, Nepal in 1999. Stool examination was performed with a total of 300 specimens from schoolchildren by formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infections in the surveyed areas was 44.0%. The prevalence rate in Jerona was slightly higher than that in Chitrasar. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasite infections in female was sli...

  17. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  18. Geothermal energy, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A survey is presented in order to determine the technology status, gaps, and needs for research and development programs in the environment and safety areas of this resource. The information gathered from a survey of geothermal energy development undertaken to provide background for an environment and safety overview program is summarized. A technology assessment for resource development is presented. The three specific environmental problems identified as most potentially limiting to geothermal development; hydrogen sulfide control, brine disposal, and subsidence, are discussed. Current laws, regulations, and standards applying to geothermal systems are summarized. The elements of the environment, health, and safety program considered to be intrinsically related to the development of geothermal energy systems are discussed. Interagency interfaces are touched on briefly. (MHR)

  19. Search for Kilonovae in Dark Energy Survey Supernova Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Zoheyr; DES-GW Team; DES-SN Team

    2016-03-01

    The Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4-m Telescope is an ideal instrument for identifying rapid optical transients with its large field of view and four optical filters. We utilize two seasons of data from the Dark Energy Survey to search for kilonovae, an optical counterpart to gravitational waves from binary neutron star mergers. Kilonova lightcurves from Barnes and Kasen inform our analysis for removing background signals such as supernovae. We simulate DES observations of kilonovae with the SNANA software package to estimate our search efficiency and optimize cuts. Finally, we report rate limits for binary neutron star mergers and compare to existing rate estimates.

  20. The Feasibility of Constraining Dark Energy Using LAMOST Redshift Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We consider using future redshift surveys with the Large Sky Area MultiObject Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) to constrain the equation of state of dark energy ω. We analyze the Alcock & Paczynski (AP) effect imprinted on the two-point correlation function of galaxies in redshift space. The Fisher matrix analysis is applied to estimate the expected error bounds of ω0 and ωa from galaxy redshift surveys, ω0 and ωa being the two parameters in the equation of state parametrization ω(z) = ω0 + ωaz/(1 -+ z). Strong degeneracies between ω0 and ωa are found. The direction of the degeneracy in ω0 - ωa plane, however, rotates counter-clockwise as the redshift increases. LAMOST can potentially contribute in the redshift range up to 0.5. In combination with other high redshift surveys, such as the proposed KiloAperture Optical Spectrograph project (KAOS), the joint constraint derived from galaxy surveys at different redshift ranges is likely to efficiently break the degeneracy of ω0 and ωa. We do not anticipate that the nature of dark energy can be well constrained with LAMOST alone, but it may help to reduce the error bounds expected from other observations, such as the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP).

  1. Energy Efficiency Assessment of Decentralized Rural Buildings%分散式村镇建筑能效评估研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁旭艳; 张旭; 高军

    2013-01-01

    针对中国城镇化进程中农村的变化,把村镇建筑分为分散式与集中式两种类型;总结了目前国内外建筑能效评估的两种方法,即建筑能耗基准评估和层次评估,在此基础上,结合分散式村镇建筑的特点,提出了适用于分散式村镇建筑的能效评估方法,通过建立统计基准模型对其进行评估;以沈阳某村镇的调研数据为样本,建立了该村镇多元回归统计模型,并以某户的建筑调研数据为例,给出其能效评估结果。%We divided the rural buildings into decentralized and centralized buildings with the changes in rural urbanization in China;Two methods of building energy efficiency assessment at home and abroad are summarized, including the building energy benchmarking as-sessment and hierarchical assessment. The feasible statistics benchmark model is proposed for energy efficiency assessment of decentralized rural buildings combining the characteristics of decentralized rural building. We used survey data in Shenyang as an example, established the multiple regression statistical models, and evaluated energy efficiency results of a building.

  2. Does Migration Income Help Hometown Business? Evidences from Rural Households Survey in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jialu Liu

    2010-01-01

    This empirical study examines effects of household migration income on non-farm business in rural China. The restrictions on labor mobility in China were loosened after the economic reform in 1978. As a result, more and more rural households have family members engaging in temporary migration, working and living between rural home and urban areas, which forms a large "floating" population of migrant workers. The income migrant workers bringing home provides a vital capital resource for the cr...

  3. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  4. An Entitlement Approach to Address the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Fishman, R.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater mining in India is one of the biggest water related present and future challenges of South Asia. In the agricultural sector, the negative impact from groundwater depletion is complex and affects farmers directly and indirectly in different ways according to their existing dependence on access to groundwater for irrigation. It stems from a) a reduction in buffer capacity of groundwater as a source of backup supply in critical times of drought, b) the deprivation of access to groundwater of those farmers that cannot raise the capital to continuously drill deeper so as to chase the declining groundwater table and c) the constant reduction of per pump well yield due to the declining water tables given more or less constant pumping energy supply. As a result, rural incomes have become less reliable and household as well as national level food security are increasingly compromised. It is feared that the current deterioration of the national food security situation in India might not easily be reversed due to the unsustainable nature of consumptive groundwater use over the past decades. Access to electricity and subsidized power so as to pump groundwater for irrigation have played a critical role in increasing food production thus linking the energy and agricultural sector. The current rural public finance mechanism is highly ineffective, however, and trapped in an inefficient equilibrium. The deficiencies are that low cost and low quality electricity for agriculture likely translate into wasteful groundwater as well as inefficient energy use and thus lead to resource depletion and contribute to an erosion of the rural electricity distribution system. It is estimated that the current commercial losses to the State Electricity Boards (SEBs) amount to about 23 percent of the gross fiscal deficit of the states. The original intent of the rural subsidy program is thus lost and the current system in urgent need of repair. The uncertain future development of energy

  5. Electrification in rural Bangladesh. A comprehensive analysis on Grameen Shakti's energy for the poor-business model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Niclas D.H.

    2010-07-01

    People in industrialized countries enjoy nowadays the luxurious advantages of energy. Electricity has converted the former preindustrial economies and societies into highly industrialized, mechanized and automated ones. On the contrary, many rural areas in developing countries are suffering from the heavy lack of access to energy, such as Bangladesh. Grameen Shakti, a subsidiary of the world famous Grameen family set up by Nobel Laureate Muhammad Yunus, has created a market for renewable energy technologies in Bangladesh, though not in the industrial and commercial areas but in the very poor and energy-starved rural areas of the country. By employing a special market-based business model, Grameen Shakti provides rural households with access to renewable energy technologies and thus with electricity. The objective of this study is the analysis and depiction of the functionality of this business model, its structural aspects, implications as well as replication potential. (orig.)

  6. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  7. Physical activity, energy intake, and obesity prevalence among urban and rural schoolchildren aged 11-12 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, Aya; Yamada, Yosuke; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Misaka

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been shown to differ among regions, including rural-urban regional differences within nations. This study obtained simultaneous accelerometry-derived physical activity, 24 h activity, and food records to clarify the potential contributing factors to rural-urban differences in childhood overweight and obesity in Japan. Sixth-grade children (n = 227, 11-12 years old) from two urban elementary schools in Kyoto and four rural elementary schools in Tohoku participated in the study. The children were instructed to wear a pedometer that included a uniaxial accelerometer and, assisted by their parents, keep minute-by-minute 24 h activity and food records. For 12 children, the total energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method that was used to correct the Lifecorder-predicted activity energy expenditure and physical activity level. The overweight and obesity prevalence was significantly higher in rural than in urban children. The number of steps per day, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and duration of walking to school were significantly lower in rural than in urban children. In contrast, the reported energy intake did not differ significantly between the regions. The physical activity and duration of the walk to school were significantly correlated with body mass index. Rural children had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity, and this may be at least partly caused by lower physical activity, especially less time spent walking to school, than urban children.

  8. Energy survey of the coal based sponge iron industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant R. Dey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made on a typical coal based Indian sponge iron plant of capacity 500 t/d in order to identify the largest energy losses and find ways to increase the efficiency. The required data are obtained by measurements or taken from production industries. The process efficiency is about 51.31%. The energy balances of the process show that the gap between theoretical and actual energy consumption is 45.2% and the exhausts make up the largest loss of 43.5%. A huge amount of waste gas is generated during operation and substantial part of it associated with the waste gas, remains unutilized. The energy content in the exhaust gases which is found at useful temperature can be used in three different ways: by internal use; by external energy supply; or by power generation. The four possible potential areas are identified where energy is being lost and untapped. The largest improvements would be made by design modifications adopting a novel energy conservation scenario by process integration and thereby decreasing the coal and water consumption and by decreasing the cold fresh air.

  9. Normalization of energy-dependent gamma survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Randy; Chambers, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Instruments and methods for normalization of energy-dependent gamma radiation survey data to a less energy-dependent basis of measurement are evaluated based on relevant field data collected at 15 different sites across the western United States along with a site in Mongolia. Normalization performance is assessed relative to measurements with a high-pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) due to its "flat" energy response and accurate measurement of the true exposure rate from both cosmic and terrestrial radiation. While analytically ideal for normalization applications, cost and practicality disadvantages have increased demand for alternatives to the HPIC. Regression analysis on paired measurements between energy-dependent sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detectors (5-cm by 5-cm crystal dimensions) and the HPIC revealed highly consistent relationships among sites not previously impacted by radiological contamination (natural sites). A resulting generalized data normalization factor based on the average sensitivity of NaI detectors to naturally occurring terrestrial radiation (0.56 nGy hHPIC per nGy hNaI), combined with the calculated site-specific estimate of cosmic radiation, produced reasonably accurate predictions of HPIC readings at natural sites. Normalization against two to potential alternative instruments (a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and energy-compensated NaI detector) did not perform better than the sensitivity adjustment approach at natural sites. Each approach produced unreliable estimates of HPIC readings at radiologically impacted sites, though normalization against the plastic scintillator or energy-compensated NaI detector can address incompatibilities between different energy-dependent instruments with respect to estimation of soil radionuclide levels. The appropriate data normalization method depends on the nature of the site, expected duration of the project, survey objectives, and considerations of cost and practicality.

  10. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  11. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  12. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  13. Contribution of alternative energies to meet the needs of rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavagno, E.; Ravetto, P.

    1980-12-01

    The possibility of fulfilling part of the energy demand of an agricultural area in a Northern Italy region (Piedmont) by means of non-conventional sources is being studied. The research is mainly intended to give the local community government a means for a correct energy planning of the whole system and closely parallels other investigations performed on the energy system of the region. An analysis of the energy needs of the area and of the sources which are at present employed is thoroughly carried out and discussed, in order to have an as good as possible picture of the situation that must be faced. A study is than implanted with the scope of organizing all the available information upon the alternative energy resources, special attention being devoted to biomasses. As far as biomasses are concerned, the possibility of an energy utilization of cereal straws, of animal manure in large scale livestock plants, of agricultural wastes, and of the forestry resources are discussed. Some agronomic and ecological problems involved in such an exploitation and their implication are pointed out. It is concluded that alternative energy resources are important, specially for the correct management and development of a rural area such as the one at hand and their use can be significant for its energy optimization.

  14. Association between farming and chronic energy deficiency in rural South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Walker, Karen Z; Evans, Roger G; Srikanth, Velandai; Arabshahi, Simin; Kartik, Kamakshi; Kalyanram, Kartik; Thrift, Amanda G

    2014-01-01

    To examine factors associated with chronic energy deficiency (CED) and anaemia in disadvantaged Indian adults who are mostly involved in subsistence farming. A cross-sectional study in which we collected information on socio-demographic factors, physical activity, anthropometry, blood haemoglobin concentration, and daily household food intake. These data were used to calculate body mass index (BMI), basal metabolic rate (BMR), daily energy expenditure, and energy and nutrient intake. Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with CED (defined as BMIfactor associated with CED in this rural Indian population and low dietary iron is not the main cause of anaemia. Better farming practice may help to reduce CED in this population.

  15. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  16. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Primary Health Care Engagement (PHCE) Scale: a pilot survey of rural and remote nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteniuk, Julie G; Wilson, Erin C; Penz, Kelly L; MacLeod, Martha L P; Stewart, Norma J; Kulig, Judith C; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Kilpatrick, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    To report the development and psychometric evaluation of a scale to measure rural and remote (rural/remote) nurses' perceptions of the engagement of their workplaces in key dimensions of primary health care (PHC). Amidst ongoing PHC reforms, a comprehensive instrument is needed to evaluate the degree to which rural/remote health care settings are involved in the key dimensions that characterize PHC delivery, particularly from the perspective of professionals delivering care. This study followed a three-phase process of instrument development and psychometric evaluation. A literature review and expert consultation informed instrument development in the first phase, followed by an iterative process of content evaluation in the second phase. In the final phase, a pilot survey was undertaken and item discrimination analysis employed to evaluate the internal consistency reliability of each subscale in the preliminary 60-item Primary Health Care Engagement (PHCE) Scale. The 60-item scale was subsequently refined to a 40-item instrument. The pilot survey sample included 89 nurses in current practice who had experience in rural/remote practice settings. Participants completed either a web-based or paper survey from September to December, 2013. Following item discrimination analysis, the 60-item instrument was refined to a 40-item PHCE Scale consisting of 10 subscales, each including three to five items. Alpha estimates of the 10 refined subscales ranged from 0.61 to 0.83, with seven of the subscales demonstrating acceptable reliability (α ⩾ 0.70). The refined 40-item instrument exhibited good internal consistency reliability (α=0.91). The 40-item PHCE Scale may be considered for use in future studies regardless of locale, to measure the extent to which health care professionals perceive their workplaces to be engaged in key dimensions of PHC.

  17. Harvesting Ambient Environmental Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have grown dramatically and made a great progress in many applications. But having limited life, batteries, as the power sources of wireless sensor nodes, have restricted the development and application of WSNs which often requires a very long lifespan for better performance. In order to make the WSNs prevalent in our lives, an alternative energy source is required. Environmental energy is an attractive power source, and it provides an approach to make the sensor nodes self-powered with the possibility of an almost infinite lifetime. The goal of this survey is to present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the various possible energy harvesting technologies from ambient environment for WSNs.

  18. Rural health under colonialism and neocolonialism: a survey of the Ghanaian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, T A

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the implications of colonialism and neocolonialism for rural health in Ghana. The starting point for discussion is a critical review of the dominant ahistorical, atheoretical, and technocratic conception of the underdevelopment of rural health. It is argued that the problems of rural health cannot be fully explained without a consideration of Ghana's colonial and neocolonial experiences. It is necessary to examine the impact of the colonial capitalist mode of production on rural health and health care, as well as the mechanisms underlying the post-colonial entrenchment of the colonial legacy. The implications of the reformist approach to the problems of health are examined, and the possibility of a structural transformationist solution, which must start from the elimination of imperialist control, is assessed. It is concluded that the Ghanaian social formation, given its current constitution and crises, makes structural transformation the only viable alternative to solving the problems of rural health.

  19. A Combination of Stop-and-Go and Electro-Tricycle Laser Scanning Systems for Rural Cadastral Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, land-based laser scanning technologies have been actively studied and implemented, in response to the need for detailed three-dimensional (3D data about our rural and urban environment for topographic mapping, cadastral mapping, and other street-level features, which are difficult and time consuming to measure by other instruments. For rural areas in China, the complex terrain and poor planning limit the applicability of this advanced technology. To improve the efficiency of rural surveys, we present two SSW (Shoushi and SiWei laser scanning systems for rapid topographic mapping: stop-and-go and electro-tricycle laser scanning systems. The objective of this paper is to evaluate whether laser scanning data collected by the developed SSW systems meet the accuracy requirements for rural homestead mapping. We investigated the performance of the two laser scanning systems on Ma’anshan Village, a small, typical village in Hubei Province, China. To obtain full coverage of the village, we fused the stop-and-go and electro-tricycle laser scanning data. The performance of the developed SSW systems is described by the results of building contours extracted from the fused data against the established building vector map.

  20. Magnitude of cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban areas in Benin: findings from a nationwide steps survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessito Corine Nadège Houehanou

    Full Text Available To describe and compare the prevalences of CVRF in urban and rural populations of Benin.Subjects were drawn from participants in the Benin Steps survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 using the World Health Organisation (WHO stepwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Subjects aged above 24 and below 65 years were recruited using a five-stage random sampling process within households. Sociodemographic data, behavioral data along with medical history of high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were collected in Step 1. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured in Step 2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in Step 3. CVRF were defined according to WHO criteria. The prevalences of CVRF were assessed and the relationships between each CVRF and the area of residence (urban or rural, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models.Of the 6762 subjects included in the study, 2271 were from urban areas and 4491 were from rural areas. High blood pressure was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 29.9% (95% confidence intervals (95% CI: 27.4, 32.5 and 27.5% (95% CI: 25.6, 29.5 respectively, p = 0.001 (p-value after adjustment for age and gender. Obesity was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 16.4% (95% CI: 14.4, 18.4 and 5.9% (95% CI: 5.1, 6.7, p<0.001. Diabetes was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1, 4.5 and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.004. Conversely, daily tobacco smoking was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, 9.3% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4 and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.6, p<0.001. No differences in raised blood cholesterol were noted between the two groups.According to our data, CVRF are prevalent among adults in Benin, and variations between rural and urban populations are significant. It may be useful to take account of the heterogeneity in the prevalence of CVRF when planning and implementing preventive

  1. Energy aspects of city districts and rural townships; Energieaspekte staedtischer und laendlicher Siedlungen. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Arend, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Beaujean, K. [Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schneider, S. [Planungsbuero Jud AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning the energy consumption of various residential districts in cities and in rural townships. The analysis examines the consumption of primary energy by residential buildings, their supply and disposal infrastructures and that of traffic induced by settlements. Also, grey energy: consumption for the construction, renovation and demolition of buildings and infrastructures as well as the consumption of primary energy for the production and disposal of individual motor vehicle traffic and public transport is reviewed. Four Swiss case studies are dealt with including largely homogenous residential districts in Effretikon, Oetwil am See, Uster and the City of Zurich. The results of the analyses made are presented in graphical form. The authors quote the great potential for the reduction of the consumption of settlement-dependent primary energy that lies in the fields of energy-efficiency of buildings, mobility and power consumption. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive appendix.

  2. Use of rural energy resources and eco-environmental degradation in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xing-hu; YANG Ping; WANG Ya-jun; XIE Zhong-kui

    2004-01-01

    Cattle dung, firewood, and crop straw have being used as survival necessities by farmers and herdsmen for thousands of years in Tibet. Until recently such biotic energy source still constitutes more than 92 per cent of total rural energy consumption due to lack of petroleum, coal and new alternative energy sources. As a result, environmental degradation such as land desertification, soil erosion, grassland degradation and soil fertility reduction is increasingly aggravated, the area of desertified land has increased 1467.5 km2 from 1991 to 1997. Degraded area of grassland has reached 2.60×107 hm2, increased by 116.1% from 1987 to 1996. To prevent further deterioration of eco-environment in Tibet great efforts should be made to make full use of ample solar energy, wind energy and other biotic energy of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The solar cooking stoves and solar hothouse; expand forest area and replace existing abiotic energy sources with firewood forest should be popularized. This is an urgent task to protect the eco-environment of Tibet today.

  3. AUTOMATED TRANSIENT IDENTIFICATION IN THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, D. A.; Nugent, P. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall #3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C.; Papadopoulos, A. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Fischer, J. A.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Gupta, R. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kessler, R. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, M.; Sullivan, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Banerji, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Bertin, E. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR7095, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2015-09-15

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (2013 September through 2014 February) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1.0% of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm’s performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility. An implementation of the algorithm and the training data used in this paper are available at at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/dessn/autoscan.

  4. Automated transient identification in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, D. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). et al.

    2015-08-20

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (2013 September through 2014 February) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1.0 percent of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm's performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility.

  5. A survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards skin and soft tissue infections in rural Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Raczniak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus infections are common to south-western Alaska and have been associated with traditional steambaths. More than a decade ago, recommendations were made to affected communities that included preventive skin care, cleaning methods for steambath surfaces, and the use of protective barriers while in steambaths to reduce the risk of S. aureus infection. Objective: A review of community medical data suggested that the number of skin infection clinical encounters has increased steadily over the last 3 years and we designed a public health investigation to seek root causes. Study design: Using a mixed methods approach with in-person surveys, a convenience sample (n=492 from 3 rural communities assessed the range of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning skin infections, skin infection education messaging, prevention activities and home self-care of skin infections. Results: We described barriers to implementing previous recommendations and evaluated the acceptability of potential interventions. Prior public health messages appear to have been effective in reaching community members and appear to have been understood and accepted. We found no major misconceptions regarding what a boil was or how someone got one. Overall, respondents seemed concerned about boils as a health problem and reported that they were motivated to prevent boils. We identified current practices used to avoid skin infections, such as the disinfection of steambaths. We also identified barriers to engaging in protective behaviours, such as lack of access to laundry facilities. Conclusions: These findings can be used to help guide public health strategic planning and identify appropriate evidence-based interventions tailored to the specific needs of the region.

  6. Energy and Water Consumption End-Use Survey in Commercial and Industrial Sectors in Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The objective of survey was to collect statistical energy and water end-use data for commercial and industrial sectors. The survey identified volumes of energy and...

  7. Energy conservation economic and environmental benefits in small rural communities; Beneficios economicos e ambientais da conservacao de energia em pequenas comunidades rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Educacao, Cultura e Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: marcos_v_m_silva@yahoo.com

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses energy conservation in small rural areas including efficient technologies utilization in lightning systems; energy demand; photovoltaic power supplies; electric power generation; energy efficient; and economic aspects. A case study is also presented.

  8. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  9. Clouds at CTIO and the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Jr., Eric [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the weather patters at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American (CTIO) Observatory, the observing site for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is important for assessing the efciency of DES operations in using observing time and for planning future operations. CTIO has maintained records of cloud-cover by quarters of nights since 1975. A comparison between these cloud records in the 2013-2014 DES observing season (DES year 1) and achieved observing efciency and exposure quality allows the DES collaboration to make better use of the historical records in survey planning. Plots and tables here relate human recorded cloud-cover to collection of good DES data, show the variation of typical cloud-cover by month, and evaluate the relationship between the El Niño weather pattern and cloud-cover at CTIO.

  10. The prevalence and correlates of lifetime psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures in urban and rural settings: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McCall-Hosenfeld

    Full Text Available Distinctions between rural and urban environments produce different frequencies of traumatic exposures and psychiatric disorders. We examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and frequency of trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum.The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R was used to evaluate psychiatric disorders among a nationally-representative sample of the U.S. population. Rurality was designated using the Department of Agriculture's 2003 rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC, which differentiate counties into levels of rurality by population density and adjacency to metropolitan areas. Lifetime psychiatric disorders included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, mood disorders, impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse. Trauma exposures were classified as war-related, accident-related, disaster-related, interpersonal or other. Weighted logistic regression models examined the odds of psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum, adjusted for relevant covariates.75% of participants were metropolitan, 12.2% were suburban, and 12.8% were from rural counties. The most common disorder reported was any anxiety disorder (38.5%. Drug abuse was more common among metropolitan (8.7%, p = 0.018, compared to nonmetropolitan (5.1% suburban, 6.1% rural participants. A one-category increase in rurality was associated with decreased odds for war-related trauma (aOR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.95. Rurality was not associated with risk for any other lifetime psychiatric disorders or trauma exposure.Contrary to the expectation of some rural primary care providers, the frequencies of most psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures are similar across the rural-urban continuum, reinforcing calls to improve mental healthcare access in resource-poor rural communities.

  11. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, D.L.; et al.

    2017-06-05

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require calibration of optical/NIR broadband $b = grizY$ photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a "Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)" for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broad-band survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial- and time-dependence of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. "Standard" passbands are chosen that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ in the standard system. This "chromatic correction" to the standard system is necessary to achieve sub-percent calibrations. The FGCM achieves reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ of stellar sources over the multi-year Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of $\\sigma=5-6\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the $5000\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ DES footprint to within $\\sigma=7\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than $5\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ for main sequence stars with $0.5

  12. Pilot pathfinder survey of oral hygiene and periodontal conditions in the rural population of The Gambia (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R A; Lucaciu, A; Fotouhi, K; Markovic, L; Gaengler, P; Zimmer, S

    2011-02-01

    To document oral hygiene and periodontal conditions in the rural population of The Gambia. Cross-sectional study according to the recommendations of the WHO for oral health surveys. Examination by two calibrated investigators in the health centres of rural communities after a public radio call. Patients were randomly allocated to the investigators.   162 patients (20-54 years old; 52.5% female, 47.5% male). Patients were interviewed for personal information and examined in a full-mouth recording. Oral Hygiene Index (OHI), Gingival Index (GI), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and the Gingivitis-Periodontitis-Missing/Teeth Index (GPM/T). Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-rank-sum test and Kruskal-Wallis test with statistical significance at P Africa). © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar

    2012-06-01

    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy.

  14. Taboo search by successive confinement: Surveying a potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmarev, Sergei F.

    2001-09-01

    A taboo search for minima on a potential energy surface (PES) is performed by means of confinement molecular dynamics: the molecular dynamics trajectory of the system is successively confined to various basins on the PES that have not been sampled yet. The approach is illustrated for a 13-atom Lennard-Jones cluster. It is shown that the taboo search radically accelerates the process of surveying the PES, with the probability of finding a new minimum defined by a propagating Fermi-like distribution.

  15. Energy and nutrient consumption in Mexican women 12-49 years of age: analysis of the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the reported energy and nutrient intake and adequacies in Mexican women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 24-hour dietary recall was used to obtain nutrient intake in a representative sub-sample of 2 630 women from 12 to 49 years of age from the National Nutrition Survey 1999. Nutrient adequacies were estimated using the Dietary Reference Intakes and stratified according to region, area (urban or rural, socioeconomic status and obesity status (non-obese: BMI 30 kg/m². Differences were analyzed using linear regression for complex surveys of log-transformed intake and adequacy, adjusting for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni test. RESULTS: The median national energy intake was 1 471 kcal. The Risk of Inadequacy (RI (prevalence of adequacy <50% was: vitamin A:38.3%, vitamin C: 45.5%, and folate: 34.3%. Carbohydrates, folate, iron and calcium intake was significantly higher in rural than in urban areas. The RI was higher in women of the lowest socioeconomic status tertile for all nutrients with the exception of carbohydrates and calcium. Macro-nutrient adequacies were significantly higher in non-obese women. CONCLUSIONS: Differences within the country among regions, rural and urban areas, and socioeconomic status tertile reflect an increasing availability of inexpensive calorie-dense foods in marginal groups. However, total energy, cholesterol, saturated and total fat were consumed in greater quantities by women from the higher socioeconomic status tertile and from urban areas. These patterns could be a contributing factor to the rise of obesity and other non-communicable nutrition-related chronic diseases in Mexico.

  16. Renewable Energy Technologies for Decentralised Rural Electricity Services. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Arvidson, Anders; Forslund, Helena; Martinac, Ivo (eds.)

    2005-02-01

    The developing countries represented at the workshop were Brazil, India, Kenya, Mali, Mongolia, Nepal and Uganda. After keynote presentations which covered the experiences of different renewable electricity generation technologies in selected developing countries, the participants discussed the role of electrification in rural development, needs for further technological improvements and the needs for development of government policies for promotion of renewable energy for electricity generation. Finally, the participants discussed and agreed on recommendations addressed to donor agencies for consideration when formulating a revised Energy Policy. Renewable energy technologies should only be considered when these offer more advantages than the conventional alternatives - grid connection or stand-alone diesel generators. Such advantages may be lower costs, better supply reliability, fewer adverse local environmental impacts or better possibilities for local income-generating activities. Local needs and priorities must determine the choice of technology. Biomass-fuelled renewable technologies have a particularly strong potential in generating local economic activities compared to conventional supply options. Technologies for decentralised electricity generation using mini-hydro power plants, solar photovoltaics (PV), wind generators and biomass fuels are commercially available and are being applied in many developing countries. The limiting factors for further penetration of renewable energy are today linked to issues of cost, reliability, financing, service infrastructure, awareness of available technology and trust in the technologies from the perspective of entrepreneurs and end-users. One important limiting factor related to cost, is the capacity range within which each technology can compete with the conventional options. PV systems are still only realistic for very small power demands, whereas technologies using biomass fuels are unrealistic for small power

  17. The Diffusion of Information and Behavior in Social Networks: Renewable Energy Technology Adoption in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Pan He; Marcella Veronesi

    2015-01-01

    Adopting renewable energy technologies has been seen as a promising way to reduce CO2 emissions and deforestation. This paper investigates how social networks may affect renewable energy technology adoption. We distinguish two channels through which social networks may play a role: (i) the diffusion of information; and (ii) the diffusion of behavior. Most empirical studies fail to quantitatively separate the diffusion of information and behavior in social networks. We conduct a survey on biog...

  18. Capacity building for the effective adoption of renewable energy technologies in rural areas. Experience of India NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myles, R. [Integrated Sustainable Energy and Ecological Development Association (INSEDA), New Delhi (India)

    2002-07-01

    The experience of NGO network in the promotions of biogas and other low cost RET gadgets, devices, equipments and machines in the rural areas of India, for over two decades, have shown that there are serveral problems yet challenging opportunities in the promotion and implementation of renewable energy technologies in villages. First of all, the field and extension organizations should recognise that these technologies are new and aliens to the rural people, therefore like any other technologies, developed outside the rural environment, RETs are first view with skepticism by the rural community. Even if 100 units of a RE technology are successfully demonstrated, failure of even one could create negative impact within a radius of 30-50 KMs, and its shortcomings are spread like a wild fire. The appropriate technology demonstration backed by systematic capacity building of different stakeholders/actors/players (i.e. Energy Producers, Energy Service Providers and the Energy End Users) is a must for the acceptance and large-scale adoption of RETs in rural areas of the developing countries. The programme funds for the promotion and implementation of RETs should have good percentage earmarked for the capacity building as well as supporting infrastructure for awareness, motivation, promotional and post installation services activities by local field level organizations and NGOs on a long term basis. (orig.)

  19. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Theresa; /FERMILAB; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; /Barcelona, IFAE; Chappa, Steve; /Fermilab; de Vicente, Juan; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; /Fermilab; Martinez, Gustavo; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  20. Health Insurance Reform and Efficiency of Township Hospitals in Rural China: An Analysis from Survey Data

    OpenAIRE

    Audibert, Martine; Xiao Xian HUANG; Mathonnat, Jacky; Pelissier, Aurore; Anning MA

    2012-01-01

    In the rural health-care organization of China, township hospitals ensure the delivery of basic medical services. Particularly damaged by the economic reforms implemented from 1975 to the end of the 1990s, township hospitals efficiency is questioned, mainly with the implementation since 2003 of the reform of health insurance in rural areas. From a database of 24 randomly selected township hospitals observed over the period 2000-2008 in Weifang prefecture (Shandong), the study examines the eff...

  1. Rural Household Survey Based Analysis of Hollowing of Rural Residential Land in China%基于农户调研的中国农村居民点空心化程度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宇林军; 孙大帅; 张定祥; 郑博; 韩乐然; 宇振荣

    2016-01-01

    As urbanization in China has increased rapidly in recent decades, large numbers of people have moved from rural areas to urban areas in China. As a result, a great number of rural residential land are aban-doned or inefficiently used, which becomes a serious problem in China. Based on the data from a nationwide rural ecological landscape survey, called“thousand villages survey”, this study analyzes the status, change modes, causes and the reuse potential of hollowing of rural residential land. Major conclusions of this study are as following:1) Village-hollowing has been a universal phenomenon in China rural areas, where 93.5%vil-lages have this phenomenon. The average hollowing rate of rural residential land of the surveyed villages is about 10.2%, and 14.9% rural residential land is inefficiently utilized. Therefore, village-hollowing now be-comes a great challenge to rural development. 2) The hollowing rate of rural residential land varies significant-ly across space, where villages in north central and eastern China usually have higher hollowing rates. There-fore, it is an urgent demand to formulate regionally differentiated management and reutilization solutions of ru-ral settlement. 3) There are many reasons related to village hollowing. The survey shows that 39.94%surveyed people believe that rural labor migration is the major reason to village hollowing. 19.51%surveyed people ac-cuse the reason to urbanization of rural people. 25.73%surveyed people think dilapidated houses lead to vil-lage hollowing and 14.82%surveyed people trend to believe“One household, multiple housing lands”cause village hollowing. 4) It is large of potential to reuse the idle and abandoned rural housing land to meet future residential land demands from newly increased rural population, although it’s difficult and costly. The survey shows that rural people have strong wills to reutilize the hollowing rural residential land. 34.22%surveyed peo-ple choose to change the hollowed

  2. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...

  3. Supernova Simulations and Strategies For the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, J P; Kuhlmann, S; Biswas, R; Kovacs, E; Aldering, G; Crane, I; Finley, D A; Frieman, J A; Hufford, T; Jarvis, M J; Kim, A G; Marriner, J; Mukherjee, P; Nichol, R C; Nugent, P; Parkinson, D; Reis, R R R; Sako, M; Spinka, H; Sullivan, M

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of supernova light curves simulated for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova search. The simulations employ a code suite that generates and fits realistic light curves in order to obtain distance modulus/redshift pairs that are passed to a cosmology fitter. We investigated several different survey strategies including field selection, supernova selection biases, and photometric redshift measurements. Using the results of this study, we chose a 30 square degree search area in the griz filter set. We forecast 1) that this survey will provide a homogeneous sample of up to 4000 Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.05

  4. Sustainable Energy alternatives for the rural community "Pozo Blanco", in Jatibonico, Sancti Spíritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Iparraguirre Carbonell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Is analyzed the decisions taking for the execution of rural energización projects, it showed the ideas developed in the project "Renewable Energy for Ways of Sustainable Life" (RESURL, and the design tools based on the simplified method. Its objective was to identify alternatives to implement the cover of energy inadequacies in the community "Pozo Blanco" of the municipality of Jatibonico, by means of an integral study of selection based in the techniques of multipurpose analysis and the electric systems design, sustained in technologies with the renewable energy use, that provide a sustainable development; that generated concrete proposal. Also was executed a characterization over socioeconomic and energy diagnostic of the community, by means of the software SURE and the calculation based on the simplified method to obtain the matrix. The energy potentials were determined in terms of the indispensable demands, for the infrastructure development of the community. The originated proposal offers solution for electrification of houses in the referred community.

  5. Theoretical Framework of Organizational Intelligence: A Managerial Approach to Promote Renewable Energy in Rural Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Istudor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The companies involved in the energy sector must reinvent themselves to be innovative and adaptable to contemporary environmental changes. The promotion of renewable energy in rural communities is a great challenge for these companies. They should focus on improving the environment scanning actions and the knowledge management (KM system and enhancing the collective intelligence to avoid the loss of information, to foster innovation, and to maintain a competitive advantage. To achieve these goals, energy companies require appropriate management tools and practices. The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical framework of organizational intelligence (OI supported by a cross-perspective analysis of various aspects: economic intelligence (EI and KM practices, entropy processes, and organizational enablers. A pilot investigation for testing the framework in the case of Transelectrica S.A. has been elaborated. The findings reveal that the elements of the OI framework are embedded in Transelectrica’s system and they need to be further developed. As an intelligent company acting in the Romanian energy market, Transelectrica has a higher potential to promote projects in the renewable energy sector. The main conclusion highlights that OI is a multidimensional construct that provides the organization the ability to deal with environmental challenges in a “new economy”.

  6. Renewable Energy Technologies for Decentralised Rural Electricity Services. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Arvidson, Anders; Forslund, Helena; Martinac, Ivo (eds.)

    2005-02-01

    The developing countries represented at the workshop were Brazil, India, Kenya, Mali, Mongolia, Nepal and Uganda. After keynote presentations which covered the experiences of different renewable electricity generation technologies in selected developing countries, the participants discussed the role of electrification in rural development, needs for further technological improvements and the needs for development of government policies for promotion of renewable energy for electricity generation. Finally, the participants discussed and agreed on recommendations addressed to donor agencies for consideration when formulating a revised Energy Policy. Renewable energy technologies should only be considered when these offer more advantages than the conventional alternatives - grid connection or stand-alone diesel generators. Such advantages may be lower costs, better supply reliability, fewer adverse local environmental impacts or better possibilities for local income-generating activities. Local needs and priorities must determine the choice of technology. Biomass-fuelled renewable technologies have a particularly strong potential in generating local economic activities compared to conventional supply options. Technologies for decentralised electricity generation using mini-hydro power plants, solar photovoltaics (PV), wind generators and biomass fuels are commercially available and are being applied in many developing countries. The limiting factors for further penetration of renewable energy are today linked to issues of cost, reliability, financing, service infrastructure, awareness of available technology and trust in the technologies from the perspective of entrepreneurs and end-users. One important limiting factor related to cost, is the capacity range within which each technology can compete with the conventional options. PV systems are still only realistic for very small power demands, whereas technologies using biomass fuels are unrealistic for small power

  7. The effect of voluntary iodine prophylaxis in a small rural community: the Pescopagano survey 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghini Lombardi, F; Fiore, E; Tonacchera, M; Antonangeli, L; Rago, T; Frigeri, M; Provenzale, A M; Montanelli, L; Grasso, L; Pinchera, A; Vitti, P

    2013-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and programs have been implemented to improve iodine nutrition. The objective of the study was to verify the effects of voluntary iodine prophylaxis in a small rural community (Pescopagano, Italy). The design of the study was the evaluation of the prevalence of thyroid disorders 15 years after a previous survey conducted before iodine prophylaxis. The setting for this study was a general community survey. One thousand one hundred forty-eight residents were examined in 2010 and 1411 in 1995. In 2010, 757 of 1148 subjects (65.9%) routinely used iodized salt, urinary iodine excretion being significantly higher than in 1955 (median 98.0 μg/L, vs 55.0 μg/L, P iodine prophylaxis was assessed in a small rural community relatively segregated, in which genetic and other environmental factors have not substantially changed between the 2 surveys. Iodine intake strongly affected the pattern of thyroid diseases, but the benefits of correcting iodine deficiency (decreased prevalence of goiter and thyroid autonomy in younger subjects and reduced frequency of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism in older subjects) far outweighs the risk of development of thyroid autoimmunity and mild hypothyroidism in youngsters.

  8. Energy Efficiency in Small Server Rooms: Field Surveys and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Iris [Hoi; Greenberg, Steve; Mahdavi, Roozbeh; Brown, Richard; Tschudi, William

    2014-08-11

    Fifty-seven percent of US servers are housed in server closets, server rooms, and localized data centers, in what are commonly referred to as small server rooms, which comprise 99percent of all server spaces in the US. While many mid-tier and enterprise-class data centers are owned by large corporations that consider energy efficiency a goal to minimize business operating costs, small server rooms typically are not similarly motivated. They are characterized by decentralized ownership and management and come in many configurations, which creates a unique set of efficiency challenges. To develop energy efficiency strategies for these spaces, we surveyed 30 small server rooms across eight institutions, and selected four of them for detailed assessments. The four rooms had Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) values ranging from 1.5 to 2.1. Energy saving opportunities ranged from no- to low-cost measures such as raising cooling set points and better airflow management, to more involved but cost-effective measures including server consolidation and virtualization, and dedicated cooling with economizers. We found that inefficiencies mainly resulted from organizational rather than technical issues. Because of the inherent space and resource limitations, the most effective measure is to operate servers through energy-efficient cloud-based services or well-managed larger data centers, rather than server rooms. Backup power requirement, and IT and cooling efficiency should be evaluated to minimize energy waste in the server space. Utility programs are instrumental in raising awareness and spreading technical knowledge on server operation, and the implementation of energy efficiency measures in small server rooms.

  9. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  10. Expanding HIV testing efforts in concentrated epidemic settings: a population-based survey from rural Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Pharris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01, higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22, and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66 were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: We found low testing uptake (6% among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider

  11. Mean consumption, poverty and inequality in rural India in the 60th round of the National Sample Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Raghbendra; Gaiha, Raghav; Sharma, Anurag

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on mean consumption, poverty (all three FGT measures) and inequality during 2004 for rural India using National Sample Survey (NSS) data for the 60th Round. Mean consumption at the national level is much higher than the poverty line. However, the Gini coefficient is higher than in recent earlier rounds. The headcount ratio is 22.9 per cent. Mean consumption, all three measures of poverty and the Gini coefficient are computed at the level of 20 states and 63 agro-climatic zones in these 20 states. It is surmised that despite impressive growth rates deprivation is pervasive, pockets of severe poverty persist, and inequality is rampant.

  12. Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of rural Fulani, northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, C T; Calvert, C C; Grivetti, L E

    2000-05-01

    Two rural settled Fulani villages, northeastern Nigeria, were surveyed for dietary practices and use of edible wild plants (n = 100 households). Commonly consumed species of edible wild barks, fruits, leaves, nuts, seeds, and tubers were analyzed for protein, fat, and carbohydrate and for minerals. Kuka bark (Adansonia digitata) given to infants to increase weight gain was high in fat, calcium, copper, iron, and zinc. Cediya (Ficus thonningii), dorowa (Parkia biglobosa) and zogale (Moringa oleifera) were good sources of protein and fat and excellent sources of calcium and iron or copper and zinc. Fruits, leaves, and nuts of aduwa (Balanites aegyptiaca) were widely used during the dry season and during drought. Edible wild species available during the wet season generally were inferior in energy and micronutrient mineral content compared to dry season plants. Fruits commonly eaten by children were poor sources of protein and minerals but rich in carbohydrate and fiber. Tsamiya seeds (Tamarindus indica) were good sources of zinc and used to make dawwa (porridge) commonly consumed during pregnancy. Kirya seeds (Prosopos africana) contained the highest zinc concentrations. Shiwaka leaves (Veronia colorate) consumed by pregnant women to increase breastmilk production and to expel intestinal worms, were high in fiber, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and were adequate sources of calcium.

  13. Southern Nevada residents` views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1991-10-01

    two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans` views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada.

  14. Driving rural energy access: a second-life application for electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Hanjiro; Gershenson, Dimitry; Gershenson, Alexander; Kammen, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Building rural energy infrastructure in developing countries remains a significant financial, policy and technological challenge. The growth of the electric vehicle (EV) industry will rapidly expand the resource of partially degraded, ‘retired’, but still usable batteries in 2016 and beyond. These batteries can become the storage hubs for community-scale grids in the developing world. We model the resource and performance potential and the technological and economic aspects of the utilization of retired EV batteries in rural and decentralized mini- and micro-grids. We develop and explore four economic scenarios across three battery chemistries to examine the impacts on transport and recycling logistics. We find that EVs sold through 2020 will produce 120-549 GWh in retired storage potential by 2028. Outlining two use scenarios for decentralized systems, we discuss the possible impacts on global electrification rates. We find that used EV batteries can provide a cost-effective and lower environmental impact alternative to existing lead-acid storage systems in these applications.

  15. Decreased renal function and associated factors in cities, towns and rural areas of Tanzania: a community-based population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert; Baisley, Kathy; Kavishe, Bazil; Were, Jackson; Mghamba, Janneth; Smeeth, Liam; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi

    2016-03-01

    Data on renal dysfunction in sub-Saharan Africa, comparing urban and rural areas, have not yet been reported. Therefore, we aimed to determine the distribution of low estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in urban and rural Tanzania, to describe factors associated with low eGFR and to quantify fractions attributable to common risk factors. We conducted a community-based survey of 1095 randomly selected Tanzanian adults (≥18 years). A structured questionnaire and examinations were used to document sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, anthropomorphic measurements and blood pressure. Blood tests were performed for HIV infection, diabetes mellitus and creatinine. eGFR was calculated using two equations recommended for African adults. Serum creatinine was available for 1043 participants: 170 in Mwanza city, 326 in district towns and 547 in rural areas. Mean age was 35.5 years and 54% were females. The prevalence of eGFR renal function is common in Tanzania, particularly in district towns, and unique risk factors for kidney disease may exist in this population. Population-specific strategies for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease are needed for Africa. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The role of off-farm employment in the rural energy consumption transition — A village-level analysis in Jiangxi Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, X.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption in rural areas in China is characterized by high consumption of fuelwood, straw and other biomass. Off-farm employment can play an important role in the transition towards more sustainable sources of energy by increasing rural household incomes and reducing the amount of labor ava

  17. 78 FR 19183 - Notice of Funding Availability for the Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Angela Prioleau, USDA Rural Development, 4440 NW. 25th Place, Gainesville, FL 32606, (352) 338-3412, angela.prioleua@fl.usda.gov Georgia J. Craig Scroggs, USDA Rural Development, 111 E. Spring St., Suite B...

  18. Design and development of the pilot project on energy conservation in rural areas: a case study in High Lands of Mantiqueira; Concepcao e desenvolvimento do projeto piloto de conservacao de energia no meio rural: estudo de caso nas Terras Altas da Mantiqueira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo Nogueira; Vianna, Augusto Nelson Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (IRN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], E-mail: mathidr@yahoo.com.br; Mattos, Roberto de [Fundacao ROGE, Delfim Moreira, MG (Brazil). Nucleo Integrado de Capacitacao Tecnica (NICATEC); Salvador, Emerson; Santos, Moises Antonio dos [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Eficiencia Energetica na Oferta

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the motivations, objectives and methods of 'Pilot Project for Energy Conservation in Rural Areas: A case study in Mantiqueira Highlands', executed by the Center for Integrated Technical Training (NICATEC) of ROGE Foundation (Delfim Moreira - Minas Gerais) in partnership with Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), with support of the Energy Group, Federal University of Itajuba. The project falls into the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL), seeking to extend to rural areas the activities and practices of conservation and rational use of electricity under the program, by the development of specific methodologies for energetic diagnosis and optimization of agrosystems. The object of study are farms that perform dairy farming, egg production and irrigated agriculture, located in eight municipalities of the Highlands. These properties are assessed through surveys and implementing the 'Questionnaire for energy use characterization rural areas', allowing the generation of indicators relating energy consumption with the agricultural production, beyond identifying the main causes of waste, for further development of educational material containing best practices for electricity conservation in rural areas. (author)

  19. The Energy Networks Landscape. Impacts on Rural Land in the Molise Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Cialdea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the study of the energy infrastructure that have the most impact on rural land. The analysis focuses on the systems for wind power and ground–mounted photovoltaic plants.The case study is the Region of Molise, in Southern Italy. This Region is an emblematic case because it has a significant number of installations as seen in relationship with the whole national territory. The case becomes even more special with reference to local guidelines that have undergone successive formulations, precisely in relation to the installation in specific areas of the Region. The study analyzes current national and regional rules and it proposes a methodology to support Local Authorities especially in relation to the definition of landscape quality aims, that the new Regional Landscape Plan must provide.

  20. Institutional options for rural energy access: Exploring the concept of the multifunctional platform in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    organisational set-ups and local fuel production have in fact had limited or even adverse effects on the outcome of the multifunctional platform programme, these virtues have proved essential in presenting the concept at the policy level. This analysis of the dilemma between mobilizing funding and implementing...... practical programmes provides an argument for building development aid on existing structures instead of inventing new complicated concepts and approaches.......The concept of the multifunctional platform for rural energy access has increasingly been supported by donors in five West African countries since 1994. While it is often referred to as a highly successful concept, recent reviews and interviews with local stakeholders in Mali and Burkina Faso...

  1. Calibrated Ultra Fast Image Simulations for the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bruderer, Claudio; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Berge, Joel; Gamper, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Weak lensing by large-scale structure is a powerful technique to probe the dark components of the universe. To understand the measurement process of weak lensing and the associated systematic effects, image simulations are becoming increasingly important. For this purpose we present a first implementation of the $\\textit{Monte Carlo Control Loops}$ ($\\textit{MCCL}$; Refregier & Amara 2014), a coherent framework for studying systematic effects in weak lensing. It allows us to model and calibrate the shear measurement process using image simulations from the Ultra Fast Image Generator (UFig; Berge et al. 2013). We apply this framework to a subset of the data taken during the Science Verification period (SV) of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We calibrate the UFig simulations to be statistically consistent with DES images. We then perform tolerance analyses by perturbing the simulation parameters and study their impact on the shear measurement at the one-point level. This allows us to determine the relative im...

  2. Crowdsourcing quality control for Dark Energy Survey images

    CERN Document Server

    Melchior, P; Drlica-Wagner, A; Rykoff, E S; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Benoit-Levy, A; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Crocce, M; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Doel, P; Evrard, A E; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Kuehn, K; Li, T S; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wester, W; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a crowdsourcing web application for image quality control employed by the Dark Energy Survey. Dubbed the "DES exposure checker", it renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes. Users can also generate custom labels and thus help identify previously unknown problem classes. User reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. We report on the implementation of the application and our experience with its over 100 users, the majority of which are professional or prospective astronomers but not data management experts. We discuss aspects of user training and engagement, and demonstrate how problem reports have been pivotal to rapidly correct artifacts which would likely have been too subtle or infrequent to be recognized otherwise. We conclude with a number of important lessons learned, suggest possible improvements, and recommend this collective explo...

  3. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of culture''; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  4. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of ``culture``; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  5. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for Resolved Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetto, B M; Girardi, L; Camargo, J I B; Balbinot, E; da Costa, L N; Yanny, B; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Ogando, R L C; Pellegrini, P S; Ramos, B; de Simoni, F; Armstrong, R; Bertin, E; Desai, S; Kuropatkin, N; Lin, H; Mohr, J J; Tucker, D L

    2011-01-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2x10^8 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy. DES will probe low-mass stellar and sub-stellar objects at depths from 3 to 8 times larger than SDSS. The faint end of the main-sequence will be densely sampled beyond 10 kpc. The slope of the low mass end of the stellar IMF will be constrained to within a few hundredth dex, even in the thick disk and halo. In the sub-stellar mass regime, the IMF slope will be potentially constrained to within dlog \\phi(m) / dlog m ~ 0.1$. About 3x10^4 brown dwarf and at least 7.6x10...

  6. Automated Transient Identification in the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, D A; Fischer, J A; Foley, R J; Gupta, R R; Kessler, R; Kim, A G; Nichol, R C; Nugent, P; Papadopoulos, A; Sako, M; Smith, M; Sullivan, M; Thomas, R C; Wester, W; Wolf, R C; Abdalla, F B; Banerji, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Castander, F J; da Costa, L N; Covarrubias, R; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Neto, A Fausti; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; March, M; Marshall, J L; Martini, P; Merritt, K W; Miquel, R; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Walker, A R

    2015-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (Sep. 2013 through Feb. 2014) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1 percent of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm's performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging...

  7. Crowdsourcing quality control for Dark Energy Survey images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, P.; Sheldon, E.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a crowdsourcing web application for image quality control employed by the Dark Energy Survey. Dubbed the "DES exposure checker", it renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes. Users can also generate custom labels and thus help identify previously unknown problem classes. User reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. We report on the implementation of the application and our experience with its over 100 users, the majority of which are professional or prospective astronomers but not data management experts. We discuss aspects of user training and engagement, and demonstrate how problem reports have been pivotal to rapidly correct artifacts which would likely have been too subtle or infrequent to be recognized otherwise. We conclude with a number of important lessons learned, suggest possible improvements, and recommend this collective exploratory approach for future astronomical surveys or other extensive data sets with a sufficiently large user base. We also release open-source code of the web application and host an online demo version at http://des-exp-checker.pmelchior.net.

  8. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Weak Lensing Shape Catalogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuntz, J.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We present two galaxy shape catalogues from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 data set, covering 1500 square degrees with a median redshift of $0.59$. The catalogues cover two main fields: Stripe 82, and an area overlapping the South Pole Telescope survey region. We describe our data analysis process and in particular our shape measurement using two independent shear measurement pipelines, METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE. The METACALIBRATION catalogue uses a Gaussian model with an innovative internal calibration scheme, and was applied to $riz$-bands, yielding 34.8M objects. The IM3SHAPE catalogue uses a maximum-likelihood bulge/disc model calibrated using simulations, and was applied to $r$-band data, yielding 21.9M objects. Both catalogues pass a suite of null tests that demonstrate their fitness for use in weak lensing science. We estimate the 1$\\sigma$ uncertainties in multiplicative shear calibration to be $0.013$ and $0.025$ for the METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE catalogues, respectively.

  9. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzodzomenyo Mawuli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES. Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  10. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kotha, S Rani; Johnson, Jennifer C; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Asabir, Kwesi; Kwansah, Janet; Nakua, Emmanuel; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Snow, Rachel C; Kruk, Margaret E

    2011-08-09

    Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  11. The influence of the rural health security schemes on health utilization and household impoverishment in rural China: data from a household survey of western and central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS, voluntary health insurance and the Medical Financial Assistance (MFA, financial relief program were established in 2003 for rural China. The aim of this study was to document their coverage, assess their effectiveness on access to in-patient care and protection against financial catastrophe and household impoverishment due to health spending, and identify the factors predicting impoverishment with and without these schemes. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. Information on personal demographic characteristics, chronic illness status, health care use, household expenditure, and household health spending were collected by interview. Results NRCMS covered 90.8% of the studied individuals and among the designated poor, 7.6% had their premiums paid by MFA. Of those referred for hospitalization in the year prior to the interview, 34.3% failed to comply, mostly (80.2% owing to financial constraints. There was no significant difference in the unmet need for admission between the insured with NRCMS and the uninsured. Before reimbursement, the incidence of catastrophic health payment (household health spending more than 40% of household's capacity to pay and medical impoverishment (household per capita income falling below the poverty line due to medical expense was 14.3% and 8.2%, respectively. NRCMS prevented 9.9% of the households from financial catastrophe and 7.7% from impoverishment, whereas MFA kept just one household from impoverishment and had no effect on financial catastrophe. Household per capita expenditure and household chronic disease proportion (proportion of members of a household with chronic illness were the most important determinants of the unmet need for admission, risk of being impoverished and the chance of not being saved

  12. Bioenergy and carbon sequestration potential from energy tree plantation in rural wasteland of North-Eastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Medhi, Hemantajeet; Das, Karabee; Thakur, Indu Shekhar; Baruah, Debendra Chandra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, carbon sequestration potential via energy tree plantation in the rural wasteland of Assam, India was estimated under two different plantation species scenarios,viz., (i) Acacia nilotica, and (ii) Bambusa tulda. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction potential in local tea industries by

  13. Bioenergy and carbon sequestration potential from energy tree plantation in rural wasteland of North-Eastern India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Medhi, Hemantajeet; Das, Karabee; Thakur, Indu Shekhar; Baruah, Debendra Chandra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, carbon sequestration potential via energy tree plantation in the rural wasteland of Assam, India was estimated under two different plantation species scenarios,viz., (i) Acacia nilotica, and (ii) Bambusa tulda. Furthermore, CO2 emission reduction potential in local tea industries by r

  14. Access to Dental Care for Rural Children: A Survey of Nebraska General Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kimberly K.; Salama, Fouad; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pediatric dentists are too few in number to care for all children. Therefore, the level of pediatric dental services provided by general dentists, especially in rural areas, is crucial to improving the dental health of children. Purpose: The objectives of the study were to establish a baseline in regard to the quantity of pediatric…

  15. Access to Dental Care for Rural Children: A Survey of Nebraska General Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kimberly K.; Salama, Fouad; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pediatric dentists are too few in number to care for all children. Therefore, the level of pediatric dental services provided by general dentists, especially in rural areas, is crucial to improving the dental health of children. Purpose: The objectives of the study were to establish a baseline in regard to the quantity of pediatric…

  16. Systematic Assessment of Carbon Emissions from Renewable Energy Access to Improve Rural Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Cherni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One way of increasing access to electricity for impoverished unconnected areas without adding significant amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere is by promoting renewable energy technologies. However, decision-makers rarely, if ever, take into account the level of in-built energy requirements and consequential CO2 emissions found in renewable energy, particularly photovoltaic cells and related equipment, which have been widely disseminated in developing countries. The deployment of solar panels worldwide has mostly relied on silicon crystalline cell modules, despite the fact that less polluting material—in particular, thin film and organic cells—offers comparatively distinct technical, environmental and cost advantages characteristics. A major scientific challenge has thus been the design of a single decision-making approach to assess local and global climate change-related impacts as well as the socio-economic effects of low-carbon technology. The article focuses on the functions of the multi-criteria-based tool SURE-DSS and environmental impact analysis focused on greenhouse gases (GHG emissions balance to inform the selection of technologies in terms of their impact on livelihoods and CO2eq. emissions. An application in a remote rural community in Cuba is discussed. The results of this study show that while PV silicon (c-Si, thin film (CdTe and organic solar cells may each equally meet the demands of the community and enhance people’s livelihoods, their effect on the global environment varies.

  17. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  18. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-09-12

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  19. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  20. Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

  1. Renewable energy supply to an isolated rural community to enhance ecotourism activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Ventura; Cataldo, Jose [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2008-07-01

    As part of a technology transfer project funded by OAS and carried out by Work Groups from Argentina, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay, the Laureles community was selected in Uruguay to enhance its productive activities of ecotourism and craftworks selling. A complete renewable energy demonstration system was provided to improve the services offered to tourists who stay overnight at rural houses. The community selection performed by the Uruguayan Renewable Energy Work Group, assisted by sociologists using the methodology and criteria implemented in a prior project, is described. The community was characterized including social, demographic and organizational issues, a carefully designed enquiry, mostly related to energy and production issues, was performed and a forecast for future needs was completed. Agreements about the renewable energy demonstration system characteristics were reached in a workshop attended by all community members. Also, load requirements and number and type of appliances were characterized. Due to project fund restrictions, only one complete system could be installed. Its location in one of the several farm houses where lodging is offered was discussed with the community reaching a consensus. The system installed uses wind energy to satisfy illumination, communications and refrigerator needs and solar water heating. Also, excess wind power will be used to support water heating. The local wind potential assessment, using short time wind measurements related to those obtained at near-by meteorological stations, and the system design are presented. Users received training about the system operation and its power and energy restrictions. In a first project evaluation meeting, the community discussed about its perception of the benefits expected in its quality of life through an increase of the number of tourists characterization of the communities in their social, demographic and organizational issues. The methodology employed was implemented in a

  2. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Survey of the actual state of energy consumption in the residential/commercial sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to energy demand in the business field, the paper conducted a questionnaire survey of the actual state and preparation of the existing literature and data. The purpose is to make the consumption structure and trend clear and to make it useful for the development/introduction of new energy and petroleum substitution energy in the future. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `office buildings` decreased from 227.0 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1990 survey to 179.5 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1995 survey. The energy type shifted from petroleum to electricity and gas. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `wholesale/retail` slightly decreased from 360.9 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 342.7 Mcal/{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. The energy type showed the same trend as in the case of office buildings. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `restaurants` increased from 573.3 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 622.8 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. As energy type, electricity increased while gas remarkably decreased. 55 refs., 155 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Issues concerning Migrant Workers’ Participation in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System and Countermeasures——Based on the Survey in Wenjiang District and Jintang County, Chengdu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We conduct questionnaire survey of migrant workers in Wenjiang District and Jintang County of Chengdu City,respectively,using the method of key-point investigation and the sampling survey. We describe the status quo of the sample migrant workers’ participation in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System,analyze the issues concerning migrant workers’ participation in the New Rural Cooperative Medical System,and put forward the countermeasures and recommendations as follows: using many types of medical insurance; establishing universal reimbursement points in strange land and premium-paying system for migrant workers; making the proportion of reimbursement open and transparent; establishing and improving medicare security system for migrant workers.

  5. [Energy expenditure on different physical activities of rural adults in North China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhimin; Wang, Xiaolu; Zhuo, Qin; Wang, Jing; Hu, Feng; Piao, Jianhua; Liu, Fenghai; Cao, Haiyi

    2012-01-01

    To test the energy metabolism of healthy adults in rural north China and to obtain the data of energy expenditure on different physical activities, in order to provide the basis for the Dietary Reference Intakes for Chinese people and the prevention and treatment of diseases related to energy and nutrition imbalance. The energy expenditures on different physical activities of 30 healthy adult men and women were investigated under strictly controlled experimental conditions by using portable cardiopulmonary function determinator k4b2 to examine the oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) during basal metabolic conditions and seven kinds of physical activities (walking, brisk walking, jogging, cycling, stair climbing, and watching TV). The content of 24-hour urine nitrogen was measured by micro Kjeldahl method. Combining with the change of body weight, the energy expenditures on different physical activities of normal adult men and women in north China were obtained. The average energy expenditure on physical activities (kJ x h(-1) x kg(-1)) were: walking 12.60 +/- 5.54 (11.46 +/- 2.19 for male and 15.47 +/- 6.97 for female), brisk walking 20.79 +/- 10.46 (15.95 +/- 3.59 for male and 25.33 +/- 12.70 for female), jogging 34.78 +/- 16.00 (30.45 +/- 5.07 for male and 38.84 +/- 21.58 for female) cycling 16.47 +/- 3.95 (14.77 +/- 2.57 for male and 18.74 +/- 4.85 for female), going up stairs 23.55 +/- 5.05 (23.61 +/- 3.43 for male and 23.49 +/- 6.41 for female) going down stairs 12.46 +/- 6.30 (10.43 +/- 1.27 for male and 14.49 +/- 8.48 for female) and watching TV 3.85 +/- 1.97 (3.56 +/- 0.86 for male and 4.16 +/- 2.79 for female). The average energy expenditure on physical activities of males was lower than that of females (P stairs, which was roughly equal in males and females. The average energy expenditure on various physical activities was different. Walking, watching TV and going downstairs are low-intensity physical activities; brisk walking

  6. Rural residential energy consumption not electrified in the Municipality of Petrolina-PE, Brazil; Consumo energetico residencial rural nao eletrificado do municipio de Petrolina-PE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel; Lopes, Luiz Carlos Nascimento [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET/PET), CE (Brazil); Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica

    2006-07-01

    This paper brings a study about the energetic profile consumption of the residential rural off-grid population in Petrolina- PE municipality. A community was chose as a sample and trough some interviews it was possible to get enough data to estimate the energetic consumption of this segment in the county. In conclusion it has a specific annual consumption of 0,125 tep/hab, 5.9% higher than the Brazilian average and that the firewood is the source to 91,87% of the energy final use. (author)

  7. Short report: premastication in rural Gabon--a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Hackenberg, Lorenz; Thol, Florian; Akerey-Diop, Daisy; Zoleko, Rella Manego; Rodolphe Mackanga, Jean; Adegnika, Ayôla A; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Ramharter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Premastication-defined as pre-chewing of food for infants by their caregiver-is a common feeding practice in various societies. To date the impact of premastication on children's health including the potential for transmission of infectious diseases is not well understood. Since there are no epidemiologic data on premastication from resource poor regions in Central Africa, we investigated the epidemiology and demographic variables associated with premastication in Central Africa. Between 2011 and 2012, mothers were interviewed about child feeding behaviors in three rural communities in Gabon. A quarter (n = 20, 24%) of 82 participants stated to perform premastication regularly. Despite the small sample size, our study provides first baseline data for the epidemiology of premastication in Central Africa, indicating that this feeding practice is common in rural communities.

  8. Deconstructing the concept of renewable energy-based mini-grids for rural electrification in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2016-01-01

    consist of the hybridization of existing utility-owned electricity systems for medium-size towns located far from the grid, which does not necessarily contribute to rural electrification. However, limited but increasing activity is identified regarding the use of mini-grids to bring electricity to rural...... between the option of large-scale grid extension and pico-scale stand-alone solutions like solar home systems or solar lanterns. International expectations of mini-grids are high, with the International Energy Agency suggesting that they will play a significant role in reaching the goal of universal...... access. Based on a detailed review of past, ongoing, and planned mini-grids in East Africa, this study seeks to deconstructs the popular notion of mini-grids for rural electrification in East Africa. The study reveals that so far activities carried out under the heading of mini-grids to a large extent...

  9. Initial Survey Instructions for Wind Energy Breeding Shorebird Survey at Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for conducting the wind breeding shorebird survey at Kulm Wetland Management District. This survey largely follows the protocol for...

  10. Work related musculoskeletal disorders among hospital nurses in rural Maharashtra, India: a multi centre survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak B. Anap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nurses have one of the highest rates of MSD of any occupation. Although en number of studies were done to find out prevalence of Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs among nurses across the world, there is limited information on its prevalence in Rural Maharashtra. This study investigated prevalence of WMSDs, job risk factors and the coping strategies towards reducing the risk of development of WMSDs among nurses from selected hospitals in rural Maharashtra, India. Validated questionnaires were distributed to 250 nurses working rural hospitals across Maharashtra but only 228 questionnaires were returned and 212 complete questionnaires were included for study. On Analysis we found that 89.1% nurses had experienced work-related musculoskeletal pain or discomfort at sometime in their occupational lives. WMSDs was highest in the low back (48.2%, followed by the shoulder (34.6%, neck (33.1 and knee (29 %. Other regions with less prevalence were Thoracic (10.5%, Feet and ankle (7.6%, Elbow ( 1.88% and Hip (1.6 %. Priority was given to getting help to handle heavy patients ( 57.1 %, nursing procedure modification in order to avoid stress injury ( 50.2 % coping strategies. Our study Concluded that high prevalence of LBP, Shoulder, neck and Knee pain over a 12-month period among nurses working in Rural hospitals in Maharashtra state , and certain risk factors like working in same position for long time, bending, twisting, lifting and treating excessive number of patients were strongly associated with WMSDs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(2.000: 101-107

  11. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Chinyoka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.

  12. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households. CONCLUSIONS: This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  13. 基于案例推理的农村新能源利用决策系统%Rural new energy utilization decision-making system based on case based reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于重重; 孙秋峰; 谭励; 涂序彦

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing and summarizing the relevant theory and technology of new energy in rural areas, the new rural energy utilization decision-making system is implemented with B/S structure, using Microsoft' s. NET as the software development platform,C# as the programming language. Through analyzing the survey data of the typical energy use in rural areas, the typical rural new energy utilization foundation database is built, and case base is further to be formed by extracting the data from the foundation database. According to the system functional requirements, the rural new energy decision-making functions are achieved by using case-based reasoning technology, while using Google Earth and Google Maps to complete geographic information display. Finally, the main functions of several functional modules are described by an instance.%在分析,总结相关农村新能源理论与技术研究的基础上,使用Microsoft的.NET作为软件开发平台,C#为编程语言,开发实现了基于B/S结构的农村新能源利用决策系统.通过对典型农村用能调查数据分析,建立了典型农村用能基础数据库,进一步从基础数据库中抽取数据,形成案例库.依据系统功能需求,利用案例推理技术实现了农村新能源利用决策功能.同时利用Google Each和Google Maps完成地理信息的显示.最后通过一个实例,对系统几个功能模块的主要功能进行了说明.

  14. 农村太阳房节能优化%Energy saving optimization of rural solar house

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海山

    2012-01-01

    从建筑规划节能设计、建筑平面节能设计和建筑围护结构优化设计方面对农村附加阳光间太阳房进行了优化,以提高附加阳光间太阳房的整体节能效果,为农村地区建设附加阳光间太阳房提供了重要的理论依据。%This paper made optimization to rural additional sun room solar house from building and planning energy-saving design, building plane energy-saving design and building envelope structure optimization design, in order to raise the overall energy saving effect of additional sun room solar house, provided important theoretical basis for rural area construction additional sun room solar house.

  15. Attitude towards working in rural area and self-assessment of competencies in last year medical students: A survey of five countries in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenkongkaew, Wanicha L; Negandhi, Himanshu; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Wang, Weimin; Mahmud, Kawkab; Cuong, Pham Viet

    2016-09-07

    Five countries in Asia including Bangladesh, China, India, Thailand and Vietnam formed a network called Asia-Pacific Network for Health Professional Education Reforms (ANHER). This network collectively conducted a survey at the national level and at the institutional level (for medical, nursing and public health education). We also undertook an assessment of final year graduates from these schools on their attitudes, competencies and willingness to work in rural areas. Pretested anonymous questionnaire comprised of four sections including demographic data, attitudes towards working in rural area, where to work after graduation and perception about competency of respondents was used. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used for data analyses. About 60 % of students from Bangladesh and Thailand had positive attitude towards working in rural area, 50 % in both China and India and only 33 % in Vietnam. Students' positive attitudes towards their school in terms of preparing or inspiring them to work in rural areas were low across all five countries. Upon graduation and in the next five years, majority of students wanted to work in public sectors. Interestingly confidence about overall competency was quite low. Positive attitude towards working in rural areas varied significantly across five countries in Asia. Medical schools should improve the preparation and inspiration towards working in rural areas for their students. Medical schools should put more effort in improving students' attitude towards working in rural areas.

  16. 村镇住宅建筑节能探析%On architectural energy-saving at rural buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建领

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the energy-saving at rural buildings, indicates the principle for the architectural energy-saving at the rural buildings, introduces the energy-saving measures at different parts, such as the roof, the external wall, and the windows, and analyzes the economical benefits and the social significance of the energy-saving buildings, so as to enhance the extension of the architectural energy-saving of rural buildings and realize the environment protection and the sustainable development.%针对村镇住宅建筑节能工作进行了探讨,阐述了村镇住宅建筑节能应遵循的原则,分别介绍了屋顶、外墙、窗户等不同部位的节能措施,并分析了建造节能住宅的经济效益和社会意义,以期促进农村住宅建筑节能的顺利推广,实现环保和可持续发展的目标。

  17. Energy conservation by hyperfiltration: food industry background literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-15

    The application of hyperfiltration to selected food product streams and food processing wastewaters for energy conservation was examined. This literature survey had led to the following conclusions: no research has been conducted in the food industry using membranes with hot process streams due to the temperature limitation (< 40/sup 0/C) of the typically studied cellulose acetate membranes; based on the bench-scale research reviewed, concentration of fruit and vegetable juices with membranes appears to be technically feasible; pretreatment and product recovery research was conducted with membranes on citrus peel oil, potato processing and brine wastewaters and wheys. The experiments demonstrated that these applications are feasible; many of the problems that have been identified with membranes are associated with either the suspended solids or the high osmotic pressure and viscosity of many foods; research using dynamic membranes has been conducted with various effluents, at temperatures to approx. 100/sup 0/C, at pressures to 1200 psi and with suspended solids to approx. 2%; and, the dynamic membrane is being prototype tested by NASA for high temperature processing of shower water. The literature review substantiates potential for dynamic membrane on porous stainless tubes to process a number of hot process and effluent streams in the food processing industry. Hot water for recycle and product concentrations are major areas with potential for economic application. The two plants involved in the first phase of the project should be reviewed to identify potential energy conservation applications. As many as possible of the conservation applications should be tested during the screening phase at each site. The most promising applications at each site should be evaluated more intensively to establish engineering estimates of the economics of this technology for the canned fruit and vegetable segment of the food industry.

  18. A survey of the domiciliary situation of urban and rural patients of a palliative care unit in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Kandasamy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A demographic study was conducted to understand the social status of the urban and rural patients attending a palliative care unit in South India. Methods: Fifty rural and 50 urban patients attending the palliative care outpatient clinic of the Christian Medical College and Hospital, South India were prospectively surveyed using a structured interview and home visits. Parameters studied included age, gender, marital status, education, occupation, religion, caste, housing, economic status, diagnosis, distance to the nearest health resource personnel and hospitals. Results: Occupation, religion, caste, housing, electricity, toilet and accessibility to health care were found to be significantly different between urban and rural patients. Seventy percent of the patients were below 60 years of age. The majority were unskilled laborers or housewives. One-third had never been to school and only 3% had been educated beyond high school. Half the patients slept on the floor, 50% of the dwellings had only one or two rooms and did not have toilets or running water. Ninety-five percent had electricity. The economic status of the patients correlated significantly with age, occupation and facilities in the house such as number of rooms, availability of beds, toilets and water supply. Women and older patients were significantly less likely to have completed school education. Women were less likely to be the main decision-makers and more likely to be the main caregivers. Conclusion: Economic status was a strong predictor of the various facilities available to the patient. A significant proportion of this population lived in deprived circumstances. A knowledge and understanding of the social conditions of the palliative care patients helps provide better-tailored care.

  19. Measuring personal beliefs and perceived norms about intimate partner violence: Population-based survey experiment in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Perkins, Jessica M; Vořechovská, Dagmar; McDonough, Amy Q; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Downey, Jordan M; Bangsberg, David R

    2017-05-01

    Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue. We embedded a randomized survey experiment in a population-based survey of 1,334 adult men and women living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara, Uganda. The primary outcomes were participants' personal beliefs about the acceptability of intimate partner violence and perceived norms about intimate partner violence in the community. To elicit participants' personal beliefs and perceived norms, we asked about the acceptability of intimate partner violence in five different vignettes. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three survey instruments, each of which contained varying levels of detail about the extent to which the wife depicted in the vignette intentionally or unintentionally violated gendered standards of behavior. For the questions about personal beliefs, the mean (standard deviation) number of items where intimate partner violence was endorsed as acceptable was 1.26 (1.58) among participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant (which contained little contextual detail about the wife's intentions), 2.74 (1.81) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as intentionally violating gendered standards of behavior, and 0.77 (1.19) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as unintentionally violating these standards. In a partial proportional odds regression model adjusting for sex and village of residence, with participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant as the referent group, participants assigned the survey variant

  20. Modelling the Transfer Function for the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C; Wechsler, R H; Refregier, A; Amara, A; Rykoff, E; Becker, M R; Bruderer, C; Gamper, L; Leistedt, B; Peiris, H; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Banerji, M; Bernstein, R A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Desai, S; da Costa, L N; Cunha, C E; Eifler, T; Evrard, A E; Neto, A Fausti; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; James, D; Kuehn, K; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Ogando, R; Plazas, A; Sanchez, E; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, C; Soares-Santos, M; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Zuntz, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a forward-modelling simulation framework designed to model the data products from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). This forward-model process can be thought of as a transfer function -- a mapping from cosmological and astronomical signals to the final data products used by the scientists. Using output from the cosmological simulations (the Blind Cosmology Challenge), we generate simulated images (the Ultra Fast Image Simulator, Berge et al. 2013) and catalogs representative of the DES data. In this work we simulate the 244 sq. deg coadd images and catalogs in 5 bands for the DES Science Verification (SV) data. The simulation output is compared with the corresponding data to show that major characteristics of the images and catalogs can be captured. We also point out several directions of future improvements. Two practical examples, star/galaxy classification and proximity effects on object detection, are then used to demonstrate how one can use the simulations to address systematics issues in data ana...

  1. A Search for Kilonovae in the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Doctor, Z; Chen, H Y; Farr, B; Finley, D A; Foley, R J; Goldstein, D A; Holz, D E; Kim, A G; Morganson, E; Sako, M; Scolnic, D; Smith, M; Soares-Santos, M; Spinka, H; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Annis, J; Bechtol, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; DAndrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Drlica-Wagner, A; Eifler, T F; Frieman, J; Garcia-Bellido, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Gruendl, R A; Gschwend, J; Gutierrez, G; James, D J; Krause, E; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Menanteau, F; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Walker, A R; Wester, W

    2016-01-01

    The coalescence of a binary neutron star (BNS) pair is expected to produce gravitational waves (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) radiation, both of which may be detectable with currently available instruments. We describe a search for a theoretically predicted r-process optical transient from these mergers, dubbed the kilonova (KN), using griz broadband data from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN). Some models predict KNe to be redder, shorter-lived, and dimmer than supernovae (SNe), but at present the event rate of KNe is poorly constrained. We simulate observations of KN and SN light curves with the Monte-Carlo simulation code SNANA to optimize selection requirements, determine search efficiency, and predict SN backgrounds. We also perform an analysis using fake point sources on images to account for anomalous efficiency losses from difference-imaging on bright low-redshift galaxies. Our analysis of the first two seasons of DES-SN data results in 0 events, and is consistent with our prediction of...

  2. Sociology of the energy turnaround. Renewable energy sources and transition of rural regions; Soziologie der Energiewende. Erneuerbare Energien und die Transition des laendlichen Raums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, Conrad

    2012-11-01

    German politicians, industry and society are working on the 'energy turnaround'. While changes in centralized power generation and transmission are going slow, there is an increasing number of 'test laboratories' in rural regions as communities and villages abandon imported fossil fuels and generate their own power on the basis of solar, wind and geothermal resources. In his study, the author investigates the transition phase using tools of empirical sociology. He shows that local processes reflect the importance of the energy turnaround as a cultural change and as a full-scale transformation of rural regions. The development of local, decentral energy infrastructures is interpreted theoretically as an interdependence between social and technological compolexity. The further geographic diffusion of the model in German-language regions can thus be explained as a consequence of specific social structures.

  3. Association between farming and chronic energy deficiency in rural South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asvini K Subasinghe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with chronic energy deficiency (CED and anaemia in disadvantaged Indian adults who are mostly involved in subsistence farming. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study in which we collected information on socio-demographic factors, physical activity, anthropometry, blood haemoglobin concentration, and daily household food intake. These data were used to calculate body mass index (BMI, basal metabolic rate (BMR, daily energy expenditure, and energy and nutrient intake. Multivariable backward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with CED (defined as BMI<18 kg/m² and anaemia. SETTING: The study was conducted in 12 villages, in the Rishi Valley, Andhra Pradesh, India. SUBJECTS: Individuals aged 18 years and above, residing in the 12 villages, were eligible to participate. RESULTS: Data were available for 1178 individuals (45% male, median age 36 years (inter quartile range (IQR 27-50. The prevalence of CED (38% and anaemia (25% was high. Farming was associated with CED in women (2.20, 95% CI: 1.39-3.49 and men (1.71, 95% CI: (1.06-2.74. Low income was also significantly associated with CED, while not completing high school was positively associated with anaemia. Median iron intake was high: 35.7 mg/day (IQR 26-46 in women and 43.4 mg/day (IQR 34-55 in men. CONCLUSIONS: Farming is an important risk factor associated with CED in this rural Indian population and low dietary iron is not the main cause of anaemia. Better farming practice may help to reduce CED in this population.

  4. A survey on human behavior towards energy efficiency for office worker in malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, N. H.; Husain, M. N.; Abd Aziz, M. Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Malek, F.

    2014-04-01

    Green environment has become an important topic around the world. This campaign can be realized if everybody understands and shares similar objectives on managing energy in an efficient way. This paper will present and analyse the survey on energy usage by office workers in Malaysia. The survey will focus on the workers in government sector. In social science surveys, it is important to support the tested data for a project. For issues related to human behaviour we must compare with real situations to verify the tested data and the results in energy monitoring system. The energy monitoring system will improve energy usage efficiency for the basic human activities in different situations and environments.

  5. Differences in Family Planning Services by Rural-urban Geography: Survey of Title X-Supported Clinics In Great Plains and Midwestern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Summer L; Starr, Katherine A; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Gilliam, Melissa L

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the nature of rural-urban variation in U.S. family planning services would help address disparities in unmet contraceptive need. In 2012, some 558 Title X-supported clinics in 16 Great Plains and Midwestern states were surveyed. Rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes were used to categorize clinic locations as urban, large rural city, small rural town or isolated small rural town. Bivariate analyses examined key domains of service provision by RUCA category and clinic type. The proportion of clinics offering walk-in appointments was lower in isolated small rural towns (47%) than in the other RUCA categories (67-73%). Results were similar for sites that do not specialize in family planning or reproductive health, but no variation was seen among specialty clinics. Overall, availability of evening or weekend appointments varied in a linear fashion, falling from 73% in urban areas to 29% in isolated small rural towns. On-site provision of most hormonal methods was most common in urban areas and least common in isolated small rural towns, while provision of nonhormonal methods was similar across RUCA categories. Sixty percent of clinics provided IUDs or implants. For clinics that did not, the only barriers that varied geographically were low IUD demand and lack of trained IUD providers; these barriers were most common in isolated rural towns (42% and 70%, respectively). While important characteristics, such as clinics' specialization (or lack thereof), are linked to the provision of family planning services, geographic disparities exist. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  6. The Health and Well-Being of Children in Rural Areas: A Portrait of the Nation 2007. The National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) provides a unique resource with which to analyze the health status, health care use, activities, and family and community environments experienced by children in rural and urban areas. The NSCH was designed to measure the health and well-being of children from birth through age 17 in the United…

  7. Review and comparison study of hybrid diesel/solar/hydro/fuel cell energy schemes for a rural ICT Telecenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.O.; Yung, V.C.; Anyi, M.; Othman, A.K.; Ab. Hamid, K.B. [Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Tarawe, J. [e-Bario ICT Telecenter, Bario, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper, the rural electrification study of an ICT Telecenter in particular reference to the Kelabit Highland of Sarawak is presented. The use of diesel generator and its associated environmental implications is first discussed. The cost-effectiveness of the present solar PV system and the solar/hydro schemes for rural electrification of the rural ICT are evaluated employing the HOMER simulation software, considering sustainability factors such as system efficiency, weather, fuel costs, operating and maintaining costs. Subsequently, simple novel Hybrid Energy Performance Equations and the associated Energy Performance Curves are derived and introduced, respectively, which provide a visualization model, simplifying hybrid system analysis. Results obtained in this study have shown that combined power schemes is more sustainable in terms of supplying electricity to the Telecenter compared to a stand-alone PV system due to prolong cloudy and dense haze periods. The hybrid systems can have efficiency range of {proportional_to}15%-75% compared to PV stand-alone of only {proportional_to}10%, indicating hybrid systems are more reliable and sustainable - in minimizing both energy losses and excess energy. (author)

  8. Sexual risk behaviour of rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional behavioural survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, T; Anderson, C; Evans, C; Rahman, M S

    2010-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research in Bangladesh has mainly focused on key vulnerable groups (e.g. sex workers, drug users). In order to develop appropriate HIV prevention strategies in an evolving epidemic, there is a need for evidence on sexual practices in other population groups. This research aims to describe the prevalence of risky behaviours and factors affecting sexual behaviour/practices among rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka. Cross-sectional study. This paper reports on the cross-sectional survey component of a mixed methods research study amongst migrant workers in Bangladesh. The sample (n = 437) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka (aged 18-35 years). The survey data were analysed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Very high levels of pre- and extramarital sexual behaviour were found (84% and 51%, respectively) amongst the sample (n = 437). The reported sexual activity included high levels of risky/unsafe sex in the past year: 64% of the sample reported sex with multiple commercial sex partners (mean = 13.21), and 21.7% reported sex with other males/transgenders (mean = 2.53). Protection against risk was low: 78.2% reported that their last commercial sexual encounter was unprotected, and only 5.6% used condoms consistently. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher in migrant men who were not married (odds ratio 35.3, P Bangladesh, and suggests that migrant men should be a key population for HIV prevention efforts. Nonetheless, the fact that most men were having unprotected sex with sex workers reinforces the importance of continuing to target interventions towards commercial sex contexts. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Search for Kilonovae in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, Z.; Kessler, R.; Chen, H. Y.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Foley, R. J.; Goldstein, D. A.; Holz, D. E.; Kim, A. G.; Morganson, E.; Sako, M.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Spinka, H.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Costa, L. N. da; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2017-03-01

    The coalescence of a binary neutron star pair is expected to produce gravitational waves (GW) and electromagnetic radiation, both of which may be detectable with currently available instruments. We describe a search for a predicted r-process optical transient from these mergers, dubbed the “kilonova” (KN), using griz broadband data from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN). Some models predict KNe to be redder, shorter-lived, and dimmer than supernovae (SNe), but the event rate of KNe is poorly constrained. We simulate KN and SN light curves with the Monte-Carlo simulation code SNANA to optimize selection requirements, determine search efficiency, and predict SN backgrounds. Our analysis of the first two seasons of DES-SN data results in 0 events, and is consistent with our prediction of 1.1 ± 0.2 background events based on simulations of SNe. From our prediction, there is a 33% chance of finding 0 events in the data. Assuming no underlying galaxy flux, our search sets 90% upper limits on the KN volumetric rate of 1.0 x10$^{7}$ Gpc$-$3 yr$-$1 for the dimmest KN model we consider (peak i-band absolute magnitude ${M}_{i}=-11.4$ mag) and 2.4x10$^{4}$ Gpc$-$3 yr$-$1 for the brightest (${M}_{i}=-16.2$ mag). Accounting for anomalous subtraction artifacts on bright galaxies, these limits are ~3 times higher. This analysis is the first untriggered optical KN search and informs selection requirements and strategies for future KN searches. Our upper limits on the KN rate are consistent with those measured by GW and gamma-ray burst searches.

  10. A Search for Kilonovae in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Z.; Kessler, R.; Chen, H. Y.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Foley, R. J.; Goldstein, D. A.; Holz, D. E.; Kim, A. G.; Morganson, E.; Sako, M.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Spinka, H.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The coalescence of a binary neutron star pair is expected to produce gravitational waves (GW) and electromagnetic radiation, both of which may be detectable with currently available instruments. We describe a search for a predicted r-process optical transient from these mergers, dubbed the “kilonova” (KN), using griz broadband data from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN). Some models predict KNe to be redder, shorter-lived, and dimmer than supernovae (SNe), but the event rate of KNe is poorly constrained. We simulate KN and SN light curves with the Monte-Carlo simulation code SNANA to optimize selection requirements, determine search efficiency, and predict SN backgrounds. Our analysis of the first two seasons of DES-SN data results in 0 events, and is consistent with our prediction of 1.1 ± 0.2 background events based on simulations of SNe. From our prediction, there is a 33% chance of finding 0 events in the data. Assuming no underlying galaxy flux, our search sets 90% upper limits on the KN volumetric rate of 1.0 × {10}7 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 for the dimmest KN model we consider (peak i-band absolute magnitude {M}i=-11.4 mag) and 2.4 × {10}4 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 for the brightest ({M}i=-16.2 mag). Accounting for anomalous subtraction artifacts on bright galaxies, these limits are ∼3 times higher. This analysis is the first untriggered optical KN search and informs selection requirements and strategies for future KN searches. Our upper limits on the KN rate are consistent with those measured by GW and gamma-ray burst searches.

  11. SURVEY OF CULTURABLE AIRBORNE BACTERIA AT FOUR DIVERSE LOCATIONS IN OREGON: URBAN, RURAL, FOREST, AND COASTAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the risks of microbial air pollution from microorganisms used for pesticides and bioremediation, or emanating from composting, fermentation tanks, or other agricultural and urban sources, airborne microbial levels must be evaluated. This study surveyed the atmospheri...

  12. Spectroscopic Reductions of White Dwarf Stars to Support Dark Energy Survey Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Deborah Jean; Robertson, Jacob M.; Tucker, Douglas Lee; Smith, J. Allyn; Wester, William; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fix, Mees B.

    2017-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey is an imaging survey that covers 5000 square degrees in the Southern hemisphere to map galaxies and gather information on dark energy. Science requirements for the survey require a 0.5% uncertainty in color, driven by supernova science. The Dark Energy Survey relies a calibration technique that uses white dwarf stars to set zero points. These white dwarf spectra are fit to models which are used to generate synthetic photometry. These values are compared to the measured values from the survey to verify that the zero points are correct. We present results to date of the spectroscopic reductions of these white dwarf stars in support of the calibrations for the Dark Energy Survey.

  13. Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Cluster vs. Single Home Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimber Haddix McKay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the socio-cultural dimensions of obstacles facing solar photovoltaic projects in two villages in rural Nepal. The study was conducted in Humla District, Nepal, one of the most remote and impoverished regions of the country. There are no roads in the district, homes lack running water and villagers’ health suffers from high levels of indoor air pollution from open cooking/heating fires and the smoky torches traditionally burned for light. The introduction of solar energy is important to these villagers, as it removes one major source of indoor air pollution from homes and provides brighter light than the traditional torches. Solar energy is preferable in many villages in the region due to the lack of suitable streams or rivers for micro-hydroelectric projects. In the villages under study in this paper, in-home solar electricity is a novel and recent innovation, and was installed within the last three years in two different geo-spatial styles, depending upon the configuration of homes in the village. In some villages, houses are grouped together, while in others households are widely dispersed. In the former, solar photovoltaic systems were installed in a “cluster” fashion with multiple homes utilizing power from a central battery store under the control of the householder storing the battery bank. In villages with widely spaced households, a single home system was used so that each home had a separate solar photovoltaic array, wiring system and battery bank. It became clear that the cluster system was the sensible choice due to the geographic layout of certain villages, but this put people into management groups that did not always work well due to caste or other differences. This paper describes the two systems and their management and usage costs and benefits from the perspective of the villagers themselves.

  14. Survey report for fiscal 1998 on the survey on preparation of data collection related to new energy technology development (unutilized energies); 1998 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (miriyo energy) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Surveys have been made with objectives to put into order systematically the data related to unutilized energies, to include new data into the data collection, and to complete the data collection with higher degree of coverage. This paper elucidates the significance of unutilized energy using heat supply systems, puts into order the kinds and specific properties of unutilized energies, and enumerates the typical systems for heat supply utilizing the unutilized energies. Unutilized energy using heat supply facilities in Japan were surveyed, which were classified by unutilized energy sources, unutilized energy temperature levels, and territories to prepare a detailed data collection for typical introduction cases. Introduction cases in overseas countries were put into order with those in Europe and America as the main introduction cases. Policies, legislation and subsidy institutions on unutilized energies were surveyed and put into order mainly for Japan, Europe and America. The status of research and development in Japan is stated. Two representative examples of unutilized energy using heat supply systems were surveyed, and the effect of the introduction was investigated. Other statements include typical costs, basic terminology, lists of major related corporations and organizations, and such related information as distribution cost. (NEDO)

  15. Slow pyrolysis for rural small biomass energy by joint project developments of Brazil and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampegowda, Rajesh; Chandayot, Pongchan [Asian University, Chonburi (Thailand)], email: rkempegowda@asianust.ac.th; Pannirselvam, Pagandai V.; Humberto, Maricy; Santos, Joao Matias [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEQ/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos], email: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The efficiency for carbonization by slow pyrolysis is still low in the current method studied using rice straw in Thailand and cashewnut shell in Brazil, however direct heating process yields better char yield of 17% as compared to indirect heating with 15% process using horizontal metal drum kiln.where as vertical kiln were mainly used in Brazil. Higher yield is made possible from Brasilian cashew nut shell to make oil and char. Carbon and energy balance was also carried out and the results were compared for the direct and indirect process. Burning by indirect draft gives better results like more char, faster process. Direct draft gives less char, but higher quality (higher C and H2). Also a lot of straw is left unburnt in the direct draft kiln, because of bad temperature distribution and flow inside. The kiln design is found to be more suitable for indirect draft rather than direct draft. Both methods still give rice straw charcoal that has low calorific value with an output char LHV of 4337 kcal/kg as compared to fresh rice straw of 3412 kcal/kg. In the direct heating method output char is enriched to 45% with a still unburnt rice straw left out as compared to indirect heating method with carbon enrichment of 39%. There is a loss of 13% of carbon through the ash in the both the methods. The carbon content in the condensate is in the order of 18.5% for the indirect process as compared to 13.9% in the direct process due to less exhaust and carbon enrichment inside the kiln. There is a loss of 43% of carbon in the exhaust from indirect heating process as compared to direct heating process which is reduced to 26%. The energy balance predicts a heat loss of 14% in exhaust gases. A practical small scale slow pyrolysis project was developed to meet rural energy and heat requirements. to make the clean energy from waste resources possible by the joint project. (author)

  16. Urban and rural variation in clustering of metabolic syndrome components in the Thai population: results from the fourth National Health Examination Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aekplakorn Wichai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the distribution of Metabolic syndrome (MetS and its combinations by urban/rural areas in lower-middle income countries has been limited. It is not clear how the various combinations of MetS components varied by urban/rural population and if particular combinations of MetS are more common. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MetS and combinations of MetS components according to sex and urban/rural areas from a nationally representative sample of Thai adults. Methods Data from the fourth National Health Examination Survey of 19,256 Thai adults aged 20 years and over were analyzed. MetS was defined using the harmonized criteria of six international expert groups with Asian-specific cut-point for waist circumference. Results The prevalence of MetS was 23.2% among adults aged ≥ 20 years (19.5% in men and 26.8% in women. Among men, the prevalence of MetS in urban was higher than those in rural areas (23.1% vs 17.9%, P P Conclusion Metabolic syndrome affects both urban and rural population with different pattern of MetS combinations. Dyslipidemia and obesity were the most common components among women in rural areas, hence, interventions to prevent and control these factors should be strengthened.

  17. Rural Alaska Coal Bed Methane: Application of New Technologies to Explore and Produce Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David O. Ogbe; Shirish L. Patil; Doug Reynolds

    2005-06-30

    The Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks prepared this report. The US Department of Energy NETL sponsored this project through the Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory (AETDL) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The financial support of the AETDL is gratefully acknowledged. We also acknowledge the co-operation from the other investigators, including James G. Clough of the State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys; Art Clark, Charles Barker and Ed Weeks of the USGS; Beth Mclean and Robert Fisk of the Bureau of Land Management. James Ferguson and David Ogbe carried out the pre-drilling economic analysis, and Doug Reynolds conducted post drilling economic analysis. We also acknowledge the support received from Eric Opstad of Elko International, LLC; Anchorage, Alaska who provided a comprehensive AFE (Authorization for Expenditure) for pilot well drilling and completion at Fort Yukon. This report was prepared by David Ogbe, Shirish Patil, Doug Reynolds, and Santanu Khataniar of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and James Clough of the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Survey. The following research assistants, Kanhaiyalal Patel, Amy Rodman, and Michael Olaniran worked on this project.

  18. Rural-urban differentials in the rates and factors associated with post-neonatal mortality in Nigeria: Evidence from the 2013 national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Emmanuel Olorunleke; Adama, Samuel John; Adefemi, Kazeem; Akintunde, Olufemi Abayomi; Bulndi, Lydia Babatunde

    2017-07-26

    The burden of post-neonatal mortality remains considerably high in Nigeria. This study examines the rural-urban differences in post-neonatal mortality rates (PNMR) and associated factors in Nigeria. Dataset from the 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey, disaggregated by rural-urban residence, was analyzed. PNMR was reported using frequency tabulation, whereas, factors associated were first evaluated using Chi-Square test and further examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. A total of 30384 singleton livebirths (20449 in rural and 9935 in urban residences) in the five years preceding the survey was included in this study. PNMR in rural and urban residences were 34 (95%CI: 31 - 38) and 22 (95%CI: 18 - 26) deaths per 1000 live births (Purban residence, poor wealth index (AOR: 1.660, 95%CI: 1.024 - 2.689), living in the South-East region (AOR: 2.902, 95%CI: 1.470 - 5.726), and home delivery (AOR: 1.539, 95%CI: 1.016 - 2.330) increased the odds of post-neonatal mortality. Regardless of residence, the use of solid cooking-fuels (Rural: AOR: 2.394, 95%CI: 1.211 - 4.734; Urban: AOR: 1.912, 95%CI: 1.206 - 3.030), birth interval Urban: AOR: 1.630, 95%CI: 1.042 - 2.550) and lack of breastfeeding (Rural: AOR: 2.547, 95%CI: 2.089 - 3.105; Urban: AOR: 2.152, 95%CI: 1.496 - 3.096) increased the odds of post-neonatal mortality. PNMR and associated factors differ in rural and urban Nigeria. Post-neonates in urban areas had better survival chances. Intervention efforts would need to prioritize findings in this study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Landowner Attitudes and Perceptions of Impact from Wind and Natural Gas Development in Northern Pennsylvania: Implications for Energy Landscapes in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Jeffrey Bryan

    Energy developments such as industrial scale wind farms and unconventional natural gas drilling represent some of the largest and most controversial land use changes occurring in the United States today. A diverse array of academic disciplines have each sought to explain the social, psychological, and economic effects of siting large industrial facilities in rural areas, however the research has largely remained discipline-specific. This study measures resident attitudes and perceptions of impact from both wind and gas drilling occurring simultaneously in the Armenia Mountain Area of northern Pennsylvania. The results of a mail survey of landowners (n = 1028) in this study area reveal factors that explain landowner variation in attitudes and perception of impact, and describe new forms of participation in the planning and siting of these energy projects. Direction is provided for a new and synthetic theoretical understanding of how residents perceive these impacts and impacts from land use change. The work advances “risk of social and psychological disruption” as a key factor that may influence how residents respond to the prospect of large land use changes. Implications for the regulation and planning of these energy sources are offered, including a new understanding of how landowners participate in the planning and siting of large energy projects. Finally, the limitations of this work, as well as opportunities and implications for future research, are discussed.

  20. Survey of energy load leveling system in Europe; Energy fuka heijunka taisaku ni kansuru Europe chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Setsunan University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-05-05

    This paper describes the survey of energy load leveling systems in Europe. In Denmark, especially regional heating is remarkably diffused, and they have 350 plants. With extending the service areas, the energy load leveling has been promoted. For the cogeneration plants of SK Power, the largest electric power company, they have hot water heat storage tanks for regional heat supply with a total capacity 2,200 MWh. The regional heating system in Goeteborg City of Sweden supplies 80% of the total heat demand of the city. Unused energy sources derived from petroleum refining, sewage treatment, and garbage burning are utilized. In Uppsala, they have seasonal heat storage systems using solar heat. The Vienna Regional Heat Supply Corporation supplies heat equivalent to 5,000 GWh a year. Cogeneration plants and garbage burning plants are used as heat sources, and 25% of the total heating in the city is supplied. In Austria, they have an electric power demand with a peak in winter, and they have a pumped-storage power station in Kaprun for the annual load leveling using dump power in summer. This paper also introduces a compressed air storage gas turbine plant at Huntorf of Germany, and a large-scale underground natural gas storage of Gaz de France. 6 figs.

  1. Indoor Environment and Energy Use in Historic Buildings - Comparing Survey Results with Measurements and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, P.; Dalewski, M.; Moshfegh, B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand for energy efficiency places new requirements on energy use in historic buildings. Efficient energy use is essential if a historic building is to be used and preserved, especially buildings with conventional uses such as residential buildings and offices. This paper presents...... results which combine energy auditing with building energy simulation and an indoor environment survey among the occupants of the building. Both when comparing simulations with measurements as well as with survey results good agreement was found. The two efficiency measures that are predicted to increase...... energy and thermal performance the most for this group of buildings were reduced infiltration and increasing heat-exchanger efficiency....

  2. The Eco-Behavioral Approach to Surveys and Social Accounts for Rural Communities: Exploratory Analyses and Interpretations of Roger G. Barker's Microdata from the Behavior Setting Survey of Midwest, Kansas in 1963-64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Karl A.

    The concept of behavior settings--the environments shaping individual behavior--was originated by Roger Barker in 1950 in connection with his community surveys in a small Kansas town, code-named Midwest. This book seeks to provide rural social scientists with an understanding of Barker's eco-behavioral approach and proposed adaptations of it to…

  3. Missing medical records: an obstacle to archival survey-research in a rural community in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wegner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping good quality medical records is an essential yet oftenneglected part of a health-care practitioner’s workload. In South Africa, by lawall health care facilities are required to retain medical records for a minimum ofsix years after the cessation of a patient’s treatment. In an archival survey thatwas attempted in a rural community in South Africa, only 39% of the recordsthat were requested were located. The procedure that was followed in order toobtain the records to be included in the survey is briefly described in this paper,highlighting the challenges experienced in four district hospitals in this community.The phenomenon has serious implications not only for the quality of healthcare,incidence of iatrogenic injuries and the future of the health-care practitioner’s career, but it also impacts on the ability to conductresearch to inform practice. An aspect that is not often considered is the impact of poor record keeping on the research and teachingcomponent of the broader medical profession.

  4. Geologic cross section, gas desorption, and other data from four wells drilled for Alaska rural energy project, Wainwright, Alaska, coalbed methane project, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur C.; Roberts, Stephen B.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    Energy costs in rural Alaskan communities are substantial. Diesel fuel, which must be delivered by barge or plane, is used for local power generation in most off-grid communities. In addition to high costs incurred for the purchase and transport of the fuel, the transport, transfer, and storage of fuel products pose significant difficulties in logistically challenging and environmentally sensitive areas. The Alaska Rural Energy Project (AREP) is a collaborative effort between the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Land Management Alaska State Office along with State, local, and private partners. The project is designed to identify and evaluate shallow (methane (CBM) and geothermal in the vicinity of rural Alaskan communities where these resources have the potential to serve as local-use power alternatives. The AREP, in cooperation with the North Slope Borough, the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation, and the Olgoonik Corporation, drilled and tested a 1,613 ft continuous core hole in Wainwright, Alaska, during the summer of 2007 to determine whether CBM represents a viable source of energy for the community. Although numerous gas-bearing coal beds were encountered, most are contained within the zone of permafrost that underlies the area to a depth of approximately 1,000 ft. Because the effective permeability of permafrost is near zero, the chances of producing gas from these beds are highly unlikely. A 7.5-ft-thick gas-bearing coal bed, informally named the Wainwright coal bed, was encountered in the sub-permafrost at a depth of 1,242 ft. Additional drilling and testing conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009 indicated that the coal bed extended throughout the area outlined by the drill holes, which presently is limited to the access provided by the existing road system. These tests also confirmed the gas content of the coal reservoir within this area. If producible, the Wainwright coal bed contains sufficient gas to serve as a long

  5. Wireless Networks with RF Energy Harvesting: A Contemporary Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiao; Wang,Ping; Niyato, Dusit; Kim, Dong In; Han, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) energy transfer and harvesting techniques have recently become alternative methods to power the next generation wireless networks. As this emerging technology enables proactive energy replenishment of wireless devices, it is advantageous in supporting applications with quality of service (QoS) requirement. In this paper, we present an extensive literature review on the research progresses in wireless networks with RF energy harvesting capability, referred to as RF energy ...

  6. Energy intelligent buildings based on user activity : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Occupant presence and behaviour in buildings has been shown to have large impact on heating, cooling and ventilation demand, energy consumption of lighting and appliances, and building controls. Energy-unaware behaviour can add one-third to a building's designed energy performance. Consequently, use

  7. Energy intelligent buildings based on user activity : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco

    Occupant presence and behaviour in buildings has been shown to have large impact on heating, cooling and ventilation demand, energy consumption of lighting and appliances, and building controls. Energy-unaware behaviour can add one-third to a building's designed energy performance. Consequently,

  8. Use of antenatal services and delivery care among women in rural western Kenya: a community based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Daniel H

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving maternal health is one of the UN Millennium Development Goals. We assessed provision and use of antenatal services and delivery care among women in rural Kenya to determine whether women were receiving appropriate care. Methods Population-based cross-sectional survey among women who had recently delivered. Results Of 635 participants, 90% visited the antenatal clinic (ANC at least once during their last pregnancy (median number of visits 4. Most women (64% first visited the ANC in the third trimester; a perceived lack of quality in the ANC was associated with a late first ANC visit (Odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–2.4. Women who did not visit an ANC were more likely to have 90%, but provision of other services was low, e.g. malaria prevention (21%, iron (53% and folate (44% supplementation, syphilis testing (19.4% and health talks (14.4%. Eighty percent of women delivered outside a health facility; among these, traditional birth attendants assisted 42%, laypersons assisted 36%, while 22% received no assistance. Factors significantly associated with giving birth outside a health facility included: age ≥ 30 years, parity ≥ 5, low SES, 1 hour walking distance from the health facility. Women who delivered unassisted were more likely to be of parity ≥ 5 (AOR 5.7, 95% CI 2.8–11.6. Conclusion In this rural area, usage of the ANC was high, but this opportunity to deliver important health services was not fully utilized. Use of professional delivery services was low, and almost 1 out of 5 women delivered unassisted. There is an urgent need to improve this dangerous situation.

  9. Dental caries status in 6–14-year-old schoolchildren of rural Channagiri, Davangere: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Nikhat Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a major public health issue and schools remain an important setting for an efficient and effective way to reach over billion children worldwide and through them, families, and community members. Aim: To assess the prevalence of dental caries among 6–14-year-old-school going children of rural areas of Channagiri taluk. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among government schools at Thyavanige, Nallur, Pandomatti, Tavarakere, Daginakatte, and Ajjihalli in Channagiri taluk of Davangere district. The study population comprised school children from 6 to 14 years. A total of 1140 children of both genders were surveyed for dental caries prevalence. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, unpaired t-test, and one-way ANOVA test. Results: The prevalence of caries in the present study was higher in boys (45.08% than girls (28.42% (P > 0.5. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT was 0.47 ± 0.95 for boys and 0.44 ± 0.91 for girls and the mean dmft for boys was 0.50 ± 1.04 and 0.66 ± 1.12 for girls. Conclusions: Caries prevalence was higher in boys and also a large amount of untreated carious lesions among the children. These results suggest that emphasis should be given to scientific monitoring, effective implementation and evaluation of school based oral health promotion and preventive programs to increase the dental awareness and oral hygiene practices, in the rural areas of Channagiri taluk of Davangere district.

  10. Optimising Spectroscopic and Photometric Galaxy Surveys: Same-sky Benefits for Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, Donnacha; Bridle, Sarah; Jouvel, Stephanie; Abdalla, Filipe B; Frieman, Joshua A

    2013-01-01

    The combination of multiple cosmological probes can produce measurements of cosmological parameters much more stringent than those possible with any individual probe. We examine the combination of two highly correlated probes of late-time structure growth: (i) weak gravitational lensing from a survey with photometric redshifts and (ii) galaxy clustering and redshift space distortions from a survey with spectroscopic redshifts. We choose generic survey designs so that our results are applicable to a range of current and future photometric redshift (e.g. KiDS, DES, HSC, Euclid) and spectroscopic redshift (e.g. DESI, 4MOST, Sumire) surveys. Combining the surveys greatly improves their power to measure both dark energy and modified gravity. An independent, non-overlapping combination sees a dark energy figure of merit more than 4 times larger than that produced by either survey alone. The powerful synergies between the surveys are strongest for modified gravity, where their constraints are orthogonal, producing a...

  11. Energy Education in the Schools. Results of a Survey of the Penetration of Energy Education into the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Janet A.; Fowler, John M.

    Nine years after the 1973 oil embargo and the outpouring of educational materials and strategies developed in response to the energy crisis, the extent and content of energy education in the classroom were assessed. Seven thousand randomly selected teachers and principals were surveyed at the end of the 1981-82 school year (1000 each of elementary…

  12. An international survey of building energy codes and their implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Graham, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Buildings are key to low-carbon development everywhere, and many countries have introduced building energy codes to improve energy efficiency in buildings. Yet, building energy codes can only deliver results when the codes are implemented. For this reason, studies of building energy codes need to consider implementation of building energy codes in a consistent and comprehensive way. This research identifies elements and practices in implementing building energy codes, covering codes in 22 countries that account for 70% of global energy demand from buildings. Access to benefits of building energy codes depends on comprehensive coverage of buildings by type, age, size, and geographic location; an implementation framework that involves a certified agency to inspect construction at critical stages; and independently tested, rated, and labeled building energy materials. Training and supporting tools are another element of successful code implementation, and their role is growing in importance, given the increasing flexibility and complexity of building energy codes. Some countries have also introduced compliance evaluation and compliance checking protocols to improve implementation. This article provides examples of practices that countries have adopted to assist with implementation of building energy codes.

  13. Confronting the sound speed of dark energy with future cluster surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hannestad, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that, in combin......Future cluster surveys will observe galaxy clusters numbering in the hundred thousands. We consider this work how these surveys can be used to constrain dark energy parameters: in particular, the equation of state parameter w and the non-adiabatic sound speed c_s^2. We demonstrate that......, then c_s^2 can be pinned down to within an order of magnitude. In the course of this work, we also investigate the process of dark energy virialisation in the presence of an arbitrary sound speed. We find that dark energy clustering and virialisation can lead to dark energy contributing to the total...

  14. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyn J. Matz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2 was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011 provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%, most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8% or in a vehicle (5.3%. Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.

  15. Agroenergy: a course on the fundamentals of energy use in rural areas; Agroenergia: um curso sobre fundamentos do uso da energia no meio rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Eliane Framil; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Referencia em Pequenos Aproveitamentos Hidroenergeticos. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia da Energia], e-mail: elianef@unifei.edu.br, e-mail: tiago@unifei.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, according to IBGE (Brazilian Geography and Statistical Institute), there are about 12 million of brazilian people without access to the electric power. Most of these people lives in rural and remote areas and, consequently, they are distant of the energy distribution lines. Most of time, due to the high cost of implantation, these lines become unviable. This scenery has as consequence the migration of the peasant to the city aiming the improvement of his life quality. This fact does not become reality always. In this case, it is essential that the peasant has the access to the information so that he remains in the field. In front of such argument arose the Agroenergia's Course, aiming give to the peasant some knowledge about alternative sources of energy. These sources can be found in the environment and can be used in the electricity generation, among others purposes. Thus, universalize the access to the energy and decentralize the generation constitute ways for the social equality. (author)

  16. Study on the Exploitation and Utilization of Traditional Food Safety and Chinese Medicine Resources in Rural Areas-based on the Survey of Tongcheng Anhui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Bo Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a study on the exploitation and utilization of traditional food safety and Chinese medicine resources in rural areas based on the survey of Tongcheng Anhui. There are a large variety and effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM resources in vast rural areas and they are the material basis for the development of TCM cause and research of TCM products. For a long time, however, because of various objective and subjective factors such as lacking of due attention to development and utilization of the resources of TCM, the cause of traditional Chinese medicine in rural areas are lack of development potential. By selecting a representative sample of rural Tongcheng in Anhui and on the basis of investigation on development and utilization of local traditional Chinese medicine resources, we should analyze current problems of development and utilization of existing rural medicine resource and propose suggestions from the aspects of government and farmers research. In this way, we can provide a reference to the motherland researchers and workers of the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Analysis and Countermeasures to Loneliness Survey of Rural Children%农村儿童孤独感现状调查及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金娥; 李月

    2011-01-01

    关于儿童孤独感的研究多以城市儿童为被试,对农村儿童关注较少。为了弥补这个研究的缺陷,选取了160名小学3-6年级的农村儿童为研究对象,采用Asher等1984年编制的《儿童孤独感量表》进行问卷调查,并对其孤独感特点进行分析。结果表明,农村儿童孤独感在不同年级、不同性别之间均存在显著差异。四年级儿童的孤独感最高,男生的孤独感显著高于女生。%The Loneliness of the past,most children were urban children as subjects,on the loneliness of rural children less attention.To compensate for the shortcomings of this study,this study of rural children 3-6 year study,1984 by Asher and other "compiled by loneliness scale" of the 160 survey of rural children,rural children in the loneliness of Investigation of characteristics.The results show that the loneliness of rural children in different grades and between genders were significantly different.

  18. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  19. Survey of energy resources: focus on shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The energy sector around the world is undergoing major changes resulting from increasing competitive pressures and concerns about costs, security of supply and the environment. At the same time, 1.6 billion people, almost a quarter of the world population, do not have access to commercial energy and the need for energy infrastructure investment is huge. The energy challenges are not the same in all regions. While rapidly burgeoning economies in the developing world are focusing on expanding energy access to support their economic growth and provide basic energy services to their citizens, industrialised countries are focusing on securing energy supplies in a competitive environment and in a publicly and environmentally acceptable way. In recent years, shale gas has been making headlines as a potential solution for many of the energy-related challenges, in particular in the United States. A number of studies on shale gas have been conducted, the majority focusing on the assessment of the resource base and the role of emerging technologies, which can significantly increase the current reserve estimates.

  20. Imperial County baseline health survey potential impact of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deane, M.

    1981-06-01

    The survey purpose, methods, and statistical methods are presented. Results are discussed according to: area differences in background variables, area differences in health variables, area differences in annoyance reactions, and comparison of symptom frequencies with age, smoking, and drinking. Included in appendices are tables of data, enumeration forms, the questionnaire, interviewer cards, and interviewer instructions. (MHR)

  1. Redesign of a Rural Building in a Heritage Site in Italy: Towards the Net Zero Energy Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cellura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the ambitious objective of decarbonising the economy, it is mandatory, especially in Europe and in Italy, to include the retrofitting of existing buildings. In a country where a large share of existing buildings have heritage value, it is important to design effective retrofit solutions also in historical buildings. In this context, the paper describes the experience of re-design of an existing rural building located in Sicily, inside the ancient Greeks' “Valley of the Temples”. An energy audit was performed on the building, and its energy uses were thoroughly investigated. A building model was developed in the TRNSYS environment and its performances validated. The validated model was used for redesign studies aimed towards the achievement of the Net Zero Energy Building target. The best performing solutions to be applied to a case study like the Sanfilippo House were those regarding the management of the building, as in the case of the natural ventilation and the energy systems setpoints, that would allow a large impact (up to 10% reductions in energy uses on the energy performances of the building with no invasiveness, and those with very limited invasiveness and high impact on the energy efficiency of the building, as in the lighting scenario (up to 30% energy uses reduction. The most invasive actions can only be justified in the case of high energy savings, as in the case of the insulation of the roof, otherwise they should be disregarded.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted November 30 through December 4, 1987. In addition, the preliminary findings of the Laramie Project Office (LPO) Survey, which was conducted as part of the METC Survey on January 25 through 29, 1988, are presented in Appendices E and F. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with METC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at METC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities at METC. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the METC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Survey METC. 60 refs., 28 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), conducted February 29 through March 4, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Team members are being provided by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with NIPER. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at NIPER and interviews with site personnel. 35 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Hand anthropometry survey of rural farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Okey Francis

    2016-04-01

    The importance of hand anthropometry as it relates to design of hand tools particularly for farm workers have been established; however, anthropometric data for this group of agricultural workers have continued to remain scarce. A survey of hand anthropometry relevant in design of agricultural hand tools was carried out on 200 male and 100 female adult farm workers in south-eastern Nigeria. Comparison of the male and female data obtained showed that male dimensions were higher than that recorded for the females. The hand anthropometric data of the male and female farm workers were compared with that of other populations but no clear distinction was observed. It was however clear that the following hand dimensions, 2nd Joint to root digit 3 and width at tip digit 3 recorded for Nigerian farm workers were highest and lowest, respectively, compared to other populations. Practitioner Summary: Hand anthropometric data relevant in design of hand tools have continued to remain scarce particularly for farm workers. Hand anthropometry survey of farm workers carried out in south-eastern Nigeria revealed higher dimensions for males than females; however, no clear distinction was observed in comparison with other populations.

  5. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O.; Alfa, Attahiru S.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  6. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O; Alfa, Attahiru S

    2017-05-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  7. Survey of Energy Computing in the Smart Grid Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resource optimization, with advance computing tools, improves the efficient use of energy resources. The renewable energy resources are instantaneous and needs to be conserve at the same time. To optimize real time process, the complex design, includes plan of resources and control for effective utilization. The advances in information communication technology tools enables data formatting and analysis results in optimization of use the renewable resources for sustainable energy solution on smart grid.The paper presents energy computing models for optimally allocating different types of renewable in the distribution system so as to minimize energy loss. The proposed energy computing model optimizes the integration of renewable energy resources with technical and financial feasibility. An econometric model identifies the potential of renewable energy sources, mapping them for computational analysis, which enables the study to forecast the demand and supply scenario. The enriched database on renewable sources and Government policies customize delivery model for potential to transcend the costs vs. benefits barrier. The simulation and modeling techniques have overtaken the drawbacks of traditional information and communication technology (ICT in tackling the new challenges in maximizing the benefits with smart hybrid grid. Data management has to start at the initial reception of the energy source data, reviewing it for events that should trigger alarms into outage management systems and other real-time systems such as portfolio management of a virtual hybrid power plant operator. The paper highlighted two renewable source, solar and wind, for the study in this paper, which can extend to other renewable sources.

  8. Monetizing the social benefits of landfill mining: Evidence from a Contingent Valuation survey in a rural area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damigos, Dimitris; Menegaki, Maria; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    Despite the emerging global attention towards promoting waste management policies that reduce environmental impacts and conserve natural resources, landfilling still remains the dominant waste management practice in many parts of the world. Owing to this situation, environmental burdens are bequeathed to and large amounts of potentially valuable materials are lost for future generations. As a means to undo these adverse effects a process known as landfill mining (LFM) could be implemented provided that economic feasibility is ensured. So far, only a few studies have focused on the economic feasibility of LFM from a private point of view and even less studies have attempted to economically justify the need for LMF projects from a social point of view. This paper, aiming to add to the limited literature in the field, presents the results of a survey conducted in a rural district in Greece, by means of the Contingent Valuation method (CVM) in order to estimate society's willingness to pay for LFM programs. According to the empirical survey, more than 95% of the respondents recognize the need for LFM programs. Nevertheless, only one-fourth of the respondents are willing to pay through increased taxes for LFM, owing mainly to economic depression and unemployment. Those who accept the increased tax are willing to pay about €50 per household per year, on average, which results in a mean willingness to pay (WTP) for the entire population under investigation of around €12 per household per year. The findings of this research work provide useful insights about the 'dollar-based' benefits of LFM in the context of social cost-benefit analysis of LFM projects. Yet, it is evident that further research is necessary.

  9. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies.

  10. Prevalence Rates of Self-Care Behaviors and Related Factors in a Rural Hypertension Population: A Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors among hypertensive patients in primary care. A cross-sectional survey, with 318 hypertensive patients, was conducted in a rural area in Beijing, China, in 2012. Participants were mainly recruited from a community health clinic and completed questionnaires assessing their self-care behaviors, including data on adherence to a prescribed medication regimen, low-salt diet intake, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, blood pressure monitoring, and physical exercise. The logistic regression model was used for the analysis of any association between self-care behaviors and age, gender, duration of hypertension, self-rated health, marital status, education level, diabetes status, or body mass index. Subjects that adhered to their medication schedule were more likely to have hypertension for a long duration (OR, 3.44; 95% CI 1.99–5.97. Older participants (OR, 1.80; 95% CI 1.08–2.99 were more likely to monitor their blood pressure. Subjects who did not partake in physical exercise were more likely to be men, although the difference between genders was not significant (OR, 0.60; 95% CI 0.36–1.01. Patients with shorter history of hypertension, younger and being males have lower self-care behaviors. Primary care providers and public health practitioner should pay more attention to patients recently diagnosed with hypertension as well as younger male patients.

  11. Extramarital Sex Among Vietnamese Married Men: Results of a Survey in Urban and Rural Areas of Northern and Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Hardesty, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Research on extramarital sex (EMS) is commonly conducted from a perspective that implicitly understands this behavior as a violation of the marital relationship. In contrast, Vietnamese cultural norms have, at some points in history, condoned if not outright encouraged EMS in the name of preserving family lineage. Yet little is known about the prevalence of EMS among contemporary Vietnamese men and its association with marriage quality. This is a notable gap, given the enormous sociocultural and ideological shifts the country has experienced over the past several decades. Drawing upon a sample of 126 married men (Mean age = 45.56; SD = 10.52) surveyed in urban (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City) and rural areas (Ha Tay and Can Tho) in Vietnam, we examined the relationship between EMS and geographic region, demographic characteristics, sexual values, quality of marriage, and sexual satisfaction within marriage. Our results show that geographic location had a strong impact on EMS, while most marital relationship quality variables did not impact the odds of EMS for married men in Vietnam.

  12. Attitudes toward menstruation, menstrual-related symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls: a rural school-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-21

    Folk culture surrounding menstrual-related matters has considerable implications for symptom expression and treatment-seeking behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 1,295 rural adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 years was conducted between February 4 and April 16, 2009 to examine these associations. With a higher score indicating a more positive attitude toward menstruation, the mean attitude score was 3.84 (SD ± 1.62) out of a maximum of six. No significant association was observed between the severity of menstrual symptoms and attitudes. Most (63.1%) of the participants identified themselves as having premenstrual symptoms, and 61.1% viewed premenstrual symptoms as a normal part of menstrual cycle. Participants with a higher severity of symptoms in the premenstrual (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and menstrual phase (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), were more likely to consult a physician for premenstrual symptoms, and having a divorced/separated parents was associated with a reduced odds of consulting a physician compared to those having parents that were married (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). The findings imply the need for education to help adolescent girls manage menstrual symptoms and increase awareness of the benefit of treating them. Given that menstrual-related information was widely available from mothers, family, and social culture are potentially important in shaping good menstrual attitudes.

  13. The interface with naturopathy in rural primary health care: a survey of referral practices of general practitioners in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jon L; Sibbritt, David W; Adams, Jon

    2014-07-11

    Naturopathy forms an increasingly significant part of the Australian healthcare setting, with high utilisation of naturopaths by the Australian public and a large therapeutic footprint in rural and regional Australia. However, despite these circumstances, there has been little exploration of the interface between naturopathy providers and conventional primary health care practitioners in rural and regional Australia. The study reported here examined the referral practices and factors that underlie referral to naturopaths amongst a sample of rural and regional Australian general practitioners (GPs). A 27-item questionnaire was sent to all 1,486 GPs currently practising in rural and regional Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales, Australia. A total of 585 GPs responded to the questionnaire, with 49 questionnaires returned as "no longer at this address" (response rate: 40.7%). One-quarter of GPs (25.8%) referred to a naturopath at least a few times per year while nearly half (48.8%) stated that they would not refer to a naturopath under any circumstances. GPs were more likely to refer to a naturopath if the GP: was not initially from a rural area (OR=1.78; 95% CI: 0.95, 3.33); believes in the efficacy of naturopathy (OR=5.62; 95% CI: 2.42, 11.36); has seen positive results from naturopathy previously (OR=2.61; 95% CI: 1.35, 5.05); perceives a lack of other treatment options for their patient (OR=5.25; 95% CI: 2.42; 11.36); uses peer-reviewed literature as their major source of CAM information (OR=3.03; 95% CI: 1.65, 5.55); uses CAM practitioners as a major source of CAM information (OR=6.09; 95% CI: 2.91, 12.72); and does not have an existing relationship with any CAM provider (OR=3.03; 95% CI: 1.53, 6.25). There is little interaction (both via referrals as well as the development of professional relationships) between the naturopathic and GP communities in rural and regional Australia, with significant levels of both support and opposition for naturopathic

  14. Group photograph: Dark Energy Survey Autumn Collaboration meeting Cambridge 2016 12 December 2016 - 16 December 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Group photograph of participants in the Dark Energy Survey Autumn collaboration meeting Cambridge 2016 12 December 2016 - 16 December 2016 taken outside the Cambridge Observatory building on 14 December 2016, by Amanda Smith, Graphics Officer.

  15. A Survey on Energy Efficiency for Wireless Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarra Mamechaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of CO2 emissions is a major global environmental issue. Over the past few years, wireless andmobile communications are becoming increasingly popular with consumers. The Most popular kind ofwireless access is known as Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs that provide wireless connectivity throughlot cheaper and more supple backhaul infrastructure relative to wired solutions. Wireless Mesh Network(WMN is a new emerging technology which has been adopted as the wireless internetworking solution forthe near future. Due to higher energy consumption in the information and communication technology (ICTindustries, and which would have an impact on the environment, energy efficiency has become a key factorto evaluate the performance of a communication network.This paper primarily focuses on the classification layer the greatest existing approaches devoted to theconservation of energy. It is also discussing the most interesting works on energy saving in WMNsnetworks.

  16. Comparative survey on renewable energies across federal states; Erneuerbare Energien im Bundeslaendervergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel-Sperl, Antje; Puettner, Andreas [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen; Groba, Felix [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW), Berlin (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The German federal states play an important role in the progressive expansion of renewable energies and the success of the energy turnaround as a whole. Ultimately the energy turnaround has to happen locally. The federal states have considerable leeway at their disposal to this end. A recent comparative survey shows which states have undertaken the greatest efforts and which have had the greatest success in the area of renewable energies.

  17. Research on energy-saving design for reconstruction of rural%东阳市农村住房改造的节能设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕淑珍; 杜海燕

    2012-01-01

    通过东阳市农村住房的现状调查,从建筑设计、建筑材料、建筑施工等角度分析了新农村住房改造中存在的能耗问题,并提出农村住房改造中可行的节能设计建议,以实现农村建设的可持续发展。%According to the current investigation of the rural residential houses in Dongyang city, the paper analyzes the energy-consumption problems in the reconstruction of the new rural residential houses from the architectural design, the architectural materials and the architectural construction and so on, and points out the feasible suggestions for the energy-saving design in the reconstruction of the rural residential houses, so as to realize the sustainable development of the rural construction.

  18. Energy-saving Technology of Vent in Passive Solar Wall of Rural House of Severe Cold Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ling; TianYu Zhao; Hong Jin; XiPeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at solving the problems of low thermal collection rate, inconvenient maintenance, hindering indoor using during the application of passive solar technologies in rural houses in severe cold region. All these defects prevent the passive solar houses'further development. This paper chooses trombe wall, which has higher thermal efficiency of the passive solar house, as research object. The traditional vent is improved into a new type of ventilation device. This improvement overcomes the shortcoming, which traditional vent loses huge heat, and simplifies the construction of vent. Comparing with traditional trombe wall, the energy saving rate is 15�69%.

  19. Global Research Alliance (GRA) - Smart sustainable energy for rural community development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szewczuk, S.; Gavel, S. von; Verhagen, W.P.; Schreuder, M.H.; Marnphweli, S.; McMaster, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a genuine opportunity for the developing world and rural areas to leapfrog the conventional Western paradigm of power. Where conventional electricity delivery is reliant on expensive, polluting and centrally controlled generation (with its spider web of infrastructure and dependence on deca

  20. Surveying the role of excitation energy in probing nuclear dissipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wei

    2009-01-01

    A dynamical Langevin model is employed to calculate the excess of the evaporation residue cross sections of the 194pb nucleus over that predicted by the standard statistical model as a function of nuclear dissipation strength. It is shown that large excitation energy can increase the effects of nuclear dissipation on the excess of the evaporation residues and the sensitivity of this excess to the dissipation strength, and that more higher excitation energies have little contribution to further raising this sensitivity. These results suggest that on the experimental side, producing those compound systems with moderate excitation energy is sufficient for a good determination of the pre-saddle nuclear dissipation strength by measuring the evaporation residue cross section, and that forming an extremely highly excited system does not considerably improve the sensitivity of evaporation residues to the dissipation strength.

  1. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermience, Michael; Mathieu, Françoise; Li, Xiao Wei; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Claus, William; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Dufourny, Ghislaine; Bin, Li; Yangzom, Dechen; Lognay, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R.), and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013). Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution. PMID:28257043

  2. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dermience

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R., and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD. However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013. Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution.

  3. A survey of energy efficient strategies for effective air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Akyurt, M.M. [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Several methods are presented for lowering the energy consumed during air conditioning of buildings. Some of these strategies can be implemented during the design stage; others can be used to retrofit existing AC systems; and still others can be applied with hardly any changes on existing equipment. The methods that are discussed include heat recovery and utilization, absorption refrigeration systems, thermal cool storage, liquid (refrigerant) pressure amplification, reprogramming of the AC control systems, economical methods of removal of moisture from the air and initiation of awareness programs for the conservation of A/C energy. (author)

  4. A questionnaire survey of perceptions and preventive measures related to animal health amongst cattle owners of rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.W. Hesterberg

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey of 315 cattle owners from the rural districts of KwaZulu-Natal was carried out. The aim of the survey was to improve our understanding of local farmers' perceptions and practices of animal disease prevention and control and to establish the extent of their relationship with veterinary services. The survey showed that many owners practice preventive measures such as deworming, tick control and vaccination. Traditional medicines were in use by over half the respondents (58.9 %. Diseases are regarded as an important management problem (56.1 %; ticks, worms and diarrhoea dominated the mentioned health problems in cattle. Veterinary services still play an important role and are a frequent source of advice to owners. The findings of the survey and their context are discussed.

  5. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats...... preparation. The dense low-rise houing are to be heated by a district heating network. All dwellings were to be equipped with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery and an electronic system for energy monitoring and control of the heating systems. The first houses were occupied in 2008...... were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m². Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m² thermal solar system for hot water...

  6. Energy and women's economic empowerment: Rethinking the benefits of improved cookstove use in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaward, James Nicholas

    International development organizations have recently ramped up efforts to promote the use of improved cookstoves (ICS) in developing countries, aiming to reduce the harmful environmental and public health impacts of the burning of biomass for cooking and heating. I hypothesize that ICS use also has additional benefits---economic and social benefits---that can contribute to women's economic empowerment in the developing world. To explore the relationship between ICS use and women's economic empowerment, I use Ordinary Least Squares and Logit models based on data from the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) to analyze differences between women living in households that use ICS and those living in homes that use traditional cookstoves. My regression results reveal that ICS use has a statistically significant and negative effect on the amount of time women and girls spend on fuel collection and a statistically significant and positive effect on the likelihood of women's participation in side businesses, but does not have a statistically significant effect on the likelihood of lost productivity. My analysis shows promise that in addition to health and environmental benefits, fuel-efficient cooking technologies can also have social and economic impacts that are especially beneficial to women. It is my hope that the analysis provided in this paper will be used to further the dialogue about the importance of women's access to modern energy services in the fight to improve women's living standards in the developing world.

  7. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  8. Home electrical equipment: saturation and impact in the energy consumption electric in the urban and rural residential sector of Mexico; Equipamiento electrodomestico: saturacion e impacto en el consumo de energia electric en el sector residencial urbano y rural de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Flores, J. A.; Morillon Galvez, D.

    2008-07-01

    A study develops in the form in as the principal electrical appliances television, air conditioning, plate, frigid, washing machine and heating they have penetrated in the mexican hearts, discriminating between urban and rural hearths, this study realizes in the period from 1996 to 2006, in addition to showing the evolution of the consumption of electrical energy of each of them. (Author)

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), conducted November 16 through 20, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LEHR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation, and is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations at the LEHR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for the LEHR at UC Davis. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LEHR Survey. 75 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Effective Theory of Dark Energy at Redshift Survey Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Gleyzes, Jérôme; Mancarella, Michele; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    We explore the phenomenological consequences of general late-time modifications of gravity in the quasi-static approximation, in the case where cold dark matter is non-minimally coupled to the gravitational sector. Assuming spectroscopic and photometric surveys with configuration parameters similar to those of the Euclid mission, we derive constraints on our effective description from three observables: the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space, tomographic weak-lensing shear power spectrum and the correlation spectrum between the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the galaxy distribution. In particular, with $\\Lambda$CDM as fiducial model and a specific choice for the time dependence of our effective functions, we perform a Fisher matrix analysis and find that the unmarginalized $68\\%$ CL errors on the parameters describing the modifications of gravity are of order $\\sigma\\sim10^{-2}$--$10^{-3}$. We also consider two other fiducial models. A nonminimal coupling of CDM enhances the effects of modified gravit...

  11. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  12. Enhancement and Optimization Mechanisms of Biogas Production for Rural Household Energy in Developing Countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is common but vital process used for biogas and fertilizer production as well as one method for waste treatment. The process is currently used in developing countries primarily for biogas production in the household level of rural people. The aim of this review is to indicate possible ways of including rural households who own less than four heads of cattle for the biogas programs in developing countries. The review provides different research out puts on using biogas substrates other than cow dung or its mix through different enhancement and optimization mechanisms. Many biodegradable materials have been studied for alternative methane production. Therefore, these substrates could be used for production by addressing the optimum conditions for each factor and each processes for enhanced and optimized biogas production.

  13. User-needs study for the 1993 residential energy consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-24

    During 1992, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducted a user-needs study for the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Every 3 years, the RECS collects information on energy consumption and expenditures for various classes of households and residential buildings. The RECS is the only source of such information within EIA, and one of only a few sources of such information anywhere. EIA sent letters to more than 750 persons, received responses from 56, and held 15 meetings with users. Written responses were also solicited by notices published in the April 14, 1992 Federal Register and in several energy-related publications. To ensure that the 1993 RECS meets current information needs, EIA made a specific effort to get input from policy makers and persons needing data for forecasting efforts. These particular needs relate mainly to development of the National Energy Modeling System and new energy legislation being considered at the time of the user needs survey.

  14. Hydrokinetic Energy for Enlightening the Future of Rural Communities in Uttarakhand

    OpenAIRE

    Tewari, Udit; Norta, David Peter Benjamin; Kolmsee, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Uttarakhand is a northern state of India located in the foothills of the Himalayan mountain ranges. It is rich in water resources with many perennial rivers originating in the state and has enormous potential for hydropower generation. Despite of this fact the recent floods and agitation on setting up large and small hydropower plants has put a question mark on the future hydropower development and thus future of rural electrification in the state. In this context, the paper presents an idea ...

  15. The Local Initiator Role in the Adoption of Biogas Energy Innovation for Household Needs in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiningsih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for Kerosene is very high. When energy crisis hit Indonesia, it caused the scarcity and soaring prices of kerosene. Hence, finding alternative energy sources is needed, especially a renewable energy to households. One is which is Biogas energy. Biogas is an energy that uses simple technology, which uses raw materials of animal waste. Many rural communities do not know about it, so it requires a pioneer, called the local initiator. The local initiator is an agent of change that comes from the local community, who has the initiative to make changes and become a guide passage of the change process in an organization or community, in order to achieve the expected goals. Local initiator becomes an important factor in the success of biogas innovation adoption. Biogas is used for household needs such as cooking, water heating, and lighting. Biogas program has been reinforced by Presidential Decree No 5 of 2006, Minister of ESDM Regulation (Permen ESDM No 3 of 2013, Permen ESDM No 10 of 2015, and Minister of Rural Affairs Regulation (Permen Desa No 5 of 2015. This paper aims to examine the role of a local initiator as an agent of change and the most dominant factors in the successful adoption of biogas for the needs of rural households. This study uses a qualitative method by using a case study approach and conducting a descriptive analysis. The focus of the data analysis is only performed on the local initiator in the successful adoption of biogas in Haurngombong village in West Java and Pandua-North Lombok, NTB. The result of the study shows that the successful adoption of biogas in Haurngombong Village and Pandua Village is strongly influenced by the local initiator. The local initiator success is not determined by the position, age, and gender, but is determined by the experience in the use of biogas, biogas sector knowledge, dissemination strategies, and communication among stakeholders of biogas program. The key to the success of local

  16. Masculinities and condom use patterns among young rural South Africa men: a cross-sectional baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Notions of ideal manhood in South Africa are potentially prescriptive of male sexuality thus accounting for the behaviors which may lead to men being at greater HIV risk. We tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa. Methods 1219 men aged 15–26 years completed a cross-sectional baseline survey from an IsiXhosa questionnaire asking about sexual behaviour and relationships. Univariate and bivariate analyses described condom use patterns and explanatory variables, and multinomial regression modeling assessed the factors associated with inconsistent versus consistent and non-condom use. Results 47.7% of men never used condoms, when 36.9% were inconsistent and 15.4% were consistent with any partner in the past year. Condom use patterns differed in association with gender relations attitudes: never users were significantly more conservative than inconsistent or consistent users. Three gender positions emerged indicating that inconsistent users were most physically/sexually violent and sexually risky; never users had more conservative gender attitudes but were less violent and sexually risky; and consistent users were less conservative, less violent and sexually risky with notably fewer sexual partners than inconsistent users. Conclusions The confluence of conservative gender attitudes, perpetration of violence against women and sexual risk taking distinguished inconsistent condom users as the most risky compared to never condom users, and rendered inconsistent use one of the basic negative attributes of dominant masculinities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This finding is important for the design of HIV prevention and gender equity interventions and emphasizes the need for a wider roll-out of interventions that promote progressive and healthy masculine practices in the country.

  17. Field survey analysis of the public's cognition on the new energy industry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q. F.; Song, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The public enjoy an important role in the development of China's new energy industry. However, the role has not attracted sufficient attention. By the way of field investigation, the paper acquired the first hand data of the public cognition on the China's new energy industry. Survey data showed that the public enjoyed awareness of China's new energy industry to some extent. And the public had optimistic expectations on the future development of new energy industry. Moreover, there were obvious differences in the degree of public's familiarity with different new energy varieties. The education level and age of the individual public had a significant impact on his awareness of China's new energy industry. To raise public participation in China's new energy industry, it entailed highlighting the status of the public in China's new energy industry, increasing the publicity of the new energy industry with different measures for different types of public group.

  18. A survey of renewable energies in France; Panorama des energies renouvelables en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [Syndicat des energies renouvelables, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    One of the goals set by the Grenelle agreement was to reach a ratio of 23% for the part of renewable energies in the final energies consumed in France by 2020. In 2005 this ratio was 10 per cent. In this article the situation in 2010 for wind energy, solar energy, biomass, wood heating and geothermal energy are reported. It appears that the results are promising but the reduction of fiscal incentives might jeopardize the objective for 2020. (A.C.)

  19. Review of survey data on the importance of energy efficiency to new home buyers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    The surveys reviewed for this report support the notion that the Council's model conservation standards will be received reasonably well and can be successfully marketed. A number of subtopics are addressed including the home purchase process and the role of energy efficiency considerations in the process, the importance of energy efficiency considerations in the decision to purchase a new home, the relative importance of energy efficiency in comparison to other home selection attributes, homeowner preferences for particular energy efficiency features, and measures of the willingness to pay for energy efficiency improvements.

  20. Measuring the prevalence and impact of poor menstrual hygiene management: a quantitative survey of schoolgirls in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Scott, Linda; Montgomery, Paul

    2016-12-30

    The primary objective was to describe Ugandan schoolgirls' menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices and estimate the prevalence of inadequate MHM. Second, to assess the relative contribution of aspects of MHM to health, education and psychosocial outcomes. Secondary analysis of survey data collected as part of the final follow-up from a controlled trial of reusable sanitary pad and puberty education provision was used to provide a cross-sectional description of girls' MHM practices and assess relationships with outcomes. Rural primary schools in the Kamuli district, Uganda. Participants were 205 menstruating schoolgirls (10-19 years) from the eight study sites. The prevalence of adequate MHM, consistent with the concept definition, was estimated using dimensions of absorbent used, frequency of absorbent change, washing and drying procedures and privacy. Self-reported health, education (school attendance and engagement) and psychosocial (shame, insecurity, embarrassment) outcomes hypothesised to result from poor MHM were assessed as primary outcomes. Outcomes were measured through English surveys loaded on iPads and administered verbally in the local language. 90.5% (95% CI 85.6% to 93.9%) of girls failed to meet available criteria for adequate MHM, with no significant difference between those using reusable sanitary pads (88.9%, 95% CI 79.0% to 94.4%) and those using existing methods, predominantly cloth (91.5%, 95% CI 85.1% to 95.3%; χ(2) (1)=0.12, p=0.729). Aspects of MHM predicted some consequences including shame, not standing in class to answer questions and concerns about odour. This study was the first to assess the prevalence of MHM consistent with the concept definition. Results suggest that when all aspects of menstrual hygiene are considered together, the prevalence is much higher than has previously been reported based on absorbents alone. The work demonstrates an urgent need for improved assessment and reporting of MHM, and for primary research

  1. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J. A. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D. [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R.; Moreira, J.; Batista, I.; Garcia, R.; Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  2. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: methodology and design of the Utrecht Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of the Utrecht Student Survey. This online survey was conducted in June 2011 by 6002 students living in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential impact of mixing alcoholic beverages with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. In contrast to most previous surveys conducted on this topic, the current survey used a more appropriate within-subject design, comparing the alcohol consumption of individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks on occasions. Specifically, a comparison was conducted to examine the occasions during which these individuals consume this mixture versus occasions during which they consume alcohol alone. In addition to energy drinks, the consumption of other non-alcoholic mixers was also assessed when combined with alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, the reasons for consuming energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol were investigated, and were compared to reasons for mixing alcohol with other non-alcoholic beverages. Finally, personality characteristics and the level of risk-taking behavior among the individuals were also assessed to explore their relationship with alcohol consumption. The Utrecht Student Survey will be replicated in the USA, Australia, and the UK. Results will be pooled, but also examined for possible cross-cultural differences. PMID:23118547

  3. Optimizing Spectroscopic and Photometric Galaxy Surveys: Same-Sky Benefits for Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Donnacha [University Coll. London; Lahav, Ofer [University Coll. London; Bridle, Sarah [Manchester U.; Jouvel, Stephanie [Barcelona, IEEC; Abdalla, Filipe B. [University Coll. London; Frieman, Joshua A. [Chicago U., KICP

    2015-08-21

    The combination of multiple cosmological probes can produce measurements of cosmological parameters much more stringent than those possible with any individual probe. We examine the combination of two highly correlated probes of late-time structure growth: (i) weak gravitational lensing from a survey with photometric redshifts and (ii) galaxy clustering and redshift space distortions from a survey with spectroscopic redshifts. We choose generic survey designs so that our results are applicable to a range of current and future photometric redshift (e.g. KiDS, DES, HSC, Euclid) and spectroscopic redshift (e.g. DESI, 4MOST, Sumire) surveys. Combining the surveys greatly improves their power to measure both dark energy and modified gravity. An independent, non-overlapping combination sees a dark energy figure of merit more than 4 times larger than that produced by either survey alone. The powerful synergies between the surveys are strongest for modified gravity, where their constraints are orthogonal, producing a non-overlapping joint figure of merit nearly 2 orders of magnitude larger than either alone. Our projected angular power spectrum formalism makes it easy to model the cross-correlation observable when the surveys overlap on the sky, producing a joint data vector and full covariance matrix. We calculate a same-sky improvement factor, from the inclusion of these cross-correlations, relative to non-overlapping surveys. We find nearly a factor of 4 for dark energy and more than a factor of 2 for modified gravity. The exact forecast figures of merit and same-sky benefits can be radically affected by a range of forecasts assumption, which we explore methodically in a sensitivity analysis. We show that that our fiducial assumptions produce robust results which give a good average picture of the science return from combining photometric and spectroscopic surveys.

  4. Primordial non-Gaussianity and Dark Energy constraints from Cluster Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; Vale, Chris; /Fermilab; Kadota, Kenji; /Fermilab /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst.; Frieman, Joshua; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron.

    2006-09-01

    Galaxy cluster surveys will be a powerful probe of dark energy. At the same time, cluster abundances is sensitive to any non-Gaussianity of the primordial density field. It is therefore possible that non-Gaussian initial conditions might be misinterpreted as a sign of dark energy or at least degrade the expected constraints on dark energy parameters. To address this issue, we perform a likelihood analysis of an ideal cluster survey similar in size and depth to the upcoming South Pole Telescope/Dark Energy Survey (SPT-DES).We analyze a model in which the strength of the non-Gaussianity is parameterized by the constant f{sub NL}; this model has been used extensively to derive Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy constraints on non-Gaussianity, allowing us to make contact with those works. We find that the constraining power of the cluster survey on dark energy observables is not significantly diminished by non-Gaussianity provided that cluster redshift information is included in the analysis. We also find that even an ideal cluster survey is unlikely to improve significantly current and future CMB constraints on non-Gaussianity. However, when all systematics are under control, it could constitute a valuable cross check to CMB observations.

  5. Simplified analysis of energy efficiency of a rural school in La Pampa - Argentina - during its Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Inés Marcilese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study of this work is a rural school in La Pampa Region of Argentina where the energy efficiency of a construction system of traditional local use is compared to that of its improved version, based on passive design systems during its life cycle. In addition, Greenhouse Gas Emissions saving values are estimated according to the energy matrix of Argentina. The energy efficiency of a building involves the overall consumption for its construction process (extraction, transport and assembly of materials, on-site installation, maintenance and dismantling, recycling and final disposal of waste. Knowing this data in the preliminary stage can be of benefit since it would allow to evaluate the selected materials in terms of energy saving and cost in order to recover its value during its life cycle and introduce other design alternatives. At present there are significant problems derived from resource shortage. The analysis of the LC should be a significant contribution to the construction field concerning the awareness of energy saving and efficiency and thus fostering sustainable development of society.

  6. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) customer satisfaction survey, 1997. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    the EREN Customer Satisfaction Survey 1997 was designed to follow up the results of the 1995-96 Surveys, enabling comparison to the 1995- 96 baseline, and to provide additional qualitative feedback about EREN. Both the 1995-96 and 1997 Surveys had these objectives: Identify and define actual EREN users; Determine the value or benefits derived from the use of EREN; Determine the kind and quality of services that users want; Determine the users` levels of satisfaction with existing services; Determine users` preferences in both the sources of service and means of delivery; and Establish continuous quality improvement measures. This report presents the methodology used, scope and limitations of the study, description of the survey instrument, and findings regarding demographics, technical capabilities, usage patterns, general use, importance of and satisfaction with resources, and additional information and comments.

  7. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of Integrated Renewable Energy System for Power Generation: A Hypothetical Study of Rural Health Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility analysis and study of integrated renewable energy (IRE using solar photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine (WT system in a hypothetical study of rural health clinic in Borno State, Nigeria. Electrical power consumption and metrology data (such as solar radiation and wind speed were used for designing and analyzing the integrated renewable energy system. The health clinic facility energy consumption is 19 kWh/day with a 3.4 kW peak demand load. The metrological data was collected from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA website and used to analyze the performance of electrical generation system using HOMER program. The simulation and optimization results show that the optimal integrated renewable energy system configuration consists of 5 kW PV array, BWC Excel-R 7.5 kW DC wind turbine, 24 unit Surrette 6CS25P battery cycle charging, and a 19 kW AC/DC converter and that the PV power can generate electricity at 9,138 kWh/year while the wind turbine system can generate electricity at 7,490 kWh/year, giving the total electrical generation of the system as 16,628 kWh/year. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for uninterruptable power performance in the health clinic. The economics analysis result found that the integrated renewable system has total NPC of 137,139 US Dollar. The results of this research show that, with a low energy health facility, it is possible to meet the entire annual energy demand of a health clinic solely through a stand-alone integrated renewable PV/wind energy supply.

  8. Cacao roasting in rural areas of Peru using concentrated solar thermal energy: experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veynandt François

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar food processing is gaining interest for income generation. Our solar cacao roaster, designed for rural areas, consists in a horizontal rotating drum, opened at one end to collect solar radiation from Scheffler concentrators of 2.7 or 8 m2. The experimental results presented bring knowledge on the system's behavior and optimal operation. The influence of the most significant parameters is studied: quantity of cacao, absorptivity of drum's coating, thermal insulation, inclination and rotational speed of the drum. Cacao temperature and direct solar irradiance are monitored to evaluate the performance in roasting time per kilogram of cacao.

  9. Cacao roasting in rural areas of Peru using concentrated solar thermal energy: experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veynandt François

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar food processing is gaining interest for income generation. Our solar cacao roaster, designed for rural areas, consists in a horizontal rotating drum, opened at one end to collect solar radiation from Scheffler concentrators of 2.7 or 8 m2. The experimental results presented bring knowledge on the system's behavior and optimal operation. The influence of the most significant parameters is studied: quantity of cacao, absorptivity of drum's coating, thermal insulation, inclination and rotational speed of the drum. Cacao temperature and direct solar irradiance are monitored to evaluate the performance in roasting time per kilogram of cacao.

  10. Petroleum substitution energy measuring analysis survey; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For analytical evaluation of effects of environmental protection measures, energy conservation measures, new energy promotion measures, etc., a very-long term energy supply/demand model was developed and used for a simulational study. The model is composed of the models of macro economics, secondary energy prices, new energy introduction, and energy supply/demand. The feature is that the amount of new energy introduction is measuringly analyzed based on the cost and market scale, and integratedly estimated in a frame of energy supply/demand of the whole Japan. As a result of the simulation, energy source as of 2030 is composed of coal (17%), oil (44%) and nuclear power (15%) in the case of the economic growth as viewed optimistically. Contrarily, in the case of it as viewed pesimistically, energy source is composed of coal (11%), oil (40%) and nuclear power (22%). CO2 emission is -12.4% in the case of the new energy promotion than in the standard case. 7 refs., 79 figs., 107 tabs.

  11. No galaxy left behind: accurate measurements with the faintest objects in the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suchyta, E; Aleksić, J; Melchior, P; Jouvel, S; MacCrann, N; Crocce, M; Gaztanaga, E; Honscheid, K; Leistedt, B; Peiris, H V; Ross, A J; Rykoff, E S; Sheldon, E; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Banerji, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Percival, W J; Reil, K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wechsler, R H; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small. We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of stars or galaxies detectable in an imaging survey. We have implemented our proposal in Balrog, a software package which embeds fake objects in real imaging in order to accurately characterize measurement biases. We demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a wide variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for th...

  12. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Syed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government’s initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  13. A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Shah; Nor, Nor Fariza Mohd; Ahmad, Maisarah; Hashim, Nik Hazrul Nik

    2016-05-01

    Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government's initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

  14. BRIEF ANALYSIS OF A SURVEY ON THE CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY DRINKS IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio LANFRANCHI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology followed to conduct the survey was quantitative and random. To conduct the survey research was conducted on motivational revelations through a methodology that refers to the survey done by questionnaire. Preliminary members of the research team have defined and developed the research hypotheses, identified the survey questions and put together the questionnaire to be administered to the sample of consumers. The compiling of the questionnaire has led to questions on the definition of perceived quality, the habitual consumption, the price-quality of products defined Energy drinks. The survey was conducted in the period between November and December 2011, on a sample of 120 Italian consumers. The revelations by administering the product was mainly conducted at outlets, such as supermarkets, clubs, pubs and bars, interviewing a sample of consumers directly with the method "face to face". The purpose of the survey was conducted to understand the needs, habits and buying preferences of the consumer of Energy drinks, as well as the degree of appreciation. In this paper we describe only briefly and partially the results of the survey.

  15. Trends in nutritional status and nutrient intakes and correlates of overweight/obesity among rural adult women (≥18-60 years) in India: National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, I I; Balakrishna, N; Sreeramakrishna, K; Rao, K Mallikharjun; Kumar, R Hari; Arlappa, N; Manohar, G; Reddy, Ch Gal; Ravindranath, M; Kumar, S Sharad; Brahmam, G N V; Laxmaiah, A

    2016-04-01

    To assess trends in nutrient intakes and nutritional status of rural adult women (≥18-60 years) and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with overweight/obesity. Community-based cross-sectional studies carried out during 1975-79 to 2011-12 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) were used. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist circumference, carried out during the surveys, were used. Association and logistic regression analyses between sociodemographic characteristics and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were conducted using a complex samples procedure. Ten NNMB states of India. Non-pregnant and non-lactating rural women aged ≥18-60 years covered during the above periods from ten states in India. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined from 52 % during 1975-79 to 34 % during 2011-12, while that of overweight/obesity has increased from 7 % to 24 % during the same period. Median intakes of most of the nutrients have increased over the same period, although they were below recommended levels. The chance of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly (Pobesity has increased during the same period. This increase in overweight/obesity may be attributed to increased consumption of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle and improved socio-economic status. There is a need to educate the community about regular physical exercise, low intakes of fats and oils, and a balanced diet.

  16. Level I Energy and Water Survey, ERDC-CERL, Champaign, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 15 -7 Level I Energy and Water Survey, ERDC-CERL, Champaign, IL Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h...May 2015 Level I Energy and Water Survey, ERDC-CERL, Champaign, IL James P. Miller, David M. Underwood, Laura E. Curvey, Paul Loechl, and William... IL 61822-1076 Final Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  17. Cloud computing for energy management in smart grid - an application survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, P.; Kiing Ing, Wong; Kobina Danquah, Michael; Sidhu, Amandeep S.; Abu-Siada, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    The smart grid is the emerging energy system wherein the application of information technology, tools and techniques that make the grid run more efficiently. It possesses demand response capacity to help balance electrical consumption with supply. The challenges and opportunities of emerging and future smart grids can be addressed by cloud computing. To focus on these requirements, we provide an in-depth survey on different cloud computing applications for energy management in the smart grid architecture. In this survey, we present an outline of the current state of research on smart grid development. We also propose a model of cloud based economic power dispatch for smart grid.

  18. Photovoltaic panels as an alternative to fossil fuel energy sources in rural areas of India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    India is the second fastest growing economy in the world. Presently, India is the world’s sixth greatest consumer of energy. The Indian energy consumption accounts for slightly more than 3% of the world’s total annual energy consumption. The need for ener

  19. Ticks on dogs and cats: a pet owner-based survey in a rural town in northeastern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Ramon Marc; Deplazes, Peter; Mathis, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the endemic foci of tick populations and invasions of tick species to new areas have become evident in Europe, leading to changes in the epidemiology of tick-transmitted diseases. However, data about tick infestations of pet animals are limited. Following the recent identification of a new focus of canine babesiosis in northeastern Switzerland, we investigated the occurrence of tick vectors in this region by using a pet owner-based sampling strategy. All dog owners in a rural town were sent postal requests to send ticks from their dogs and cats over two consecutive years, beginning in April 2012. In total 3003 ticks were submitted for identification from 249 dogs (approximately 20% of the resident dog population) and from 117 cats. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species identified in 96.8% (n=2124) and 74.3% (n=601) of the individual samples submitted from dogs and cats, respectively. Two other tick species, I. hexagonus and Dermacentor reticulatus, were recorded on both host species, with host infestation prevalences below 2%. On cats (but not on dogs), as many as 24.0% (n=194) of the specimens were identified as a fourth tick species, I. trianguliceps. Overall, 93.5% of the ticks were adults (93.8% and 93.0% in dogs and cats), 4.4% nymphs (5.7% in dogs and 1% in cats) and 2% larvae (0.5% and 6.0% in dogs and cats), respectively. The highest infestation intensity was 49 I. ricinus ticks from an individual dog. However, 55.6% of the submissions from dogs and 24.8% from cats contained only one tick. This survey demonstrated that pet owners can contribute to a cost-effective tick surveillance and identified a new tick focus of D. reticulatus. The finding of I. trianguliceps exclusively on cats might be related to behavioural traits of the cats or to a more readily detection of these very small ticks during petting by their owners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  1. AN EXHAUSTIVE SURVEY ON NATURE INSPIRED METAHEURISTIC ALGORITHMS FOR ENERGY OPTIMIZATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumitra Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Todays engineering research is highly motivated towards the nature inspired metaheuristic computational algorithm as they have the capability to give better results as compared to the conventional methods. Wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs have become increasingly popular due to their extensive array of applications. Desing of energy efficient routing algorithms is an important issue in the designing of WSNs applications as the lifetime of the sensor node is based on the limited battery powered devices. Therefore to maximize the lifetime of sensor node a comprehensive survey of energy efficient routing algorithms based on natural science have been addressed in this paper. The paper will take the readers into the detailed survey of existing energy optimized routing algorithms considering the natural science (metaheuristic as the base and considering parameters related to energy efficiency as the core objective. The final part of the paper discusses the limitations of various algorithms that has been addressed in this paper and suggestions to overcome them.

  2. The Reported Value of Rural Internal Medicine Residency Electives and Factors That Influence Rural Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christine C.; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 58 medical residents participating in a 1-2 month rural elective and 51 matched nonparticipants found that participants' interest in rural practice increased significantly after the elective. Respondents suggested means to increase rural career choice, barriers to rural practice, and ways of increasing the rural elective's influence on…

  3. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  4. Is telemonitoring an option against shortage of physicians in rural regions? attitude towards telemedical devices in the North Rhine-Westphalian health survey, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschüren Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GP in rural areas of Germany are struggling to find successors for their private practices. Telemonitoring at home offers an option to support remaining GPs and specialists in ambulatory care. Methods We assessed the knowledge and attitude towards telemedicine in the population of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW, Germany, in a population-based telephone survey. Results Out of 2,006 participants, 734 (36.6% reported an awareness of telemedical devices. Only 37 participants (1.8% have experience in using them. The majority of participants were in favour of using them in case of illness (72.2%. However, this approval declined with age. These findings were similar in rural and urban areas. Participants who were in favour of telemedicine (n = 1,480 strongly agreed that they would have to see their doctor less often, and that the doctor would recognize earlier relevant changes in their vital status. Participants who disliked to be monitored by telemedical devices preferred to receive immediate feedback from their physician. Especially, the elderly fear the loss of personal contact with their physician. They need the direct patient-physician communication. Conclusions The fear of being left alone with the technique needs to be compensated for today's elderly patients to enhance acceptance of home telemonitoring as support for remaining doctors either in the rural areas or cities.

  5. Psychological distress in patients with restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease): a population-based door-to-door survey in rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Pablo R; Mera, Robertino M; Fredrickson, Paul A; Zambrano, Mauricio; Del Brutto, Victor J; Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2014-12-15

    Reported prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED), varies from country to country, and methodologic inconsistencies limit comparison of data. Impact of RLS on quality of life and health has been studied primarily in industrialized countries, particularly Europe and the United States. Many studies have relied exclusively on self-report of symptoms or have assessed only medical populations. Recently, interest has emerged on the impact of WED in rural, underserved populations globally. In a population-based survey conducted in rural Ecuador, we assessed the relationship of psychological distress to WED, evaluated with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. WED was diagnosed through a 2-phase method in which all residents were screened with the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire and all suspected cases were subsequently confirmed through expert medical examination. WED severity was assessed with the IRLSSG rating scale. Of 665 persons (mean [SD] age, 59.5 [12.6] years; women, 386 [58%]), 76 had depression, 93 had anxiety, and 60 reported stress. Forty persons (6%) had WED, with 15 (38%) having severe disease. In a regression model adjusted for age and sex, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was about 3 times greater among persons with WED than the general population. Although cross-sectional data cannot establish causation, this study shows the large behavioral health burden associated with WED in an untreated, rural population.

  6. Report on a survey for new energy vision establishment in Yoshimatsu Township; Yoshimatsumachi chiiki shin energy vision sakutei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports on a survey for new energy vision establishment in Yoshimatsu Township located in the northern tip of Kagoshima Prefecture. The estimated values for expected usable amounts of the new energies under the vision are solar energy at 3.9 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, wastes energy at 3349 Gcal/year, small hydraulic power at 0.1 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, wind power at 14.3 x 10{sup 6} kWh/year, and geothermal energy at 62.25 Gcal/year. The new energies having high possibility for introducing them into the area are solar energy, wind power and small hydraulic power, all being utilized mainly for electric power generation. The specific introduction plan calls for installing wind power plants in the Mizuhara area to expand population exchange and enlighten people on the plan. The same purpose applies to solar energy power plus wind power generation in Ikedaira Park, and the solar energy power generation plan for the highway front. For enhancement, education and enlightenment of the people on welfare, solar energy power plants are intended to be built for the township office building, multi-purpose gymnasium, primary and secondary schools, lunch supply center, and the home of welfare. A micro-hydroelectric power plant is intended to be installed in the Takenaka water purification plant to expand population exchange and enlighten the people on the plan. A solar energy power plant is also planned to be built in front of Yoshimatsu Station (NEDO)

  7. Cassava for food and energy: exploring potential benefits of processing of cassava into cassava flour and bioenergy at farmstead and community levels in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Kolijn, S.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    As in most of sub-Sahara Africa, rural people in Mozambique use firewood as their main source of energy. The use of firewood is associated with several health problems, and the time spent collecting it reduces time for other activities. Cassava is grown as a reserve crop in Mozambique where it is

  8. Cassava for food and energy: exploring potential benefits of processing of cassava into cassava flour and bioenergy at farmstead and community levels in rural Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Slingerland, M.A.; Kolijn, S.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    As in most of sub-Sahara Africa, rural people in Mozambique use firewood as their main source of energy. The use of firewood is associated with several health problems, and the time spent collecting it reduces time for other activities. Cassava is grown as a reserve crop in Mozambique where it is co

  9. Report on the analytical survey of the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Arrangement, investigation and analysis of an energy information exchange system were conducted, with the aim of coping with the development in the whole Asia/Pacific area, the stabilization of energy supply/demand, and the environmental problem and of realizing effective cooperation of every country in the area. Concerning the trend of the domestic primary energy supply/demand, there are some patterns. Countries which show high growth rates are developing countries such as Thailand and China, and NIES such as Korea and Taiwan. Countries where growth rates are slowing down and lowering are developed countries such as Australia, Canada, Japan and the U.S. Countries where energy supply/demand is not stabilized are Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia and Chile which are suffering from variations in import/export. The ultimate energy consumption is the domestic primary energy supply from which the conversion loss in the conversion sector was deducted, and indicates almost the same trend as the primary energy supply. It is divided into a stabilized type of developed countries and a rapidly increasing type and a stagnant type. However, there are some exceptions. Total data in the quarter of the year cannot be the yearly data by itself, but requires a year-end tax arrangement. 40 tabs.

  10. A Survey on Role of Small Towns in Rural Economic-Social Development (Case Study: Ghir-karzin region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseinabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1- IntroductionNumerous researches have shown that small urban centers have a significant influence on hinterland rural district and agricultural development; they offer a nearby market for agricultural products, offer job opportunities, provide a center for social services and help in the diffusion of news and information on products and services. Promoting market-oriented development strategies and their emphasis on the export of agricultural products of economic showed that links between agriculture and foreign markets are efficient. Accordingly, the growth of small towns in rural development planning process cannot be ignored. Small cities are competent regions for non-agricultural investment in order to reduce density and increase costs in big cities.2- Theoretical basesIf adequate working conditions can be provided in small towns as well as big cities, these cities can control immigration flows. Development of small cities can be helpful in adsorbing the increasing part of labor that can not to be employed in agriculture section and thus plays an important role in employment of labors in developing countries. Criteria provided by the UN to recognize the small towns from other urban groups is the number of inhabitants less than 100000 in it, but in every country and regional conditions and requirements with regard to demographic, social and economic, this criterion is different. In the area under the focus of this study, twenty-five thousand population towns were considered as small towns.3- DiscussionIn the current study, we have analyzed the relationships between hinterland villages near the city of Ghir and their economical and social development. The geographical positioning of the villages was also taken into consideration. We have used statistical inference model in order to evaluate the indexes. 15 villages and 300 families in Ghir-Karzin Township were chosen as our case study. Numerous fieldtrip were made in order

  11. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors in a rural district of Beijing, China: a population-based survey of 58,308 residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of global disease burden. Although stroke was thought to be more prevalent than coronary heart disease (CHD in Chinese, the epidemic pattern might have been changed in some rural areas nowadays. This study was to estimate up-to-date prevalence of CVD and its risk factors in rural communities of Fangshan District, Beijing, China. Methods A cross-sectional population survey was carried out by stratified cluster sampling. A total of 58,308 rural residents aged over 40 years were surveyed by face-to-face interview and physical examination during 2008 and 2010. The standardized prevalence was calculated according to adult sample data of China's 5th Population Census in 2000, and the adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR was calculated for the association of CHD/stroke with its cardiovascular risk factors in multivariate logistic regression models. Results Age- and sex-standardized prevalence was 5.6% for CHD (5.2% in males and 5.9% in females, higher than the counterpart of 3.7% (4.7% in males and 2.6% in females for stroke. Compared with previous studies, higher prevalence of 7.7%, 47.2%, 53.3% in males and 8.2%, 44.8%, 60.7% in females for diabetes, hypertension and overweight/obesity were presented accordingly. Moreover, adjusted POR (95% confidence interval of diabetes, obesity, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension for CHD as 2.51 (2.29 to 2.75, 1.53 (1.38 to 1.70, 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26 and 1.35 (1.20 to 1.52, and for stroke as 2.24 (1.98 to 2.52, 1.25 (1.09 to 1.44, 1.44 (1.25 to 1.66 and 1.70 (1.46 to 1.98 were shown respectively in the multivariate logistic regression models. Conclusions High prevalence of CVD and probably changed epidemic pattern in rural communities of Beijing, together with the prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and population aging, might cause public health challenges in rural Chinese population.

  12. Benchmarking the energy situation of Danish municipalities - Rural production and urban efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable urban development, mainly related to the twin challenges of climate change and resource scarcity (Droege 2011). Despite agendas set on national and international level, local authorities are the key actors in this transformation (Lewis et al. 2013). European....... Against this background, a model was developed in the ongoing European FP7 project PLEEC (www.pleecproject.eu) to measure the energy situation in cities, called “Energy-Smart City”, compiling over 50 energy-related indicators. In this paper we adapt the model to the Danish context and benchmark the 98...

  13. Utility survey on nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, D. F.; Bauman, H. F.

    1977-06-28

    Most of the large U.S. utilities were surveyed by telephone and mail on questions concerning nuclear power plant siting and nuclear energy centers (NECs). The main purpose of the survey was for guidance of ERDA's NEC program. The questions covered the following topics: availability of sites; impact of environmental and other restraints; plans for development of multi-unit sites; interest in NEC development; interest in including fuel-cycle facilities in NECs; and opinions on the roles desired for the state and Federal governments in power plant siting. The main conclusion of the survey was that, while many utilities were considering multiple-unit sites of 2 to 5 units, none were planning larger energy centers at the present time. However, several expressed interest in NECs as a long-range future development.

  14. San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, hybrid electric plant renewable energies in the rural communities development; Planta electrica hibrida San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, las energias renovables en el desarrollo de las comunidades rurales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    The hybrid electric plant of San Juanico, B.C.S., Mexico, is described in terms of its environmental goals, operating process and contribution to the development of that rural community of the Baja California Peninsula. San Juanico hybrid electric plant is organized in three electrical generation systems that work in parallel: one uses solar energy, another wind energy and a third one uses diesel fuel. [Spanish] Se describe la planta hibrida de San Juanico, BCS, Mexico, en terminos de los objetivos ambientales que condujeron a su realizacion, asi como de su proceso operativo y de la participacion que tiene en el desarrollo de esa comunidad rural de la peninsula de Baja California, Mexico. La planta hibrida de San Juanico esta constituida por tres sistemas de generacion de electrcicidad que operan en paralelo: uno utiliza energia radiante del sol, otro energia del viento y un tercero utiliza diesel.

  15. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P consumption (OR 1.925; 95 %CI 1.18-3.14). The association between current AmED consumption and drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  16. Promotion of sustainable forms of renewable energy key to poverty eradiction strategies among poor people in rural areas of Kenya. A call for support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndegwa, J.M.; Githinji, M.M. [Rural Friends Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2004-07-01

    Energy is very essential for sustainable development in rural areas. Electricity supply in Kenya is confined mostly in major urban centres only. Poor people rely on unsustainable forms of energy sources mainly burning of wood for domestic needs such as lighting resulting in serious environmental and health consequences among them, desertification and internal pollution. The latter is a pre-cursor of prevalent asthmatic conditions. There is therefore an urgent and greater need to provide sustainable and affordable forms of renewable energy to poor people in rural areas for household use and to help stimulate development activities in information technology and other light agro-industries. We propose a credit scheme through a revolving fund to enable poor people access solar technology to meet their energy needs. We appeal for support from the international community in this initiative. (orig.)

  17. Enterprises need interventions beyond energy: policy recommendations for government from small energy surveys in rural South Afirca and Botswana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosomane, L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available % Music system 4% Public phones 9% Radio4% Wash machine 2% Others 1% Figure 7 Electricity usage in electrified areas in South Africa... for their businesses and households. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Br aa i Co ok in g Co ok in g Li gh tin g Co ok in g W el di n g re pa irs Fr id ge Li gh tin g O pe ra tin g ph on e Tr an sp or t W ood Paraffin LPG Candles...

  18. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  19. Energy and society: a conceptual mapping. A preliminary literature survey. [142 references cited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    This literature survey relates energy to four broad categories of social research: Part One--The Diffusion of Innovations; Part Two--Community Studies; Part III--Culture Contact Studies; and Part IV--Energy and Society. The purpose of the report is twofold: to provide a nonexhaustive literature overview for each of these four categories of social science research; and to suggest how such research contributes to the study of energy-society interactions and how future research might be directed toward improving this developing body of knowledge. 143 references.

  20. Survey and selection of Energy Storage System for Low Power Embedded System

    OpenAIRE

    Meenu Nair; Chandan Maity

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage for portable low power Embedded System is one of the biggest challenges for a long time operation in present research and application. These systems are designed to operate the lowest possible energy at micro-watt or Milli-Watt range and the power is supplied from a small primary or secondary cell. In this paper an extensive study and latest survey has been shown to estimate and select the right suitable energy storage device in theoretical aspects and also commercially availab...

  1. Energy survey - What can R&D do by 1985. [fossil fuel utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copps, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development in the field of energy is generally recognized as requiring long lead times before the results are felt. Near term relief from foreign oil dependence will be achieved by reducing energy consumption through conservation and by increasing domestic energy supply through expanded exploration and drilling for oil and natural gas, and by increased coal production. This paper describes the results of an informal survey performed by NASA within its own agency to determine if any research and development activities might be an exception to the general rule of long lead times and thus have significant impact by 1985 on oil and natural gas consumption.

  2. Energy survey - What can R&D do by 1985. [fossil fuel utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copps, S. L.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development in the field of energy is generally recognized as requiring long lead times before the results are felt. Near term relief from foreign oil dependence will be achieved by reducing energy consumption through conservation and by increasing domestic energy supply through expanded exploration and drilling for oil and natural gas, and by increased coal production. This paper describes the results of an informal survey performed by NASA within its own agency to determine if any research and development activities might be an exception to the general rule of long lead times and thus have significant impact by 1985 on oil and natural gas consumption.

  3. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianyan; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward; Zhou, Hongxia; Deng, Qiuyun; Dong, Aihu

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18-54 months in rural Guangxi. Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011-2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Weighted Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1) and second (MCV2) doses of the vaccine. A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%-62.0%) for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%-80.0%) for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%-51.0%). The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27-38) days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118-195) days for MCV2. The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk Factors for Chronic Disease Among Rural Vietnamese Adults and the Association of These Factors With Sociodemographic Variables: Findings From the WHO STEPS Survey in Rural Vietnam, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh, MD, PhD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChronic diseases have emerged as a major health threat to the world’s population, particularly in developing countries. We examined the prevalence of selected risk factors for chronic disease and the association of these risk factors with sociodemographic variables in a representative sample of adults in rural Vietnam.MethodsIn 2005, we selected a representative sample of 2000 adults aged 25 to 64 years using the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. We measured subjects’ blood pressure, calculated their body mass index (BMI, and determined their self-reported smoking status. We then assessed the extent to which hypertension, being overweight (having a BMI ≥25.0, smoking, and various combinations of these risk factors were associated with subjects’ education level, occupational category, and economic status.ResultsMean blood pressure levels were higher among men than among women and increased progressively with age. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.9% among men and 13.7% among women. Sixty-three percent of men were current smokers, and 58% were current daily smokers; less than 1% of women smoked. Mean body mass index was 19.6 among men and 19.9 among women, and only 3.5% of the population was overweight. Education level was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertension among both men and women and with the prevalence of smoking among men. People without a stable occupation were more at risk of having hypertension than were farmers and more at risk of being overweight than were farmers or government employees. Hypertension was directly associated with socioeconomic status among men but inversely associated with socioeconomic status among women.ConclusionRural Vietnam is experiencing an increase in the prevalence of many risk factors for chronic diseases and is in urgent need of interventions to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors and to deal

  5. Dark energy and neutrino constraints from a future EUCLID-like survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hamann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed forecast on how well a Euclid-like survey will be able to constrain dark energy and neutrino parameters from a combination of its cosmic shear power spectrum, galaxy power spectrum, and cluster mass function measurements. We find that the combination of these three probes...... vastly improves the survey's potential to measure the time evolution of dark energy. In terms of a dark energy figure-of-merit defined as (sigma(w_0) sigma(w_a))^-1, we find a value of 454 for Euclid-like data combined with Planck-like measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies...... in a fiducial LambdaCDM cosmology, a number that is quite conservative compared with existing estimates because of our choice of model parameter space and analysis method, but still represents a factor of 3 to 8 improvement over using either CMB+galaxy clustering+cosmic shear data, or CMB+cluster mass function...

  6. Dark energy and neutrino constraints from a future EUCLID-like survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hamann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in a fiducial LambdaCDM cosmology, a number that is quite conservative compared with existing estimates because of our choice of model parameter space and analysis method, but still represents a factor of 3 to 8 improvement over using either CMB+galaxy clustering+cosmic shear data, or CMB+cluster mass function......We perform a detailed forecast on how well a Euclid-like survey will be able to constrain dark energy and neutrino parameters from a combination of its cosmic shear power spectrum, galaxy power spectrum, and cluster mass function measurements. We find that the combination of these three probes...... alone. We consider also the survey's potential to measure dark energy perturbations in models wherein the dark energy is parameterised as a fluid with a nonstandard non-adiabatic sound speed, and find that in an optimistic scenario in which w_0 deviates by as much as is currently observationally allowed...

  7. Portable Wind Energy Harvesters for Low-Power Applications: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyedfakhreddin; Zhang, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesting has become an increasingly important topic thanks to the advantages in renewability and environmental friendliness. In this paper, a comprehensive study on contemporary portable wind energy harvesters has been conducted. The electrical power generation methods of portable wind energy harvesters are surveyed in three major groups, piezoelectric-, electromagnetic-, and electrostatic-based generators. The paper also takes another view of this area by gauging the required mechanisms for trapping wind flow from ambient environment. In this regard, rotational and aeroelastic mechanisms are analyzed for the portable wind energy harvesting devices. The comparison between both mechanisms shows that the aeroelastic mechanism has promising potential in producing an energy harvester in smaller scale although how to maintain the resonator perpendicular to wind flow for collecting the maximum vibration is still a major challenge to overcome for this mechanism. Furthermore, this paper categorizes the previously published portable wind energy harvesters to macro and micro scales in terms of their physical dimensions. The power management systems are also surveyed to explore the possibility of improving energy conversion efficiency. Finally some insights and research trends are pointed out based on an overall analysis of the previously published works along the historical timeline. PMID:27438834

  8. Portable Wind Energy Harvesters for Low-Power Applications: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedfakhreddin Nabavi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become an increasingly important topic thanks to the advantages in renewability and environmental friendliness. In this paper, a comprehensive study on contemporary portable wind energy harvesters has been conducted. The electrical power generation methods of portable wind energy harvesters are surveyed in three major groups, piezoelectric-, electromagnetic-, and electrostatic-based generators. The paper also takes another view of this area by gauging the required mechanisms for trapping wind flow from ambient environment. In this regard, rotational and aeroelastic mechanisms are analyzed for the portable wind energy harvesting devices. The comparison between both mechanisms shows that the aeroelastic mechanism has promising potential in producing an energy harvester in smaller scale although how to maintain the resonator perpendicular to wind flow for collecting the maximum vibration is still a major challenge to overcome for this mechanism. Furthermore, this paper categorizes the previously published portable wind energy harvesters to macro and micro scales in terms of their physical dimensions. The power management systems are also surveyed to explore the possibility of improving energy conversion efficiency. Finally some insights and research trends are pointed out based on an overall analysis of the previously published works along the historical timeline.

  9. Portable Wind Energy Harvesters for Low-Power Applications: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyedfakhreddin; Zhang, Lihong

    2016-07-16

    Energy harvesting has become an increasingly important topic thanks to the advantages in renewability and environmental friendliness. In this paper, a comprehensive study on contemporary portable wind energy harvesters has been conducted. The electrical power generation methods of portable wind energy harvesters are surveyed in three major groups, piezoelectric-, electromagnetic-, and electrostatic-based generators. The paper also takes another view of this area by gauging the required mechanisms for trapping wind flow from ambient environment. In this regard, rotational and aeroelastic mechanisms are analyzed for the portable wind energy harvesting devices. The comparison between both mechanisms shows that the aeroelastic mechanism has promising potential in producing an energy harvester in smaller scale although how to maintain the resonator perpendicular to wind flow for collecting the maximum vibration is still a major challenge to overcome for this mechanism. Furthermore, this paper categorizes the previously published portable wind energy harvesters to macro and micro scales in terms of their physical dimensions. The power management systems are also surveyed to explore the possibility of improving energy conversion efficiency. Finally some insights and research trends are pointed out based on an overall analysis of the previously published works along the historical timeline.

  10. Rural Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  11. Characterization of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda Angel, J. P.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project is to redefine the algorithm of wind-diesel hybrid system implemented in IntiGIS. This methodology was developed by CIEMAT for the evaluation of rural electrification projects, comparing different renewable and conventional technologies based on their LEC or equivalent electrification cost. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the study area. The core of the new model is the definition of renewable fraction in the wind-diesel hybrid system. To this end, it was assumed that the fraction of renewable will depend, first of all, of the wind speed. In this case, the objectives were to find a relationship between the renewable fraction and wind speed, expressed as a function, and also trying to demonstrate the influence of other parameters such as fuel price and consumption. The methodology used to achieve these objectives was to use HOMER to simulate technology and size of system components in order to obtain the optimal fraction renewable scenarios. Next, we examined how it varied with wind speed; we assessed the influence of other parameters and, finally, it is represented as a function of wind speed. After the redefinition of the algorithm, the changes were planned for inclusion in IntiGIS and tests were performed to validate the new model. (Author)

  12. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  13. Survey on utility technology of a tidal and ocean current energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Manabu; Kadoyu, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi

    1987-06-01

    A study is made to show the current technological levels in Japan and other nations regarding the conversion of tidal current or ocean current energy to electric power and to determine the latent energy quantities and energy-related characteristics of tidal and ocean currents. In Japan, relatively large-scale experiments made so far mostly used one of the following three types of devices: Savonius-wheel type, Darrieus-wheel type, and cross-flow-wheel type. Field experiments of tidal energy conversion have been performed at the Naruto and Kurushima Straits. The energy in the Kuroshio current is estimated at about 170 billion kWh per year. Ocean current energy does not undergo large seasonal variations. The total energy in major straits and channels in the Inland Sea and other sea areas to the west is estimated at about 124 billion kWh per year. Tidal current energy shows large seasonal variations, but it is possible to predict the changes. A survey is made to determine energy-related characteristics of a tidal current at Chichino-seto, Kagoshima Prefecture. At Chichino-seto, the flow velocity ranges from 0 to 2.2m/s, with a latent tidal current energy of about 70 kW, of which about 20 kW can actually be utilized.

  14. Energy consumption and environmental changes in rural China. Case studies from three counties in Central China (Pingyi), in Inner Mongolia (Zhenglanqi) and in Tibet (Taktse); Energiekonsum und Umweltaenderungen im laendlichen China. Fallbeispiele aus drei Landkreisen in Zentralchina (Pingyi), in der Inneren Mongolei (Zhenglanqi) und in Tibet (Taktse)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Mario Konstantin

    2013-02-15

    This study aims to broaden the model-theoretic and empirical knowledge on energetic geographic development processes. Therefore household surveys collected in three rural and penalized regions of China. The main focus of this survey is on the energy ladder model, postulating a higher degree of energetic sustainability when the income of population is rising. This survey tries to verify the model or rather point out parameters which cause regular deviations from the model. The model must consider regional, cultural and political characteristics coevally. The core of this survey is a data collection in 180 households. Besides demographic and microeconomic information the data collection particularly provides data on energy consumption (energy mix, energy efficiency, future energy-preferences etc.). Last but not least the environmental impacts of energetic use are determined by the appraisals of the concerned households. The descriptive and correlative data analysis provides insightful data for the following four explored sectors (1) ''socio-economic situation'', (2) ''energy use'', (3) ''environmental awareness'' and (4) ''demanded support''. The analysis allows conclusions on three different levels: a. A highly sophisticated picture of the selected regions emerges, that is presented by a multiple analogy among each other. b. The overall data afford an overview of interactions between the essential parameters of the study: Those are energy use, energy efficiency, access to energy, environmental behavior, health and education. c. On the basis of those two levels the following modification of the model is devised: The peripheral location, the cultural situation and the interventions from government as well as from civil society are parameters that significantly codetermine the choice for energy sources in rural areas. The analysis of demanded support in the energy sector as well as the

  15. Global Research Alliance (GRA) -Smart sustainable energy for rural community development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available spider web of infrastructure and dependence on decades-old technologies), the developing world can harness modern, low carbon, renewable, agile, smart and decentralised generation to rapidly deliver tailored, appropriate and sustainable energy...

  16. A Taxonomy and Survey of Energy-Efficient Data Centers and Cloud Computing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beloglazov, Anton; Lee, Young Choon; Zomaya, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the development of computing systems has been focused on performance improvements driven by the demand of applications from consumer, scientific and business domains. However, the ever increasing energy consumption of computing systems has started to limit further performance growth due to overwhelming electricity bills and carbon dioxide footprints. Therefore, the goal of the computer system design has been shifted to power and energy efficiency. To identify open challenges in the area and facilitate future advancements it is essential to synthesize and classify the research on power and energy-efficient design conducted to date. In this work we discuss causes and problems of high power / energy consumption, and present a taxonomy of energy-efficient design of computing systems covering the hardware, operating system, virtualization and data center levels. We survey various key works in the area and map them to our taxonomy to guide future design and development efforts. This chapter is conclu...

  17. Integrated renewable energy systems for off grid rural electrification of remote area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanase-Patil, A.B.; Saini, R.P.; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-06-15

    The off grid electrification by utilizing Integrated Renewable Energy System (IRES) is proposed to satisfy the electrical and cooking needs of the seven-uneletrified villages in the Almora district of Uttarakhand state, India. Four different scenarios are considered during modeling and optimization of IRES to ensure reliability parameters such as energy index ratio (EIR) and expected energy not supplied (EENS). The optimum system reliability, total system cost and cost of energy (COE) have also been worked out by introducing the customer interruption cost (CIC). The four different renewable energy scenarios have been compared for the considered study area using the LINGO software version 10. The fourth renewable energy scenario accounting 44.99% micro hydropower (MHP), 30.07% biomass, 5.19% biogas and 4.16% solar energy along with the additional resources of wind (1.27%) and energy plantation (12.33%) has been found to be the best among the different options considered. Furthermore, the optimal reliability for the fourth IRES system has been found to be 0.95 EIR at the optimized cost of Rs 19.44 lacs with estimated COE of Rs 3.36 per kWh. The COE obtained using LINGO software and HOMER software has also been compared and briefly discussed for all the four scenarios. In order to verify feasibility and cost of system for different biomass fuel prices, a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out and it has been found that the fourth scenario is more sustainable than the other considered options. (author)

  18. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly...... for training purposes.Finally, some methodological thoughts based on our practical experiences will be presented and our future work will be briefly discussed....

  19. Status and Benefits of Renewable Energy Technologies in the Rural Areas of Ethiopia: A Case Study on Improved Cooking Stoves and Biogas Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal Addis Alemayehu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Ethiopia’s people (85% reside in rural areas, deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Ethiopia’s energy system is characterized mainly by biomass fuel supply, with households being the greatest energy consumers. The household sector takes up nearly 94 % of the total energy supplies. Access to energy resources and technologies in rural Ethiopia is highly constrained which makes the energy supply and consumption pattern of the country to show many elements of un-sustainability. The concern on cooking practices, household economics, health, forest and agricultural resource management, and global greenhouse gas emissions has emerged as a transformative opportunity to improve individual lives, livelihoods, and the global environment. More decentralized renewable energy projects could play an important role in mitigating traditional biomass fuel use. Improved cooking stove (ICS dissemination projects have been launched involving the private sector in the production and commercialization of the stoves. In doing so, about 3.7 million ICSs have been disseminated in the country so far which benefited stove users, producers and the total environment as about 30 million hectare of forest per year can be conserved. Conversion of animal waste to biogas energy to replace traditional fuel and use of the slurry as a fertilizer is the other current focus of the government of Ethiopia and installed more than 860 biogas digesters. The benefits obtained from these technologies are considerable and promising. However, the programs are not that much benefited the rural households where it had been intended to address. So, due attention should be given for those of the rural households in order to address the fuel wood crisis, environmental degradation and their health condition.

  20. Comparative economical evaluation among photovoltaic system, motor generator, and regular electric energy rural distribution lines for the supply of small rural properties and schools; Avaliacao economica comparativa entre sistema solar fotovoltaico, comjunto moto-gerador e rede de distribuicao rural para suprimento de pequenas propriedades e escolas rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Soraya S.; Martins, Paulo M.; Lima Torres, Manuel E. de; Silva, Luiz Carlos S. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, has presently about 190,00 small rural properties which are not yet served by electric energy. This great number is due to among other factors, the lack of funds for the construction of rural distribution lines, which demand high investments to small charges reduced intensive use. The photovoltaic energy is presented as an electrification option, especially for isolated small rural properties, located far from the electric lines and presenting low demand potential. An alternative to the photovoltaic system is the installation of low power gasoline generators. This paper is divided in two parts: the first one compares the photovoltaic energy system unitary costs with the gasoline generator for the supply of small residential and community demands such as schools and public health assistance buildings. The second part of this paper presents not served by electric energy yet which an installation of the photovoltaic system is preferable to the regular electric energy rural distribution, using as main criteria the cost-benefit relationship 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. PreCam: A Precursor Observational Campaign for Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Allam, S.; Annis, J. T.; Bailey, T.; Balbinot, E.; Bernstein, J. P.; Biesiadzinski, T.; Burke, D. L.; Butner, M.; Camargo, J. I. B.; da Costa, L. A. N.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Estrada, J.; Fausti, A.; Gerke, B.; Guarino, V.; Head, H. H.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Lorenzon, W.; Maia, M. A. G.; Maki, L.; Marshall, J.; Nord, B.; Neilsen, E.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Park, D.; Peoples, J.; Rastawicki, D.; Rheault, J. -P.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Seitzer, P.; Smith, J. A.; Spinka, H.; Sypniewski, A.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.

    2013-04-01

    PreCam, a precursor observational campaign supporting the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is designed to produce a photometric and astrometric catalog of nearly a hundred thousand standard stars within the DES footprint, while the PreCam instrument also serves as a prototype testbed for the Dark Energy Camera's hardware and software. This catalog represents a potential 100-fold increase in Southern Hemisphere photometric standard stars, and therefore will be an important component in the calibration of the Dark Energy Survey. We provide details on the PreCam instrument's design, construction, and testing, as well as results from a subset of the 51 nights of PreCam survey observations on the University of Michigan Department of Astronomy's Curtis-Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). We briefly describe the preliminary data processing pipeline that has been developed for PreCam data and the preliminary results of the instrument performance, as well as astrometry and photometry of a sample of stars previously included in other southern sky surveys.

  2. Satisfying the Energy Demand of a Rural Area by Considering the Investment on Renewable Energy Alternatives and Depreciation Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fuzzy multiobjective model which chooses the best mix of renewable energy options and determines the optimal amount of energy to be transferred from each resource to each end use is proposed. The depreciation of equipment along with time value of money has been taken into account in the first objective function while the second and the third objective functions minimize the greenhouse gas emissions and water consumption, respectively. Also, this study is one of the pioneer works that has considered demand-side management (DSM as a competitive option against supply-side alternatives for making apt energy planning decisions. Moreover, the intrinsic uncertainty of demand parameter is considered and modeled by fuzzy numbers. To convert the proposed fuzzy multiobjective formulation to a crisp single-objective formulation the well-known fuzzy goal programming approach together with Jimenez defuzzifying technique is employed. The model is validated through setting up a diversity of datasets whose data were mostly derived from the literature. The obtained results show that DSM programs have greatly contributed to cost reductions in the network. Also, it is concluded that the model is capable of solving even large-scaled instances of problems in negligible central processing unit (CPU times using Lingo 8.0 software.

  3. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T. [Fermilab

    2017-06-09

    We report the results of our searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verication and Year 1 observations. The Science Verication data spans approximately 250 sq. deg. with median i

  4. Energy use pattern and sustainable development: A case study in rural landscape of the Central Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Subrat (G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi, Almora (India)); Singh, S.P. (Dept. of Botany, Kumaun Univ., Nainital (India))

    1994-06-01

    The energy use pattern of a mountain agroecosystem, which represents a typical mountain village having about 90% of rainfed agriculture, was analysed. The non-commercial energy contributed a major portion (about 98%) of the total energy consumption in the functioning of the village. Of the total energy consumed in cropland, 28% was imported from forest and market. The agronomic production met from the cropland was one-quarter of the food demand and less than 20% of the fodder demand. To support one unit of agronomic production about 17 units of energy came from the forest at the village level. The requirement of the agroecosystem was found to be far greater than the availability of the forests. Land topography, social and economic conditions are the main barriers to the advancement of technology in the mountain region. For a sustainable development of this agroecosystem, environmental and social factors should be considered. The vegetation of natural forests of the region will be an essential component to achieve sustainability. By developing forest-based farms and the cottage industries that depend on them, the economic conditions would be improved. Alternative land use is needed to ensure the sustainability of agroecosystems as well as to check further environmental degradation

  5. Dark energy and neutrino constraints from a future EUCLID-like survey

    CERN Document Server

    Basse, Tobias; Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a detailed forecast on how well a Euclid-like survey will be able to constrain dark energy and neutrino parameters from a combination of its cosmic shear power spectrum, galaxy power spectrum, and cluster mass function measurements. We find that the combination of these three probes vastly improves the survey's potential to measure the time evolution of dark energy. In terms of a dark energy figure-of-merit defined as (sigma(w_0) sigma(w_a))^-1, we find a value of 454 for Euclid-like data combined with Planck-like measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in a fiducial LambdaCDM cosmology, a number that is quite conservative compared with existing estimates because of our choice of model parameter space and analysis method, but still represents a factor of 3 to 8 improvement over using either CMB+galaxy clustering+cosmic shear data, or CMB+cluster mass function alone. We consider also the survey's potential to measure dark energy perturbations in models wherein the dark ene...

  6. Development of low-CO2-emission vehicles and utilization of local renewable energy for the vitalization of rural areas in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Amagai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of Japan's energy supply depends on imports from foreign countries, making the independence ratio of energy in Japan very low. The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami led to a mass shutdown of all the nuclear plants in Japan, a stoppage that is still in effect. In this paper, we review the energy supply situation and some social problems faced by rural areas in Japan. Given that lifestyles in rural Japan are reliant on automobiles, there is significant demand for the establishment of a sustainable mobility society. Furthermore, Japan is now entering an aging society ahead of other countries. In order to enhance the vitalization of rural areas and accelerate the establishment of sustainable society, our project developed low-CO2-emission vehicles (i.e., a single-driver EV [micro-EV] and a low-speed E-bus for elderly people and tourists through the cooperation of regional industries, a local university, and a city office. This paper also reports some trial test results on renewable energy utilization as the driving energy supply for these low-emission vehicles.

  7. Results of a survey to determine demographic and business management factors associated with size and growth rate of rural mixed-animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C

    2010-12-15

    To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.

  8. 2002 survey - energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobile, environment; Panorama 2002 - energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannesini, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Schweitzer, L.; Fayolle, J.P. [Renault, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France); Nejat Veziroglu, T. [Association Hydrogen Energy (Canada); Alleau, Th. [Association Francaise de l' Hydogene, 75 - Paris (France); Gueguen, C. [Totalfinaelf raffinerie de Feyzin, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized its seventh annual international 'Panorama' colloquium on the theme: fuels of the future. This document brings together the different invited talks given in Paris, Lyon and Brussels on this theme: a summary of 2001 highlights in the oil and gas industry given by J.F. Giannesini (IFP head's adviser), a prospective analysis of future automotive fuels with respect to fossil fuel reserves depletion and environmental policy constraints given by L. Schweitzer (president of Renault car making industry), a presentation of the hydrogen and synthetic fuel energy systems of the 21. century by T. Nejat Veziroglu (president of the international association for hydrogen energy), a presentation of the economical, environmental, technical and political aspects of hydrogen as a future energy vector by T. Alleau (president of the French association of hydrogen AFH2), the formulation of future automotive fuels as seen from the eye of the refinery engineer by C. Geguen (technical director of Feyzin refinery (TotalFinaElf)), and a last paper about the recent and future evolutions of diesel engines for industrial vehicles by J.P. Fayolle (director of engines R and D, Renault industrial vehicles). (J.S.)

  9. Energy, protein, and zinc nutriture of rural African children in relation to some anthropometric indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, E.L.; Gibson, R.S.; Osei-Opare, F.; Opare-Obisaw, C.; Thompson, L.U. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Ghana, Legon (Ghana) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-03-11

    Heights, weights, arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thicknesses of 66 Malawian and 148 Ghanaian preschool children were measured during 3 seasons. Their seasonal energy, protein, Ca, Zn, dietary fiber and phytate intakes were estimated from 3-day weighed records, using analyzed and literature food composition values. Seasonal hair Zn concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses, The mean annual intakes for Malawian compared to Ghanaian children were higher for energy protein, and Zn. Cereals contributed a higher proportion of the total energy intake in the Malawian compared to the Ghanaian diets. A higher percentage of the Malawian children had height-for-age Z-scores below {minus}2SD, but a lower percentage had weight-for-height Z-scores below {minus}1SD compared to their Ghanaian counterparts. These differences may, in part be related to the high cereal intakes of the Malawian children.

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine use by visitors to rural Japanese family medicine clinics: results from the international complementary and alternative medicine survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumer, Gregory; Warber, Sara; Motohara, Satoko; Yajima, Ayaka; Plegue, Melissa; Bialko, Matthew; Iida, Tomoko; Sano, Kiyoshi; Amenomori, Masaki; Tsuda, Tsukasa; Fetters, Michael D

    2014-09-25

    There is growing interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) throughout the world, however previous research done in Japan has focused primarily on CAM use in major cities. The purpose of this study was to develop and distribute a Japanese version of the International Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q) to assess the use of CAM among people who visit rural Japanese family medicine clinics. Using a Japanese version of the International Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q), a cross-sectional survey was conducted in three rural family medicine clinics. All patients and those accompanying patients who met inclusion criteria were eligible to participate. Data were entered into SPSS Statistics and analyzed for use by age, gender, and location. Of the 519 respondents who participated in the project, 415 participants reported CAM use in the past 12 months (80.0%). When prayer is excluded, the prevalence of CAM use drops to 77.3% in the past year, or 403 respondents. The most common forms of CAM used by respondents were pain relief pads (n = 170, 32.8%), herbal medicines/supplements (n = 167, 32.2%), and massage by self or family (n = 166, 32.0%). Female respondents, individuals with higher levels of education, and those with poorer overall health status were more likely to use CAM than respondents without these characteristics. Only 22.8% of CAM therapies used were reported to physicians by survey participants. These data indicate that CAM use in rural Japan is common. The results are consistent with previous studies that show that Japanese individuals are more interested in forms of CAM such as pain relief pads and massage, than in mind-body forms of CAM like relaxation and meditation. Due to the high utilization of certain CAM practices, and given that most CAM users do not disclose their CAM use to their doctors, we conclude that physicians in rural Japan would benefit by asking about CAM use

  11. Combining Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data with near-infrared data from the ESO VISTA Hemisphere Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerji, M.; Jouvel, S.; Lin, H.; McMahon, R. G.; Lahav, O.; Castander, F. J.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bertin, E.; Bosman, S. E.; Carnero, A.; Kind, M. C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gerdes, D.; Gschwend, J.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Merson, A.; Miller, C.; Ogando, R.; Pellegrini, P.; Reed, S.; Saglia, R.; Sanchez, C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, J.; Bernstein, R.; Capozzi, D.; Childress, M.; Cunha, C. E.; Davis, T. M.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Findlay, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Honscheid, K.; Irwin, M. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kim, A.; Koposov, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kupcu-Yoldas, A.; Lagattuta, D.; Lewis, J. R.; Lidman, C.; Makler, M.; Marriner, J.; Marshall, J. L.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Peoples, J.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Sharp, R.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, D.; Uddin, S. A.; Wechsler, R.; Wester, W.; Yuan, F.; Zuntz, J.

    2014-11-25

    We present the combination of optical data from the Science Verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) with near-infrared (NIR) data from the European Southern Observatory VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS). The deep optical detections from DES are used to extract fluxes and associated errors from the shallower VHS data. Joint seven-band (grizYJK) photometric catalogues are produced in a single 3 sq-deg dedicated camera field centred at 02h26m-04d36m where the availability of ancillary multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy allows us to test the data quality. Dual photometry increases the number of DES galaxies with measured VHS fluxes by a factor of similar to 4.5 relative to a simple catalogue level matching and results in a similar to 1.5 mag increase in the 80 per cent completeness limit of the NIR data. Almost 70 per cent of DES sources have useful NIR flux measurements in this initial catalogue. Photometric redshifts are estimated for a subset of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts and initial results, although currently limited by small number statistics, indicate that the VHS data can help reduce the photometric redshift scatter at both z < 0.5 and z > 1. We present example DES VHS colour selection criteria for high-redshift luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at z similar to 0.7 as well as luminous quasars. Using spectroscopic observations in this field we show that the additional VHS fluxes enable a cleaner selection of both populations with <10 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed quasars and <0.5 per cent contamination from galactic stars in the case of spectroscopically confirmed LRGs. The combined DES+VHS data set, which will eventually cover almost 5000 sq-deg, will therefore enable a range of new science and be ideally suited for target selection for future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.

  12. 农村土地调查基本农田上图方法%Basic Farmland Mapping Methodology in Rural Land Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱小龙

    2014-01-01

    土地是人类赖以生存和社会发展的物质基础,耕地是农业生产最基本、不可替代的生产资料。基本农田调查是农村土地调查最为重要的一个部分,基本农田上图工作对于政府部门制定土地政策、优化土地结构、保护耕地、提高耕地质量具有十分重要的意义。本文从基本农田概念的引入、基本农田上图技术流程、基本农田保护块上图以及图件编制、数据汇总几个方面阐述了农村土地调查基本农田的上图方法。%The Material Basis of human existence and social development is Land ;Cultivated Land is the fundamental and irreplacea-ble production is in Agricultural Production .Basic Farmland survey is the most important part of the rural land survey , Basic Farmland Mapping has great significance on developing land policy , optimizing land structure , protecting farmland and improving quality of ara-ble land.This paper elaborates method of Basic Farmland Mapping in rural land survey from several aspects , such as the concept of basic farmland , the technical processes of basic farmland mapping , basic farmland protection block diagram , and map edit and data aggregation .

  13. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in a rural population in South-Western Uganda: a community based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gershim Asiki

    Full Text Available The burden of dyslipidaemia is rising in many low income countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of, or risk factors for, dyslipidaemia in Africa.In 2011, we used the WHO Stepwise approach to collect cardiovascular risk data within a general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda. Dyslipidaemia was defined by high total cholesterol (TC ≥ 5.2 mmol/L or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 6% (men aOR=3.00, 95%CI=1.37-6.59; women aOR=2.74, 95%CI=1.77-4.27. The odds of high TC was also higher among married men, and women with higher education or high BMI.Low HDL-C prevalence in this relatively young rural population is high whereas high TC prevalence is low. The consequences of dyslipidaemia in African populations remain unclear and prospective follow-up is required.

  14. Overview of CSIR’s activities towards smart sustainable energy for rural communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available be linked to investigations in the field of renewable energy. CSIR has increasingly focused on the area of technology for sustainable development, thereby moving away from the bias of the formal sector, towards a more balanced approach that includes all...

  15. Seasonality of energy expenditure during pregnancy and lactation for rural Nepali women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, C

    1993-05-01

    Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated for 19 nonpregnant, nonlactating (NPNL) and 24 pregnant (P) or lactating (L) women from 3601 h of minute-by-minute observation and 168 measurements of the energy cost of activities. NPNL women significantly increased subsistence activity and TEE from 9.9 MJ [1.89 x basal metabolic rate (BMR)] in the winter to 10.5 MJ (2.01 x BMR) in the monsoon season. There were differences between NPNL,P, and L women in the winter, but not in the spring or monsoon season when all individuals sustained very heavy physical activity. High TEE values resulted from spending very long hours in tasks that, although appearing physically demanding to the casual observer, were characterized by light or moderate energy cost. The study highlights the importance of seasonal constraints on women's work, which prevent P and L women from significantly curtailing physical activity during the monsoon season, and which effectively limit the scope of behavioral mechanisms for saving energy and reducing TEE.

  16. Institutional options for rural energy access: Exploring the concept of the multifunctional platform in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    in the dominant discourse of development, and how including concerns, such as poverty alleviation, gender equity, local democracy, decentralisation and the environment, have attracted donors outside the energy sector. The paper thus argues that, while the integration of multiple technical functions, preconceived...

  17. Assessing household wealth in health studies in developing countries: a comparison of participatory wealth ranking and survey techniques from rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargreaves James R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate tools for assessing household wealth are essential for many health studies in developing countries. Household survey and participatory wealth ranking (PWR are two approaches to generate data for this purpose. Methods A household survey and PWR were conducted among eight villages in rural South Africa. We developed three indicators of household wealth using the data. One indicator used PWR data only, one used principal components analysis to combine data from the survey, while the final indicator used survey data combined in a manner informed by the PWR. We assessed internal consistency of the indices and assessed their level of agreement in ranking household wealth. Results Food security, asset ownership, housing quality and employment were important indicators of household wealth. PWR, consisting of three independent rankings of 9671 households, showed a high level of internal consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.81, 95% CI 0.79–0.82. Data on 1429 households were available from all three techniques. There was moderate agreement in ranking households into wealth tertiles between the two indicators based on survey data (spearman rho = 0.69, kappa = 0.43, but only limited agreement between these techniques and the PWR data (spearman rho = 0.38 and 0.31, kappa = 0.20 and 0.17. Conclusion Both PWR and household survey can provide a rapid assessment of household wealth. Each technique had strengths and weaknesses. Reasons for differences might include data inaccuracies or limitations in the methods by which information was weighted. Alternatively, the techniques may measure different things. More research is needed to increase the validity of measures of socioeconomic position used in health studies in developing countries.

  18. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.