WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural east africa

  1. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography. (Part I: General, Central, East). Training & Methods Series Number 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Teresa, Comp.; And Others

    Compiled in July, 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 1,950 books, journal articles, and unpublished manuscripts dealing with rural development in Africa generally and in central and east Africa specifically. General entries appear under the following headings: agriculture; economic affairs; bibliography; law; economic and technical…

  2. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and

  3. Practice makes perfect: participatory innovation in soil fertility management to improve rural livelihoods in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and bal

  4. Deconstructing the concept of renewable energy-based mini-grids for rural electrification in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2016-01-01

    consist of the hybridization of existing utility-owned electricity systems for medium-size towns located far from the grid, which does not necessarily contribute to rural electrification. However, limited but increasing activity is identified regarding the use of mini-grids to bring electricity to rural...... between the option of large-scale grid extension and pico-scale stand-alone solutions like solar home systems or solar lanterns. International expectations of mini-grids are high, with the International Energy Agency suggesting that they will play a significant role in reaching the goal of universal...... access. Based on a detailed review of past, ongoing, and planned mini-grids in East Africa, this study seeks to deconstructs the popular notion of mini-grids for rural electrification in East Africa. The study reveals that so far activities carried out under the heading of mini-grids to a large extent...

  5. Microgrid Utilities for Rural Electrification in East Africa: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J.

    Expanding access to electricity is central to development in East Africa but massive increases in investment are required to achieve universal access. Private sector participation in electrification is essential to meeting electricity access targets. Policy makers have acknowledged that grid extension in many remote rural areas is not as cost effective as decentralized alternatives such as microgrids. Microgrid companies have been unable to scale beyond pilot projects due in part to challenges in raising capital for a business model that is perceived to be risky. This thesis aims to identify and quantify the primary sources of investment risk in microgrid utilities and study ways to mitigate these risks to make these businesses more viable. Two modeling tools have been developed to this end. The Stochastic Techno-Economic Microgrid Model (STEMM) models the technical and financial performance of microgrid utilities using uncertain and dynamic inputs to permit explicit modeling of financial risk. This model is applied in an investment risk assessment and case study in Rwanda. Key findings suggest that the most important drivers of risk are fuel prices, foreign exchange rates, demand for electricity, and price elasticity of demand for electricity. The relative importance of these factors is technology dependent with demand uncertainty figuring stronger for solar and high solar penetration hybrid systems and fuel prices driving risk in diesel power and low solar penetration hybrid systems. Considering uncertainty in system sizing presents a tradeoff whereby a decrease in expected equity return decreases downside risk. High solar penetration systems are also found to be more attractive to lenders. The second modeling tool leverages electricity consumption and demographic data from four microgrids in Tanzania to forecast demand for electricity in newly electrified communities. Using statistical learning techniques, improvements in prediction performance was achieved over

  6. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  7. Islamist Extremism in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    relations, and disregards many basic human rights , particularly for women. While Wahhabism does not on principle denounce other faiths, many Wahhabi...Islamic Foundation, for example, which had a large presence in refugee camps and supported many madrassas in East Africa, including some linked to Ansaar...often have poorly defined property rights , hindering economic opportunities and paving the way for occasional land seizures by the government or large

  8. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  9. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  10. Famine Spreads in East Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crisis highlights deep-seated food security problems on the African continent Worsening famine in the Horn of Africa, which threatens the lives of millions in countries including Ethiopia, Djibouti,Kenya and Somalia,

  11. Measuring rural welfare in colonial Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, De Michiel

    2017-01-01

    Recent scholarship on historical welfare development in Sub-Saharan Africa has uncovered long-term trends in standards of living. How the majority of rural dwellers fared, however, remains largely elusive. This study develops a new approach to reconstruct rural living standards in a historical

  12. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  13. Experiencing democracy : Women in rural East Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoven, Bettina

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the experiences of rural women in East German), in light of the transformation front a socialist regime to a market-oriented democracy, Drawing on a study carried out in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania between 1996 and 1999, the article details women's positive recollections of

  14. The Precambrian crustal structure of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugume, Fred Alex

    In this thesis, the Precambrian crustal structure of East African is investigated along with the crustal structures of three Cenozoic rift basins located in the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). In the first part of the thesis, P-wave receiver functions are modeled using the H-k method to obtain new insights about the bulk composition and thickness of the crust for Precambrian terrains throughout East Africa. The average crustal thickness for all but one of the terrains is between 37 and 39 km. An exception is the Ubendian terrain, which has an average crustal thickness 42 km. In all terrains, the average Poisson's ratio is similar, ranging from 0.25 to 0.26, indicating a bulk crustal composition that is felsic to intermediate. The main finding of this study is that crustal structure is similar across all terrains, which span more than 4.0 Ga of earth history. There is no discernable difference in the crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios between the Archean and Proterozoic terrains, or between the Proterozoic terrains, unlike the variability in Precambrian crustal structure found in many other continents. In the second part of the thesis, a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities and receiver functions was used to investigate the shear wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Precambrian terrains of East Africa. In comparison with other areas of similar age in southern and western Africa where the same joint inversion method has been applied, I find that while there is little difference in the mean shear wave velocities for the entire crust across all of the Precambrian terrains, and also few differences in the thickness of the crust, there exists substantial variability in lower crustal structure. This variability is reflected primarily in the thickness of the lower crustal layers with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s. This variability is found both within terrains of the same age (i

  15. Neonatal mortality in East Africa and West Africa: a geographic analysis of district-level demographic and health survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue C. Grady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Under-five child mortality declined 47% since 2000 following the implementation of the United Nation’s (UN Millennium Development Goals. To further reduce under-five child mortality, the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs will focus on interventions to address neonatal mortality, a major contributor of under-five mortality. The African region has the highest neonatal mortality rate (28.0 per 1000 live births, followed by that of the Eastern Mediterranean (26.6 and South-East Asia (24.3. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey Birth Recode data (http://dhsprogram.com/data/File-Types-and-Names.cfm to identify high-risk districts and countries for neonatal mortality in two sub-regions of AfricaEast Africa and West Africa. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were estimated to capture the spatially varying relationships between neonatal mortality and dimensions of potential need i care around the time of delivery, ii maternal education, and iii women’s empowerment. In East Africa, neonatal mortality was significantly associated with home births, mothers without an education and mothers whose husbands decided on contraceptive practices, controlling for rural residency. In West Africa, neonatal mortality was also significantly associated with home births, mothers with a primary education and mothers who did not want or plan their last child. Importantly, neonatal mortality associated with home deliveries were explained by maternal exposure to unprotected water sources in East Africa and older maternal age and female sex of infants in West Africa. Future SDG-interventions may target these dimensions of need in priority high-risk districts and countries, to further reduce the burden of neonatal mortality in Africa.

  16. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease

  17. Mineral Operations of Africa and the Middle East

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills , or...

  18. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports

  19. Labor market reforms, growth, and unemployment in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik

    2007-01-01

    A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public...

  20. Assessment of conventional oil resources of the East African Rift Province, East Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-03-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean conventional resources of 13.4 billion barrels of oil and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the East African Rift Province of east Africa.

  1. Towards Integrated Pest Management in East Africa : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Bremmer, J.; Kerklaan, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk reduction through registration of less hazardous pesticides and the promotion of nonchemical pest and disease control approaches such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is essential for a more sustainable plant production in East Africa in order to enhance both export market access a

  2. Spatial Metadata in Africa and the Middle East

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter attempts to paint a broad picture of the spatial metadata in Africa and the Middle East, through describing briefly the activities in countries and regional bodies across the region and providing more detail in one or two countries...

  3. Modern Mathematics in East Africa: A Survey, 1961-1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, D.

    1973-01-01

    Shetched are the educational developments of East Africa, particularly in Tanzania. Emphasis is on establishing a modern mathematics program for the secondary school. The modifications made on the School Mathematics Project (SMP) curriculum and the development of the Entebbe Project designed to meet African needs are described. (JP)

  4. Socialisation in Architectural Education: A View from East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olweny, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Concern for the state of architectural education in East Africa was a catalyst for this exploration of socialisation, which sought to understand socialisation and its influence on educational outcomes in the region. Socialisation within architectural education has long been known to influence how students acquire important aspects of the…

  5. Reducing the Burden of Cancer in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of CGH is to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to reduce cancer deaths worldwide. To carry out that mission, we facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. CGH's latest effort, the East Africa Cancer Control Leadership Forum, carried out this mission by helping African partners develop their own individual cancer control programs.

  6. Decision enhancement for poultry farmers in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumwebaze, Rebecca Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Increased attention to economic viability towards agriculture has seen commercial poultry farms in East Africa evolve from the previously common small holder/backyard poultry production operations. These poultry farms have however been faced with numerous challenges including high disease prevalence

  7. Geographical imagination and technological connectivity in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark; Andersen, Casper; Mann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically-mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa in ...

  8. Analyzing sanitation characteristics in the urban slums of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility o

  9. Multiscale perspectives of species richness in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyses animal species richness in East Africa from a multi-scale perspective. We studied diversity patterns at sub-continental, national and sub-national level. The study demonstrated that species diversity patterns were scale-dependent. Diversity patterns varied wi

  10. Geographical imagination and technological connectivity in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark; Andersen, Casper; Mann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically-mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa...

  11. Socialisation in Architectural Education: A View from East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olweny, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Concern for the state of architectural education in East Africa was a catalyst for this exploration of socialisation, which sought to understand socialisation and its influence on educational outcomes in the region. Socialisation within architectural education has long been known to influence how students acquire important aspects of the…

  12. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  13. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC, EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP. The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  14. Danish Interests in Regional Security Institutions in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    through capacity building projects anchored in different regional security institutions. The report illuminates some of the risks that such capacity building projects might confront. Furthermore the report points out some of the challenges that exist in the cooperation between the Ministry of Foreign......For the past decade, peace and security in East Africa have gained increasing focus internationally. The region has experienced armed conflicts, civil wars, rebellion, drought and famine. Yet, at the same time, there is an emerging ambition among a number of African states to handle security issues...... on the continent independently. Such ambitions have fostered a variety of military capacity building programmes supported by external donors. The present report explores how up until now Denmark has sought to contribute to strengthening political and military security in East Africa. This has mainly been done...

  15. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermias Diro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is an important protozoan opportunistic disease in HIV patients in endemic areas. East Africa is second to the Indian subcontinent in the global VL caseload and first in VL-HIV coinfection rate. Because of the alteration in the disease course, the diagnostic challenges, and the poor treatment responses, VL with HIV coinfection has become a very serious challenge in East Africa today. Field experience with the use of liposomal amphotericin B in combination with miltefosine, followed by secondary prophylaxis and antiretroviral drugs, looks promising. However, this needs to be confirmed through clinical trials. Better diagnostic and follow-up methods for relapse and prediction of relapse should also be looked for. Basic research to understand the immunological interaction of the two infections may ultimately help to improve the management of the coinfection.

  16. Fossil land snails of East Africa and their palaeoecological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Martin

    1995-04-01

    This study deals with the Neogene and extant land snails of tropical East Africa and their implications for interpreting the paleoenvironments of the numerous localities at which they have been found. Of major significance to the study is the intimate association between the terrestrial molluscs and the rich mammalian faunas, hominoids included, of East Africa. Thus, palaeoecological reconstructions based on land snails are directly applicable to the mammalian faunas. Palaeoecological reconstructions are proposed for most of the Lower and Middle Miocene hominoids, including Proconsul, Rangwapithecus, Limnopithecus, Micropithecus, Nyanzapithecus, Kenyapithecus and others, and for the mid-Pliocene Australopithecus from Laetoli, Tanzania. The departure point for the palaeoecological reconstructions is a comprehensive study of extant terrestrial molluscs of East Africa, the habitat preferences of which are well documented. All the fossil gastropods studied comprise extant genera and even species, so the usual problems regarding the application of actualism to fossil assemblages is avoided. Furthermore, the fossil gastropod assemblages resemble extant ones, confirming their utility for such reconstructions. Among the parameters examined are rainfall, altitude, vegetation cover and type and zoogeography. A further point of interest is that the samples are more than adequate for the purposes of the study, many of the fossil localities having yielded several thousand specimens. Finally, more than 40% of the extant genera of East Africa have now been recognized in the fossil state. The molluscs are thus, by far, the best represented biological group known in the fossil record of Africa and as such hold great potential for understanding the past. This study ends with reconstructions of the palaeoecology of numerous fossiliferous localities in East Africa which have yielded molluscs and mammals. Changes through the geological column are documented and the habitat preferences

  17. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pfeifer

    Full Text Available In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2, but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan. We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks. Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337, Nature Reserves (six out of 12 and Game Parks (24 out of 26 were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  18. Leveraging the Security -- Development Nexus in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Lieutenant Colonel Eric Flowers 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Dr. Steven Metz Strategic Studies Institute...THE SECURITY-DEVELOPMENT NEXUS IN EAST AFRICA America is in a state of hypnosis . Many outside the beltway do not know, and/or care, how reckless

  19. Income expectations, rural-urban migration and employment in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, M P

    1996-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework explaining the influence of economic conditions on rural-urban migration in tropical Africa. The model explains the continued process of migration despite high levels of urban unemployment. A lengthy discussion is devoted to short-, intermediate-, and long-term policies for relieving the urban unemployment problem. It is argued that efforts must be made to reduce the differences between the expectation of urban income and real rural income. No one single policy will slow rural-to-urban migration. The author suggests policies that would eliminate factor-price distortions, restrain urban wages, redirect development toward concentrated and comprehensive programs of rural development, resettle and repatriate unemployed urban migrants, and establish capital-goods industries. The capital-goods industries would develop labor-intensive technologies for agriculture and industry. The theoretical model assumes that migrants make decisions about moving on the basis of an expected income and the expectation of an urban job. It is argued that the urban-rural income differences and the probability of securing an urban job determine the rate and extent of rural-urban migration in Africa. If the migrant has a low probability of finding regular wage employment in the short term, but expects the probability to increase over time, the migrant would make a rational decision to migrate. Policies that operate solely on urban labor demand are considered unlikely to reduce urban unemployment. This model better estimates the shadow prices of rural labor.

  20. Social Justice and Rural Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlalele, Dipane

    2012-01-01

    Social justice is undeniably grounded in efforts at circumventing provisions that seek to uphold ostracism and exclusionary practices which have permeated South Africa and many other societies worldwide for extensive periods of time. Vast incongruities and/or inequalities between better resourced urban communities and neglected rural areas impinge…

  1. Rural employment in Sub-Saharan Africa : a bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tellegen, N.

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography concerns the existing scientific literature on different aspects of rural employment. It contains 301 references, listed in alphabetical order by author. The references are either of a general nature or concern the situation in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Also included are

  2. Immunity to tetanus and diphtheria in rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kjeldsen, K; Hey, A S

    1997-01-01

    To assess the effect of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in rural Africa, blood samples were collected in two Kenyan sublocations. Serum antibodies against tetanus toxoid were measured in 155 individuals 1-70 years of age. Titers greater than the protective level of 0.01 IU/ml were found...

  3. Gendered Perceptions of Sexual Behaviour in Rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ndinda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses sexual behaviour findings collected through eleven homogenous focus group discussions conducted among women and men in a predominantly Zulu population in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objective of this paper is to shed light on sexual behaviour in a rural community. The findings suggest that sex is a taboo subject and the discussion around it is concealed in the use of polite language, euphemisms, and gestures. There are gender and generational dimensions to the discussion of sex. The contribution of this paper lies in the identification of what rural people discuss about sex and the influence of cultural practices and urban or global forces on sexual behaviour in rural areas. The paper adds to the growing body of literature on the use of focus groups in understanding sexual behaviour in rural contexts.

  4. DOES FAMILY BACKGROUND MATTER FOR LEARNING IN EAST AFRICA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Schipper, Youdi

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which differences in family background characteristics explain differences in learning outcomes between children captures the extent of equality in educational opportunities. This study uses large-scale data on literacy and numeracy outcomes for children of school age across East...... Africa (Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) to investigate the contribution of family background to learning differences. We find that learning differences between children from less-advantaged households and those from more-advantaged households equals around one year or more of effective learning on average....... Even so, family background does not fully explain why children of school starting age display large differences in learning between countries....

  5. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−26 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Uganda, 21−43 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Burundi and 25−53 Mg ha−1 cycle−1 in Rwanda). The major causes of poor yields are declining soil fertility and soil moisture stress. In order to ...

  6. Plio-Pleistocene aardvarks (Mammalia, Tubulidentata from East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lehmann

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tubulidentata are unique among mammals for being the only order represented nowadays by a single living species, Orycteropus afer: the aardvark. Nevertheless, it is one of the least studied mammalian orders. Aardvarks are currently distributed all over sub-Saharan Africa, but the fossil record extends their spatial range to Europe and Asia. The earliest known Tubulidentata are ca. 20 million years old. About 14 species and three to four genera have been recognised so far, but since the late Pliocene, aardvarks have only been represented by a single genus and are restricted to Africa. The extant aardvark is the only species of Tubulidentata with a large distribution area, i.e. the African continent. There are three known Plio-Pleistocene African species of aardvark: Orycteropus afer (Pallas, 1766, O. crassidens MacInnes, 1956, and O. djourabensis Lehmann et al., 2004. Fossils of these species have been discovered in North-Africa, Kenya, and Chad respectively. The present study is focused on the aardvark material found in the Plio-Pleistocene of East Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya. New specimens from Asa Issie (Ethiopia and East Turkana (Kenya are described, and published ones are re-examined in the light of the latest discoveries. This study demonstrates that Kenyan specimens identified as O. crassidens are in fact representatives of the Chadian O. djourabensis. Moreover, additional material from Ethiopia and Kenya shows a close relationship with the latter species too. The presence of specimens of O. djourabensis in Chad and in Kenya during the Plio-Pleistocene implies that this taxon is the oldest-known species of aardvark to have experienced a continental dispersal. It also shows that Tubulidentates were able to cross Africa from east-west during Plio-Pleistocene times, despite the presence of the Rift Valley. It is however not possible to infer the centre of origin of O. djourabensis. Finally, this study suggests that two species of aardvark

  7. Child neurology practice and neurological disorders in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idro, Richard; Newton, Charles; Kiguli, Sarah; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina

    2010-04-01

    Neurological disorders, including neurodevelopmental disorders, have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the greatest threats to global public health. It is generally believed that these conditions are more prevalent in the developing than the developed world because of multiple known risk factors such as infections, malnutrition, and limited resources for obstetric and neonatal management. In East Africa, few investigations have been conducted to obtain data on the magnitude and description of neurological disorders among children, and the practice of child neurology is faced with challenges cutting across areas of health personnel, patient diagnosis, management, and rehabilitation. This article reviews the burden, types, and causes of neurological disorders in the East African region. The challenges and successes in the practice of child neurology and recommendations for the future are discussed.

  8. Omnibus Report: Europe, Middle East, Africa, East Asia and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F; Nolte, R H; Liebenow, J G; Ravenholt, A; Handelman, H

    1979-01-01

    5 papers deal respectively with economic development in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, East Asia, and Latin America. In Europe, basic problems include increasing political and military weakness; the high costs of social democracy; problems of the welfare state; the trend toward low or no-growth population rates; declining fertility combined with increasing longevity; increasing demand for social services and health care; industrial decline; continuing decline in economic indices; integration of the Left in European politics; and a pervasive trend toward neoconservatism. The paper on the Middle East focuses on Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the recent Egypt-Israel Treaty, in terms of assessment of the present situation followed by a prognosis for the future. The paper on Africa discusses 4 crises of development: 1) the crisis of national identity; 2) the crisis of poverty; 3) the crisis of colonialism and neocolonialism; and 4) the crisis of popular control over government. The paper on east Asia discusses the "economic miracles" and whether or not they are replicable elsewhere in the Pacific and Asia. Finally, the paper on Latin America focuses on the fact that despite expansion of the urban middle class through economic development and modernization, little economic improvement has resulted. The challenge of the 1980s will be to see whether Latin America can put its economies back on track while managing to channel more of the economic benefits to the "have-nots" and to allow more open, participatory systems.

  9. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  10. Evaluating Downscaling Methods for Seasonal Climate Forecasts over East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Bosilovich, Michael; Lyon, Bradfield; Funk, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Multi-Model Ensemble seasonal forecasting system is providing hindcast and real-time data streams to be used in assessing and improving seasonal predictive capacity. The NASA / USAID SERVIR project, which leverages satellite and modeling-based resources for environmental decision making in developing nations, is focusing on the evaluation of NMME forecasts specifically for use in impact modeling within hub regions including East Africa, the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region and Mesoamerica. One of the participating models in NMME is the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS5). This work will present an intercomparison of downscaling methods using the GEOS5 seasonal forecasts of temperature and precipitation over East Africa. The current seasonal forecasting system provides monthly averaged forecast anomalies. These anomalies must be spatially downscaled and temporally disaggregated for use in application modeling (e.g. hydrology, agriculture). There are several available downscaling methodologies that can be implemented to accomplish this goal. Selected methods include both a non-homogenous hidden Markov model and an analogue based approach. A particular emphasis will be placed on quantifying the ability of different methods to capture the intermittency of precipitation within both the short and long rain seasons. Further, the ability to capture spatial covariances will be assessed. Both probabilistic and deterministic skill measures will be evaluated over the hindcast period

  11. Establishing an Online Continuing and Professional Development Library for Nurses and Midwives in East, Central, and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosey, Kristen N; Kalula, Alphonce; Voss, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, the African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for nurses and midwives has supported 12 countries establish national continuing and professional development frameworks and programs, linking continuing education to nursing and midwifery re-licensure through technical assistance and improvement grants. However, lack of electronic media and rural practice sites, differences in priority content, and varying legal frameworks make providing accessible, certifiable, and up-to-date online continuing education content for the more than 300,000 nurses and midwives in the 17 member countries of the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing a major challenge. We report here on how the East, Central, and Southern Africa College of Nursing, with technical assistance from an Afya Bora Fellow, developed an online continuing professional development library hosted on their Web site using data collected in a survey of nursing and midwifery leaders in the region.

  12. Palaeoenvironmental perspectives for sustainable development in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marchant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available East African ecosystems are shaped by long-term interaction with changing climate, human population, fire and wildlife. There remains today a strong connection between people and ecosystems, a relationship that is being strained by the rapidly developing and growing East African population, and their associated resource needs. Predicted climatic and atmospheric change will further impact on ecosystems culminating in a host of challenges for their management and sustainable development, further compounded by a backdrop of political, land tenure and economic constraints. Given the many direct and indirect benefits that ecosystems provide to surrounding human populations, understanding how they have changed over time and space deserves a special place on the ecosystem management agenda. Such a perspective can only be derived from a palaeoecology, particularly where there is high resolution, both through time and across space. The East African palaeoecological archive is reviewed, in particular to assess how it can meet this need. Although there remain crucial gaps, the number of palaeoecological archives from East Africa growing rapidly, some employing new and novel techniques to trace past ecosystem response to climate change. When compared to the archaeological record it is possible to disentangle human from climate change impacts, and how the former interacts with major environmental changes such as increased use of fire, changing herbivore densities and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration. With this multi-dimensional perspective of environmental change impacts it is imperative that our understanding of past human-ecosystem interactions are considered to impart effective long term management strategies; such an approach will enhance possibilities for a sustainable future for East African ecosystems and maximise the livelihoods of the populations that rely on them.

  13. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Anderson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010–2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI surface energy balance algorithm, and physically-based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the

  14. Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Anderson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010–2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil moisture, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA to three independent methods for estimating soil moisture anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil moisture methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer – Earth Observing System (AMSR-E sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil moisture monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in areas characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil moisture composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the

  15. 76 FR 55456 - The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa AGENCY..., 2011, speech on recent developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the President called for a Trade and Investment Partnership Initiative to explore ways to further strengthen...

  16. Design and field testing of Savonius wind pump in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabah, K.V.O.; Osawa, B.M. [University of Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Physics

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes improvements in the wind-scoop geometry and efficiency of a double-stack Savonius rotor, developed through a series of wind tunnel and field tests in East Africa. On an aerodynamic performance basis, the Savonius rotor cannot generally compete with other types of wind turbines. Unlike its counter-parts that operate by rotating around a horizontal axis, it rotates around a vertical axis. This has the unfortunate effect of lowering its efficiency, but it has several compensating factors. Its main advantages are that it has better starting torque performance with operating characteristics independent of the wind direction. In addition, it is simple in structure and the fabrication technology required is less sophisticated when compared to similar types of windmills. This makes it a suitable system for small scale applications in wind energy conversion; especially in remote rural regions in developing countries. (author)

  17. Repositioning Educational Research on Rurality and Rural Education in South Africa: Beyond Deficit Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, Relebohile

    2012-01-01

    Almost two decades after the demise of apartheid, rural communities in South Africa are still plagued by seemingly insurmountable challenges, with no change in sight for those who need it most. In spite of the many interventions that have been implemented, real transformation remains elusive. This position paper is premised on the notion that this…

  18. Reconstruction of the East Africa and Antarctica continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan C.; Hall, Stuart A.; Bird, Dale E.; Ball, Philip J.

    2016-06-01

    The Early Jurassic separation of Antarctica from Africa plays an important role in our understanding of the dispersal of Gondwana and Pangea. Previous reconstruction models contain overlaps and gaps in the restored margins that reflect difficulties in accurately delineating the continent-ocean-boundary (COB) and determining the amount and distribution of extended continental crust. This study focuses on the evolution of the African margin adjacent to the Mozambique Basin and the conjugate Antarctic margin near the Riiser-Larsen Sea. Satellite-derived gravity data have been used to trace the orientations and landward limits of fracture zones. A 3-D gravity inversion has produced a crustal thickness model that reliably quantifies the extent and amount of stretched crust. Crustal thicknesses together with fracture zone terminations reveal COBs that are significantly closer to the African and Antarctic coasts than previously recognized. Correlation of fracture zone azimuths and identified COBs suggests Antarctica began drifting away from Africa at approximately 171 Ma in a roughly SSE direction. An areal-balancing method has been used to restore the crust to a uniform prerift thickness so as to perform a nonrigid reconstruction for both nonvolcanic and volcanic margins. Both margins reveal a trend of increasing extension from east to west. Our results suggest Africa underwent extension of 60-120 km, while Antarctic crust was stretched by 105-180 km. Various models tested to determine the direction of extension during rifting suggest that Antarctica moved away from Africa in a WNW-ESE direction during the period between 184 and 171 Ma prior to the onset of seafloor spreading.

  19. Coronary artery disease in Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurdi MI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wael Almahmeed1, Mohamad Samir Arnaout2, Rafik Chettaoui3, Mohsen Ibrahim4, Mohamed Ibrahim Kurdi5, Mohamed Awad Taher6, Giuseppe Mancia71Heart and Vascular Institute, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 2American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 3General and Cardiovascular Clinic of Tunis, Tunisia; 4Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 5King Khalid University Hospital and The Kingdom Hospital, Saudi Arabia; 6Ain Shams University School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 7University of Milan, Bicocca, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Countries in Africa and the Middle East bear a heavy burden from cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of coronary heart disease is promoted in turn by a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and sedentary lifestyles. Patients in Africa and the Middle East present with myocardial infarction at a younger age, on average, compared with patients elsewhere. The projected future burden of mortality from coronary heart disease in Africa and the Middle East is set to outstrip that observed in other geographical regions. Recent detailed nationally representative epidemiological data are lacking for many countries, and high proportions of transient expatriate workers in countries such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates complicate the construction of such datasets. However, the development of national registries in some countries is beginning to reveal the nature of coronary heart disease. Improving lifestyles (reducing calorie intake and increasing physical activity in patients in the region will be essential, although cultural and environmental barriers will render this difficult. Appropriate prescribing of pharmacologic treatments is essential in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. In particular, recent controversies relating to the therapeutic profile of beta-blockers may have reduced their use. The

  20. Predictability of rainy season onset and cessation in east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, B.-M.

    2012-04-01

    PREDICTABILITY OF RAINY SEASONS ONSET AND CESSATION IN EAST AFRICA Boyard-Micheau Joseph, joseph.boyard-micheau@u-bourgogne.fr Camberlin Pierre, Kenya and northern Tanzania mainly display bimodal rainfall regimes, which are controlled by the annual migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone on both sides of the equator. In the low-income, semi-arid areas, food security is highly dependent on cereal yields (maize, millet and sorghum). Vulnerability is aggravated by the fact that these crops are mostly rainfed, and rely on the performance of the two, relatively brief rainy seasons. This performance depends on a combination of several rainy season characteristics, or rainfall descriptors, such as the onset and cessation dates of the rains, the frequency of rainy days, their intensity and the occurrence of wet/dry spells. The prediction of these descriptors some time (>15 days) before the real onset of the rainy season can be seen as a useful tool to help in the establishment of agricultural adaptation strategies. The main objective consists to understand linkages between regional variability of these rainfall descriptors and global modes of the climate system, in order to set up efficient predictive tools based on Model Output Statistics (MOS). The rainfall descriptors are computed from daily rainfall data collected for the period 1961-2001 from the Kenya Meteorological Department, the IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Center and the Tanzania Meteorological Agency. An initial spatial coherence analysis assesses the potential predictability of each descriptor, permitting eventually to eliminate those which are not spatially coherent, on the assumption that low spatial coherence denotes low potential predictability. Rainfall in East Africa simulated by a 24-ensemble member of the ECHAM 4.5 atmospheric general circulation model is compared with observations, to test the reproducibility of the rainfall descriptors. Canonical Correlation Analysis is next used to

  1. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  2. Geographical imagination and technological connectivity in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark; Andersen, Casper; Mann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically-mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa...... in 2009. It uses discourse analysis to examine how technologically-mediated connectivity has been represented by political and economic actors during these transformative moments. In both cases, we explore the origins of the expectations of connectivity and the hope and fear associated with them. Building...... on Massey’s notion of power-geometry and Sheppard’s concept of positionality the paper focuses on power relationships in discussions of connectivity and asks how people understand the abilities of transformative technologies to modify positionalities and alter relational distance and proximity. Ultimately...

  3. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  4. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration (Vol. 1 of 2)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  5. Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui-Soo eKim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis, the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%. Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in eleven genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for

  6. Temperature and malaria trends in highland East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Stern

    Full Text Available There has been considerable debate on the existence of trends in climate in the highlands of East Africa and hypotheses about their potential effect on the trends in malaria in the region. We apply a new robust trend test to mean temperature time series data from three editions of the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit database (CRU TS for several relevant locations. We find significant trends in the data extracted from newer editions of the database but not in the older version for periods ending in 1996. The trends in the newer data are even more significant when post-1996 data are added to the samples. We also test for trends in the data from the Kericho meteorological station prepared by Omumbo et al. We find no significant trend in the 1979-1995 period but a highly significant trend in the full 1979-2009 sample. However, although the malaria cases observed at Kericho, Kenya rose during a period of resurgent epidemics (1994-2002 they have since returned to a low level. A large assembly of parasite rate surveys from the region, stratified by altitude, show that this decrease in malaria prevalence is not limited to Kericho.

  7. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Mark O; Ashley, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS) during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma). However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  8. A spring forward for hominin evolution in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark O Cuthbert

    Full Text Available Groundwater is essential to modern human survival during drought periods. There is also growing geological evidence of springs associated with stone tools and hominin fossils in the East African Rift System (EARS during a critical period for hominin evolution (from 1.8 Ma. However it is not known how vulnerable these springs may have been to climate variability and whether groundwater availability may have played a part in human evolution. Recent interdisciplinary research at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented climate fluctuations attributable to astronomic forcing and the presence of paleosprings directly associated with archaeological sites. Using palaeogeological reconstruction and groundwater modelling of the Olduvai Gorge paleo-catchment, we show how spring discharge was likely linked to East African climate variability of annual to Milankovitch cycle timescales. Under decadal to centennial timescales, spring flow would have been relatively invariant providing good water resource resilience through long droughts. For multi-millennial periods, modelled spring flows lag groundwater recharge by 100 s to 1000 years. The lag creates long buffer periods allowing hominins to adapt to new habitats as potable surface water from rivers or lakes became increasingly scarce. Localised groundwater systems are likely to have been widespread within the EARS providing refugia and intense competition during dry periods, thus being an important factor in natural selection and evolution, as well as a vital resource during hominin dispersal within and out of Africa.

  9. Traffic characterization and Internet usage in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Johnson_2011_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1679 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Johnson_2011_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 Traffic Characterization and Internet Usage in Rural Africa 20th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW11), Hyderabad, India, 28 March-1 April 2011 David L. Johnson, Veljko Pejovic, Elizabeth M. Belding University of California, Santa Barbara...

  10. Precipitation and temperatures extremes in East Africa in past and future climate

    OpenAIRE

    Kuya, Elinah Khasandi

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has increased extreme weather events over the planet. The most robust changes in East Africa (EA) are for daily temperature and precipitation, where high-impact extreme values have become more common. The overall magnitude, seasonal distribution of precipitation and its inter-annual variability have been altered. East Africa experiences some of the most severe convective storms in the world. They can come without warning and are becoming more frequent. These changes present sig...

  11. Literature Review:Essential health benefits in east and southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Gemma; Mamdani, Masuma; Loewenson, Rene

    2016-01-01

    An Essential Health Benefit (EHB) is a policy intervention designed to direct resources to priority areas of health service delivery to reduce disease burdens and ensure equity in health. Many east and southern Africa (ESA) countries have introduced or updated EHBs in the 2000s. Recognising this, the Regional Network for Equity in Health in East and Southern Africa (EQUINET), through Ifakara Health Institute (IHI) and Training and Research Support Centre (TARSC), is implementing research to u...

  12. Preliminary investigations into the business ecosystem in rural South Africa: An e-Business perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions can help overcome some challenges faced by rural small scale retailers when conducting business. This paper gives an overview of the business ecosystem in rural South Africa, its associated challenges and proposes... an m-commerce solution to help improve the effectiveness and cut transaction costs for rural small scale retailers. The paper focuses on the small scale retailers operating in the Kgautswane community of the Limpopo province in South Africa. II...

  13. Participatory Aspirations of Environmental Governance in East Africa - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas N. Kimani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available New ways of thinking about governance are challenging our basic understandings about how we organise ourselves in a world that is increasingly characterised by uncertainty, ambiguity and unpredictability, and about how we should organise ourselves (emphasis added. Through consideration of developments in East Africa under the auspices of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP-administered project, the Partnership for Development of Environmental Laws and Institutions (PADELIA, two important considerations clearly stand out. First, in regional approaches to environmental governance law-makers and policy-makers need to go beyond a formalist understanding of governance which lays sole emphasis upon respective countries' institutions and legal frameworks. An appreciation of the extent to which shared understandings and common approaches to problem-solving may be tempered by contingent social, cultural and political circumstances is also necessary. Secondly, given the present trend in environmental governance where governmental authority is increasingly shifting away from state institutions towards civil actors, ever-increasing opportunities are presented to civil actors to shape and reshape their environmental laws and policy. As a result, what is left is for these actors is to be proactive and to take more initiative in safeguarding their own environment.

  14. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  15. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  16. Climate change in Africa and the Middle East in light of health, ubuntu and Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaddeus Metz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article principally addresses the likely effects of global warming on health in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, northern Africa and the Middle East as well as how medical professionals, such as doctors, nurses, bioethicists and public health researchers, should respond to them in light of ubuntu and Islam, values characteristically held in those regions.

  17. International trends in health science librarianship part 14: East Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathoni, Nasra; Kamau, Nancy; Nannozi, Judith; Singirankabo, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    This is the 14th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. This is the second of four articles pertaining to different regions in the African continent. The present issue focuses on countries in East Africa (Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda). The next feature column will investigate trends in West Africa. JM.

  18. [Upper digestive tract endoscopy in rural Africa: Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djibril, M A; M'Ba, K B; Kaaga, Y L; Bagny, A; Edou, K A; Redah, D; Agbetra, A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the profile of esogastroduodenal disease diagnosed by upper digestive tract endoscopy (UDTE) in a rural area of Togo. This prospective study combines data collected during two two-week screening campaigns carried out in the Kara region. Patients were informed of the presence of the endoscopy team by means of a bulletin on a rural radio station. All male and female patients 15 years or older were included. A total of 220 UDTE procedure reports were recorded and analyzed including 107 men and 113 women with a mean age of 37.7 years (range: 15-84 years). Disease was detected in 72 procedures mainly in the 21 to 41 year age group (47.2 %) with a higher proportion of men than women: 38% versus 27% respectively. The most frequent indications for UDTE were epigastralgia (47.7 %) including 39% of procedures leading to the discovery of disease and diffuse abdominal pain (21.8 %). The procedure was carried out for follow-up purposes in 19.1% of cases. The most common lesions were peptic ulcer (34.2%), inflammatory disease including esophagitis, gastritis, and bulboduodenitis (32.4%), gastroduodenal bile reflux (9.3%), pylorobulbar stenosis (5.5%), tumoral disease (3.7%), and esophageal varicosities (3.7%). This study based on UDTE diagnostic procedures provided insight into the profile of esogastroduodenal disease in rural Africa. These screening campaigns required special organization using appropriate equipment and personnel.

  19. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  20. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  1. Analysis of satellite precipitation over East Africa during last decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Elsa; Wenhaji Ndomeni, Claudine; Merino, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Daily accumulated precipitation time series from satellite retrieval algorithms (e.g., ARC2 and TAMSAT) are exploited to extract the spatial and temporal variability of East Africa (EA - 5°S-20°N, 28°E-52°E) precipitation during last decades (1983-2013). The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis is applied to precipitation time series to investigate the spatial and temporal variability in particular for October-November-December referred to as the short rain season. Moreover, the connection among EA's precipitation, sea surface temperature, and soil moisture is analyzed through the correlation with the dominant EOF modes of variability. Preliminary results concern the first two EOF's modes for the ARC2 data set. EOF1 is characterized by an inter-annual variability and a positive correlation between precipitation and El Niño, positive Indian Ocean Dipole mode, and soil moisture, while EOF2 shows a dipole structure of spatial variability associated with a longer scale temporal variability. This second dominant mode is mostly linked to sea surface temperature variations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Further analyses are carried out by computing the time series of the joint CCI/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI, http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/index.shtml), i.e. RX1day, RX5day, CDD, CDD, CWD, SDII, PRCPTOT, R10, R20. The purpose is to identify the occurrenes of extreme events (droughts and floods) and extract precipitation temporal variation by trend analysis (Mann-Kendall technique). Results for the ARC2 data set demonstrate the existence of a dipole spatial pattern in the linear trend of the time series of PRCPTOT (annual precipitation considering days with a rain rate > 1 mm) and SDII (average precipitation on wet days over a year). A negative trend is mainly present over West Ethiopia and Sudan, whereas a positive trend is exhibited over East Ethiopia and Somalia. CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and

  2. Reconciling Past and Future Rainfall Trends over East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Dave; Booth, Ben; Nicholson, Sharon; Good, Peter

    2016-04-01

    droughts, and that the response to CO2 forcing over East Africa is not substantially non-linear (Hypotheses E and F). Further work should therefore focus on improving the modelling of aerosol impacts on regional rainfall changes, on providing a well-considered 'expert judgement' of the reliability of the model's projections for the coming century, and better understanding the relevant natural variability.

  3. Coping with Multiple Stresses in Rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire H. Quinn

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to investigate how local communities cope with and adapt to multiple stresses in rural semiarid South Africa. In semiarid regions water scarcity is one of a number of stresses that shape livelihood vulnerability. With climate change, it is predicted that rainfall in South Africa will become more uncertain and variable in the future, exposing more people to water insecurity. At the same time, the impacts of disease, a lack of institutional capacity, and limited livelihood opportunities can combine to limit adaptive capacity. Therefore, adaptation to changing climate should not be viewed in isolation but instead in the context of social, economic, and political conditions, all of which shape local community vulnerability and people's ability to cope with and adapt to change. This study uses a qualitative-quantitative-qualitative framework, including the use of a stated preference survey, to identify the drivers of agroecosystem change, to understand the capacity of households to cope with droughts, and to determine the ability of local institutions to respond to crises. The analysis suggests that the capacity of the agroecosystem to remain productive during droughts is decreasing, individual/household adaptive capacity remains low, and institutional capacity faces considerable barriers that prevent it from supporting households to adapt to multiple stresses. This research adds weight to the claim that vulnerability reflects multiple forces and processes, and that multiple stresses, that are agroecological, socioeconomic, and institutional in nature, need to be examined to understand vulnerability and to prevent maladaptation.

  4. Telemedicine and advances in urban and rural healthcare delivery in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Telecardiology holds great promise for Africa, from tele-echocardiography and tele-ECG s, to home monitoring and text messaging for medication adherence monitoring. The burden of disease is great and there is an extreme shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine can provide access to scarce specialist care, improve the quality of care in rural areas and reduce the need for rural patients to travel to seek medical attention. International cross border service can alleviate the shortage of doctors. But telecardiology, and telemedicine uptake in general, has been poor in Africa. Legal and ethical issues around local and cross border telemedicine have not been resolved. The literature was reviewed and obstacles to telemedicine in Africa and current telemedicine activities in Africa, are described. There are few sustained telemedicine services in Africa with the exception of tele-education. There is an expectation that mobile phones will facilitate a range of telemedicine activities in Africa. Africa needs telemedicine.

  5. Childhood psychological problems in school settings in rural Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Cortina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many children can be exposed to multiple adversities in low and middle-income countries (LMICs placing them at potential risk of psychological problems. However, there is a paucity of research using large representative cohorts examining the psychological adjustment of children in school settings in these countries. Children's psychological adjustment has been shown to affect educational progress which is critical for their future. This study, based in a rural, socio-economically disadvantaged area of South Africa, aimed to examine the prevalence of children's psychological problems as well as possible risk and protective factors. METHODS: Rates of psychological problems in 10-12 year olds were examined using teacher- and child-report questionnaires. Data on children from 10 rural primary schools, selected by stratified random sampling, were linked to individual and household data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system collected from households over 15 years. RESULTS: A total of 1,025 children were assessed. Teachers identified high levels of behavioural and emotional problems (41%. Children reported lower, but substantial rates of anxiety/depression (14%, and significant post-traumatic stress symptoms (24%; almost a quarter felt unsafe in school. Risk factors included being a second-generation former refugee and being from a large household. Protective factors highlight the importance of maternal factors, such as being more educated and in a stable partnership. CONCLUSION: The high levels of psychological problems identified by teachers are a serious public health concern, as they are likely to impact negatively on children's education, particularly given the large class sizes and limited resources in rural LMIC settings. Despite the high levels of risk, a proportion of children were managing well and research to understand resilience could inform interventions.

  6. The Influence of European Pollution on Ozone in the Near East and Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B. N.; West, J. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Fiore, A. M.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50-150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution) of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average greater than 120 micrograms per cubic meters or approximately 60 ppbv) in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000) in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  7. The influence of European pollution on ozone in the Near East and northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Duncan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50–150 additional violations per year (i.e. above those that would occur without European pollution of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average >120 μg/m3 or ~60 ppbv in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that European ozone pollution is responsible for 50 000 premature mortalities globally each year, of which the majority occurs outside of Europe itself, including 37% (19 000 in northern Africa and the Near East. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions.

  8. Small hydropower for rural electrification in South Africa - using experiences from other African countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, WE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Local hydropower sources can play an important role in the electrification of rural areas in South Africa remote from the national electricity grid. To ensure the sustainability of hydropower developments it is essential that lessons learned...

  9. Foreign Direct Investment and Energy Supply in the Middle East and North Africa: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghali, Siddig

    Middle East and North Africa countries have been criticized for failing to utilize foreign direct investment energy resources efficiently. The changing of energy resources environment of the past decades with its growing emphasis on the importance of imminent energy supply challenges require strategists to consider different types of energy resources investment to improve energy supply. One type of energy investment will show effectiveness and efficiency in utilizing foreign direct investment in exposing RE, fossil fuels, natural gas, and reducing CO2 emissions. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to utilize foreign direct investment to predict total primary energy supply in the Middle East and North Africa region between 1971 and 2013. The study was conducted using a sample size of 43 years of energy supply resources and foreign direct investment from 1971 to 2013, which includes all of the years for which FDI is available. RE potential may equip Middle East and North Africa countries with sustainable and clean electricity for centuries to come, as non-renewable energy resources may not meet the demands globally and domestically or environmentally. As demands for fossil fuels grow, carbon emissions will increase. RE may be a better option of CO 2 emissions sequestration and will increase electricity to rural areas without government subsidies and complex decision-making policies. RE infrastructure will reduce water desalinization costs, cooling systems, and be useful in heating. Establishing concentrated solar power may be useful for the region cooperation, negotiations, and integration to share this energy. The alternative sought to fossil fuels was nuclear power. However, nuclear power depends on depleting, non-renewable uranium resources. The cost of uranium will increase if widely used and the presence of a nuclear plant in an unstable region is unsafe. Thus, renewable energy as a long-term option is efficient. A nonlinear regression

  10. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies : IV Deutsch-Ostafrika / German East Africa (GEA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-Ostafrika/German East Africa (GEA) during the early twentieth c

  11. LLNL Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A

    2001-07-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB

  12. Maternal mortality in rural South Africa: the impact of case definition on levels and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garenne M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michel Garenne,1–3 Kathleen Kahn,1,4,5 Mark A Collinson,1,4,5 F Xavier Gómez-Olivé,1,5 Stephen Tollman1,4,51MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Institut Pasteur, Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Paris, France; 3Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMI Résiliences, Centre Ile de France, Bondy, France; 4Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 5INDEPTH Network, East Legon, Accra, GhanaBackground: Uncertainty in the levels of global maternal mortality reflects data deficiencies, as well as differences in methods and definitions. This study presents levels and trends in maternal mortality in Agincourt, a rural subdistrict of South Africa, under long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance.Methods: All deaths of women aged 15 years–49 years occurring in the study area between 1992 and 2010 were investigated, and causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsy. Two case definitions were used: “obstetrical” (direct causes, defined as deaths caused by conditions listed under O00-O95 in International Classification of Diseases-10; and “pregnancy-related deaths”, defined as any death occurring during the maternal risk period (pregnancy, delivery, 6 weeks postpartum, irrespective of cause.Results: The case definition had a major impact on levels and trends in maternal mortality. The obstetric mortality ratio averaged 185 per 100,000 live births over the period (60 deaths, whereas the pregnancy-related mortality ratio averaged 423 per 100,000 live births (137 deaths. Results from both calculations increased over the period, with a peak around 2006, followed by a decline coincident with the national roll-out of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and antiretroviral treatment programs. Mortality increase from direct causes was

  13. Analysis of the Current Situation in North Africa & the Middle East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hongyu; Li Xiaosan

    2011-01-01

    After the upsurge of domestic turmoil in Tunis last December, unrest spread rapidly through North Africa and the Middle East, having a profound effect on current international relations. It will continue to affect relations between the major powers and the international system as a whole for some time to come. The regional turmoil of North Africa and the Middle East is of particular interest to International Political Economy (IPE) studies. It seems to embody a geostrategic conflict between the US and the EU in contending for leadership in North Africa and the Middle East. It is also an expression of the competition for dominance of the global financial structure between the major powers during a period of transition in the international system. Lastly, it is a manifestation of America's struggle to maintain its global economic hegemony.

  14. Review of Universal Salt Iodation in East Central and Southern Africa (ACSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Commonwealth Regional Hearth Community Secretariat for East Central and Southern Africa, CRHCS/ECSA

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a regional position on Universal Salt Iodation (USI) intervention in 14 countries ill the East, Central and Southern Africa( ECSA) region,namely;Botswana,Kenya,Malawi,Mauritius,Mozambique,Namibia,bells,South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe The is a follow-up to a resolution on the need to develop a regional position on USI intervention which was made at the Commonwealth Regional Health Community 25th Health Ministers Conference in Port Louis, Ma...

  15. Using Satellite Data to Build Climate Resilience: A Novel East Africa Drought Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, K.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    East Africa is affected by recurrent drought. The 2015-2016 El Niño triggered a severe drought across East Africa causing serious impacts to regional water security, health, and livelihoods. Ethiopia was the hardest hit, with the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs calling the recent drought the worst in 50 years. Resources to monitor the severity and progression of droughts are a critical component to disaster risk reduction, but are challenging to implement in regions with sparse data collection networks such as East Africa. Satellite data is used by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Global Information and Early Warning System, the USAID Famine Early Warning System, and the Africa Drought and Flood Monitor. These systems use remotely sensed vegetation, soil moisture, and meteorological data to develop drought indices. However, they do not directly monitor impacts to water resources, which is necessary to appropriately target drought mitigation efforts. The current study combines new radar data from the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 mission with satellite imagery to perform a retrospective analysis of the impact of the 2015-2016 drought in East Africa on regional surface water. Inland water body extents during the drought are compared to historical trends to identify the most severely impacted areas. The developed tool has the potential to support on-the-ground humanitarian relief efforts and to refine predictions of water scarcity and crop impacts from existing hydrologic models and famine early warning systems.

  16. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa and volcanic caves in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Declan Kennedy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the history of the Cave Exploration Group of East Africa with special reference to the exploration of volcanic caves. It demonstrates that the group has concentrated on two main areas, the Chyulu HiIls and Mt. Suswa, although other areas have also been studied. The Cave Exploration Group of East Africa has had to cope with various problems. The most important of which are related to the socio-economic conditions of a developing country. These problems have not prevented the group from making a valuable contribution to vulcanospeleology.

  17. Can Your Child Read and Count? Measuring Learning Outcomes in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Schipper, Youdi; Ruto, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The last 15 years have seen major changes to education systems in East Africa. Superficially, there is much to commend. Net primary enrolment rates have risen to over 90% alongside significant improvements in gender equity. Nonetheless, there are growing concerns that better access is not adding up...... to more learning. This paper introduces unique test score data collected by Twaweza's Uwezo initiative for over 600,000 children across East Africa, including children enrolled and not enrolled in school. Using these data we show that many children in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda remain functionally...

  18. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve

    Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support livestock......Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support......- and future-climate tree species distribution modelling, important areas for future research....

  19. Breaking the poverty/malnutrition cycle in Africa and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Mirmiran, Parvin; Oyewole, Oyediran E; Belahsen, Rekia; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2009-05-01

    The cost to developing countries, for current and future generations, of not eradicating hunger and poverty - in terms of recurrent conflicts and emergencies, widening inequalities, depleted resources, ill health, and premature death - is enormous. Although strategies are underway to address certain problems in Africa and the Middle East, much remains to be done. Breaking the poverty cycle in these regions demands both local and international attention. Nutrition transition is a key factor, since many countries in the region also suffer the consequences of the excessive and unbalanced diets that are typical of developed countries. This paper reviews the experiences with facing malnutrition in Sub-Saharan and North Africa and the Middle East.

  20. Sub-Saharan Africa betwixt and between : rural livelihood practices and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    1999-01-01

    Drawing on research findings emanating from the De-Agrarianisation and Rural Employment (DARE) Research Programme, coordinated by the African Studies Centre, Leiden, this paper compares changing economic and social patterns in a wide variety of rural settlements in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently emerg

  1. De-agrarianization and rural employment generation in sub-Saharan Africa : process and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryceson, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is steadily becoming less rural in character. For decades development thinking has prescribed industrialization as the virtuous path leading away from economic dependence on agriculture. The present paper rejects the view that rural or even national industrialization has taken pla

  2. Two decades of mortality change in rural northeast South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodziwadziwa W. Kabudula

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The MRC/Wits University Agincourt research centre, part of the INDEPTH Network, has documented mortality in a defined population in the rural northeast of South Africa for 20 years (1992–2011 using long-term health and socio-demographic surveillance. Detail on the unfolding, at times unpredicted, mortality pattern has been published. This experience is reviewed here and updated using more recent data. Objective: To present a review and summary of mortality patterns across all age-sex groups in the Agincourt sub-district population for the period 1992–2011 as a comprehensive basis for public health action. Design: Vital events in the Agincourt population have been updated in annual surveys undertaken since 1992. All deaths have been rigorously recorded and followed by verbal autopsy interviews. Responses to questions from these interviews have been processed retrospectively using the WHO 2012 verbal autopsy standard and the InterVA-4 model for assigning causes of death in a standardised manner. Results: Between 1992 and 2011, a total of 12,209 deaths were registered over 1,436,195 person-years of follow-up, giving a crude mortality rate of 8.5 per 1,000 person-years. During the 20-year period, the population experienced a major HIV epidemic, which resulted in more than doubling of overall mortality for an extended period. Recent years show signs of declining mortality, but levels remain above the 1992 baseline recorded using the surveillance system. Conclusions: The Agincourt population has experienced a major mortality shock over the past two decades from which it will take time to recover. The basic epidemic patterns are consistent with generalised mortality patterns observed in South Africa as a whole, but the detailed individual surveillance behind these analyses allows finer-grained analyses of specific causes, age-related risks, and trends over time. These demonstrate the complex, somewhat unpredicted course of mortality

  3. Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Seismic Research Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Boyle, J L; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Ryall, F

    2003-07-14

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Database (SRDB) used for deriving seismic calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. In addition to an overview of select individual information products, we present an overview of our visualization, integration, validation, and organizational processes. Development of these processes and the LLNL SRDB was necessitated by both the very large amount of data and information involved (over 15 terabytes) and the varied data and research result formats utilized. The LLNL SRDB allows for the collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provides an interface for researchers to access data, provides a framework to store research results and integrate datasets, and supports assembly, integration and dissemination of datasets to the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The LLNL SRDB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources (both in-house-derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. In order to efficiently organize information within the LLNL SRDB, it was necessary to automate procedures needed to create and update database tables, but a large effort is still required by technicians and scientists to load special datasets, review results of automated processing and resolve quality issues. The LLNL SRDB currently has 3 million reconciled event origins and arrivals from several global, regional and local seismic bulletins and 30 million

  4. Women and family poultry production in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, E H

    2000-02-01

    Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable.

  5. Increased vulnerability of rural children on antiretroviral therapy attending public health facilities in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Bock, Peter; Grimwood, Ashraf; Eley, Brian

    2010-01-01

    ...) programme outcomes with urban facilities. We compared clinical, immunological and virological outcomes between children at seven rural and 37 urban facilities across four provinces in South Africa...

  6. A taxonomic review of the genus Zosterops in East Africa, with a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Island this results in a total of eleven East African species. These are ... Based on vocal differences and ecology, some of the highland isolates ... a major 'southern' clade, as sister to Z. virens of South Africa (see also Oatley et al. ..... or overlap.

  7. Risk scores for diabetes and impaired glycaemia in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To develop risk scores for diabetes and diabetes or impaired glycaemia for individuals living in the Middle East and North Africa region. In addition, to derive national risk scores for Algeria, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and to compare the performance of the regional risk...

  8. Near East and North Africa: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This selected bibliography focuses on the Near East and North Africa. Among the topics covered are: Documentary Collections, History, Politics, and International Relations, Islam and the Islamic World, the Arabs, Geography, Art, Literature, Education and Sociocultural Patterns, and Economics, Labor and Oil. An introduction to the series is in SO…

  9. Beyond the desertification narrative: a framework for agricultural drought in semi-arid East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, M.F.W.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, much research was done on desertification. Desertification developed into a complex and vague construct that means land degradation under specific conditions. Projects focusing on land degradation in semiarid East Africa have met with limited success because farmers prioritize d

  10. The influence of European pollution on ozone in the Near East and northern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Duncan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a modeling study of the long-range transport of pollution from Europe, showing that European emissions regularly elevate surface ozone by as much as 20 ppbv in summer in northern Africa and the Near East. European emissions cause 50–150 additional violations per year (i.e., above those that would occur without European pollution of the European health standard for ozone (8-h average >120 μg/m3 or ~60 ppbv in northern Africa and the Near East. We estimate that 19 000 additional mortalities occur annually in these regions from exposure to European ozone pollution and 50 000 additional deaths globally; the majority of the additional deaths occurs outside of Europe. Much of the pollution from Europe is exported southward at low altitudes in summer to the Mediterranean Sea, northern Africa and the Near East, regions with favorable photochemical environments for ozone production. Our results suggest that assessments of the human health benefits of reducing ozone precursor emissions in Europe should include effects outside of Europe, and that comprehensive planning to improve air quality in northern Africa and the Near East likely needs to address European emissions. We also show that the tropospheric ozone column data product derived from the OMI and MLS instruments is currently of limited value for air quality applications as the portion of the column above the boundary layer and below the tropopause is large and variable, effectively obscuring the boundary layer signal.

  11. Dengue in the Middle East and North Africa: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphrey, J.M. (John M.); N.B. Cleton (Natalie); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); Glesby, M.J. (Marshall J.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); L.J. Abu-Raddad (Laith J)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is widespread and its disease burden has increased in past decades. However, little is known about the epidemiology of dengue in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Methodology / Principal Findings: Following Cochrane Collaboration guideline

  12. Investigating Students' Behavioural Intention to Adopt and Use Mobile Learning in Higher Education in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raisamo, Roope

    2014-01-01

    Recent penetration of mobile technologies and its services in East Africa has provided a new platform for institutions to widen access to education through mobile learning. Mobile technologies provide learners with flexibility and ubiquity to learn anytime and anywhere via wireless Internet. However, far too little research has been conducted to…

  13. Characterising and quantifying vegetative drought in East Africa using fuzzy modelling and NDVI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulinda, C.; Rulinda, Coco M.; Dilo, Arta; Bijker, W.; Bijker, Wietske; Stein, A.

    This study aims at improving the characterisation and quantification of vegetative drought as a vague spatial phenomenon. 10-day NOAA-AVHRR NDVI images of East Africa from September 2005 to April 2006 are used. Vegetative drought is characterised using a membership function to model the gradual

  14. Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Developmen: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Mgana, S.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures o

  15. Reducing food losses to protect domestic food security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.; Kavallari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Food security policies are usually costly and involve trade-offs. We investigated this issue by simulating three policy responses to rising world food prices, using the MAGNET model applied to the Middle East and North Africa. A policy of tackling agricultural food losses increases food consumption

  16. Allometric growth relationships of East Africa highland bananas (Musa AAA-EAHB) cv. Kisansa and Mbwazirume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Corbeels, M.; Kaizzi, C.K.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Highland bananas are an important staple food in East Africa, but there is little information on their physiology and growth patterns. This makes it difficult to identify opportunities for yield improvement. We studied allometric relationships by evaluating different phenological stages of highland

  17. Risk scores for diabetes and impaired glycaemia in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Witte, Daniel Rinse; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To develop risk scores for diabetes and diabetes or impaired glycaemia for individuals living in the Middle East and North Africa region. In addition, to derive national risk scores for Algeria, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and to compare the performance of the regional risk...

  18. The determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in the Middle East North Africa region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogmans, T.J.; Ebbers, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although, there has been increasing interest in the determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in emerging markets, FDI into the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region has so far received little attention among academics. The MENA region provides a useful ground for the testing of traditional

  19. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogers, P.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Terink, W.; Hoogeveen, J.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Debele, B.

    Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. An

  20. THE SPRINGBOKS IN EAST AFRICA: THE ROLE OF 1 SA SURVEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steenkamp Fonseca R

    12 572 non-commissioned officers and privates.2 The members of the citizen force were volunteers ... The most up-to-date published maps of Abyssinia and .... decisions regarding East Africa were announced by the Director of Survey of the.

  1. Characterising and quantifying vegetative drought in East Africa using fuzzy modelling and NDVI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulinda, Coco M.; Dilo, Arta; Bijker, Wietske; Stein, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at improving the characterisation and quantification of vegetative drought as a vague spatial phenomenon. 10-day NOAA-AVHRR NDVI images of East Africa from September 2005 to April 2006 are used. Vegetative drought is characterised using a membership function to model the gradual tran

  2. Coffee Certification in East Africa: Impact on Farmers, Families and Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Donovan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Coffee Certification in East Africa: Impact on Farmers, Families and Cooperatives. Edited by Ruerd Ruben and Paul Hoebink. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2015. 262 pp. US $ 62.00, € 45.00. ISBN 978-90-8686-255-9.

  3. Mortality in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorean Nabukalu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine causes of death and associated risk factors in women of reproductive age in rural South Africa. Methods: Deaths and person-years of observation (pyo were determined for females (aged 15–49 years resident in 15,526 households in a rural South African Demographic and Health Surveillance site from 2000 to 2009. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy and ICD-10 coded; causes were categorized as HIV/TB, non-communicable, communicable/maternal/perinatal/nutrition, injuries, and undetermined (unknown. Characteristics of women were obtained from regularly updated household visits, while HIV and self-reported health status was obtained from the annual HIV surveillance. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates (MRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. The Weibull regression model (HR, 95%CI was used to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Results: A total of 42,703 eligible women were included; 3,098 deaths were reported for 212,607 pyo. Overall MRwas 14.6 deaths/1,000 pyo (95% CI: 14.1–15.1, peaking in 2003 (MR 18.2/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 16.4–20.1 and declining thereafter (2009: MR 9.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 8.410.9. Mortality was highest for HIV/TB (MR 10.6/1,000 pyo, 95% CI: 10.211.1, accounting for 73.1% of all deaths, ranging from 61.2% in 2009 to 82.7% in 2002. Adjusting for education level, marital status, age, employment status, area of residence, and migration, all-cause mortality was associated with external migration (adjusted hazard ratio, or aHR, 1.70, 95% CI: 1.41–2.05, self-reported poor health status (aHR 8.26, 95% CI: 2.94–23.15, and HIV-infection (aHR 7.84, 95% CI: 6.26–9.82; external migration and HIV infection were also associated with causes of mortality other than HIV/TB (aHR 1.62 CI: 1.12–2.34 and aHR 2.59, CI: 1.79–3.75. Conclusion: HIV/TB was the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, although rates declined with the rollout of HIV treatment

  4. Middle to Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in subtropical southern East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Caley, Thibaut; Dupont, Lydie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Malaizé, Bruno; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    In this study we investigate Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in southern East Africa by examining plant leaf waxes in a marine sediment core that receives terrestrial runoff from the Limpopo River. The plant leaf wax records are compared to a multi-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record and pollen assemblage data from the same site. We find that Indian Ocean SST variability, driven by high-latitude obliquity, exerted a strong control on the vegetation of southern East Africa during the past 800,000 yr. Interglacial periods were characterized by relatively wetter and warmer conditions, increased contributions of C3 vegetation, and higher SST, whereas glacial periods were marked by cooler and arid conditions, increased contributions of C4 vegetation, and lower SST. We find that Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e, 11c, 15e and 7a-7c are strongly expressed in the plant leaf wax records but MIS 7e is absent while MIS 9 is rather weak. Our plant leaf wax records also record the climate transition associated with the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) suggesting that the pre-MBE interval (430-800 ka) was characterized by higher inputs from grasses in comparison to relatively higher inputs from trees in the post-MBE interval (430 to 0 ka). Differences in vegetation and SST of southern East Africa between the pre- and post-MBE intervals appear to be related to shifts in the location of the Subtropical Front. Comparison with vegetation records from tropical East Africa indicates that the vegetation of southern East Africa, while exhibiting glacial-interglacial variability and notable differences between the pre- and post-MBE portions of the record, likely did not experience such dramatic extremes as occurred to the north at Lake Malawi.

  5. European Workshop on Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop is a part of the E.C. Thermie B project `Dissemination of Promising Renewable Rural Energy Applications in North-Eastern Europe`. The presentations held in the workshop are collected in this publication. The subjects are: TEKES (Technology Development Centre) Boost Technology; Renewable Energy in Latvia; Rural Renewable energy (Prospects) in Estonia; Renewable energy from Rural Electrification; Techno-Economic Analysis published as a summary; Practical Experiences of Small-Scale Heat Generation from Fuelwood in Finland; Solar systems for Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Biomass for Energy: Small-Scale Technologies; Photovoltaic Applications for Rural Areas in the North-East Europe

  6. Study of the genetic heterogeneity of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-Saharan Africa with specific focus on East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sahle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of serotype SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-Saharan Africa by phylogenetic analysis using the 1D gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. Fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to East Africa, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. The genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between East, southern and south-western Africa. One lineage was unique to West Africa. These results established numerous incursions across country borders in East Africa and long term conservation of sequences for periods up to 41 years. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda have all experienced outbreaks from more than one unrelated strain, demonstrating the potential for new introductions. The amount of variation observed within this serotype nearly equalled that which was found between serotypes; this has severe implications for disease control using vaccination.

  7. Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Kema, Ido P.; van der Veer, E.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome. We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D-2 + 25(OH)D-3] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA)

  8. Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Kema, Ido P.; van der Veer, E.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome. We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D-2 + 25(OH)D-3] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA)

  9. Commercial collaborations in East Africa - a partnership perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan Harry; Jørgensen, Birgitte Hvingel

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the accumulation of knowledge gathered by researching in an Action Research perspective, a context specific situation where UCN International Marketing and Trade students interact with commercial businesses with the intention of identifying market opportunities in East Afri...

  10. Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Kema, Ido P.; van der Veer, E.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome. We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D-2 + 25(OH)D-3] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA)

  11. Essays on China’s Exports to East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian

    China’s emergence as the world’s major trading nation has been well documented and discussed in the economics literature. One such trend that has garnered intensive media exposure and political discussion but far less formal economic analysis is the sudden rise of China as Africa’s biggest trading...... partner. The aim of this thesis is to compile a set of empirical economic evidence on the general characteristics of China’s exports to Africa, on the consequences of increasing Chinese exports on African consumers, on explaining why China rose to such prominence on the African market, as well...... as on the economic opportunities and threats placed by China’s expanding role in Africa on the latter’s traditional trading partners. The first three papers contained in this thesis form a sequence to answer the questions proposed above, using Ethiopia as a case study. The first paper describes features of China...

  12. Changing rural urban linkages in Africa in a globalizing economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A better understanding of cities and how they relate both to the rural and urban ... emphasises strong symbiotic bonds between rural and urban communities to ... livelihood options, environmental damage, sustainable development, Kizuna ...

  13. Farmer-managed natural regeneration enhances rural livelihoods in dryland west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. 'Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields.

  14. Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration Enhances Rural Livelihoods in Dryland West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Peter; Hong, Reaksmey; Kaboré, Carolyn; Kull, Christian A.

    2015-06-01

    Declining agricultural productivity, land clearance and climate change are compounding the vulnerability of already marginal rural populations in West Africa. `Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration' (FMNR) is an approach to arable land restoration and reforestation that seeks to reconcile sustained food production, conservation of soils, and protection of biodiversity. It involves selecting and protecting the most vigorous stems regrowing from live stumps of felled trees, pruning off all other stems, and pollarding the chosen stems to grow into straight trunks. Despite widespread enthusiasm and application of FMNR by environmental management and development projects, to date, no research has provided a measure of the aggregate livelihood impact of community adoption of FMNR. This paper places FMNR in the context of other agroforestry initiatives, then seeks to quantify the value of livelihood outcomes of FMNR. We review published and unpublished evidence about the impacts of FMNR, and present a new case study that addresses gaps in the evidence-base. The case study focuses on a FMNR project in the district of Talensi in the semi-arid Upper East Region in Ghana. The case study employs a social return on investment analysis, which identifies proxy financial values for non-economic as well as economic benefits. The results demonstrate income and agricultural benefits, but also show that asset creation, increased consumption of wild resources, health improvements, and psycho-social benefits created more value in FMNR-adopting households during the period of the study than increases in income and agricultural yields.

  15. Building consensus on key priorities for rural health care in South Africa using the Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Versteeg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is currently undergoing major health system restructuring in an attempt to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities in access. Such inequities exist between private and public health care and within the public health system itself. Experience shows that rural health care can be disadvantaged in policy formulation despite good intentions. The objective of this study was to identify the major challenges and priority interventions for rural health care provision in South Africa thereby contributing to pro-rural health policy dialogue. Methods: The Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on a list of statements that was generated through interviews and literature review. A panel of rural health practitioners and other stakeholders was asked to indicate their level of agreement with these statements and to rank the top challenges in and interventions required for rural health care. Results: Response rates ranged from 83% in the first round (n=44 to 64% in the final round (n=34. The top five priorities were aligned to three of the WHO health system building blocks: human resources for health (HRH, governance, and finance. Specifically, the panel identified a need to focus on recruitment and support of rural health professionals, the employment of managers with sufficient and appropriate skills, a rural-friendly national HRH plan, and equitable funding formulae. Conclusion: Specific policies and strategies are required to address the greatest rural health care challenges and to ensure improved access to quality health care in rural South Africa. In addition, a change in organisational climate and a concerted effort to make a career in rural health appealing to health care workers and adequate funding for rural health care provision are essential.

  16. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  17. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  18. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies: IV Deutsch-Ostafrika / German East Africa (GEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-Ostafrika/German East Africa (GEA) during the early twentieth century. For the postal history of the First World War in the German colonies Togo, Kamerun and Deutsch-Südwestafrika (SWA), see the ASC working papers 116, 117 and 118.

  19. Cultural Heritage Tourism in South Africa: Perceived a Panacea for Rural Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred Samukelisiwe Nkwanyana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage tourism is perceived as one of the major development opportunities for Africa. This study conducted in South Africa, enquired the perceptions of the local communities towards their cultural heritage tourism development, and their level of participation in such development. Quantitative data were collected from simple randomly selected respondents using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive data analysis provided information required to address research objective. Local community members surveyed are sceptic towards cultural heritage tourism development invariably becoming a panacea for their rural development. Cultural heritage tourism development in South Africa should align with the sustainable rural tourism critical success factors recommended by this paper. This study conducted in a district of South Africa has implications for cultural heritage tourism development in developing economies.

  20. Present situation of echinococcosis in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Echinococcosis is one of the major zoonotic parasitic diseases in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa from Morocco to Egypt. Both cystic and alveolar echinococcosis has been reported from these areas. However, cystic echinococcosis is more prevalent and has been reported from all countries in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Alveolar echinococcosis is less prevalent and has been reported only from Iran, Turkey, Iraq and Tunisia. Present situation of echinococcosis in dogs and other definitive hosts, animal intermediate hosts and humans in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa has been reviewed. Echinococcus granulosus is highly prevalent in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya. In the Levant countries, the cystic echinococcosis is also highly endemic. In Oman, it is endemic with low prevalence and a very low level in Cyprus. Various surveys have indicated that hydatid cysts are commonly found in sheep, cattle, goats and camels throughout the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. Sheep are the most infected animals of these regions. Most of studies on human have been focused on surgical reports although several population studies have been performed using serological and imaging techniques. Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is prevalent in the Middle East and Arabic North Africa. It is hyper endemic in Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, and endemic in Egypt. Studies on the strain specificities of E. granulosus in the Middle East revealed sheep strain (G1) present in sheep, goats, cattle, camels and humans, and the camel strain (G6) in camels, sheep, cattle as well as humans. Dog/sheep strain seems to be more prevalent in the foregoing regions in documented reports from Iran and Jordan. However, a strain of E. granulosus, which resembles the horse strain (G4) strain, has been reported from Jordan. Strain specifications of E. granulosus in Arabic North Africa showed that sheep/dog strain (G1) have been reported

  1. Involvement of stakeholders in determining health priorities of adolescents in rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Scholtz, Alexandra Scholtz; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    Background: When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo (‘hope’) aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process.Objective: This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities ac...

  2. Great Power Concert: Competition, Cooperation, and Stability in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    of HIV/AIDS and communicable or chronic diseases are expected in the East African region, thereby creating a positive impact on longevity.59...receive. My wife’s love for our beautiful children inspires me each day and urges me to not only be a better father but a better officer in the...lives of approximately 800,000 people in Rwanda, civil war and disease has killed over 200,000 people in the Darfur region of Sudan, and the 2011

  3. Essays on China’s Exports to East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian

    China’s emergence as the world’s major trading nation has been well documented and discussed in the economics literature. One such trend that has garnered intensive media exposure and political discussion but far less formal economic analysis is the sudden rise of China as Africa’s biggest trading...... as on the economic opportunities and threats placed by China’s expanding role in Africa on the latter’s traditional trading partners. The first three papers contained in this thesis form a sequence to answer the questions proposed above, using Ethiopia as a case study. The first paper describes features of China...... in this paper not only contribute to the related empirical economic literature, they are useful for subsequent studies in this thesis. In the second paper, we take advantage of a recent breakthrough in empirical international trade on systematically estimate welfare gains from increasing import varieties...

  4. a Heritage Inventory for Documenting Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrick, N.; Zerbini, A.

    2017-08-01

    The heritage of the Middle East and North Africa is under growing threat from a variety of factors, including agricultural expansion, urban development, looting, and conflict. Recording and documenting this heritage is therefore a key priority to aid heritage practitioners tasked with protecting sites and evaluating their condition on the ground. The Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA) project has developed a methodology for the identification, documentation, analysis, and monitoring of sites across the region to aid heritage professionals in these efforts. The project uses remote sensing techniques along with traditional archaeological research and prospection methods to collect data, which are stored and managed in a custom-designed database adapted from open-source Arches v.3 software, using CIDOC CRM standards and controlled vocabularies. In addition to these activities, the EAMENA project has initiated an international conference series and training workshops to support and establish partnerships with heritage professionals and institutions across the region.

  5. Agroforestry, livestock, fodder production and climate change adaptation and mitigation in East Africa: issues and options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Ian K; Carsan, Sammy; Franzel, Steve

    Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support livestock......Agroforestry and livestock-keeping both have the potential to promote anthropogenic climate changeresilience, and understanding how they can support each other in this context is crucial. Here, we discuss relevant issues in East Africa, where recent agroforestry interventions to support...... livestockkeeping have included the planting of mostly-exotic tree-fodders, and where most parts of the region are expected to become drier in the next decades, although smaller areas may become wetter. Wider cultivation and improved management of fodder trees provides adaptation and mitigation opportunities......- and future-climate tree species distribution modelling, important areas for future research....

  6. Beyond the desertification narrative: a framework for agricultural drought in semi-arid East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Monique F W; Stroosnijder, Leo

    2008-07-01

    In the 20th century, much research was done on desertification. Desertification developed into a complex and vague construct that means land degradation under specific conditions. Projects focusing on land degradation in semiarid East Africa have met with limited success because farmers prioritize drought as the major productivity-reducing problem. Yet studies on long-term rainfall trends have not confirmed that droughts are more frequent. In this article, we combine drought and land degradation effects into an Agricultural Drought Framework, which departs from the farmers' prioritization of drought and accommodates scientists' concern for land degradation. It includes meteorological drought, soil water drought, and soil nutrient drought. The framework increases insight into how different land degradation processes influence the vulnerability of land and farmers to drought. A focus on increased rainwater use efficiency will address both problems of land degradation and drought, thereby improving productivity and food security in semiarid East Africa.

  7. Food and water security scenarios for East Africa over next 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Broad areas of East Africa face chronic water and agricultural insecurity. Over the last decade, the region has experienced frequent drought events leading to food security emergencies and even famine in Somalia in 2011. The impact of these drought events, associated with recent declines in rainfall during major growing seasons, has been particularly severe due to the high vulnerability of subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods, rapid population growth, and the limited availability of resources for agricultural development and climate change adaptation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity that brings together international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and food security information in Africa and other regions of the developing world. To assist USAID with planning agricultural development strategies over the next ten years in East Africa, FEWS NET is partnering with climate scientists and adaptation specialists at regional institutions to study and assess future changes in precipitation and temperature in light of global climate change, natural climate variability, and their related impacts on agricultural and water security in the region. The overarching objective of this study is to provide future scenarios of food and water security (as estimated by trends in soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff) for East Africa. We do so by following two approaches: Constructed Analogs and the Composite Delta Method. In the first approach we downscaled climate projections (precipitation and temperature projections) of long-term Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) experiments over (a) historical (1850-2005) and (b) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (2006-2030) periods. Current climate is characterized by two ENSO modes, the intensity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the strength

  8. Burden of Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD) in Middle East and North Africa (MENA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Abdallah, F Chermiti; Taktak, S; Chtourou, A; Mahouachi, R; Ben Kheder, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases involve a heterogenous group of diseases, including, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, sleep apnea syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, and many occupational diseases. They affect more than one billion people worldwide. Their medical, social, and economic impacts are heavy, especially in developing countries such as Middle East and North Africa countries, where they represent a public health problem. They are essentially represented by COPD, asthm...

  9. Humans and Seagrasses in East Africa : A social-ecological systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela

    2006-01-01

    The present study is one of the first attempts to analyze the societal importance of seagrasses (marine flowering plants) from a Natural Resource Management perspective, using a social-ecological systems (SES) approach. The interdisciplinary study takes place in East Africa (Western Indian Ocean, WIO) and includes in-depth studies in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Natural and social sciences methods were used. The results are presented in six articles, showing that seagrass ecosystems are ri...

  10. East Africa seminar and workshop of remote sensing of natural resources and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1975-01-01

    Report on total program covering East Africa Seminar and Workshop on remote sensing of natural resources and the environment held in Nairobi, Kenya, March 21 April 3, 1974, attended by participants from 10 English-speaking African nations. Appendices are included for Seminar proceedings, workshop lectures and outlines, field trip reports and critiques by participants, and reports on potential applications of an operational earth resources satellite for the participating countries.

  11. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    OpenAIRE

    Fahed, Akl C.; El-Hage-Sleiman, Abdul-Karim M.; Farhat, Theresa I.; Georges M. Nemer

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in t...

  12. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  13. Examining the impact of climate change and variability on sweet potatoes in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ddumba, S. D.; Andresen, J.; Moore, N. J.; Olson, J.; Snapp, S.; Winkler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to food security for the rapidly increasing population of East Africa. Rainfall is becoming more variable and temperatures are rising, consequently leading to increased occurrence of droughts and floods, and, changes in the timing and length of growing seasons. These changes have serious implications on crop production with the greatest impact likely to be on C4 crops such as cereals compared to C3 crops such as root tubers. Sweet potatoes is one the four most important food crops in East Africa owing to its high nutrition and calorie content, and, high tolerance to heat and drought, but little is known about how the crop will be affected by climate change. This study identifies the major climatic constraints to sweet potato production and examines the impact of projected future climates on sweet potato production in East Africa during the next 10 to 30 years. A process-based Sweet POTato COMputer Simulation (SPOTCOMS) model is used to assess four sweet potato cultivars; Naspot 1, Naspot 10, Naspot 11 and SPK 004-Ejumula. This is work in progress but preliminary results from the crop modeling experiments and the strength and weakness of the crop model will be presented.

  14. African 2, a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis epidemiologically important in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Stefan; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Müller, Borna; Hailu, Elena; Asiimwe, Benon; Kremer, Kristin; Dale, James; Boniotti, M Beatrice; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Hilty, Markus; Rigouts, Leen; Firdessa, Rebuma; Machado, Adelina; Mucavele, Custodia; Ngandolo, Bongo Nare Richard; Bruchfeld, Judith; Boschiroli, Laura; Müller, Annélle; Sahraoui, Naima; Pacciarini, Maria; Cadmus, Simeon; Joloba, Moses; van Soolingen, Dick; Michel, Anita L; Djønne, Berit; Aranaz, Alicia; Zinsstag, Jakob; van Helden, Paul; Portaels, Françoise; Kazwala, Rudovick; Källenius, Gunilla; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V; Smith, Noel H

    2011-02-01

    We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies.

  15. COST EFFICIENCY LEVEL OF RURAL BANKS IN EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mongid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rural Bank (BPR was an important part of financial service industry in Indonesia.Their pivotal role on lending to SMEs in the rural area made their existence very strategic torural development. However, due to its operational scale, rural bank charged higher interestrate than commercial bank. The study estimated the cost efficiency of rural banks usingparametric approach. The result found that rural bank efficiency was very high. The two yearcost efficiency estimated using frontier 4.1 was 95% and median was 100%. The lowest of costefficiency level was 32%. It meant cost inefficiency of the banks under investigated was around10%. The cost efficiency level in 2006 was on average 95% and the median was 100%. It meantthat 50% or more of the observation enjoyed 100% cost efficiency. The minimum was only67%. It meant they operated at very efficient level, leaving only 5% inefficiency. In 2007, adramatic change on efficiency level was going on. The average efficiency was dropped from11% to 89.9% due to increase on interest rate and price level.

  16. Let's talk about sex, maybe: Interviewers, respondents, and sexual behaviour reporting in rural South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houle, Brian; Angotti, Nicole; Clark, Samuel J.; Williams, Jill; Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier; Menken, Jane; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Klipstein-Grobusch, K; Tollman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are often skeptical of sexual behavior surveys: Respondents may lie or forget details of their intimate lives, and interviewers may exercise authority in how they capture responses. We use data from a 2010–2011 cross-sectional sexual behavior survey in rural South Africa to explore who s

  17. Let's Talk about Sex, Maybe : Interviewers, Respondents, and Sexual Behavior Reporting in Rural South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houle, Brian; Angotti, Nicole; Clark, Samuel J; Williams, Jill; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Menken, Jane; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Tollman, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Researchers are often skeptical of sexual behavior surveys: respondents may lie or forget details of their intimate lives, and interviewers may exercise authority in how they capture responses. We use data from a 2010-2011 cross-sectional sexual behavior survey in rural South Africa to explore who s

  18. Initial fieldwork for LWAZI: a telephone-based spoken dialog system for rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes sociological fieldwork conducted in the autumn of 2008 in eleven rural communities of South Africa. The goal of the fieldwork was to evaluate the potential role of automated telephony services in improving access to important...

  19. Selective solar absorbers: A cost effective solution for access to clean energy in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Katumba, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this present era of global energy crisis there is a greater need to turn to renewable, cost effective and sustainable energy resources. In rural Africa, in particular, the demand for domestic energy is even higher. This is exacerbated...

  20. The church and paediatric HIV care in rural South Africa : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A.J. Norder (Wilma); R.P.H. Peters (Remco); M. Kok (Maarten); S.L. van Elsland (Sabine); H.E. Struthers (Helen); M.A. Tutu (Mpho); A.M. van Furth (Marceline)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractReligion has substantial – positive and negative – influence on South Africa’s HIV context. This qualitative study explored possibilities for positive church engagement in paediatric HIV care in a rural district in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Opinions, attitudes and experiences

  1. Teachers' Attitudes towards Adolescent Sexuality and Life Skills Education in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people's sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes…

  2. Are nurses the answer to the health needs of rural South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Are nurses the answer to the health needs of rural South Africa? ... South African Family Practice ... Extending the role of the nurse in the village clinic from prevention and care to diagnosis and treatment is a solution that has been tried in ...

  3. Teachers' Attitudes towards Adolescent Sexuality and Life Skills Education in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people's sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes…

  4. Teachers' Attitudes towards Adolescent Sexuality and Life Skills Education in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people's sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes…

  5. Toka Boot/The Big Jam: Making Music in Rural East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gillian; Dunphy, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a community music project in rural East Timor. Australian musician Gillian Howell lived for three months in the isolated town of Lospalos as an Asialink artist-in-residence, where she worked with local community members and visiting Australian musicians to share music and ideas, and to communicate across cultures. Three…

  6. Livelihood dynamics: Rural Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    IDS

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on research carried out by the Sustainable Livelihoods in Southern Africa (SLSA) programme, this article gives a brief overview of some of the diverse ways people make a living in harsh physical and economic environments in Zambézia province, Mozambique, Chiredzi district Zimbabwe, and South Africa's Wild Coast. It describes the contexts of increasing vulnerability, including the impact of economic reform programmes, the spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of extreme climatic events....

  7. Core competencies of radiographers working in rural hospitals of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mung'omba, Bernard; Botha, Annali D H

    2017-08-31

    Rural radiographers require, over and above traditional radiographic expertise, additional competencies which to a certain degree are unique however not limited to rural practice. Previous studies, however, have focused more attention primarily on other rural health professionals such as doctors and nurses leaving a research need in this field. This article focuses on the additional competencies that may be required for rural radiographers. To investigate and identify additional core competencies required by radiographers working in rural hospitals of KwaZulu-Natal in order to propose a continuous professional development strategy aimed at rural radiographers. An exploratory sequential design was utilised with qualitative (Phase I) and quantitative (Phase II) strands involving seven participants and 109 respondents, respectively. Only radiographers working in rural KwaZulu-Natal hospitals were included in the study. The four major themes and categories identified in Phase I were used to develop data collection instrument for Phase II of the study. Collectively, the results revealed that there were a number of additional core competencies such as, but not limited to, teamwork, ability to do basic obstetric ultrasound scans, leadership, management and reporting on plain radiographs, all of which are required by rural radiographers. In 2014 when these competencies were checked against a single curriculum, it was found that majority of them were either partially covered or not at all covered. The study provides additional information on context specific core competencies and, therefore, may act as a catalyst to influence the future of radiographers working in rural areas of South Africa.

  8. Water poverty and rural development: Evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matshe, I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use...

  9. Enabling rural innovation in Africa: An approach for integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    participatory research and market orientation for building the assets of rural poor .... capacity for innovation and for creating new alternatives for resource-poor farmers, ... productive activities, and (iii) demand effective services to local support ...

  10. Improving computer-mediated synchronous communication of doctors in rural communities through cloud computing: A case study of rural hospitals in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coleman, A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated how doctors in remote rural hospitals in South Africa use computer-mediated tool to communicate with experienced and specialist doctors for professional advice to improve on their clinical practices. A case study approach...

  11. Harnessing the sun. The economics of solar photovoltaic electricity in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondraczek, Janosch

    2014-08-29

    In this thesis, I address four distinct - yet closely linked - research questions related to the adoption of solar energy technologies in East Africa, which will be summarized in the following section. Chapter 2 starts with an analysis of the history, status and prospects of solar energy markets in Kenya and Tanzania, and a comparison of both countries. Chapter 3 investigates the main determinants of solar home system (SHS) adoption in Kenya, and lighting fuel choices among Kenyan households. Chapter 4 examines the cost of (and potential for) large-scale, grid-connected solar PV adoption in Kenya, and Chapter 5 looks at the influence of financing costs on the economics of solar PV on a global level. With my research I therefore contribute to the policy debate surrounding the African energy challenge by looking at two countries in particular, namely Kenya and Tanzania. I have chosen this geographic focus deliberately, as both countries - while well-endowed with sunshine - at present use only very little solar energy. Thus, while the practical focus on East Africa in three of the four chapters implies that the wider African energy challenge is not tackled head on, many of the findings and conclusions from the study of Kenya and Tanzania are in my view transferable to other countries in Africa, and probably even beyond that continent. In conducting research on the solar energy markets of East Africa over the past five years (2009-2014) I have certainly learnt that this continent does not offer the easiest research environment, and a clear focus on a small set of countries and only one renewable energy technology has been very important. Rigorous, high-quality research requires good information, such as data and statistics, as well as appropriate methods; and while the latter are in good supply, the former are painfully lacking for many aspects of life in East Africa. This poses a major challenge for (quantitative) research and has greatly impacted what I could and

  12. MERS and the dromedary camel trade between Africa and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, M; Bornstein, S; Gluecks, I V

    2016-08-01

    Dromedary camels are the most likely source for the coronavirus that sporadically causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in humans. Serological results from archived camel sera provide evidence for circulation of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among dromedary camels in the Greater Horn of Africa as far back as 1983 and in Saudi Arabia as far back as 1992. High seroprevalences of MERS-CoV antibodies and the high virus prevalence in Saudi Arabian dromedary camels indicate an endemicity of the virus in the Arabian Peninsula, which predates the 2012 human MERS index case. Saudi Arabian dromedary camels show significantly higher MERS-CoV carrier rates than dromedary camels imported from Africa. Two MERS-CoV lineages identified in Nigerian camels were found to be genetically distinct from those found in camels and humans in the Middle East. This supports the hypothesis that camel imports from Africa are not of significance for circulation of the virus in camel populations of the Arabian Peninsula.

  13. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidenya, Benson R; Webster, Lauren E; Behan, Sehan; Kabangila, Rodrick; Peck, Robert N; Mshana, Stephen E; Ocheretina, Oksana; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging problem in many parts of the world, and levels of MDR-TB among new TB patients are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. We reviewed the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of MDR-TB in East Africa, including Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. In 16 epidemiologic surveys, the prevalence of MDR among new cases ranges from 0.4% in Tanzania to 4.4% in Uganda, and among recurrent cases ranges from 3.9% in Tanzania to 17.7% in Uganda. There is a gap of 5948 cases between the estimated number of MDR-TB cases in East Africa and the number actually diagnosed. The only confirmed risk factors for MDR-TB are prior treatment for TB and refugee status. HIV has not been reported as a risk factor, and there are no reports of statistical association between spoligotype and drug resistance pattern. Increased capacity for diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB is needed, with an emphasis on recurrent TB cases and refugees.

  14. Genetic evidence for complexity in ethnic differentiation and history in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, Estella S; Naciri, Yamama; Bucho, Rute; Niba, Régine; Kervaire, Barbara; Excoffier, Laurent; Langaney, André; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2009-11-01

    The Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan language families come into contact in Western Ethiopia. Ethnic diversity is particularly high in the South, where the Nilo-Saharan Nyangatom and the Afro-Asiatic Daasanach dwell. Despite their linguistic differentiation, both populations rely on a similar agripastoralist mode of subsistence. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA extracted from Nyangatom and Daasanach archival sera revealed high levels of diversity, with most sequences belonging to the L haplogroups, the basal branches of the mitochondrial phylogeny. However, in sharp contrast with other Ethiopian populations, only 5% of the Nyangatom and Daasanach sequences belong to haplogroups M and N. The Nyangatom and Daasanach were found to be significantly differentiated, while each of them displays close affinities with some Tanzanian populations. The strong genetic structure found over East Africa was neither associated with geography nor with language, a result confirmed by the analysis of 6711 HVS-I sequences of 136 populations mainly from Africa. Processes of migration, language shift and group absorption are documented by linguists and ethnographers for the Nyangatom and Daasanach, thus pointing to the probably transient and plastic nature of these ethnic groups. These processes, associated with periods of isolation, could explain the high diversity and strong genetic structure found in East Africa.

  15. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  16. Real-world innovation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulder, I

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mulder_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 46126 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mulder_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The Electronic Journal for Virtual...). Communities in the rural areas have very little or no access to public and social services that are necessary for quality of their lives in those areas. Information and communication technology is capable of closing the gap between the rural and urban areas...

  17. Africans and the myth of rural retirement in South Africa, ca 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Aran S

    2008-06-01

    The South African mining industry relied upon a massive African migrant workforce from the rural areas. Rural transformations in this migrant labor system form an important part of the story of developing capitalism in industrializing South Africa. Yet, recent historical studies on southern African migrant and rural wage labor have paid little attention to life adjustments made by the elderly and those 'burned out' by the mines and forced to leave formal wage employment in the urban areas. The South African segregationist state's rhetoric implied that 'retired' Africans could find economic security in their designated rural reserves. Indeed, legislation sought to prohibit Africans who were not employed from remaining in the 'white' urban areas. By the 1930s, however, the reserves were rapidly deteriorating. Many elderly Africans could not retire and were forced to seek wage labor. This raises significant questions about how retirement came to be defined and experienced by Africans in South Africa during a critical period of dramatic economic decline in the 1930s and 40s, and what the underlying material circumstances of African South Africans were with regard to adaptations to employment and ageing-related life changes. In many cases, elderly Africans were forced to forgo retirement, and find wage labor, usually in the most poorly paid, least sought-after or dangerous fields of employment. This article thus seeks to illuminate critical generational dimensions of the impact of segregation and racism in South Africa prior to the formal articulation of Apartheid.

  18. Strategies for reducing visual impairment and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan O. Oduntan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of visual impairment (VI and blindness in Africa is one of the highest in the world; a large proportion of the causes are preventable. The prevalence is particularly high in rural and remote areas, where many of the continent’s inhabitants live. This is of great concern because of the low number and poor distribution of primary eye care practitioners, as well as poor eye care infrastructure services in those areas. Uncorrected refractive errors are a major cause of avoidable VI and blindness, and optometrists play a major role in refractive error correction on the continent. However, as with other healthcare providers in Africa, optometrists are few and tend to be mainly in major cities. This paper highlights possible strategies, in alignment with the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, that can reduce VI in rural and remote areas of the continent. The strategies include increasing the eye care workforce, attracting them to rural areas and retaining them there, improving the eye care infrastructure, service improvement such as equitable distribution of eye care practitioners, implementing preventive measures such as vision screening and affordable spectacles, and eye health education such as eye health promotions, school health programmes and eye care awareness campaigns. Such strategies could drastically reduce the prevalence of VI and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa.

  19. Rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa in a context of fluctuating oil-prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Bindner, Henrik W.; Katic, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    grid rural electrification schemes based on hybrid solar PVdiesel generators. This may bring PV systems in line with fossil fuel based systems in terms of consumer cost and options for productive use and it changes the market for PV from mainly donor supported schemes into mainstream rural...... electrification schemes governed and financed by electric utilities and rural electrification agencies. Based on a literature review and the experience with a full scale hybrid wind/PV diesel system at RISØ DTU, this paper provides cost estimates for hybrid PV-diesel systems and policy recommendations to change......Solar PV is one among other low carbon technologies for rural electrification in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Solar PV systems have for almost 30 years been disseminated in SSA, resulting in more than half a million installations concentrated in a few countries. While PV systems have technically...

  20. Agricultural nematology in East and Southern Africa: problems, management strategies and stakeholder linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwana, Herbert; Sibanda, Zibusiso; Wanjohi, Waceke; Kimenju, Wangai; Luambano-Nyoni, Nessie; Massawe, Cornel; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Davies, Keith G; Hunt, David J; Sikora, Richard A; Coyne, Danny L; Gowen, Simon R; Kerry, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    By 2050, Africa's population is projected to exceed 2 billion. Africa will have to increase food production more than 50% in the coming 50 years to meet the nutritional requirements of its growing population. Nowhere is the need to increase agricultural productivity more pertinent than in much of Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is currently static or declining. Optimal pest management will be essential, because intensification of any system creates heightened selection pressures for pests. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their damage potential are intertwined with intensified systems and can be an indicator of unsustainable practices. As soil pests, nematodes are commonly overlooked or misdiagnosed, particularly where appropriate expertise and knowledge transfer systems are meager or inadequately funded. Nematode damage to roots results in less efficient root systems that are less able to access nutrients and water, which can produce symptoms typical of water or nutrient deficiency, leading to misdiagnosis of the underlying cause. Damage in subsistence agriculture is exacerbated by growing crops on degraded soils and in areas of low water retention where strong root growth is vital. This review focuses on the current knowledge of economically important nematode pests affecting key crops, nematode control methods and the research and development needs for sustainable management, stakeholder involvement and capacity building in the context of crop security in East and Southern Africa, especially Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Evaluation of the distribution and impacts of parasites, pathogens, and pesticides on honey bee (Apis mellifera populations in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliud Muli

    Full Text Available In East Africa, honey bees (Apis mellifera provide critical pollination services and income for small-holder farmers and rural families. While honey bee populations in North America and Europe are in decline, little is known about the status of honey bee populations in Africa. We initiated a nationwide survey encompassing 24 locations across Kenya in 2010 to evaluate the numbers and sizes of honey bee colonies, assess the presence of parasites (Varroa mites and Nosema microsporidia and viruses, identify and quantify pesticide contaminants in hives, and assay for levels of hygienic behavior. Varroa mites were present throughout Kenya, except in the remote north. Levels of Varroa were positively correlated with elevation, suggesting that environmental factors may play a role in honey bee host-parasite interactions. Levels of Varroa were negatively correlated with levels of hygienic behavior: however, while Varroa infestation dramatically reduces honey bee colony survival in the US and Europe, in Kenya Varroa presence alone does not appear to impact colony size. Nosema apis was found at three sites along the coast and one interior site. Only a small number of pesticides at low concentrations were found. Of the seven common US/European honey bee viruses, only three were identified but, like Varroa, were absent from northern Kenya. The number of viruses present was positively correlated with Varroa levels, but was not correlated with colony size or hygienic behavior. Our results suggest that Varroa, the three viruses, and Nosema have been relatively recently introduced into Kenya, but these factors do not yet appear to be impacting Kenyan bee populations. Thus chemical control for Varroa and Nosema are not necessary for Kenyan bees at this time. This study provides baseline data for future analyses of the possible mechanisms underlying resistance to and the long-term impacts of these factors on African bee populations.

  2. Evaluation of the distribution and impacts of parasites, pathogens, and pesticides on honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muli, Elliud; Patch, Harland; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, James; Torto, Baldwyn; Baumgarten, Tracey; Kilonzo, Joseph; Kimani, James Ng'ang'a; Mumoki, Fiona; Masiga, Daniel; Tumlinson, James; Grozinger, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In East Africa, honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide critical pollination services and income for small-holder farmers and rural families. While honey bee populations in North America and Europe are in decline, little is known about the status of honey bee populations in Africa. We initiated a nationwide survey encompassing 24 locations across Kenya in 2010 to evaluate the numbers and sizes of honey bee colonies, assess the presence of parasites (Varroa mites and Nosema microsporidia) and viruses, identify and quantify pesticide contaminants in hives, and assay for levels of hygienic behavior. Varroa mites were present throughout Kenya, except in the remote north. Levels of Varroa were positively correlated with elevation, suggesting that environmental factors may play a role in honey bee host-parasite interactions. Levels of Varroa were negatively correlated with levels of hygienic behavior: however, while Varroa infestation dramatically reduces honey bee colony survival in the US and Europe, in Kenya Varroa presence alone does not appear to impact colony size. Nosema apis was found at three sites along the coast and one interior site. Only a small number of pesticides at low concentrations were found. Of the seven common US/European honey bee viruses, only three were identified but, like Varroa, were absent from northern Kenya. The number of viruses present was positively correlated with Varroa levels, but was not correlated with colony size or hygienic behavior. Our results suggest that Varroa, the three viruses, and Nosema have been relatively recently introduced into Kenya, but these factors do not yet appear to be impacting Kenyan bee populations. Thus chemical control for Varroa and Nosema are not necessary for Kenyan bees at this time. This study provides baseline data for future analyses of the possible mechanisms underlying resistance to and the long-term impacts of these factors on African bee populations.

  3. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago.

  4. Seasonal Drought Prediction in East Africa: Can National Multi-Model Ensemble Forecasts Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Roberts, J. B.; Funk, Christopher; Robertson, F. R.; Hoell, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. As recently as in 2011 part of this region underwent one of the worst famine events in its history. Timely and skillful drought forecasts at seasonal scale for this region can inform better water and agro-pastoral management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts. However seasonal drought prediction in this region faces several challenges. Lack of skillful seasonal rainfall forecasts; the focus of this presentation, is one of those major challenges. In the past few decades, major strides have been taken towards improvement of seasonal scale dynamical climate forecasts. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction's (NCEP) National Multi-model Ensemble (NMME) is one such state-of-the-art dynamical climate forecast system. The NMME incorporates climate forecasts from 6+ fully coupled dynamical models resulting in 100+ ensemble member forecasts. Recent studies have indicated that in general NMME offers improvement over forecasts from any single model. However thus far the skill of NMME for forecasting rainfall in a vulnerable region like the East Africa has been unexplored. In this presentation we report findings of a comprehensive analysis that examines the strength and weakness of NMME in forecasting rainfall at seasonal scale in East Africa for all three of the prominent seasons for the region. (i.e. March-April-May, July-August-September and October-November- December). Simultaneously we also describe hybrid approaches; that combine statistical approaches with NMME forecasts; to improve rainfall forecast skill in the region when raw NMME forecasts lack in skill.

  5. Holding Back The Flood: Regimes of Censorship in the Middle East & North Africa in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Webb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the relationship between censorship and popular uprisings, I survey trends in repression of information across Iran and the Arab states of the Middle East & North Africa over several decades to see if the recent wave of popular mobilization appears to respond to changes in the degree of repression in particular countries. I argue that while the available data is inconclusive, there is little support for the idea that partial liberalization provokes revolutionary outbreaks and conversely some support for high or increasing repression of expression as a contributor to regime-challenging popular mobilization.

  6. What it costs to work expats in Mid East/North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, P.A.

    1983-03-01

    The costs of expatriates stationed in the Middle East and North Africa with U.S. oil and service companies are high. The benefits programs that these companies must offer to recruit American expatriates have raised overhead costs and lowered profit margins in relation to European competitors. This article outlines the costs of sending an employee to this area of the world, suggests ways to minimize these costs, and details the various benefits programs both U.S. and European companies are currently offering. In conclusion, the employment policy trends that these high costs are causing are reviewed.

  7. Thermophilic Sulfate Reduction in Hydrothermal Sediment of Lake Tanganyika, East-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ELSGAARD, L.; PRIEUR, D.; MUKWAYA, GM

    1994-01-01

    part of freshwater Lake Tanganyika (East Africa). Incubation of slurry samples at 8 to 90 degrees C demonstrated meso- and thermophilic sulfate reduction with optimum temperatures of 34 to 45 degrees C and 56 to 65 degrees C, respectively, and with an upper temperature limit of 80 degrees C. Sulfate...... reduction was stimulated at all temperatures by the addition of short-chain fatty acids and benzoate or complex substrates (yeast extract and peptone). A time course experiment showed that linear thermophilic sulfate consumption occurred after a lag phase (12 h) and indicated the presence of a large...

  8. Faulting and block rotation in the Afar triangle, East Africa: The Danakil "crank-arm" model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souriot, T.; Brun, J.-P.

    1992-10-01

    Several domains of contrasted extensional deformation have been identified in the southern Afar triangle (East Africa) from fault patterns analyzed with panchromatic stereoscopic SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) images. Stretching directions and statistical orientation and offset variations of faults fit with the Danakii "crank-arm" model of Sichler: A 10° sinistral rotation of the Danakil block explains the fault geometry and dextral block rotation in the southern part of the Afar triangle, as well as the oblique extension in the Tadjoura Gulf. Analogue modeling supports this interpretation.

  9. Technology, Political Economy, and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2009-01-01

    allocation of resources is rooted deeply in regional political economy structures. These results challenge the scholarly debate, but can help to understand why international structural adjustment programs that focused on privatization and trade liberalization only showed limited success in the MENA region....... efforts. Using cross-country regressions, this paper identifies two binding constraints to economic development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): 1) Most countries are not able to apply or adopt existing technologies efficiently and 2) The economically inefficient...

  10. Incarceration or mandatory treatment: Drug use and the law in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shazly, Fattouh; Tinasti, Khalid

    2016-05-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), drug policies are embedded in the prohibition paradigm. Laws and legislation criminalize all types of activities related to illicit drugs. This article gives a detailed assessment of the provisions of Arab national laws to control the use of illicit drugs across the areas of punishment of drug users, penalties for drug dependence, legislation on use and dependence treatment, and the right of the convicted people who use drugs to confidentiality. It reviews the national legislations on drug control of 16 Arab countries as amended in January 2011.

  11. Seeds of revolt. Intergenerational relationships in rural KwaZulu, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vailati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe social role of youth, in the last twenty years, has become a key point of the political agenda of many African nations. In South Africa, the consequences of segregationist politics, market economy and migrations have profoundly shaped the social and cultural role of youth, both in urban and rural contexts. Moreover, the end of apartheid has opened a new period of wide transformation. Based on my ethnographic research in KwaMashabane, a rural region of South Africa, this article analyses how the social role of male youth is shaped by national state policy and by local dynamics. I will focus on the relationship between models of adulthood, and the strategies that youth adopt to cope with conflicts and continuities. This analysis will show how post-apartheid freedom and the constraints of the local social structure are negotiated, and how society is coping with the complex relationships between cultural reproduction and social change.

  12. Improving Rural Emergency Services with Cognitive Radio Networks in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, Dramane; Krief, Francine; Chalouf, Mohamed Aymen; Bissyandé, Tegawendé F.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a new approach based on Cognitive Radio technology to address the challenges for ensuring connectivity in remote areas of Africa. Indeed, the current network coverage is concentrated around the cities with high density of population. Through the deployment of Cognitive Radio, emergency services in rural areas will benefit from low cost access networks. Cognitive Radio will be used to manage the selection/switching across different frequency UH...

  13. Using GPS data loggers to measure rural accessibility in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maritz, Johan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Accessibility, Rural South Africa, space-time analysis. Introduction Human activity involves a range of activities such as working, traveling, eating, shopping, sleeping and spending time with family, hobbies etc. Activities differ from person... fixed in place and maintenance or familial obligations (as well as basic biological needs such as sleep) require presence for regular intervals. Flexible activities are relatively easy to reschedule and relocate. A person can shop, recreate...

  14. The colony as laboratory: German sleeping sickness campaigns in German East Africa and in Togo, 1900-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Wolfgang U

    2002-01-01

    This paper is on dangerous human experimentations with drugs against trypanosimiasis carried out in the former German colonies of German East Africa and Togo. Victory over trypanosomiasis could not be achieved in Berlin because animals were thought to be unsuitable for therapeutic laboratory research in the field of trypanosomiasis. The colonies themselves were necessarily chosen as laboratories and the patients with sleeping sickness became the objects of therapeutical and pharmacological research. The paper first outlines Robert Koch's trypanosomiasis research in the large sleeping sickness laboratory of German East Africa and then focuses on the escalating human experiments on trypanosomiasis in the German Musterkolonie Togo, which must be interpreted as a reaction to the starting signal given by Robert Koch in East Africa.

  15. Harvesting of communal resources by 'outsiders' in rural South Africa: a case of xenophobia or a real threat to sustainability?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twine, W

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The harvesting of communal natural resources by 'outsiders' (i.e. harvesters from other villages or towns) was investigated in ten rural villages in South Africa. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques were used to collect data in focus...

  16. Key Dimensions of Effective Leadership for Change: A Focus on Township and Rural Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcobo, Thandi; Tikly, Leon Paul

    2010-01-01

    The article identifies key dimensions of effective leadership for change in historically disadvantaged, township and rural schools in South Africa. It is based on original case study research in 13 schools in Kwa-Zulu Natal. Although the sample included mainly township and rural primary and secondary schools it also included a smaller sample of…

  17. Core competencies of radiographers working in rural hospitals of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Mung'omba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural radiographers require, over and above traditional radiographic expertise, additional competencies which to a certain degree are unique however not limited to rural practice. Previous studies, however, have focused more attention primarily on other rural health professionals such as doctors and nurses leaving a research need in this field. This article focuses on the additional competencies that may be required for rural radiographers.Aim: To investigate and identify additional core competencies required by radiographers working in rural hospitals of KwaZulu-Natal in order to propose a continuous professional development strategy aimed at rural radiographers.Methods: An exploratory sequential design was utilised with qualitative (Phase I and quantitative (Phase II strands involving seven participants and 109 respondents, respectively. Only radiographers working in rural KwaZulu-Natal hospitals were included in the study. The four major themes and categories identified in Phase I were used to develop data collection instrument for Phase II of the study.Results: Collectively, the results revealed that there were a number of additional core competencies such as, but not limited to, teamwork, ability to do basic obstetric ultrasound scans, leadership, management and reporting on plain radiographs, all of which are required by rural radiographers. In 2014 when these competencies were checked against a single curriculum, it was found that majority of them were either partially covered or not at all covered.Conclusion: The study provides additional information on context specific core competencies and, therefore, may act as a catalyst to influence the future of radiographers working in rural areas of South Africa.

  18. Summary of the East Africa Training Consortium Biorisk Management Practices and Training Needs Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Julie; Mancini, Giulio M.; Wakabi, Timothy; Boggs, Susan E.

    2017-03-01

    A survey was designed to query former Biorisk management (BRM) trainees in the East Africa region about their practices post-training and their perceived future training needs. A subset of those surveyed had been trained as BRM trainers. The survey was conducted to obtain a baseline of BRM practices that can serve as a benchmark for performance monitoring, to identify priorities for future BRM training and to gauge local BRM trainers' abilities to deliver effective training. The survey revealed that less than 50% of the respondents could identify evidence of a BRM system in their institute. Coaching and mentoring by BRM experts was identified as being of highest benefit to enable success as BRM practitioners. Local trainers reached 1538 trainees in the previous year and reported that trainings positively correlated with desired BRM behavior. Acknowledgements The authors wish to sincerely thank all of the former biorisk management trainees in East Africa who agreed to participate in this survey. Their candid and honest input was extremely insightful. We also thank Lora Grainger (06826) and Ben Brodsky (Manager, 06824) for careful and critical review of the report. We are grateful for the financial support of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Cooperative Biological Engagement Program.

  19. Status report of propagation models: Middle East and North Africa (S5.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, C.A.; Patton, H.J.; Goldstein, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    1995-11-01

    An improved understanding of the influence that tectonic structure has on regional seismic phases is needed to improve the current performance of regional discriminants and their transportability to the Middle East and North Africa. In the case that the crustal structure can be approximated by a flat layered laterally invariant medium, layer-cake reflectivity modeling can be used to obtain an accurate representation of regional phases. However, a laterally heterogeneous crust is just as common as a layered cake structure and in this case large variations in regional phase amplitudes are not uncommon. For instance, it has been shown that rough surface topography and undulations in the Moho can cause the transfer of energy between various surface wave modes and between surface waves and body waves greatly increasing the potential variability of seismic phases. Larger scale structure such as thickening or thinning of the crust can also greatly affect phase propagation. In some instances, changes between different tectonic regions such as that which occurs at a continental-oceanic boundary can completely block phases such as Lg rendering certain discriminants useless. In addition to structure along the path, lateral structure and free surface topography near the source and receiver can cause complex scattering effects with strong directional, frequency, and near-field effects. Given that the Middle East and North Africa cross many different tectonic boundaries, the authors are using numerical propagation models to understand how the relevant tectonic features affect the propagation of primary discriminant phases.

  20. Crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region: implications for the isostatic compensation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seber, Dogan; Sandvol, Eric; Sandvol, Christine; Brindisi, Carrie; Barazangi, Muawia

    2001-12-01

    We present a new 3-D crustal model for the Middle East and North Africa region that includes detailed topography, sediment thickness, and Moho depth values. The model is obtained by collecting, integrating, and interpolating reliable, published sedimentary rock thickness and Moho depth measurements in the Middle East and North Africa region. To evaluate the accuracy of the model, the 3-D gravity response of the model is calculated and compared with available observed Bouguer gravity anomalies in the region. The gravity modelling shows that the new crustal model predicts large portions of the observed Bouguer anomalies. However, in some regions, such as the Red Sea and Caspian Sea regions, where crustal structure is relatively well-determined, the residual anomalies are of the order of a few hundred milligals. Since the new crustal model results in large residual anomalies in regions where reasonably good constraints exist for the model, these large residuals cannot simply be explained by inaccuracies in the model. To analyse the cause of these residuals further we developed an isostatically compensated (Airy-type) Moho-depth model and calculated its gravity response. Isostatic gravity anomalies are in nearly perfect agreement with the observed gravity values. However, the isostatic model differs significantly from the new (3-D) crustal model. If isostasy is to be maintained, crustal and/or upper mantle lateral density variations are needed to explain the large observed gravity residuals.

  1. Energy saving scheme for internet provision in rural africa: LESS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available access in rural areas is expected to improve the lifestyles of the community. Such access will address digital divide problems in schools, local libraries, e-Health centres, small scale businesses and public safety. As a result, it is essential... – the longer the data exchange period (Phase II), the longer the sleeping or dozing time of the nodes. The longer the dozing time, more energy is saved since the sleeping nodes consumes little or no energy at all. As a result, or proposed LESS-MAC protocol...

  2. Rural Second Homes and Their Impacts on Rural Development: A Case Study in East Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davood Hajimirrahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously, rural tourism has developed due to population growth, urbanization, development of transportation, and communication routes. In this context, rural second homes (RSHs are considered as one of the main instruments of permanent and temporary residency tourism. This study intended to evaluate the impacts that “rural second homes” have on rural development in the Khorashad village in the South Khorasan province of Iran. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Using a random sampling method, 146 permanent rural residents were selected. Results showed that in the view of the respondents, the most important positive and negative impacts of RSHs were, respectively, the physical-environment and socio-cultural aspects of the area. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between job type, gender, and purchase/construction year of the RSHs and people’s perceptions toward the impacts of RSHs. The study concluded that the most important strategies to reduce negative impacts and increase positive impacts of the RSHs are to, respectively, improve public policies and design geographical distribution patterns in order to develop RSHs.

  3. Rural education: Reimagining the role of the church in transforming poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Thesnaar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The desire to remember the plight of the poor in South Africa has reduced in the last 20 years after the transition from apartheid to freedom. To a large extent, Faith Based Organizations (FBOs and the religious society at large have lost their ‘dangerous memory’ which keeps us mindful of those who suffered and whose plight is usually forgotten or suppressed. In this contribution the conditions of poor farm school children in multigrade rural education will be scrutinised by unpacking the contextual factors that cause us to forget their plight. This article will seek to reimagine the role of the church in poverty-stricken South Africa by engaging with the work of Talcott Parsons, the practical theologian Johannes A. Van der Ven, as well as the work of the political theologian Johann Baptist Metz in order to affirm the focus of Practical Theology to transform society and to contribute to the quest for justice and liberation for the poor in rural education. This reimagining discourse has a fundamental responsibility to challenge the social, political and economic realities that shape the lives of human beings within rural education, remembering the plight of the poor, and participating on their journey towards liberation and healing. It is proposed that if the church can activate its ‘dangerous memory’ it will be able to reimagine its role by transforming our poverty-stricken South African society, open new avenues for breaking the cycle of poverty and contribute to rural education.

  4. Rural education: Reimagining the role of the church in transforming poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Thesnaar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The desire to remember the plight of the poor in South Africa has reduced in the last 20 years after the transition from apartheid to freedom. To a large extent, Faith Based Organizations (FBOs and the religious society at large have lost their ‘dangerous memory’ which keeps us mindful of those who suffered and whose plight is usually forgotten or suppressed. In this contribution the conditions of poor farm school children in multigrade rural education will be scrutinised by unpacking the contextual factors that cause us to forget their plight. This article will seek to reimagine the role of the church in poverty-stricken South Africa by engaging with the work of Talcott Parsons, the practical theologian Johannes A. Van der Ven, as well as the work of the political theologian Johann Baptist Metz in order to affirm the focus of Practical Theology to transform society and to contribute to the quest for justice and liberation for the poor in rural education. This reimagining discourse has a fundamental responsibility to challenge the social, political and economic realities that shape the lives of human beings within rural education, remembering the plight of the poor, and participating on their journey towards liberation and healing. It is proposed that if the church can activate its ‘dangerous memory’ it will be able to reimagine its role by transforming our poverty-stricken South African society, open new avenues for breaking the cycle of poverty and contribute to rural education.

  5. Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in rural and urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy N. Otwombe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in sub-Saharan Africa are widely reported. However rural–urban disparities and their association with all-cause mortality remain unclear. Furthermore, commonly used classical Cox regression ignores unmeasured variables and frailty. Objective: To incorporate frailty in assessing factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in rural and urban South Africa. Design: Using data from a prospective cohort following 6,690 HIV-infected participants from Soweto (urban and Mpumalanga (rural enrolled from 2003 to 2010; covariates of mortality were assessed by the integrated nested Laplace approximation method. Results: We enrolled 2,221 (33% rural and 4,469 (67% urban participants of whom 1,555 (70% and 3,480 (78% were females respectively. Median age (IQR was 36.4 (31.0–44.1 in rural and 32.7 (28.2–38.1 in the urban participants. The mortality rate per 100 person-years was 11 (9.7–12.5 and 4 (3.6–4.5 in the rural and urban participants, respectively. Compared to those not on HAART, rural participants had a reduced risk of mortality if on HAART for 6–12 (HR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10–0.39 and >12 months (HR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.05–0.18. Relative to those not on HAART, urban participants had a lower risk if on HAART >12 months (HR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.27–0.46.The frailty variance was significant and >1 in rural participants indicating more heterogeneity. Similarly it was significant but <1 in the urban participants indicating less heterogeneity. Conclusion: The frailty model findings suggest an elevated risk of mortality in rural participants relative to the urban participants potentially due to unmeasured variables that could be biological, socio–economic, or healthcare related. Use of robust methods that optimise data and account for unmeasured variables could be helpful in assessing the effect of unknown risk factors thus improving patient management and care in South

  6. Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in rural and urban South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otwombe, Kennedy N.; Petzold, Max; Modisenyane, Tebogo; Martinson, Neil A.; Chirwa, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background Factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in sub-Saharan Africa are widely reported. However rural–urban disparities and their association with all-cause mortality remain unclear. Furthermore, commonly used classical Cox regression ignores unmeasured variables and frailty. Objective To incorporate frailty in assessing factors associated with mortality in HIV-infected people in rural and urban South Africa. Design Using data from a prospective cohort following 6,690 HIV-infected participants from Soweto (urban) and Mpumalanga (rural) enrolled from 2003 to 2010; covariates of mortality were assessed by the integrated nested Laplace approximation method. Results We enrolled 2,221 (33%) rural and 4,469 (67%) urban participants of whom 1,555 (70%) and 3,480 (78%) were females respectively. Median age (IQR) was 36.4 (31.0–44.1) in rural and 32.7 (28.2–38.1) in the urban participants. The mortality rate per 100 person-years was 11 (9.7–12.5) and 4 (3.6–4.5) in the rural and urban participants, respectively. Compared to those not on HAART, rural participants had a reduced risk of mortality if on HAART for 6–12 (HR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10–0.39) and >12 months (HR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.05–0.18). Relative to those not on HAART, urban participants had a lower risk if on HAART >12 months (HR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.27–0.46). The frailty variance was significant and >1 in rural participants indicating more heterogeneity. Similarly it was significant but <1 in the urban participants indicating less heterogeneity. Conclusion The frailty model findings suggest an elevated risk of mortality in rural participants relative to the urban participants potentially due to unmeasured variables that could be biological, socio–economic, or healthcare related. Use of robust methods that optimise data and account for unmeasured variables could be helpful in assessing the effect of unknown risk factors thus improving patient management and care in South Africa and

  7. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    opportunities created through rural electrification. Though necessary for development, rural electrification alone is insufficient, and requires strong government commitment and political will to invest in public services and infrastructure, and encourage private sector participation. Keywords: rural electrification, modern energy services, Sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia, energy transition, Poverty Reduction, Rural Development.

  8. Entrepreneurs’ gender, age and education affecting their networks in private and public spheres: Denmark, Middle East and North Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Schøtt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    of the Middle East and North Africa. Analyses show that entrepreneurs are networking in the private sphere of family and friends, especially in traditional culture in Middle East and North Africa, and are networking in public spheres, especially in secular-rational culture in Denmark. Male entrepreneurs network...... broader than female entrepreneurs, especially in the public sphere and especially in traditional culture, whereas women network more intensely in the private sphere. Age influences networking in the way that networking in the private sphere is more extensive among young than among older entrepreneurs....... Education influences networking in the way that networking in the public sphere is especially extensive among educated entrepreneurs....

  9. Probabilistic maize yield simulation over East Africa using ensemble seasonal climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Geoffrey; Supit, Iwan; Hutjes, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal climate variability influences crop yields, especially in areas where rain fed agriculture is widely practiced such as in the East African region. Assuming that seasonal climate prediction skill would translate to similarly skillful prediction of impacts, an ensemble seasonal climate hindcast (ECMWF system4 EPS) for the period 1981 to 2010 at different initialization dates (lead months) before sowing is used to drive a crop simulation model: the World Food Studies (WOFOST) model, implemented for a single season Maize crop. The water-limited yield predictions were assessed against reference yields produced by the same crop model forced by the WATCH Forcing Data ERA-Interim (WFDEI) at grid point level. We focus on the main sowing dates of June/July (Northern region), March (Equatorial East Africa) and November (Southern region). Deviation of yields from the mean over the study period is used to indicate regions in which probabilistic yield forecasts would be useful while the Relative Operating Curve Skill Score (ROCSS) indicates prediction skill of above normal, near normal and below normal yield prediction. Equatorial regions of East Africa and coastal Kenya with sowing date in March show a mean deviation of ≥ 500 Kg/ha. Here probabilistic yield forecasts can potentially be useful as opposed to the northern and southern regions with less deviation. The high deviation in this region may also be due to the existence of more than one cropping season corresponding to the bi-modal rainfall regime since the model only simulates a single season. A positive ROCSS over a large extent of the equatorial region show predictability skill of all the tercile forecasts simulated by forecasts initialized at the start of sowing date (March i.e. lead 0 forecasts) and no predictability at longer lead months. Over Ethiopia in the northern region of East Africa, November harvests with a sowing date of June show predictability of the upper, lower and middle terciles at lead-0

  10. The financial and economic feasibility of rural household biodigesters for poor communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael T; Goebel, Jessica Schroenn; Blignaut, James N

    2014-02-01

    Given the persistence of systemic poverty in, most notably, the rural parts of South Africa, the question is whether the use of biodigesters as a source of energy offers potential solutions to some of the difficulties and development needs faced by people in these areas. At the core, this translates into whether this technology would be financially and economically feasible for installation and use by rural households. Here we conduct both a financial and an economic cost-benefit analysis in one such community based on survey data from 120 households. Analysis of these data and supporting literature reveals that a biodigester is not a financially feasible investment for a rural household. Substantial economic benefits are, however, found to make a biodigester a worthwhile investment from a broader societal perspective. This is a compelling argument for further study and the consideration of government support in the light of broader economy-wide benefits.

  11. A long-standing Pleistocene refugium in southern Africa and a mosaic of refugia in East Africa: insights from mtDNA and the common eland antelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline; Masembe, Charles; Arctander, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    East Africa could result from colonization following extinction from the region. Only two other dated African ungulate phylogenies have been published, applying different methods, and the similarity of dates obtained from the three distinct approaches indicates a significant event c. 200 ka, which left....... Phylogeographic analysis of the common eland antelope, Taurotragus oryx (Bovidae), was used to assess these hypotheses and the existence of genetic signatures of Pleistocene climate change. Location The sub-Saharan savanna biome of East and southern Africa. Methods Mitochondrial DNA control-region fragments (414......-based methods and a calibrated fossil root of 1.6 Ma for the split between the common eland and the giant eland, Taurotragus derbianus. Results Two major phylogeographic lineages comprising East and southern African localities, respectively, were separated by a net nucleotide distance of 4.7%. A third...

  12. The Earliest Hominid Migration out of Africa and Near East Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, H.; Levi, S.; Porat, N.

    2001-12-01

    It is generally accepted that Central East Africa was the springboard for hominid evolution in the latest Miocene or Early Pliocene. However the timing and pathways of migrations from Africa to Eurasia are still debatable. The only certain land bridge and main route between Africa and Eurasia since the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene is the Levantine Corridor. This is evident in some of the most ancient remains of early hominids and tools outside Africa in the Middle East. The study of Lower Paleolithic sites in this region and in the neighboring area sheds some light on several potential migration and colonization events. The determination of ages of the prehistoric sites is crucial for any study of early human migration events, but it is also the most difficult data to recover. The typo-technological studies yield only relative age, and so do sequences of raised Pleistocene beaches, marine deposits, river terraces and paleo-lake formations. The scarcity of volcanic ash deposits excludes radiometric dating. Israel located at the Levantine Corridor yields a wealth of prehistoric findings and sites. We combine paleomagnetic and thermoluminescence measurements as dating tools. This new combination yields high quality, surprising results. Several preliminary paleomagnetic studies of lake deposits, cave deposits and soil sequences in well known sites in Israel such as the Erk-El Ahmar formation, and the Lower Paleolithic Tabun Cave in Mount Carmel, the Evron Quarry in northern Israel, and Rochama site in southern Israel. We conclude that the part of Erk-El-Ahmar Formation, which bears core-choppers and flakes, identified as typical Oldowan tools were deposited about 1.7-2.0 Ma. We found that the Rochama and Evron sites are located in soil sequences, several meters below the 0.78 Ma Brunhes-Matuyama boundary. Based on continuous soil accumulation rates and pedogenesis processes the age of these sites is about 1 Ma. This new data provides the first constraint for the 1

  13. Invasion of Africa by a single pfcrt allele of South East Asian type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchier Christiane

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its dramatic public health impact, Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine (CQ has been documented early on. Chloroquine-resistance (CQR emerged in the late 1950's independently in South East Asia and South America and progressively spread over all malaria areas. CQR was reported in East Africa in the 1970's, and has since invaded the African continent. Many questions remain about the actual selection and spreading process of CQR parasites, and about the evolution of the ancestral mutant gene(s during spreading. Methods Eleven clinical isolates of P. falciparum from Cambodia and 238 from Africa (Senegal, Ivory Coast, Bukina Faso, Mali, Guinea, Togo, Benin, Niger, Congo, Madagascar, Comoros Islands, Tanzania, Kenya, Mozambique, Cameroun, Gabon were collected during active case detection surveys carried out between 1996 and 2001. Parasite DNA was extracted from frozen blood aliquots and amplification of the gene pfcrt exon 2 (codon 72–76, exon 4 and intron 4 (codon 220 and microsatellite marker were performed. All fragments were sequenced. Results 124 isolates with a sensitive (c76/c220:CVMNK/A haplotype and 125 isolates with a resistant c76/c220:CVIET/S haplotype were found. The microsatellite showed 17 different types in the isolates carrying the c76/c220:CVMNK/A haplotype while all 125 isolates with a CVIET/S haplotype but two had a single microsatellite type, namely (TAAA3(TA15, whatever the location or time of collection. Conclusion Those results are consistent with the migration of a single ancestral pfcrt CQR allele from Asia to Africa. This is related to the importance of PFCRT in the fitness of P. falciparum point out this protein as a potential target for developments of new antimalarial drugs.

  14. Reconstructing the origin and dispersal patterns of village chickens across East Africa: insights from autosomal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwacharo, J M; Nomura, K; Hanada, H; Han, J L; Amano, T; Hanotte, O

    2013-05-01

    Unravelling the genetic history of any livestock species is central to understanding the origin, development and expansion of agricultural societies and economies. Domestic village chickens are widespread in Africa. Their close association with, and reliance on, humans for long-range dispersal makes the species an important biological marker in tracking cultural and trading contacts between human societies and civilizations across time. Archaezoological and linguistic evidence suggest a complex history of arrival and dispersion of the species on the continent, with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop analysis revealing the presence of five distinct haplogroups in East African village chickens. It supports the importance of the region in understanding the history of the species and indirectly of human interactions. Here, through a detailed analysis of 30 autosomal microsatellite markers genotyped in 657 village chickens from four East African countries (Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia and Sudan), we identify three distinct autosomal gene pools (I, II and III). Gene pool I is predominantly found in Ethiopia and Sudan, while II and III occur in both Kenya and Uganda. A gradient of admixture for gene pools II and III between the Kenyan coast and Uganda's hinterland (P = 0.001) is observed, while gene pool I is clearly separated from the other two. We propose that these three gene pools represent genetic signatures of separate events in the history of the continent that relate to the arrival and dispersal of village chickens and humans across the region. Our results provide new insights on the history of chicken husbandry which has been shaped by terrestrial and maritime contacts between ancient and modern civilizations in Asia and East Africa. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Measurement and evaluation of digital cervicography programs in two cervical cancer screening camps in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Curtis W.; Mink, Jonah; Levitz, David

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer disproportionately affects women living in low- and middle-income countries. To address this global crisis, many governments and NGOs have implemented community-based screening and treatment programs at outreach camps. Here, high volumes of patients are able to access care: screening and diagnosis followed by immediate treatment of precancerous lesions onsite. However, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of these efforts presents challenges, since each event typically relies on a different health workforce, and refers patients to different facilities for follow up and advanced care. To address these challenges, a digital imaging intervention was deployed at several screening camps in East Africa. Trained nurses screened women using a connected low-cost mobile colposcope built around a smartphone. A decision support job aid was integrated into the app controlling the device, guiding nurses and recording their diagnosis and treatment decisions. Aggregating the data from the job aid allowed M&E of the screening camp in real-time. In this paper, the M&E data from 2 different screening camps in East Africa are compared. Additionally, screening camps are compared to stationary clinics. Differences in the patient screening times, treatment rates, and individual nurse statistics were all documented through the job aid allowing for much improved epidemiological information following outreach events thus enabling targeted program improvements and provider training. Reporting data from screening camps were also shared online via public web pages, facilitating broader dissemination of health needs in specific East African communities, and sparking conversations with regional stakeholders about local disease burden.

  16. Remote sensing for rural development planning in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, C.; Mouat, D. A.; Norton-Griffiths, M.; Slaymaker, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Multilevel remote-sensing techniques were combined to provide land resource and land-use information for rural development planning in Arusha Region, Tanzania. Enhanced Landsat imagery, supplemented by low-level aerial survey data, slope angle data from topographic sheets, and existing reports on vegetation and soil conditions, was used jointly by image analysts and district-level land-management officials to divide the region's six districts into land-planning units. District-planning officials selected a number of these land-planning units for priority planning and development activities. For the priority areas, natural color aerial photographs provided detailed information for land-use planning discussions between district officials and villagers. Consideration of the efficiency of this remote sensing approach leads to general recommendations for similar applications. The technology and timing of data collection and interpretation activities should allow maximum participation by intended users of the information.

  17. The Importance of Magmatic Fluids in Continental Rifting in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, J.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Lee, H.; Fischer, T. P.; Roecker, S. W.; Kianji, G.

    2015-12-01

    The breakup of strong continental lithosphere requires more than far-field tectonic forces. Growing evidence for early-stage cratonic rift zones points to the importance of heat, magma and volatile transfer in driving lithospheric strength reduction. The relative contributions of these processes are fundamental to our understanding of continental rifting. We present a synthesis of results from geological, geochemical and geophysical studies in one of the most seismically and volcanically active sectors of the East African Rift (Kenya-Tanzania border) to investigate the role of fluids during early-stage rifting (integrated with subsurface imaging and fault kinematic data derived from the 38-station CRAFTI broadband seismic array. Teleseismic and abundant local earthquakes enable assessment of the state-of-stress and b-values as a function of depth. High Vp/Vs ratios and tomographic imaging suggest the presence of fluids in the crust, with high pore fluid pressures driving failure at lower tectonic stress. Together, these cross-disciplinary data provide compelling evidence that early-stage rifting in East Africa is assisted by fluids exsolved from deep magma bodies, some of which are imaged in the lower crust. We assert that the flux of deep magmatic fluids during rift initiation plays a key role in weakening lithosphere and localizing strain. High surface gas fluxes, fault-fed hydrothermal springs and persistent seismicity highlight the East African Rift as the ideal natural laboratory for investigating fluid-driven faulting processes in extensional tectonic environments.

  18. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  19. The experience of living with stroke in low urban and rural socioeconomic areas of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maleka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of stroke on stroke survivors are profound and affecttheir quality of life. The aim of this study was to establish the experience of peopleliving with stroke in low socioeconomic urban and rural areas of South Africa.A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was used to collect data.Participants were identified from stroke registers and recruited from PHC clinicsin Soweto, Gauteng and Limpopo provinces. Participants had to have had a stroke,be above the age of 18 and had lived in the community six months to a year followingtheir stroke. The researcher or research assistant conducted the interviews ofparticipants who had had strokes as well as their caregivers in the home language of the participants. The interviewswere audio taped, transcribed and translated into English. A thematic content analysis was done.Thirty two participants were interviewed, 13 from Soweto, Gauteng, and 19 from rural Limpopo provinces. Theresults suggest that the sudden, overwhelming transformation as a result of a stroke forms a background for loss ofcommunity mobility, social isolation, role reversal within the family and community, loss of role within the family andcommunity, loss of meaningful activities of daily living, loss of hope and threat to livelihood amongst stroke survivorsliving in low socioeconomic areas of South Africa.An overwhelming picture of despondency was found, with few positive stories told in both settings. The themesidentified from the interviews reflected the experience and issues that a patient with stroke has to deal with in lowsocioeconomic areas of South Africa.

  20. Climate change projections of precipitation and reference evapotranspiration for the Middle East and Northern Africa until 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terink, W.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Droogers, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region can be considered as the most water-scarce region of the world. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects strong changes in climate across MENA, further exacerbating pressure on available water resources. The objective of this study is to u

  1. After Shaking his hand, start counting your fingers. Trust and Images in Indian business networks, East Africa 1900-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Oonk (Gijsbert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this study I examine how ‘ethnic’ trading networks are created and recreated, but may also fracture and fall apart. This occurred among some Indian groups in East Africa, who initially strengthened their economic and cultural ties with India by maintaining intensive trade relations

  2. Taxonomy and genetic structure of Meru oak populations, Vitex keniensis Turrill and Vitex fischeri Gürke, in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahenda, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    Vitex keniensis Turrill (Verbenaceae), the Meru oak, is a popular but threatened indigenous forest tree species in East Africa valued for high quality timber, fast growth, edible fruits, medicine, bee forage (honey). The tree has a high agroforestry potential. However,

  3. Molecular records of climate variability and vegetation response since the Late Pleistocene in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berke, M.A.; Johnson, T.C.; Werne, J.P.; Grice, K.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    New molecular proxies of temperature and hydrology are helping to constrain tropical climate change and elucidate possible forcing mechanisms during the Holocene. Here, we examine a similar to 14,000 year record of climate variability from Lake Victoria, East Africa, the world's second largest

  4. Diversity and transboundary mobility of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus in East Africa: Implications for vaccination policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila; Sangula, Abraham; Heller, Rasmus;

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O has been responsible for most reported outbreaks of the disease in East Africa. A sustained campaign for the past 40 years to control FMD mainly by vaccination, combined with quarantine and zoosanitary measures has been undertaken with limited success...

  5. Randomized Impact Evaluation of Education Interventions: Experiences and Lessons from a Reading to Learn Intervention in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Abuya, Benta; Oketch, Moses; Admassu, Kassahun; Mutisya, Maurice; Musyoka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences and lessons learnt during the design and implementation of the randomized impact evaluation (IE) of a reading to learn (RtL) intervention in early primary grades. The study was to assess the impact of RtL on literacy and numeracy among pupils in low-performing districts in East Africa. The intervention was…

  6. The internet and business process outsourcing in East Africa : value chains and connectivity-based enterprises in Kenya and Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, L.E.; Graham, M.; Friederici, N.

    2014-01-01

    Internet connectivity is widely considered to be a game changer for knowledge economies of developing countries. The arrival of submarine fibre-optic underwater cables in East Africa in 2009 and 2010 is seen by many as a strong case in point. The fast evolution of the information and communication

  7. Internationalization "vs" Regionalization of Higher Education in East Africa and the Challenges of Quality Assurance and Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogachi, Oanda

    2009-01-01

    Internationalization of higher education in East Africa raises various questions related to its magnitude and intensity, its capacity to address issues of access, equity and regional research and developmental needs. Internationalization and regionalization as processes in higher education can synergize each other but can also limit the success of…

  8. After Shaking his hand, start counting your fingers. Trust and Images in Indian business networks, East Africa 1900-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Oonk (Gijsbert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this study I examine how ‘ethnic’ trading networks are created and recreated, but may also fracture and fall apart. This occurred among some Indian groups in East Africa, who initially strengthened their economic and cultural ties with India by maintaining intensive trade relations an

  9. Trust and tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A comparative perspective on the impact of the Arab uprisings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are expected to have influenced two key civic attitudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessments of the general patterns and particularities in this region are ra

  10. A Human Economy: A "Third Way" for the Future of Young People in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent…

  11. Effects of cattle and manure management on the nutrient economy of mixed farms in East Africa: A scenario study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Meer, van der H.G.; Onduru, D.D.; Ebanyat, P.; Ergano, K.; Zake, J.Y.K.; Wouters, A.P.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Keulen, van H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores effects of animal and manure management in a dairy unit on the nutrient economy of crop-livestock farms in East Africa. For this purpose, 8 cattle management scenarios have been developed based on farming systems in Mbeere, Kenya (extensive), Wakiso, Uganda (semi-intensive) and K

  12. U.S. Students Study Abroad in the Middle East/North Africa: Factors Influencing Growing Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Toomey, Cara K.; Lane, Shannon R.

    2013-01-01

    The political events of the last decade and the Arab Spring have made it more important than ever for Americans to understand the language, culture, and history of the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. Study abroad is one important method that can significantly increase American students' understanding of the Arabic language and the culture…

  13. Increasing land pressure in East Africa: The changing role of cassava and consequences for sustainability of farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing land pressure during the past three to four decades has transformed farming systems in the mid-altitude zone of East Africa. Traditional millet-, cotton-, sugarcane- and/or banana-based farming systems with an important fallow and/or grazing component have evolved into continuously cultiv

  14. The internet and business process outsourcing in East Africa : value chains and connectivity-based enterprises in Kenya and Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, L.; Graham, M.; Friederici, N.

    2014-01-01

    Internet connectivity is widely considered to be a game changer for knowledge economies of developing countries. The arrival of submarine fibre-optic underwater cables in East Africa in 2009 and 2010 is seen by many as a strong case in point. The fast evolution of the information and communication t

  15. Differences in health care seeking behaviour between rural and urban communities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Hoeven Marinka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to explore possible differences in health care seeking behaviour among a rural and urban African population. Design A cross sectional design was followed using the infrastructure of the PURE-SA study. Four rural and urban Setswana communities which represented different strata of urbanisation in the North West Province, South Africa, were selected. Structured interviews were held with 206 participants. Data on general demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health and (access to health care was collected. Results The results clearly illustrated differences in socio-economic characteristics, health status, beliefs about health, and health care utilisation. In general, inhabitants of urban communities rated their health significantly better than rural participants. Although most urban and rural participants consider their access to health care as sufficient, they still experienced difficulties in receiving the requested care. The difference in employment rate between urban and rural communities in this study indicated that participants of urban communities were more likely to be employed. Consequently, participants from rural communities had a significantly lower available weekly budget, not only for health care itself, but also for transport to the health care facility. Urban participants were more than 5 times more likely to prefer a medical doctor in private practice (OR:5.29, 95% CI 2.83-988. Conclusion Recommendations are formulated for infrastructure investments in rural communities, quality of health care and its perception, improvement of household socio-economical status and further research on the consequences of delay in health care seeking behaviour.

  16. Mapping and quantification of organic agro-industrial residues in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and water ways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. The utilization of these resources for production of valuable products would contribute significantly to: Improvement of the local energy supply, through production of bio-energy; Improvement of the economy of the East African agro-industry; Reduction of the environmental impact from the agro-industrial sector. Except for production of cane sugar, most agro-industrial residues are generated from cash crops, which are produced and processed in the developing countries and where the final products mainly are used for export. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In addition significant quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The total potential methane production of the residues available for use in biomethanization systems in East Africa is 189.61 million m{sup 3} of methane per year. Converted to diesel oil equivalents and including the residues only feasible for combustion systems, the total bioenergy potential of agro-industrial residues in Eastern Africa is 279,176 TOE. If this potential was fully utilized for production of electricity, it would correspond to installed effects of 37,68 and 31 MW in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, respectively, equivalent to 10%, 11% and 18% of the currently installed effect is these countries. Residues from sisal and coffee processing constitute the main part of the bioenergy potential, on average approximately 75%, while the remaining 25% of the potential are formed by the

  17. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  18. Comparative SWOT analysis of strategic environmental assessment systems in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, G; El Fadel, M

    2013-08-15

    This paper presents a SWOT analysis of SEA systems in the Middle East North Africa region through a comparative examination of the status, application and structure of existing systems based on country-specific legal, institutional and procedural frameworks. The analysis is coupled with the multi-attribute decision making method (MADM) within an analytical framework that involves both performance analysis based on predefined evaluation criteria and countries' self-assessment of their SEA system through open-ended surveys. The results show heterogenous status with a general delayed progress characterized by varied levels of weaknesses embedded in the legal and administrative frameworks and poor integration with the decision making process. Capitalizing on available opportunities, the paper highlights measures to enhance the development and enactment of SEA in the region.

  19. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl C. Fahed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East and North Africa (MENA region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships.

  20. Burden of Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD) in Middle East and North Africa (MENA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdallah, F Chermiti; Taktak, S; Chtourou, A; Mahouachi, R; Kheder, Ali Ben

    2011-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases involve a heterogenous group of diseases, including, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, sleep apnea syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, and many occupational diseases. They affect more than one billion people worldwide. Their medical, social, and economic impacts are heavy, especially in developing countries such as Middle East and North Africa countries, where they represent a public health problem. They are essentially represented by COPD, asthma, and allergic diseases. Chronic respiratory diseases are increasing in frequency, morbidity, and mortality. In addition, their economic and social impact is increasing rapidly in this region. Main risk factors are represented by tobacco smoking and exposure to biomass fuel. Smoking prevention and standardized management programs for asthma and COPD are now available but prompt actions are needed to make them more effective in this region and thus avoid an adverse impact on national economic development.

  1. Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Serrhini, Mohammed; Felgueiras, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This book contains a selection of articles from The Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016 (EMENA-TSSL'16), held between the 3th and 5th of October at Saidia, Oujda, Morocco. EMENA-TSSL'16 is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss recent results and innovations, current trends, professional experiences and challenges in Information & Communication Technologies, and Security to support Learning. The main topics covered are: A) Online Education; B) Emerging Technologies in Education; C) Artificial Intelligence in Education; D) Gamification and Serious games; E) Network & Web Technologies Applications; F) Online experimentation and Virtual Laboratories; G) Multimedia Systems and Applications; H) Security and Privacy; I) Multimedia, Computer Vision and Image Processing; J) Cloud, Big Data Analytics and Applications; K) Human-Computer Interaction; L) Software Systems, Architectures, Applications and Tools; M) Onli...

  2. The Food Crises and Political Instability in North Africa and the Middle East

    CERN Document Server

    Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2011-01-01

    Social unrest may reflect a variety of factors such as poverty, unemployment, and social injustice. Despite the many possible contributing factors, the timing of violent protests in North Africa and the Middle East in 2011 as well as earlier riots in 2008 coincides with large peaks in global food prices. We identify a specific food price threshold above which protests become likely. These observations suggest that protests may reflect not only long-standing political failings of governments, but also the sudden desperate straits of vulnerable populations. If food prices remain high, there is likely to be persistent and increasing global social disruption. Underlying the food price peaks we also find an ongoing trend of increasing prices. We extrapolate these trends and identify a crossing point to the domain of high impacts, even without price peaks, in 2012-2013. This implies that avoiding global food crises and associated social unrest requires rapid and concerted action.

  3. Gender and Sustainable Forest Management in East Africa and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Mwangi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of forest management across four countries in East Africa and Latin America: Kenya, Uganda, Bolivia, and Mexico. It focuses on one question: Do varying proportions of women (low, mixed, high in forest user groups influence their likelihood of adopting forest resource enhancing behavior? We found that higher proportions of females in user groups, and especially user groups dominated by females, perform less well than mixed groups or male dominated ones. We suggest that these differences may be related to three factors: gender biases in technology access and dissemination, a labor constraint faced by women, and a possible limitation to women's sanctioning authority. Mixed female and male groups offer an avenue for exploiting the strengths of women and men, while tempering their individual shortcomings.

  4. Pathways to healing: curative travel among Muslims and non-Muslims in eastern East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, David

    2014-01-01

    Two areas of therapeutic provision in eastern East Africa are contrasted: a coastal stretch inhabited mainly by Muslims, and a largely non-Muslim hinterland, each with its own healers, medicines, and customary ethic. Spread over both areas are providers of biomedicine associated originally, and to some extent today, with Christianity. Whether or not they also attend biomedical sites, Muslims seek healers in the coastal stretch and non-Muslims usually in the hinterland, each following ethico-religious preferences. However, because people move through the two areas and compare treatments, individuals' journeys can change direction, with non-Muslims sometimes seeking Muslim healers and either of these groups choosing the more dispersed biomedical outlets. The notion of 'pathways' to health thus combines set journeys to areas known for particular healers and a distinctive ethic, with possible detours to alternative sources of therapy, including biomedicine not regarded as governed by the same ethic.

  5. Compilation of the GSHAP regional seismic hazard for Europe, Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mayer-Rosa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic hazard map of the larger Europe-Africa-Middle East region has been generated as part of the global GSHAP hazard map. The hazard, expressing Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA expected at 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, is obtained by combining the results of 16 independent regional and national projects; among these is the hazard assessment for Libya and for the wide sub-Saharan Western African region, specifically produced for this regional compilation and here discussed to some length. Features of enhanced seismic hazard are observed along the African rift zone and in the Alpine-Himalayan belt, where there is a general eastward increase in hazard with peak levels in Greece, Turkey, Caucasus and Iran.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Torini Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkenhagen, Kai

    2017-02-22

    Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea. The Tigris-Euphrates system is an important crossroad for the colonisation of the Jordan River, the Orontes River and the watercourses of the Arabian Peninsula by freshwater fishes. The Jordan lost its connection to the Euphrates earlier than the Orontes. The Arabian Peninsula was colonised from the Tigris-Euphrates system in at least two independent events.

  7. Distribution and variability of deformed wing virus of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Noureddine, Adjlane; Al-Shagour, Banan; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; El-Niweiri, Mogbel A A; Anaswah, Eman; Hammour, Wafaa Abu; El-Obeid, Dany; Imad, Albaba; Shebl, Mohamed A; Almaleky, Abdulhusien Sehen; Nasher, Abdullah; Walid, Nagara; Bergigui, Mohamed Fouad; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2017-02-01

    Three hundred and eleven honeybee samples from 12 countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) (Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Yemen, Palestine, and Sudan) were analyzed for the presence of deformed wing virus (DWV). The prevalence of DWV throughout the MENA region was pervasive, but variable. The highest prevalence was found in Lebanon and Syria, with prevalence dropping in Palestine, Jordan, and Egypt before increasing slightly moving westwards to Algeria and Morocco Phylogenetic analysis of a 194 nucleotide section of the DWV Lp gene did not identify any significant phylogenetic resolution among the samples, although the sequences did show consistent regional clustering, including an interesting geographic gradient from Morocco through North Africa to Jordan and Syria. The sequences revealed several clear variability hotspots in the deduced amino acid sequence, which furthermore showed some patterns of regional identity. Furthermore, the sequence variants from the Middle East and North Africa appear more numerous and diverse than those from Europe.

  8. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  9. Climate risk management information, sources and responses in a pastoral region in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Egeru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralists in East Africa face a range of stressors, climate variability and change being one of them. Effective climate risk management involves managing the full range of variability and balancing hazard management with efforts to capitalise on opportunity; climate risk management information is central in this process. In this study, pastoralists’ perceptions of climate change, climate risk management information types, sources and attendant responses in a pastoral region in East Africa are examined. Through a multi-stage sampling process, a total of 198 heads of households in three districts were selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 29 focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to generate qualitative information to supplement survey data. Descriptive and thematic analysis were utilised in summarizing the data. Ninety-nine percent of the pastoralists noted that the climate had changed evidenced by high but erratic rainfall, occurrence of floods and variation in rainfall onset and cessation among other indicators. This change in climate had led to emergence of ‘new’ livestock and crop diseases, crop failure and low yields leading to frequent food shortages, water shortages, poor market access, and variation in pasture availability among other effects. Climate risk management information was received from multiple sources including; radio, diviners, community meetings, shrine elders, humanitarian agencies, and Uganda People’s defence forces (UPDF. Community meetings were however perceived as most accessible, reliable and dependable sources of information. Shifting livestock to dry season grazing and watering areas, selling firewood and charcoal, seeking for military escorts to grazing areas, purchasing veterinary drugs, shifting livestock to disease ‘free’ areas, and performing rituals (depending on the perceived risk constituted a set of responses undertaken in

  10. MENA 1.1 - An Updated Geophysical Regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, B.; Pasyanos, M.E.; Bhattacharyya, J.; O' Boyle, J.

    2000-03-01

    This short report provides an update to the earlier LLNL paper entitled ''Preliminary Definition of Geophysical Regions for the Middle East and North Africa'' (Sweeney and Walter, 1998). This report is designed to be used in combination with that earlier paper. The reader is referred to Sweeney and Walter (1998) for all details, including definitions, references, uses, shortcomings, etc., of the regionalization process. In this report we will discuss only those regions in which we have changed the boundaries or velocity structure from that given by the original paper. The paper by Sweeney and Walter (1998) drew on a variety of sources to estimate a preliminary, first-order regionalization of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), providing regional boundaries and velocity models within each region. The model attempts to properly account for major structural discontinuities and significant crustal thickness and velocity variations on a gross scale. The model can be used to extrapolate sparse calibration data within a distinct geophysical region. This model can also serve as a background model in the process of forming station calibration maps using intelligent interpolation techniques such as kriging, extending the calibration into aseismic areas. Such station maps can greatly improve the ability to locate and identify seismic events, which in turn improves the ability to seismically monitor for underground nuclear testing. The original model from Sweeney and Walter (1998) was digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution, for simplicity we will hereafter refer to this model as MENA 1.0. The new model described here has also been digitized to a 1{sup o} resolution and will be referred to as MENA1.1 throughout this report.

  11. Capacity Building to Support Governmental Meteorological and Agricultural Communities in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, S. L.; Macharia, D.; Das, N.; Andreadis, K.; Ines, A.

    2016-12-01

    There is a recognized need for data to support decision-making and planning in East Africa where people and national economies depend on rain fed agriculture and are vulnerable to a changing climate and extreme weather events. However, capacity to use existing global data stores and transition promising tools is a gap that severely limits the use and adoption of these data and tools. Although most people think of capacity building as simply training, it is really much more than that and has been more thoroughly described in the public health community as…."the process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world." Data and tools from NASA and other providers are often not used as they could be for technical and institutional reasons. On the technical side, there is the perception that global data stores are impenetrable requiring special expertise to access them, even if the data can be accessed, the technical expertise to understand and use the data and tools may be lacking, and there can be a mismatch between science data and existing user tools. On the institutional side, it may be perceived that remote sensing data and tools are too "expensive", support from upper management may be non-existent due to limited resources or lack of interest, and there can be a lack of appreciation of data and statistics in decision making. How do we overcome some of these barriers to advance the use of remote sensing for applications and to ease transition of data and tools to stakeholders? Experience from recent capacity building efforts in East Africa in support of a NASA-SERVIR Applied Science Project to provide estimates of hydrologic extremes tied to crop yield will be discussed.

  12. Investigating the terrestrial-atmospheric water balance for the Tana River basin, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The fully coupled atmospheric-hydrological WRF-Hydro modeling system is applied to the Tana River basin (TRB) in East Africa for the period 2011-2014 in order to analyze the terrestrial-atmospheric water balance components and their feedback mechanisms. The outputs from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF stand-alone model. The study area encompasses the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km²) in the upper TRB. Our model set up consists of two domains at 25 km and 5 km horizontal resolution covering East Africa and the study area, respectively. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at a 500 m horizontal grid resolution. The simulated monthly precipitation over the subcatchment compared with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data gives an overall correlation coefficient of 0.8/0.7 for fully coupled/stand-alone model and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.5 mm/day for both models for the entire simulation period. Overall the models yield more annual total precipitation compared to TRMM. The two models are drier during the March, April, May (MAM) season and wetter during the October, November, December (OND) season. Compared to observation stations, both modeling systems provide a correlation coefficient of 0.6 for precipitation. The simulated and observed discharges at the Tana Rukanga gauge, located in the subcatchment, exhibit a correlation coefficient of 0.5 at daily resolution. The WRF-Hydro also overestimates the cumulated discharge (2011-2014) by about 50 %. The analysis of the atmospheric water balance in both WRF and WRF-Hydro simulation reveals a positive moisture divergence during the MAM and OND rainy seasons. Precipitation recycling and efficiency measures derived from the atmospheric water budget are also investigated.

  13. Challenges with routine data sources for PMTCT programme monitoring in East Africa: insights from Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Gourlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Routinely collected clinic data have the potential to provide much needed information on the uptake of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV, and to measure HIV prevalence in pregnant women. This article describes the methodological challenges associated with using such data, based on the experiences of researchers and programme implementers in Tanzania and drawing from other examples from East Africa. PMTCT data are routinely collected in maternal and child health (MCH clinics in East Africa using paper-based registers corresponding to distinct services within the PMTCT service continuum. This format has inherent limitations with respect to maintaining and accurately recording unique identifiers that can link patients across the different clinics (antenatal, delivery, child, and also poses challenges when compiling aggregate data. Recent improvements to recording systems include assigning unique identifiers to HIV-positive pregnant women in MCH clinics, although this should ideally be extended to all pregnant women, and recording mother and infant identifiers alongside each other in registers. The use of ‘health passports’, as in Malawi, which maintains the same antenatal clinic identifier over time, also holds promise. Routine data hold tremendous potential for clinic-level patient management, surveillance, and evaluating PMTCT/MCH programmes. Linking clinic data to community research datasets can also provide population-level estimates of coverage with PMTCT services, currently a problematic but vital statistic for monitoring programme performance and negotiating donor funding. Enhancements to indexing and recording of routine PMTCT/MCH data are needed if we are to capitalise on this rich data source.

  14. Accuracy of teleseismic event locations in the Middle East and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1996-12-04

    Seismic characterization at the regional level requires accurate determination of phases and travel times for many combinations of stations and events. An important consideration in the process is the accuracy of event locations. The LLNL Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Research Program is currently working on data from the Middle East and North Africa, where seismic station coverage is relatively sparse and ``ground truth`` seismic source information is practically nonexistent. In this report the investigator use after shock studies as a source of local ground truth. He evaluates teleseismic location accuracy by comparing hypocenters determined by local networks with those determined teleseismically [e.g. the International Seismological Center (ISC) and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC)]. Epicentral locations, origin times, and depth determinations of events from three aftershocks studies (Algeria, Armenia, and Iran) and one local network study (Iran) are compared with ISC and NEIC locations for the same events. The key parameter for the ISC locations is the number of observations used in the location determination. For more than 40-50 observations, the agreement rapidly diminishes and ISC locations can differ from local determinations by as much as 80 km or more. Events in Iran show a distinct bias of ISC location errors toward the northeast; events in Armenia and Algeria show no directional bias. This study shows that only events with ISC M{sub b} {gt} 4.4-4.5 or NEIS M{sub b} {gt} 4.7-4. should be used for compiling travel time information from teleseismic bulletins in the Middle East/North Africa region when locations from the NEIC and ISC bulletins are used.

  15. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Savioli, Lorenzo; Fenwick, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major) and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica) forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  16. Neglected tropical diseases of the Middle East and North Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and opportunities for control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are highly endemic but patchily distributed among the 20 countries and almost 400 million people of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region, and disproportionately affect an estimated 65 million people living on less than US$2 per day. Egypt has the largest number of people living in poverty of any MENA nation, while Yemen has the highest prevalence of people living in poverty. These two nations stand out for having suffered the highest rates of many NTDs, including the soil-transmitted nematode infections, filarial infections, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, leprosy, and trachoma, although they should be recognized for recent measures aimed at NTD control. Leishmaniasis, especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, is endemic in Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, and elsewhere in the region. Both zoonotic (Leishmania major and anthroponotic (Leishmania tropica forms are endemic in MENA in rural arid regions and urban regions, respectively. Other endemic zoonotic NTDs include cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis, and brucellosis. Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia, where Rift Valley fever and Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever have also emerged. Great strides have been made towards elimination of several endemic NTDs, including lymphatic filariasis in Egypt and Yemen; schistosomiasis in Iran, Morocco, and Oman; and trachoma in Morocco, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. A particularly noteworthy achievement is the long battle waged against schistosomiasis in Egypt, where prevalence has been brought down by regular praziquantel treatment. Conflict and human and animal migrations are key social determinants in preventing the control or elimination of NTDs in the MENA, while local political will, strengthened international and intersectoral cooperative efforts for surveillance, mass drug administration, and vaccination are essential for elimination.

  17. Dispersal and colonisation, long and short chronologies: how continuous is the Early Pleistocene record for hominids outside East Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the evidence for hominids outside East Africa during the Early Pleistocene. Most attention has focused recently on the evidence for or against a late Pliocene dispersal, ca. 1.8 Ma., of hominids out of Africa into Asia and possibly southern Europe. Here, the focus is widened to include North Africa as well as southern Asia and Europe, as well as the evidence in these regions for hominids after their first putative appearance ca. 1.8 Ma. It suggests that overall there is very little evidence for hominids in most of these regions before the Middle Pleistocene. Consequently, it concludes that the colonising capabilities of Homo erectus may have been seriously over-rated, and that even if hominids did occupy parts of North Africa, southern Europe and southern Asia shortly after 2 Ma, there is little evidence of colonisation. Whilst further fieldwork will doubtless slowly fill many gaps in a poorly documented Lower Pleistocene hominid record, it appears premature to conclude that the appearance of hominids in North Africa, Europe and Asia was automatically followed by permanent settlement. Rather, current data are more consistent with the view that Lower Pleistocene hominid populations outside East Africa were often spatially and temporally discontinuous, that hominid expansion was strongly constrained by latitude, and that occupation of temperate latitudes north of latitude 40 degrees was largely confined to interglacial periods.

  18. Indian Ocean Climate event brings floods to East Africa's lakes and the Sudd Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkett, Charon; Murtugudde, Ragu; Allan, Tony

    During an El Niño, the expected rainfall increase over most of the Lake Victoria catchment area is ˜15-25%. However, due to anomalous warming of the western equatorial Indian Ocean during 1997, strong convection developed over parts of the Horn and eastern Africa. This resulted in a much larger 20-160% precipitation excess during the “short rainy” season. Satellite radar altimetry data reveals that not only did Lake Victoria rise by ˜1.7 m, but that the rainfall event similarly affected lakes Tanganyika, Malawi and Turkana. In addition, the seasonal level minima of the Sudd marshes and Lakes T'ana and Nasser continue to increase. Such a rainfall event will have severe, long-term consequences for the natural surface flows and storages along the White Nile. Based on the hydrological impacts of the historic 1961 East Africa event, we can expect the current high levels of Lake Victoria to be maintained for the remainder of this decade. In addition, we anticipate a major expansion of the permanent swamp regions of the Sudd marshes over the forthcoming seasons. Blue Nile flows, further enhanced by the above-average 1998 rainfall season, can also be expected to remain high, at least until early 1999.

  19. The Intertropical Convergence Zone over the Middle East and North Africa: Detection and Trends

    KAUST Repository

    Scott, Anna A.

    2013-05-01

    This thesis provides an overview of identifying the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The ITCZ is a zone of wind convergence around the equator that coincides with an area of intense precipitation that is commonly termed a tropical rainbelt. In Africa, these two concepts are frequently confounded. This work studies the correlation between precipitation and commonly used ITCZ indicators. A further attempt is made to detect movement in the African ITCZ, based on earlier paleontological studies showing historical changes in precipitation. Zonally averaged wind convergence is found to be the most reliable indicator of the African ITCZ, one having a low correlation with zonally averaged precipitation. Precipitation is found only to be a reliable indicator for the African ITCZ in zones near the wind convergence, which reaches as far north as 20_N in the summer. No secular change in location of the African ITCZ is found for the time of available data. Finally, historical data shows that any increase in precipitation in the Sahel, a region where precipitation is driven by the ITCZ, is mildly negatively correlated with precipitation in the rainbelt area, suggesting that shifts in the ITCZ result in a widening of the precipitation profile as well as a shift of the entire zone.

  20. Mineral deposit formation in Phanerozoic sedimentary basins of north-east Africa: the contribution of weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Klaus; Schwarz, Torsten; Wipki, Mario

    1994-12-01

    The intra- and epicontinental basins in north-east Africa (Egypt, Sudan) bear ample evidence of weathering processes repeatedly having contributed to the formation of mineral deposits throughout the Phanerozoic. The relict primary weathering mantle of Pan-African basement rocks consists of kaolinitic saprolite, laterite (in places bauxitic) and iron oxide crust. On the continent, the reaccumulation of eroded weathering-derived clay minerals (mainly kaolinite) occurred predominantly in fluvio-lacustrine environments, and floodplain and coastal plain deposits. Iron oxides, delivered from ferricretes, accumulated as oolitic ironstones in continental and marine sediments. Elements leached from weathering profiles accumulated in continental basins forming silcrete and alunite or in the marine environment contributing to the formation of attapulgite/saprolite and phosphorites. The Early Paleozoic Tawiga bauxitic laterite of northern Sudan gives a unique testimony of high latitude lateritic weathering under global greenhouse conditions. It formed in close spatial and temporal vicinity to the Late Ordovician glaciation in north Africa. The record of weathering products is essentially complete for the Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary. From the continental sources in the south to the marine sinks in the north, an almost complete line of lateritic and laterite-derived deposits of bauxitic kaolin, kaolin, iron oxides and phosphates is well documented.

  1. 'Behaving well': the transition to respectable womanhood in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennott, Christie; A Mojola, Sanyu

    2016-12-09

    Few studies of the transition to adulthood in Africa analyse young people's own definitions of the events that confer adult status, and how adulthood is actually attained. This paper examines the experience of transitioning to womanhood in rural Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, drawing on interviews with 18 women aged 18-39. Three primary experiences characterised this transition: puberty and emerging body awareness, spending time with boys, and having a child. More important than the timing of these experiences, however, was whether women 'behaved well' and maintained respectability as they transitioned to adulthood. Behavioural standards reinforcing ideal femininity were focused on dress, manner and talk, and were particularly stringent for mothers. Findings emphasise the value of emic models of adulthood for understanding how youth experience this transition and provide an important counter-narrative to the literature focused primarily on the risk African youth face during this period of change in the life course.

  2. Where every drop counts: tackling rural Africa's water crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Jamie

    2009-03-15

    In rural Africa, 'water poverty' can destroy lives and livelihoods. Children under five are highly vulnerable to waterborne diseases. While a broken waterpipe in London may be a temporary inconvenience, a failed well in sub-Saharan Africa is potentially catastrophic. And this is a catastrophe that is spreading across the continent, where an estimated 50,000 water supply points have effectively died. The root cause is the water community's failure to plan for maintenance of the infrastructure in a systematic way, creating a massive drag on meeting the Millennium Development Goal target on water and sanitation. Yet blueprints for building and financing wells of all types are available, and long-term provision of safe water is not rocket science. To be sustainable, direct investment in water supply infrastructure also needs to address the issue of who will maintain it, and where the money and skills to do so will come from.

  3. mtDNA variation in East Africa unravels the history of Afro-Asiatic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boattini, Alessio; Castrì, Loredana; Sarno, Stefania; Useli, Antonella; Cioffi, Manuela; Sazzini, Marco; Garagnani, Paolo; De Fanti, Sara; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2013-03-01

    East Africa (EA) has witnessed pivotal steps in the history of human evolution. Due to its high environmental and cultural variability, and to the long-term human presence there, the genetic structure of modern EA populations is one of the most complicated puzzles in human diversity worldwide. Similarly, the widespread Afro-Asiatic (AA) linguistic phylum reaches its highest levels of internal differentiation in EA. To disentangle this complex ethno-linguistic pattern, we studied mtDNA variability in 1,671 individuals (452 of which were newly typed) from 30 EA populations and compared our data with those from 40 populations (2970 individuals) from Central and Northern Africa and the Levant, affiliated to the AA phylum. The genetic structure of the studied populations--explored using spatial Principal Component Analysis and Model-based clustering--turned out to be composed of four clusters, each with different geographic distribution and/or linguistic affiliation, and signaling different population events in the history of the region. One cluster is widespread in Ethiopia, where it is associated with different AA-speaking populations, and shows shared ancestry with Semitic-speaking groups from Yemen and Egypt and AA-Chadic-speaking groups from Central Africa. Two clusters included populations from Southern Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania. Despite high and recent gene-flow (Bantu, Nilo-Saharan pastoralists), one of them is associated with a more ancient AA-Cushitic stratum. Most North-African and Levantine populations (AA-Berber, AA-Semitic) were grouped in a fourth and more differentiated cluster. We therefore conclude that EA genetic variability, although heavily influenced by migration processes, conserves traces of more ancient strata.

  4. Solid waste characterization in Kétao, a rural town in Togo, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    In Africa the majority of solid waste data is for big cities. Small and rural towns are generally neglected and waste data from these areas are often unavailable, which makes planning a proper solid waste management difficult. This paper presents the results from two waste characterization projects...... locally and do not enter the waste stream. The study suggests that additional recycling is not feasible, but further examination of the degradability of the organic fraction is needed in order to assess whether the residual waste should be composed or landfilled....... conducted in Kétao, a rural town in Togo during the rainy season and the dry season in 2010. The seasonal variation has a significant impact on the waste stream. The household waste generation rate was estimated at 0.22 kg person−1 day−1 in the dry season and 0.42 in the rainy season. Likewise, the waste...

  5. Improving Internet coverage in rural Africa by using passive repeaters in the home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    2016-01-01

    Providing last-mile Internet access to rural areas in Africa is a very challenging task, i.e. many more or less successful attempts have been made over the years. One solution that seems to offer a sustainable business case is based on WiFi base stations with access points placed in the centers...... of the villages. Nevertheless, this solution has a limited range, especially inside the homes where the wall attenuation dominates. This paper provides a solution in the form of deploying a cheap, simple, and powerless passive repeater on the shielding walls. By simulating the WiFi radio-link between a base...

  6. Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives.

  7. A 17-My-old whale constrains onset of uplift and climate change in east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichura, Henry; Jacobs, Louis L.; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J.; Manthi, Fredrick K.; Winkler, Dale A.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Clemens, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Timing and magnitude of surface uplift are key to understanding the impact of crustal deformation and topographic growth on atmospheric circulation, environmental conditions, and surface processes. Uplift of the East African Plateau is linked to mantle processes, but paleoaltimetry data are too scarce to constrain plateau evolution and subsequent vertical motions associated with rifting. Here, we assess the paleotopographic implications of a beaked whale fossil (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region of Kenya found 740 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean at an elevation of 620 m. The specimen is ∼17 My old and represents the oldest derived beaked whale known, consistent with molecular estimates of the emergence of modern strap-toothed whales (Mesoplodon). The whale traveled from the Indian Ocean inland along an eastward-directed drainage system controlled by the Cretaceous Anza Graben and was stranded slightly above sea level. Surface uplift from near sea level coincides with paleoclimatic change from a humid environment to highly variable and much drier conditions, which altered biotic communities and drove evolution in east Africa, including that of primates.

  8. Training for rural radiology and imaging in sub-saharan Africa: addressing the mismatch between services and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawooya, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to outline the needs, challenges, and training interventions for rural radiology (RR) training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Rural radiology may be defined as imaging requirements of the rural communities. In SSA, over 80% of the population is rural. The literature was reviewed to determine the need for imaging in rural Africa, the challenges, and training interventions. Up to 50% of the patients in the rural health facilities in Uganda may require imaging, largely ultrasound and plain radiography. In Uganda, imaging is performed, on an average, in 50% of the deserving patients in the urban areas, compared to 10-13 % in the rural areas. Imaging has been shown to increase the utilization of facility-based rural health services and to impact management decisions. The challenges in the rural areas are different from those in the urban areas. These are related to disease spectrum, human resource, and socio-economic, socio-cultural, infrastructural, and academic disparities. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, for which information on training intervention was available, included: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zambia, Ghana, Malawi, and Sudan. Favorable national policies had been instrumental in implementing these interventions. The interventions had been made by public, private-for-profit (PFP), private-not-for profit (PNFP), local, and international academic institutions, personal initiatives, and professional societies. Ultrasound and plain radiography were the main focus. Despite these efforts, there were still gross disparities in the RR services for SSA. In conclusion, there have been training interventions targeted toward RR in Africa. However, gross disparities in RR provision persist, requiring an effective policy, plus a more organized, focused, and sustainable approach, by the stakeholders.

  9. Training for Rural Radiology and Imaging in Sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing the Mismatch Between Services and Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Kawooya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review are to outline the needs, challenges, and training interventions for rural radiology (RR training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Rural radiology may be defined as imaging requirements of the rural communities. In SSA, over 80% of the population is rural. The literature was reviewed to determine the need for imaging in rural Africa, the challenges, and training interventions. Up to 50% of the patients in the rural health facilities in Uganda may require imaging, largely ultrasound and plain radiography. In Uganda, imaging is performed, on an average, in 50% of the deserving patients in the urban areas, compared to 10-13 % in the rural areas. Imaging has been shown to increase the utilization of facility-based rural health services and to impact management decisions. The challenges in the rural areas are different from those in the urban areas. These are related to disease spectrum, human resource, and socio-economic, socio-cultural, infrastructural, and academic disparities. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, for which information on training intervention was available, included: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zambia, Ghana, Malawi, and Sudan. Favorable national policies had been instrumental in implementing these interventions. The interventions had been made by public, private-for-profit (PFP, private-not-for profit (PNFP, local, and international academic institutions, personal initiatives, and professional societies. Ultrasound and plain radiography were the main focus. Despite these efforts, there were still gross disparities in the RR services for SSA. In conclusion, there have been training interventions targeted toward RR in Africa. However, gross disparities in RR provision persist, requiring an effective policy, plus a more organized, focused, and sustainable approach, by the stakeholders.

  10. Using the integrated rural mobility and access (IRMA) approach in prospering rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available approach (IRMA) is presented. RURAL POVERTY AND DEPRIVATION Affordable and reliable transport is critical in enabling access to basic services and resources. Effective and efficient transport infrastructure and services act as stimuli for growth... and development as well as uplifting livelihoods through opening a range of socio-economic opportunities to individuals and communities alike. However, geographical isolation, long distances, poverty levels, poor infrastructure and limited transport services...

  11. Epidemic cholera in Guinea-Bissau: the challenge of preventing deaths in rural West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnlaugsson, G; Angulo, F J; Einarsdóttir, J; Passa, A; Tauxe, R V

    2000-01-01

    An epidemiologic investigation was conducted to identify factors associated with cholera mortality in a rural African setting and interventions likely to prevent deaths in future epidemics. The authors reviewed surveillance data from rural Biombo, Guinea-Bissau, interviewed family members of persons who died of cholera, and conducted a case-control study in the catchment area of a health center with a high case:fatality ratio (CFR). Forty-three deaths occurred among the 1169 persons who reported to health centers with cholera during the epidemic (CFR = 3.7%). Delayed rehydration and over-hydration probably contributed to 10 of these deaths. An additional 19 cholera deaths occurred outside health centers. In the case-control study, persons with cholera who died were 5.4 times (95% CI = 1.0-53.4) more likely to be in poor health or intoxicated at illness onset than persons with cholera who survived. Fatal cases were 6.0 times (95% CI = 1.1-60.8) more likely to not attend the health center than survivors. The low overall CFR in Biombo, compared to CFRs reported during other epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, suggests that medical care provided at rudimentary rural health centers prevented numerous deaths. Additional deaths may be prevented by strengthening the infrastructure of health services in the rural areas and by enhanced public education regarding the need for persons with cholera to promptly seek medical care.

  12. Mechanical strength of extended continental lithosphere: Constraints from the Western Rift System, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Cynthia J.; Karner, Garry D.; Weissel, Jeffrey K.

    1991-12-01

    Although regional isostasy generally is associated with continental lithospheric compression and foreland basin formation, local isostatic compensation commonly is assumed in models of extensional basin formation. The assumption of negligible lithospheric strength during rifting often is justified on the basis of: (1) high heat flow and temperatures produced by elevating the lithosphere - asthenosphere boundary and (2) fracturing of the crust and lithosphere by normal faults. By modeling the development of rift basins within the Western rift system of East Africa and their associated free air gravity anomalies, we assess the role of basin-producing normal faults in modifying the flexural strength of extended lithosphere. Heat flow and seismicity data from the East African plateau region indicate that the Western rift system located on the western side of the plateau developed in old, cold continental lithosphere. These relatively narrow (40-70 km wide), but deep, basins are bounded along one side by high-angle border faults that penetrate to lower crustal levels, as indicated by seismicity data. Along the length of the Western rift system, depth to pre-rift basement and rift flank topography vary between basins from 1 to 8 km and from 1 to 2 km respectively, with deeper basins generally correlating with higher flanks. Comparison of model predictions with topography and free air gravity profiles reveals that the basin depth and the flank height in the majority of the Western rift basins studied can be explained simply by small heaves (3-10 km) across the border fault and with significant flexural strength of the lithosphere maintained during extension. Where both observed basin depth and flank height could not be reproduced, basins were located adjacent to eruptive volcanic centers active in Miocene-Recent times. In these areas, basin depth, rift flank elevation, and free air gravity anomaly may be modified by magmatic underplating of the crust. Estimates of

  13. Evolutionary analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 isolates from east africa suggests two independent introductions from southern africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangula, Abraham K.; Belsham, Graham; Muwanika, Vincent B.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: In East Africa, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 1 is responsible for occasional severe outbreaks in livestock and is known to be maintained within the buffalo populations. Little is known about the evolutionary forces underlying its epidemiology in the region. To enhance our...... introductions from southern Africa were identified from a maximum clade credibility tree. One group was exclusive to Uganda while the other was present within Kenya and Tanzania. Conclusions: Our results provide a baseline characterization of the inter-regional spread of SAT 1 in sub-Saharan Africa...... appreciation of the epidemiological status of serotype SAT 1 virus in the region, we inferred its evolutionary and phylogeographic history by means of genealogy-based coalescent methods using 53 VP1 coding sequences covering a sampling period from 1948-2007. Results: The VP1 coding sequence of 11 serotype SAT...

  14. Meta-analysis of proportion estimates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonda, Tolbert; Kumburu, Happiness; van Zwetselaar, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    Background: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big the prob......Background: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big...... the problem really is. To gain insight into the magnitude and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa a literature search was performed in PubMed on 31 July 2015 to retrieve articles with relevant information on ESBL. Methods and results: Meta-analysis was performed...... to determine overall proportion estimate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 4076 bacterial isolates were included in the analysis. The overall pooled proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among included surveys done in East African hospitals was found to be 0. 42 (95 % CI: 0...

  15. Rural Poverty Dynamics and Refugee Communities in South Africa: A Spatial-Temporal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Kurt; Sartorius, Benn; Tollman, Stephen; Schatz, Enid; Kirsten, Johann; Collinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The assimilation of refugees into their host community economic structures is often problematic. The paper investigates the ability of refugees in rural South Africa to accumulate assets over time relative to their host community. Bayesian spatial-temporal modelling was employed to analyse a longitudinal database that indicated that the asset accumulation rate of former Mozambican refugee households was similar to their host community; however, they were unable to close the wealth gap. A series of geo-statistical wealth maps illustrate that there is a spatial element to the higher levels of absolute poverty in the former refugee villages. The primary reason for this is their physical location in drier conditions that are established further away from facilities and infrastructure. Neighbouring South African villages in close proximity, however, display lower levels of absolute poverty, suggesting that the spatial location of the refugees only partially explains their disadvantaged situation. In this regard, the results indicate that the wealth of former refugee households continues to be more compromised by higher mortality levels, poorer education, and less access to high-return employment opportunities. The long-term impact of low initial asset status appears to be perpetuated in this instance by difficulties in obtaining legal status in order to access state pensions, facilities, and opportunities. The usefulness of the results is that they can be used to sharpen the targeting of differentiated policy in a given geographical area for refugee communities in rural Africa. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A

    2010-06-03

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis of Mark Collinson, titled, 'Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa'. The findings show that in rural South Africa, temporary migration has a major impact on household well-being and health. Remittances from migrants make a significant difference to socioeconomic status (SES) in households left behind by the migrant. For the poorest households the key factors improving SES are government grants and female temporary migration, while for the less poor it is male temporary migration and local employment. Migration is associated with HIV but not in straightforward ways. Migrants that return more frequently may be less exposed to outside partners and therefore less implicated in the HIV epidemic. There are links between migration and mortality patterns, including a higher risk of dying for returnee migrants compared with permanent residents. A mother's migration impacts significantly on child survival for South African and former refugee parents, but there is an additional mortality risk for children of Mozambican former refugees. It is recommended that national censuses and surveys account for temporary migration when collecting information on household membership, because different migration types have different outcomes. Without discriminating between different migration types, the implications for sending and receiving communities will remain lost to policy-makers.

  17. Community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onya Hans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol represents a major public health challenge in South Africa, however little is known about the correlates of alcohol use among rural adolescents. This article examines community influences on adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol in a rural region of South Africa. Method A total of 1600 high school adolescents between 11 and 16 years of age participated in this study. Seven hundred and forty (46.3% were female and 795 (49.7% were male. Data on gender were missing for 65 students (4.0% of the sample. The age range was 11–29 years (mean age 16.4 years; Standard deviation = 2.79. A survey questionnaire on adolescent risk behavior that examined adolescents’ use of alcohol and various potential community influences on alcohol use was administered. Factor analysis was used to group community-level variables into factors. Multiple logistic regression techniques were then used to examine associations between these community factors and adolescents’ use of home-brewed alcohol. Results The factor analysis yielded five community-level factors that accounted for almost two-thirds of the variance in home-brewed alcohol use. These factors related to subjective adult norms around substance use in the community, negative opinions about one’s neighborhood, perceived levels of adult antisocial behavior in the community, community affirmations of adolescents, and perceived levels of crime and violence in the community (derelict neighborhood. In the logistic regression model, community affirmation was negatively associated with the use of home-brew, whereas higher scores on “derelict neighborhood” and “adult antisocial behavior” were associated with greater odds of drinking home-brew. Conclusion Findings highlight community influences on alcohol use among rural adolescents in South Africa. Feeling affirmed and valued by the broader community appears to protect adolescents against early alcohol use. In

  18. Implementation of the principles of primary health care in a rural area of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surona Visagie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The philosophy of primary healthcare forms the basis of South Africa’s health policy and provides guidance for healthcare service delivery in South Africa. Healthcare service provision in South Africa has shown improvement in the past five years. However, it is uncertain as to whether the changes have reached rural areas and if primary healthcare is implemented successfully in these areas.Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which the principles of primary healthcare are implemented in a remote, rural setting in South Africa.Method: A descriptive, qualitative design was implemented. Data were collected through interviews and case studies with 36 purposively-sampled participants, then analysed through Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.Results: Findings indicated challenges with regard to client-centred care, provision of health promotion and rehabilitation, the way care was organised, the role of the doctor, healthworker attitudes, referral services and the management of complex conditions.Conclusion: The principles of primary healthcare were not implemented successfully. The community was not involved in healthcare management, nor were users involved in their personal health management. The initiation of a community-health forum is recommended. Service providers, users and the community should identify and address the determinants of ill health in the community. Other recommendations include the training of service managers in the logistical management of ensuring a constant supply of drugs, using a Kombi-type vehicle to provide user transport for routine visits to secondary- and tertiary healthcareservices and increasing the doctors’ hours.

  19. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (heterogeneities within these sediments, and in analogue deposits produced by glaciations of different ages. Deglacial, Early Silurian black shale represents the most important Palaeozoic source rock across the region. Existing models do not adequately explain the temporal and spatial development of anoxia, and hence of black shale/deglacial source rocks. The origins

  20. Population uptake of antiretroviral treatment through primary care in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärnighausen Till W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KwaZulu-Natal is the South African province worst affected by HIV and the focus of early modeling studies investigating strategies of antiretroviral treatment (ART delivery. The reality of antiretroviral roll-out through primary care has differed from that anticipated and real world data are needed to inform the planning of further scaling up of services. We investigated the factors associated with uptake of antiretroviral treatment through a primary healthcare system in rural South Africa. Methods Detailed demographic, HIV surveillance and geographic information system (GIS data were used to estimate the proportion of HIV positive adults accessing antiretroviral treatment within northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in the period from initiation of antiretroviral roll-out until the end of 2008. Demographic, spatial and socioeconomic factors influencing the likelihood of individuals accessing antiretroviral treatment were explored using multivariable analysis. Results Mean uptake of ART among HIV positive resident adults was 21.0% (95%CI 20.1-21.9. Uptake among HIV positive men (19.2% was slightly lower than women (21.8%, P = 0.011. An individual's likelihood of accessing ART was not associated with level of education, household assets or urban/rural locale. ART uptake was strongly negatively associated with distance from the nearest primary healthcare facility (aOR = 0.728 per square-root transformed km, 95%CI 0.658-0.963, P = 0.002. Conclusions Despite concerns about the equitable nature of antiretroviral treatment rollout, we find very few differences in ART uptake across a range of socio-demographic variables in a rural South African population. However, even when socio-demographic factors were taken into account, individuals living further away from primary healthcare clinics were still significantly less likely to be accessing ART

  1. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A

    2014-08-26

    Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured "duo-interviews" were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of "convenient and less healthy foods". Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important facilitator of healthy eating, and breakfast

  2. Repetitive dengue outbreaks in East Africa: A proposed phased mitigation approach may reduce its impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Marycelin; Villinger, Jandouwe; Masiga, Daniel K

    2016-05-01

    Dengue outbreaks have persistently occurred in eastern African countries for several decades. We assessed each outbreak to identify risk factors and propose a framework for prevention and impact mitigation. Seven out of ten countries in eastern Africa and three islands in the Indian Ocean have experienced dengue outbreaks between 1823 and 2014. Major risk factors associated with past dengue outbreaks include climate, virus and vector genetics and human practices. Appropriate use of dengue diagnostic tools and their interpretation are necessary for both outbreak investigations and sero-epidemiological studies. Serosurvey findings during inter-epidemic periods have not been adequately utilised to prevent re-occurrence of dengue outbreaks. Local weather variables may be used to predict dengue outbreaks, while entomological surveillance can complement other disease-mitigation efforts during outbreaks and identify risk-prone areas during inter-epidemic periods. The limitations of past dengue outbreak responses and the enormous socio-economic impacts of the disease on human health are highlighted. Its repeated occurrence in East Africa refutes previous observations that susceptibility may depend on race. Alternate hypotheses on heterotypic protection among flaviviruses may not be applied to all ecologies. Prevention and mitigation of severe dengue outbreaks should necessarily consider the diverse factors associated with their occurrence. Implementation of phased dengue mitigation activities can enforce timely and judicious use of scarce resources, promote environmental sanitation, and drive behavioural change, hygienic practices and community-based vector control. Understanding dengue epidemiology and clinical symptoms, as determined by its evolution, are significant to preventing future dengue epidemics.

  3. Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options in Vulnerable Agro-Landscapes in East-Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manful, D.; Tscherning, K.; Kersebaum, K.; Dietz, J.; Dietrich, O.; Gomani, C.; Böhm, H.; Büchner, M.; Lischeid, G.,; Ojoyi, M.,

    2009-04-01

    Climate change poses a risk to the livelihoods of large populations in the developing world, especially in Africa. In East Africa, climate change is expected to affect the spatial distribution and quantity of precipitation. The proposed project will assess aspects of climate impacts and adaptation options in Tanzania. The project will attempt to quantify (1) projected impacts including: variability in temperature, rainfall, flooding and drought (2) the affect changes in 1. will have on specific sectors namely agriculture (food security), water resources and ecosystem services. The cumulative effects of diminished surface and ground water flow on agricultural production coupled with increasing demand for food due to increase in human pressure will also be evaluated. Expected outputs of the project include (1) downscaled climate change scenarios for different IPCC emission scenarios (2) model based estimations of climate change impacts on hydrological cycle and assessment of land use options (3) scenarios of sustainable livelihoods and resilient agro-landscapes under climate change (4) assessment of adaptive practices and criteria for best adaptation practices. The presentation will focus on novel approaches that focus on the use of agro-ecosystem models to predict local and regional impacts of climate variability on food with specific needs of the end-user factored into model set-up process. In other words, model configurations adapted to the information needs of a specific end-user or audience are evaluated. The perception of risk within different end-users (small scale farmer versus a regional or state level policy maker) are explicitly taken into consideration with the overarching aim of maximizing the impact of the results obtained from computer-based simulations.

  4. A quantitative assessment of groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, Khalil; Milewski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the world's most water-stressed region, with its countries constituting 12 of the 15 most water-stressed countries globally. Because of data paucity, comprehensive regional-scale assessments of groundwater resources in the MENA region have been lacking. The presented study addresses this issue by using a distributed ArcGIS model, parametrized with gridded data sets, to estimate groundwater storage reserves in the region based on generated aquifer saturated thickness and effective porosity estimates. Furthermore, monthly gravimetric datasets (GRACE) and land surface parameters (GLDAS) were used to quantify changes in groundwater storage between 2003 and 2014. Total groundwater reserves in the region were estimated at 1.28 × 106 cubic kilometers (km3) with an uncertainty range between 816,000 and 1.93 × 106 km3. Most of the reserves are located within large sedimentary basins in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with Algeria, Libya, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia accounting for approximately 75% of the region's total freshwater reserves. Alternatively, small groundwater reserves were found in fractured Precambrian basement exposures. As for groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014, all MENA countries except for Morocco exhibited declines in groundwater storage. However, given the region's large groundwater reserves, groundwater changes between 2003 and 2014 are minimal and represent no immediate short-term threat to the MENA region, with some exceptions. Notwithstanding this, the study recommends the development of sustainable and efficient groundwater management policies to optimally utilize the region's groundwater resources, especially in the face of climate change, demographic expansion, and socio-economic development.

  5. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  6. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; McNally, A.; Husak, G.; Funk, C.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993-2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall is

  7. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shukla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI, an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012. We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early

  8. Responses to satellite remote sensing opportunities in East and Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Allan; Odenyo, Victor A. O.

    Since 1978 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has funded a regional remote sensing project for East and Southern Africa. The project, hosted by the Regional Centre for Services in Surveying Mapping and Remote Sensing, has provided a programme of training courses, user services and project support. This included the equipping and establishment of a photo-laboratory complex for processing Landsat images and the provision of advice and support for agencies undertaking natural resources analysis. Response to the training programme has been very good. Courses are usually over subscribed and there is a continued demand for training. Assessments of the courses by participants are highly positive and the courses have featured consultants of international calibre. Requests for follow-up courses, and for specialist group training indicate a strong response to this training activity. User services are active, consultations with staff, use of the browse file and interpretation equipment and the purchase of data for project work all produce an average demand of 12 active enquiries per working week. The photo-laboratory is particularly active and demand for products exceeds available capacity. Project work is now being supported but limited resources restrict the range and amount of project activity. Response to the opportunities offered for projects has been favourable and this activity is ripe for expansion. The difficulty in expanding to meet the expressed demand is primarily financial. The east and southern Africa region is not economically strong and has a great need for natural resources data for development work and planning. The responses to satellite remote sensing opportunities will be limited by these financial constraints which effectively means by the level of international aid directed to this activity. For such aid to be effective it must be coordinated and firmly attached to the region. Such coordinated aid programmes would avoid fragmentation

  9. Application of a GCM Ensemble Seasonal Climate Forecasts to Crop Yield Prediction in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, G.; Franssen, W.; Supit, I.; Hutjes, R. W. A.

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the potential use of ECMWF System-4 seasonal climate forecasts (S4) for impacts analysis over East Africa. Using the 15 member, 7 months ensemble forecasts initiated every month for 1981-2010, we tested precipitation (tp), air temperature (tas) and surface shortwave radiation (rsds) forecast skill against the WATCH forcing Data ERA-Interim (WFDEI) re-analysis and other data. We used these forecasts as input in the WOFOST crop model to predict maize yields. Forecast skill is assessed using anomaly correlation (ACC), Ranked Probability Skill Score (RPSS) and the Relative Operating Curve Skill Score (ROCSS) for MAM, JJA and OND growing seasons. Predicted maize yields (S4-yields) are verified against historical observed FAO and nationally reported (NAT) yield statistics, and yields from the same crop model forced by WFDEI (WFDEI-yields). Predictability of the climate forecasts vary with season, location and lead-time. The OND tp forecasts show skill over a larger area up to three months lead-time compared to MAM and JJA. Upper- and lower-tercile tp forecasts are 20-80% better than climatology. Good tas forecast skill is apparent with three months lead-time. The rsds is less skillful than tp and tas in all seasons when verified against WFDEI but higher against others. S4-forecasts captures ENSO related anomalous years with region dependent skill. Anomalous ENSO influence is also seen in simulated yields. Focussing on the main sowing dates in the northern (July), equatorial (March-April) and southern (December) regions, WFDEI-yields are lower than FAO and NAT but anomalies are comparable. Yield anomalies are predictable 3-months before sowing in most of the regions. Differences in interannual variability in the range of ±40% may be related to sensitivity of WOFOST to drought stress while the ACCs are largely positive ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. Above and below-normal yields are predictable with 2-months lead time. We evidenced a potential use of seasonal

  10. A Framework for Revitalisation of Rural Education and Training Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: Strengthening the Human Resource Base for Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies of the current state of rural education and training (RET) systems in sub-Saharan Africa have assessed their ability to provide for the learning needs essential for more knowledgeable and productive small-scale rural households. These are most necessary if the endemic causes of rural poverty (poor nutrition, lack of sustainable…

  11. Capacity Building in NASA Remote Sensing Data for Meteorological and Agricultural Communities in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N. N.; Macharia, D.

    2015-12-01

    Across the globe, planners and decision makers are hampered by a lack of historic data and scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. Data is often sorely lacking in poorly developed regions such as East Africa where people are vulnerable to a changing climate, extreme weather events, and economies and food security are tied directly to rain fed agriculture or pastoral cultures. NASA global remote sensing observations and research are promising in this regard, as they have great potential to inform policy- and decision-making at global, regional and even local scales the world over, However that potential is not realized as often as it should for a variety of reasons: the data stores are often impenetrable requiring special expertise to "crack the code", sustainability of observations remains a concern, and research and data are not focused on applications, thus results don't "fit" in existing tools or are developed for a short-term science objective without long-term use in mind. Although there are good examples of the use of NASA Earth Science research and observations for applications, capacity is lacking and must be built to advance the use of remote sensing for applications and to ease transition of research to the stakeholder. Capacity building is a critical component to transition Earth science research results to stakeholder communities, and is more than traditional training,, it has been described as…."the process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world. Best practices and lessons learned from recent capacity building efforts for Agricultural and Environmental Ministires in East African in support of a NASA-SERVIR Applied Science Project to provide estimates of hydrologic extremes tied to crop yield are described.

  12. What are the emerging features of community health insurance schemes in east Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Basaza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Robert Basaza1,3, George Pariyo2, Bart Criel31Ministry of Health Uganda, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Health Policy, Planning and Management, Makerere University school of Public Health, New Mulago Hospital Complex, Kampala, Uganda; 3Institute of Tropical Medicine Nationalestraat 155, B-2000 Antwerp, BelgiumBackground: The three East African countries of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya are characterized by high poverty levels, population growth rates, prevalence of HIV/AIDS, under-funding of the health sector, poor access to quality health care, and small health insurance coverage. Tanzania and Kenya have user-fees whereas Uganda abolished user-fees in public-owned health units.Objective: To provide comparative description of community health insurance (CHI schemes in three East African countries of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya and thereafter provide a basis for future policy research for development of CHI schemes. Methods: An analytical grid of 10 distinctive items pertaining to the nature of CHI schemes was developed so as to have a uniform lens of comparing country situations of CHI. Results and conclusions: The majority of the schemes have been in existence for a relatively short time of less than 10 years and their number remains small. There is need for further research to identify what is the mix and weight of factors that cause people to refrain from joining schemes. Specific issues that could also be addressed in subsequent studies are whether the current schemes provide financial protection, increase access to quality of care and impact on the equity of health services financing and delivery. On the basis of this knowledge, rational policy decisions can be taken. The governments thereafter could consider an option of playing more roles in advocacy, paying for the poorest, and developing an enabling policy and legal framework.Keywords: community health insurance, low enrolment, policy and Africa

  13. Solar Forcing of climate fluctuations in East Africa recorded in southeastern Mediterranean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Y.; Dulski, P.; Hajdas, I.; Ehrmann, W. U.; Schmiedl, G. H.; Haug, G. H.

    2010-12-01

    The proportions of terrigenous components in Mediterranean sediments derived from the atmosphere and rivers strongly depend on climate conditions in the source areas. The rainfall regimes of the northern and central part of the African continent are controlled by an interplay between global climate patterns and the regional hydrological balance. High-resolution XRF element records of a marine sediment core of the southeastern Levantine Sea (Mediterranean Sea; GeoTü SL112, 32° 44.52 N, 34° 39.02 E, water depth: 892 m) indicate distinctive changes in the sediment supply to the southeastern Mediterranean by the Nile River as well as the influx of aeolian dust from the Saharan desert. We observe minima in the concentration of the element iron (Fe), which we interpret as minima in dust input, during the well-known solar minima Oort, Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder, and Dalton. Wavelet analyses reveals a close correspondence in the periodicity in Fe input with the typical frequencies of solar cycles of about 90 and 210 years during the last 1400 years. Furthermore, the Fe record from the Levantine Sea sediments shows a remarkable similarity with the lake level record of Lake Naivasha in the eastern branch of the East African Rift and the pre-colonial drought history of Lake Malawi in the southern part of the African Rift Valley. Enhanced Saharan dust flux as indicated by high Fe content in the Levantine Sea core coincides with well-known droughts in equatorial east Africa as indicated by Lake Naivasha lowstands.

  14. The Cenozoic magmatism of East-Africa: Part I - Flood basalts and pulsed magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Tyrone O.

    2017-08-01

    Cenozoic magmatism in East Africa results from the interplay between lithospheric extension and material upwelling from the African Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP). The modern focusing of East African magmatism into oceanic spreading centers and continental rifts highlights the modern control of lithospheric thinning in magma generation processes, however the widespread, and volumetrically significant flood basalt events of the Eocene to Early Miocene suggest a significant role for material upwelling from the African LLSVP. The slow relative motion of the African plate during the Cenozoic has resulted in significant spatial overlap in lavas derived from different magmatic events. This complexity is being resolved with enhanced geochronological precision and a focus on the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic products. It is now apparent that there are three distinct pulses of basaltic volcanism, followed by either bimodal lavas or silicic volcanic products during this period: (A) Eocene Initial Phase from 45 to 34 Ma. This is a period of dominantly basaltic volcanism focused in Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya (Turkana). (B) Oligocene Traps phase from 33.9 to 27 Ma. This period coincides with a significant increase in the aerial extent of volcanism with broadly age equivalent 1 to 2 km thick sequences of dominantly basalt centered on the NW Ethiopian Plateau and Yemen, (C) Early Miocene resurgence phase from 26.9 to 22 Ma. This resurgence in basaltic volcanism is seen throughout the region at ca. 24-23 Ma, but is less volumetrically significant than the prior two basaltic pulses. With our developing understanding of the persistence of LLSVP anomalies within the mantle, I propose that the three basaltic pulses are ostensibly manifestations of the same plume-lithosphere interaction, requiring revision to the duration, magmatic extent, and magma volume of the African-Arabian Large Igneous Province.

  15. Adolescent first births in East Africa: disaggregating characteristics, trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Sarah E; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Chou, Doris

    2015-02-19

    The use of a single national figure fails to capture the complex patterns and inequalities in early childbearing that occur within countries, as well as the differing contexts in which these pregnancies occur. Further disaggregated data that examine patterns and trends for different groups are needed to enable programmes to be focused on those most at risk. This paper describes a comprehensive analysis of adolescent first births using disaggregated data from Demographic and Household surveys (DHS) for three East African countries: Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. The study initially produces cross-sectional descriptive data on adolescent motherhood by age (under 16, 16-17 and 18-19 years), marital status, wealth, education, state or region, urban/rural residence and religion. Trends for two or more surveys over a period of 18-23 years are then analysed, and again disaggregated by age, wealth, urban/rural residence and marital status to ascertain which groups within the population have benefited most from reductions in adolescent first birth. In order to adjust for confounding factors we also use multinomial logistic regression to analyse the social and economic determinants of adolescent first birth, with outcomes again divided by age. In all three countries, a significant proportion of women gave birth before age 16 (7%-12%). Both the bivariate analysis and logistic regression show that adolescent motherhood is strongly associated with poverty and lack of education/literacy, and this relationship is strongest among births within the youngest age group (adolescent first births overall, with no reductions among the poorest. Adolescent first births, particularly at the youngest ages, are most common among the poorest and least educated, and progress in reducing rates within this group has not been made over the last few decades. Disaggregating data allows such patterns to be understood, and enables efforts to be better directed where needed.

  16. Blood pressure patterns in rural, semi-urban and urban children in the Ashanti region of Ghana, West Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles); W.K. Redekop (Ken); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: High blood pressure, once rare, is rapidly becoming a major public health burden in sub-Saharan/Africa. It is unclear whether this is reflected in children. The main purpose of this study was to assess blood pressure patterns among rural, semi-urban, and urban children and to

  17. Blood pressure patterns in rural, semi-urban and urban children in the Ashanti region of Ghana, West Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles); W.K. Redekop (Ken); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: High blood pressure, once rare, is rapidly becoming a major public health burden in sub-Saharan/Africa. It is unclear whether this is reflected in children. The main purpose of this study was to assess blood pressure patterns among rural, semi-urban, and urban children and to

  18. Between the Lines: Gender in the Reception of Texts by School Children in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Explores the interface between literature, gender, culture, and language within an educational context. Examines the responses of Zulu boys and girls to the introduction of a new curriculum that integrated language and literary study in a rural school in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Specifically, it shows how reading can lead to a more complex and…

  19. Clinical and corneal microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a high HIV prevalence setting in rural South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Schaftenaar (Willem); R.P.H. Peters (Remco); G.S. Baarsma (Seerp); C. Meenken (Christina); N.S. Khosa; S. Getu (Sarah); J.A. McIntyre (James); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this investigation was to determine the clinical and corneal microbial profile of infectious keratitis in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence setting in rural South Africa. Data in this cross-sectional study were collected from patients presenting with sym

  20. Multi-spatial livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa : rural farming by urban households - the case of Nakuru town, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.O.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Multispatial livelihoods refer to households with a livelihood foothold in both urban and rural areas. Although it is well-known that multispatial households are common in sub-Saharan Africa, the phenomenon has seldom been looked at from the urban household perspective. A review of the literature in

  1. Between the Lines: Gender in the Reception of Texts by School Children in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Explores the interface between literature, gender, culture, and language within an educational context. Examines the responses of Zulu boys and girls to the introduction of a new curriculum that integrated language and literary study in a rural school in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Specifically, it shows how reading can lead to a more complex and…

  2. Supporting rural teachers 21st century skills development through mobile technology use: A case in Cofimvaba, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available . The ICT4RED initiative is supporting rural teachers to integrate tablets in teaching mathematics and science in schools in Cofimvaba in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape in South Africa. The teachers have to “learn to earn” the technology and have...

  3. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, Bart; Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Toxopeus, Marten E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  4. A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durlinger, B.P.J.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Toxopeus, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to

  5. Realizing Universal Health Coverage in East Africa: the relevance of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Maleche, Allan

    2017-08-03

    Applying a robust human rights framework would change thinking and decision-making in efforts to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), and advance efforts to promote women's, children's, and adolescents' health in East Africa, which is a priority under the Sustainable Development Agenda. Nevertheless, there is a gap between global rhetoric of human rights and ongoing health reform efforts. This debate article seeks to fill part of that gap by setting out principles of human rights-based approaches (HRBAs), and then applying those principles to questions that countries undertaking efforts toward UHC and promoting women's, children's and adolescents' health, will need to face, focusing in particular on ensuring enabling legal and policy frameworks, establishing fair financing; priority-setting processes, and meaningful oversight and accountability mechanisms. In a region where democratic institutions are notoriously weak, we argue that the explicit application of a meaningful human rights framework could enhance equity, participation and accountability, and in turn the democratic legitimacy of health reform initiatives being undertaken in the region.

  6. Cost of illness due to typhoid Fever in pemba, zanzibar, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piatti, Moritz; Ley, Benedikt; Deen, Jacqueline; Thriemer, Kamala; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Salehjiddawi, Mohammad; Busch, Clara Jana-Lui; Schmied, Wolfgang H; Ali, Said Mohammed; The Typhoid Economic Study Group GiDeok Pak Leon R Ochiai Mahesh K Puri Na Yoon Chang Thomas F Wierzba And John D Clemens

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar, East Africa. This study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective. It covered new episodes of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in patients presenting at the outpatient or inpatient departments of three district hospitals between May 2010 and December 2010. Cost of illness was the sum of direct costs and costs for productivity loss. Direct costs covered treatment, travel, and meals. Productivity costs were loss of income by patients and caregivers. The analysis included 17 episodes. The mean age of the patients, was 23 years (range=5-65, median=22). Thirty-five percent were inpatients, with a mean of 4.75 days of hospital stay (range=3-7, median=4.50). The mean cost for treatment alone during hospital care was US$ 21.97 at 2010 prices (US$ 1=1,430.50 Tanzanian Shilling─TSH). The average societal cost was US$ 154.47 per typhoid episode. The major expenditure was productivity cost due to lost wages of US$ 128.02 (83%). Our results contribute to the further economic evaluation of typhoid fever vaccination in Zanzibar and other sub-Saharan African countries.

  7. Water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Droogers

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. An advanced, physically based, distributed, hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectoral water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 393 km3 yr−1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr−1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection, an increase of 157 km3 yr−1. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty, based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 yr−1 to 283 km3 yr−1~in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  8. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  9. Polyphase Neoproterozoic orogenesis within the east Africa- Antarctica orogenic belt in central and northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, R.M.; Pitfield, P.E.J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Goodenough, K.M.; Waele, D.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Styles, M.T.; Conrad, J.; Encarnacion, J.; Lidke, D.J.; O'connor, E. A.; Potter, C.; Smith, R.A.; Walsh, G.J.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa-Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820-760 Ma, 630-595 Ma and 560-520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid- Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global 'Terminal Pan-African' event (560-490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana. ?? The Geological Society of London 2011.

  10. Modeling water resources trends in Middle East and North Africa towards 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Droogers

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in water resources availability can be expected as consequences of climate change, population growth, economic development and environmental considerations. A two-stage modeling approach is used to explore the impact of these changes in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. An advanced physical based distributed hydrological model is applied to determine the internal and external renewable water resources for the current situation and under future changes. Subsequently, a water allocation model is used to combine the renewable water resources with sectorial water demands. Results show that total demand in the region will increase to 132 km3 yr−1 in 2050, while total water shortage will grow to 199 km3 yr−1 in 2050 for the average climate change projection; an increase of 157 km3. This increase in shortage is the combined impact of an increase in water demand by 50% with a decrease in water supply by 12%. Uncertainty based on the output of the nine GCMs applied, reveals that expected water shortage ranges from 85 km3 to 283 km3 in 2050. The analysis shows that 22% of the water shortage can be attributed to climate change and 78% to changes in socio-economic factors.

  11. Decadal trends in beach morphology on the east coast of South Africa and likely causative factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandy shorelines are dynamic with constant changes that can cause hazards in developed areas. The causes of change may be either natural or anthropogenic. This paper evaluates evidence for shoreline changes and their causative factors using a case study on the east coast of South Africa. Beach morphology trends were found to be location-specific, but overall the beaches show a receding trend. It was hypothesized that wave, tide, sea level and wind trends as well as anthropogenic influences are causative factors, and their contributions to shoreline changes were evaluated. Maximum significant wave heights, average wave direction, peak period and storm event frequencies all show weak increasing trends, but only the increases in peak period and wave direction are statistically significant. The chronic beach erosion cannot be attributed to wave climate changes since they are still too small to explain the observations. Instead, the impacts of sea level rise and reductions in the supply of beach sediments are suggested as the main causative factors. The analysis also identifies a trend in the frequency of severe erosion events due to storms that coincide with a 4.5-yr extreme tide cycle, which demonstrates the potential impact of future sea level rise.

  12. The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwa, J A; Jondiko, I J O; Minja, R J A; Bekunda, M

    2008-01-17

    Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) has been used by traditional health practitioners in East Africa for management of diseases, however, the extent of its usefulness has not been established to date. Fieldwork for this study was carried out in the Lake Victoria Basin between March and September 2006. The purpose was to collect ethnomedical information that will serve as a basis for further studies to establish current and potential medicinal uses. The ethnomedical information was obtained through interviews using semi-structured questionnaires. Consultative meetings were also conducted with traditional health practitioners and other members of the communities in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Results of this study show that Toddalia asiatica is collected in the wild, prepared mostly as decoctions or concoctions and administered orally. It is used for the management of a number of disease conditions. The most frequently cited diseases were stomach problems (78%) followed by malaria (25%). Cough (22%), chest pain (13%), food poisoning (8%), sore throat (7%), were also mentioned among other disease conditions treated. Validation studies of therapeutic claims will be carried out at a later date.

  13. Hepatitis A virus in the Middle East and North Africa region: a new challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, N M; Talhouk, R; Rachidi, H; Ramia, S

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a gradual shift in the age of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) from early childhood to adulthood has been observed. There is a general lack of updated data on HAV burden of disease, incidence and age-specific seroprevalence in countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The aim of this article is to review the published data on anti-HAV seroprevalence, an important tool to monitor infections rates, in countries of the MENA region and associated risk factors including water and socioeconomic data when available. Data on anti-HAV seroprevalence were found for 12 of 25 MENA countries. We show that MENA countries, similar to other areas in the world, have a clear shift in HAV incidence with a decline among young age groups and an increase among adults and older individuals. This would likely be associated with increased morbidity and increased risks of outbreaks among younger age groups. Consequently, the continuous surveillance of hepatitis A cases and the inclusion of hepatitis A vaccine in the expanded immunization programmes are needed in countries of the MENA.

  14. Concentrating solar power in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: achieving its potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.; Amin, A.; Bettzüge, M.; Eames, P.; Fabrizi, F.; Flamant, G.; Garcia Novo, F.; Holmes, J.; Kribus, A.; van der Laan, H.; Lopez, C.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.; Pihl, E.; Smith, P.; Wagner, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a commercially available renewable energy technology capable of harnessing the immense solar resource in Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region), and elsewhere. This paper summarises the findings of a study by the European Academies Science Advisory Council which has examined the current status and development challenges of CSP, and consequently has evaluated the potential contribution of CSP in Europe and the MENA region to 2050. It identifies the actions that will be required by scientists, engineers, policy makers, politicians, business and investors alike, to enable this vast solar resource to make a major contribution to establishing a sustainable energy system. The study concludes that cost reductions of 50-60% in CSP electricity may reasonably be expected in the next 10-15 years, enabling the technology to be cost competitive with fossil-fired power generation at some point between 2020 and 2030. Incorporation of storage delivers added value in enabling CSP to deliver dispatchable power. Incentive schemes will be needed in Europe and MENA countries to enable this point to be achieved. Such schemes should reflect the true value of electricity to the grid, effectively drive R&D, and ensure transparency of performance and cost data.

  15. Concentrating solar power in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: achieving its potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannakopoulos P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating solar power (CSP is a commercially available renewable energy technology capable of harnessing the immense solar resource in Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region, and elsewhere. This paper summarises the findings of a study by the European Academies Science Advisory Council which has examined the current status and development challenges of CSP, and consequently has evaluated the potential contribution of CSP in Europe and the MENA region to 2050. It identifies the actions that will be required by scientists, engineers, policy makers, politicians, business and investors alike, to enable this vast solar resource to make a major contribution to establishing a sustainable energy system. The study concludes that cost reductions of 50-60% in CSP electricity may reasonably be expected in the next 10-15 years, enabling the technology to be cost competitive with fossil-fired power generation at some point between 2020 and 2030. Incorporation of storage delivers added value in enabling CSP to deliver dispatchable power. Incentive schemes will be needed in Europe and MENA countries to enable this point to be achieved. Such schemes should reflect the true value of electricity to the grid, effectively drive R&D, and ensure transparency of performance and cost data.

  16. Shoreline recovery from storms on the east coast of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corbella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Episodic extreme waves due to sea storms can cause severe coastal erosion. The recovery times of such events are important for the analysis of risk and coastal vulnerability. The recovery period of a storm damaged coastline represents a time when the coastline is most vulnerable and nearby infrastructure is at the greatest risk. We propose that identification of the beach recovery period can be used as a coastal management tool when determining beach usage. As a case study, we analyse 37 yr of beach profile data on the east coast of South Africa. Considering beach length and cross-sectional area, we establish a global recovery period and rate and identify the physical characteristics of the coastlines that either accelerate or retard recovery. The beaches in the case study were found to take an average of two years to recover at a rate of approximately 90 m3 m−1 yr−1. Beach profiles with vegetated dunes recovered faster than urbanized beaches. Perpendicular beach structures have both positive and negative effects on beach recovery. Coastlines with rock outcrops in the surf zone tend to recover slowly and long-term sediment loss was identified in cases where storm damaged beaches have not recovered to pre-erosion levels.

  17. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  18. Neoproterozoic collision tectonics in the Mozambique Belt of East Africa: evidence from the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhongo, Sospeter

    1994-10-01

    The fault-bounded Proterozoic metamorphic terranes lying to the E of the Tanzanian craton make up the Usagara tectonic domain and are a part of the transcontinental Mozambique Orogenic Belt (MB). The lithotectonic units in the MB of the East Africa consist of comparable rock assembles which underwent the same complex deformational history and are thought to represent large thrust sheets or nappes. Their shelf- and fore-deep terranes border the Tanzanian craton and make up the foreland terranes of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt. Granulite-gneiss nappes are ubiquitous in the orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism, associated with recumbent folds, was due to crustal thickening, which took place during the collision between Gondwana fragments. Isotope data suggest a collision (and concomitant granulite-facies metamorphism) age of between 700 and 550 Ma. The orientations of planar and linear fabrics in the granulite-facies rocks of the Uluguru mountains are used to infer the relative crustal block motions during this collisional event. This Pan-African collisional event was characterized by NW-directed movements, oblique to the N-S trend of the orogen, and involved SE-directed backthrusting. The Ubendian Belt of Tanzania and the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda and Kenya, which both bifurcate around the Tanzania craton, accommodated the tectonically thickened crust, created by the collisional event, through NW-SE sinistral strike-slip movements.

  19. Metallogenic evolution of uranium deposits in the Middle East and North Africa deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howari, Fares; Goodell, Philip; Salman, Abdulaty

    2016-02-01

    This paper is briefly involved in classification and distributions of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) uranium deposits. The study of these mineral systems can significantly contribute to our further understanding of the metallogeny of known and poorly explored deposits. This provides contribution to, and further enhancement of, current classifications and metallogenic models of uranium systems, allowing researchers to emphasize on unknown or poorly studied mineral systems found in MENA. The present study identified eight metallogenic types of uranium associated with: 1) the Archean rocks and intra-cratonic basins, 2) the Pan-African granites and rhyolites which are characterized by igneous activity, 3) Phanerozoic (Paleozoic) clastics, these deposits are the sedimentological response to Pan African magmatism, 4) Mesozoic (basal) clastics type e.g. Nubia sandstones which are characterized by uranium minerals, 5) regional sedimentary phosphate deposits which are categorized as geosynclinal, or continental margin deposits, on the shelf of the Tethys Ocean, 6) Cenozoic Intracratonic Felsic Magmatism of the Tibesti and Hoggar, and the sandstone U deposits of adjoining Niger. These are similar to the Pan-African magmatism metallogenic, 7) Calcretes, and 8) Resistate minerals which are often enriched in rare earth elements, sometimes including uranium. They are thus sometimes considered as U resources but poorly explored in the MENA region. These metallogenic types are described and discussed in the current paper.

  20. Diabetes in the Middle-East and North Africa: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Azeem; El-Sayed, Adel A; Khoja, Tawfik; Alshamsan, Riyadh; Millett, Christopher; Rawaf, Salman

    2014-02-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of diabetes has risen dramatically in many countries of the International Diabetes Federation's (IDF) Middle-East and North Africa (MENA) Region. This increase has been driven by a range of factors that include rapid economic development and urbanisation; changes in lifestyle that have led to reduced levels of physical activity, increased intake of refined carbohydrates, and a rise in obesity. These changes have resulted in the countries of MENA Region now having among the highest rates of diabetes prevalence in the world. The current prevalence of diabetes in adults in the Region is estimated to be around 9.2%. Of the 34 million people affected by diabetes, nearly 17 million were undiagnosed and therefore at considerable risk of diabetes complications and poor health outcomes. Enhanced research on the epidemiology of diabetes in the MENA Region needs to be combined with more effective primary prevention of diabetes; and early detection and improved management of patients with established diabetes, including an increased focus on self-management and management in primary care and community settings.

  1. Sensitivity of the regional climate in the Middle East and North Africa to volcanic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Osipov, Sergey; Wyman, Bruce; Zhao, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon, and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  2. Host-Parasite Associations in Small Mammal Communities in Semiarid Savanna Ecosystems of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ana Sofia; Eckerlin, Ralph P; Dowling, Ashley P G; Durden, Lance A; Robbins, Richard G; Dittmar, Katharina; Helgen, Kristofer M; Agwanda, Bernard; Allan, Brian F; Hedlund, Tyler; Young, Hillary S

    2016-07-01

    Despite the established importance of rodents as reservoirs of vector-borne zoonoses in East Africa, there is relatively limited information regarding the infestation parameters and host associations of ectoparasites that vector many such pathogens among small mammals in this region. Between 2009 and 2013, small mammals were live-trapped in the semiarid savanna of Kenya. A subset of these individual hosts, including 20 distinct host taxa, was examined for ectoparasites, which were identified to species. Species of fleas, ticks, mites, and sucking lice were recorded. Based on these data, we calculated host-specific infestation parameters, documented host preferences among ectoparasites, conducted a rarefaction analysis and extrapolation to determine if ectoparasites were adequately sampled, and assessed nestedness for fleas to understand how pathogens might spread in this system. We found that the flea community structure was significantly nested. Understanding the ectoparasite network structure may have significant human relevance, as at least seven of the ectoparasite species collected are known vectors of pathogens of medical importance in the region, including Yersinia pestis, Rickettsia spp., and Theileria parva, the causative agents of plague, spotted fevers and other rickettsial illnesses in humans, and theileriosis, respectively. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Estimation of the Determinants of Credit Demand by Farmers and Supply by Rural Banks in Ghana's Upper East Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Akudugu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Credit is a strategic empowerment tool that has the potential to change the life of a person, family or community from a situation of abject poverty to a more dignified life. It can transform self-image, unlock potential and boost the productivity and well-being of the poor and vulnerable, especially farmers. This paper estimates the determinants of credit demand by farmers and supply by Rural Banks in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Semi-structured questionnaire complimented by key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used in gathering data from 250 farmersin 5 districts of Upper East Region. The logit model was used to estimate the determinants of credit demand by farmers and the Tobit model used to estimate the determinants of credit supply by Rural Banks. The findings showed that age of farmers, gender and political affiliations among others are the main determinants of credit demand by farmers. Type of crop grown, farm size and the amount of savings made are some determinants of credit supply by the Rural Banks. It is concluded that demand for credit by farmers and supply of it by Rural Banks in Ghana’s Upper East Region are determined by socio-economic and politico-cultural factors. It is recommended that government;the Bank of Ghana and the Rural Banks themselves should develop strategies that aim at enhancing the positive determinants of credit demand and supply and mitigating the negative ones to ensure credit widening and deepening among farmers.

  4. Gender inequality and the use of maternal healthcare services in rural sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjiwanou, Vissého; LeGrand, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we measure gender inequality both at individual level by women׳s household decision-making and at contextual level by permissive gender norms associated with tolerance of violence against women and assess their impact on maternal healthcare services utilisation in rural Africa. We apply multilevel structural equation modelling to Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda to gain better measure and effect of the gender norms construct. The results show that women in Ghana and Uganda, who live in areas where gender norms are relatively tolerant of violence against women, are less likely to use skilled birth attendants and timely antenatal care. In Tanzania, women who live in this type of environment are less likely to attend four or more antenatal visits. In contrast, the effects of a woman׳s decision-making authority on maternal health service use are less pronounced in the same countries.

  5. Co-infection with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths in rural South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvik, Mari; Helland, Elin; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases and may lead to severe consequences. We assessed the extent of co-infection between Schistosoma haematobium and the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura in schoolgirls in the rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We also explored if S. haematobium can serve as a predictor for soil-transmitted helminths in this area. From 15 selected schools, 726 primary schoolgirls aged 10–12 years provided both urine and stool samples. The samples were...... interval =1.58–2.93; pinfection. We have demonstrated a highly significant correlation and overall association between urogenital...

  6. Toward Improved Understanding of Food Security: A Methodological Examination Based in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Tracy; Kemp, Robert S.; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne S.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurement of household food security is essential to generate adequate information on the proportion of households experiencing food insecurity, especially in areas or regions vulnerable to food shortages and famine. This manuscript offers a methodological examination of three commonly used indicators of household food security – experience of hunger, dietary diversity, and coping strategies. Making use of data from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in rural South Africa, we examine the association between the indicators themselves to improve understanding of the different insight offered by each food security “lens.” We also examine how the choice of indicator shapes the profile of vulnerable households, with results suggesting that dietary diversity scores may not adequately capture broader food insecurity. Concluding discussion explores programmatic and policy implications as related to methodological choices. PMID:25414598

  7. Toward Improved Understanding of Food Security: A Methodological Examination Based in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Tracy; Kemp, Robert S; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne S

    2013-03-01

    Accurate measurement of household food security is essential to generate adequate information on the proportion of households experiencing food insecurity, especially in areas or regions vulnerable to food shortages and famine. This manuscript offers a methodological examination of three commonly used indicators of household food security - experience of hunger, dietary diversity, and coping strategies. Making use of data from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in rural South Africa, we examine the association between the indicators themselves to improve understanding of the different insight offered by each food security "lens." We also examine how the choice of indicator shapes the profile of vulnerable households, with results suggesting that dietary diversity scores may not adequately capture broader food insecurity. Concluding discussion explores programmatic and policy implications as related to methodological choices.

  8. Innovative landfill bioreactor systems for municipal solid waste treatment in East Africa aimed at optimal energy recovery and minimal greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salukele, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Landfilling is currently the dominant disposal method for municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries. Approximately 50% of the MSW generated in East Africa is disposed in landfills. Low costs and availability of land have made landfilling the most common waste management option in East Afri

  9. Innovative landfill bioreactor systems for municipal solid waste treatment in East Africa aimed at optimal energy recovery and minimal greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salukele, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Landfilling is currently the dominant disposal method for municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries. Approximately 50% of the MSW generated in East Africa is disposed in landfills. Low costs and availability of land have made landfilling the most common waste management option in East

  10. Molecular biodiversity of cassava begomoviruses in Tanzania: evolution of cassava geminiviruses in Africa and evidence for East Africa being a center of diversity of cassava geminiviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveling TAS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs infecting cassava from multiple locations in Tanzania. We report for the first time the presence of two isolates in East Africa: (EACMCV-[TZ1] and EACMCV-[TZ7] of the species East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus, originally described in West Africa. The complete nucleotide sequence of EACMCV-[TZ1] DNA-A and DNA-B components shared a high overall sequence identity to EACMCV-[CM] components (92% and 84%. The EACMCV-[TZ1] and -[TZ7] genomic components have recombinations in the same genome regions reported in EACMCV-[CM], but they also have additional recombinations in both components. Evidence from sequence analysis suggests that the two strains have the same ancient origin and are not recent introductions. EACMCV-[TZ1] occurred widely in the southern part of the country. Four other CMG isolates were identified: two were close to the EACMV-Kenya strain (named EACMV-[KE/TZT] and EACMV-[KE/TZM] with 96% sequence identity; one isolate, TZ10, had 98% homology to EACMV-UG2Svr and was named EACMV-UG2 [TZ10]; and finally one isolate was 95% identical to EACMV-[TZ] and named EACMV-[TZ/YV]. One isolate of African cassava mosaic virus with 97% sequence identity with other isolates of ACMV was named ACMV-[TZ]. It represents the first ACMV isolate from Tanzania to be sequenced. The molecular variability of CMGs was also evaluated using partial B component nucleotide sequences of 13 EACMV isolates from Tanzania. Using the sequences of all CMGs currently available, we have shown the presence of a number of putative recombination fragments that are more prominent in all components of EACMV than in ACMV. This new knowledge about the molecular CMG diversity in East Africa, and in Tanzania in particular, has led us to hypothesize about the

  11. Supervised oral HIV self-testing is accurate in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Steele, Sarah J; Govender, Indira; Arellano, Gemma; Mkwamba, Alec; Hadebe, Menzi; van Cutsem, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    To achieve UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, alternatives to conventional HIV testing models are necessary in South Africa to increase population awareness of their HIV status. One of the alternatives is oral mucosal transudates-based HIV self-testing (OralST). This study describes implementation of counsellor-introduced supervised OralST in a high HIV prevalent rural area. Cross-sectional study conducted in two government-run primary healthcare clinics and three Médecins Sans Frontières-run fixed-testing sites in uMlalazi municipality, KwaZulu-Natal. Lay counsellors sampled and recruited eligible participants, sought informed consent and demonstrated the use of the OraQuick(™) OralST. The participants used the OraQuick(™) in front of the counsellor and underwent a blood-based Determine(™) and a Unigold(™) rapid diagnostic test as gold standard for comparison. Primary outcomes were user error rates, inter-rater agreement, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. A total of 2198 participants used the OraQuick(™) , of which 1005 were recruited at the primary healthcare clinics. Of the total, 1457 (66.3%) were women. Only two participants had to repeat their OraQuick(™) . Inter-rater agreement was 99.8% (Kappa 0.9925). Sensitivity for the OralST was 98.7% (95% CI 96.8-99.6), and specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.8-100). This study demonstrates high inter-rater agreement, and high accuracy of supervised OralST. OralST has the potential to increase uptake of HIV testing and could be offered at clinics and community testing sites in rural South Africa. Further research is necessary on the potential of unsupervised OralST to increase HIV status awareness and linkage to care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An updated atlas of human helminth infections: the example of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanja Peris

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and updated maps of helminth (worm infection distributions are essential to target control strategies to those populations in greatest need. Although many surveys have been conducted in endemic countries, the data are rarely available in a form that is accessible to policy makers and the managers of public health programmes. This is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where empirical data are seldom in the public domain. In an attempt to address the paucity of geographical information on helminth risk, this article describes the development of an updated global atlas of human helminth infection, showing the example of East Africa. Methods Empirical, cross-sectional estimates of infection prevalence conducted since 1980 were identified using electronic and manual search strategies of published and unpublished sources. A number of inclusion criteria were imposed for identified information, which was extracted into a standardized database. Details of survey population, diagnostic methods, sample size and numbers infected with schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths were recorded. A unique identifier linked each record to an electronic copy of the source document, in portable document format. An attempt was made to identify the geographical location of each record using standardized geolocation procedures and the assembled data were incorporated into a geographical information system. Results At the time of writing, over 2,748 prevalence surveys were identified through multiple search strategies. Of these, 2,612 were able to be geolocated and mapped. More than half (58% of included surveys were from grey literature or unpublished sources, underlining the importance of reviewing in-country sources. 66% of all surveys were conducted since 2000. Comprehensive, countrywide data are available for Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda. In contrast, information for Kenya and Tanzania is typically clustered in specific regions of

  13. New taxa of Aneilema R. Br. (Commelinaceae from southern and tropical East Africa

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    R. B. Faden

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Aneilema are described: A. indehiscens Faden, with subsp. indehiscens (Kenya, Tanzania and subsp. lilacinum Faden (Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa; A. arenicola Faden (Mozambique, South Africa; A. brunneospermum Faden (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa; and A. tanaense Faden (Kenya. A new subspecies, Aneilema dregeanum Kunth subsp, mossambicense Faden (Mozambique, is also described, and A. johmtonii K. Schum. is lectotypified.

  14. New taxa of Aneilema R. Br. (Commelinaceae from southern and tropical East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Aneilema are described: A. indehiscens Faden, with subsp. indehiscens (Kenya, Tanzania and subsp. lilacinum Faden (Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa; A. arenicola Faden (Mozambique, South Africa; A. brunneospermum Faden (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa; and A. tanaense Faden (Kenya. A new subspecies, Aneilema dregeanum Kunth subsp, mossambicense Faden (Mozambique, is also described, and A. johmtonii K. Schum. is lectotypified.

  15. Religiously Motivated Travel and Rural Tourism in Vhembe District of South Africa

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    Gyekye Agyapong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the socio-economic impact of religious tourism (UAAC gathering on the local tourism industry and on surrounding rural communities in Vhembe District Municipality (VDM of South Africa. Questionnaires were used to collect data on pilgrims (visitors, businesses, and residents during, and immediately after the event. Statistical techniques were used to analyse the data to gain insight into the data as basis for answering the research questions posed in this study. The results revealed that majority of the pilgrims to the UAAC gathering were from the host province of Limpopo. Also, most pilgrims travel to the pilgrimage site solely for religious reasons. Another significant finding is that the average spending per pilgrim by pilgrims from the rest of South Africa is larger than their Limpopo and foreign pilgrim counterparts. Furthermore, the results showed that while businesses were positive about the pilgrimage’s contribution to increased sales from their businesses, they at the same time opined that the event does not generate any additional employment. This could be because out of every R100 of pilgrims spending only R2.16 remains in the local economy through leakages. Finally an important finding of the study is overall consensus among residents that the annual pilgrimage gathering promotes morality, improved socialization as well as a sense of feeling good and proud of their community.

  16. Reduction in extrapulmonary tuberculosis in context of antiretroviral therapy scale-up in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, J C; Ranoto, L; Muditambi, N; Railton, J; Maswanganyi, M; Struthers, H E; McIntyre, J A; Peters, R P H

    2017-09-01

    Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has reduced the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in South Africa. Despite the strong association of HIV infection with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), the effect of ART on the epidemiology of EPTB remains undocumented. We conducted a retrospective record review of patients initiated on treatment for EPTB in 2009 (ART coverage <5%) and 2013 (ART coverage 41%) at four public hospitals in rural Mopani District, South Africa. Data were obtained from TB registers and patients' clinical records. There was a 13% decrease in overall number of TB cases, which was similar for cases registered as EPTB (n = 399 in 2009 vs. 336 in 2013; P < 0·01) and for PTB (1031 vs. 896; P < 0·01). Among EPTB cases, the proportion of miliary TB and disseminated TB decreased significantly (both P < 0·01), TB meningitis and TB of bones increased significantly (P < 0·01 and P = 0·02, respectively) and TB pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy remained the same. This study shows a reduction of EPTB cases that is similar to that of PTB in the context of the ART scale-up. The changing profile of EPTB warrants attention of healthcare workers.

  17. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  18. The employment environment for youth in rural South Africa: A mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Andra; Pettifor, Audrey; Rosenberg, Molly; Halpern, Carolyn; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Collinson, Mark A.; Kahn, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has high youth unemployment. This paper examines the predictors of youth employment in rural Agincourt, Mpumalanga Province. A survey of 187 out-of-school 18–24 year olds found only 12% of women and 38% of men were currently employed. Men with skills/training were significantly more likely to report employment, mostly physical labour (aOR: 4.5; CI: 1.3, 15.3). In-depth interviews with 14 of the youth revealed women are perceived more suitable for formal employment, which is scarce informing why women were more likely to pursue further education and yet less likely to be employed. Ten key informants from local organisations highlighted numerous local youth employment resources while, in contrast, all youth in the sample said no resources were available, highlighting a need for the organisations to extend their services into rural areas. As these services are focused on entrepreneurship, programs to increase financial literacy and formal employment opportunities are also needed. PMID:28190915

  19. Integrated Flood Risk Assessment of Rural Communities in the Oti River Basin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossi Komi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood damage in West Africa has increased appreciably during the last two decades. Poor communities are more at risk due to the vulnerability of their livelihoods, especially in rural areas where access to services and infrastructures is limited. The aim of this paper is to identify the main factors that contribute to flood risk of rural communities in the Oti River Basin, Togo. A community-based disaster risk index model is applied. The analyses use primary data collected through questionnaires during fieldwork, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method, population and housing census data and flood hazard mapping of the study area. The results showed a moderate level of flood risk despite a high level of hazard and vulnerability for all investigated communities. In addition, the results suggest that decreasing vulnerability through creation of new income-generating opportunities and increasing capacity of communities to manage their own flood risk should be paramount in order to reduce flood risk in the study area. The results of this work contribute to the understanding of flood risk and can be used to identify, assess, and compare flood-prone areas, as well as simulating the impacts of flood management measures in the Oti River Basin.

  20. Computer usage among nurses in rural health-care facilities in South Africa: obstacles and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asah, Flora

    2013-04-01

    This study discusses factors inhibiting computer usage for work-related tasks among computer-literate professional nurses within rural healthcare facilities in South Africa. In the past two decades computer literacy courses have not been part of the nursing curricula. Computer courses are offered by the State Information Technology Agency. Despite this, there seems to be limited use of computers by professional nurses in the rural context. Focus group interviews held with 40 professional nurses from three government hospitals in northern KwaZulu-Natal. Contributing factors were found to be lack of information technology infrastructure, restricted access to computers and deficits in regard to the technical and nursing management support. The physical location of computers within the health-care facilities and lack of relevant software emerged as specific obstacles to usage. Provision of continuous and active support from nursing management could positively influence computer usage among professional nurses. A closer integration of information technology and computer literacy skills into existing nursing curricula would foster a positive attitude towards computer usage through early exposure. Responses indicated that change of mindset may be needed on the part of nursing management so that they begin to actively promote ready access to computers as a means of creating greater professionalism and collegiality. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-marc; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Boroto, Jean R.

    Halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, is one of the targets of the 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In South Africa, with its mix of developed and developing regions, 9.7 million (20%) of the people do not have access to adequate water supply and 16 million (33%) lack proper sanitation services. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH), which provides water directly to households enables a number of small-scale productive activities, has the potential to supply water even in rural and peri-urban areas that conventional technologies cannot supply. As part of the effort to achieve the MDGs, the South African government has committed itself to provide financial assistance to poor households for the capital cost of rainwater storage tanks and related works in the rural areas. Despite this financial assistance, the legal status of DRWH remains unclear and DRWH is in fact illegal by strict application of the water legislations. Beyond the cost of installation, maintenance and proper use of the DRWH system to ensure its sustainability, there is risk of waterborne diseases. This paper explores challenges to sustainable implementation of DRWH and proposes some interventions which the South African government could implement to overcome them.

  2. The employment environment for youth in rural South Africa: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Andra; Pettifor, Audrey; Rosenberg, Molly; Halpern, Carolyn; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Collinson, Mark A; Kahn, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    South Africa has high youth unemployment. This paper examines the predictors of youth employment in rural Agincourt, Mpumalanga Province. A survey of 187 out-of-school 18-24 year olds found only 12% of women and 38% of men were currently employed. Men with skills/training were significantly more likely to report employment, mostly physical labour (aOR: 4.5; CI: 1.3, 15.3). In-depth interviews with 14 of the youth revealed women are perceived more suitable for formal employment, which is scarce informing why women were more likely to pursue further education and yet less likely to be employed. Ten key informants from local organisations highlighted numerous local youth employment resources while, in contrast, all youth in the sample said no resources were available, highlighting a need for the organisations to extend their services into rural areas. As these services are focused on entrepreneurship, programs to increase financial literacy and formal employment opportunities are also needed.

  3. Fatalism and HIV/AIDS beliefs in rural Mali, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rosanna F; McKinney, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    To examine beliefs about HIV/AIDS of rural Malians and to measure their level of fatalism in context of HIV/AIDS and prevention behaviors. Descriptive, correlational. An AIDS Knowledge and Beliefs survey and the Powe Fatalism Inventory (PFI)-HIV/AIDS version were administered to a convenience sample of 84 people at three health center maternity clinics in southeastern Mali, West Africa. The sample's HIV/AIDS fatalism mean was 9.2 on a 15-point scale, with an internal consistency of .89. Health workers and more educated participants had significantly lower fatalism scores. Fatalism also varied by the combination of gender and ethnicity. People who believed that AIDS was not real, was a punishment from God, was fabricated by the West, was a curse, and that it was taboo to talk about AIDS had higher fatalism means. None of the prevention indicators were significantly related to fatalism scores. These rural Malians had a high overall fatalism mean and their beliefs about AIDS based on traditional culture may affect prevention behaviors. More research is needed to understand the influence of fatalism on prevention behaviors.

  4. Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Collinson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the PhD thesis of Mark Collinson, titled, ‘Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa’. The findings show that in rural South Africa, temporary migration has a major impact on household well-being and health. Remittances from migrants make a significant difference to socioeconomic status (SES in households left behind by the migrant. For the poorest households the key factors improving SES are government grants and female temporary migration, while for the less poor it is male temporary migration and local employment. Migration is associated with HIV but not in straightforward ways. Migrants that return more frequently may be less exposed to outside partners and therefore less implicated in the HIV epidemic. There are links between migration and mortality patterns, including a higher risk of dying for returnee migrants compared with permanent residents. A mother's migration impacts significantly on child survival for South African and former refugee parents, but there is an additional mortality risk for children of Mozambican former refugees. It is recommended that national censuses and surveys account for temporary migration when collecting information on household membership, because different migration types have different outcomes. Without discriminating between different migration types, the implications for sending and receiving communities will remain lost to policy-makers.

  5. Assessing health and well-being among older people in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Gómez-Olivé

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population in developing countries is ageing, which is likely to increase the burden of non-communicable diseases and disability. Objective: To describe factors associated with self-reported health, disability and quality of life (QoL of older people in the rural northeast of South Africa. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 6,206 individuals aged 50 and over. We used multivariate analysis to examine relationships between demographic variables and measures of self-reported health (Health Status, functional ability (WHODASi and quality of life (WHOQoL. Results: About 4,085 of 6,206 people eligible (65.8% completed the interview. Women (Odds Ratio (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.09, 1.55, older age (OR=2.59, 95% CI 1.97, 3.40, lower education (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.31, 2.00, single status (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.01, 1.37 and not working at present (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.59 were associated with a low health status. Women were also more likely to report a higher level of disability (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.14, 1.66, as were older people (OR=2.92, 95% CI 2.25, 3.78, those with no education (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.26, 1.97, with single status (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.06, 1.46 and not working at present (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.06, 1.66. Older age (OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.06, 1.74, no education (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.11, 1.73, single status (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.10, 1.49, a low household asset score (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.19, 1.94 and not working at present (OR=1.32; 95% CI 1.07, 1.64 were all associated with lower quality of life. Conclusions: This study presents the first population-based data from South Africa on health status, functional ability and quality of life among older people. Health and social services will need to be restructured to provide effective care for older people living in rural South Africa with impaired functionality and other health problems.

  6. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Ranganathan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results: Overall, 14% (n=97 of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01. The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions: This study provides quantitative support

  7. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  8. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  9. Sustainable Management of Climate Change: The Case of the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Al Taweel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world. Particularly vulnerable are arid and low-laying coastal areas, conditions that prevail through most of the Middle East and North Africa [MENA]. This region is an economically diverse one, including both the oil-rich economies in the Gulf and countries that are resource-scarce in relation to their population.  However, with about 23 percent of MENA’s population living on less than $2 a day, it is imperative that the climate change management strategies adopted be cost-effective and emphasize economic, social and human development while addressing the concerns arising from anthropogenic climate change.Over the past decades several national and international mechanisms were developed in an attempt to reduce the emissions considered to be mainly responsible for climate change, and to assist in coping with the adverse effects that are beginning to occur as a result of climate change. Unfortunately, many of these approaches are presently associated with economic penalties that often adversely affect the socio-economic welfare of the populace, particularly in low-, and medium-income countries. In this regard, it is informative to note the experience recently gained by Trinidad and Tobago [T&T] in its attempt to reduce GHG emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industrial and agricultural sectors. Using appropriate decision making tools and a policy environment based on a combination of regulations and incentives, the environmental challenges can be turned into a vehicle for sustainable development.This paper discusses the factors that need to be considered while developing a sustainable climate change management approach for the MENA region and develops some recommendations that may be essential for achieving the desired climate change mitigation/adaptation actions while minimizing social disruption.

  10. Land desertification and restoration in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan M.El Shaer

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is characterized by high population growth, degraded and fragile nat-ural ecosystems, and a limited amount of arable lands. It is one of the most water-scarce regions in the world. The region is heterogeneous in terms of the countries' economies, but because it includes some of the richest and some of the poorest countries in the world, regional average economic performance statistics are misleading. The region is mostly semi-arid and arid, with significant areas of extreme aridity. These areas are further challenged by extreme temperatures, frequent drought, land degradation, and desertification. Recent changes in climate patterns, such as prolonged droughts, record temperatures, and increased rainfall irregularity, intensity and distribution, have all further negatively impacted the natural and agro-ecosystems in the region. Such changes have led to increased vulnerability of the people dependent on such re-sources for their livelihood. This article focuses on the impact of land desertification due to climate changes on the pre-vailing natural resources, and discusses several approaches for mitigating or alleviating desertification. It is clear that water shortage is a problem in many countries of this predominantly arid region, and is unlikely to be reduced and may be exacerbated by climate change. Proposed adaptation strategies might include more efficient organization of water supplies, treatment, and delivery systems, and increased use of groundwater. It is necessary to develop alternative production and management systems appropriate to the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in order to prevent further degradation of the prevailing agro-ecosystems and sustain the livelihoods of farmers living in marginal conditions. Grasslands, livestock, and water resources are likely to be most vulnerable to climate change in the region because they are located mostly in marginal areas. Changes in cropping practices

  11. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A.; Getirana, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drought impacts water resources required by crops and communities, in turn threatening lives and livelihoods. Early warning systems, which rely on inputs from hydro-climate models, are used to help manage risk and provide humanitarian assistance to the right place at the right time. However, translating advancements in hydro-climate science into action is a persistent and time-consuming challenge: scientists and decision-makers need to work together to enhance the salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the hydrological data products being produced. One organization that tackles this challenge is the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), which has been using evidence-based approaches to address food security since the 1980s.In this presentation, we describe the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), developed by FEWS NET and NASA hydrologic scientists to maximize the use of limited hydro-climatic observations for humanitarian applications. The FLDAS, an instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS), is comprised of land surface models driven by satellite rainfall inputs already familiar to FEWS NET food security analysts. First, we evaluate the quality of model outputs over parts of the Middle East and Africa using remotely sensed soil moisture and vegetation indices. We then describe derived water availability indices that have been identified by analysts as potentially useful sources of information. Specifically, we demonstrate how the Baseline Water Stress and Drought Severity Index detect recent water availability crisis events in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin and the Gaborone Reservoir, Botswana. Finally we discuss ongoing work to deliver this information to FEWS NET analysts in a timely and user-friendly manner, with the ultimate goal of integrating these water availability metrics into regular decision-making activities.

  12. Sensitivity of the Regional Climate in the Middle East and North Africa to Volcanic Perturbations

    KAUST Repository

    Dogar, Muhammad Mubashar

    2017-07-27

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regional climate appears to be extremely sensitive to volcanic eruptions. Winter cooling after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption far exceeded the mean hemispheric temperature anomaly, even causing snowfall in Israel. To better understand MENA climate variability, the climate responses to the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruptions are analyzed using observations, NOAA/NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, and output from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory\\'s High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). A multiple regression analysis both for the observations and the model output is performed on seasonal summer and winter composites to separate out the contributions from climate trends, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian summer monsoon and volcanic aerosols. Strong regional temperature and precipitation responses over the MENA region are found in both winter and summer. The model and the observations both show that a positive NAO amplifies the MENA volcanic winter cooling. In boreal summer, the patterns of changing temperature and precipitation suggest a weakening and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, caused by volcanic surface cooling and weakening of the Indian and West African monsoons. The model captures the main features of the climate response; however, it underestimates the total cooling, especially in winter, and exhibits a different spatial pattern of the NAO climate response in MENA compared to the observations. The conducted analysis sheds light on the internal mechanisms of MENA climate variability and helps to selectively diagnose the model deficiencies.

  13. Distal tephras of the eastern Lake Victoria basin, equatorial East Africa: correlations, chronology and a context for early modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nick; Tryon, Christian A.; Faith, J. Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J.; Beverly, Emily J.; Li, Bo; Jacobs, Zenobia

    2015-08-01

    The tephrostratigraphic framework for Pliocene and Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological sites in East Africa has been well established through nearly 50 years of research, but a similarly comprehensive framework is lacking for the Middle and particularly the Late Pleistocene. We provide the first detailed regional record of Late Pleistocene tephra deposits associated with artifacts or fossils from the Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. Correlations of Late Pleistocene distal tephra deposits from the Wasiriya beds on Rusinga Island, the Waware beds on Mfangano Island and deposits near Karungu, mainland Kenya, are based on field stratigraphy coupled with 916 electron microprobe analyses of eleven major and minor element oxides from 50 samples. At least eight distinct distal tephra deposits are distinguished, four of which are found at multiple localities spanning >60 km over an approximately north to south transect. New optically stimulated luminescence dates help to constrain the Late Pleistocene depositional ages of these deposits. Our correlation and characterization of volcaniclastic deposits expand and refine the current stratigraphy of the eastern Lake Victoria basin. This provides the basis for relating fossil- and artifact-bearing sediments and a framework for ongoing geological, archaeological and paleontological studies of Late Pleistocene East Africa, a crucial time period for human evolution and dispersal within and out of Africa.

  14. Analogy between natural gas found in lakes of rift valley system of east Africa and its allied gas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuta, O.

    1984-09-01

    The Afar triangle in northeastern Ethiopia is where the Red Sea rift, the Carlsberg Ridge of the Indian Ocean, and the Rift Valley system of east Africa meet. In 1979, J. Welhan and H. Craig reported that hydrothermal vents at 21/sup 0/N, on the East Pacific Rise, are discharging turbid waters. Mixtures of the plumes with ambient seawater contain significant amounts of dissolved H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ as well as mantel-derived /sup 3/He-rich helium. The /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratios of rock samples obtained earlier by J. Lupton and H. Craig from the Mid-Oceanic Ridge, including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the east Pacific Rise, are extremely high at an almost constant value of (1.3 +/- 0.2) x 10/sup -5/, which they defined as the MOR-type helium. However, the deep brines of the Red Sea contain about 1,000 times more methane than normal seawater does, according to Gold and Soter in 1980. Much evidence leads us to believe that large amounts of /sup 3/He-rich helium-bearing natural gas have been gushing out in many places of the Rift Valley of east Africa for a long time. In 1980, Gold and Soter stated that Lake Kivu, which occupies part of the East African rift valley, contains 50 million tons of dissolved methane for which there is no adequate microbial source. The Japanese Islands began to separate from the Asian continent during the early Miocene. The early Miocene was characterized by intensive volcanic activity that produced large amounts of pyroclastics and other volcanic rocks, generally called green tuff in Japan. It has been suggested that oil and gas in green tuff is derived from the upper mantle.

  15. The Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests of East Africa-an archive to understand large-scale biogeographical patterns: Pseudotomias, a new genus of African Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Claudia

    2016-06-21

    A new genus of Pseudophyllinae restricted to East Africa is described. Data on the ecology, and the habitat are provided. The biogeographical pattern and morphology suggests an old radiation since Tomias from Central and West Africa is the closest relative to Pseudotomias. The old forests of East Africa could hereby be the source of representatives of this old radiation since venation is less reduced in East African taxa of Phyllomimini.

  16. In-Migration, Entrepreneurship and Rural-Urban Interdependencies: The Case of East Cleveland, North East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantaridis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    In-migration is a key influence in the process of rural economic development in England, Continental Europe and the US. New arrivals are often viewed in the literature as contributors in new venture creation, as well as catalysts in enhancing rural-urban interdependencies in the countryside. This paper sets out to explore the validity of this view…

  17. Ende Diabetes Study: diabetes and its characteristics in rural area of East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Waspadji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are only few studies about diabetes in rural area in Indonesia. Epidemiological study are needed to formulate health policy of disease management in specific area. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of diabetes and knowledge of diabetes among the community in Nangapanda Village, Ende District, East Nusa Tenggara.Methods: A cross-sectional study “Ende Diabetes Study” was conducted in Nangapanda Village. This study use cluster random sampling method to a total number of 19756 residents in Nangapanda village. From the sampling frame of 1800 adult subjects who underwent screening with glucometer in 2008 and 2009, 125 subjects have been diagnosed as diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG. All of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes or IFG from the previous screening and 218 subjects from control (normal subjects in the 2008 and 2009 screening were included in the present study. Each subject underwent general anamnesis, nutritional interview, complete physical examinations, and laboratory test (blood and urine. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0.Ressult: There were 343 subjects in this study. The prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda using blood glucose criteria (using fasting and post-glucose load values was 2%; using post glucose load criteria, the prevalence of DM was 1.56%; while with HbA1c criteria, the prevalence was 2.83%. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 2.2%, and IFG was 6.2%. A number of 71.1% Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes.Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda (using fasting and post-glucose load criteria was 2% and 1.56% (using post-glucose load values. As much as 71.1% of Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:30-8Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Ende Diabetes Study, prevalence, rural Indonesia

  18. Phylogeographic reconstruction of African yellow fever virus isolates indicates recent simultaneous dispersal into east and west Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Beck

    Full Text Available Yellow fever virus (YFV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is a major public health problem in tropical areas of Africa and South America. There have been detailed studies on YFV ecology in West Africa and South America, but current understanding of YFV circulation on the African continent is incomplete. This inadequacy is especially notable for East and Central Africa, for which the unpredictability of human outbreaks is compounded by limitations in both historical and present surveillance efforts. Sparse availability of nucleotide sequence data makes it difficult to investigate the dispersal of YFV in these regions of the continent. To remedy this, we constructed Bayesian phylogenetic and geographic analyses utilizing 49 partial genomic sequences to infer the structure of YFV divergence across the known range of the virus on the African continent. Relaxed clock analysis demonstrated evidence for simultaneous divergence of YFV into east and west lineages, a finding that differs from previous hypotheses of YFV dispersal from reservoirs located on edges of the endemic range. Using discrete and continuous geographic diffusion models, we provide detailed structure of YFV lineage diversity. Significant transition links between extant East and West African lineages are presented, implying connection between areas of known sylvatic cycling. The results of demographic modeling reinforce the existence of a stably maintained population of YFV with spillover events into human populations occurring periodically. Geographically distinct foci of circulation are reconstructed, which have significant implications for studies of YFV ecology and emergence of human disease. We propose further incorporation of Bayesian phylogeography into formal GIS analyses to augment studies of arboviral disease.

  19. The Menengai Tuff: A 36 ka widespread tephra and its chronological relevance to Late Pleistocene human evolution in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nick; Brown, Francis H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Binetti, Katie M.; Faith, J. Tyler; Ferraro, Joseph V.; Gathogo, Patrick N.; Richardson, Jonathan L.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-11-01

    The East African Rift preserves the world's richest Middle and Late Pleistocene (∼780-12 ka) geological, archaeological and paleontological archives relevant to the emergence of Homo sapiens. This region also provides unparalleled chronological control for many important sites through tephrochronology, the dating and correlation of volcanic ashes as widespread isochronous markers in the geological record. There are many well-characterized Pliocene-Early Pleistocene tephras that are widespread across East Africa. A comparable framework is lacking for the Middle and Late Pleistocene; a period characterized by spatially and temporally complex patterns of climate change, as well as the emergence of modern Homo sapiens and the dispersal of this species across and out of Africa. Unraveling relationships among these spatial and temporally complex phenomena requires a precise chronology. To this end we report the Menengai Tuff, a widespread volcanic ash produced by the large-scale caldera-forming eruption in Kenya and 40Ar/39Ar dated to 35.62 ± 0.26 ka. Geochemical characterization of 565 glass shards from 36 samples by wavelength-dispersive electron probe microanalysis show the Menengai Tuff was deposited over >115,000 km2 and is found in the Baringo, Chalbi, Elmenteita, Nakuru, Olorgesailie, Turkana, and Victoria basins, all of which preserve rich Late Pleistocene paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives. Correlation and dating of the Menengai Tuff demonstrate that it is the most widespread tephra and largest eruption currently known from the Late Pleistocene of East Africa. As such, it is a valuable marker in establishing a Late Pleistocene chronology for paleoclimatic, archeological, and paleontological records relevant to the study of human evolution.

  20. The perils of technology transfer : the Australian wheat/medic System in the Near East/North Africa region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risopoulos, S.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields and production of rainfed areas in the Near East and North Africa are stagnating. The Australian wheat-medic system has been tried out in several countries of the region, Increases in soil fertility and yields were expected as well as better crop-livestock integration. Difficulties were more serious than foreseen. The farmer of the region differs from his Australian counterpart by the much smaller size of his farm and by his preference for keeping his land-use options open to match climatic variability.

  1. Middle East and North Africa Region Assessment of the Local Manufacturing Potential for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzo, A.; Gousseland, P.; Verdier, J. [Ernst and Young et Associes, Neuilly-Sur-Seine (France); Kost, C.; Morin, G.; Engelken, M.; Schrof, J.; Nitz, P.; Selt, J.; Platzer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Ragwitz, M.; Boie, I.; Hauptstock, D.; Eichhammer, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The MENA CSP (Middle East and North Africa - Concentrated Solar Power) plan is an ambitious scheme with an appeal to anyone concerned about climate change and convinced by the need for clean, renewable power. But what does it really mean for the average citizen of say Morocco or Tunisia? The World Bank sees potential for significant job and wealth creation in solar energy producing countries. If the CSP market grows rapidly over the next few years, equipment manufacturing will be essential to supply this new sector. This study proposes roadmaps and an action plan to help develop the potential of locally manufactured CSP components in the existing industry and for new market entrants.

  2. Report by A.Berson about the aerological expedition of the Royal Aeronautic Observatory to East Africa in 1908

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Süring

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the edited translation of the paper “A. Berson's Bericht über die aerologische Expedition des königlichen aeronautischen Observatoriums nach Ostafrika im Jahre 1908” (Report by A. Berson about the aerological expedition of the Royal Aeronautic Observatory to East Africa in 1908 that was published 1910 in the Meteorologische Zeitschrift 27, 536–542. The paper, provided by R. Süring, co-editor of the journal, is a summary of a more extensive report published in the same year.

  3. Spatial and temporal clustering of mortality in Digkale HDSS in rural northern South Africa

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    Chifundo Kanjala

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality data are frequently presented at the overall population level, possibly obscuring small-scale variations over time and space and between different population sub-groups. Objective: Analysis of mortality data from the Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in rural South Africa, over the period 1996–2007, to identify local clustering of mortality among the eight villages in the observed population. Design: Mortality data and person-time of observation were collected annually in an open-cohort population of approximately 8,000 people over 12 years. Poisson regression modelling and space–time clustering analyses were used to identify possible clustering of mortality. Results: Similar patterns of mortality clustering emerged from Poisson regression and space–time clustering analyses after allowing for age and sex. There was no appreciable clustering of mortality among children under 15 years of age nor in adults 50 years and over. For adults aged 15–49 years, there were substantial clustering effects both in time and in space, with mortality increasing during the period observed and particularly so in some locations, which were nearer to local conurbations. Mortality was relatively lower in the vicinity of the local health centre. Conclusions: Although cause-specific mortality data were not available, the rise in mortality in the 15–49-year age group over time and in areas closer to conurbations strongly suggests that the clustering observed was due to the development of HIV/AIDS-related mortality, as seen similarly elsewhere in South Africa. The HIV/AIDS services offered by the local health centre may have contributed to lower relative mortality around that location.

  4. Involvement of stakeholders in determining health priorities of adolescents in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhian Twine

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo (‘hope’ aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process. Objective: This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities according to key stakeholders, to align stakeholder and researcher priorities, and to form a stakeholder forum, which would be active throughout the intervention. Design: Thirty-two stakeholders were purposefully identified as community members interested in the health of adolescents. An adapted Delphi incorporating face-to-face discussions, as well as participatory visualisation, was used in a series of three workshops. Consensus was determined through non-parametric analysis. Results: Stakeholders and researchers agreed that peer pressure and lack of information, or having information but not acting on it, were the root causes of adolescent health problems. Pregnancy, HIV, school dropout, alcohol and drug abuse, not accessing health services, and unhealthy lifestyle (leading to obesity were identified as priority adolescent health issues. A diagram was developed showing how these eight priorities relate to one another, which was useful in the development of the intervention. A stakeholder forum was founded, comprising 12 of the stakeholders involved in the stakeholder involvement process. Conclusions: The process brought researchers and stakeholders to consensus on the most important health issues facing adolescents, and a stakeholder forum was developed within which to address the issues. Stakeholder involvement as part of a research engagement strategy can be of mutual benefit to the researchers and the community in which the research is taking place.

  5. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  6. Organic sedimentation in modern lacustrine systems: A case study from Lake Malawi, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Barry J. Katz,; Christopher A. Scholz,; Peter K. Swart,

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between depositional environment and sedimentary organic geochemistry in Lake Malawi, East Africa, and evaluates the relative significance of the various processes that control sedimentary organic matter (OM) in lacustrine systems. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in recent sediments from Lake Malawi range from 0.01 to 8.80 wt% and average 2.83 wt% for surface sediments and 2.35 wt% for shallow core sediments. Hydrogen index (HI) values as determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis range from 0 to 756 mg HC g−1 TOC and average 205 mg HC g−1 TOC for surface sediments and 228 mg HC g−1 TOC for shallow core samples. On average, variations in primary productivity throughout the lake may account for ~33% of the TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (as much as 1 wt% TOC), and have little or no impact on sedimentary HI values. Similarly, ~33% to 66% of the variation in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments appears to be controlled by anoxic preservation of OM (~1–2 wt% TOC), although some component of the water depth–TOC relationship may be due to physical sediment transport processes. Furthermore, anoxic preservation has a minimal effect on HI values in Lake Malawi sediments. Dilution of OM by inorganic sediment may account for ~16% of variability in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (~0.5 wt% TOC). The effect of inputs of terrestrial sediment on the organic character of surface sediments in these lakes is highly variable, and appears to be more closely related to the local depositional environment than the regional flux of terrestrial OM. Total nitrogen and TOC content in surface sediments collected throughout the lake are found to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95), indicating a well-homogenized source of OM to the lake bottom. The recurring suspension and deposition of terrestrial sediment may account for significant amounts of OM deposited in offshore regions of the lake. This process effectively separates denser

  7. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  8. Holocene Millennial Time Scale Hydrological Changes In Central-east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, D.; Bonnefille, R.; Beaufort, L.

    The Holocene hydrological changes of a tropical swamp is reconstructed using a high resolution pollen record (ca 50 yrs) from the Kuruyange valley (Burundi, Africa, 3°35'S, 29°41'E), at 2000 m elevation. The sequence was dated by 10 radiocarbon dates, allowing reconstruction between ca 12 500 and 1000 cal yr B.P. In the Kuruyange swamp, peat accumulated rapidly at a sedimentation rate varying from 0.73 (prior to 6200 cal yr B.P.) to 1.51 mm/yr (during the late Holocene). A pollen index of water table, based on a ratio of aquatic versus non-aquatic plants has been used in order to test the hypothesis of hydrological constraints on the swampy ecosystem. Eight arid phases are evidenced by the index minima at 12 200, 11 200, 9900, 8600, 6500, 5000, 3400, 1600 cal yr B.P. The good agreement existing between this index and independent data such as (i) low-resolution East-African lake level reconstruct ions (Gillespie et al., 1983) and (ii) ?18O analyses from Arabian Sea (Sirocko et al., 1993) suggests the water table level responds to the monsoon dynamic. The Index varies periodically with a combination of 1/1515, 1/880 and 1/431 years-1 frequencies, revealed by time series analyses (Blackman-Tukey and Maximum Entropy). The extrapolation of the composite curve based on these 3 periodicities show that two major climatic events defined in the high latitudes between 1000 and 660 cal yr B.P. (Medieval Warm Period) and between 500 and 100 cal yr B.P. (Little Ice Age) are recorded in our data and show respectively high and low stands of the water table. Our results support some previous pollen-derived climate estimates in Ethiopia done by Bonnefille and Umer (1994). Moreover, the "1500 year" cycle registered in our data from the tropics, already evidenced in higher latitudes (Wijmstra et al., 1984; Bondet al., 1997; Schulz et al., 1999; Bond et al., 2001) support the hypothesis of strong teleconnections between tropical/subtropical and polar climates during the deglaciation

  9. Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Middle East and North Africa Climate

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2016-11-01

    Dust-climate interaction over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has long been studied, as it is the "dustiest" region on earth. However, the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the role of dust direct radiative effect on MENA climate is still rudimentary. The present dissertation investigates dust direct radiative effect on MENA climate during summer with a special emphasis on the sensitivity of climate response to dust shortwave absorption, which is one of the most uncertain components of dust direct radiative effect. Simulations are conducted with and without dust radiative effect, to differentiate the effect of dust on climate. To elucidate the sensitivity of climate response to dust shortwave absorption, simulations with dust assume three different cases of dust shortwave absorption, representing dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient shortwave absorber. The non-uniformly distributed dust perturb circulations at various scales. Therefore, the present study takes advantage of the high spatial resolution capabilities of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), which incorporates global and regional circulations. AMIP-style global high-resolution simulations are conducted at a spatial resolution of 25 km. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet and West African Monsoon circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rainbelt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Similarly, the temperature under rainbelt cools and that over subtropical deserts warms. Inter-comparison of various dust shortwave absorption cases shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the

  10. LLNL Middle East and North Africa and Former Soviet Union Research Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Boyle, J.L.; Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Dodge, D.; Firpo, M.

    2000-07-14

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (GNEM) R and D program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA) and Former Soviet Union (FSU) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (over 2 million waveforms from 20,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Using the SRKB framework, they are combining travel-time observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA and FSU regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB provide needed contributions to the DOE Knowledge Base (DOE KB) for the ME/NA and FSU regions and will help improve monitoring for underground nuclear testing. The LLNL research products will facilitate calibration of IMS stations (primary and auxiliary), their surrogates (if not yet installed) and selected gamma stations necessary to complete the above tasks in the ME/NA and FSU regions. They present expanded lookup tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and a new integrated and reconciled event catalog dataset including

  11. Profiling lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding among patients from rural Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosoma mansoni is endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Christopher Kenneth; Kazibwe, Francis; Ocama, Ponsiano; Rejani, Lalitha; Belousova, Elena Nikolaevna; Ajal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis is a common cause of episodes upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there is paucity of data on clinical epidemiology of episodes of UGIB from rural Africa despite on going public health interventions to control and eliminate schistosomiasis. Through a cross sectional study we profiled lifetime episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and associated factors at a rural primary health facility in sub-Saharan Africa were schistosomiasis is endemic. The main outcome was number of lifetime episodes of UGIB analyzed as count data. From 107 enrolled participants, 323 lifetime episodes of UGIB were reported. Fifty-seven percent experienced ≥ 2 lifetime episodes of UGIB. Ninety-four percent had severe chronic hepatic schistosomiasis and 80% esophageal varices. Alcohol use and viral hepatitis was infrequent. Eighty-eight percent were previously treated with praziquantel and 70% had a history of blood transfusion. No patient had ever had an endoscopy or treatment for prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding. Multivariable analysis identified a cluster of eight clinical factor variables (age ≥ 40, female sex, history of blood transfusion, abdominal collaterals, esophageal varices, pattern x periportal fibrosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia) significantly associated (P-value Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common health problem in this part of rural SSA where schistosomiasis is endemic. The clinical profile described is unique and is important for improved case management, and for future research.

  12. The Environmental and Social Influences of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Communities

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    Christopher R. Frei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS pandemic has caused far-reaching effects in sub-Saharan Africa. The pandemic has effectively diminished the workforce, increased poverty rates, reduced agricultural productivity, and transformed the structure of many rural households. HIV/AIDS further strains the already fragile relationship between livelihood and the natural and social environments of these regions. Therefore, the objective of this review is to characterize the impact of HIV/AIDS on the environment and the social infrastructure of rural sub-Saharan Africa. There are many aspects of rural life that contribute to disease transmission of HIV/AIDS and that pose unique challenges to the population dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. Widespread AIDS-related mortality has caused a decrease in population growth for many African countries. In turn, these alterations in population dynamics have resulted in a decrease in the percentage of prime-age working adults, as well as a gender disparity, whereby, females carry a growing burden of household responsibilities. There is a rising proportion of older adults, often females, who assume the role of provider and caretaker for other dependent family members. These changing dynamics have caused many to exploit their natural surroundings, adopting less sustainable land use practices and utilizing protected resources as a primary means of generating revenue.

  13. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap. Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid altitud

  14. Implementation of Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Rural Primary Healthcare Clinics in South Africa: Perspectives of Key Stakeholders

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    Tivani P. Mashamba-Thompson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Key stakeholders’ involvement is crucial to the sustainability of quality point-of-care (POC diagnostics services in low-and-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the implementation of POC diagnostics in rural primary healthcare (PHC clinics in South Africa. Method: We conducted a qualitative study encompassing in-depth interviews with multiple key stakeholders of POC diagnostic services for rural and resource-limited PHC clinics. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to thematic content analysis. Thematic content analysis was conducted using themes guided by the World Health Organisation (WHO quality-ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User friendly, Rapid and to enable treatment at first visit and Robust, Equipment free and Delivered to those who need it criteria for POC diagnostic services in resource-limited settings. Results: 11 key stakeholders participated in the study. All stakeholders perceived the main advantage of POC diagnostics as enabling access to healthcare for rural patients. Stakeholders perceived the current POC diagnostic services to have an ability to meet patients’ needs, but recommended further improvement of the following areas: research on cost-effectiveness; improved quality management systems; development of affordable POC diagnostic and clinic-based monitoring and evaluation. Conclusions: Key stakeholders of POC diagnostics in rural PHC clinics in South Africa highlighted the need to assess affordability and ensure quality assurance of current services before adopting new POC diagnostics and scaling up current POC diagnostics.

  15. Implementation of Point-of-Care Diagnostics in Rural Primary Healthcare Clinics in South Africa: Perspectives of Key Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P.; Jama, Ngcwalisa A.; Sartorius, Benn; Drain, Paul K.; Thompson, Rowan M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Key stakeholders’ involvement is crucial to the sustainability of quality point-of-care (POC) diagnostics services in low-and-middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the implementation of POC diagnostics in rural primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in South Africa. Method: We conducted a qualitative study encompassing in-depth interviews with multiple key stakeholders of POC diagnostic services for rural and resource-limited PHC clinics. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to thematic content analysis. Thematic content analysis was conducted using themes guided by the World Health Organisation (WHO) quality-ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User friendly, Rapid and to enable treatment at first visit and Robust, Equipment free and Delivered to those who need it) criteria for POC diagnostic services in resource-limited settings. Results: 11 key stakeholders participated in the study. All stakeholders perceived the main advantage of POC diagnostics as enabling access to healthcare for rural patients. Stakeholders perceived the current POC diagnostic services to have an ability to meet patients’ needs, but recommended further improvement of the following areas: research on cost-effectiveness; improved quality management systems; development of affordable POC diagnostic and clinic-based monitoring and evaluation. Conclusions: Key stakeholders of POC diagnostics in rural PHC clinics in South Africa highlighted the need to assess affordability and ensure quality assurance of current services before adopting new POC diagnostics and scaling up current POC diagnostics. PMID:28075337

  16. Coping or Struggling? A journey into the impact of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rugalema, G.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the effects of AIDS-induced morbidity and mortality on rural livelihoods, particularly in east and southern Africa, has gathered pace in the last two decades. An understanding of the interaction between ill health and rural livelihoods is essential both at policy and theoretical levels.

  17. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

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    Sheona Shackleton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

  18. Characterizing Degradation Gradients through Land Cover Change Analysis in Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Zahn Münch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change analysis was performed for three catchments in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa, for two time steps (2000 and 2014, to characterize landscape conversion trajectories for sustained landscape health. Land cover maps were derived: (1 from existing data (2000; and (2 through object-based image analysis (2014 of Landsat 8 imagery. Land cover change analysis was facilitated using land cover labels developed to identify landscape change trajectories. Land cover labels assigned to each intersection of the land cover maps at the two time steps provide a thematic representation of the spatial distribution of change. While land use patterns are characterized by high persistence (77%, the expansion of urban areas and agriculture has occurred predominantly at the expense of grassland. The persistence and intensification of natural or invaded wooded areas were identified as a degradation gradient within the landscape, which amounted to almost 10% of the study area. The challenge remains to determine significant signals in the landscape that are not artefacts of error in the underlying input data or scale of analysis. Systematic change analysis and accurate uncertainty reporting can potentially address these issues to produce authentic output for further modelling.

  19. Teachers' attitudes towards adolescent sexuality and life skills education in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people's sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes towards young people's sexuality and pregnant students, and focused on girls' perceived irresponsible behaviour instead of strategies to minimise HIV risk. Despite general awareness of the HIV epidemic, few teachers perceived it as an immediate threat, and teachers' own HIV risk was infrequently acknowledged. Teachers perceived themselves to have higher personal standards and moral authority than members of the communities and schools they served. Male administrators' authority to determine school policies and teachers' attitudes towards sexuality fundamentally affect the content and delivery of school-based sexuality education and HIV prevention activities. Opportunities to create a supportive educational environment for students and for female teachers are frequently missed. Improving teachers' efficacy to deliver impartial, non-judgemental and accurate information about sex and HIV is essential, as are efforts to acknowledge and address their own HIV risks.

  20. Perspectives on intimate relationships among young people in rural South Africa: the logic of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edin, Kerstin; Nilsson, Bo; Ivarsson, Anneli; Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A; Kahn, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores how young people in rural South Africa understand gender, dating, sexuality and risk-taking in adolescence. The empirical material drawn upon consists of 20 interviews with young men and women (aged 18-19) and reflects normative gender patterns characterised by compulsory heterosexuality and dating as obligatory, and representing key symbols of normality. However, different meanings of heterosexual relationships are articulated in the interviews, for example in the recurring concept of 'passing time', and these meanings show that a relationship can be something arbitrary: a way to reduce boredom and have casual sex. Such a rationale for engaging in a relationship reflects one of several other normative gender patterns, which relate to the trivialisation of dating and sexual risk-taking, and which entail making compromises and legitimising deviations from the 'ideal' life-script and the hope of a better future. However, risks do not exclusively represent something bad, dangerous or immoral, because they are also used as excuses to avoid sex, HIV acquisition and early pregnancy. In conclusion, various interrelated issues can both undermine and/or reinforce risk awareness and subsequent risk behaviour. Recognition of this tension is essential when framing policies to support young people to reduce sexual risk-taking behaviour.

  1. Men's moralising discourses on gender and HIV risk in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindry, Deborah L; Knight, Lucia; van Rooyen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Various interventions have resulted in increased rates of HIV testing. However, encouraging men to acknowledge their risk for HIV, to test and link to treatment remains a challenge. In this study, we examine men's perspectives on navigating HIV risk in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Qualitative interviews were conducted at four intervals over a three-year time period with a baseline cohort of 126 men and women. We found that men navigated HIV risk in their sexual relationships mainly by monitoring their partner's behaviour. Men expressed concerns about female respectability, invoking discourses on hlonipha rooted in Zulu cultural ideals and Christian ideals about women staying close to home. In the post-apartheid era, these concerns were inflected by anxieties over changing gender norms and the high rates and risks of infection in the region. HIV prevention discourses on behaviour intersected with men's efforts to assert their masculinity through the monitoring and controlling of women's behaviour. The potential negative impacts of this should be addressed. Prevention efforts need to focus on men's vulnerability to infection in terms of their own behaviour as well as the contexts in which they live.

  2. Teachers’ attitudes towards adolescent sexuality and life skills education in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people’s sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes towards young people’s sexuality and pregnant students, and focused on girls’ perceived irresponsible behaviour instead of strategies to minimise HIV risk. Despite general awareness of the HIV epidemic, few teachers perceived it as an immediate threat, and teachers’ own HIV risk was infrequently acknowledged. Teachers perceived themselves to have higher personal standards and moral authority than members of the communities and schools they served. Male administrators’ authority to determine school policies and teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality fundamentally affect the content and delivery of school-based sexuality education and HIV prevention activities. Opportunities to create a supportive educational environment for students and for female teachers are frequently missed. Improving teachers’ efficacy to deliver impartial, non-judgemental and accurate information about sex and HIV is essential, as are efforts to acknowledge and address their own HIV risks. PMID:23662093

  3. What was tropical about tropical neurasthenia? The utility of the diagnosis in the management of British East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Anna

    2009-10-01

    During the first quarter of the twentieth century, tropical neurasthenia was a popular diagnosis for a nervous condition experienced by Europeans in the topics. Tropical neurasthenia was not psychosis or madness, but was rather an ennui or loss of "edge" brought about by the strains of tropical life, especially the unfamiliar, hot climate. A catch-all for a wide range of symptoms, many missionaries, colonial staff, and settlers throughout Empire were repatriated because of it, although this article concentrates on Colonial Service employees working in British East Africa. While histories of tropical neurasthenia have usefully (and correctly) explained this diagnosis as an expression of the anxieties of the colonial regime, this article adds a new dimension to the historiography by arguing that tropical neurasthenia can only be properly understood as a hybrid form, dependent not only upon the peculiarities of the colonial situation, but also descended from British and American clinical understandings of neurasthenia. Moreover, once tropical neurasthenia is properly acknowledged as being typical of clinical understandings of the time, other reasons for its comparatively long endurance in the colonial situation emerge. This article shows that tropical neurasthenia remained a popular diagnosis in East Africa not only because (as historians have argued previously) it dovetailed with prevalent ideas of colonial acclimatization, but also because it was a practically useful tool in the management and regulation of colonial personnel.

  4. Challenges of diagnosis and management of axial spondyloarthritis in North Africa and the Middle East: An expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudeh, Mohammed; Abdulaziz, Sultana; Alosaimi, Hanan; Al-Rayes, Hanan; Aldeen Sarakbi, Hussam; Baamer, Matouqa; Baraliakos, Xenofon; Dahou Makhloufi, Chafia; Janoudi, Nahid; Shirazy, Khalid; Sieper, Joachim; Sukhbir, Uppal

    2016-04-01

    Axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a spectrum of inflammatory disease with stages characterized by both nonradiographic and radiographic sacroiliitis. Nonradiographic axial SpA is associated with health-related quality-of-life impairment and may progress to ankylosing spondylitis. Axial SpA has a low prevalence in some countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and pooling of data and resources is needed to increase understanding of the regional picture. Early diagnosis and effective treatment are required to reduce disease burden and prevent progression. Anti-TNF therapy is recommended for patients with persistently high disease activity despite conventional treatment, and has been shown to be effective in patients without radiographic damage. Diagnostic delays can be an obstacle to early treatment and appropriate referral strategies are needed. In some countries, restricted access to magnetic resonance imaging and anti-TNF agents presents a challenge. In this article, a group of experts from North Africa and the Middle East evaluated the diagnosis and management of axial SpA with particular reference to this region.

  5. Towards a gender perspective in qualitative research on voluntary medical male circumcision in east and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Triviño Durán, Laura; Gasch, Angel; Desmond, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in 2007 as an effective method to provide partial protection against heterosexual female-to-male transmission of HIV in regions with high rates of such transmission, and where uptake of VMMC is low. Qualitative research conducted in east and southern Africa has focused on assessing acceptability, barriers to uptake of VMMC and the likelihood of VMMC increasing men's adoption of risky sexual behaviours. Less researched, however, have been the perceptions of women and sexual minorities towards VMMC, even though they are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS transmission than are heterosexual men. The purpose of this paper is to identify core areas in which a gendered perspective in qualitative research might improve the understanding and framing of VMMC in east and southern Africa. Issues explored in this analysis are risk compensation, the post-circumcision appearance of the penis, inclusion of men who have sex with men as study respondents and the antagonistic relation between VMMC and female genital cutting. If biomedical and social science researchers explore these issues in future qualitative inquiry utilising a gendered perspective, a more thorough understanding of VMMC can be achieved, which could ultimately inform policy and implementation.

  6. Doctors as street-level bureaucrats in a rural hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaede, Bernhard M

    2016-01-01

    In the perspectives of implementation of policy, the top-down and bottom-up perspectives of policy-making dominate the discourse. However, service delivery and therefore the experience of the policy by the citizen ultimately depend on the civil servant at the front line to implement the policy. Lipsky named this street-level bureaucracy, which has been used to understand professionals working in the public sector throughout the world. The public sector in South Africa has undergone a number of changes in the transition to a democratic state, post 1994. This needs to be understood in public administration developments throughout the world. At the time of the study, the public sector was characterized by considerable inefficiencies and system failures as well as inequitable distribution of resources. The context of the study was a rural hospital serving a population of approximately 150 000. An insider-ethnography over a period of 13 months explored the challenges of being a professional within the public sector in a rural hospital in South Africa. Data collection included participant observation, field notes of events and meetings, and documentation review supplemented with in-depth interviews of doctors working at a rural hospital. Street-level bureaucracy was used as a framework to understand the challenges of being a professional and civil servant in the public sector. The context of a resource-constrained setting was seen as a major limitation to delivering a quality service. Yet considerable evidence pointed to doctors (both individually and collectively) being active in managing the services in the context and aiming to achieve optimal health service coverage for the population. In the daily routine of the work, doctors often advocated for patients and went beyond the narrow definitions of the guidelines. They compensated for failing systems, beyond a local interpretation of policy. However, doctors also at times used their discretion negatively, to avoid work

  7. The 17 Ma old Turkana beaked whale fossil: new paleoaltimetry constraints for uplift and environmental change in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichura, Henry; Jacobs, Louis L.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J.; Manthi, Fredrick K.; Winkler, Dale A.; Matthew, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    Timing and magnitude of vertical motions of the Earth's crust is key to evaluate the impact of tectonic processes on changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, rainfall, and environmental conditions. The East African Plateau (EAP) is a major topographic feature that fundamentally impacts the patterns of the Indian-African Monsoon and the eastward transport of air masses from the Congo Basin. Uplift of the EAP in Kenya has been linked to mantle processes, but due to the lack of reliable palaeoaltimetric data it has been challenging to unambiguously constrain plateau evolution, vertical motions associated with late Cenozoic rifting of the East African Rift System, and ensuing environmental change. We explored the fossil remains of a beaked whale (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region in the northern Kenya Rift, 700 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean. The whale fossil, preserved near sea level, was discovered at an elevation of 620 m and thus constrains the uplift of the northeastern flanks of the EAP. The Kenyan ziphiid was discovered in fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the extensional Oligo-Miocene Lokichar basin (Mead, 1975) along with terrestrial mammals and freshwater molluscs below a basalt dated at 17.1 ± 1.0 Ma (Boschetto et al., 1992). The unifying characteristics of riverine occurrences of modern marine mammals include sufficient discharge in low-gradient rivers to maintain pathways deep enough to facilitate migration, and the absence of shallow bedrock, rapids, and waterfalls. The most likely route, which may have had these characteristics is a fluvial corridor controlled by protracted thermal subsidence of the Cretaceous Anza Rift, which once linked extensional processes in Central and East Africa with the continental margin of northeastern Africa. The fossil locality and analogies with present-day occurrences of marine mammals in terrestrial realms suggest that the ziphiid stranded slightly above sea level. In combination with

  8. Ecosystem productivity and water stress in tropical East Africa: A Case Study of the 2010-11 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. S.; Yang, X.; Lee, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of changes in ecosystem productivity as a consequence of water stress and changing precipitation regimes is critical in defining the response of tropical ecosystems to water stress and projecting future land cover transitions in the East African tropics. Through the analysis of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), soil moisture, rainfall and reanalysis data, this paper characterizes the 2010-11 drought in tropical East Africa. We demonstrated that SIF, a proxy of ecosystem productivity, varied with water availability during the 2010-11 drought. A comparison of the 2010-11 drought to previous regional droughts revealed that the consecutive failure of rainy seasons in fall 2010 and spring 2011 yielded a drought that is distinguished not only in intensity, but also in spatial and temporal extent as compared to an average of previous regional droughts: the 2010-11 event extended further east and with greater intensity in the southern hemisphere. Anomalously low SIF values during the 2010-11 drought are strongly correlated with those of soil moisture and precipitation. SIF also demonstrated a stronger temporal sensitivity to accumulated water deficit as compared to the conventional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which approximates photosynthetic potential (chlorophyll content and leaf mass), from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Anomalously high rainfall during the dry seasons preceding failed rainy seasons suggest that the seasonality of East African rainfall may be transitioning from a regime characterized by biannual monsoons to one with increasing convective rainfall. Rising boundary layer height during the dry season further substantiates this conclusion by suggesting a transition towards increased deep convection during the summers. This work demonstrated the unique characteristics of the 2010-11 East African drought, and the ability of SIF to track the levels of water stress during the

  9. Meta-analysis of proportion estimates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa hospitals

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    Tolbert Sonda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big the problem really is. To gain insight into the magnitude and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa a literature search was performed in PubMed on 31 July 2015 to retrieve articles with relevant information on ESBL. Methods and results Meta-analysis was performed to determine overall proportion estimate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 4076 bacterial isolates were included in the analysis. The overall pooled proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among included surveys done in East African hospitals was found to be 0.42 (95 % CI: 0.34–0.50. Heterogeneity (I2 between countries’ proportions in ESBL was significantly high (96.95 % and p < 0.001. The frequently detected genes encoding ESBL were CTX-M, TEM, SHV and OXA while the most infrequent reported genes were KPC and NDM. Conclusion The available studies show a very wide variation in resistance due to ESBL between countries. This highlights a need for active surveillance systems which can help understand the actual epidemiology of ESBL, aid in formulating national or regional guidelines for proper screening of ESBL, and support developing standardized approaches for managing patients colonized with ESBL.

  10. Evaluation of branched GDGTs and leaf wax n-alkane δ2H as (paleo) environmental proxies in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinet, Sarah; Huguet, Arnaud; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Bergonzini, Laurent; Omuombo, Christine; Williamson, David; Anquetil, Christelle; Jones, Martin; Majule, Amos; Wagner, Thomas; Derenne, Sylvie

    2017-02-01

    The role of mountain evolution on local climate is poorly understood and potentially underestimated in climate models. One prominent example is East Africa, which underwent major geodynamic changes with the onset of the East African Rift System (EARS) more than 250 Myr ago. This study explores, at the regional East African scale, a molecular approach for terrestrially-based paleo-climatic reconstructions that takes into account both changes in temperature and in altitude, potentially leading to an improved concept in paleo-climatic reconstructions. Using surface soils collected along pronounced altitudinal gradients in Mt. Rungwe (n = 40; Southwest Tanzania) and Mt. Kenya (n = 20; Central Kenya), we investigate the combination of 2 terrestrial proxies, leaf wax n-alkane δ2H (δ2Hwax) and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (br GDGT) membrane lipids, as (paleo) elevation and (paleo) temperature proxies, respectively. At the mountain scale, a weak link between δ2Hwax and altitude (R2 = 0.33) is observed at Mt. Kenya, but no relationship is observed at Mt. Rungwe. It is likely that additional parameters, such as decreasing relative humidity (RH) or vegetation changes with altitude, are outcompeting the expected 2H-depletion trend along Mt. Rungwe. In contrast, br GDGT-derived absolute mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and temperature lapse rate (0.65 °C/100 m) for both mountains are in good agreement with direct field measurements, further supporting the robustness of this molecular proxy for (paleo) temperature reconstructions. At the regional scale, estimated and observed δ2H data in precipitation along 3 mountains in East Africa (Mts. Rungwe, Kenya and Kilimanjaro) highlight a strong spatial heterogeneity, preventing the establishment of a regional based calibration of δ2Hwax for paeloaltitudinal reconstructions. Different from that, an improved regional soil calibration is developed between br GDGT distribution and MAAT by combining the data from

  11. Awareness, knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy among rural populations in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia: a preliminary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neni, Selamat Widiasmoro; Latif, Ahmad Zubaidi Abdul; Wong, Sok Yee; Lua, Pei Lin

    2010-06-01

    This study was carried out to gauge the preliminary insight regarding epilepsy among the rural society. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine general level of awareness, knowledge and attitudes (AKA) towards epilepsy among rural communities, (2) to compare the AKA level based on socio-demographic characteristics and (3) to investigate rural cohort's perception of the best epilepsy treatment, preference for epilepsy information delivery and preference for mode of transportation to seek medical treatment. This prospective, cross sectional study included a sample of 615 rural residents enrolled via cluster sampling in East Coast region of Peninsular Malaysia (mean age=41.6+/-18.02, female=56.6%, married=65.5%, Malay=94.0%, monthly income 0.05). However, respondents with higher education significantly possessed better attitudes and higher Total AKA level compared to those with lower education level (p<0.001). Employed respondents reported significantly more favourable attitudes than unemployed respondents (p=0.011). Additionally, higher income rural cohorts possessed both significantly better attitudes and better AKA. These rural communities perceived modern medicine as the best epilepsy treatment (56.60%), preferred to obtain direct epilepsy-related information from health personnel (60.4%) and chose to use their own car to seek medical treatment in hospital (76.30%). The outcomes of this preliminary study signified the need to devise a dedicated epilepsy education program for implementation among rural residents. Increased AKA level in the society could enhance the people's acceptance, reduce stigmatisation and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for epilepsy patients and their family. Copyright 2010 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  13. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

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    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  14. The genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae) in East Africa: phylogeny and the role of rifting and climate in shaping the current pattern of species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, M; Loader, S P; Marsden, S J; Branch, W R; Davenport, T R B; Ursenbacher, S

    2014-10-01

    Past climatic and tectonic events are believed to have strongly influenced species diversity in the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity Hotspot. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the East African genus Atheris (Serpentes: Viperidae), and explored temporal and spatial relationships between Atheris species across Africa, and the impact of palaeoclimatic fluctuations and tectonic movements on cladogenesis of the genus. Using mitochondrial sequence data, the phylogeny of East African species of Atheris shows congruent temporal patterns that link diversification to major tectonic and aridification events within East Africa over the last 15million years (my). Our results are consistent with a scenario of a delayed direct west-east colonisation of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Atheris by the formation of the western rift. Based on the phylogenetic patterns, this terrestrial, forest-associated genus has dispersed into East Africa across a divided route, on both west-southeasterly and west-northeasterly directions (a C-shaped route). Cladogenesis in the Eastern Arc Mountains and Southern Highlands of Tanzania corresponds to late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene climatic shifts. Taxonomically, our data confirmed the monophyly of Atheris as currently defined, and reveal four major East African clades, three of which occur in discrete mountain ranges. Possible cryptic taxa are identified in the Atheris rungweensis and A. ceratophora clades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Power, slavery, and spirit possession in East Africa: A few reflections

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    Beatrice Nicolini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirit possession and its relationship with power aims to offer here a better understanding not only of East African societies, but, most of all, of their historical role in numerous political and military conflicts and also within peace-building processes that represent a continuation of a topic of longstanding concern in East African history. The relationships between religions, local cultures and institutional powers throughout contemporary East African history will be re-read through regional and transnational, as well as international dynamics.

  16. Determination of fluorosis prevalence in rural communities  of East Azerbaijan Province

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    Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour Feizi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intake of high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water can cause dental fluorosis. In this study, the prevalence of dental fluorosis in rural communities of East Azerbaijan Province was studied. Materials and Methods: 3 villages of Bashsizkooh, Bostanabad (fluoride concentration in drinking water = 0.12 mg/L, Nagharehkub,  Ahar (current water resource = 0.6 mg/L, old water resource = 1.1-1.2 mg/L, and Gharehbolaq, Jolfa (current water resource = 0.35 mg/L and old water resource = 2.4 mg/L old source were selected as low, medium, and high exposure to fluoride respectively. All village residents above 6 years old were visited by physician. Quality of water resources was determined by referring to the records archived and through conducting new analysis.Results: Dental fluorosis was observed in 62.7 % of the people visited. In 31.5% of participants, fluorosis Grade 1; in 22.4 % of participants, fluorosis grade 2; in 7.7 % of participants, fluorosis grade 3; and finally fluorosis grade 4 was observed in 4 patients. Different levels of fluorosis were observed in residents of the villages of Gharebolaq, Nagharehkub, and Bashsizkooh (83.3%, 70.5 %, and 32.5 % respectively. There was a significant difference in prevalence of fluorosis between villages (P < 0.001. Fluorosis was observed in both permanent and temporary teeth. Mean cumulative fluoride index (MCFI in people with and without fluorosis was 22660.2 and 4743.2 mg, respectively. There was a correlation between this index and fluorosis (R =0.413. Conclusion: In all three villages studied, even Bashsizkooh, different grades of fluorosis were endemic. It is recommended that the responsible authorities take a  new measure and approach  for the intake of fluoride from drinking water.

  17. Exploring the paradox: double burden of malnutrition in rural South Africa

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    Elizabeth W. Kimani-Murage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article is a review of the PhD thesis by Elizabeth Kimani-Murage that explores the double burden of malnutrition in rural South Africa. This is in the context of a worryingly rapid increase in obesity and obesity-related diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs including South Africa, and in the wake of on-going nutrition transition and lifestyle changes in these countries. Objective: To understand the profiles of malnutrition among children and adolescents in a poor, high HIV prevalent, transitional society in a middle-income country. Methods: A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in 2007 targeting 4,000 children and adolescents aged 1–20 years. In addition, HIV testing was carried out on children aged 1–5 years and Tanner pubertal assessment among adolescents aged 9–20 years. Results: The study shows stunting at an early age and adolescent obesity, particularly among girls, that co-exists in the same socio-geographic population. The study also shows that HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes in children and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Significant predictors of undernutrition at an early age, documented at individual, household, and community levels, include child's HIV status, age and birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Significant predictors of overweight/obesity and risk for metabolic disease during adolescence, documented at individual and household levels include child's age, sex, and pubertal development, household-level food security, socio-economic status, and household head's highest education level. Conclusions: The combination of early stunting and adolescent obesity raises critical concerns in the wake of the rising public health importance of metabolic diseases in LMICs. This is because, both paediatric obesity and adult short stature are risk factors for

  18. The unfolding counter-transition in rural South Africa: mortality and cause of death, 1994-2009.

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    Brian Houle

    Full Text Available The HIV pandemic has led to dramatic increases and inequalities in adult mortality, and the diffusion of antiretroviral treatment, together with demographic and socioeconomic shifts in sub-Saharan Africa, has further changed mortality patterns. We describe all-cause and cause-specific mortality patterns in rural South Africa, analyzing data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system from 1994 to 2009 for those aged 5 years and older. Mortality increased during that period, particularly after 2002 for ages 30-69. HIV/AIDS and TB deaths increased and recently plateaued at high levels in people under age 60. Noncommunicable disease deaths increased among those under 60, and recently also increased among those over 60. There was an inverse gradient between mortality and household SES, particularly for deaths due to HIV/AIDS and TB and noncommunicable diseases. A smaller and less consistent gradient emerged for deaths due to other communicable diseases. Deaths due to injuries remained an important mortality risk for males but did not vary by SES. Rural South Africa continues to have a high burden of HIV/AIDS and TB mortality while deaths from noncommunicable diseases have increased, and both of these cause-categories show social inequalities in mortality.

  19. Treating HIV in rural South Africa “Successes and Challenges"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents the first testimony of a unique collaboration between Ndlovu Medical Centre (NMC) in Elandsdoorn, South Africa, and the University Medical Centre in Utrecht (UMCU), The Netherlands. Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be the region most affected by HIV, and South Africa is the count

  20. Treating HIV in rural South Africa “Successes and Challenges"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents the first testimony of a unique collaboration between Ndlovu Medical Centre (NMC) in Elandsdoorn, South Africa, and the University Medical Centre in Utrecht (UMCU), The Netherlands. Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be the region most affected by HIV, and South Africa is the

  1. Network analysis of N flows and food self-sufficiency - a comparative study of crop-livestock systems of the highlands of East and southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rufino, M.C.; Tittonell, P.A.; Reidsma, P.; Lopez-Ridaura, S.; Hengsdijk, H.; Giller, K.E.; Verhagen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa are often nutrient-limited, and therefore imports must be increased to compensate exports and losses. To explore whether the properties of nutrient cycling networks relate to the systems’ capability to sustain rural families, we investigated N flows

  2. Cultural factors and home-brewed alcohol use in a rural community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onya, H E; Flisher, A J; Mashamba, J T

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between cultural orientation and home- brewed alcohol use among adolescents in a rural setting. The study involved 1263 students from 30 high schools in Mankweng District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Boys formed 48% of the sample. Means ages were 16.7 and 16.0 years for boys and girls respectively. A 16 item scale focusing on language, mass media and music preferences was constructed to measure cultural orientations. There was an integration of western and traditional/local activities by respondents who reported having used home-brewed alcohol in the past 12 months. In some respects the sample had western tendencies i.e. English newspapers were read more than no-English newspapers and funky music tended to be preferred to traditional South African music, while in others the reverse was true i.e. Radio Thobela (a radio station that uses vernacular languages) was listened to more than Radio Metro (a radio station that uses English language only). There were significant differences between boys and girls in the use of western media. Older adolescents (18 years or older) used more home brewed alcohol than the younger ones. The concept of culture and its associations with alcohol use invites a critical view on cultural values among adolescents. The positive association with home-brewed alcohol use among secondary school students in our sample has been demonstrated for an orientation towards external cultural influence. Educators and learners need to increase their consciousness on the problematic side of cultural import.

  3. Knowledge of community care workers about key family practices in a rural community in South Africa

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    Ethelwynn Stellenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions by community care workers within the context of communitybased integrated management of childhood illness (CIMCI may have a positive effect on child health if the health workers have adequate knowledge about key family practices.Setting: The study was conducted in rural areas of the West Coast district in the Western Cape, South Africa.Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge of community care workers about five of the 16 key family practices of CIMCI.Methods: A descriptive survey collected a self-administered questionnaire from 257 community care workers out of a possible total of 270 (95.2% response rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was applied.Results: Only 25 of the respondents (10% obtained a score higher than 70% on the knowledgebased items of the questionnaire. Less than 25% of respondents answered questions in these key areas correctly (pneumonia [17%], tuberculosis [13%], HIV/AIDS [9%] immunisation [3%] and recommendations for a child with fever [21%]. Statistically significant correlations were found between the total score a respondent achieved and the highest level of education obtained (p < 0.01, the level of in-service training (p < 0.01, attendance of a CIMCI five-day training course (p < 0.01, and completing a subsequent refresher course (p < 0.01.Conclusion: The knowledge of CCWs was inadequate to provide safe, quality CIMCI. CIMCI refresher courses should be offered annually to improve CCWs’ knowledge and the quality of care that they render. Regular update courses could contribute to building competence.

  4. Prevalence of and factors influencing postnatal depression in a rural community in South Africa

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    Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge about postnatal depression (PND and associated risk factors whichin fluence the development of PND is vital for early detection, intervention and prevention.Setting: The study was conducted in primary health care clinics (PHC in the Witzenberg subdistrict, a rural community in South Africa.Objectives: Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PND and to identify the contributing risk factors associated with PND.Methods: A descriptive cross sectional research design with a quantitative approach was applied. The target population was mothers, 18 years and older. A convenience sampling method was used to select a sample of 159 (10% from a population of 1605 live births. Th eEdinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, two validated self-rating questionnaires, including a questionnaire based on demographical, psychosocial and obstetrical data, were applied. The data was analysed using various statistical tests to determine statistical associations between variables using a 95% confidence interval.Results: PND was a serious health problem with 50.3% of the mothers who suffered from PND. A BDI analysis showed that of the participants who had PND, 28.8% was severe, 48.8% moderate and 22.5% mild. Factors influencing the development of PND included most participants (63.5% were unmarried, 61.3% were unemployed and the majority (53.8% had a history of a psychiatric illness. Significant associations between PND and unplanned and unwelcome babies (p < 0.01; partner relationship (p < 0.01; were identified.Conclusion: Prevention, early detection, appropriate referral and treatment of PND are critical in managing maternal, child and family well-being.

  5. Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Michael J.; Stadler, Christian; Ariño, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Context matters in the global strategy literature. We discuss how Africa, as a setting that received limited attention in the past, offers opportunity to challenge existing theory and develop new insights. The overall goal is to ask: What will the field of global strategic management look like once...... we have engaged with Africa in a similar manner as we have done with other emerging economies? We also introduce the papers published in this special issue and highlight directions for future research....

  6. The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near East and Africa: Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush. Grade 6 Model Lesson for Unit II. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    This model lesson for sixth graders about the beginnings of civilization in the Near East and Africa aims to have students focus on the cultural and geographical features of a region: landforms, climate, and vegetation. The lesson features three major topics: (1) Sumer and Mesopotamia, (2) Egypt, and (3) Kush. It addresses the uses and…

  7. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  8. The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near East and Africa: Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Kush. Grade 6 Model Lesson for Unit II. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    This model lesson for sixth graders about the beginnings of civilization in the Near East and Africa aims to have students focus on the cultural and geographical features of a region: landforms, climate, and vegetation. The lesson features three major topics: (1) Sumer and Mesopotamia, (2) Egypt, and (3) Kush. It addresses the uses and…

  9. Phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding sequences of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses in East Africa: evidence for interserotypic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balinda, Sheila; Siegismund, Hans; Muwanika, Vincent;

    2010-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in East Africa with the majority of the reported outbreaks attributed to serotype O virus. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of the polyprotein coding region of serotype O FMD viruses from Kenya and Uganda has been undertaken to infer evolutio...

  10. How far will we need to go to reach HIV-infected people in rural South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson David P

    2007-06-01

    impact of an additional 37 HCFs on treatment accessibility in rural areas would be less substantial than might be expected. There is a great length to go before we will be able to reach many PLWHA in rural areas in South Africa, and specifically in KwaZulu-Natal.

  11. Rural travel and disability in Leroro and Moremela villages, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents insights into rural travel and mobility issues facing persons with disabilities [PWD]. The linkages and impact of existing social, economic and physical constraints to rural travel and movement is explored and discussed. Greater...

  12. Physical Activity Among Adolescents in an East Malaysian Rural Indigenous Community: Exploring the Influence of Neighborhood Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimon, Rosalia; Choo, Wan Yuen; Chang, Kam Hock; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Bulgiba, Awang

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the rural environmental factors that influence adolescents' participation in physical activities (PA). Thirty-six indigenous adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years from rural communities of East Malaysia were involved in the photovoice procedures: photo-taking, selecting, contextualizing, and codifying themes. Despite being endowed with natural resources such as river, forest, hills, and so on, the adolescents and the community did not capitalize on these rich resources to promote and engage in PA. Poor maintenance of natural resources, the lack of pedestrian infrastructures and road safety, the lack of PA facilities, and negative perception of ancestors' agricultural activities were among factors that constrained adolescents' PA. Although basic amenities such as play spaces and pedestrian infrastructures are necessary to increase adolescents' PA, any intervention should make the most of the natural resources, which are cheaper, environment friendly, and sustainable.

  13. HIV after 40 in rural South Africa: A life course approach to HIV vulnerability among middle aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A; Williams, Jill; Angotti, Nicole; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier

    2015-10-01

    South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world (over 6 million) as well as a rapidly aging population, with 15% of the population aged 50 and over. High HIV prevalence in rural former apartheid homeland areas suggests substantial aging with HIV and acquisition of HIV at older ages. We develop a life course approach to HIV vulnerability, highlighting the rise and fall of risk and protection as people age, as well as the role of contextual density in shaping HIV vulnerability. Using this approach, we draw on an innovative multi-method data set collected within the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa, combining survey data with 60 nested life history interviews and 9 community focus group interviews. We examine HIV risk and protective factors among adults aged 40-80, as well as how and why these factors vary among people at older ages.

  14. Planning for district mental health services in South Africa: a situational analysis of a rural district site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; Campbell-Hall, Victoria; Mjadu, Sithembile; Lund, Crick; Kleintjies, Sharon; Hosegood, Victoria; Flisher, Alan J

    2009-03-01

    The shift in emphasis to universal primary health care in post-apartheid South Africa has been accompanied by a process of decentralization of mental health services to district level, as set out in the new Mental Health Care Act, no. 17, of 2002 and the 1997 White Paper on the Transformation of the Health System. This study sought to assess progress in South Africa with respect to deinstitutionalization and the integration of mental health into primary health care, with a view to understanding the resource implications of these processes at district level. A situational analysis in one district site, typical of rural areas in South Africa, was conducted, based on qualitative interviews with key stakeholders and the World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS). The findings suggest that the decentralization process remains largely limited to emergency management of psychiatric patients and ongoing psychopharmacological care of patients with stabilized chronic conditions. We suggest that, in a similar vein to other low- to middle-income countries, deinstitutionalization and comprehensive integrated mental health care in South Africa is hampered by a lack of resources for mental health care within the primary health care resource package, as well as the inefficient use of existing mental health resources.

  15. The socioeconomic determinants of HIV incidence: evidence from a longitudinal, population-based study in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Hosegood, Victoria; Timaeus, Ian M; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2007-11-01

    Knowledge of the effect of socioeconomic status on HIV infection in Africa stems largely from cross-sectional studies. Cross-sectional studies suffer from two important limitations: two-way causality between socioeconomic status and HIV serostatus and simultaneous effects of socioeconomic status on HIV incidence and HIV-positive survival time. Both problems are avoided in longitudinal cohort studies. We used data from a longitudinal HIV surveillance and a linked demographic surveillance in a poor rural community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to investigate the effect of three measures of socioeconomic status on HIV incidence: educational attainment, household wealth categories (based on a ranking of households on an assets index scale) and per capita household expenditure. Our sample comprised of 3325 individuals who tested HIV-negative at baseline and either HIV-negative or -positive on a second test (on average 1.3 years later). In multivariable survival analysis, one additional year of education reduced the hazard of acquiring HIV by 7% (P = 0.017) net of sex, age, wealth, household expenditure, rural vs. urban/periurban residence, migration status and partnership status. Holding other factors equal, members of households that fell into the middle 40% of relative wealth had a 72% higher hazard of HIV acquisition than members of the 40% poorest households (P = 0.012). Per capita household expenditure did not significantly affect HIV incidence (P = 0.669). Although poverty reduction is important for obvious reasons, it may not be as effective as anticipated in reducing the spread of HIV in rural South Africa. In contrast, our results suggest that increasing educational attainment in the general population may lower HIV incidence.

  16. Review of solar PV policies, interventions and diffusion in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the diffusion of solar PV in Africa has mainly focused on solar home systems (SHS) in individual countries and thus overlooked developments in other PV market segments that have recently emerged. In contrast this paper adopts a regional perspective by reviewing developments...

  17. Reference, Coherence and Complexity in Students' Academic Writing: Examples from Cameroon and East-Africa Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Josef; Nkemleke, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This contribution discusses problems of students' academic writing in Africa. It sketches the wide field of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and argues that reference, coherence and complexity are key concepts for evaluating student writing at university level. It uses material from African corpora to substantiate this claim and to illustrate…

  18. Closing the cassava yield gap: an analysis from small-holder farms in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Tittonell, P.A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava yields in Africa are small and it remains unclear which factors most limit yields. Using a series of farm surveys and on-farm and on-station trials in Uganda and western Kenya, we evaluated the importance of abiotic, biotic and associated crop management constraints for cassava production in

  19. Reference, Coherence and Complexity in Students' Academic Writing: Examples from Cameroon and East-Africa Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Josef; Nkemleke, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This contribution discusses problems of students' academic writing in Africa. It sketches the wide field of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and argues that reference, coherence and complexity are key concepts for evaluating student writing at university level. It uses material from African corpora to substantiate this claim and to illustrate…

  20. Natural control of Helicoverpa armigera in smallholder crops in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van de H.

    1993-01-01

    The African bollworm, Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera , is one of the worst agricultural pests in Africa, attacking a variety of food and cash crops. For development of sustainable pest management, it is essential to study the ecology and natural mortality factors of the pest, and recently, the ne

  1. Natural control of Helicoverpa armigera in smallholder crops in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.

    1993-01-01

    The African bollworm, Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera , is one of the worst agricultural pests in Africa, attacking a variety of food and cash crops. For development of sustainable pest management, it is essential to study the ecology and natural

  2. A progressively wetter climate in southern East Africa over the past 1.3 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Brown, E. T.; Abbott, A.; Berke, M.; Steinman, B. A.; Halbur, J.; Contreras, S.; Grosshuesch, S.; Deino, A.; Scholz, C. A.; Lyons, R. P.; Schouten, S.; Damsté, J. S. Sinninghe

    2016-09-01

    African climate is generally considered to have evolved towards progressively drier conditions over the past few million years, with increased variability as glacial-interglacial change intensified worldwide. Palaeoclimate records derived mainly from northern Africa exhibit a 100,000-year (eccentricity) cycle overprinted on a pronounced 20,000-year (precession) beat, driven by orbital forcing of summer insolation, global ice volume and long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we present a 1.3-million-year-long climate history from the Lake Malawi basin (10°-14° S in eastern Africa), which displays strong 100,000-year (eccentricity) cycles of temperature and rainfall following the Mid-Pleistocene Transition around 900,000 years ago. Interglacial periods were relatively warm and moist, while ice ages were cool and dry. The Malawi record shows limited evidence for precessional variability, which we attribute to the opposing effects of austral summer insolation and the temporal/spatial pattern of sea surface temperature in the Indian Ocean. The temperature history of the Malawi basin, at least for the past 500,000 years, strongly resembles past changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrigenous dust flux in the tropical Pacific Ocean, but not in global ice volume. Climate in this sector of eastern Africa (unlike northern Africa) evolved from a predominantly arid environment with high-frequency variability to generally wetter conditions with more prolonged wet and dry intervals.

  3. Improving the Quality and Quantity of HIV Data in the Middle East and North Africa: Key Challenges and Ways Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Madani, Navid; Doroudi, Fardad; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Although the HIV pandemic is witnessing a decline in the number of new infections in most regions of the world, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has a rapidly growing HIV problem. While generating HIV data has been consistently increasing since 2005, MENA’s contribution to the global HIV literature is just over 1% and the existing evidence often falls behind the academic standards. Several factors could be at play that contribute to the limited quantity and quality of HIV data in MENA. This editorial tries to explore and explain the barriers to collecting high-quality HIV data and generating precise estimates in MENA. These barriers include a number of logistic and socio-political challenges faced by researchers, public health officials, and policy-makers. Looking at successful regional HIV programs, we explore examples were policies have shifted and lessons could be learned in developing appropriate responses to HIV across the region.

  4. Impediments to media communication of social change in family planning and reproductive health: experiences from East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurusi, Patrick T

    2013-09-01

    The media has been employed to increase uptake of Family Planning through behaviour change communication (BCC). Understanding the barriers encountered in effectively undertaking this function would increase the strategy's effectiveness. Sixty journalists from East Africa participated in trainings to enhance their BCC skills for Family Planning in which a qualitative study was nested to identify barriers to effective Family Planning BCC in the region's media. The barriers were observed to be insufficient BCC skills, journalists' conflict of interest, interests of media houses, inaccessible sources of family planning information, editorial ideologies and absence of commercially beneficial demand. Coupled with the historical ideologies of the media in the region, the observed barriers have precipitated ineffective family planning BCC in the regions media. Effective BCC for family planning in the regions media requires capacity building among practitioners and alignment of the concept to the media's and consumers' aspirations.

  5. The life and death of a street boy in East Africa: everyday violence in the time of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Chris

    2008-03-01

    This article focuses on the life history of a single street boy in northwestern Tanzania, whom I name Juma. I suggest that Juma's experiences and the life trajectory of himself and of significant individuals around him (particularly his mother) were structured by everyday violence. I describe everyday violence in terms of a conjuncture between macrostructural forces in East Africa (including a history of failed development schemes and the contemporary political economy of neoliberalism) and the lived experience of individuals as they negotiate local, contextual factors (including land-tenure practices, the power dynamics between immediate and extended kin, life on the streets, and constructions of gender and sexuality). I suggest that AIDS and its many impacts on Juma's life course can only be understood in a broader context of everyday violence. From this basis, I draw several general conclusions regarding AIDS prevention and intervention strategies.

  6. Teachers’ Perceptions on the Use of African Languages in the Curriculum: A Case Study of Schools in Kenya, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Njoroge

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to revitalize African languages and advocate for their use as media of instruction in Kenyan schools, it is important to investigate and document the teachers’ attitude towards the use of these languages in teaching. The research on which this paper is based set forth to explore teachers’ perceptions on the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction in Kenya, East Africa. Six schools out of 54 public schools in the Gatundu district were randomly sampled. 32 teachers of Grades 1-3 were interviewed to find out the actual practices in their classrooms, the challenges they faced, and the perceptions they held in relation to the use of the mother tongue in their teaching. The data were qualitatively analyzed and the emergent findings support the claim that the use of learners’ mother tongue is beneficial to learners. In addition, the paper discusses the findings and proposes recommendations for pedagogy.

  7. Improving the Quality and Quantity of HIV Data in the Middle East and North Africa: Key Challenges and Ways Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karamouzian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the HIV pandemic is witnessing a decline in the number of new infections in most regions of the world, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA has a rapidly growing HIV problem. While generating HIV data has been consistently increasing since 2005, MENA’s contribution to the global HIV literature is just over 1% and the existing evidence often falls behind the academic standards. Several factors could be at play that contribute to the limited quantity and quality of HIV data in MENA. This editorial tries to explore and explain the barriers to collecting high-quality HIV data and generating precise estimates in MENA. These barriers include a number of logistic and socio-political challenges faced by researchers, public health officials, and policy-makers. Looking at successful regional HIV programs, we explore examples were policies have shifted and lessons could be learned in developing appropriate responses to HIV across the region.

  8. Pilot pathfinder survey of oral hygiene and periodontal conditions in the rural population of The Gambia (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R A; Lucaciu, A; Fotouhi, K; Markovic, L; Gaengler, P; Zimmer, S

    2011-02-01

    To document oral hygiene and periodontal conditions in the rural population of The Gambia. Cross-sectional study according to the recommendations of the WHO for oral health surveys. Examination by two calibrated investigators in the health centres of rural communities after a public radio call. Patients were randomly allocated to the investigators.   162 patients (20-54 years old; 52.5% female, 47.5% male). Patients were interviewed for personal information and examined in a full-mouth recording. Oral Hygiene Index (OHI), Gingival Index (GI), Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and the Gingivitis-Periodontitis-Missing/Teeth Index (GPM/T). Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon-rank-sum test and Kruskal-Wallis test with statistical significance at P Africa). © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Holistic view to integrated climate change assessment and extreme weather adaptation in the Lake Victoria Basin East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, F.; Koike, T.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme weather events have been the leading cause of disasters and damage all over the world.The primary ingredient to these disasters especially floods is rainfall which over the years, despite advances in modeling, computing power and use of new data and technologies, has proven to be difficult to predict. Also, recent climate projections showed a pattern consistent with increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events in the East African region.We propose a holistic integrated approach to climate change assessment and extreme event adaptation through coupling of analysis techniques, tools and data. The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) in East Africa supports over three million livelihoods and is a valuable resource to five East African countries as a source of water and means of transport. However, with a Mesoscale weather regime driven by land and lake dynamics,extreme Mesoscale events have been prevalent and the region has been on the receiving end during anomalously wet years in the region. This has resulted in loss of lives, displacements, and food insecurity. In the LVB, the effects of climate change are increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor to poverty, by its linkage to agriculture, food security and water resources. Of particular importance are the likely impacts of climate change in frequency and intensity of extreme events. To tackle this aspect, this study adopted an integrated regional, mesoscale and basin scale approach to climate change assessment. We investigated the projected changes in mean climate over East Africa, diagnosed the signals of climate change in the atmosphere, and transferred this understanding to mesoscale and basin scale. Changes in rainfall were analyzed and similar to the IPCC AR4 report; the selected three General Circulation Models (GCMs) project a wetter East Africa with intermittent dry periods in June-August. Extreme events in the region are projected to increase; with the number of wet days

  10. Meta-analysis of proportion estimates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonda, Tolbert; Kumburu, Happiness; van Zwetselaar, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    Background: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big...... the problem really is. To gain insight into the magnitude and molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa a literature search was performed in PubMed on 31 July 2015 to retrieve articles with relevant information on ESBL. Methods and results: Meta-analysis was performed...... to determine overall proportion estimate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 4076 bacterial isolates were included in the analysis. The overall pooled proportion of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among included surveys done in East African hospitals was found to be 0. 42 (95 % CI: 0...

  11. Access to Risk Mitigating Weather Forecasts and Changes in Farming Operations in East and West Africa: Evidence from a Baseline Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable weather currently ranks among the major challenges facing agricultural development in many African countries. Impact mitigation through access to reliable and timely weather forecasts and other adaptive mechanisms are foremost in Africa’s policy dialogues and socio-economic development agendas. This paper analyzed the factors influencing access to forecasts on incidence of pests/diseases (PD and start of rainfall (SR. The data were collected by Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS and analyzed with Probit regression separately for East Africa, West Africa and the combined dataset. The results show that 62.7% and 56.4% of the farmers from East and West Africa had access to forecasts on start of rainfall, respectively. In addition, 39.3% and 49.4% of the farmers from East Africa indicated that forecasts on outbreak of pests/diseases and start of rainfall were respectively accompanied with advice as against 18.2% and 41.9% for West Africa. Having received forecasts on start of rainfall, 24.0% and 17.6% of the farmers from East and West Africa made decisions on timing of farming activities respectively. Probabilities of having access to forecasts on PD significantly increased with access to formal education, farm income and previous exposure to climatic shocks. Furthermore, probabilities of having access to forecasts on SR significantly increased (p < 0.05 with access to business income, radio and perception of more erratic rainfall, among others. It was recommended that promotion of informal education among illiterate farmers would enhance their climatic resilience, among others.

  12. Roles and challenges of the multidisciplinary team involved in prosthetic rehabilitation, in a rural district in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennion L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Liezel Ennion, Anthea Rhoda Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Community and Health Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa Background: Major lower limb amputations result in a significant sense of loss, psychological stress, and decrease in function and overall quality of life for the amputee. The holistic, patient-centered prosthetic rehabilitation of an amputee requires input from a team of dedicated health professionals from different disciplines commonly referred to as a multidisciplinary team (MDT. MDT rehabilitation is considered crucial in the reintegration of the amputee into the community, as well as for providing psychological support after limb loss. Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary rehabilitation has been proven to be more successful than therapy provided by individual therapists in a number of different populations, regardless of the population studied. However, in most developing countries, there is a significant lack of multidisciplinary rehabilitation.Aim: To explore the roles and challenges of the members of the MDT involved in trans-tibial amputation rehabilitation in a rural community in South Africa (SA.Design: An explorative sequential qualitative descriptive study.Setting: A rural district in the KwaZulu Natal province in SA.Participants: Nine prosthetic users, three surgeons, three traditional healers, 17 therapists, four prosthetists, and four community health workers.Instruments for data collection: Semistructured interviews and focus group discussions.Results: The roles of the members of the MDT were clarified, and various members of the MDT highlighted specific challenges relating to their experiences and roles in the rehabilitation team. Lack of interdisciplinary rehabilitation and communication among team members, as well as lack of resources, and patient education negatively impact the rehabilitation of trans-tibial amputees.Conclusion: Aiming to address the limited resources

  13. A Generic Quality Assurance Model (GQAM) for successful e-health implementation in rural hospitals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxwana, Nkqubela; Herselman, Marlien; Pottas, Dalenca

    2014-01-01

    Although e-health can potentially facilitate the management of scarce resources and improve the quality of healthcare services, implementation of e-health programs continues to fail or not fulfil expectations. A key contributor to the failure of e-health implementation in rural hospitals is poor quality management of projects. Based on a survey 35 participants from five rural hospitals in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and using a qualitative case study research methodology, this article attempted to answer the question: does the adoption of quality assurance (QA) models add value and help to ensure success of information technology projects, especially in rural health settings? The study identified several weaknesses in the application of QA in these hospitals; however, findings also showed that the QA methods used, in spite of not being formally applied in a standardised manner, did nonetheless contribute to the success of some projects. The authors outline a generic quality assurance model (GQAM), developed to enhance the potential for successful acquisition of e-health solutions in rural hospitals, in order to improve the quality of care and service delivery in these hospitals.

  14. Breast cancer clinicopathological presentation, gravity and challenges in Eritrea, East Africa: management practice in a resource-poor setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfamariam, Asmerom; Gebremichael, Andemariam; Mufunda, Jacob

    2013-06-05

    In Africa, breast cancer closely compares with cervical cancer as the most common malignancy affecting women and the incidence rates appear to be rising. Early detection of breast cancer is a key strategy for a good treatment outcome. However, there is no established protocol or guideline for management of breast cancer in Eritrea, East Africa. To assess the clinicopathological presentation, gravity and management challenges presented in breast cancer treatment in Eritrea. Methods. Our investigation was a retrospective, descriptive study to assess the clinical features and severity of breast cancer at time of presentation. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who presented with breast malignancies over the 2-year period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2008. Eighty-two patients ranging in age from 26 - 80 years (mean 48 years) were included in the study. Of these 51% were premenopausal women; 61% of the patients presented with breast mass only and the remainder with manifestations of local (mass plus discharge, breast pain or breast ulceration) or distant metastatic disease. More than 60% of the patients presented after >2 years following onset of symptoms. Two-thirds of patients had late stage (III or IV) disease. All except one case was managed surgically. Most cases presented at younger age and advanced stage. These findings call for strengthening health education to promote early health-seeking behaviour and advocacy for the introduction of national screening, implementation of a management protocol and establishment of a radio-chemotherapy centre.

  15. A critique of the chronometric evidence for hominid fossils: I. Africa and the Near East 500-50 ka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Andrew R

    2008-06-01

    The chronometric dating evidence for all hominid fossils from Africa and the Near East that have previously been dated to 500-50 ka is critically assessed using the concept of chronometric hygiene, and these dates are revised using Bayesian statistical analyses where possible. Sixteen relevant hominid sites lacking chronometric evidence are briefly discussed. Chronometric evidence from 37 sites is assessed in detail. The dates for many hominid fossils are poorly constrained, with a number dated by comparisons of faunal assemblages-a method that does not have good chronological resolution for much of the last million years. For sites with stratigraphic sequences of dates, it is generally possible to refine the dating, but in some cases, the revised chronology is less precise than previous chronologies. Fossils over 200 ka in age tend to be poorly dated, but for the last 200 kyr, dating is better due to the availability of electron-spin-resonance and thermoluminescence dating. Consideration of the chronologies favored by the proponents of the out-of-Africa and multiregional hypotheses of human evolution shows their selectivity. The chronological assessment of the fossils here is compatible with either hypothesis. If evolutionary schemes that do not rely on the morphology of the hominid fossils to decide the sequence of fossils are to be built, then further dating is required, alongside full publication of existing dates.

  16. Ecology and geography of avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 transmission in the Middle East and northeastern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson A Townsend

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emerging highly pathogenic avian influenza strain H5N1 ("HPAI-H5N1" has spread broadly in the past decade, and is now the focus of considerable concern. We tested the hypothesis that spatial distributions of HPAI-H5N1 cases are related consistently and predictably to coarse-scale environmental features in the Middle East and northeastern Africa. We used ecological niche models to relate virus occurrences to 8 km resolution digital data layers summarizing parameters of monthly surface reflectance and landform. Predictive challenges included a variety of spatial stratification schemes in which models were challenged to predict case distributions in broadly unsampled areas. Results In almost all tests, HPAI-H5N1 cases were indeed occurring under predictable sets of environmental conditions, generally predicted absent from areas with low NDVI values and minimal seasonal variation, and present in areas with a broad range of and appreciable seasonal variation in NDVI values. Although we documented significant predictive ability of our models, even between our study region and West Africa, case occurrences in the Arabian Peninsula appear to follow a distinct environmental regime. Conclusion Overall, we documented a variable environmental "fingerprint" for areas suitable for HPAI-H5N1 transmission.

  17. Variations in Desired Family Size and Excess Fertility in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhoza, D.N.; Broekhuis, A.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution studies the variation in desired family size and excess fertility in four East African countries by analyzing the combined impact of wealth, education, religious affiliation, and place of residence. The findings show an enormous heterogeneity in Kenya. Wealthy and higher educated

  18. Variations in Desired Family Size and Excess Fertility in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muhoza, D.N.; Broekhuis, A.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution studies the variation in desired family size and excess fertility in four East African countries by analyzing the combined impact of wealth, education, religious affiliation, and place of residence. The findings show an enormous heterogeneity in Kenya. Wealthy and higher educated p

  19. Academic Programmes in Universities in East Africa: A Catalyst to Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Florah Katanu

    2015-01-01

    The types of academic programmes offered by universities, both public and private, are considered to be critical to the realization of development agendas. This study was descriptive in nature and sought to establish whether universities in the East African region were offering academic programmes that were relevant to the realization of the…

  20. Size variation in Tachyoryctes splendens (East African mole-rat) and its implications for late Quaternary temperature change in equatorial East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Patterson, David B.; Blegen, Nick; O'Neill, Chris J.; Marean, Curtis W.; Peppe, Daniel J.; Tryon, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    This study develops a new proxy for Quaternary temperature change in tropical Africa through analysis of size variation in East African mole-rat (Tachyoryctes splendens). In modern mole-rats, mandibular alveolar length is unrelated to annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality, temperature seasonality, or primary productivity. However, it is inversely correlated with mean annual temperature, in agreement with Bergmann's rule. This relationship is observed at temperatures below ˜17.3 °C, but not at higher temperatures. We apply these observations to late Quaternary mole-rats from Wakondo (˜100 ka) and Kisaaka (˜50 ka) in the Lake Victoria region and Enkapune ya Muto (EYM; ˜7.2-3.2 ka) in Kenya's central rift. The Lake Victoria mole-rats are larger than expected for populations from warm climates typical of the area today, implying cooler temperatures in the past. The magnitude of temperature decline needed to drive the size shift is substantial (˜4-6 °C), similar in magnitude to the degree of change between the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene, but is consistent with regional temperature records and with scenarios linking equatorial African temperature to northern hemisphere summer insolation. Size changes through time at EYM indicate that rising temperatures during the middle Holocene accompanied and potentially contributed to a decline in Lake Naivasha and expansion of grassland vegetation.

  1. Climate Variability and the Outbreaks of Cholera in Zanzibar, East Africa: A Time Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reyburn, Rita; Kim, Deok Ryun; Emch, Michael; Khatib, Ahmed; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ali, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Global cholera incidence is increasing, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the impact of climate and ocean environmental variability on cholera outbreaks, and developed a forecasting model for outbreaks in Zanzibar. Routine cholera surveillance reports between 1997 and 2006 were correlated with remotely and locally sensed environmental data. A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model determined the impact of climate and environmental variability on cholera...

  2. Fossil marl prairie as indicator for aridification and coastal uplift in equatorial East Africa during the last glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Kroh, A.; Berning, B.

    2009-04-01

    Facies analyses of Pleistocene deposits from southern coastal Tanzania (Lindi District) document that sediments have formed in a wetland that developed on a coastal terrace in front of the Lindi Fracture Zone. The exposed sedimentary succession reveals one transgression/regression cycle. A rising relative sea level is indicated by back-stepping tidal flats. The overlying palustrine limestones were precipitated in a marl prairie that developed due to falling relative sea level. In marl prairies, carbonate precipitates seasonally in barely flooded grasslands within periphyton mats. Despite the special mode of carbonate production descriptions of the sedimentary facies are cursory because marl prairies are so far reported only from the Recent Everglades (Florida/USA) where they produce an unspectacular calcite mud. The Pleistocene marl prairie from Africa is the first fossil example and, in contrast to the Everglades marl prairies, the periphyton is excellently preserved because of a better calcification of the associated cyanobacteria. The unique preservation allows us to characterize a marl prairie facies in great detail for the first time. Located at the interface between land and sea marl prairies are sensitive to changes in water balance and a useful recorder for climate and sea level changes. Radiocarbon dating of Assiminea gastropods from the studied sediments reveal the emergence of the coastal terrace started at ~44 ka BP. This coincides with a eustatic sea level fall prior to the last glaciation maximum and a phase of tectonic uplift at the Lindi Fracture Zone. Along the entire coast of Tanzania terraces were periodically elevated due to extensional episodes in the eastern branch of the East African Rift System during the Quaternary. However, the exact timing of these tectonic pulses was so far impossible. Our results show that the emergence of the Lindi coast was linked to a period of tectonic activity in the East African Rift System after ~50 ka. The

  3. Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arship and knowledge production on Africa in this part of the world, not only in .... modern agricultural production that were seen as parts of and necessary for 'de- ... the government to liberalise and remove what were in effect social protection .... by numerous authors as the 'age of globalisation' (a notion which in itself is.

  4. Using mobile phones and social media to facilitate education and support for rural-based midwives in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Jennifer; Pimmer, Christoph; Brysiewicz, Petra; Walters, Fiona; Linxen, Sebastian; Ndebele, Thandi; Gröhbiel, Urs

    2015-12-14

    Empirical studies show the value of mobile phones as effective educational tools to support learning in the nursing profession, predominantly in high income countries. The rapidly increasing prevalence of mobile phone technology in Africa nourishes hopes that these tools could be equally effective in lowly resourced contexts, specifically in efforts to achieve the health-related Millennium Development goals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception and use of mobile phones as educational and professional tools by nurses in lowly resourced settings. A quantitative survey using self-administered questionnaires was conducted of rural advanced midwives. Fifty-six nurses (49.6%) from the 113 rural-based midwives attending an advanced midwifery training programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, filled in a questionnaire. The results showed that, whilst nurses regarded their technology competences as low and although they received very little official support from their educational and professional institutions, the majority frequently used mobile functions and applications to support their work and learning processes. They perceived mobile devices with their voice, text, and email functions as important tools for the educational and professional activities of searching for information and engaging with facilitators and peers from work and study contexts. To a lesser extent, the use of social networks, such as WhatsApp and Facebook, were also reported. It is concluded that educational institutions should support the appropriate use of mobile phones more systematically; particularly in relation to the development of mobile network literacy skills.

  5. A situational analysis methodology to inform comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programming, applied in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Naidoo, Evasen; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Raphela, Elsie; Barnhart, Scott; Lippman, Sheri A

    2017-09-01

    Successful HIV prevention programming requires engaging communities in the planning process and responding to the social environmental factors that shape health and behaviour in a specific local context. We conducted two community-based situational analyses to inform a large, comprehensive HIV prevention programme in two rural districts of North West Province South Africa in 2012. The methodology includes: initial partnership building, goal setting and background research; 1 week of field work; in-field and subsequent data analysis; and community dissemination and programmatic incorporation of results. We describe the methodology and a case study of the approach in rural South Africa; assess if the methodology generated data with sufficient saturation, breadth and utility for programming purposes; and evaluate if this process successfully engaged the community. Between the two sites, 87 men and 105 women consented to in-depth interviews; 17 focus groups were conducted; and 13 health facilities and 7 NGOs were assessed. The methodology succeeded in quickly collecting high-quality data relevant to tailoring a comprehensive HIV programme and created a strong foundation for community engagement and integration with local health services. This methodology can be an accessible tool in guiding community engagement and tailoring future combination HIV prevention and care programmes.

  6. Review of solar PV policies, interventions and diffusion in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the diffusion of solar PV in Africa has mainly focused on solar home systems (SHS) in individual countries and thus overlooked developments in other PV market segments that have recently emerged. In contrast this paper adopts a regional perspective by reviewing developments...... from donor and government-based support to market-driven diffusion of solar PV; and (ii) a transition from small-scale, off-grid systems towards mini-grids and large-scale, grid-connected solar power plants. The paper points out three generic factors that have contributed to encouraging SHS diffusion...

  7. Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels and Sexual Development among Boys in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Data on growth and sexual maturation among boys from the rural Western Cape in South Africa is limited. A cross-sectional study of 269 school boys was conducted testing for serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG and estradiol (E2; height, weight and body mass index (BMI; sexual maturity (using Tanner Stages and a questionnaire (demographic and medical history. The median age at pubertal onset (Tanner Stage 2 and Tanner Stage 5 was 11.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. The median testicular volume was 5.5 mL at Tanner Stage 2 increasing from 2.5 mL at Tanner Stage 1 to 14.7 mL at Tanner Stage 5. Height and weight measurements were <25th & 50th percentile references at Tanner Stages 1–3. Controlling for confounders, serum FSH and LH increased (p < 0.05 from Tanner Stage 1 to 4 (by 4.1 and 3 mL respectively, and serum testosterone and estradiol increased after Tanner Stage 2 (by 12.7 nmol/L and 59.5 pmol/L respectively. These results indicate some delays in pubertal development of boys in the rural Western Cape when compared to boys from other settings possibly due to nutritional, socio-economic and environmental exposures. Changes in serum hormone levels were consistent with other populations. Initiatives to improve nutrition amongst Western Cape rural communities are recommended.

  8. Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels and Sexual Development among Boys in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2016-11-29

    Data on growth and sexual maturation among boys from the rural Western Cape in South Africa is limited. A cross-sectional study of 269 school boys was conducted testing for serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2); height, weight and body mass index (BMI); sexual maturity (using Tanner Stages) and a questionnaire (demographic and medical history). The median age at pubertal onset (Tanner Stage 2) and Tanner Stage 5 was 11.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. The median testicular volume was 5.5 mL at Tanner Stage 2 increasing from 2.5 mL at Tanner Stage 1 to 14.7 mL at Tanner Stage 5. Height and weight measurements were development of boys in the rural Western Cape when compared to boys from other settings possibly due to nutritional, socio-economic and environmental exposures. Changes in serum hormone levels were consistent with other populations. Initiatives to improve nutrition amongst Western Cape rural communities are recommended.

  9. Climatological analysis of aerosol optical properties over East Africa observed from space-borne sensors during 2001-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiyo, Richard; Kumar, K. Raghavendra; Zhao, Tianliang; Bao, Yansong

    2017-03-01

    The present study is aimed at analyzing spatial and temporal characteristics of aerosols retrieved from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) sensors over East Africa (EA). Data spanning for a period of 15 years during 2001-2015 was used to investigate aerosol optical depth (AOD550), Ångstrom exponent (AE470-660) and absorption aerosol Index (AAI) over EA and selected locations within EA. Validation results of MODIS-Terra versus the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) AOD550 revealed that the former underestimated aerosol loading over the studied regions due to uncertainties in surface reflectance. The annual mean AOD550, AAI, and AE470-660 were found to be 0.20 ± 0.01, 0.81 ± 0.03, and 1.39 ± 0.01, respectively with peak values observed during the local dry seasons. The spatial seasonal distributions of mean AOD550 suggested high (low) values during the local dry (wet) periods. The high AOD values found along the borders of southwest of Uganda were attributed to smoke particles; while higher (lower) values of AE470-660 (AAI) dominated most parts of the study domain. Low AOD (0.1-0.2) centers were located in high-altitude regions with relatively high vegetation cover over western and central parts of Kenya, and central and northern parts of Tanzania. Furthermore, latitudinal and longitudinal gradients in AOD550 showed a "southern low and northern high" and a "western low and eastern high" profile, respectively during JJA, as other seasons showed heterogeneous variations. Trend analysis revealed a general increase in AOD and AAI and a decrease in AE; while impact factors significantly affected AOD distribution over EA. HYSPLIT back trajectory analyses revealed diverse transport pathways originated from the Arabian Deserts, central Africa, and southwest of Indian Ocean along with locally produced aerosols during different seasons.

  10. Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda : FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence and impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a rural district of Uganda: FRESH AIR methodology for sub-Saharan Africa Worldwide, tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, in many low and middle-income co

  11. De-agrarianization in Africa : proceedings of the "De-agrarianization and rural employment" workshop held at the Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden, May 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryceson, D.F.; Laan, van der C.

    1994-01-01

    In Africa, agriculture still dominates, but its relative share has been declining since the 1970s, without any prior increase in agricultural productivity or in urban employment. A process of 'de-agrarianization' can be observed in the rural areas involving 1) livelihood reorientation, 2) occupation

  12. An investigation into possibilities for implementation of a virtual community of practice delivered via a mobile social network for rural community media in the Eastern Cape South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how a virtual community of practice can be delivered via a mobile social networking framework to support rural community media in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The article...

  13. What Can a Woman Do with a Camera? Turning the Female Gaze on Poverty and HIV and AIDS in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, Relebohile; Mitchell, Claudia; de Lange, Naydene; Stuart, Jean; Buthelezi, Thabisile; Taylor, Myra

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the use of participatory video in finding solutions to challenges faced by schools and communities in the contexts of poverty and the AIDS pandemic in one rural community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Locating the analysis within the study of feminist visual culture and the notion of the female gaze, the article focuses on…

  14. Use of a crop climate modeling system to evaluate climate change adaptation practices: maize yield in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N. J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Andresen, J.; Olson, J.; Thornton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Sub Saharan African agriculture is dominated by small-scale farmers and is heavily depend on growing season precipitation. Recent studies indicate that anthropogenic- induced warming including the Indian Ocean sea surface significantly influences precipitation in East Africa. East Africa is a useful region to assess impacts of future climate because of its large rainfall gradient, large percentage of its area being sub-humid or semi-arid, complex climatology and topography, varied soils, and because the population is particularly vulnerable to shifts in climate. Agronomic adaptation practices most commonly being considered include include a shift to short season, drought resistant maize varieties, better management practices especially fertilizer use, and irrigation. The effectiveness of these practices with climate change had not previously been tested. We used the WorldClim data set to represent current climate and compared the current and future climate scenarios of 4 Global Climate Models (GCMs) including a wetter (CCSM) and drier (HadCM3) GCM downscaled to 6 km resolution. The climate data was then used in the process-based CERES maize crop model to simulate the current period (representing 1960- 1990) and change in future maize production (from 2000 to 2050s). The effectiveness of agronomic practices, including short duration maize variety, fertilizer use and irrigation, to reduce projected future yield losses due to climate change were simulated. The GCMs project an increase in maximum temperature during growing season ranging from 1.5 to 3°C. Changes in precipitation were dependent on the GCM, with high variability across different topographies land cover types and elevations. Projected warmer temperatures in the future scenarios accelerated plant development and led to a reduction in growing season length and yields even where moisture was sufficient Maize yield changes in 2050 relative to the historical period were highly varied, in excess of +/- 500 kg

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of common mental disorders among Ethiopian migrant returnees from the Middle East and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtamu, Kassahun; Minaye, Abebaw; Zeleke, Waganesh A

    2017-04-19

    Ethiopian migrants to the Middle East and South Africa experience a range of problems at various stages of their migration including overwork, sleep deprivation, denial of food, emotional abuse, difficulty adapting to the host culture, salary denial, sexual abuse, labor exploitation, confiscation of their travel documents, confinement, denial of medication, lack of access to legal service and degrading attitude by employers, traffickers and smugglers. These experiences can be associated with different types of mental disorders. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and socio-demographic and other migration related associated factors among Ethiopian migrant returnees from the Middle East and South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted using non-probability (i.e. purposive, availability and snowball) sampling techniques. Migrant returnees (n = 1036) were contacted individually at their homes in eight high prevalent immigrant returnee locations in Ethiopia. Common mental disorders were assessed using the self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20) and a structured questionnaire was employed to collect data on socio-demographic and migration related characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, univariate logistic regression, and multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of CMD among migrant returnees was found to be 27.6%. Highly prevalent specific CMD symptoms included headaches, poor appetite, being tired, sleeping problems, and feeling unhappy or nervous. Being originally from Amhara and Oromia regions, being Christian, being divorced, not receiving salary on time, not being able to contact family, unable to prepare for domestic labor abroad, lack of cross- cultural awareness, and lack of knowledge and skills for work were all important risk factors for CMD. Migrants experienced adversities at different stages of their migration which are associated with psychological distress and even to long

  16. A SURVEY OF CLINICAL PRACTICE PATTERNS IN MANAGEMENT OF GRAVES DISEASE IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshyah, Salem A; Khalil, Aly B; Sherif, Ibrahim H; Benbarka, Mahmoud M; Raza, Syed Abbas; Hussein, Wiam; Alzahrani, Ali S; Chadli, Asma

    2017-03-01

    Graves disease (GD) is commonly seen in endocrine clinical practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current diagnosis and management of patients with GD in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). An electronic survey on GD management was performed using an online questionnaire of a large pool of practicing physicians. Responses from 352 eligible and willing physicians were included in this study. They were mostly endocrinologists (157) and internal medicine physicians (116). In addition to serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine assays, most respondents would request serum antithyroid peroxidase antibody and TSH-receptor autoantibody (50% and 46%, respectively), whereas serum antithyroglobulin antibodies would be ordered by fewer respondents (36%). Thyroid ultra-sound would be requested by a high number of respondents (63.7%), while only a small percentage would order isotopic thyroid studies. Antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy was the preferred first-line treatment (52.7%), followed by radio-iodine (RAI) treatment (36.8%), β-blockers alone (6.9%), thyroidectomy (3.2%), and no therapy (1.3%). When RAI treatment was selected in the presence of mild Graves orbitopathy and/or associated risk factors for its occurrence/exacerbation, steroid prophylaxis was frequently used. The preferred ATD in pregnancy was propylthiouracil in the first trimester and carbimazole in the second and third trimesters. On most issues, choices of the MENA physicians fell between European and American practices. Hybrid practices are seen in the MENA region, perhaps reflecting training and affiliations. Management approaches most suitable for patients in this region are needed. ATD = antithyroid drug CBZ = carbimazole FT3 = free T3 FT4 = free T4 GD = Graves disease GO = Graves orbitopathy MENA = Middle East and North Africa MMI = methimazole RAI = radioactive iodine RAIU = RAI uptake T3 = tri-iodothyronine T4 = thyroxine TG Ab = antithyroglobulin antibodies

  17. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  18. Chinese propriety medicines: an "alternative modernity?" The case of the anti-malarial substance artemisinin in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses various modes of "modernizing" traditional Chinese medical drugs (zhongyao [image: see text]) and transforming them into so-called Chinese propriety medicines (zhongchengyao [image: see text]) that are flooding the current neoliberal wellness markets. This article argues that the chemical procedures used in the manufacture of Chinese propriety medicines are highly culture-specific and deserve being considered as instantiations of an "alternative modernity" (e.g., Knauft 2002), rather than of "Westernization." These Western-Chinese combinations, produced in strife toward fulfilling Mao Zedong's Communist-revolutionary vision, have a potential to represent a critical alterity to Western health policies, challenging rhetoric against such combinations. However, as is also noted in this article based on ethnographic fieldwork in East Africa, their potential alterity has been corroded for at least two reasons. First, the medical rationale for dispensing these medications has been shaped by commercial demands in ways that have worked toward transforming the formerly scholarly Chinese medical tradition (as outlined by Bates 1995) into a consumer-near and popular "folk medicine" (as defined by Farquhar 1994:212). Second, the repertoire of Chinese propriety medicines is impoverished as its efficacious "alternatively modern" drugs are being redefined as "modern" biomedical drugs. The article concludes that the potentially critical alterity of any formerly scholarly traditional medicine is more likely to be lost in those fields of health care that are both highly commercialized and polarized by the biomedical imperative to distinguish between "traditional" and "modern" medicines. As example for demonstrating how contentious the issue is, qinghaosu [image: see text] (artemisinin) is put center stage. It is an anti-malarial substance which in the 1970s Chinese scientists extracted from the Chinese medical drug qinghao [image: see text] (Herba Artemisiae

  19. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Melissa A., E-mail: melissa.mckinney@uconn.edu [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Biomedical Resource Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dudley, Sheldon F.J. [KwaZulu-Natal Sharks Board, Umhlanga Rocks 4320 (South Africa); Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Zungu, M. Philip [Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cape Town 8012 (South Africa); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n = 283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg{sup −1} dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ{sup 15}N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ{sup 13}C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. - Highlights: • Hg concentrations in 17 shark species from South Africa's east coast were measured. • Higher values relative to other regions suggested the importance of local

  20. Information Literacy in Practice: engaging public library workers in rural South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Jager, Karin; Nassimbeni, Mary

    2007-01-01

    .... The campaign, a first of its kind in Mpumalanga (and South Africa), gave public library workers the opportunity to develop their information literacy skills and to apply them in their libraries...

  1. A Mobile User Interface For Low-Literacy Users In Rural South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to design a mobile user interface to enable ... users in Dwesa community in South Africa to have access to mobile commerce services. ... design approach to actively involve the target users in the design process.

  2. Towards norms and standards for water services in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, the current norms and standards for levels of water services have, over the last few decades, inadvertently focused on addressing water services in urban areas. The Minister responsible for water and sanitation initiated...

  3. Integrating Ubunifu, informal science, and community innovations in science classrooms in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Hristova, Adelina; Owiny, Sylvia A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between informal science and indigenous innovations in local communities in which students matured. The discussion considers methods for bridging the gap that exists between parents' understanding of informal science ( Ubunifu) and what students learn in secondary schools in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. In an effort to reconcile the difference between students' lived experiences and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) taught in classrooms, this study presents an experiential iSPACES instructional model as an example of curriculum integration in science classrooms. The culmination is presentation of lessons learned from history, including Africa's unique contributions to science, theory, and indigenous innovations, in the hope that these lessons can spur the development of new instructional practices, standards, curriculum materials, professional and community development, and dialogue among nations.

  4. A ~1.3Ma paleoecological record from scientific drilling at Lake Malawi, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Blome, Margaret; Ivory, Sarah; King, John; Cole, Julie; McGlue, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Long records of Quaternary ecological and climatic change are critical to understanding the range of potential responses of ecosystems to environmental forcing. Here we present an integrated lake and watershed paleoecological analysis from drill core records obtained by the Lake Malawi Drilling Project, documenting extraordinary fluctuations in climate, hydrology and ecosystem response for the southern tropics of Africa. High resolution lacustrine and terrestrial paleoecology and sedimentology data sets from these Early Pleistocene-Holocene drill cores provide the most complete record of this duration currently available from Africa. Time series analyses of these records demonstrate strong orbital forcing of regional hydroclimate that drives high-amplitude changes in Malawi ecosystems. Prior to ~600ka we also observe a secondary overprint of watershed processes involving river capture or diversion that may have a tectonic origin. We observe shifts between more arid conditions (shallow alkaline and well mixed lake, with discontinuous desert vegetation) and more humid environments (deep, stratified, freshwater lake with dense forest). These broadly synchronous changes in lake paleoecology, lake sedimentology, and watershed vegetation demonstrate the major role of climate in regulating this system. Transitions between these lake/watershed state extremes is often very abrupt, suggesting that the combined lake/watershed repeatedly passed through hydroclimate thresholds, with important implications for the evolution of the lake's endemic biodiversity and ecosystem. The tempo of lake/watershed state fluctuations changes at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, altering from one of higher frequency/lower amplitude variability prior to 900ka to lower frequency/higher amplitude variability after that time.

  5. Rainfall and Drought In Equatorial East Africa During The Past 1,100 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, D.; Laird, K. R.; Cumming, B. F.

    Knowledge of natural long-term rainfall variability is essential for water-resource and land-use management in all dry-land regions of the world. In tropical Africa, data rel- evant to determining this variability are scarce because of the lack of long instrumen- tal climate records and the limited potential of some high-resolution proxy climate archives such as tree rings and ice cores. An 1,100-year reconstruction of decadel- scale variability in African rainfall and drought based on lake-level and salinity fluc- tuations of Lake Naivasha (Eastern Rift Valley, Kenya) now indicates that eastern equatorial Africa within the last millennia has alternated between strongly contrast- ing climatic conditions, including significantly reduced effective moisture during the 'Medieval Warm Period' (~AD 900-1270), and a generally higher effective moisture than today during the 'Little Ice Age' (~AD 1270-1850) interrupted by three episodes of prolonged aridity (~AD 1380-1420, 1560-1620, and 1760-1840) more severe than any historically recorded drought. Pattern and timing of the reconstructed Little Ice Age climate fluctuations correlate with the residual record of atmospheric radiocar- bon production, suggesting that long-term variations in solar radiation may have con- tributed to African rainfall variability at these time scales. In agreement with other recently documented instances of a solar influence on long-term variations in hydro- logical balance, solar minima correlated with increases in effective moisture and solar maxima with increased aridity. It remains unclear, however, whether variation in solar radiation generated fluctuations in effective moisture mainly by means of a direct or indirect influence on rainfall, or rather through the influence of temperature variations on evaporation rates.

  6. Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for HIV infection in women in East, Central and Southern Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet Maia

    2005-01-01

    This is a critical, systematic review of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection in women in Southern, Central and Eastern Africa. In light of the interest in micro-credit programmes and other HIV prevention interventions structured to empower women through increasing women's access to funds and education, this review examines the epidemiological and public health literature, which ascertains the association between low SES using different measurements of SES and risk of HIV infection in women. Also, given the focus on structural violence and poverty as factors driving the HIV epidemic at a structural/ecological level, as advocated by Paul Farmer and others, this study examines the extent to which differences in SES between individuals in areas with generalized poverty affect risk for SES. Out of 71 studies retrieved, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria including 30 cross-sectional, one case-control and five prospective cohort or nested case-control studies. Thirty-five studies used at least one measurement of female's SES and fourteen also included a measurement of partner's SES. Studies used variables measuring educational level, household income and occupation or employment status at the individual and neighbourhood level to ascertain SES. Of the 36 studies, fifteen found no association between SES and HIV infection, twelve found an association between high SES and HIV infection, eight found an association between low SES and HIV infection and one was mixed. In interpreting these results, this review examines the role of potential confounders and effect modifiers such as history of STDs, number of partners, living in urban or rural areas and time and location of study in sub-Saharan Africa. It is argued that STDs and number of partners are on the causal pathway under investigation between HIV and SES and should not be adjusted as confounders in any analysis. In conclusion, it is argued that in low-income sub-Saharan Africans

  7. Impacts of drought and responses of rural populations in West Africa: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Denis; Denis, David; Locatelli, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In West Africa, climate variations and droughts have always affected livelihoods but have also triggered adaptation strategies. A better understanding of the impacts of drought and the responses of West African populations is indispensable for researchers and decision makers in the current and future context of multiple socioeconomic and environmental changes, including climate change. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on drought in West Africa. In thi...

  8. The Plio-Pleistocene Evolution of the Indian Ocean Monsoonal System: Evidence from the Arabian Sea and East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K. E.; Maslin, M. A.; Mackay, A. W.; Leng, M. J.; Kingston, J.; Deino, A.

    2011-12-01

    It is important to identify the teleconnections between high latitude forcing and tropical monsoonal circulation in order to understand climate change in East Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene. Here we present a record of aeolian dust transport to the Arabian Sea between approximately 2.9 and 2.3 million years ago (Ma), constructed from the high-resolution XRF scanning of sediment cores from ODP Sites 721 and 722. Variations in the delivery of aeolian dust to the Arabian Sea, reflected in normalised flux of titanium, show that monsoonal circulation prior to 2.6 Ma, and after 2.5 Ma, was highly variable and primarily driven by orbitally-forced changes in tropical summer insolation, strongly modulated by the 400,000 year cycle of orbital eccentricity. This is confirmed by the presence of lakes in the East African Rift Valley during key eccentricity maxima. The dust record is coupled with the analysis of a well-dated series of diatomite units from the Baringo-Bogoria Basin which document the rhythmic cycling of large, precessionally-driven freshwater lakes which periodically occupied the Central Kenyan Rift Valley between 2.7 and 2.58 Ma. Analysis of one of these lake sequences using stable oxygen isotope measurements of diatom silica, combined with the XRF analysis of whole-sample geochemistry, reveals that the deep lake phase was characterised by fluctuations in rainfall and lake depth over cycles lasting, on average, 1,400 years. The presence of these millennial-scale fluctuations is confirmed by evidence of abrupt climate cycles in the oceanic dust record from the Arabian Sea.

  9. Contrasting long-term records of biomass burning in wet and dry savannas of equatorial East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombaroli, Daniele; Ssemmanda, Immaculate; Gelorini, Vanessa; Verschuren, Dirk

    2014-09-01

    Rainfall controls fire in tropical savanna ecosystems through impacting both the amount and flammability of plant biomass, and consequently, predicted changes in tropical precipitation over the next century are likely to have contrasting effects on the fire regimes of wet and dry savannas. We reconstructed the long-term dynamics of biomass burning in equatorial East Africa, using fossil charcoal particles from two well-dated lake-sediment records in western Uganda and central Kenya. We compared these high-resolution (5 years/sample) time series of biomass burning, spanning the last 3800 and 1200 years, with independent data on past hydroclimatic variability and vegetation dynamics. In western Uganda, a rapid (biomass burning was inversely related to moisture balance for much of the next two millennia until ca. 1750 ad, when burning increased strongly despite regional climate becoming wetter. A sustained decrease in burning since the mid20th century reflects the intensified modern-day landscape conversion into cropland and plantations. In contrast, in semiarid central Kenya, biomass burning peaked at intermediate moisture-balance levels, whereas it was lower both during the wettest and driest multidecadal periods of the last 1200 years. Here, burning steadily increased since the mid20th century, presumably due to more frequent deliberate ignitions for bush clearing and cattle ranching. Both the observed historical trends and regional contrasts in biomass burning are consistent with spatial variability in fire regimes across the African savanna biome today. They demonstrate the strong dependence of East African fire regimes on both climatic moisture balance and vegetation, and the extent to which this dependence is now being overridden by anthropogenic activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. How to identify oceanic crust-Evidence for a complex break-up in the Mozambique Channel, off East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimke, Jennifer; Franke, Dieter; Gaedicke, Christoph; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schnabel, Michael; Stollhofen, Harald; Rose, Jens; Chaheire, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    The identification of oceanic crust at rifted margins plays a crucial role in academic research understanding rifting mechanisms and the architecture of continent-ocean boundaries, and is also important for hydrocarbon exploration extending into deeper water. In this paper, we provide a workflow for the determination of the crustal nature in the Mozambique Channel, east of Davie Ridge, by presenting a compilation of several geophysical attributes of oceanic crust at divergent margins. Previous reconstructions locate the Davie Ridge at the trace of a transform fault, along which Madagascar drifted to the south during the breakup of Gondwana. This implies a sharp transition from continental to oceanic crust seaward of Davie Ridge. Using new multichannel seismic profiles offshore northern Mozambique, we are able to identify distinct portions of stretched basement east of Davie Ridge. Two phases of deformation affecting the basement are observed, with the initial phase resulting in the formation of rotated fault blocks bounded by listric faults. Half-grabens are filled with wedge-shaped, syn-extensional sediments overlain by a prominent unconformity that northward merges with the top of highly reflective, mildly deformed basement, interpreted as oceanic crust. The second phase of deformation is associated with wrench faulting and probably correlates with the southward drift of Madagascar, which implies that the preceding phase affected basement generated or modified prior to the opening of the West Somali Basin. We conclude that the basement is unlikely to consist of normal oceanic crust and suggest that the first extensional phase corresponds to rifting between Madagascar and Africa. We find evidence for a wide area affected by strike-slip deformation, in contrast to the earlier proposed major single transform fault in the vicinity of Davie Ridge and suggest that the Mozambique Channel area to the north of Madagascar may be classified as an oblique rather than sheared

  11. A New Visualization Approach to Re-Contextualize Indigenous Knowledge in Rural Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Bidwell, Nicola J.

    2011-01-01

    Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between Elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent incompatibility between IK and the values, logics...... in which users can store, organize and retrieve user-generated videos in ways that are compatible with their knowledge system. The structure embeds videos in a scenario-based 3D visualization of a rural village. It accounts for some of the ways this rural community manages information, socially, spatially...

  12. Client characteristics and acceptability of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Reshma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV counselling and testing (HCT is a critical gateway for addressing HIV prevention and linking people to treatment, care, and support. Since national testing rates are often less than optimal, there is growing interest in expanding testing coverage through the implementation of innovative models such as home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT. With the aim of informing scale up, this paper discusses client characteristics and acceptability of an HBHCT intervention implemented in rural South Africa. Methods Trained lay counsellors offered door-to-door rapid HIV testing in a rural sub-district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Household and client data were captured on cellular phones and transmitted to a web-based data management system. Descriptive analysis was undertaken to examine client characteristics, testing history, HBHCT uptake, and reasons for refusal. Chi-square tests were performed to assess the association between client characteristics and uptake. Results Lay counsellors visited 3,328 households and tested 75% (5,086 of the 6,757 people met. The majority of testers (73.7% were female, and 57% had never previously tested. With regard to marital status, 1,916 (37.7%, 2,123 (41.7%, and 818 (16.1% were single, married, and widowed, respectively. Testers ranged in age from 14 to 98 years, with a median of 37 years. Two hundred and twenty-nine couples received couples counselling and testing; 87.8%, 4.8%, and 7.4% were concordant negative, concordant positive, and discordant, respectively. There were significant differences in characteristics between testers and non-testers as well as between male and female testers. The most common reasons for not testing were: not being ready/feeling scared/needing to think about it (34.1%; knowing his/her status (22.6%, being HIV-positive (18.5%, and not feeling at risk of having or acquiring HIV (10.1%. The distribution of reasons for refusal differed significantly by gender

  13. Utilisation of public eye care services by the rural community residents in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mologadi D. Ntsoane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual impairment and blindness are major health problems worldwide, especially in the rural and remote areas of developing countries. Utilisation of eye care services is essential to reduce the burden of visual impairment and blindness, and it is therefore important that it is monitored.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of utilisation of public eye care services and factors that might have influenced their usage in rural communities, Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Method: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. Participants were residents in selected rural villages located within approximately 5 km of six Government hospitals. Following ethical approval and receipt of informed consent, a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used to collect information on the utilisation of eye care services and factors that might influence utilisation. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chisquare test were used to analyse and compare the data.Results: Many (62.7% of the respondents had used the government eye care services in the past. Over fifty-nine per cent (59.3% of them were satisfied with the services. Factors reported to influence utilisation (such as monthly income, knowledge of available services and the need for regular eye tests were positively associated with utilisation of eye care services in this study (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Utilisation of eye care services was relatively good, but varied significantly between sites. An awareness campaign by government and non-governmental organisations about eye care services may increase utilisation amongst rural communities.

  14. Utilisation of public eye care services by the rural community residents in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mologadi D. Ntsoane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual impairment and blindness are major health problems worldwide, especially in the rural and remote areas of developing countries. Utilisation of eye care services is essential to reduce the burden of visual impairment and blindness, and it is therefore important that it is monitored.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of utilisation of public eye care services and factors that might have influenced their usage in rural communities, Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Method: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. Participants were residents in selected rural villages located within approximately 5 km of six Government hospitals. Following ethical approval and receipt of informed consent, a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used to collect information on the utilisation of eye care services and factors that might influence utilisation. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chisquare test were used to analyse and compare the data.Results: Many (62.7% of the respondents had used the government eye care services in the past. Over fifty-nine per cent (59.3% of them were satisfied with the services. Factors reported to influence utilisation (such as monthly income, knowledge of available services and the need for regular eye tests were positively associated with utilisation of eye care services in this study (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Utilisation of eye care services was relatively good, but varied significantly between sites. An awareness campaign by government and non-governmental organisations about eye care services may increase utilisation amongst rural communities.

  15. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-10-15

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10

  16. Simulation of synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena over East Africa and Arabian Peninsula for current and future climate using a high resolution AGCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Jerry; Kunhu Bangalath, Hamza; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2015-04-01

    Climate regimes of East Africa and Arabia are complex and are poorly understood. East Africa has large-scale tropical controls like major convergence zones and air streams. The region is in the proximity of two monsoons, north-east and south-west, and the humid and thermally unstable Congo air stream. The domain comprises regions with one, two, and three rainfall maxima, and the rainfall pattern over this region has high spatial variability. To explore the synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena that drive the climate of the region we conducted climate simulations using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL's High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Historic simulations (1975-2004) and future projections (2007-2050), with both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 pathways, were performed according to CORDEX standard. The sea surface temperature (SST) was prescribed from the 2°x2.5° latitude-longitude resolution GFDL Earth System Model runs of IPCC AR5, as bottom boundary condition over the ocean. Our simulations were conducted at a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km, which is an ample resolution for regional climate simulation. In comparison with the regional models, global HiRAM has the advantage of accounting for two-way interaction between regional and global scale processes. Our initial results show that HiRAM simulations for historic period well reproduce the regional climate in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with their complex interplay of regional and global processes. Our future projections indicate warming and increased precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and the Greater Horn of Africa. We found significant regional differences between RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections, e.g., west coast of the Arabian Peninsula, show anomalies of opposite signs in these two simulations.

  17. Simulation of synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena over East Africa and Arabian Peninsula for current and future climate using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Climate regimes of East Africa and Arabia are complex and are poorly understood. East Africa has large-scale tropical controls like major convergence zones and air streams. The region is in the proximity of two monsoons, north-east and south-west, and the humid and thermally unstable Congo air stream. The domain comprises regions with one, two, and three rainfall maxima, and the rainfall pattern over this region has high spatial variability. To explore the synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena that drive the climate of the region we conducted climate simulations using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Historic simulations (1975-2004) and future projections (2007-2050), with both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 pathways, were performed according to CORDEX standard. The sea surface temperature (SST) was prescribed from the 2°x2.5° latitude-longitude resolution GFDL Earth System Model runs of IPCC AR5, as bottom boundary condition over the ocean. Our simulations were conducted at a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km, which is an ample resolution for regional climate simulation. In comparison with the regional models, global HiRAM has the advantage of accounting for two-way interaction between regional and global scale processes. Our initial results show that HiRAM simulations for historic period well reproduce the regional climate in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with their complex interplay of regional and global processes. Our future projections indicate warming and increased precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and the Greater Horn of Africa. We found significant regional differences between RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections, e.g., west coast of the Arabian Peninsula, show anomalies of opposite signs in these two simulations.

  18. Uptake contexts and perceived impacts of HIV testing and counselling among adults in East and Southern Africa: A meta-ethnographic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, T. Charles; Lora, Wezzie; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction HIV testing and counselling (HTC) interventions are key to controlling the HIV epidemic in East and Southern Africa where HTC is primarily delivered through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), provider initiated testing and counselling (PITC), and home-based counselling and testing (HBVCT). Decision making processes around uptake of HTC models must be taken into account when designing new interventions. Counselling in HTC aims to reduce post-test risk taking behaviour and to link individuals to care but its efficacy is unclear. This meta-ethnography aims to understand the contexts of HTC uptake in East and Southern Africa and to analyse the perceived impacts of counselling-based interventions in relation to sexual behaviour and linkage to care. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of studies investigating HTC in East and Southern Africa from 2003 –April 2014. The search and additional snowballing identified 20 studies that fit our selection criteria. These studies were synthesised through a thematic framework analysis. Results Twenty qualitative and mixed-methods studies examining impacts of HTC models in East and Southern Africa were meta-synthesised. VCT decisions were made individually while HBVCT decisions were located in family and community units. PITC was associated with coercion from healthcare providers. Low quality counselling components and multiple-intersecting barriers faced by individuals mean that counselling in HTC was not perceived to be effective in reducing post-test risk behaviour and had limited perceived effect in facilitating linkage to care. Conclusion HBVCT is associated with minimal stigma and should be considered as an area of priority. Counselling components in HTC interventions were effective in transmitting information about HIV and sexual risk, but were perceived as ineffective in addressing the broader personal circumstances preventing sexual behaviour change and modulating access to care. PMID

  19. Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaboga, Evans; Njiru, Joshua; Nguu, Edward; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Herve; Tripathi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Cassava genetic transformation capacity is still mostly restricted to advanced laboratories in the USA, Europe and China; and its implementation and maintenance in African laboratories has remained scarce. The impact of transgenic technologies for genetic improvement of cassava will depend largely on the transfer of such capabilities to researchers in Africa, where cassava has an important socioeconomic niche. A major constraint to the development of genetic transformation technologies for cassava improvement has been the lack of an efficient and robust transformation and regeneration system. Despite the success achieved in genetic modification of few cassava cultivars, including the model cultivar 60444, transgenic cassava production remains difficult for farmer-preferred cultivars. In this study, a protocol for cultivar 60444 developed at ETH Zurich was successfully implemented and optimized to establish transformation of farmer-preferred cassava cultivars popular in east Africa. The conditions for production and proliferation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were optimized for three east African farmer-preferred cultivars (Ebwanatereka, Kibandameno and Serere). Our results demonstrated transformation efficiencies of about 14-22 independent transgenic lines per 100 mg of FEC for farmer-preferred cultivars in comparison to 28 lines per 100 mg of the model cultivar 60444. The presence, integration and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot analysis and histochemical GUS assay. This study reports the establishment of a cassava transformation platform at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) hosted by Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub in Kenya and provides the basis for transferring important traits such as virus resistance and prolonged shelf-life to farmer-preferred cultivars in east Africa. We anticipate that such platform will also be instrumental to transfer

  20. Who delivers where? The effect of obstetric risk on facility delivery in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Sandra; Gon, Giorgia; Cavallaro, Francesca L; Graham, Wendy; Woodd, Susannah

    2017-09-01

    Skilled attendance at birth is key for the survival of pregnant women. This study investigates whether women at increased risk of maternal and newborn complications in four East African countries are more likely to deliver in a health facility than those at lower risk. Demographic and Health Survey data for Kenya 2014, Rwanda 2014-15, Tanzania 2015-16 and Uganda 2011 were used to study women with a live birth in the three years preceding the survey. A three-level obstetric risk index was created using known risk factors. Generalised linear Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between obstetric risk and facility delivery. We analysed data from 13 119 women across the four countries of whom 42-45% were considered at medium risk and 12-17% at high risk, and the remainder were at low risk. In Rwanda, 93% of all women delivered in facilities but this was lower (59-66%) in the other three countries. There was no association between a woman's obstetric risk level and her place of delivery in any country; greater wealth and more education were, however, independently strongly associated with facility delivery. In four East African countries, women at higher obstetric risk were not more likely to deliver in a facility than those with lower risk. This calls for a renewed focus on antenatal risk screening and improved communication on birth planning to ensure women with an increased chance of maternal and newborn complications are supported to deliver in facilities with skilled care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The East Africa Oligocene intertrappean beds: Regional distribution, depositional environments and Afro/Arabian mammal dispersals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Ernesto; Bruni, Piero; Ferretti, Marco Peter; Delmer, Cyrille; Laurenzi, Marinella Ada; Hagos, Miruts; Bedri, Omar; Rook, Lorenzo; Sagri, Mario; Libsekal, Yosief

    2014-11-01

    The extensive outpouring of the Oligocene Trap basalts over eastern Africa and western Arabia was interrupted by a period of quiescence marked by the deposition of terrestrial sediments. These so-called intertrappean beds are often lignitiferous and yield recurrent floras and faunas, sometimes represented by endemic mammals. We intended to highlight the peculiar features of these sedimentary intercalations using a large-scale approach including eastern Africa and the western Arabian peninsula. Starting from a new mapping in the Eritrean highland, the intertrappean beds resulted a continuous level that was a few tens of meters thick and traceable for some tens of kilometers. They consist of fluvial red, green and gray mudstones and siltstones with subordinate channelized pebbly sandstones, and lignite seams. Two new 40Ar-39Ar datings constraint the age of the intertrappean beds between 29.0 Ma and 23.6 Ma. The outcrops near Mendefera have yielded the remains of two proboscidean families, the Deinotheriidae and the Gomphoteriidae. The morphological grade of the two Mendefera proboscideans would suggest a more derived stage than that of representatives of the same families from other Oligocene African sites (e.g., Chilga, Ethiopia). An Oligocene age could be inferred for them. The occurrence of the genus Prodeinotherium at Mai Gobro possibly represents the first occurrence of this taxon, while the Gomphotheirum sp. might represent the oldest occurrence of this taxon in Africa before its dispersal towards Asia and Europe. Proboscideans have also been found in the lowland intertrappean beds of Dogali near Massawa. These sediments were contiguous with the Eritrean highland intertrappean beds during the Oligocene, but are now tectonically displaced from them by two thousand meters of vertical topographical distance. Dogali is also known for the occurrence of possible Deinotheriidae remains and the primitive elephantoid Eritreum. Entering the Ethiopian highland, an

  2. Supervised oral HIV self‐testing is accurate in rural KwaZulu‐Natal, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Steele, Sarah J; Govender, Indira; Arellano, Gemma; Mkwamba, Alec; Hadebe, Menzi; Cutsem, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    .... One of the alternatives is oral mucosal transudates-based HIV self-testing (OralST). This study describes implementation of counsellor-introduced supervised OralST in a high HIV prevalent rural area...

  3. Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available and skills levels. This paper reports on potential applications of internet of things (IoT) technologies that could contribute to sustainable rural livelihoods. These technologies have been categorised under land and water resource management, food security...

  4. New visualization approach to re-contextualize indigenous knowledge in rural Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rodil, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Current views of sustainable development recognize the importance of accepting the Indigenous Knowledge (IK) of rural people. However, there is an increasing technological gap between elder IK holders and the younger generation and a persistent...

  5. Urban and rural differences in child injury deaths in South Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention ... In particular, passenger related motor vehicle deaths were more evident among ... should focus on the risk factors that are unique to urban and rural children respectively.

  6. Elevated Blood Pressure among Rural South African Children in Thohoyandou, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Any - Anwu; Lunic Khoza; Dorothy Mhlongo; Lateef Amusa; Daniel Goon

    2013-01-01

    Background Whilst there seem to be available data on blood pressure profiles of South African children, especially in urban areas, few data exist on rural children. The aims of this study were to determine the blood pressure profiles of rural South African children residing in Thohoyandou; and to examine the relationship between body mass index and blood pressure among the children. Methods: The study involved 296 (134 boys and 135 girls) children aged 7?13 years. Body weight and height were ...

  7. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Precipitation over Lake Victoria, East Africa, in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Akurut

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation over Lake Victoria in East Africa greatly influences its water balance. Over 30 million people rely on Lake Victoria for food, potable water, hydropower and transport. Projecting precipitation changes over the lake is vital in dealing with climate change impacts. The past and future precipitation over the lake were assessed using 42 model runs obtained from 26 General Circulation Models (GCMs of the newest generation in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. Two CMIP5 scenarios defined by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP, namely RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, were used to explore climate change impacts. The daily precipitation over Lake Victoria for the period 1962–2002 was compared with future projections for the 2040s and 2075s. The ability of GCMs to project daily, monthly and annual precipitation over the lake was evaluated based on the mean error, root mean square error and the frequency of occurrence of extreme precipitation. Higher resolution models (grid size <1.5° simulated monthly variations better than low resolution models (grid size >2.5°. The total annual precipitation is expected to increase by less than 10% for the RCP4.5 scenario and less than 20% for the RCP8.5 scenario over the 21st century, despite the higher (up to 40% increase in extreme daily intensities.

  8. Efficiency Analysis of Islamic Banks in the Middle East and North Africa Region: A Bootstrap DEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raéf Bahrini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures and analyzes the technical efficiency of Islamic banks in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region during the period 2007–2012. To do this, the bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach was employed in order to provide a robust estimation of the overall technical efficiency and its components: pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency in the case of MENA Islamic banks. The main results show that over the period of study, pure technical inefficiency was the main source of overall technical inefficiency instead of scale inefficiency. This finding was confirmed for all MENA Islamic banks as well as for the two subsamples: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and non-GCC Islamic banks. Furthermore, our results show that GCC Islamic banks had stable efficiency scores during the global financial crisis (2007–2008 and in the early post-crisis period (2009–2010. However, a decline in overall technical efficiency of all panels of MENA Islamic banks was recorded in the last two years of the study period (2011–2012. Thus, we recommend that MENA Islamic bank managers focus more on improving their management practices rather than increasing their sizes. We also recommend that financial authorities in MENA countries implement several regulatory and financial measures in order to ensure the development of MENA Islamic banking.

  9. From Above and on the Ground: Geospatial Methods for Recording Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rayne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The EAMENA (Endangered Archaeology of the Middle East and North Africa project is a collaboration between the Universities of Leicester, Oxford and Durham; it is funded by the Arcadia Fund and the Cultural Protection Fund. This paper explores the development of the EAMENA methodology, and discusses some of the problems of working across such a broad region. We discuss two main case studies: the World Heritage site of Cyrene illustrates how the project can use satellite imagery (dating from the 1960s to 2017, in conjunction with published data to create a detailed set of database records for a single site and, in particular, highlights the impact of modern urban expansion across the region. Conversely, the Homs Cairns case study demonstrates how the EAMENA methodology also works at an extensive scale, and integrates image interpretation (using imagery dating from the 1960s to 2016, landuse mapping and field survey (2007–2010 to record and analyse the condition of hundreds of features across a small study region. This study emphasises the impact of modern agricultural and land clearing activities. Ultimately, this paper assesses the effectiveness of the EAMENA approach, evaluating its potential success against projects using crowd-sourcing and automation for recording archaeological sites, and seeks to determine the most appropriate methods to use to document sites and assess disturbances and threats across such a vast and diverse area.

  10. Trust and Tolerance across the Middle East and North Africa: A Comparative Perspective on the Impact of the Arab Uprisings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Spierings

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The protests that swept the Arab Middle East and North Africa (MENA are expected to have influenced two key civic attitudes fundamental to well-functioning democracies: trust and tolerance. However, systematic comparative assessments of the general patterns and particularities in this region are rare. This contribution theorizes the uprisings’ impact and presents new society-level measurements of trust and tolerance for the MENA, synchronizing over 40 Arab Barometer and World Values Survey surveys on Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine, Tunisia, and Yemen, from before and after the uprisings. The analyses firstly show political-institutional trust falling in the uprisings’ aftermath in countries that went through democratic reform or regime change. It appears that politicians misbehaving and reforms not resolving social problems hurt people’s trust in politics. Secondly, in democratic transition countries Egypt and Tunisia, a decrease in social trust reflected the pattern of political-institutional trust indicating a spill-over effect. Thirdly, ethno-religious tolerance dropped region-wide after the uprisings, indicating that the aftermath of religious conflict impacted the entire Arab region. These results support rational-choice institutionalist theories, while at the same time refining them for the MENA context.

  11. Youth in crisis in the Middle East and North Africa: a systematic literature review and focused landscape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehling, M; Jarrah, Z M; Tiernan, M E; Albezreh, S; VanRooyen, M J; Alhokair, A; Nelson, B D

    2016-03-15

    Recent political and demographic factors have exposed the vulnerability of the youth in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This study aimed to elucidate the current needs, activities, stakeholders and solutions related to at-risk youth and young adults in the MENA region. A systematic literature review was conducted of the peer-reviewed and grey literature. This was complemented by an in-region landscape analysis involving key-informant interviews and focus group discussions. After extensive screening of 1160 unique articles, 275 articles were considered relevant to this study. Of these 275, 145 (52.7%) were related to health (64.8% of these related to mental health), 101 (36.7%) to livelihood, 87 (31.6%) to violence prevention and 68 (24.7%) to education. Important themes and challenges identified in the literature and discussions included the MENA region's growing youth bulge; youth unemployment; critical gender gaps; and the impact of conflict on livelihoods, education and health, especially mental health.

  12. Comorbidities associated with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: association with severity and exacerbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboub, Bassam; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Iqbal, Mohammed Nizam; Salhi, Hocine; Lahlou, Aïcha; Tariq, Luqman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of comorbidities in subjects with COPD and their association with respiratory symptom severity and COPD exacerbations. Materials and methods This was an analysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of eleven countries in the Middle East and North Africa, including Pakistan. The study population consisted of a sample of subjects with COPD for whom the presence of comorbidities was documented. Three questionnaires were used. The screening questionnaire identified subjects who fulfilled an epidemiological case definition of COPD and documented any potential comorbidities; the detailed COPD questionnaire collected data on respiratory symptoms, COPD exacerbations, and comorbidities associated with COPD; the COPD Assessment Test collected data on the impact of respiratory symptoms on well-being and daily life. Results A total of 2,187 subjects were positively screened for COPD, of whom 1,392 completed the detailed COPD questionnaire. COPD subjects were more likely to report comorbidities (55.2%) than subjects without COPD (39.1%, P<0.0001), most frequently cardiovascular diseases. In subjects who screened positively for COPD, the presence of comorbidities was significantly (P=0.03) associated with a COPD Assessment Test score ≥10 and with antecedents of COPD exacerbations in the previous 6 months (P=0.03). Conclusion Comorbidities are frequent in COPD and associated with more severe respiratory symptoms. This highlights the importance of identification and appropriate management of comorbidities in all subjects with a diagnosis of COPD. PMID:26917957

  13. Distribution of Glycerol Diakyl Glycerol Tetraethers in Surface Soil and Crater Lake Sediments from Mount Kenya, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuombo, C.; Huguet, A.; Olago, D.; Williamson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Glycerol diakyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), a palaeoclimate proxy based on the relative abundance of lipids produced by archaea and bacteria, is gaining wide acceptance for the determination of past temperature and pH conditions. This study looks at the spatial distribution and abundance of GDGTs in soil and sediment samples along an altitudinal transect from 3 crater lakes of Mt. Kenya (Lake Nkunga, Sacred Lake and Lake Rutundu) ranging in elevation from 1700m - 3080m above sea level. GDGTs were extracted with solvents and then analysed using high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APCI-MS). Mean annual air temperature and pH were estimated based on the relative abundance of the different branched GDGTs, i.e. on the MBT (Methylation index of Branched Tetraethers) and CBT (Cyclization ratio of Branched Tetraethers) indices. Substantial amount of GDGTs were detected in both soil and sediment samples. In addition, branched GDGT distribution was observed to vary with altitude. These results highlight the importance of quantifying the branched GDGTs to understand the environmental parameters controlling the distribution of these lipids. The MBT/CBT proxy is a promising tool to infer palaeotemperatures and characterize the climate events of the past millennia in equatorial east Africa.

  14. Muslim-State Relations in East Africa Under Conditions of Military and Civilian or One-party Dictatorships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdin Chande

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo examina cómo los musulmanes de África Oriental han sido alternativamente marginados, cooptados e incluso en una ocasión favorecidos en la política de dictaduras militares o de un único partido. En respuesta a las políticas basadas en el regionalismo o en la etnia del periodo poscolonial, los grupos musulmanes han desarrollado estrategias para promover las metas o intereses de su comunidad dentro o fuera de los círculos oficiales reconocidos. Estas estrategias han oscilado entre el buscar la acomodación con los partidos gobernantes, posicionándose estos mismo como grupos de presión articulando sus intereses y objetivos a, en raras ocasiones, organizar la oposición armada contra el gobierno.____________________ABSTRACT:This paper examines how Muslims in East Africa have been alternately peripheralized, coopted and even on one occasion favored in the politics of military or one-party dictatorships. In response to the regional or ethnically-based politics of the post-colonial period, Muslim groups have devised strategies to promote their communities’ goals or interests either within or outside officially sanctioned organizational circles. These strategies have ranged from seeking accomodation with governing parties, positioning themselves as pressure groups articulating the interests and grievances of their religious constituencies to, on rare occasions, resorting to outright armed opposition against the government.

  15. A human economy: A ``third way'' for the future of young people in the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaalouk, Malak

    2014-06-01

    This paper looks at the vulnerability of today's youth worldwide, with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), where the proportion of citizens aged 12-24 is particularly high at one-third of the total population. Cursed with poor education and few work opportunities, the youth unemployment rate has risen to 50 per cent in this region. There is a consequent lack of participation at all levels, and a large number of youth are showing symptoms of low self-esteem, frustration, anger and unrest. After discussing the outcomes of years of an inhuman economic system on a global level, this article points to a more humane and empowering path. The author argues that, instead of continuing with profit-oriented capitalism or relying on the informal sector, the co-operative way represents a third alternative to existing economic sectors within the dominant contemporary economic system. The article analyses the many benefits of this path for the realisation of a humane economy. In so doing, it touches on issues of equity and social protection. Finally, the article outlines what needs to be done if this is to be a viable solution for a human economy. While giving many examples of successful co-operative enterprises worldwide, the author singles out the MENA region as one which could also benefit from the new trends outlined.

  16. Thermal sensitivity of the crab Neosarmatium africanum in tropical and temperate mangroves on the east coast of Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2017-03-09

    Mangrove forests are amongst the tropical marine ecosystems most severely affected by rapid environmental change, and the activities of key associated macrobenthic species contribute to their ecological resilience. Along the east coast of Africa, the amphibious sesarmid crab Neosarmatium africanum (=meinerti) plays a pivotal role in mangrove ecosystem functioning through carbon cycling and sediment bioturbation. In the face of rapid climate change, identifying the sensitivity and vulnerability to global warming of this species is of increasing importance. Based on a latitudinal comparison, we measured the thermal sensitivity of a tropical and a temperate population of N. africanum, testing specimens at the centre and southern limit of its distribution, respectively. We measured metabolic oxygen consumption and haemolymph dissolved oxygen content during air and water breathing within a temperature range that matched the natural environmental conditions. The results indicate different thermal sensitivities in the physiological responses of N. africanum from tropical and temperate populations, especially during air breathing. The differences observed in the thermal physiology between the two populations suggest that the effect of global warming on this important mangrove species may be different under different climate regimes.

  17. The Symptom and Genetic Diversity of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses Infecting Cassava in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic and symptom diversity of six virus isolates causing cassava brown streak disease (CBSD in the endemic (Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania and the recently affected epidemic areas (Uganda of eastern Africa was studied. Five cassava varieties; Albert, Colombian, Ebwanateraka, TMS60444 (all susceptible and Kiroba (tolerant were graft inoculated with each isolate. Based on a number of parameters including the severity of leaf and root symptoms, and the extent of virus transmission by grafting, the viruses were classified as either severe or relatively mild. These results were further confirmed by the mechanical inoculation of 13 herbaceous hosts in which the virulent isolates caused plant death in Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana whereas the milder isolates did not. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coat protein gene sequences of these isolates together with sequences obtained from 14 other field-collected samples from Kenya and Zanzibar, and reference sequences grouped them into two distinct clusters, representing the two species of cassava brown streak viruses. Put together, these results did not suggest the association of a hypervirulent form of the virus with the current CBSD epidemic in Uganda. Identification of the severe and milder isolates, however, has further implications for disease management and quarantine requirements.

  18. Latitudinal Variation In Mangrove Height And Biomass in East Africa Using SRTM Elevation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Simard, M.; Shugart, H. H.

    2007-12-01

    One of the foundations of biogeography states that productivity and biomass are highest at the equator and decrease as latitude increases. This relationship was confirmed for mangrove ecosystems by Sanger and Snedaker in 1993, based on a review of mangrove biomass and litterfall studies. Recent advances in remote sensing technology have permitted the estimation of mangrove biomass using landcover maps and data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). A test of this paradigm of mangrove ecology, using Mozambique as a case study, did not confirm the relationship between mangrove biomass and latitude. In this study, we produced a height and biomass map of mangrove forests of the whole Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, which spans from Somalia in the North (12N) to South Africa in the S (28S), including Madagascar. Landsat ETM+ data was used to produce landcover maps and SRTM elevation data to produce height and biomass maps for the WIO region. Based on our results, we did not find a significant correlation between latitude and height/biomass in mangrove forests. Our results suggest that that freshwater input and type of geographical setting (lagoons, bays, deltas and open coast) are more important in determining mangrove height and biomass.

  19. Rural resilience and renewable energy in North-East Groningen, the Netherlands: in search of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerboer, Rozanne; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Zuidema, Christian; Grabski-Kieron, Ulrike; Mose, Ingo; Reichert-Schick, Anja; Steinführer, Annett

    2016-01-01

    Using renewable energy (RE) for solving area-based socio-economic issues and by extension making peripheral, rural places more resilient is increasingly signaled in academic literature. Furthermore, governance capacity surrounding RE production is also being increased by a growing number of local in

  20. Rethinking the status of early childhood care and education (ECCE) in rural and urban areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goduka, I

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the current status of, and to determine the need for, early childhood care and education in South Africa. The study included an assessment of the training needs of child carers and other individuals interested in working with young children in urban and rural areas of the region. A total of 373 African men and women with varied occupations and educational attainment were recruited in the study. A survey methodology was employed to obtain desired information. The study showed that families and communities, who have previously responded to the needs of young children including education, health, and nutrition, could no longer meet these needs because of social and economic dynamics. Training, training centers, infrastructure, and the integration of African culture in early childhood are perceived to be compelling needs. Several recommendations for policy and programs are presented.