Sample records for rural china lessons

  1. Climate change and farmers responses in rural china, lessons for Africa

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)


    textabstractHow does China deal with the consequences of climate change and can we learn from that experience in Africa? Important external drivers in China such as rapid economic growth, urbanization, climate change and a growing awareness of environmental degradation have contributed to a shift in

  2. Rural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Lessons From Scientific ...

    Rural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Lessons From Scientific Management. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research. Journal Home ... This article focussed on the lessons that can be garnered from the tenets of Scientific Management.

  3. Transformation of China's rural health care financing.

    Liu, Y; Hsiao, W C; Li, Q; Liu, X; Ren, M


    In the late 1970s China launched its agricultural reforms which initiated a decade of continued economic growth and significant transformation of the Chinese society. The agricultural reforms altered the peasants' incentives, weakened community organization and lessened the central government's control over local communities. These changes largely caused the collapse of the widely acclaimed rural cooperative medical system in China. Consequently China experienced a decreased supply of rural health workers, increased burden of illnesses, disintegration of the three tier medical system, reduced primary health care, and an increased demand for hospital medical services. More than ten years have elapsed since China changed its agricultural economic system and China is still struggling to find an equitable, efficient and sustainable way of financing and organizing its rural health services. The Chinese experiences provided several important lessons for other nations: there is a need to understand the limits of the market forces and to redefine the role of the government in rural health care under a market economy; community participation in and control of local health financing schemes is essential in developing a sustainable rural health system; the rural health system needs to be dynamic, rather than static, to keep pace with changing demand and needs of the population.

  4. English as a Third Language in Rural China: Lessons from the Zaidang Kam-Mandarin Bilingual Education Project

    Finifrock, Jacob E.


    This article explores the findings of a study that compared 2 groups of 5th-grade first-language Kam-Dong minority students as they learned English as a third language (L3) in the remote mountain village of Zaidang, in Rongjiang county, Guizhou Province, P.R. China. One group had previously been taught using Mandarin only (MO), whereas the other…

  5. Overview of Rural Tourism Development in China

    Tianhui; XIE


    Rural tourism is a form of tourism relying on rural environment,with rural unique natural scene and cultural characteristics( production pattern,life style,folk customs,and rural culture) as object,and integrating sightseeing,vacation,recreation and shopping. Rural tourism provides recreation products for urban residents,promotes national and local economy,promotes rural employment,keeps traditional culture,improves rural ecological environment,and promotes urban and rural exchange. From concept and characteristics of rural tourism,this paper made a brief overview of development background,realistic significance,influence factors,development mode,and existing problems,in the hope of providing favorable references for grasping development situation of rural tourism in China.

  6. Health Communications in Rural America: Lessons Learned from an Arthritis Campaign in Rural Arkansas

    Balamurugan, Appathurai; Rivera, Mark; Sutphin, Kim; Campbell, Debbie


    Context: Lack of awareness about diseases and associated risk factors could partially account for some rural health disparities. Health communications campaigns can be an effective means of increasing awareness in these areas. Purpose: To review findings and lessons learned from a rural health communications campaign. Methods: The health…

  7. Rural-urban Migration, Rural Household Income and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas of China

    Lu Qi; Yang Chunyue; Li Juan


    The objective of this paper is to investigate the rela-tionships among rural-urban migration, rural household income and sustainable development in rural areas of China. The typical case study is done and 288 questionnaires are collected from five villages in Hebei and Guangxi provinces, China. The migration and remittance status, household income and sustainable devel-opment of rural areas are analyzed on the basis of questionnaires. Rural-urban migration is becoming a part of routine life in rural areas. And remittance is an important component in rural house-hold income. Rural-urban migration increases the arable land area per labor, which releases the tight human-land relationship in villages. In total, the migration increases the rural household in-come and accelerates the sustainable development of rural areas.

  8. Education for Rural Development in the People's Republic of China. Background Paper No. 3.

    Lee, Hsiang-po

    How education has been used for rural development in the People's Republic of China since 1949 may have important lessons for other nations, particularly in the area of nonformal schools. Responsibility for all education lies with the commune. Educational programs, enthusiastically received by the people, support local needs and development rather…


    KEYIM Parhad; YANG De-gang; ZHANG Xiao-lei


    Rural tourism has long been considered the means of accelerating economic and social development,and has become a development tool for many rural areas. In response to agricultural structure adjustment, rural tourism in China took into shape as a new economic growth point to meet the market demand at the late 1980s.Now, a structural frame of rural tourism has shaped, with the core of Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta, Beijing, Shanghai and Chengdu of China. But in Xinjiang, the westem part of China, there are hardly any studies in this field in spite of its richness of tourism resources. In this paper, development of rural tourism is studied in Turpan of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. With its rich natural and cultural tourism resources, Turpan has become one of the pioneer tourism destinations in China. But same to the rural tourism development of the other areas' of China, rural tourism programs in Turpan mainly aimed at sightseeing activities, and little attention had been paid to the protection and exploitation of national minority culture-an important factor to satisfy both tourists demand and local economic development. However, this kind of rural tourism development policy is harmful on the long run. Because, many tourists seek tourist destinations that offer pleasant experiences related to not only the natural environment but also historic heritage and cultural patterns. The study suggests that on the base of government support in the long term, to enhance tourism training, to protect and exploit national minority culture are essential elements of rural tourism development in Turpan.

  10. Rural Electrification in China: History and Institution

    Wuyuan Peng; Jiahua Pan


    China has been highly successful in electrifying rural areas in the past half century.Institutional structure and its reform are important for investment and, therefore,development of rural electrification. Over time, there have been three major institutional changes initiated by the central government; When the People's Republic was founded in 1949, it was short of capital, technology and management professionals to promote rural electrification, so rural electricity had a separate administrative system from the urban areas. From 1949 to 1977, China established a comprehensive vertical system of rural electricity administration under strict central planning. At the end of the 1970s, with the adoption of economic reform policy, the central government handed over the management of the local electricity system to local government. County levelhas proved the most effective implementation unit for both planning and project implementation of the rural electricity system. From 1998 to 2002, the central government has been separating local electricity supply from local governments to facilitate the commercial operation of the utility market.After 2002, the rural electricity system was merged with the urban system, forming an integrated national electricity administrative system in China.

  11. Small hydropower and rural electrification in China

    Li Ying [Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydropower and Rural Electrification


    This document presents the status of the using small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) and rural electrification in China. The document approaches the general profile, role of small hydroelectric power plants in rural electrification and energy supply, background and factors back-sopping the fast development of SHP, concentrating on resources, SHP combined with water conservancy projects, policies and strategies, development of appropriate technology, timely development of SHP equipment manufacturing, economic justification of SHP development, and future prospects.

  12. Rural people's perception of poverty in China

    Gustafsson, Björn; Ximing YUE


    Subjective Poverty Line methodology is applied to rural China 2002 using a sample from 22 provinces. Respondents were asked two questions: one on amount of food necessary and another on amount of cash necessary for their households. The respondent's perception of how much cash is needed varies profoundly and positively by income in the county where the respondent lives. The findings provide an argument for increasing the official poverty line for China as average household income increases. P...

  13. SHP-based Rural Electrification in China


    Since 1980 when the contract system of responsibility was widely adopted in China's rural areas, the economic situation there has changed remarkably. With the development of the economy, improvement in living standards and the emergence of township enterprises, the demand for electricity has increased greatly, and the

  14. Reform in Literacy Education in China. Literacy Lessons.

    Yianwei, Wang; Jiyuan, Li

    Literacy in China is mainly concerned with illiteracy in rural areas. Therefore, reforming literacy education is largely a problem of how to eliminate rural literacy within the general framework of reform in contemporary China. From 1949 to 1988, the illiteracy rate among the population decreased from 80 percent to 20 percent. There are still…

  15. Sustainable Development of New Rural Finance in China

    Nie, Yong


    Rural finance is the weakest link in China's financial system. There are still many problems in the traditional rural finance, such as poor business conditions, imperfectly competitive financial markets, and credit information asymmetry; the phenomenon of farmers' loans difficulty has not been fundamentally changed. In order to improve the current situation of rural finance, the state proposes to develop new rural finance and innovate upon rural financial system. The new rural finance has man...

  16. Foreign Direct Investment in China; Some Lessons for Other Countries

    Harm Zebregs; Wanda S Tseng


    China's increasing openness to foreign direct investment (FDI) has contributed importantly to its exceptional growth performance. This paper examines China's experience with FDI and identifies some lessons for other countries. Most of the factors explaining China's success have also been important in attracting FDI to other countries: market size, labor costs, quality of infrastructure, and government policies. FDI has contributed to higher investment and productivity growth, and has created ...

  17. Human-environment sustainable development of rural areas in China

    Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Hongbing; Hu, Shanfeng


    Human-environment sustainable development has become the important issue of rural transformation development in China. This paper analyses the development status of rural sustainability in China, and also presents the challenges facing the sustainability from the economic, social and environmental levels, including land and energy efficiency, solid waste, water and other types of environmental pollution. At last, the paper proposes the measures to establish the sustainable and liveable rural areas in China, like raising rural community awareness of sustainable development thinking; improving resource efficiency and new energy; and creating rural green industries and green products.

  18. The use of photovoltaics for rural electrification in northwestern China

    Wallace, W.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Li Jingming; Gao Shangbin [Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China)


    The use of renewable energy technologies in China is becoming increasingly important to meet the needs of a large rural population. Solar and wind renewable resources in particular are available in regions of China that at present have no access to conventional grid power. Two regions in China that have an acute lack of electricity are a large region in northern and western China and the coastal island region of China. These regions have attracted the attention of the Chinese government in terms of increasing the quality of life and standard of living conditions of the rural population. These regions have also attracted the attention of domestic Chinese companies and of international companies, governments, and multilateral development organizations as a potential market for renewable energy rural electrification systems. This paper focuses on the bilateral cooperation between the US Department of Energy and China in providing assistance for the use of renewable technologies for rural electrification in northwestern China.

  19. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.


    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently be

  20. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Kujala, Jouni


    Kujala J, Kristensen NH, (2005): Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry. Article in "Organic farming for a new millennium - status and future challenges". Published by Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF). Swedish University...

  1. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Kujala, Jouni


    Kujala J, Kristensen NH, (2005): Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry. Article in "Organic farming for a new millennium - status and future challenges". Published by Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF). Swedish University...

  2. Instructions on the Technical Modernization of Rural Hydro in China


    In April 2003, the “Instructions on the Technical Modernization of Rural Hydro” was issued by the Ministry of Water Resources, which clarified the technical direction for the development of the rural hydropower sector in the years to comein order to quicken the pace of modernization for China''s rural hydropower. The document pointed out the direction for standardizing and guiding the rural hy-dropower sector for technical advancement. The overall objectives are, prior to year 2010, 50% of rural hydropower plants and their power grids should be modernized, and in 2015 the rural hydropower sector should be all modernized Through scientific and technical innovation and management improvement, the competitiveness of the rural hydropower market should be noticeably improved The “Instructions onthe Technical Modernization of Rural Hydro” bring out some objectives and requirements as follows:

  3. Obstacles to Rural Residents’ Consumption in China and the Countermeasures


    On the basis of relevant statistical data, this paper analyzes the obstacles to rural residents’ consumption in China as follows: the consumption structure is restricted critically; the consumption environment cannot meet the need of social development; the traditional consumption concept has not yet been changed; the social security system is not sound; the support of rural finance is short. Pointed countermeasures for eliminating the obstacles to rural residents’ consumption are put forward as follows: first, adopt effective measures to elevate the level of farmers’ income; second, strengthen the credit support of rural finance; third, quicken the pace of modernized development in rural areas; fourth, construct perfect rural social security system.

  4. Rural-urban disparities of breast cancer patients in China.

    Zhang, Yan; Bu, Yulan; Gao, Hua


    The purpose of this study was to examine the rural-urban disparities in breast cancer patients in China. The retrospective study was performed with a total of 2,139 breast cancer patients hospitalized in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between the years 1997 and 2011. We applied Chi-square analysis to identify significant disparities between rural and urban populations. Logistic regression model was used to estimate factors associated with the adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Two-fifths of patients were considered rural dwellers. Significant disparities were found in marriage age (p rural-urban differences were also shown in the choice of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.0050) and surgical procedures (p rural-urban breast cancer patients exist in China. Interventions to increase early diagnosis of breast cancer among rural area are in need. Further research is needed to investigate potential attitude and perception differences between rural and urban populations with respect to breast cancer preventions and treatments.

  5. Managing Diversity In The Midst Of Homogeneity: Lessons Learned In Rural Service Learning

    Nicholas Holton


    Full Text Available Rural areas are known for their homogeneity. Although cultures in different rural areas are often distinct and even unique, the culture within a given rural area is often easily characterized by one skin color, one language, one set of morays, and one mindset toward governmental institutions. Service Learning combines real academic learning in a community service setting. Are some diversity issues pandemic across rural areas?  How do these issues impact Service Learning programs in rural areas and how can even remote places like Alaska benefit from the lessons learned?

  6. Returns to education in rural China

    ZHAO Litao


    Based on one of the most widely used datasets by foreign-based sociologists,this paper examines the rate of returns to education in rural China.Compared with the previous studies that showed rather low rates in rural areas throughout the 1980s,this study finds a considerably higher rate in 1996.A chief contributor is the rapid non-agricultural development,which creates enormous upward mobility opportunities,particularly for the more educated.Due to the uneven economic development nationwide,the rate of returns to education varies widely across regions.In areas with less developed non-agricultural sectors,it remains low.In contrast,where off-farm employment is widespread,it is much higher.In addition,the labor market is functioning to allocate the more educated to better-paid jobs,but has yet to produce higher returns to education in nonagricultural sectors than in the agricultural sector.However,changes may be occurring in coastal regions.

  7. Views from the Village: Photonovella with Women in Rural China

    Tuula Heinonen


    Full Text Available In this article the authors provide an overview of the situation of women in rural China as a backdrop for the photonovella process and inquiry activities conducted by the first author in three rural sites in China. They describe the key themes identified through analysis of the narrative accounts and photographs presented by groups of rural women. The photonovella enabled rural women to select from their pictures several photos of significance to them to show and describe these to women from other villages and to the researcher. Concerns, interests, hardships, and achievements of the women related to their work, families, and communities were voiced as they showed their photos. This method, used in conjunction with other qualitative methods—including focus group interviews, village visits, and survey data—provided information that complemented and enriched our understanding of rural women's lives in China.

  8. Environmental Effects on Rural-to-Urban Migration in China

    Qin Hua


    Abstract: Migration process has become increasingly important in recent research on population and the environment. A majority of the existing migration and environment literature has focused on the environmental causes and determinants of migration. With the largest rural-to-urban migration flow in world history, and growing concerns about the environmental problems accompanying its fast economic development, China provides a particularly important case for migration and environment research. This paper reviews major migration theories and recent research on environmental effects on migration, with specific attention to the influences of en- vironmental factors on rural-to-urban labor migration in China. A comprehensive multilevel conceptual framework is developed for studying the environmental causes of rural-to-urban migration in China. The effects of land resources on household labor migration decisions in rural China are explored to illustrate the application of this framework.

  9. Parenting practice and children's well-being in rural China

    Chen, Mengtong; 陈孟彤.


    Parental absence is generally linked to poorer child well-being. In China, over 61 million rural children are left behind with other caregivers when one or both parents have to migrate to urban areas to work. A meta-analysis of 106 empirical studies reveals that left-behind children in rural China are generally more disadvantaged compared with non-left-behind children, in regard to psychological adjustment, behavioral health, school-related outcomes, child safety, and other protective outcome...

  10. The Effect of Rural Factors on Migrant Integration in China /

    Tyner, Adam


    This dissertation examines the integration of rural-to- urban migrant workers in the People's Republic of China through the lens of rural factors. Although there is a commonly held belief that migrants' marginalization in the cities is a result of urban policies which exclude them from urban society in general and urban public services specifically, the dissertation argues that rural factors such as land rights play a role in migrants' marginalization by perpetuating incentives for migrants t...

  11. Negative Life Events and Attempted Suicide in Rural China

    Wen-Chao Zhang; Cun-Xian Jia; Ji-Yu Zhang; Lin-Lin Wang; Xian-Chen Liu


    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs) and attempted suicide in rural China. METHODS: Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-2 months prior to att...

  12. The Development of Compulsory Education Finance in Rural China

    Xuedong, Ding


    Compulsory education in China's rural areas has come a long way since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world toward the end of 1978. By 2004, compulsory education had become available and illiteracy had been eliminated among 93.6 percent of the nation's total population; the enrollment rate of school-age children…

  13. Land expropriation, protest, and impunity in rural China

    Zhao, Bo


    Conflicts over rural land expropriation, which have intensified over the past decade in China, pose a significant threat to the country's social stability and the sustainability of its economic development. This article argues that such conflicts are inevitable under China's current political and

  14. Land expropriation, protest, and impunity in rural China

    Zhao, Bo


    Conflicts over rural land expropriation, which have intensified over the past decade in China, pose a significant threat to the country's social stability and the sustainability of its economic development. This article argues that such conflicts are inevitable under China's current political and le

  15. Financing Higher Education: Lessons from China

    Fengliang, Li


    In China, debates about higher education finance led to the introduction of a cost-sharing model, whereby students were required to pay tuition fees, over a decade ago. However, there is still significant resistance towards such a system within the broader society. In order to share insights into the development of the cost-sharing policy in China…

  16. Development of the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China

    Yanzhong Wang


    Based on a survey conducted by our research team at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the present paper reports on the development of China's new rural cooperative medical system set up in late 2002. The new rural cooperative medical system is different from the old system in that it is organized, guided and supported by the government but that rural residents voluntarily participate in its administration. It is financed by individuals,collectives and the government. The new cooperative medical system focuses on serious disease planning and mutual aid and fraternity between rural residents in health care. The results of our survey indicate that the new rural medical system has been successful up to now but that it also has some problems. China needs to pay more attention to overcoming the difficulties and challenges it faces in terms of future medical needs so that a mechanism for its sustainable development can be established.

  17. On transaction efficiency and China's Urban-Rural disparity

    ZHAO Hongjun; YIN Bocheng


    It is recommended for economists to examine China's Urban-Rural disparity from the perspective of transaction efficiency,in that it can provide us with a systematic explanation to both the cases of different countries and development stages.China's Urban-Rural disparity is special and virtually a demonstration of its special transaction efficiency structure.Exploration of China's Urban-Rural disparity from such perspective indicates that,different from those in countries with a market economy,China's case involves many exogenous and contrived factors.Therefore,the solutions are to improve the whole transaction efficiency in the economy,which includes eliminating its regionally unfavorable policies and institutions,and enforcing more favorable and regionally balanced institutional reforms.

  18. Financing energy efficiency: lessons from experiences in India and China

    Painuly, J.P.


    . Design/methodology/approach – The paper follows the post-completion review approach of a project and presents the activities undertaken and results obtained from the project. Findings – The project seeks to remove the financial barrier through the development of a commercial banking window for energy...... in China and India. This paper aims to report the experience of a three-country United Nations Environment Programme/World Bank Energy Efficiency Project (involving China, India and Brazil) that is set up to address the financial barrier and identifies the lessons that can be learnt from the project...... efficiency, energy service company development and support, exploring the need for setting up guarantee facilities and need for facilitating equity financing to the sector. The project succeeds in creating awareness and better understanding among the financial institutions in both India and China...

  19. Food security in China: lessons learned and future expectations

    Cui, X.


    Population expansion and rapid economic development have been and will continue placing dramatic pressure on Chinese land resources to provide food, water, and energy. Globalisation and international cooperation makes China land use system inseparable from the rest of the world. In this study, we will first analyze the historic changes of food supply/demand in China during the past by ensemble all the available dataset and information from literature. During the past 60 years, China has been self-fed its own population benefiting from the increase of productivity which helps provide enough food. By analyzing the factors behind of the increase of productivity, it raises quite some concerns with future development. Projections of possible pathways of development will be discussed in this paper. Lessons learn from the past will help study food security in other countries particularly in countries like India or African countries.

  20. Energy Consumption in Rural China: Analysis of Rural Living Energy in Beijing

    Yang, Yu; Yifang, Liu; Wei, Zhu


    Under the pressure of climate change and international carbon reduction targets, long-neglected rural energy consumption needs to be given high priority. China’s rural energy consumption structure is in the transition from non-commercial to commercial sources, and rural energy has become a key determinant to slow down the carbon emission growth. This paper systematically calibrates the current situation of rural energy consumption in Beijing by using the survey data of 1866 households in 13 districts and counties in Beijing based on the trend of energy supply and demand change in China. To this end, the paper combines rural policy measures to assess the pressure on coal-burning and clean energy supply trends, puts forward the rural energy structure adjustment path, with a view to promoting the use of clean energy in rural areas and reduce the environmental consequences of coal-burning.

  1. Positive Examples and Lessons Learned from Rural Small Business Adoption of E-Commerce Strategies

    Lamie, R. David; Barkley, David L.; Markley, Deborah M.


    Rural small businesses struggling against the current of competition from "big box" retailers, weak consumer demand, and on-line shopping options must find strategies that work. Many are finding that adoption of e-commerce strategies is a key to survival, even prosperity. This article highlights the lessons learned from a recent case study…

  2. Positive Examples and Lessons Learned from Rural Small Business Adoption of E-Commerce Strategies

    Lamie, R. David; Barkley, David L.; Markley, Deborah M.


    Rural small businesses struggling against the current of competition from "big box" retailers, weak consumer demand, and on-line shopping options must find strategies that work. Many are finding that adoption of e-commerce strategies is a key to survival, even prosperity. This article highlights the lessons learned from a recent case study…

  3. Investment Problems of China Rural Human Capital

    ZHANG Junxia; YU Jialin; CHEN Ying


    The rural human capital refers to the condensation of the physical body, knowledge, skills, and all the abilities that can improve the capacity of the rural labor productivity. The ability is a form of human capital stock and it plays an important role in China's development of rural economy and society, but at present the situation of investment in human capital in rural areas is not optimistic. A lot of problems need to be solved such as the inadequate total investment and the irrational structure, as to these issues, strategies and recommendations were proposed in order to strengthen the human capital investment.

  4. Negative life events and attempted suicide in rural China.

    Wen-Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between negative life events (NLEs and attempted suicide in rural China. METHODS: Six rural counties were selected from disease surveillance points in Shandong province, China. A total of 409 suicide attempters in rural areas between October 1, 2009, and March 31, 2011, and an equal number of matched controls were interviewed. We compared negative life events experienced within 1 month, 1-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-2 months prior to attempted suicide for cases and prior to interview for controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between NLEs and attempted suicide. RESULTS: Suicide attempters experienced more NLEs within the last year prior to suicide attempt than controls prior to interview (83.1% vs. 33.5%. There was a significant dose-response relationship between NLEs experienced within the last year and increased risk of attempted suicide. Timing of NLEs analysis showed that NLEs experienced in the last month and 6-12 months prior to suicide attempt were significantly associated with elevated risk of attempted suicide, even after adjusting for mental disorders and demographic factors. Of NLEs, quarrelling with spouse, quarrelling with other family members, conflicting with friends or neighbors, family financial difficulty, and serious illness were independently related to attempted suicide. CONCLUSION: NLEs are significantly associated with increased risk for attempted suicide in rural China. Stress management and intervention may be important to prevent suicidal behavior in rural China.

  5. Urbanization, Rural Land System and Social Security in China

    ZhigangXu; RanTao


    In China's transition and economic development, temporary migration, lack of basic social security arrangements for migrants, and frequent administrative land reallocation in rural areas and abusive rural land requisition in the urbanization process are all important policy issues that have been studied intensively with lots of policy recommendations. However, these issues are closely related and need to be explored under an integrated framework that takes into account China's large size and characteristics in economic development and transition. The paper aims to establish such an analytical framework and proposes a policy package to systematically address these issues. Implications from such proposed policy package are also discussed and compared to other policy recommendations.

  6. The Analysis of Obstacles to Rural Microfinance Development in China


    On the basis of presenting the terminology and classification of Rural Microfinance, this paper introduces the present situation of China’s rural microfinance development and analyses the factors that hinder the highly efficient and sustainable development of rural microfinance in current China. These factors include the operational risk, the financial resource and the sustainability of development, the regulation issues, and the issue of financial supporting services. This paper also makes several suggestions concerning policy making: the government should vigorously promote innovations in systems and mechanisms as well as products, constantly improve financial supporting services, and put more emphasis on supervision and control, as well as policy support.

  7. Agricultural and Rural Informatization Construction in China

    Mao; ZHANG


    Currently,faced with the rapid development of information technology and increasing competition of the global economy,many countries have been very concerned about the issues of informatization concerning agriculture and rural areas. The level of informatization in the developed countries has been universally high,and some developing countries are also highly concerned about how to actively promote the rural market information service. With the increasing level of China’s economic development,agriculture and rural economy have placed a growing demand on informatization. From the overall perspective of agricultural and rural informatization,this paper gives a detailed analysis of current situation,goals,tasks and constraints about agricultural and rural informatization construction,and finally makes the corresponding recommendations.

  8. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie


    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  9. Rural villagers and urban residents exposure to poultry in China.

    Peng, Zhibin; Wu, Peng; Ge, Li; Fielding, Richard; Cheng, Xiaowen; Su, Weike; Ye, Min; Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie


    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection.

  10. Rural villagers and urban residents exposure to poultry in China.

    Zhibin Peng

    Full Text Available Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51% in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78% free-range. Around half of those households (40% allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9 and A(H5N1 virus infection.

  11. Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison


    From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

  12. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.


    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy fram

  13. Effortful Control and Academic Achievement in Rural China

    Zhang, Li; Rao, Nirmala


    Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between effortful control and early literacy and mathematics achievement. A total of 181 children (85 girls and 96 boys) from rural China were assessed when they were in Grades 1 and 2. Path analyses controlling for maternal education indicated that effortful control at the beginning of…

  14. Positional spending and status seeking in rural China

    Brown, P.; Bulte, E.H.; Zhang, X.


    Focusing on a remote area in rural China, we use a panel census of households in 26 villages to show that socially observable spending has risen sharply in recent years. We demonstrate that such spending by households is highly sensitive to social spending by other villagers. This suggests that soci

  15. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.


    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy

  16. Mobile technology for health care in rural China

    Zhao Ni


    Full Text Available With the proliferation of mobile technologies in China, the Chinese mobile medical applications market is growing rapidly. This may be particularly useful for Chinese rural populations who have limited access to quality medical care where mobile technologies can reach across geographic and socioeconomic boundaries and potentially increase access to care and improve health outcomes.

  17. The Role of Family Background for Earnings in Rural China

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Qiang, Zhang Ying

    This paper provides estimates of brother income correlations for rural China. Brother correlations are a parsimonious measure of the importance of family and community background as determinants of individuals' economic status. We find internationally high levels of income similarity for brothers...

  18. Use of Human Excreta as Manure in Rural China

    LIU Ying; HUANG Ji-kun; Precious Zikhali


    Empirical research has shown that the use of manure signiifcantly improves crop yield, soil fertilityand water and moisture conservation. Despite these documented benefits, however, there is a concern on the downward trend of manure use in agriculture in China. This paper examines factors contributing to this downward trend, with a particular focus on human excreta used in agriculture. Empirical analysis based on data from stratiifed random sampling of rural households in ifve provinces of China shows that about 85% of human excreta was still used as manure in agriculture in 2007 which was less than a decade ago when nearly all human excreta was used as manure. Econometric results suggest that income growth, rising population density and improvement in rural transportation signiifcantly contribute to declining use of human excreta as manure in agriculture. These results imply that the current downward trend will continue given China’s rising economic growth, urbanization and rural infrastructural improvement.

  19. Decomposing Income Inequality and Policy Implications in Rural China

    Lerong Yu; Renfu Luo; Linxiu Zhang


    Using village data from samples covering 6 provinces, 36 counties and 216 townships, the income inequalities within and between townships in rural China are assessed. The Theil index and the mean logarithmic deviation methods enable us to test income inequality at the township level, and to decompose it into intra-regional and inter-regional at county and provincial levels. In the present paper, we also decompose income inequalities between and within the nationally designated poor counties (NDPC). The results show that approximately two-thirds of the income inequality in rural China would be eliminated if measures and policies were targeted at the county level. This study also confirms the rationale that China's poverty alleviation strategy of focusing on poor counties based on the inequalities between NDPC and non-NDPC accounts for the most inter-province inequality.

  20. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    Sibo Zhao


    Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.

  1. Building rural wireless networks: lessons learnt and future directions

    Johnson, D


    Full Text Available -cost wireless rural networks in South Africa and Zambia that are showing very encouraging results in which houses, schools and clinics are connected on shoestring budgets. Some key areas for future development are also discussed such the use of IPv6, power...

  2. Financial Support for Rural Cooperative Economy in China Based on Grey Correlation Analysis

    Fuchang; XU; Chuandong; WANG


    This paper firstly analyzed current situations of financial support for rural cooperative economy in China and tested the correlation between rural finance and rural cooperative economy using the grey correlation analysis method. Results indicate that there is a close relationship between amount,structure and efficiency of rural finance and development of rural cooperative economy. The amount of rural finance has the largest promotion function to development of rural cooperative economy,the next is rural finance structure,and the least is efficiency of rural finance. Based on research conclusions,it came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  3. Low carbon rural housing provision in China: Participation and decision making

    Liu, Wenling; Spaargaren, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Heerink, N.B.M.; Wang, C.


    Under the national strategy of ‘building a new socialist countryside’, concentrated rural housing is increasing in some rural regions in China. In this research we use three case studies to analyze decision making on concentrated rural housing and the potential for future low carbon rural housing. T

  4. Low carbon rural housing provision in China: Participation and decision making

    Liu, Wenling; Spaargaren, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Heerink, N.B.M.; Wang, C.


    Under the national strategy of ‘building a new socialist countryside’, concentrated rural housing is increasing in some rural regions in China. In this research we use three case studies to analyze decision making on concentrated rural housing and the potential for future low carbon rural housing. T

  5. Ciclovia in a Rural Latino Community: Results and Lessons Learned.

    Perry, Cynthia K; Ko, Linda K; Hernandez, Lidia; Ortiz, Rosa; Linde, Sandra

    Ciclovias involve the temporary closure of roads to motorized vehicles, allowing for use by bicyclists, walkers, and runners and for other physical activity. Ciclovias have been held in urban and suburban communities in the United States and Latin America. We evaluated the first ciclovia held in a rural, predominantly Latino community in Washington State. Three blocks within a downtown area in a rural community were closed for 5 hours on a Saturday in July 2015. The evaluation included observation counts and participant intercept surveys. On average, 200 participants were present each hour. Fourteen percent of youth (younger than 18 years) were observed riding bikes. No adults were observed riding bikes. A total of 38 surveys were completed. Respondents reported spending on average 2 hours at the ciclovia. Seventy-nine percent reported that they would have been indoors at home involved in sedentary activities (such as watching TV, working on computer) if they had not been at the ciclovia. Regularly held ciclovias, which are free and open to anyone, could play an important role in creating safe, accessible, and affordable places for physical activity in rural areas. Broad community input is important for the success of a ciclovia.

  6. [Historical succour of poverty and medical assistance in rural China.].

    Chen, Wen-Xian; Li, Ning-Xiu; Ren, Xiao-Hui


    There was considerable attention paid to the succour of poverty with widespread practice in China's history. Succour of poverty and medical assistance in rural areas were closely connected with famine relief carried out by the rulers. The mutual assistance of emotional and moral support long-term in rural communities is the most important form of medical assistance. A succour of poverty and medical assistance system in the modern sense should inherit and learn from the past consideration of poverty assistance and bring in the fine tradition of multiple forces to participate, in order to establish a succour of poverty and medical assistance system compatible with economic and social development. This is not only an important component of anti-poverty strategy in rural areas but also an inevitable requirement of historical development.

  7. Economic development, rural livelihoods, and ecological restoration: evidence from China.

    Wang, Chengchao; Yang, Yusheng; Zhang, Yaoqi


    This article uses a case study in Southeast China to demonstrate how the substantial changes in rural livelihoods have been driven by a combination of "pull" forces from external economic development, and "push" forces from local areas, leading to a shift in rural household economic activities: household outmigration and de-population of the countryside, changes in energy consumption, and most importantly, changes in land uses and eventually, ecological restoration. Such dramatic changes are becoming common across the Chinese countryside. It is pointed out that economic development has generally caused a deterioration of the environment at least at the early period of economic growth, but the positive impacts, especially in some ecosystem in rural areas, have become more apparent.

  8. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    Hude Quan


    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  9. Health literacy in rural areas of China: hypertension knowledge survey.

    Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude


    We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  10. The Compulsory Education in the Underdevelopment Western Rural Region of China



    Education plays a dominant role in contemporary society and is debated and contested all over the world. It is also the gateway to the wider world, but educational opportunities are frequently constrained by geographical locality. The rural infra-structure of China, for example, presents major challenges to educators seeking to open this door for the children of rural China. The objective of this research is to identify and analyse educational problems existing in western rural regions in China.

  11. Effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in rural China.

    Chen, Jiajian; Liu, Hongyan; Xie, Zhenming


    This study examines the effects of rural-urban return migration on women's family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in the sending areas of rural China. Based on data from a survey of rural women aged 16-40 in Sichuan and Anhui Provinces in 2000, our study finds that migrant women returning from cities to the countryside, especially those who have been living in a large city, are more likely than nonmigrant women to adopt positive family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in their rural communities of origin. We find, moreover, that living in a rural community where the prevalence of such return migrant women is higher is positively associated with new fertility and gender attitudes and with knowledge of self-controllable contraceptives. The findings of significant rural-urban return-migration effects have important policy implications for shaping family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behaviors in rural China.

  12. Ten Decades of Rural Development: Lessons from India.


    37 9.1 Imitations of the TVA model 38 9.2 Pilot projects of the sixties--Comilla, Puebla & CADU . 39 10. THE SEVENTIES--A DECADE OF CONSOLIDATION OF...three other ideologies--the Gandhian, Fabian Socialist, and Marxist Socialist. Let us glance briefly at their rural visions . For thirty years Gandhi’s...but also rejected industrialism and urbanization. His vision of the good life was not the acquisition of abundance, but the curbing of wants, an ascetic

  13. China: The Exchange of Goods and Ideas along the Silk Road. A Lesson for 7th Grade World History.

    Alton, Shelley; Bernstein-Potter, Gordon; Bohuchot, Aimee; Hott, Sheryl; Pisi, Frank

    This lesson plan focuses on China's Silk Road (300 B.C.-1300 A.D.), specifically the exchange of goods and ideas along its route. The lesson consists of four activities: (1) "Geography"; (2) "Matrix"; (3) "Advertisement"; and (4) "Oral Presentation." The lesson presents goals, provides background, and…

  14. Insight into Financial Support for Rural Land Circulation:A Case Study of China Taiwan

    SHEN Qi; HU Zi-jun


    Based on the background of the second rural land reform in China Taiwan, we analyzed financial support measures and their effects. It comes to the insight into financial support for rural land circulation in China Taiwan for the new round of rural land reform in China mainland. It is proposed to: (i) put forth effort on rural infrastructure construction with financial special fund as major support and credit fund from policy bank as supplementary support; (ii) improve rural land evaluation, registration and guarantee systems and set up special loan for land circulation, to solve the problem of shortage of fund for farmers purchasing land; (iii) grant operating loans for rural large planting and breeding farmer households, to accelerate land circulation becoming effective; (iv) establish development fund for agriculture, farmers and rural areas, to ensure sustainable input into rural areas.

  15. Combating iodine deficiency: lessons from China, Indonesia, and Madagascar.

    Goh, Chor-ching


    This study investigated the factors contributing to a successful and sustainable elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders, drawing from salt fortification experiences in China, Indonesia, and Madagascar. Government officials, salt farmers, salt producers, and wholesalers were interviewed to collect data during field visits. Analyses used in the study include simple correlation, and wherever data permit, regression. The study found that measures crucial for combating iodine deficiency include raising public awareness of the disorders, ensuring easy access to iodated salt, promoting compliance in the salt industry, and monitoring and enforcement. Factors that ensure a reliable supply of iodated salt are equally important as those that create the demand for it. Governments must ensure that surveillance and enforcement mechanisms are functioning right from the time that salt iodation is made compulsory. For sustainability during later years, the adequacy of iodine in iodated salt must be monitored, and incentives must be modified as needed to increase compliance rates in the salt industry. Once national coverage of iodated salt reaches over 90%, the government can concentrate on fine-tuning and targeting resources at areas with a low consumption of iodated salt. Elimination of micronutrient deficiencies has a long-term impact on public health; moreover, poorer segments of the population, who are more vulnerable to such deficiencies, have more to gain from fortification programs. Thus, lessons from the successful elimination of iodine-deficiency disorders are valuable for future similar micronutrient activities.

  16. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon. Achievements and lessons

    Gomez, Maria F.; Silveira, Semida [Energy and Climate Studies, Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Brinellvaegen 68, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. (author)

  17. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons

    Gomez, Maria F., E-mail:; Silveira, Semida


    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  18. Recruiting a young adolescent rural cohort: Costs and lessons learnt

    Krestina L. Amon


    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent recruitment into longitudinal health studies is challenging. The aim of this paper is to report the detailed process and costs of recruiting young adolescents and their families into an intensive longitudinal study of the effects of puberty hormones on health, behaviour and wellbeing in early adolescence, based in regional/rural Australia. Methods: Participants were recruited using a saturation strategy of targeted methods (including school visits and community events and non-targeted recruitment approaches (including print and electronic media advertising, and social media. Direct (face-to-face contact with the public and indirect (behind-the-scenes preparatory activities researcher hours were calculated for each of the recruitment strategies. Results: The study recruited 342 adolescent participants and a parent/guardian over two years. School and community-based recruitment required 6.2 and 6.0 researcher hours per activity, respectively. Direct researcher hours were primarily spent on delivering presentations and connecting with community members at community events. The majority of indirect hours were spent preparing and assembling information packs for distribution to students and parents during school visits. Non-targeted recruitment strategies using media advertising were the most frequently used methods. Researchers were estimated to have spent less than one hour for each media activity. In 27 months, an estimated $250,000 was spent on recruitment activities and resources. A combination of methods was used to recruit young adolescents and their families into a longitudinal health study. Conclusions: The financial costs and researcher time committed to this study highlight the labour-intensive nature of recruitment. The data presented are useful for researchers planning longitudinal studies in adolescents.

  19. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie


    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this article conceptualizes the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality--the household registration system ("hukou") assigns people to a hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution…

  20. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie


    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this article conceptualizes the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality--the household registration system ("hukou") assigns people to a hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution and diverse…

  1. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Recent trends and policies

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.


    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently be

  2. The Income Gap among Rural Residents in Shaanxi Province,China


    According to the analysis on the current status of the income gap among rural residents in Shaanxi Province,it is found out that the income of rural residents in Shaanxi Province of China is not only lower than the average income level of China,but also far lower than the income level of urban residents and the income level of rural residents in developed areas.The low income is mainly caused by the increasing income gap among income groups and the income gap among rural residents in different areas.Based on this,causations for the income gap among rural residents are analyzed from three aspects of the cultural difference,the regional economic difference,and the industrial structure difference.Countermeasures for narrowing the income gap and increasing the farmers’ income in Shaanxi Province are put forward,such as vigorously developing the rural economy and speeding up the transfer of rural surplus labor forces in China.

  3. Appropriate Strategies for Rural Houses In Northwest China

    HE Quan; LIU Jia-ping; LU Xiao-hui; YANG Liu


    To avoid the old road of urban development with high consumption and high pollution,this paper took the houses in a village near Yinchuan(a typical city of Northwest China)as an exemplary proiect to explore the appropriate strategies in the arid cold climate for the sustainable devdopment in rural undeveloped areas Northwest China.Firstly,all houses were designed according to the principles of passive solar heating.Second-ly,optimized biomass energy technologies such as biogas pit and straw gasification stove were utilized for cooking or heating.Last but not the least important,the ecological building materials such as earth,straw bale,fly ash were used to construct houses,which improves the indoor thermal comfort and meanwhile lowers the negative impact on the environment.Low costs,easy accessibility and habitants'inclination were taken into account in the process of design.

  4. Does Migration Income Help Hometown Business? Evidences from Rural Households Survey in China

    Jialu Liu


    This empirical study examines effects of household migration income on non-farm business in rural China. The restrictions on labor mobility in China were loosened after the economic reform in 1978. As a result, more and more rural households have family members engaging in temporary migration, working and living between rural home and urban areas, which forms a large "floating" population of migrant workers. The income migrant workers bringing home provides a vital capital resource for the cr...

  5. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation of Rural Information Poverty in China - - Case Study of Hebei Province

    Sun, Guizhen; Wang, Shuanjun; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Huijun

    Information poverty is a new form of poverty in information society. With the growing information-gap between urban and rural areas, information poverty is prevailing in the vast rural areas in China. It is largely restricted the new rural construction and the social harmonious development of villages and towns and must be resolved. The evaluation of rural information poverty is the premise to resolve it. In order to estimate the problem, index system of rural informatization evaluation of Hebei province was designed by means of Delphi. Then, according to the survey of farmers' information demand, AHP and FCE were used to estimate rural information poverty of Hebei province. The purpose of this study is to provide a new operational approach in evaluating or solving rural information poverty and constructing rural informatization in China.

  6. Nicotine Dependence among Rural-Urban Migrants in China

    Li Yuyan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex mechanism of nicotine dependency makes it challenging to evaluate dependence or progress towards dependence. The aim of this study was to estimate nicotine dependence levels and identify determinants of dependence among Chinese rural-urban migrants. Methods Multi-stage systematic sampling was used to select 4,198 rural-urban migrants aged 18 years or older from three metropolises in China. A structured questionnaire was administered during face-to-face interviews. Nicotine dependence among participants was assessed by means of the six-item Mandarin Chinese Version of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (CFTND. Determinants of dependence were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results Among 4,198 participants, estimated current, daily, and occasional smoking rates were 28.3%, 21.2%, and 7.1%, respectively. The CTFND score for the 894 daily smokers was 3.39(SD: 2.32. MANOVA showed that work type, age at first migration, length of migration, and number of cities ever lived were associated with nicotine dependence. Conclusion A migratory lifestyle is associated with nicotine dependence. Results could inform the design of tobacco control programs that target Chinese rural-urban migrant workers as a special at-risk population.

  7. Rural land ownership reform in China's property law

    WANG Liming


    With regard to rural land ownership,there exist many problems,such as absence of the subject of right,ambiguity of the def'mition of right quality,and imperfection of the taking system.To perfect the rural land ownership system in China,we should continuously take villagers' groups and villages as the subject of collective ownership and affirm the right of the members of collective organizations.In order to promote the development of the rural economy and realize the value of land,the contractual management right should be deemed as a property right and allowed to be transferred.The transferability of collective land ownership should be gradually established and the process of taking should be further normalized.Meanwhile,the farmers must receive sufficient compensation.The house site usage right is a special form of right of usufruct.To follow the principle that property should be made best use of,the house site usage right should also be transferable.

  8. Son preference in rural China: patrilineal families and socioeconomic change.

    Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; Lu, Xi


    This article draws on a survey conducted in six provinces in summer 2008 to investigate the determinants of son preference in rural China. The analysis confirms the conventional wisdom that son preference is embedded within patrilineal family structures and practices. We extend our analysis by exploring specific aspects of variation within patrilineal family culture. We find that the patrilineal group (clan) composition of villages and family participation in practices such as building ancestral halls and updating genealogies significantly influence son preference. Yet even though son preference is embedded within patrilineal family culture, our analysis suggests that over time the attenuation of son preference is likely. This is because determinants associated with socioeconomic change—for instance, higher levels of education, direct exposure to official policy education materials, higher income (a proxy for rural industrialization), and agricultural mechanization—all attenuate son preference. Being younger and female are also associated with weaker son preference, and both characteristics are likely to interact with education and industrialization to further dilute son preference in the longer term. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that concerted efforts are needed to ameliorate institutional discrimination against rural people in welfare provisioning and in labor markets, and to promote multiple dimensions of gender equality, including in land rights, wage rates, and education.

  9. Transcending an Urban-Rural Divide: Rural Youth's Resistance to Townization and Schooling, a Case Study of a Middle School in Northwest China

    Lou, Jingjing


    Based on an ethnographic study in a rural middle school in Northwest China, the author explores how the transition of the rural countryside, specifically townization, has challenged the urban-rural dichotomy being reproduced in and by formal schooling. Rural students express criticism of the chaos, pollution, and corruption they have experienced…

  10. Rural-Urban Migration in China: Temporary Migrants in Search of Permanent Settlement

    Beatriz Carrillo


    Full Text Available Massive population flows from rural to urban areas since the start of economic reform have had consequences on almost every social, economic and political issue in the People's Republic of China. This paper maps the developments of rural to urban migration in reform era China, explaining the repercussions of the household registration system on migration patterns, the economic and social inclusion of rural migrant workers into urban communities, and the formation of migrant communities based on ethnic ties in some of China's major cities. The paper ends with a discussion of the consequences of both regional and rural-urban inequalities on future population flows, and on the possibilities of social tensions brought by the increasing presence of rural migrants in urban China.

  11. China's Urban and Rural Old Age Security System: Challenges and Options

    Dewen Wang


    This paper reviews the development of the urban and rural old age security system in China,and discusses the challenges in the process of constructing a sustained old age security system. Although funding gaps and empty individual accounts have imposed a heavy burden on the sustainability of China's urban pension system, there is a relatively high coverage rate of 35.3 percent for urban workers. However, China's pension system provides low coverage rate for rural farmers. The more rapidly aging population and lower incomes in rural areas pose challenges to the vulnerable rural household support system. The separation of the old age security system between rural and urban areas also puts great pressure as a result of urbanization on farmers who lose their farmland. Therefore, it is urgent for China to speed up the reform of its old age security system to provide an institutional support for its economic and social transition.

  12. Herpes simplex virus infections among rural residents in eastern China

    Chen Li


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV has two types: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both infect epithelial cells and establish latent infections in neurons causing an infection that persists for life. Information on age- and gender-specific seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 is valuable for understanding HSV transmission dynamics and designing population-based prevention and intervention programs for HSV. However, such information is not available for China. Methods Cryopreserved serum samples of all subjects aged 5 to 60 years from two randomly selected rural villages in Zhejiang province in Eastern China who had participated in the China national seroepidemiological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection conducted in 2006 were tested. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections were determined by type-specific IgG antibody tests using an ELISA technique. Their 95% confidence intervals adjusted for the sampling fraction were calculated according to the Clopper-Pearson method. Results A total of 2,141 residents participated in the survey, with a response rate of 82.3%. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 92.0% overall, 89.1% for males and 94.2% for females. HSV-1 seroprevalence was 61.6% among children aged 5-9 years, 90.3% among 25-29 years, and nearly 100% among those aged > = 40 years. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 13.2% overall, 10.5% for males and 15.3% for females. No children aged 5-14 years were HSV-2 positive, and HSV-2 seroprevalence was 7.1% among 15-19 years and peaked at 24.3% among those aged 45-49 years. Neither HSV-1 nor HSV-2 infections were significantly different by gender. About 11.8% of study subjects were co-infected with both types of HSV. Among 549 participating couples, 8.6% were HSV-1 serodiscordant and 11.8% were HSV-2 serodiscordant. No one tested positive for HIV. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 16.2%, 16.9% for males and 15.4% for females. Conclusions HSV-1 was highly prevalent among all rural residents aged between 5-60 years in

  13. Fertility Decline in Rural China: A Comparative Analysis

    Harrell, Stevan; Yuesheng, Wang; Hua, Han; Santos, Gonçalo D.; Yingying, Zhou


    Many models have been proposed to explain both the rapidity of China’s fertility decline after the 1960s and the differential timing of the decline in different places. In particular, scholars argue over whether deliberate policies of fertility control, institutional changes, or general modernization factors contribute most to changes in fertility behavior. Here the authors adopt an ethnographically grounded behavioral–institutional approach to analyze qualitative and quantitative data from three different rural settings: Xiaoshan County in Zhejiang (East China), Ci County in Hebei (North China), and Yingde County in Guangdong (South China). The authors show that no one set of factors explains the differential timing and rapidity of the fertility decline in the three areas; rather they must explain differential timing by a combination of differences in social–cultural environments (e.g., spread of education, reproductive ideologies, and gender relations) and politico-economic conditions (e.g., economic development, birth planning campaigns, and collective systems of labor organization) during the early phases of the fertility decline. PMID:21319442

  14. A Listening and Speaking Lesson Design for EFL Undergraduates in China

    YAO Jing; LI Ming-jun


    Freshmen and sophomores in universities of China usually have Listening and Speaking class. A two-period listening and speaking lesson is designed by taking full use of the teaching material and taking the modern listening and speaking teaching theories into consideration.

  15. Study on the Quantity and Age Structure of Rural Surplus Labor Force in China

    YAO Sui; CHEN Zhuochun


    Based on the data from the Second National Agriculture Census in 2006, this paper analyzed the absolute quantity and age structure of China rural surplus labor force by the classical approach. It showed that the migration of rural labor force was still far away from "Lewis turning point", and "mingong huang" (shortage of peasant workforce) appearing in coastal areas could be explained with the location separation between the labor-intensive industries and rural labor force. It was a feasible and an effective way to push forward the transfer of labor-intensive industries from the east coast to central and Western China to absorb the abundant supply of rural labor force.

  16. Precautionary motivation and consumption Insurance: Empirical analysis of household consumption behavior in rural China

    LUO Chuliang


    Based on a bousehold survey in rural China,this paper discuses parameters such as precautionary motive,excess sensitivity,contraption insurance,and inter-temporal substitution in the household consumption function in rural China.The conclusions of the paper indicate that there is a significant precautionary motive in household consumption in rural China,but the function of consumption insurance is very limited,and the consumption is also excessively sensitive to the income change.Such parameters are different among consumers within different groups.

  17. Extension Strategies for Poverty Alleviation: Lessons from China and India

    Swanson, Burton E.


    This paper discusses the transition from a national focus on food security during the last half of the 20th century to an emerging strategy on helping small-scale farm households increase farm income to reduce rural poverty. The basic proposition is that if extension is going to help increase farm incomes and rural employment, then it must shift…

  18. Intergenerational Exchange of Resources and Elderly Support in Rural China.

    Lin, Zhiyong; Pei, Xiaomei


    This study examines how parental investments on children affect elderly support, and how this effect is contingent on emotional closeness or parental authority. Data collected from 770 elderly parents residing in rural China were analyzed. We gathered dichotomous data for (a) whether parents invested on their children via financial or instrumental means (i.e., parental investments) and (b) whether parents reported closeness to their children (i.e., emotional closeness) and whether children respected them (i.e., parental authority). We examined the relation between these variables and children's elderly support (financial, instrumental, and emotional). We tested models in two ways, one examining the direct effect of investments, and another testing the interactions between investments and closeness or authority. We first found that investments were not directly associated with elderly support, although the closeness and authority were. Additionally, the association between investments and support was found within parents who reported authority or closeness with their children.

  19. Historical Evolution and Innovation of Supply of Rural Public Cultural Service in China

    CAO Ning; ZHANG Tao


    Based on the analysis of main body,decision making and financing mode concerning the supply of public cultural services in rural areas,we divide historical evolution of rural public cultural services in China into three periods:(i) The period from the founding of New China to the period before " Cultural Revolution" ;(ii) The period from " Cultural Revolution" to the period before the reform and opening-up;(iii) The period after the reform and opening-up.We analyze the defects in the supply of rural public cultural services in China:(i) Difference in the supply of public cultural services between urban and rural areas,caused by urban-rural " dual" structure;(ii) Insufficient supply of rural public cultural services,arising from unclear property rights and executive power of government at all levels;(iii) Structural imbalance in the supply of rural public cultural services,caused by top-down supply decision making mechanism;(iv) Single financing channels of rural public cultural services.From input,decision making,demand expression,financing and endogenous mechanism of supply of rural public cultural services,we put forward the recommendations for improving the supply of public cultural services in China.

  20. Influencing Factors of Rural Human Consumption in China

    Jun LI


    Full Text Available The paper combines the social capital theory, the ordered choice model, and the case study in order to analyze the influence factors of the rural human consumption. The results show the presence of inverted U shape curve relation between human consumption amount and age. Human communication range, income, the highest single human consumption amount and the minimum amount, occupation, family population, the existing of human consumption capacity and the scope of the existing relationships between interpersonal relationship satisfaction and other factors on human consumption level has positive influence on human consumption level. Domestic researches on human behaviour are wide, but most of the studies are focused on the social, human, and psychological disciplines. For the origin of human consumption, scholars focus on four aspects like novelty, human or mutual needs. This research is based on field investigation conducted in Niuxintai village, Liaoning Province, in order to understand the current situation of the rural human consumption in China, and to explain the function and influencing factors of human consumption.

  1. The theory and practice of 100 pilot SHP-based rural electrification counties in China

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants


    This document presents the theory and practice of 100 pilot small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) based rural electrification counties in China. The document reports the research contents, methodology and results, and the pilot benefit analysis and evaluation.

  2. Family and Market: Nonagricultural Employment in Rural China.

    Song, Jing; Logan, John


    This study relies on the 2005 wave of Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) to investigate nonagricultural employment in rural China. Given China's move away from collective agriculture, households began to act as the basic unit of production, which allows some peasants to leave the family farm, enter the wage sector or run private business. The first model runs logistic regressions to estimate the type of employment for individual men and women in a married couple, and the second model is conducted at the couple level to estimate the likelihood of four outcomes: both spouses, neither spouse, or one spouse (husband or wife) in nonagricultural jobs. Both models reveal that better educated persons are more likely to be engaged in nonagricultural work. Women's employment is more responsive to the presence of grandparents and young children in the household, yet "young" grandparents and "old" grandparents make a difference. At the market level, local geographic, economic and labor force conditions of the village also play an important role in shaping family employment patterns, and the eastern and central regions illustrate a higher likelihood of nonagricultural employment than the western region.

  3. Junior English for China students’ Book 2 Unit 2 lesson8" 说课讲稿



    <正> Summary:Teachers play an important role during the process of teaching. The key point isthat how the teachers convey the knowledge to the students in the most efficient and effectiveway. Before beginning a class,the teachers should know well about the framework of the arrange-ment of the whole class. l willl take the passage (unit2 lesson8) in the book"Junior English forChina Students’Book2"for example to display how a teacher to conceives his teaching plan beforeteaching a new lesson.

  4. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin


    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care.

  5. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Jizhong Shao; Huixian Chen; Ting Zhu


    Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named so...

  6. China's New Rural Income Support Policy:Impacts on Grain Production and Rural Income Inequality

    Nico Heerink; Marijke Kuiper; Xiaoping Shi


    This paper analyses the impact of agricultural tax abolition and direct income payments to grain farmers on grain production and rural inequality in China. To separate the impact of the income support measures from recent price trends for grains and inputs, and to account for differences in household responses, we use a village-level general equilibrium model that we calibrate for two villages with different degrees of market access in Jiangxi province.The results show that the income support policy does not reach its goal of promoting grain production. The increased incomes allow farm households to buy more inputs for livestock production and involve other activities that are more profitable than grain farming. Selling of rice outside the villages declines more than rice production, because households in the villages consume more rice when incomes rise. We further find that the income support measures tend to reduce income within a village, but that tax abolition tends to widen income inequality between villages.

  7. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD): Implications for health and nutritional issues among rural children in China.

    Feng, Aihua; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Ling; Wang, Baozhen; Luo, Huiwen; Mo, Xiuting; Tobe, Ruoyan Gai


    In China, with fast economic growth, health and nutrition status among the rural population has shown significant improvement in the past decades. On the other hand, burden of non-communicable diseases and prevalence of related risk factors such as overweight and obesity has also increased. Among rural children, the double burden of malnutrition and emerging overweight and obesity has been neglected so far. According to the theory of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD), malnutrition, including both undernutrition (stunting and wasting) and over-nutrition (overweight and obesity) during childhood is closely related to worsened health outcomes during adulthood. Such a neglected problem is attributable to a complicated synergy of social and environmental factors such as parental migration, financial situation of the household, child-rearing knowledge and practices of the primary caregivers, and has implications for public health. Based on literature review of lessons from the field, intervention to address malnutrition among rural children should be a comprehensive package, with consideration of their developmental environment and geographical and socioeconomic diversity. The scientific evidence on DOHaD indicates the probability and necessity of prevention of adult disease by promotion of maternal and child health and reducing malnutrition by provision of high-quality complementary foods, promotion of a well-balanced dietary pattern, and promotion of health literacy in the public would bring a potential benefit to reduce potential risk of diseases.

  8. China-France International Symposium on Rural Construction and Development, Beijing, China,23-24 September 2007


    @@ Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China)The China-France International Symposium on Rural Construction and Development was held in Beijing, China, from 23 to 24 September 2007, under the auspices of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The symposium was co-sponsored by the following organizations: IGSNRR, CAS; Specialty Committee of Rural Geography, Geographical Society of France; and Specialty Committee of Sustainable Agriculture & Rural Geography, Geographical Society of China. The local organizers included: Research Center of Regional Agriculture and Rural Development, IGSNRR, CAS; New Countryside Construction and Planning Center of Capital's Mountainous Region, Beijing Branch of CAS & Beijing Academy of Science and Technology; and the Project Team of"The New Countryside Construction Patterns and Approach to Sustainable Development in Eastern Coastal Region of China", which is a key project funded by NSFC (No. 40635029). Prof. Liu Yansui with his team at IGSNRR organized the symposium. And about 100 scientists attended the symposium, among them some 30 came from outside China (mainly from France).

  9. Divergent Urban-Rural Trends in College Attendance: State Policy Bias and Structural Exclusion in China

    Tam, Tony; Jiang, Jin


    Despite the massive expansion of higher education in China since 1998, the cohort trends of urban and rural "hukou" holders in college attendance have widened sharply. Prevailing explanations emphasize the advantages of urban students over rural students in school quality and household financial resources. We propose the structural…

  10. Promoting Compulsory Education in Rural China: What Are the NPOs Doing?

    Zhou, Huiquan


    Due to imbalanced social and economic development, education in poverty-stricken rural areas in China is lagging behind that of urban areas. The current study explores the role of the nonprofit organizations (NPOs) involved in rural compulsory education promotion. Results show that the NPOs are providing a variety of programs to promote rural…

  11. Rural-urban migration and policy responses in China : challenges and options

    Wang, Dewen


    Examines the recent history of rural-urban labour migration in China in the process of its rapid socioeconomic transformation. It looks at the trends and patterns of this internal migration and its consequences on the rights and welfare of rural migrant workers and their families.

  12. Promoting Compulsory Education in Rural China: What Are the NPOs Doing?

    Zhou, Huiquan


    Due to imbalanced social and economic development, education in poverty-stricken rural areas in China is lagging behind that of urban areas. The current study explores the role of the nonprofit organizations (NPOs) involved in rural compulsory education promotion. Results show that the NPOs are providing a variety of programs to promote rural…

  13. Rural Development in the People's Republic of China: A Theoretical Perspective

    Flora, Cornelia Butler; Flora, Jan L.


    The article presents (1) a theoretical perspective describing rural development in the People's Republic of China which allows for generalization and comparison to the other developing rural settings, and (2) four conceptual systematic variables, a concrete policy variable, and a series of illustrative propositions linking them. (NQ)

  14. Growing up with Distant Parents: Socialization and Alienation of "Left-Behind" Children in Rural China

    Zhang, Donghui


    An increasing number of left-behind children has emerged in rural China as a result of the large-scale migration of rural farmers to urban cities since the 1990s. With the absence of parent(s) from the family, the left-behind children face crises in socialization and their relationships with their parents are threatened by physical distance. This…

  15. Education Management and Performance after Rural Education Finance Reform: Evidence from Western China

    Liu, Mingxing; Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; An, Xuehui


    Based on a survey of rural school districts in Western China, this essay explores the effects of fiscal centralisation on the relationship between local governance and school district management, most particularly on how managerial power is distributed in the rural education sector. The essay also examines some of the possible effects that changes…

  16. Unequal Education, Poverty and Low Growth--A Theoretical Framework for Rural Education of China

    Wu, Fangwei; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhang, Jinghua


    This paper constructs an intertemporal substitution educational model based on endogenous growth theory and examines the rural education, farmer income and rural economic growth problems in China. It shows that the households originally with the same economic endowment but different education endowment take different growth routes, the income…

  17. Rural public acceptance of renewable energy deployment: The case of Shandong in China

    Liu Wenling, Wenling; Wang Can,; Mol, A.P.J.


    China has set ambitious goals to increase the use of renewable energy. Developing renewables in rural areas is also one of the most important energy strategies. This paper examines rural social acceptance of renewable energy deployment taking Shandong as a case study via a field questionnaire survey

  18. Perspectives on English Teacher Development in Rural Primary Schools in China

    Ping, Wang


    Questionnaires are used to examine Chinese rural primary school English teachers' needs and challenges and perceptions in the implementation of Standards for Teachers of English in Primary Schools as professional development in rural school contexts in China. A total of 300 teachers participated in the research. Their feedback illustrates that…

  19. Economic Growth, Demographic Change and Rural-Urban Migration in China

    ZHONG Fu-ning; LI Qing; XIANG Jing; ZHU Jing


    Is China able to maintain fast growth after three decades? This paper tries to answer this question by:1) arguing that factors contributed to sustained long-run growth at supply side; 2) focusing on contributions of demographic dividend especially that of rural-urban migration; and 3) analyzing rural demographic change with information collected through village-wide household survey. Policy alternatives to realize remaining potential demographic dividend are proposed based on the analysis of changing rural demographic structure.

  20. Urban-Rural Relations in China : A Study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region

    Li, Yuheng


    Over three decades of rapid economic growth in China, beginning in 1978, has been accompanied by ever-enlarging urban-rural inequalities in terms of the various aspects of income, welfare, infrastructure, medical treatment, and education (amongst others). These two parts – the urban and the rural - have long been treated separately, without much consideration being given to their mutual linkages (relations). Urban and rural development can, essentially, be interpreted as the deployment of key...

  1. Spatiotemporal Changes in Rural Settlement Land and Rural Population in the Middle Basin of the Heihe River, China

    Manjiang Shi


    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between the spatiotemporal expansion of rural settlement land and the variation of rural population is the foundation of rational and specific planning for sustainable development. Based on the integration of Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI images and demographic data, using mathematical models, landscape indexes, and a decoupling model, the spatiotemporal changes of the rural settlement land area and its decoupling relationship with the rural registered population were analyzed for the middle basin of the Heihe River in China. During the period 1986–2014, the following changes occurred: (1 The study area experienced increases of 124.94%, 55.16%, and 1.56% in rural settlement land area, number of patches, and rural registered population, respectively; (2 Edge-expansion, dispersion, and urban encroachment were the dominant patterns of dynamic changes in the studied rural settlement land. Among these, edge-expansion was the most prevalent development pattern; it contributed more than half of the total increase in the number of patches and the total area growth; (3 The annual growth rate of the rural registered population increased from 0.7% in 1986–2002 to −0.5% in 2002–2014. By that time the rural settlement land area had undergone a gentle increase from 3.4% to 3.6%. Generally, the rural registered population and rural settlement land has experienced a shift from weakly decoupled in 1986–2009 to strongly decoupled in 2009–2014; (4 From 1986 to 2014, rural urbanization and modernization were the main causes that led to the decline in the rural registered population; however, economic growth promoted the expansion of rural settlement land during this same period. We believe that with the rapid development of urbanization, the decoupling relationship between the rural settlement land area and the reduction in the rural registered population cannot be completely reversed in the short term. It is recommended that

  2. An empirical research of urbanization and urban-rural gap in China:1952-2005


    There are two important problems of urban-rural relationship in China nowadays:the accelerated urbanization process and an enlarged urban-rural gap.The researchers can be divided into two schools according to their emphasis.One emphasizes particularly the urban development,and the other pays attention to the urban-rural inncome gap.However,there is a very strong association between urbanization rate and urban-rural inequality.As far as it goes,there is a paradox between urbanization and urban-rural inequality in China.This main reason lies in the different temporal and spatial scales chosen by the scholars.Making use of correlative analysis and wavelet method,this paper rethinks and sums up the commonly evolving characteristics and trends between urbanization ard urban-rural gap from 1950s to now.There is an intensively positive correlation between urbanization and urbanrural consumption gap.In general,with the acceleration of urbanization,urban-rural gap of China has undergone three stages of cyclical fluctuations.The rapid urbanization results in the increase of urban-rural inequalities,so it is highly risky.In addition,the special stage of urbanization is the other reason that expands" urban-rural gap.

  3. Environmental implications of rural policies in China: a multi-agent model at the level of agricultural households

    Yang, S.; Qu, Hong Juan; Luan, S.; Kroeze, C.


    We analyzed the socioeconomic and environmental changes in rural China from the perspective of agricultural households and developed a multi-agent agricultural household model for rural environmental management (MAREM). The MAREM model consists of four submodules: the agricultural household

  4. A Study on Supply Model of Rural Highways in China

    Wang Dexiang


    Full Text Available Rural highway has a significant impact to build a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, and it is an important critical infrastructure to build harmonious society. Highway has its own economics attributes, and rural highway also has its own characteristics. This paper combines with rural highway characteristics to analyze the supply model and problems of rural highway. It summarizes several mixed supply models of rural highways.

  5. Disenchantment and Participatory Limits of Compulsory Education: Lessons from Southwest China

    Wu, Jinting


    Despite the state's unrelenting efforts to enforce compulsory basic education, schooling in rural ethnic China remains an elusive ideal that leads to massive dropout and prepares many only for factory sweatshops. Based on 16 months of ethnographic research, this article examines the disjuncture between the official education policy known as the…

  6. Influence of Urbanization on Growth of Rural Residents’ Consumption in Western Ethnic Minority Areas of China

    Xiaofang; ZOU


    To make clear the relation between urbanization and growth of rural resident consumption in western ethnic minority areas of China,this paper selected cross-sectional area of 12 provinces( cities) in western ethnic minority areas in 2005- 2013 and made an empirical analysis through building panel data of influence of urbanization on rural resident consumption. Results indicate that there is positive correlation between urbanization and rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Urbanization increases income level of rural residents,strengthens demonstration effect of urban residents on rural resident consumption,and accordingly promotes rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Therefore,it is required to accelerate urbanization development,expand channels of increasing farmers’ income,improve resident consumption environment,and bring into play promotion function of counties,to drive rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas.

  7. A cross-cultural comparison of biology lessons between China and Germany: a video study

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit Jana


    Given the globalization of science education and the different cultures between China and Germany, we tried to compare and explain the differences on teacher questions and real life instances in biology lessons between the two countries from a culture-related perspective. 22 biology teachers from China and 21 biology teachers from Germany participated in this study. Each teacher was videotaped for one lesson on the unit blood and circulatory system. Before the teaching unit, students' prior knowledge was tested with a pretest. After the teaching unit, students' content knowledge was tested with a posttest. The aim of the knowledge tests here was for the better selection of the four samples for qualitative comparison in the two countries. The quantitative analysis showed that more lower-order teacher questions and more real life instances that were introduced after learning relevant concepts were in Chinese lessons than in German lessons. There were no significant differences in the frequency of higher-order questions or real life instances that were introduced before learning concepts. Qualitative analysis showed that both German teachers guided students to analyze the reasoning process of Landsteiner experiment, but nor Chinese teachers did that. The findings reflected the subtle influence of culture on classroom teaching. Relatively, Chinese biology teachers focused more on learning content and the application of the content in real life; German biology teachers emphasized more on invoking students' reasoning and divergent thinking.

  8. Polypharmacy among nonagenarians/centenarians in rural China.

    Lu, J; Yang, M; Luo, L; Hao, Q; Dong, B


    Little is known about the prevalence and relevant factors of polypharmacy in nonagenarian and centenarians. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and associated factors of polypharmacy in a sample of nonagenarians and centenarians living in a rural area of China. The data were from the 'Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan' study. Medication use and relevant covariates were obtained by face-to-face interviews. Minor polypharmacy was defined as the concomitant use of two to four medications, whereas major polypharmacy referred to the concomitant use of five or more medications. We included 859 participants with mean age of 93.7 ± 3.3 years. The number of chronic diseases was 1.4 ± 1.2 per subject, whereas the number of drugs was 0.8 ± 1.4 per subject. The prevalence of minor polypharmacy and major polypharmacy was 16.5% and 3.7% respectively. Illiteracy (odds ratio (OR) 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52 to 5.66), cognitive impairment (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.44 to 6.88), hypertension (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.46 to 5.67), respiratory disease (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.58), osteoarthritis (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.51), and cancer (OR 10.70, 95% CI 1.90 to 126.80) were positively associated with minor polypharmacy. Illiteracy (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.53 to 11.81), hypertension (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.22 to 9.49) and cancer (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.14 to 10.12) were also positively associated with major polypharmacy. Although most subjects suffer from some chronic diseases, minor polypharmacy and major polypharmacy are not common among nonagenarians/centenarians in rural China. © 2014 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. Galvanizing Local Resources: A Strategy for Sustainable Development in Rural China

    Cho, Eun Ji


    China has been undergoing a rapid development over the past decades, and rural areas are facing a number of challenges in the process of the change. The "New Channel" project, initiated to promote sustainable development and protect natural and cultural heritage in Tongdao county in China from a rapid urbanization and economic…

  10. Spatial Analysis of the Evolvement of Urban and Rural Economic Disparity in Yunnan Province,China


    The per capita disposable income of urban households and the per capita net income of rural households in Yunnan Province are selected as the variable indices.Data are from the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook and the Yunnan Statistical Yearbook.Theil index and RHL value are used to carry out quantitative research on the occurrence,development and change of urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province,China.Regression analysis on the evolvement trend of urban and rural economic disparity and spatial analysis on the convergence and divergence of urban and rural disparity caused by economic growth in Yunnan Province are carried out.Result shows that cities in Yunnan Province show a downward convergence;while rural areas show a downward divergence in the years 1978-2007,causing the economic disparity between urban and rural areas.Therefore,urban and rural disparity increases in Yunnan Province and the development of rural areas lags far behind the development of urban areas.Urban and rural economic disparity in Yunnan Province shows an inverted "U" shape of Kuznets Curve.In order to promote the coordinated development of urban and rural economy,suggestions are put forward,such as adopting the unbalanced development strategy,accelerating the overall economic development,promoting the development of small and medium-sized cities,enhancing the integration of urban and rural economics,appropriately supporting rural areas under poverty,and fully exerting the comparative advantage.

  11. Easterlin's fertility theory and population adjustment and regulation in rural China.

    Li, J


    The author considers some approaches which could be used to solve China's rural population problems through integrating Easterlin's fertility theory and certain characteristics of changes in China's rural population fertility. American demographer R.A. Easterlin conceptualized the meaning of fertility revolution with consideration of the overall modernization process. His theory is described. However, both effective family planning policies and attention to the impact of non-policy factors upon fertility changes are needed to resolve China's rural population problems. Community development and women's participation in Luo Chuan and Yong Shou, Shaanxi Province; the establishment of a social security support system for the elderly in Shandong Province; collective economy and rural urbanization in Southern Jiangsu Province; and improving the quality of family planning technical services are discussed.

  12. The effect of health on urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants in China.

    Xie, Shenghua; Wang, Jinxian; Chen, Juan; Ritakallio, Veli-Matti


    Previous studies have not paid enough attention to the effect of health on urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants in China. Using survey data from the Rural Urban Migration in China project, this article examines how self-rated physical and mental health influence rural-urban migrants' intention to settle down in cities. First, the results show that both self-rated physical and mental health are significant factors influencing the migrants' intention to permanently move to cities. Second, the effect of physical health on rural-urban migrants' intentions to permanently reside in cities can be moderated by their length of urban residence. Third, the impact of health on rural-urban migrants' urban-settlement intention shows no generational differences. According to the research findings, this paper discusses how urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants based on health selection might impair urbanization, exacerbate health disparity between the rural and urban areas, and aggravate the burden on healthcare system in rural areas of China in the long run. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Rural Cooperative in China under the Governance of the Christ Ethic Value

    Xiliang Wu


    Full Text Available Based on the analysis on the basic information, problems and characters of rural cooperative in China, the paper finds that the cooperative governance by the blood, institution should be changed into the governance by civil ethic. We compare the relation between Christ ethic and the rural cooperative in China and find the close relation between them. The cooperation, equality and devotion in cooperatives are also shown in Christ. With the case of the cooperatives found by Chinese Christians, we also find that the belief in China should be of freedom, the traditional ethic should be innovated and the religions could promote the daily public good affairs without the political intervention.

  14. Overall Evaluation on the Level of Rural Economic Development in 31 Regions of China


    Taking China Rural Statistical Yearbook in 2008 as the data source, we select 10 indices scientifically and rationally. By using SPSS statistical software, factor analysis method and cluster analysis method in multivariate statistical analysis, we conduct analysis on the level of rural economic development in 31 provinces, municipalities directly under the Central Government, autonomous regions in China. Finally we extract 4 composite factors and offer the overall ranking of them. We divide the 31 regions of China into four types, namely the regions with developed agricultural economy, the regions with relatively developed agricultural economy, the regions with less-developed agricultural economy, and the regions with underdeveloped agricultural economy.

  15. Dynamism of household carbon emissions (HCEs) from rural and urban regions of northern and southern China.

    Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Qu, Jiansheng; Yue, Bian; Zeng, Jingjing; Maroulis, Jerry


    China contributes 23 % of global carbon emissions, of which 26 % originate from the household sector. Due to vast variations in both climatic conditions and the affordability and accessibility of fuels, household carbon emissions (HCEs) differ significantly across China. This study compares HCEs (per person) from urban and rural regions in northern China with their counterparts in southern China. Annual macroeconomic data for the study period 2005 to 2012 were obtained from Chinese government sources, whereas the direct HCEs for different types of fossil fuels were obtained using the IPCC reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. Results suggest that HCEs from urban areas are higher than those from rural areas. Regardless of the regions, there is a similarity in per person HCEs in urban areas, but the rural areas of northern China had significantly higher HCEs than those from southern China. The reasons for the similarity between urban areas and differences between rural areas and the percentage share of direct and indirect HCEs from different sources are discussed. Similarly, the reasons and solutions to why decarbonising policies are working in urban areas but not in rural areas are discussed.

  16. Village energy survey reveals missing rural raw coal in northern China: Significance in science and policy.

    Zhi, Guorui; Zhang, Yayun; Sun, Jianzhong; Cheng, Miaomiao; Dang, Hongyan; Liu, Shijie; Yang, Junchao; Zhang, Yuzhe; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Shuyuan; Meng, Fan


    Burning coal for winter heating has been considered a major contributor to northern China's winter haze, with the district heating boilers holding the balance. However a decade of intensive efforts on district heating boilers brought few improvements to northern China's winter air quality, arousing a speculation that the household heating stoves mainly in rural area rather than the district heating boilers mainly in urban area dominate coal emissions in winter. This implies an extreme underestimation of rural household coal consumption by the China Energy Statistical Yearbooks (CESYs), although direct evidence supporting this speculation is lacking. A village energy survey campaign was launched to gather the firsthand information on household coal consumption in the rural areas of two cities, Baoding (in Hebei province) and Beijing (the capital of China). The survey data show that the rural raw coal consumption in Baoding (5.04 × 10(3) kt) was approximately 6.5 times the value listed in the official CESY 2013 and exceeded the rural total of whole Hebei Province (4668 kt), revealing a huge amount of raw coal missing from the current statistical system. More importantly, rural emissions of particulate matter (PM) and SO2 from raw coal, which had never been included in widely distributing environmental statistical reports, were found higher than those from industrial and urban household sectors in the two cities in 2013, which highlights the importance of rural coal burning in creating northern China's heavy haze and helps to explain why a number of modeling predictions on ambient pollutant concentrations based on normal emission inventories were more bias-prone in winter season than in other seasons. We therefore recommend placing greater emphasis on the "missing" rural raw coal to help China in its long-term ambition to achieve clean air in the context of rapid economic development.

  17. The Wasteland Auction Policy in Northwest China: Solving Environmental Degradation and Rural Poverty? / Rural Development in Transitional China: A Special Issue

    Ho, P.P.S.


    In order to relieve rural poverty and solve the problem of soil and water erosion on marginal land, various provinces and regions throughout China proclaimed a new policy in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This 'Four Wastelands Auction Policy' attempts to boost the development of land of low economi

  18. The Impact of the Income Gap in Rural China on Residents’ Consumption Based on Theil Index

    Xinxin; DAI; Lingzhi; LIU


    This paper measures the Chinese regional income distribution gap based on the Theil index with data of 31 provinces in China from 1998 to 2011. The results showed that overall the income gap between China’s rural areas was on the rise from 1998 to 2006,and the income gap was mainly caused by the gap between the East China,Central China and West China. After 2006,it showed a slow decline. The dynamic panel data model established for consumer demand,spending habits,income,regional income disparities showed that income and regional income disparities significantly influence consumer demand of rural residents. Before 2006 regional income gap inhibited the consumption of rural residents,but it promoted consumption after 2006.

  19. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China.

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yijun; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hong


    Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronutrients and continued to reside in two rural counties in China were followed. We measured their Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Multilevel analyses were used to assess sex differences in intellectual functioning in 7-10-year-old children in rural China. Boys' adjusted mean FSIQ score was 0.97 points higher (95% CI: -2.22 - 0.28) than that of girls. Girls obtained higher mean WMI and PSI scores, with 1.32 points (95% CI: 0.14 - 2.51) and 3.10 points (95% CI: 1.82-4.38) higher adjusted means, respectively. Boys' adjusted mean VCI and PRI scores were significantly higher than those of girls, and the mean differences were 2.44 points (95% CI: 0.95 - 3.94) and 3.68 points (95% CI: 2.36 - 5.01), respectively. There is no evidence to suggest sex differences in the general intelligence of early school-aged children in rural China. However, a difference in general intelligence between 10-year-old boys and girls was evident. Girls and boys in rural China tended to show different specific cognitive abilities.

  20. On Development of Rural Tourism Economy in China

    Chengjun; ZHANG


    Constantly ascendant rural tourism provides great opportunity for exploration and development of small scenic spots and scenic sites.For this new opportunity,it is required to provide correct guidance and encouragement. Then,it will become a new growth point of rural local economy. In this study,it came up with several recommendations for expanding the development space of rural tourism.

  1. An Ideological and Political Lesson from China: The Impact of Price Fluctuations (Lesson Video with English Subtitles)

    Changquing, Liu; Jianqiang, Guo; Ping, Ren


    Ideological and Political courses are compulsory lessons for Chinese students throughout their schooling, which also are taken for granted as Citizenship Education courses by the authority. What's the real state of the lesson? Here we show you one example of the lesson. The lesson was recorded in September 2013, in a special classroom with two…

  2. Extending access to essential services against constraints: the three-tier health service delivery system in rural China (1949-1980).

    Feng, Xing Lin; Martinez-Alvarez, Melisa; Zhong, Jun; Xu, Jin; Yuan, Beibei; Meng, Qingyue; Balabanova, Dina


    China has made remarkable progress in scaling up essential services during the last six decades, making health care increasingly available in rural areas. This was partly achieved through the building of a three-tier health system in the 1950s, established as a linked network with health service facilities at county, township and village level, to extend services to the whole population. We developed a Theory of Change to chart the policy context, contents and mechanisms that may have facilitated the establishment of the three-tier health service delivery system in rural China. We systematically synthesized the best available evidence on how China achieved universal access to essential services in resource-scarce rural settings, with a particular emphasis on the experiences learned before the 1980s, when the country suffered a particularly acute lack of resources. The search identified only three peered-reviewed articles that fit our criteria for scientific rigor. We therefore drew extensively on government policy documents, and triangulated them with other publications and key informant interviews. We found that China's three-tier health service delivery system was established in response to acute health challenges, including high fertility and mortality rates. Health system resources were extremely low in view of the needs and insufficient to extend access to even basic care. With strong political commitment to rural health and a "health-for-all" policy vision underlying implementation, a three-tier health service delivery model connecting villages, townships and counties was quickly established. We identified several factors that contributed to the success of the three-tier system in China: a realistic health human resource development strategy, use of mass campaigns as a vehicle to increase demand, an innovative financing mechanisms, public-private partnership models in the early stages of scale up, and an integrated approach to service delivery. An

  3. Positive youth development in rural China: the role of parental migration.

    Wen, Ming; Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua


    This study examined how parental rural-to-urban migration may affect left-behind children's development in rural China. We used two-wave data collected on 864 rural youth age 10-17 years in the Guangxi Province, China in 2010. We tested psychometric properties of a positive youth development (PYD) model theorized and corroborated in the US, compared a range of developmental outcomes among rural youth by their parental migration status, and explored the mediating role of family economic and social resources in observed associations between developmental outcomes and parental migration. The results showed the PYD model had some international validity although modifications would be needed to make it more suitable to Chinese settings. Little difference in the PYD outcomes was detected by parental migration status. On other outcomes (i.e., self-rated health, school grades, educational aspirations, problem behavior), positive influences of parental migration were observed. Increased income but not social resources in migrant families helped explain some of these patterns. The take-home message from this study is that parental migration is not necessarily an injurious situation for youth development. To advance our knowledge about the developmental significance of parental migration for rural Chinese youth, we urgently need large-scale representative surveys to collect comprehensive and longitudinal information about rural children's developmental trajectories and their multilevel social contexts to identify key resources of PYD in order to better help migrant and non-migrant families nurture thriving youth in rural China.

  4. Rural community development in China and the industrial shift of the rural population: summary of an international symposium.

    Shao, X


    As a summary of an international symposium on rural community development in China, commentary on China's rural reform, the industrial development of the rural population, and urbanization of the rural population and rural population control is provided. The successful reform that has occurred since the Party's 3rd Plenary session of the 11th Central Committee has been the implementation of the household joint production contract responsibility system. Farmers are enthusiastic about their right to land management. Recent focus on the declines and fluctuations in agricultural output has raised many questions. Suggestions have been made to raise agricultural prices and increase investment. Public ownership should remain with household management. The security of longterm ownership of land by individuals is not available, hence individuals are unwilling to make longterm investment. Another opinion was that the stagnation in production was temporary and a course of development; the cause was population pressure. Suggested future development after reforms should involve development of the village social structure. Communities already have a stable social system of blood ties and an administrative system organized by the party, government, and the economy. Communities with these characteristics could invest in the large-scale farming equipment which smaller households cannot afford, and take responsibility for land allocation and management and financial transactions. The role of the community would be a difficult one in balancing income distribution and expanding community benefits. The 2nd major influence on rural development has been growth in rural nonindustrial production in the small town enterprise. The urban policies of household registration and employment limit growth to rural enterprises which may use backward production technology and produce second-rate products. Eventually, rural industry will become both complementary and supplementary to the national

  5. Analysis of the current situation regarding the aging rural population in China and proposed countermeasures.

    Qu, Bo; Li, Xiyuan; Liu, Jie; Mao, Jiawen


    China has become a country with an aging population. Compared with the aged in urban areas, the aged in rural areas have low income and are subject to social security deficiencies; the oldest among them are the most vulnerable group. If an effective mechanism for handling health risk is not available, the poor health of the rural elderly will cause an increase in their poverty level, which in turn will cause their health to become worse. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the current situation regarding rural population aging in China and to develop countermeasures. Data from 4 national health services surveys were used to analyze the differences between urban and rural populations. The results of the analysis revealed that the aged population in rural areas has poor health; economic security for the aged population is insufficient; and resources for the aged are lacking in rural areas. The Chinese government should improve medicare for the aged in rural areas, and establish a medical treatment subsidy system and a medical support system for the aged in rural areas.

  6. Health policy reform in China: lessons from Asia.

    Ramesh, M; Wu, Xun


    Declining access to health care and rapidly rising health expenditures are a matter of grave public concern in China. After decades of efforts to reduce its involvement, the Chinese government is currently in the process of reforming the sector through increase in public expenditures and expansion of health insurance. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential of the reform direction in light of international experiences with similar reforms. It argues--on the basis of examination of reform experiences in Korea, Singapore and Thailand--that financing reforms without parallel measures to improve the provision system, especially how providers are paid, are unlikely to address the problems and may actually aggravate them. If the financing reforms are to succeed, it is vital for China to reform the incentives that guide the providers' behaviour.

  7. Adventures and lessons of an American biochemist in China

    Christopher J. Vavricka


    It's very interesting how events often lead up to each other seemingly by chance,but appear almost perfectly planned out when looking back.For the past two years,I have worked as an Intemational Young Scientist Research Fellow at the Institute of Microbiology,Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing,China,Many people ask me,especially Chinese graduate students,why an American would choose to come to China as a postdoctocal researcher.I think that a strong curiosity to explore something new should be a fundamental quality of any succesSful scientist.In 2005,when I decided to stay at Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) to pursue my PhD studies in biochemistry,I was actually wamed by many of my colleagues about continuing my research in the same university as my undergraduate studies.

  8. Who Decided College Access in Chinese Secondary Education? Rural-Urban Inequality of Basic Education in Contemporary China

    Li, Jian


    This paper investigates the rural-urban inequalities in basic education of contemporary China. The China Education Panel Survey (2013-2014) (CEPS) was utilized to analyze the gaps between rural and urban inequality in junior high schools in terms of three domains, which include the equalities of access, inputs, and outcomes. From the sociocultural…

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation on Consumption Structure of Rural Residents with Principal Component Analysis in China


    In order to make analysis on consumption structure of rural residents,the paper makes a principle component analysis on consumption expenditure per capita of rural residents in different areas of 2009 based on statistics of China statistical yearbook of 2010.Selecting a principal component,the paper arranges 31 provinces in China in order.Shanghai lists the 1st place with highest marks;coastal provinces in southeastern part,the Northeast,Beijing and Tianjin are at the top;the northern and central parts with Hebei,Shanxi,Hubei as representatives scores minus which is a little lower than that of average;the western part,such as Guizhou,Xizang,Gansu and so on are in far behind.The paper also makes analysis on the consumption structure of rural residents and proposes suggestions on how to accelerate consumption of rural residents.

  10. Sustainable Development of New Rural Finance in China

    NIE Yong


    Rural finance is the weakest link in China’s financial system. There are still many problems in the traditional rural finance, such as poor business conditions, imperfectly competitive financial markets, and credit information asymmetry; the phenomenon of farmers’ loans difficulty has not been fundamentally changed. In order to improve the current situation of rural finance, the state proposes to develop new rural finance and innovate upon rural financial system. The new rural finance has many good development advantages, such as adequate information, flexible operation, and good potential quality of the assets. It is necessary to innovate upon financial products and services, establish the purpose of serving agriculture, countryside and farmers, strengthen the supervision of credit, and improve the financial infrastructure construction, so as to achieve sustainable developments.

  11. Health Insurance Reform and Efficiency of Township Hospitals in Rural China: An Analysis from Survey Data

    Audibert, Martine; Xiao Xian HUANG; Mathonnat, Jacky; Pelissier, Aurore; Anning MA


    In the rural health-care organization of China, township hospitals ensure the delivery of basic medical services. Particularly damaged by the economic reforms implemented from 1975 to the end of the 1990s, township hospitals efficiency is questioned, mainly with the implementation since 2003 of the reform of health insurance in rural areas. From a database of 24 randomly selected township hospitals observed over the period 2000-2008 in Weifang prefecture (Shandong), the study examines the eff...

  12. The Relative Cost Efficiencies of Commercial Banks, Rural Financial Institutions, and Microfinance Institutions in China

    Wu, Ya; Escalante, Cesar L.; Gunter, Lewell F.


    This study employed data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the comparative efficiency performance of selected commercial banks, rural financial institutions and microfinance institutions in China. The first pairwise comparison indicated that commercial banks achieved higher level of overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency than rural financial institutions (including RCCs) through the study period (2004-2007). Overall technical inefficiency seems to be...

  13. New Market, New Challenge, New Opportunity (1): Overview of China rural healthcare & Design methodology

    Jiehui, J.; Kandachar, P.


    China has a largest population in the world (1.3Billion) and 0.9 Billion is rural population. Most of rural people earn less than US$3/day, and they are called “Base of the economic pyramid (BoP)”. Compared with high level market, BoP is a new market, which means a low individual profit, but a large

  14. Research on the Development of Rural Micro Enterprises in China


    The great significance of rural micro enterprises to improving the farmers’ incomes and rural economic development is pointed out.Through analyzing the existing funds,talents and system problems during the development of rural micro enterprises,it is proposed to construct and improve the financial credit system,strengthen education and training,enhance the construction of enterprise system and improve the leadership.

  15. The Application of Multiple Evaluating Methods on the Comprehensive Evaluation of Urban-rural Interaction and Conjunctional Development of China

    Duan Juan; Lu Qi; Wen Yuyuan


    Urban-rural interaction and conjunctional development is the effective way of harmonizing urban-rural relationship and promoting urban-rural development. However, there are differences in the level of urban-rural interaction and conjunctional development of China. How to measure and reflect the difference properly is a decision-making foundation for optimizing urban-rural development of different regions. The paper employs multiple methods to evaluate and order the urban-rural interaction and conjunctional development of 31provinces (municipalities) in China. Kendall's W consistency coefficient is employed to give a consistent test for the evaluation result series, and the results of multiple methods are aggregated as the final evaluation value. The results reflect the level of regional urban-rural interaction and conjunctional development in China.

  16. A Logic Model for Coaching Experienced Rural Leaders: Lessons from Year One of a Pilot Program

    Lindle, Jane Clark; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Reese, Kenyae L.; Klar, Hans W.; Knoeppel, Robert Charles; Buskey, Frederick C.


    Rural schools dominate the United States, yet scant research exists on rural school leaders' development. Urban districts can transfer leaders to different locations, but rural districts, with few school sites, need leaders who stay and adapt to changing conditions. Mid-career rural leaders require a refreshed set of skills to carry school…

  17. A Logic Model for Coaching Experienced Rural Leaders: Lessons from Year One of a Pilot Program

    Lindle, Jane Clark; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Reese, Kenyae L.; Klar, Hans W.; Knoeppel, Robert Charles; Buskey, Frederick C.


    Rural schools dominate the United States, yet scant research exists on rural school leaders' development. Urban districts can transfer leaders to different locations, but rural districts, with few school sites, need leaders who stay and adapt to changing conditions. Mid-career rural leaders require a refreshed set of skills to carry school…

  18. Assessing the Sustainability of the Built Environment in Mountainous Rural Villages in Southwest China

    Li Wan


    Full Text Available Mountainous rural areas such as those in southwest China are developing rapidly. This requires scientific understanding and a framework for assessing the sustainability of the built environment that is suitable to such areas. At present, no such framework exists. This lack of assessment options has contributed to the unsustainable development of these areas, which has caused a series of environmental, social, and economic problems. This article analyzes existing assessment frameworks, reviews the theory on sustainable rural development as it applies to rural southwest China, and proposes a new assessment framework that is more suitable to this region and others like it. This framework is based on a sustainable development model for rural areas that emphasizes endogenous development; addresses the environmental, social, and economic dimensions of sustainability; and takes the natural and social conditions of mountainous rural areas into account. Our study tested its applicability to rural southwest China and its sensitivity to local conditions and found them to be better than those of existing assessment frameworks.

  19. Food safety management and regulation:International experiences and lessons for China

    L Unnevehr; V Hoffmann


    China is experiencing rapid urbanization, changes in diets, and modernization of food retailing and production. In this context, food safety can become a greater concern for a variety of reasons. The purpose of this article is to review the international experiences and lessons regarding food safety management, regulation, and consumer behavior, with the goal of identifying how to improve food safety in middle income countries such as China. International experience in addressing food safety provides two general kinds of lessons. First, a middle-income country such as China needs to develop the capacity to carry out risk analysis in order to better focus public resources on the most important risks. Second, it wil be important to leverage market incentives so as to make the best use of limited public capacity to enforce standards. Inter-national experiences show that food safety management is feasible where market incentives exist, and that public-private partnerships can support the process of improving food safety management. Market incentives require effective consumer or buyer demand, mechanisms to identify and reward quality, and supply chain coordination. Public efforts can be targeted to supporting these market developments for the risks that are the greatest burden to public health.

  20. Lessons for Research Policy and Practice: The Case of Co-enquiry Research With Rural Communities

    Emily Caruso


    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between institutional funding for research and community-based or co-enquiry research practice. It examines the implementation of co-enquiry research in the COMBIOSERVE project, which was funded by the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme for research and innovation, between the years 2012 and 2015. Research partnerships between Latin American and European civil society organisations, research institutions, and Latin American rural communities are analysed. Challenges for effective collaboration in co-enquiry and lessons learned for research policy and practice are outlined. Based on our case study we suggest that: (1 the established values and practices of academia seem largely unfavourable towards alternative forms of research, such as co-enquiry; (2 the policies and administrative practices of this European Commission funding are unsuitable for adopting participatory forms of enquiry; and (3 the approach to research funding supports short engagements with communities whereas long-term collaborations are more desirable. Based on our case study, we propose more flexible funding models that support face-to-face meetings between researchers and communities from the time of proposal drafting, adaptation of research processes to local dynamics, adaptation of administrative processes to the capacities of all participants, and potential for long-term collaborations. Large-scale funding bodies such as European Commission research programmes are leaders in the evolution of research policy and practice. They have the power and the opportunity to publicly acknowledge the value of partnerships with civil society organisations and communities, actively support co-enquiry, and foment interest in innovative forms of research.

  1. Shifting paradigms in coastal restoration: Six decades' lessons from China.

    Liu, Zezheng; Cui, Baoshan; He, Qiang


    With accelerating degradation of coastal environment worldwide, restoration has been elevated as a global strategy to enhance the functioning and social services of coastal ecosystems. While many developing countries suffer from intense coastal degradation, current understanding of the science and practice of their coastal restorations is extremely limited. Based on analysis of >1000 restoration projects, we provide the first synthesis of China's coastal restorations. We show that China's coastal restoration has recently entered a rapidly developing stage, with an increasing number of restoration projects carried out in multiple types of coastal ecosystems. While long-term, national-level restorations enforced by the government appear promising for some coastal ecosystems, especially mangroves, restorations of many other coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, seagrasses and coral reefs, have been much less implemented, likely due to under-appreciation of their ecosystem services values. Furthermore, the planning, techniques, research/assessment, and participation models underlying current restorations remain largely inadequate for restoration to effectively halt rapid coastal degradation. To promote success, we propose a framework where paradigms in current restorations from planning to implementation and assessment are transformed in multiple ways. Our study has broad implications for coastal environmental management policies and practices, and should inform sustainable development of coupled human-ocean systems in many countries.

  2. Impacts of Rural Labor Resource Change on the Technical Efficiency of Crop Production in China

    Ning Yin


    Full Text Available This paper probes effects of the evolvement of labor resources on technical efficiency in crop production in rural China. Based on twelve years of data on crop production of 30 provinces in China, a stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure crop production efficiency in three crop-functional areas—the production area, the consumption area, and the balanced area. Then effects of both quantity and quality change in labor force on technical efficiency in different regions of China are analyzed. Results show that rural China generally has an increasing number of employees shifted to non-agricultural sectors and a decreasing trend of the stock of human capital. However, both these two changes in rural labor force have significantly positive effects on improving crop production efficiency. In addition, China’s technical inefficiency is at an average of 22.2%. Dynamically, the technical efficiencies show a tendency to rise steadily throughout China and in three areas, while the consumption area possesses the highest technical efficiency. Those results may lend some experience for other countries that are currently experiencing rural labor force and economic transition.

  3. Research on driving forces for rural settlement land changes in China

    CHEN Chun; FENG Chang-chun


    During the rapid urbanization period, the contradiction between demand for the construction land and the preservation of cultivated land for food security is getting more and more serious in China. With the urbanization the rural settlement land is increasing instead of decreasing. This paper aims at finding the driving forces for rural settlement land expansion. Based on land use change survey data (1996-2006) by the Ministry. of Land and Resources P. R. C., this paper finds that per capita area for rural settlement land is more than per capita area for city township and industrial land in each province except Tibet. Besides, rural settlement land area and per capita rural settlement land area are increasing while the rural population is decreasing in most provinces. The main problems of rural settlement land use are low efficiency, high vacancy rate, chaotic layout and illegal occupancy. Then the driving forces for rural settlement land expansion, including economic development family income, family scale, psychological factors, urbanization, transportation, lack of planning, limited circulation of dwelling-house land and imperfect social security, are explored based on above analysts. Finally, policy recommendations, in view of different influencing factors, are put forward to control the disorder expansion of rural settlement land.

  4. The Brink of Poverty: Implementation of a Social Assistance Programme in Rural China

    Lena Kuhn


    Full Text Available The Rural Minimum Living Standard is an important component of social security in rural areas of China, as it provides social assistance to poor rural households. The country’s size and large development heterogeneities, however, make the policy’s implementation a challenging task. Using quantitative and qualitative data from rural households and administrators in five provinces, we identify the pitfalls of multi-level implementation along with the difficulty of measuring income in rural, underdeveloped areas as key sources of an implementation gap that has led to a considerable degree of misallocation of monetary transfers. Changes in the budgeting process and the distribution method might improve the anti-poverty effect of social assistance without having to carry out additional monitoring.

  5. An explanation of the motivation and obstacles affecting Rural-Urban migration: The case of China

    CHENG Mingwang; SHI Qinghua; MA Limin


    Rural-Urban migration is an important issue we have to face in our industrialization.It is also a basic way to solve the three questions concerning agriculture,rural areas and farmers in China.Based on Push-Pull theories,this paper tries to build models by using the recursive approach in Dynastic Macroeconomics.These models indicate that the push from towns,especially the development of industrial technology in urban areas,is the key reason causing rural labor migration from the mral areas to the urban areas.This conclusion has also been supported by the Logit econometric model based on the macroeconomic variables,and by the descriptive analysis based on microeconomic variables.Meanwhile,the study also shows that further popularizing universal education in rural areas will have a deep influence on this migration.Besides,gender family income and region gap also affect rural workers'migration.

  6. Medically Serious Suicide Attempters With or Without Plan in Rural China.

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie


    Although previous studies have discussed the risk factors of unplanned suicide behavior in several countries, the unplanned suicide attempt in China was not explored in a large sample. We aim to look into the characteristics of unplanned suicide attempters in China and compare them with those suicide attempters with plans. Subjects were 791 medically serious suicide attempters aged 15-54 years in rural China. The sixth item of Beck's Suicide Intent Scale was used to estimate the planned and unplanned suicide attempt. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors related to planned or unplanned suicide attempt. The results showed that the planned suicide attempts were associated with higher education, hopelessness, and previous suicide act. The unplanned suicide attempt tends to be suicide by pesticide and store pesticide at home. A ban of lethal pesticides may be a method for suicide prevention in rural China.

  7. Old age security in rural China: there is a long way to go

    DAI Bao-zhen; ZHOU Lu-lin; Y John Mei


    Objective We aimed to examine the current developments and challenges confronted by old age security in rural China.Data sources This study is based on the data from PubMed,Elsevier,Wiley,EBSCO,EMBASE,SCI Expanded,ProQuest,Google,and CNKI which is the most informative database in Chinese.Study selection Articles were selected with the search terms "rural","China","old","older",or "elder","elderly",or "aged","aging","security","culture","value","medical insurance" or "community based medical insurance" or "cooperative medical scheme".Related websites and yearbooks were searched as well.Results The socio-economic development has made the burden of traditional care for the rural elderly heavier than ever,and new challenges are emerging in rural communities,such as poor economic,deteriorating natural environment and health crisis.Conclusions The governments should improve the scale and caliber of rural old age security and strengthen regulations with great efforts in developing the rural economy and protecting the natural environment of rural communities.

  8. The Exploration to the Historical Origin of Differences between Urban and Rural Areas in China


    In order to understand the historical origins of encircling the cities from the rural areas implemented by the Communist Party of China and the current dual structures of urban and rural development, urban-rural differences are analyzed from the four aspects of production mode, management mode, culture and social division of labor. Industrial development in modern times has promoted the modernization of urban production in China. But the rural areas still maintain their traditional self-sufficient natural economy. After the Opium War, the process of modernization of city politics is promoted by more economic elements of capitalism and the formation of Chinese bourgeoisie. During the management of urban modernization, rural areas still adopt the traditional self-management mode. In the aspect of culture, city is the center of development, having large population, developed traffic, and prosperous culture. But the village is lack of information and its culture is relatively backward. In modern times, affected by the foreign capitalist, urban area has become the center of modern productivity. After separating from agriculture, handicraft industry has transferred into urban areas and the social division of labor in both urban and rural areas has shown great changes. Thus, a new pattern of "Urban Industry, Rural Agriculture" has formed.

  9. Under regional characteristics of rural China: a clearer view on the performance of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme.

    Liu, Dan; Tsegai, Daniel; Litaker, David; von Braun, Joachim


    The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) was implemented in 2003 in response to the poor state of health care in rural China. Considering the substantial differences in regional socioeconomics, preferences for health care needs, and concurrent implementation of other health-related policies, the extent to which the impact of the NCMS differs in rural communities across China is unclear. The objective of this paper, therefore, was to explore the variation in the determinants of household enrolment and the impact of enrolment on health care utilization and medical expenditures in three large geographic regions in China. A quasi-experiment study was designed based on the panel data of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The bounding approach was used to conduct a robust check of impact estimation under the assumption of unobserved bias. A major finding is that household income plays no significant role for enrolment, which indicates the equity of program coverage in income terms. However, regional circumstances matter. In the generally poorer western regions, households with a high ratio of migrant workers are less attracted to the NCMS program, and adoption of the program is related to the regional infrastructure environment variables in the eastern and western regions. The NCMS has improved medical care utilization for poor income groups and regions (western regions). The NCMS's impact on reducing the incidence of catastrophic expenditures is not shown for all regions.

  10. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Tingting Li


    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  11. Urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China.

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yuanyuan


    Preventive care service is considered pivotal on the background of demographic ageing and a rise in chronic diseases in China. The disparity in utilization of preventive care services between urban and rural in China is a serious issue. In this paper, we explored factors associated with urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China, and determined how much of the urban-rural disparity was attributable to each determinant of utilization in preventive care services. Using representative sample data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011 (N = 12,976), the present study performed multilevel logistic model to examine the factors that affected utilization of preventive care services in last 4 weeks. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was applied to divide the utilization of preventive care disparity between urban and rural residents into a part that can be explained by differences in observed covariates and unobserved part. The percentage of rural residents utilizing preventive care service in last 4 weeks was lower than that of urban residents (5.1% vs 9.3%). Female, the aged, residents with higher education level and household income, residents reporting self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks and physician-diagnosed chronic disease had higher likelihood of utilizing preventive care services. Household income was the most important factor accounting for 26.6% of urban-rural disparities in utilization of preventive care services, followed by education (21.5%), self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks (7.8%), hypertension (4.4%), diabetes (3.3%), other chronic diseases (0.8%), and health insurance (-1.0%). Efforts to reduce financial barriers for low-income individuals who cannot afford preventive services, increasing awareness of the importance of obtaining preventive health services and providing more preventive health services covered by health insurance, may help to reduce the gap of preventive care services utilization between

  12. Patterns and Determinants of Double-Burden of Malnutrition among Rural Children: Evidence from China.

    Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition-coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017 from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight, over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity, paradox (stunted overweight, with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys' higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children's nutritional status in

  13. Stigmatization experienced by rural-to-urban migrant workers in China: findings from a qualitative study.

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Chen, Xinguang; Lin, Danhua; Mathur, Ambika; Stanton, Bonita


    Global literature has suggested a potential negative impact of social stigma on both physical and mental health among those who are being stigmatized. However, limited data are available regarding the form of stigma and stigmatization against rural-to-urban migrant workers in developing countries, including China. This study, employing qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews with rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing, China, was designed to understand the forms and context of stigmatization against rural migrant workers. The data in the current study show that rural-to-urban migrant workers in China had experienced various forms of stigmatization including labelling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination. Stigmatization occurred through different contexts of migrant workers' lives in urban destinations, including employment seeking, workplace benefits, and access to health and other public services. The current study is a necessary first step to assess the potential impact of stigmatization on both the physical and psychological well-being of rural-to-urban migrant workers.

  14. Comparative Research on the Rural Development Levels of 31 Provinces and Regions in China


    According to the 2010 China Statistical Yearbook,a total of 12 indicators in the aspects of residents’ production,consumption expenditure,and living conditions are selected in order to construct the indicator system of rural development level.Both factor analysis and cluster analysis methods are adopted to compare the current situations of rural development levels in 31 provinces and regions of China.Result of factor analysis shows that the 12 indicators can be classified into 4 factors,such as the income and expenditure factor,the agricultural scale and science and technology factor,the life quality factor,and the agricultural output factor.Moreover,factors affecting the rural development level of China are analyzed.Then,the 31 provinces and regions are divided into 4 categories according to the development levels in rural areas:the first category is Shanghai,Beijing and Zhejiang,which have the highest development level in rural areas;the second category includes Jiangsu,Shandong and Tianjin,which take the 4th to 6th places;the third category is Guangdong,Jilin,Liaoning,Hebei,Fujian,Heilongjiang,Henan,Inner Mongolia,Anhui,Hubei,Hunan and Jiangxi,which rank the 7th-18th;and the fourth category includes Sichuan,Hainan,Ningxia,Shanxi,Guangxi,Shanxi,Xinjiang,Chongqing,Tibet,Yunnan,Gansu,Qinghai and Guizhou,taking the 19th-31st places.

  15. Secular Changes of Stature in Rural Children and Adolescents in China, 1985-2010

    CHEN Tian Jiao; JI Cheng Ye


    Objective To analyze and assess secular change in stature in rural children and adolescents in China from 1985 to 2010. Methods Data were obtained from the 6 rounds of the Chinese National Survey on Student’s Constitution and Health. The subjects enrolled in the study were children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in rural areas of provincial capitals. Results An overall positive secular trend in stature occurred in rural areas of provincial capitals in China from 1985 to 2010. The overall average increase rates were 3.1 and 2.4 cm/decade for boys and girls, respectively. The total body height increases for grown up boys and girls were 3.6 and 2.3 cm and the increase rates were 1.4 and 0.9 cm/decade, respectively. There were differences in body height increase among eastern, central and western regions. The average body height of the children or adolescents in eastern region was highest, followed by central region and western region. The overall increase rates in central region were highest among the three regions. The difference between eastern/central region and western region was obvious. Conclusion Positive secular trend in stature of children or adolescents has occurred in rural area of China, and rural boys and girls showed a great potential for continuous growth. More attention should be paid to the differences in children’s body height between western region and eastern/central region.

  16. A study of information exchange through social networks in rural China

    Ya; LIU


    This research looks at the characteristics of social networks of rural people in different careers and income conditions.The study also investigates information exchange amongst rural people.The aim of this research is to analyze social networks’implication in the information exchange of rural people in China.Design/methodology/approach:The field work investigation of this study is a questionnaire survey of the egocentric social networks of 660 rural people in China.The characteristics of social networks are revealed through social network analysis(SNA).Findings:Analysis of quantitative date indicates that the social networks of Chinese rural people are small sized,filled with very strong ties and characterized by high-homogeneity.These characteristics limit the exchange of useful and new information.Research limitations:This survey was taken on a small scale of respondents.It did not focus on the information poverty issue,though the results indicate that a strong information divide exists amongst rural people.Practical implications:The social networks of rural people are viewed as their main information exchange channel on the one hand;however on the other hand,they does play a negative role in ameliorating information poverty.Through these social networks,rural people with different educational backgrounds and income levels suffer the information divide.Originality/value:This research focuses on the seven kinds of information which are crucial in rural people’s living and productivity.The connection between the characteristics of social networks and information exchange are revealed.

  17. Exploring the influence of design culture on ICT healthcare product and service design for rural China

    Jiang, J.; Kandachar, P.V.; Freudenthal, A.


    Design culture is usually considered as one of the important aspects that influence designers’ decisions and actions, especially in Design for Base of the Pyramid projects including ICT Healthcare Product Design in Rural China (IHDRC). There are two research questions in this issue: what are the cul

  18. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian


    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  19. Energy consumption in rural China: A household model for three villages in Jiangxi Province

    Chen, L.; Heerink, N.B.M.; Berg, van den M.M.


    In China, fuelwood and coal are the most important energy sources for rural households in poor areas. Along with population and economic growth, excessive fuelwood collection is a major cause of deforestation. Burning coal contributes to environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and gr

  20. Drivers of Poverty Reduction in Lagging Regions: Evidence from Rural Western China

    Christiaensen, L.; Pan Lei, Lei; Wang, S.


    Using 2000-04 panel data this study analyses the pathways rural households followed out of poverty in two lagging provinces of China, Inner Mongolia and Gansu. Rising labour productivity in agriculture has been key, and still holds much promise. Labour mobility has also been important in Gansu. So f

  1. Poverty and Basic Education in Rural China: Villages, Households, and Girls' and Boys' Enrollment.

    Hannum, Emily


    Against a backdrop of educational decentralization and market transition, China demonstrates how local community resources condition educational inequality. Analysis of 1992 national survey data on 7,550 villages and nearly 78,000 rural children aged 12-14 revealed that household income, village income, and village provision of junior high schools…

  2. "Be Useful to Society": Parental Academic Involvement in Rural to Urban Migrant Children's Education in China

    Fang, Lue; Sun, Rachel C.; Yuen, Mantak


    China's rural to urban migration is the largest population movement in human history. To unpack the intertwining relationship between migration and education, previous research tended to view migrant children as one universally vulnerable category, while ignoring the potential disparity in family socialization and functioning. This study…

  3. Dragons with Clay Feet? : Transition, sustainable land use and rural environment in China and Vietnam

    Spoor, M.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.


    Dragons with Clay Feet? presents state-of-the-art research on the impact of ongoing and anticipated economic policy and institutional reforms on agricultural development and sustainable rural resource in two East-Asian transition (and developing) economies--China and Vietnam.

  4. Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China

    Hu, Feng


    This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

  5. Social Capital and Health Outcomes among Older Adults in China: The Urban-Rural Dimension

    Norstrand, Julie A.; Xu, Qingwen


    Purpose: This study examines different types of individual-level social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) and their relationships with physical and emotional health among older Chinese living in urban and rural settings. Design and Methods: Using the 2005 China General Social Survey, physical and emotional health were regressed on social…

  6. The Negotiation of Interactive Frames and Discourse Identities in China's Rural Insurance Sales Interactions

    Wang, Weichao; Peng, Huan


    This paper analyzes dialogues between insurance sales agents and their clients in transformational rural China from the perspective of interactive frames, footings and discourse identities. Through the analysis of three types of talk, namely, friendship talk, institutional talk and task-oriented talk, the ambiguous and conflicting identities that…

  7. Sexual Bias and Household Consumption : A Semiparametic Analysis of Engel curves in Rural China

    Gong, X.; van Soest, A.H.O.; Zhang, P.


    We analyze Engel curves for nuclear households in rural China. The sample includes more than 5000 nuclear families covering nineteen out of thirty Chinese provinces. We consider expenditures on food, also subdivided into several food subcategories such as cereals, or meat and fish, and other consump

  8. Migration, Remittances, and Children's High School Attendance: The Case of Rural China

    Hu, Feng


    This paper uses a large nationally representative survey data to examine the impact of China's rural-urban migration on high school attendance of left-behind children by disentangling the effect of remittances from that of migration. The results show that the absence of adult household members has a negative impact on the high school attendance of…

  9. Prospects for China's Rural Vocational Education and the Role of Higher Agricultural Institutions.

    Ganzi, Peng; Xianguang, Liu

    The 1980s saw significant development in China's rural vocational education and the continuation of some problems. Most Chinese secondary (92 percent) and postsecondary (82 percent) students are educated in the countryside. However, only 60 percent of vocational high school students are educated there. There is insufficient enrollment at many…

  10. Vocational Training for Liushou Women in Rural China: Development by Design

    Shan, Hongxia; Liu, Zhiwen; Li, Ling


    As industrialisation and urbanisation aggressively take hold in China, all possible labour pools are being tapped to meet the market demands. Liushou women, or women who stay behind in rural areas as their spouses join the massive migrant workforce, are one such labour pool. Vocational training has been adopted by the Chinese state as a…

  11. Solar Energy Block-Based Residential Construction for Rural Areas in the West of China

    Jizhong Shao


    Full Text Available Based on the Great Western Development Strategy and the requirement for sustainable development in the west of China, rural affordable housing, energy conservation, and environmental protection are becoming development standards in the construction field. This paper mainly explores an innovative, sustainable, residential construction method for rural areas in western China, particularly the integration of solar energy technology with modern prefabricated building techniques, formally named solar energy block-based construction. The conscious approach of using volumetric blocks provides superior adaptability and expansibility in integration with a steel structure, thereby reducing the construction time and cost. Allowing a wide variety of configurations and styles in the building layout, this approach can be customized to the end-user’s precise location and climate, making rural residential buildings much more flexible and modern. To take advantage of adequate solar energy resource in western China, the blocks are associated with active and passive solar energy technologies, thereby reducing pollution, mitigating global warming, and enhancing sustainability. Therefore, we concluded that solar energy block-based construction could bring significant benefits to the environment, economy, and society. It could also promote sustainable development in the rural regions of western China.

  12. Social Capital and Health Outcomes among Older Adults in China: The Urban-Rural Dimension

    Norstrand, Julie A.; Xu, Qingwen


    Purpose: This study examines different types of individual-level social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) and their relationships with physical and emotional health among older Chinese living in urban and rural settings. Design and Methods: Using the 2005 China General Social Survey, physical and emotional health were regressed on social…

  13. Atmospheric wet and litterfall mercury deposition at urban and rural sites in China

    Fu, Xuewu; Yang, Xu; Lang, Xiaofang; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Ben; Yan, Haiyu; Lin, Che-Jen; Feng, Xinbin


    Mercury (Hg) concentrations and deposition fluxes in precipitation and litterfall were measured at multiple sites (six rural sites and an urban site) across a broad geographic area in China. The annual deposition fluxes of Hg in precipitation at rural sites and an urban site were 2.0 to 7.2 and 12.6 ± 6.5 µg m-2 yr-1, respectively. Wet deposition fluxes of Hg at rural sites showed a clear regional difference with elevated deposition fluxes in the subtropical zone, followed by the temporal zone and arid/semi-arid zone. Precipitation depth is the primary influencing factor causing the variation of wet deposition. Hg fluxes through litterfall ranged from 22.8 to 62.8 µg m-2 yr-1, higher than the wet deposition fluxes by a factor of 3.9 to 8.7 and representing approximately 75 % of the total Hg deposition at the forest sites in China. This suggests that uptake of atmospheric Hg by foliage is the dominant pathway to remove atmospheric Hg in forest ecosystems in China. Wet deposition fluxes of Hg at rural sites of China were generally lower compared to those in North America and Europe, possibly due to a combination of lower precipitation depth, lower GOM concentrations in the troposphere and the generally lower cloud base heights at most sites that wash out a smaller amount of GOM and PBM during precipitation events.

  14. Dragons with clay feet? Transition, sustainable land use, and rural environment in China and Vietnam

    Spoor, M.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.


    Dragons with Clay Feet? presents state-of-the-art research on the impact of ongoing and anticipated economic policy and institutional reforms on agricultural development and sustainable rural resource in two East-Asian transition (and developing) economies--China and Vietnam. The contributions to th

  15. Drought management: a multi-level governance approach in rural China

    H. Li (Hao); J. Gupta (Joyeeta); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)


    textabstractDrought has always been a serious problem in many parts of the world, and climate change may further exacerbate this problem. Much literature is available on providing information on drought instruments in rural China covering establishing national drought relief (Zhang et al., 2005) and

  16. The Life Plans of Rural School Students in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan

    Abankina, T. V.


    Data from a comparative study of the educational, career, and migration strategies of rural school students in Russia, China, and Kazakhstan show high levels of educational aspiration. This is likely to increase the flow of population to urban areas, to increase the rate of urbanization, and to have demographic and economic consequences that will…

  17. The Role of Education in Wage Determination in China's Rural Industrial Sector.

    Meng, Xin


    Uses data from China's market-oriented rural industrial sector to test education's effects on wage determination after 10 years of economic reform. Although education has influenced wage determination differently for various groups in diverse institutional and technological settings, this difference reflects a labor-productivity effect. This trend…

  18. What Factors Affect Nursing Students' Decisions of Whether to Take Rural Jobs: An Exploratory Interview Study in China

    Tao, Yuexian; Haycock-Stuart, Elaine; Rodgers, Sheila E.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore factors that effect nursing students' decisions of whether to take rural jobs in China. Methods: An exploratory interview study was conducted in China during May and June 2011. Eleven final year nursing students were purposively recruited from four nursing schools in one eastern area in China. The…

  19. Rural health care delivery amidst federal retrenchment: lessons from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Rural Practice Project.

    Moscovice, I S; Rosenblatt, R A


    This paper examines the experience of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Rural Practice Project (RPP), a major non-governmental effort in the last decade concentrating on the direct delivery of rural health services. The nine RPP sites started prior to 1977 showed a slow but steady increase in their utilization levels and improvement in their financial status during their initial operational years. The tempo of their development was remarkably similar to that of federally sponsored practices in underserved rural areas. After four years of operation, all of the practices had completed their period of grant support; the practices survived in all cases, with almost all of the practices still retaining community sponsorship, salaried physicians, and a commitment to comprehensive care. Practices in sparsely populated rural areas and in areas with fewer hospital beds grew more slowly than those set in rural areas with higher population density and more ancillary resources. We conclude that the use of time-limited initial subsidies is an effective strategy in starting new rural practices in underserved areas and that those practices have a good chance of surviving their start-up phase.

  20. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie


    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  1. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie


    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  2. Training Rural Special Educators to Transition to the Workplace: Lessons for Small Teacher Education Programs.

    Fallon, Moira A.; Hammons, Jo-Ann

    There are many important workplace issues that must be considered when training rural special educators, particularly those who come from small rural environments with limited diversity. Teacher education programs and rural educators view practicum experiences as integral in transitioning from the training program to the diverse challenges of the…

  3. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

  4. Rural Financial Innovation in China Viewed from Subprime Mortgage Crisis


    The root causes of subprime crisis are analyzed based on the introduction of the definition and features of subprime mortgage loans:firstly,a loose financial supervision and regulation environment leads to weak risk awareness;secondly,the highly complex financial products enlarge the risk. Taking into account that our rural finance is characterized by vast territory,scattered distribution of population,small economic scale and insufficient mortgage,it is pointed out that rural finance has different development rules and patterns from urban finance. On the basis of introducing that there is an insufficient amount of formal finance in our rural finance and our informal finance is under a long-term suppression,the great significance of financial innovation to rural finance is discussed:firstly,it effectively increases financial supply;secondly,it gradually regulates and develops the informal finance. The enlightenment of subprime crisis to our rural financial innovation is explored:firstly,financial innovation is the driving force of rural financial development;secondly,to strengthen risk awareness is a prerequisite for financial innovation;thirdly,a flexible and effective supervision and regulation system is an effective approach to preventing financial risks.

  5. New market, new challenge, new opportunity (1)--overview of China rural healthcare & design methodology.

    Jiehui, Jiang; Kandachar, Prabhu


    China has a largest population in the world (1.3Billion) and 0.9 Billion is rural population. Most of rural people earn less than US$3/day, and they are called 'Base of the economic pyramid (BoP)'. Compared with high level market, BoP is a new market, which means a low individual profit, but a large population. This paper discusses the healthcare issues in rural China (BoP) and study their healthcare needs through field study and case studies. This research is carried out within the framework of 'Design for Sustainability at Base-of-the-Pyramid (BoP)' programme of the School of Industrial Design Engineering at Delft University of Technology. And the aim of this research is to provide a low cost advanced healthcare product design, which will meet poor's needs and create a business case for commercial partners.

  6. How Has Rural Tax Reform Affected Farmers and Local Governance in China?

    Ran Tao; Ping Qin


    Using nationally representative data, the present paper examines the impact of China's ongoing rural tax reform on farmers. The difficulties in further local governance restructuring are also discussed. It is argued that the issues associated with rural taxation and local governance in China result from inherent tension between an increasingly liberalized economic system and a still centralized political system. Although rural tax reform has helped to reduce farmers' tax burdens in the short term, the establishment of an effective local governance regime requires coordinated reforms to downsize local bureaucracy by providing social security for laid-off cadres, to strengthen local accountability by granting higher local formal tax autonomy, and to promote meaningful participation by expanding local democracy.

  7. Marketization of Collective-owned Rural Land: A Breakthrough in Shenzhen, China

    Yonghua Zou


    Full Text Available This study focuses on analyzing the ongoing land policy reform that allows collective-owned rural land transactions in the open market in Shenzhen, China. Employing a case study method, we investigate this land policy evolution through description and contextual analysis. We argue that the existing dual-track land administration system, within which the state administers market transactions, has contributed to numerous social problems, such as urban land scarcity, inefficiency of land resource allocation, and exacerbated social injustice. Following the recent actions of the central government, a collective-owned rural land parcel in Shenzhen was officially transferred in November 2013, an action viewed as a landmark step in reforming the current dual-track land system. Though the generalization of Shenzhen’s experiment nationwide faces significant barriers, Shenzhen’s breakthrough in liberalization of the rural land market indicates that China is moving toward a potential new round of land policy revolution.

  8. Public Goods, Environmental Protection,and the Development Paradigm in Rural China



    Ecological environment protection will and should not stop as regional public goods;instead, it has been gradually regarded as global public goods. That is why the responsibility of environment protection belongs to public institutions: government organizations (GO) and non-government organizations (NGO). The ecological environment protection problems in China's rural areas stem from the absence of government responsibilities with regard to consensuses on issues of rural public goods that are basically sourced from two superstitions on the government's development paradigm: one is attaching too much importance on economic growth; the other is relying entirely on market resource-allocation capacity. These two superstitions of China "s government obviously lead to the shortage of public goods in rural areas. It is necessary that GO's and NGO's clearly define their specific responsibilities, reflect on the development paradigm; establish a more scientific development model and take concrete actions based on it.

  9. Stigma toward the rural-to-urban migrants in China: A qualitative study

    Jian Guan


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the status stigma of rural-to-urban migrants in China from the perspective of social representations. Stigma associated with social status is frequently reported in academic community but there is little published information about stigma towards rural-to-urban migrants in China. The data were collected by open-ended individual interviews with 138 participants (60 urban citizens and 78 rural-to-urban migrants in a general community in Tianjin city. On the basis of research data, this study identify, describe and analyze the structured content and meaning of social stigma towards rural-to-urban migrants which are entrenched in Chinese society and communicated by urban citizens. This study found the three dimensions (appearance, peril and origin of stigmatizing conditions on rural-to-urban migrants from urban citizens. Interpersonal interaction of stigma between migrants and citizens are differentiation and labeling, linking of labeled differences with stereotypes, differentiation between ingroup and outgroup, involving experienced status loss and discrimination. And then, there are asymmetries between stigma and perceived stigma. The results show, the social stigma towards rural-to-urban migrants as a social representation is embedded deeply in the collective memory of Chinese society, and it is generated from, and dialogically interdependent with the socio-cultural context.

  10. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Retrospect and Lessons of 2004 Outbreak in China



    Objective To summarize lessons learned from an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in China during the spring of 2004. Methods Data of SARS cases were officially reported by Beijing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention (BCDC) and Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (APCDC) and results of epidemiological investigations were collected and analyzed. Results Three generations of 11 cases of SARS were identified during the outbreak. Initial two cases were most likely to be infected in Diarrhea Virus Laboratory of National Institute of Virology, China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and main mode of transmission was direct contact with SARS patients. Delay in detecting initial case resulted in spread of the illness at hospitals and communities with two generations of secondary cases. Conclusions SARS outbreak in 2004 has yielded following lessons for public health globally. (1) Lab bio-safety programs should be made and should be strictly abided by. Studies in highly pathogenic viruses such as SARS coronavirus should be utmost cautious. (2) Management systems of occupational exposure to virus and disease surveillance need to be strengthened to take all risk factors into account so as to detect potential patients with infectious disease as early as possible.

  11. Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes towards Cervical Cancer Screening among Rural Women in Eastern China.

    Liu, Tongtong; Li, Shunping; Ratcliffe, Julie; Chen, Gang


    There is a heavy burden of cervical cancer in China. Although the Chinese government provides free cervical cancer screening for rural women aged 35 to 59 years, the screening rate remains low even in the more developed regions of eastern China. This study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer and its screening among rural women aged 30 to 65 years in eastern China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four counties of Jining Prefecture in Shandong Province during August 2015. In total, 420 rural women were randomly recruited. Each woman participated in a face-to-face interview in which a questionnaire was administered by a trained interviewer. A total of 405 rural women (mean age 49 years old) were included in the final study. Among them, 210 (51.9%) participants had high knowledge levels. An overwhelming majority, 389 (96.0%) expressed positive attitudes, whilst only 258 (63.7%) had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Related knowledge was higher amongst the screened group relative to the unscreened group. Age, education and income were significantly associated with a higher knowledge level. Education was the only significant factor associated with a positive attitude. In addition, women who were older, or who had received a formal education were more likely to participate in cervical cancer screening. The knowledge of cervical cancer among rural women in eastern China was found to be poor, and the screening uptake was not high albeit a free cervical cancer screening program was provided. Government led initiatives to improve public awareness, knowledge, and participation in cervical cancer screening programs would likely be highly beneficial in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality for rural women.

  12. Fuel for Life: Domestic Cooking Fuels and Women’s Health in Rural China

    Peng Nie


    Full Text Available Background: There is evidence that household air pollution is associated with poor health in China, and that this form of air pollution may even be more of a health concern in China than the much-publicized outdoor air pollution. However, there is little empirical evidence on the relationship between household air pollution and health in China based on nationally representative and longitudinal data. This study examines the association between the type of domestic cooking fuel and the health of women aged ≥16 in rural China. Methods: Using longitudinal and biomarker data from the China Family Panel Studies (n = 12,901 and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 15,539, we investigate the impact of three major domestic cooking fuels (wood/straw, coal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG on health status using both cross-sectional and panel approaches. Results: Compared to women whose households cook with dirty fuels like wood/straw, women whose households cook with cleaner fuels like LPG have a significantly lower probability of chronic or acute diseases and are more likely to report better health. Cooking with domestic coal instead of wood or straw is also associated with elevated levels of having certain risks (such as systolic blood pressure related to cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that using cleaner fuels like LPG is associated with better health among women in rural China, suggesting that the shift from dirty fuels to cleaner choices may be associated with improved health outcomes.

  13. Incorporating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into program evaluation: lessons from a rural medicine initiative.

    Booza, Jason C; Bridge, Patrick D; Neale, Anne Victoria; Schenk, Maryjean


    To address the shortage of physicians practicing in rural areas of Michigan, the Wayne State University School of Medicine developed an integrated rural core curriculum to interest students in rural practice careers. Here we focus on the evaluation strategy used to determine the extent to which students in the new rural medicine interest group who self-identified as selecting a rural clerkship or externship did secure a clinical training experience in a rural setting. Three measures of rurality were compared to determine whether students were placed in rural training settings: (1) the percentage of the county living in rural areas; (2) a county-level dichotomous measure of rural/nonrural; and (3) a dichotomous measure based on urban area boundaries within the county. Practice address and geographic data were integrated into geographic information systems software, which we used to map out rural characteristics of Michigan counties through a process called thematic mapping; this shows characteristic variation by color-shading geographic features. In addition, reference maps were created showing the boundaries of urban areas and metropolitan/micropolitan areas. Once these processes were completed, we overlaid the practice location on the contextual-level geographic features to produce a visual representation of the relationship between student placement and rural areas throughout the state. The outcome of student placement in rural practices varied by the definition of rural. We concluded that, although students were not placed in the most rural areas of Michigan, they received clerkship or externship training near rural areas or in semirural areas. This process evaluation had a direct impact on program management by highlighting gaps in preceptor recruitment. A greater effort is being made to recruit physicians for more rural areas of the state rather than urban and semirural areas. Geographic information systems mapping also defined levels of ruralism for students

  14. China's economic reform : from rural focus to international market

    Siregar, T.M.


    China is a large country, and in fact one of the oldest civilisations in the world. Its population is 25 percent of the world population, but it has only 7 percent of the world's arable land. China's 5000 years of history show a country moving from slavery to feudalism, with a strongly oppressive au

  15. China's economic reform : from rural focus to international market

    Siregar, T.M.


    China is a large country, and in fact one of the oldest civilisations in the world. Its population is 25 percent of the world population, but it has only 7 percent of the world's arable land. China's 5000 years of history show a country moving from slavery to feudalism, with a strongly oppr

  16. Design on rural eco-house in cold areas of Northern China

    ZHAO Hua; WANG Wei; JIN Hong


    Many kinds of factors that influence rural housing construction in Northern China are analyzed systematically and the connections between them are weighed from ecology and sustainable angles, so that an optimized green house can be built. At the same time, the energy efficient envelope structure and the method of choosing insulation material in the cost of unit thermal resistance are proposed. Integrated quality evaluation by computer shows that thermal comfort in the house would be improved remarkably for the value of PPD drops from 35%-40% to 15%, the rate of saving energy is 51.73%, much higher than the third goal of saving energy in China, and the comprehensive ecological benefit achieves good effect so as to promote the sustainable development of rural housing and community in cold areas of Northern China.

  17. Predictors of Drinking Water Boiling and Bottled Water Consumption in Rural China: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach.

    Cohen, Alasdair; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Qing; Tao, Yong; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha


    Approximately two billion people drink unsafe water. Boiling is the most commonly used household water treatment (HWT) method globally and in China. HWT can make water safer, but sustained adoption is rare and bottled water consumption is growing. To successfully promote HWT, an understanding of associated socioeconomic factors is critical. We collected survey data and water samples from 450 rural households in Guangxi Province, China. Covariates were grouped into blocks to hierarchically construct modified Poisson models and estimate risk ratios (RR) associated with boiling methods, bottled water, and untreated water. Female-headed households were most likely to boil (RR = 1.36, p boiled. Our findings show that boiling is not an undifferentiated practice, but one with different methods of varying effectiveness, environmental impact, and adoption across socioeconomic strata. Our results can inform programs to promote safer and more efficient boiling using electric kettles, and suggest that if rural China's economy continues to grow then bottled water use will increase.

  18. Analysis of the Possibility and Limitation of Criminal Mediation in Rural Areas in China

    Hao Guo


    Full Text Available With the development in the theory and practice in the area of criminal law in China, a lot of creative views have been put into legal practice. Criminal mediation, which is cropping up in both practice and theory becomes a hot subject under discussion in the field of legislation. The newly modified criminal law formally prescribes the criminal mediation, which has been recognized in the level of law-making. It has become a basic policy in the procedure of law suit. This thesis emphasizes the possibility of criminal mediation in rural areas in China, discussing the disadvantages of the current criminal justice mode, the advantages of criminal mediation and the tradition in rural areas in China. Additionally, it attempts to set up the limitation of criminal mediation, based on the principle of law, principle of equality, principle of utility and principle of justice.

  19. Processes of Urban and Rural Development: a Comparative Analysis of Europe and China.

    Andrea Raffaele Neri


    Full Text Available China, in its construction fever, has imported from Europe a great range of architectural and design features. The planning systems of China and of most European countries are based on functionalzoning, allowing meaningful comparison. Nonetheless, the process and goals of spatial planning differ markedly and China largely ignores the distinctive progress achieved in the field in Europe. AcrossEurope, the model of planning is undergoing important transformations in the last decades, gradually making decisions concerning land­use more participated, flexible and sustainable, and safeguarding the rural dimension. In contrast, the planning system of China is primarily focused on promoting urban GDP growth and is still based on a top­ down approach. The inclusion of some key elements of European planning into the Chinese system, with particular reference to laws establishing national standards and comprehensive environmental protection, would benefit China by reducing the internal inequalities between cities and countryside and safeguarding its natural assets.

  20. Expectation and satisfaction of rural tourism:a case study of Hainan,China


    This study uses the rural tourist motivation seale to measure the motivations,expectations,and satisfaction of nearly 200 rural tourists in five areas of Hainan,China by importance-Performance Analysis(IpA)and factoranalysis,The results show that the main motivation for participating in rural tourism is to be close to nature,tmprove family rela-tionship and relaxation.Tourists are highly satisfied with the landscape and pastoral views as well as the friendliness of the local people and hotels.The results also show that the sample people most care about easy parking and reasonable prices,and they expect ethnic festivals and farm life experiences.Besides the environment,facilities,recreational activities and psychological experience of rural tourism,the overall satisfaction is high.The results of this study can be used by local government lenders as well as the tourism industry to devise ways topromote and improve ruraltourism.

  1. Histories of rural social work in China and western countries



    与西方不同的是,中国的社会工作首先是在农村发展起来的。19世纪20、30年代的农村建设运动其实是中国最早的社区社会工作。这段宝贵的农村社会工作历史值得被今天的社会工作者们所学习和借鉴。简单阐述了这段著名的农村建设运动的四个社会工作案例,分析了西方的农村社会工作的特点,希望能对当今的农村社会工作有所借鉴。%Different from the western countries, Chinese social work was engaged in rural communities at the earliest, which is the popular rural buildingmovement in 1920s and 1930s. This precious history of rural social work must be valued by today's social work-ers. This article simply illustrate this rural building movement and analyze the characteristic of western rural social work, in order to make some.

  2. Learning from Lessons: studying the structure and construction of mathematics teacher knowledge in Australia, China and Germany

    Chan, Man Ching Esther; Clarke, David J.; Clarke, Doug M.; Roche, Anne; Cao, Yiming; Peter-Koop, Andrea


    The major premise of this project is that teachers learn from the act of teaching a lesson. Rather than asking "What must a teacher already know in order to practice effectively?", this project asks "What might a teacher learn through their activities in the classroom and how might this learning be optimised?" In this project, controlled conditions are created utilising purposefully designed and trialled lesson plans to investigate the process of teacher knowledge construction, with teacher selective attention proposed as a key mediating variable. In order to investigate teacher learning through classroom practice, the project addresses the following questions: To what classroom objects, actions and events do teachers attend and with what consequence for their learning? Do teachers in different countries attend to different classroom events and consequently derive different learning benefits from teaching a lesson? This international project combines focused case studies with an online survey of mathematics teachers' selective attention and consequent learning in Australia, China and Germany. Data include the teacher's adaptation of a pre-designed lesson, the teacher's actions during the lesson, the teacher's reflective thoughts about the lesson and, most importantly, the consequences for the planning and delivery of a second lesson. The combination of fine-grained, culturally situated case studies and large-scale online survey provides mutually informing benefits from each research approach. The research design, so constituted, offers the means to a new and scalable vision of teacher learning and its promotion.

  3. Rural-urban Migration, Rural Household Income and Local Geographical Contexts——A Case of Northwestern Guangxi, China

    YANG Chunyue; LU Qi; XIE Lishuang


    This paper aims to examine New Economics of Labor Migration (NELM) in the northwestern Guangxi,China and investigate the relationships among rural-urban migration, rural household income and local geographicalcontexts. Stratified sampling and typical case study were adopted and 236 questionnaires were collected from four vil-lages, Daxin, Lixin, Longhe and Yongchang. We analyzed the rural-urban migration rate, household income and localgeographical factors, focusing on the ratio of remittance income to total household income. Data descriptions and sta-tistical methods, such as Pearson Chi-square test, Contingency coefficient, Eta, Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test,multiple comparisons (LSD test, Tamhane T2, Dunnett T3 and Dunnet C test) were used. The results are as follows.Rural households'income is diversified in survey villages so the motivation of rural-urban migration in the study areacan be partly explained by NELM. The migration rate of households (the percentage of households with migrants insurvey households) in survey villages varies from 50% to 86%, while the proportion of remittance income to house-hold income is in the range of 30% to 80%. In the village of Yongchang, with the least average arable land area perhousehold, the remittance income plays a vital role in household income (80%). And the statistical findings show thatthe proportion is significantly and negatively correlated with arable land area per household. The conclusion is that di-rect effect of migration, i.e., the contribution of remittance to household income, is negatively correlated with the con-tribution of resources to local income.

  4. Rural health care in Vietnam and China: conflict between market reforms and social need.

    Huong, Dang Boi; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Bales, Sarah; Jiaying, Chen; Lucas, Henry; Segall, Malcolm


    China and Vietnam have adopted market reforms in the health sector in the context of market economic reforms. Vietnam has developed a large private health sector, while in China commercialization has occurred mainly in the formal public sector, where user fees are now the main source of facility finance. As a result, the integrity of China's planned health service has been disrupted, especially in poor rural areas. In Vietnam the government has been an important financer of public health facilities and the pre-reform health service is largely intact, although user fees finance an increasing share of facility expenditure. Over-servicing of patients to generate revenue occurs in both countries, but more seriously in China. In both countries government health expenditure has declined as a share of total health expenditure and total government expenditure, while out-of-pocket health spending has become the main form of health finance. This has particularly affected the rural poor, deterring them from accessing health care. Assistance for the poor to meet public-sector user fees is more beneficial and widespread in Vietnam than China. China is now criticizing the degree of commercialization of its health system and considers its health reforms "basically unsuccessful." Market reforms that stimulate growth in the economy are not appropriate to reform of social sectors such as health.

  5. Organochlorine concentrations in breast milk and risk assessment in the urban and rural areas of Northern China

    Zhao, J.H.; Sun, S.U. [Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community Medicine]|[CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Koga, M. [Prefectural Univ. of Kumamoto (Japan). Fac. of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences] (and others)


    In China, during the past 40 years, organochlorine pesticides (OPs) with impurity were produced and used in a large quantity. However, little is known on the OPs contamination status of the residents in mainland of China. To elucidate body burden of organochlorine compounds and factors associated with organochlorine levels of the residents in North China, we performed life style questionnaire and collected breast milk specimens at Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural area, Hebei Province, North China.

  6. Population aging and migrant workers: bottlenecks in tuberculosis control in rural China.

    Sumedh Bele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem. Its paradigms are shifting through time, especially in rapidly developing countries such as China. Health providers in China are at the forefront of the battle against tuberculosis; however, there are few empirical studies on health providers' perspectives on the challenges they face in tuberculosis control at the county level in China. This study was conducted among health providers to explore their experiences with tuberculosis control in order to identify bottlenecks and emerging challenges in controlling tuberculosis in rural China. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 health providers working in various positions within the health system of one rural county (ZJG of China. Data were analyzed based on thematic content analysis using MAXQDA 10 qualitative data analysis software. RESULTS: Health providers reported several problems in tuberculosis control in ZJG county. Migrant workers and the elderly were repeatedly documented as the main obstacles in effective tuberculosis control in the county. At a personal level, doctors showed their frustration with the lack of new drugs for treating tuberculosis patients, and their opinions varied regarding incentives for referring patients. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that several problems still remain for controlling tuberculosis in rural China. Tuberculosis control efforts need to make reaching the most vulnerable populations a priority and encourage local health providers to adopt innovative practices in the local context based on national guidelines to achieve the best results. Considerable changes in China's National Tuberculosis Control Program are needed to tackle these emerging challenges faced by health workers at the county level.

  7. Discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants: the role of the hukou system in China.

    Kuang, Lei; Liu, Li


    China's rural-urban dual society system is instituted by its unique hukou system. This system causes inequalities in social status between permanent urban and rural residents, and discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants is thus prevalent. A series of studies, based on system justification theory, sought to address the impact of the hukou system on the discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants. Study 1 showed that the justification of the hukou system could predict discrimination operationalized using a social distance measure. Study 2 found that priming of the proposed abolishment of the current hukou system led to reduced social distance. Study 3, using a recruiting scenario, further demonstrated that priming of the proposed abolishment of the system led to reduced discrimination in salary decision. Consistent with our predictions, discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants could be triggered by justifying the current hukou system, while priming of the abolishment of the system serves to decrease discrimination. The present research thereby sheds light on China's reform of its hukou system to achieve social justice and equality from a psychological perspective.

  8. The rural carbonaceous aerosols in coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles during haze pollution in northwestern China.

    Zhu, Chong-Shu; Cao, Jun-Ji; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Shen, Zhen-Xing; Liu, Sui-Xin; Huang, Ru-Jin; Zhang, Ning-ning; Wang, Ping


    The carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in coarse particle (PM10: Dp ≤ 10 μm, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), fine particle (PM2.5: Dp ≤ 2.5 μm), and ultrafine particle (PM0.133: Dp ≤ 0.133 μm) carbon fractions in a rural area were investigated during haze events in northwestern China. The results indicated that PM2.5 contributed a large fraction in PM10. OC (organic carbon) accounted for 33, 41, and 62 % of PM10, PM2.5, and PM0.133, and those were 2, 2.4, and 0.4 % for EC (elemental carbon) in a rural area, respectively. OC3 was more abundant than other organic carbon fractions in three PMs, and char dominated EC in PM10 and PM2.5 while soot dominated EC in PM0.133. The present study inferred that K(+), OP, and OC3 are good biomass burning tracers for rural PM10 and PM2.5, but not for PM0.133 during haze pollution. Our results suggest that biomass burning is likely to be an important contributor to rural PMs in northwestern China. It is necessary to establish biomass burning control policies for the mitigation of severe haze pollution in a rural area.

  9. Finance and Growth for Microenterprises : Evidence from Rural China

    Beck, T.H.L.; Lu, L.; Yang, R.


    Abstract: Using a survey dataset of Chinese rural households, we find that access to external finance is positively associated with the decision to become entrepreneur, the initial investment for microenterprises and the use of external finance. Also, we find that the use of informal finance is posi

  10. Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China

    Ye Jingzhong,


    This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an attempt to create space for manoeuvre and to pur

  11. Soil and water conservation investments and rural development in China

    Heerink, N.; Bao, X.; Li, R.; Lu, K.; Feng, S.


    This study uses a unique set of annual provincial data on soil and water conservation (SWC) investments during the period 1989–2005 to estimate the impact of such investments on the extent and severity of erosion, the growth rate of agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and rural poverty reducti

  12. Finance and Growth for Microenterprises : Evidence from Rural China

    Beck, T.H.L.; Lu, L.; Yang, R.


    Abstract: Using a survey dataset of Chinese rural households, we find that access to external finance is positively associated with the decision to become entrepreneur, the initial investment for microenterprises and the use of external finance. Also, we find that the use of informal finance is

  13. Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China

    Ye, J.


    This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an

  14. Prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of china: a meta-analysis of published studies.

    Xiaofang Chen

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disease burden across the world. In China, the latest nationwide survey of prevalence of hypertension was ten year ago, and data in rural areas is little known. More information about hypertension prevalence could help to improve overall antihypertensive health care. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China.Comprehensive electronic searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang, Weipu and SinoMed databases were conducted to identify any study in each database published from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, reporting the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese rural areas. Prevalence estimates were stratified by age, area, sex, publication year, and sample size. All statistical calculations were made using the Stata Version 11.0 (College Station, Texas and Statsdirect Version 2.7.9.We identified 124 studies with a total population of 3,735,534 in the present meta-analysis. Among people aged 18 years old in Chinese rural areas, the summarized prevalence is 22.81% (19.41%-26.41%. Subgroup analysis shows the following results: for male 24.46% (21.19%-27.89%, for female 22.17% (18.25%-26.35%. For 2004-2006: 18.94% (14.41%-23.94%, for 2007-2009, 21.24% (15.98%-27.01% for 2010-2013: 26.68%, (20.79%-33.02%. For Northern region 25.76% (22.36%-29.32%, for Southern region 19.30%, (15.48%-24.08%.The last decade witnessed the growth in prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China compared with the fourth national investigation, which has climbed the same level as the urban area. Guidelines for screening and treatment of hypertension in rural areas need to be given enough attention.

  15. Integrated water resources management for sustainable development of in western rural China

    CHEN Gui-bao; HUANG Gao-bao


    Management in water resources development of Jinghe watershed of western rural China is examined with Participatory Rural Appraisal method--a rare applied method in China and questionnaire survey of stakeholders.Combination of these two survey methods derives good results as it could avoid personal bias in identifying and ranking the issues on a concrete basis in following up households'survey.Statistic Package for Social Sciences(SPSS)was used for data analysis.Results indicate that since the early 1980s.issues of water scarcity,river pollution,soil erosion,insufficient participation of stakeholders in water resources use and management,as well as centrahzed water planning and management system have created difficulties for sustainable development of the watershed.The stakeholders and local governments are fully aware of the challenges and are committed to achieving a solution through integrated water resource management(IWRD).The concept and the application of IWRD for rural China are reviewed and analyzed,and a framework for implementation of IWRD in China is developed.It is conchided that the keys to successful implementation of the approach will depend on optimal arrangement of institutions,policy reforms,community involvement and capacity building in water sector,which need to fully integrate various management functions within the watershed.

  16. Chinese kang as a domestic heating system in rural northern China - A review

    Zhuang, Zhi [Building Environment and New Energy Resource Laboratory, School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Li, Yuguo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Chen, Bin [Building Environment and New Energy Resource Laboratory, School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Guo, Jiye [Rural Energy Office, Liaoning Province, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)


    The Chinese kang is an ancient integrated home system for cooking, sleeping, domestic heating and ventilation. It is still widely used today in nearly 85% of rural homes in northern China. In 2004, there were 67 million kangs used by 175 million people. Existing kang designs are mostly based on the intuition and accumulation of craftsman experience. There is a trend that Chinese kang is gradually replaced by bed and coal-burning radiators, domestic heating stoves, etc. using commercial energy. As rural building heating constitutes 25% of total building energy consumption in China, we consider that the transition and new technologies for rural home heating in northern China is crucial for managing future building energy consumption in China. This paper reviews the basic heat transfer and airflow principles of Chinese kang, as well as describing the traditional grounded kang and the relatively new elevated kang. The thermal performance of the kang is shown by data from literature and field surveys. The future of Chinese kang and research needs is also briefly discussed. There is also a need for scientific study in addition to experience accumulation, to form basis for engineering design. (author)

  17. An Empirical Study on Telecommunication Development in the Rural Areas of China's 12 Western Provinces

    WU Hong


    This paper studied rural telecom markets in China's 12 western provinces with Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) models. Using two regress analysis of telecom business income and rural telephone permeation rate in 12 western provinces, we got some new conclusions such as, the installation and usage of telephones among farmers are affected by several variables, and income is only one of them. According to our data analysis, variables influencing the installation and usage of telephones are not the same. Different variables exert different degrees of influence in the provinces.

  18. China's soil and groundwater management challenges: Lessons from the UK's experience and opportunities for China.

    Coulon, Frédéric; Jones, Kevin; Li, Hong; Hu, Qing; Gao, Jingyang; Li, Fasheng; Chen, Mengfang; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Liu, Rongxia; Liu, Ming; Canning, Kate; Harries, Nicola; Bardos, Paul; Nathanail, Paul; Sweeney, Rob; Middleton, David; Charnley, Maggie; Randall, Jeremy; Richell, Martin; Howard, Trevor; Martin, Ian; Spooner, Simon; Weeks, Jason; Cave, Mark; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Fang; Jiang, Ying; Longhurst, Phil; Prpich, George; Bewley, Richard; Abra, Jonathan; Pollard, Simon


    There are a number of specific opportunities for UK and China to work together on contaminated land management issues as China lacks comprehensive and systematic planning for sustainable risk based land management, encompassing both contaminated soil and groundwater and recycling and reuse of soil. It also lacks comprehensive risk assessment systems, structures to support risk management decision making, processes for verification of remediation outcome, systems for record keeping and preservation and integration of contamination issues into land use planning, along with procedures for ensuring effective health and safety considerations during remediation projects, and effective evaluation of costs versus benefits and overall sustainability. A consequence of the absence of these overarching frameworks has been that remediation takes place on an ad hoc basis. At a specific site management level, China lacks capabilities in site investigation and consequent risk assessment systems, in particular related to conceptual modelling and risk evaluation. There is also a lack of shared experience of practical deployment of remediation technologies in China, analogous to the situation before the establishment of the independent, non-profit organisation CL:AIRE (Contaminated Land: Applications In Real Environments) in 1999 in the UK. Many local technology developments are at lab-scale or pilot-scale stage without being widely put into use. Therefore, a shared endeavour is needed to promote the development of technically and scientifically sound land management as well as soil and human health protection to improve the sustainability of the rapid urbanisation in China.

  19. Rural-urban differentials of premature mortality burden in south-west China

    Chongsuvivatwong Virasakdi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yunnan province is located in south western China and is one of the poorest provinces of the country. This study examines the premature mortality burden from common causes of deaths among an urban region, suburban region and rural region of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan. Methods Years of life lost (YLL rate per 1,000 and mortality rate per 100,000 were calculated from medical death certificates in 2003 and broken down by cause of death, age and gender among urban, suburban and rural regions. YLL was calculated without age-weighting and discounting rate. Rates were age-adjusted to the combined population of three regions. However, 3% discounting rate and a standard age-weighting function were included in the sensitivity analysis. Results Non-communicable diseases contributed the most YLL in all three regions. The rural region had about 50% higher premature mortality burden compared to the other two regions. YLL from infectious diseases and perinatal problems was still a major problem in the rural region. Among non-communicable diseases, YLL from stroke was the highest in the urban/suburban regions; COPD followed as the second and was the highest in the rural region. Mortality burden from injuries was however higher in the rural region than the other two regions, especially for men. Self-inflicted injuries were between 2–8 times more serious among women. The use of either mortality rate or YLL gives a similar conclusion regarding the order of priority. Reanalysis with age-weighting and 3% discounting rate gave similar results. Conclusion Urban south western China has already engaged in epidemiological pattern of developed countries. The rural region is additionally burdened by diseases of poverty and injury on top of the non-communicable diseases.

  20. Lessons Learned from Rural Paraguay: Fostering Child Development through Empowerment, Unity, and Cooperation

    Stuart, Jeana M.; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Peairson, Shannon; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta


    In Paraguay conditions for rural children living in poverty are often difficult. At least 14% of children age 5 years and younger show moderate to severe physical stunting (UNICEF 2009). More than half of the children in primary school have repeated at least one grade by the time they complete the sixth grade. Rural families living in poverty, who…

  1. Lessons Learned from Rural Paraguay: Fostering Child Development through Empowerment, Unity, and Cooperation

    Stuart, Jeana M.; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Peairson, Shannon; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta


    In Paraguay conditions for rural children living in poverty are often difficult. At least 14% of children age 5 years and younger show moderate to severe physical stunting (UNICEF 2009). More than half of the children in primary school have repeated at least one grade by the time they complete the sixth grade. Rural families living in poverty, who…

  2. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola


    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  3. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola


    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  4. Survey of rural household energy-consumption in China

    Wang Xh; Fend Zm [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., JS (China)


    Based on comprehensive energy surveys of 3240 households in six different regions, we present the level and structure of rural household energy consumption. There are large differences among regions which depend on locality and available fuels. Energy consumption per household accounts for 700-1200 kgce (we use 7000 kcal/kgce), 40-60% of which is used for cooking; 60-90% of total household energy consumption is in the form of biomass. The average energy-conversion efficiency using biomass fuels is in the range 10-20%. Where the strain of traditional patterns of biomass use on the resource base became too severe, the balance between local agricultural and hillside ecosystems has unraveled and caused accelerating destruction of limited land resources. Higher income households need more commercial energy, especially in the form of electricity. Rural household energy will continue to depend mainly on biomass. (UK)

  5. An Analysis of Public Service Structural Imbalances in Rural China



    Rectifying the structural imbalance between the provision of and demand for rural public services can effectively boost the efficiency of public funds utilization and the level of public service provision. Based on the findings of a field survey, this article presents a summary of the structural imbalance between the provision of and demand for rural public services. This paper holds that the structural imbalance is primarily reflected in the dislocation between provision and demand, the unsuitable mode of provision, the monolithic provision mechanism, the excessive focus on construction at the expense of governance and the overemphasis of counties and townships at the cost of villages. Such structural imbalance is principally because of the limited financial strength of government at the grass-roots level due to treasury centralization and the over-dependence of public services on special funds allocated by government at or above provincial level.

  6. Construction of Innovative Rural Sci-tech Service System in China

    Xinyue; LI; Qiwei; DAI


    At the background of structural regulation of agriculture and industrialized development of rural areas,systematic thought and constructive recommendations are put forward on building innovative rural sci-tech service system in China from following 5 aspects. (1) In organizational system,rural sci-tech service associations should become nonprofit organizations that have independent legal entities. (2) In service object,it should take farmers as subject,new rural economic organizations as carrier,agricultural leading enterprises as handle,little village officials as joint,sci-tech special commissioner as link,and agricultural brokers as medium. (3) In information resources,it should enhance practicality construction and sharing. (4) In service methods and reform measures,it should combine information technology,expert technical consulting service,and sci-tech model base. (5) In policy support and input mechanism,it should follow the principle of diversification,set up government special funds,and formulate preferential policies to attract sci-tech talents to join in rural sci-tech services,and protect legal rights and interests of sci-tech personnel in rural sci-tech services.

  7. Changing medical doctor productivity and its affecting factors in rural China.

    Martineau, Tim; Gong, Youlong; Tang, Shenglan


    Using the data collected from the health facility-based survey, part of the national health service survey conducted in 1993 and 1998, this paper tries to examine changes in labour productivity among the county-level hospitals and township health centres in rural China, and to analyse factors affecting the changes. The results presented in the paper show that the average number of outpatient visits per doctor per day and the average number of inpatient days per doctor per day declined significantly over the period from 1986 to 1997. The main factors resulting in the reduction of productivity are associated with the increase of inappropriate staff recruitment in these health facilities, the significant decline of rural population covered by health insurance, particularly rural cooperative medical schemes (CMS), and the rapid rise of health care costs. The latter two factors also have brought about a reduction in the use of these health facilities by the rural population. The paper suggests that the government should tighten up the entrance of health and non-health staff into the rural health sector and develop effective measures aimed to avoid providing pervasive financial incentives to the over-provision of services and over-use of drugs. In addition, other measures that help to increase the demand for health services, such as the establishment of rural health insurance, should be considered seriously.

  8. Cumulative Causation of Rural Migration and Initial Peri-Urbanization in China.

    Hao, Lingxin


    This paper posits that rural migration feeds the high demand for cheap labor in peri-urbanization, which is driven by globalization, flows of foreign capital, and entrepreneurial local governments. While the gravity model and push/pull perspective ignore the dynamics of migratory course, we use the cumulative causation of migration theory to conceptualize social expectations for outmigration and social resources from migrant networks in destinations. Four major findings are drawn from this demographic analysis based on micro data from China's 2000 Census. First, the expectation of outmigration significantly increases outmigration, and this effect is independent of push factors. Second, foreign direct investment (FDI) contributes to attracting rural labor migrants from other provinces to peri-urban areas as it does to cities. Third, social resources from migrant networks play an important role in attracting rural labor migrants to both city and noncity destinations. Fourth, the importance of wage differentials declines in gravitating rural labor migrants to peri-urban areas. These findings provide tentative evidence that rural labor migration is indispensable during initial peri-urbanization. Infused with flows of FDI and entrepreneurial local governments, rural migration has created a favorable initial condition for peri-urbanization.

  9. Tariff liberalisation, price transmission and rural welfare in China

    Zhu, Jing; Yu, Wusheng; Wang, Junying


    China's tariff liberalisation as part of its WTO accession application and eventual agreement has been thoroughly analysed in the literature. However, much of this literature is based on forward-looking ex-ante analyses and few studies provide empirical evidence on its actual impact. We fill...... in this gap by evaluating empirically the welfare effects of China's actual tariff liberalisation on Chinese farmers during the 1997–2010 period. By estimating the domestic market price effects of China's tariff liberalisation and the associated wage earning effects, we find that on average Chinese farmers...... of these positive average welfare effects. Moreover, welfare gains from tariff liberalisation are shown to be distributed unevenly across Chinese provinces and income levels, with farmers located in coastal provinces and at higher income levels gaining more than their counterparts in remote provinces and at lower...

  10. Finance and Growth for Microenterprises: Evidence from Rural China

    Beck, T.; Liping, L.; Yang, R


    Abstract: Using a survey dataset of Chinese rural households, we find that access to external finance is positively associated with the decision to become entrepreneur, the initial investment for microenterprises and the use of external finance. Also, we find that the use of informal finance is positively associated with sales growth of microenterprises with employees, but not of self-employed. We do not find any significant relationship between the use of formal finance and firm growth. Our ...

  11. Marriage Squeeze and Intergenerational Support in Contemporary Rural China: Evidence from X County of Anhui Province.

    Jin, Xiaoyi; Guo, Qiuju; Feldman, Marcus W


    With China's gender imbalance and increasingly severe male marriage squeeze, patterns of intergenerational support in rural areas are likely to undergo significant change. Using data from a survey of four towns from X county in Anhui province carried out in 2008, this article analyzes the effects of sons' marital status on intergenerational support. Random-effect regression analysis shows that son's marital status has strong effects on financial support to and coresidence with parents. Compared with married sons, older unmarried sons (so-called forced bachelors) tend to provide less financial support to their parents and are more likely to live with their parents. Parents' support of sons, as well as the parents' own needs and sons' capabilities all affect the support provided by sons. These results show that both theories of exchange and altruism are simultaneously relevant in the context of the marriage squeeze of contemporary rural China.

  12. Illegal private clinics: ideal health services choices among rural-urban migrants in China?

    Li, Yan


    The main purpose of this article is to explore the important issues and the role of illegal private clinics in health services access among rural-urban migrants in China. The function that illegal private clinics substantially play on the health among rural-urban migrants in China is rarely discussed in studies. A study on a migrant community in Beijing shows the disadvantaged status of health services choices and the constraints for access to health services among migrants. It argues that the existence of illegal private clinics provides a channel to migrants for medical services in the city and reflects the difficulties and high cost of providing medical services to migrants in urban public hospitals. Occasionally the illegal private clinics can cause danger to the health of migrants.

  13. Gender Dimensions on the Factors Related to HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    王英; 张永泽; 许华; 杨运义; 高宝兴; 何景琳; 曾毅


    Abstract 5033 farmers were interviewed to participate in a cluster sampling survey on factors related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in one rural area in China. The results showed that females attended school for a shorter time than males, males had a higher awareness of HIV/AIDS and held more positive attitudes toward PLWHAs. Nearly equal percentages of men and women in the area surveyed, sold blood. Eleven percent more men than women had a history of migration. Condom use was quite low among the sexually active population surveyed. Results indicated that an education campaign on HIV/AIDS prevention in rural areas should integrate gender perspectives and ensure that the intervention covers women. Future interventions should be designed to target male and female migration, and should focus on modifying the perceptions of social norms governing gender roles in addition to providing HIV prevention information in order to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemic at its current stage in China.

  14. On the Social and Political Effects of Opening in Rural China

    Housi Cheng


    Full Text Available What are the economic, social and political effects when previously isolated villages are opened to the outside world? Scholars from different traditions expect different sorts of positive or negative affects to occur. Rural China presents an ideal environment to study this question empirically. Villages within rural China are in the process of being opened to the outside world in different forms, such as through being connected by road, the investment of agribusiness, or urbanization. Moreover this opening is being driven and shaped by different actors, including local residents, government and businesses. The different ways and actors that this opening occurs affect the nature of the opening, as well as its impact on the economic, social and political characteristics of the village.

  15. Fundamental literature and hot topics on rural left-behind children in China: a bibliometric analysis.

    Wang, L; Wei, Y; Ma, Y; Wang, T


    Recently, the literature on rural left-behind children in China has rapidly grown. However, no comprehensive review of the status of knowledge on the issue exists. A co-cited network map of 327 studies (covering 1998 through 2014) drawn from the Chinese Social Studies Citation Index database was analysed. Using visualization software, the results identified three fundamental studies on the issue and four hot topics: interventions, deviant behaviours, mental health and family childrearing strategies. The analysis found that knowledge on this topic could be furthered by (1) focusing on protective factors and (2) integrating disciplines by standardizing concepts and measures. These study's results are an important reference for the development of theories, practices and policies regarding rural left-behind children in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Poverty and Development——Poverty Alleviation in Rural China



    In the past 20 years, the developing countries have made remarkable progress, but they feel that rapid economic growth has failed to eliminate the widespread absolute poverty except China. In order to fight against poverty, Chinese government has adopted a few measures.

  17. Engineering costs proxy models for China rural access network and its application

    FU Yun-jin; ZHOU Huang-jia; XIN Zhan-hong; SUN Hong-bin


    The article builds three engineering rural access network models that describe the structure of network elements and their relative engineering parameters for cable access、synchronous code division multiple access (SCDMA), and very small aperture terminal (VSAT) access technologies in the rural areas of China. Of the three access technologies, cable access and SCDMA access are the most popular access technologies. Besides, there still exist some remote special areas such as western mountain areas, whose natural environment is so bad that VSAT becomes the unique economical access way. Fully considering rural areas' geographical environments' impact, the article introduces geographical revised factor (GRF) to the models. By substituting the network data from the operators into the models, the article obtains the integrated networking values and does further researches on different access networks.

  18. Rural Informal Taxation in China: Historical Evolution and an Analytic Framework

    Justin Yifu Lin; Mingxing Liu


    The present paper examines the historical evolution of China's rural taxation system from the pre-reform period to the late 1990s. We propose that because of information asymmetry between the upper-level and the lower-level governments, local governments had to be granted some informal tax autonomy to fulfill the upper-level policy mandates. This easily led to excessive local informal taxation on farmers. As market liberalization of the grain sector progressed, the low-cost tax instruments implemented through the traditional approach of implicit taxation gradually eroded Local governments in agricultural regions had to resort to informal fees collected directly from individual rural households while the more industrialized regions shifted to non-agricultural taxes that are less costly in terms of tax collection. Hence, political tension between farmers and local governments in agriculturebased regions emerged and rural tax reform became necessary.

  19. Analysis on Capitalization of Rural Land Ownership in China by Law and Economics

    Hongjuan; LI


    To find solutions for legal system for capitalization of rural land ownership in China,this paper studied and analyzed existing problems in rural land system and legal environment using legal theory and transaction cost theory. Results indicated that(i) the restriction of institutional condition upon property right and transaction is more essential,and key points include the relationship of entities of right formed jointly by the state,collective and farmers,accurate positioning of property right structure,and security for land appreciation income right and allocation mechanism;(ii) the land property right structure should select a legal structure with minimum transaction cost. It is concluded that entitling the ownership to a single entity is an economical method to eliminate current conflict of rural land right.

  20. [Health education for major parasitic diseases in rural community of China: current status and future development].

    Zhang, Jing; Lin, Dan-dan


    Owing to human parasitic diseases being related to behavior, the health education as an important measure to prevent parasite infections through human behavior intervention, has played an important role in the process of parasitic disease prevention and control in rural area of China. This paper comments on the development history of the health education for parasitic disease prevention and control, current intervention modes and the effect of the health education for parasitic diseases in rural area. This paper also summarizes the role and impact of different modes of the health education for parasitic disease prevention and control and gives some suggestions to future development of the health education in rural area under current prevalent situation of parasitic diseases.

  1. Small Hydropower Contributes to Poverty Reduction and Rural Integrated Development in China



    Over the past 50 add years, outstanding achievements have been made in the development of rural small hydropower (SLIP) and electrification in China. By the end of 2003,42,221 SHP plants with a total installed capacity of 28,489 MW have been constructed and under operation.Half of the country's territory, and one quarter of population of the whole nation are now accessible to SHP.

  2. Assessing potential spatial accessibility of health services in rural China: a case study of Donghai county

    Hu, Ruishan; Dong, Suocheng; Zhao, Yonghong; Hu, Hao; Li, Zehong


    Introduction There is a great health services disparity between urban and rural areas in China. The percentage of people who are unable to access health services due to long travel times increases. This paper takes Donghai County as the study unit to analyse areas with physician shortages and characteristics of the potential spatial accessibility of health services. We analyse how the unequal health services resources distribution and the New Cooperative Medical Scheme affect the potential sp...

  3. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun


    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  4. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Qi Zhang


    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  5. Rural-urban migration and mental and sexual health: a case study in Southwestern China.

    Yang, Xiushi


    Massive rural-urban temporary migration has taken place amid China's rapid economic growth and development. Much has been written about the economic causes and consequences of this massive migration; less studied are the potential health and behavioral impacts of migration on migrants. Using data from a population-based sample survey conducted in southwestern China, this paper examines the potential impact of rural-urban migration and post-migration urban living on migrants' mental health and sexual risk behavior. The results suggest that regardless of places of origin and destination temporary migrants had on average poorer mental health and riskier sexual behavior than non-migrants. Compared to living in rural areas, living in urban areas does not make statistical difference in residents' mental health; it is only marginally associated with riskier sexual behavior. Rural-urban temporary migrants' mental health and health risk sexual behavior deserve more immediate research attention. Both selectivity of temporary migrants and migration-induced psycho-socio-behavioral changes may have contributed to migrants' poorer mental health and riskier sexual behavior. However, more theory-driven research with longitudinal design is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the underlying mechanisms that mediate or moderate the impact of temporary migration on migrants' mental health and sexual risk behavior.

  6. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun


    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  7. Smoking among young rural to urban migrant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Xia Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rural-to-urban migrant women may be vulnerable to smoking initiation as they are newly exposed to risk factors in the urban environment. We sought to identify correlates of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working in restaurants and hotels (RHW and those working as commercial sex workers (CSW was conducted in ten provincial capital cities in China. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of smoking. We enrolled 2229 rural-to-urban migrant women (1697 RHWs aged 18-24 years and 532 CSWs aged 18-30 years. Of these, 18.4% RHWs and 58.3% CSWs reported ever tried smoking and 3.2% RHWs and 41.9% CSWs reported current smoking. Participants who first tried smoking after moving to the city were more likely to be current smokers compared to participants who first tried smoking before moving to the city (25.3% vs. 13.8% among RHWs, p = 0.02; 83.6% vs. 58.6% among CSWs, p = <0.01. Adjusting for other factors, "tried female cigarette brands" had the strongest association with current smoking (OR 5.69, 95%CI 3.44 to 9.41 among participants who had ever tried smoking. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exposure to female cigarette brands may increase the susceptibility to smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women. Smoke-free policies and increased taxes may be effective in preventing rural-to-urban migrant women from smoking initiation.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Rural Economic Development in Eastern Coastal China

    Guogang Wang


    Full Text Available Although the regional differences of rural economic development can be easily determined, a challenging problem for research studies regarding rural economic development has been the inter-relatedness between different areas, and this challenge has been noted remarkably little in research data to date. As an empirical investigation, this study analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural economic development from a period beginning in 1978 to the year 2012, in the eastern coastal region of China. In order to determine the special differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, three indexes, namely the Gini coefficient (G, Tsui–Wang index (TW and Theil index (T, were employed. To explore the inter-relatedness among the different areas, we selected a spatial autocorrelation model. The results indicated that, to a large extent, rural economic development from 1978 to 2012 in the eastern coastal region of China was greatly influenced, and the per capita annual net income changed significantly, due to the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization. Generally speaking, the annual net income constantly increased, from 87.7 USD in 1978 to 1628.1 USD in 2012. However, the calculation results indicated that the per capita income gap in the same province decreased, while the gap between the provinces presented an aggregate trend. The regional polarization widened continuously. It was also found that the spatial positive autocorrelation for the regional economy was significant, with a waving and ascending trend, and the neighbor effect of regional economic growth was continuously strengthened. Qualitative analysis of the driving mechanism was applied, and it was determined that there are three primary factors affecting the development of the rural regions, namely resource endowments, economic location and policies.

  9. Case studies emphasising the difficulties in the diagnosis and management of alveolar echinococcosis in rural China

    Gray Darren J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE is caused by the accidental ingestion of the eggs of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. AE occurs frequently in rural western China due to the poor levels of hygiene, the close contact of people with dogs, and the lack of appropriate facilities for the correct and rapid diagnosis of the disease. Findings We describe a case of a patient with hepatic AE, and AE metastases of the brain. She was mistakenly diagnosed with suspected undifferentiated metastatic cancer of the liver and brain, and with a pulmonary bacterial infection, but was subsequently correctly diagnosed during a follow-up field survey for echinococcosis. The diagnosis of brain AE was confirmed by pathological examination of tissue biopsies removed during neurosurgery. We also briefly describe other symptomatic and asymptomatic AE cases, identified by chance, likely due to the inadequate facilities available in rural communities in China for AE diagnosis and management, since the rapid and accurate diagnosis of metastatic AE requires a high level of expertise in the appropriate diagnostic procedures. Conclusions This report highlights the necessity for an upgrade in the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of AE in rural China.

  10. Current status of contraceptive use among rural married women in Anhui Province of China.

    Zhang, X-J; Wang, G-Y; Shen, Q; Yu, Y-L; Sun, Y-H; Yu, G-B; Zhao, D; Ye, D-Q


    This study aims to explore the current status of married women in regard of their use of contraceptive methods (permanent methods versus non-permanent methods) and to find out factors that affect the use of contraceptive methods in rural areas of Anhui Province of China. Survey. Anhui, China. A total of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years. All women were asked to provide detailed information by completing detailed questionnaires. Contraceptive prevalence and influence factors. The total birth control rate of the sample was 95.2%. Samples choosing the permanent and nonpermanent contraceptive methods have taken up 46.7 and 48.5% respectively. Female sterilisation was the first choice with a usage rate of 43.6%, followed by intrauterine device (IUD), which was used by 41.1% of samples. Single-variable analysis showed that the choice of contraceptive methods was associated with age, education level, parity, frequency of sex intercourses in a month, contraceptive knowledge, RTI symptom and the gender of the last child of rural married women. A significant increase in contraceptive use of rural married women in Anhui Province of China. Female sterilisation and IUD still play the dominant role. Effective family planning methods should be advocated through adequate counselling on the correct use and proper management, with consideration of the background of custom and belief.

  11. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    Renfu Luo


    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb. Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01, and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01. The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  12. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Cai Le


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ≥18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  13. Epidemiologic features of child unintentional injury in rural PuCheng, China

    Shaohua Li


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic features of unintentional injuries among children in rural China are unknown. METHODS: Using a stratified sampling method, we conducted a retrospective study of injury reports over a year-long period. Structured oral questionnaires were administered to parents of 2551 children ages 0 to 14. RESULTS: The annual incidence of unintentional injuries was 15.6%, with boys (16.7% having a slightly higher rate than girls (14.5%; p > .05. The four leading causes of injury for both genders were falls (5.1% annual incidence, burns (2.9%, animal-related injuries (1.7%, and traffic injuries (1.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Unintentional injuries have substantial negative effects on children and their families. In rural PuCheng, China, the incidence of unintentional injury among children is extremely high compared to other regions of the world. The types of injuries incurred are somewhat different from those reported in other geographic areas. Injury prevention programs targeting the issues specific to this region, and similar rural regions of China, are needed.

  14. Differentiation of Rural Households' Consciousness in Land Use Activities: A Case from Bailin Village, Shapingba District of Chongqing Municipality, China

    WANG Cheng; WANG Liping; JIANG Fuxia; LU Zhangwei


    What rural households think and what kind of strategies they take,the basic driving force in land use activities,contribute greatly to the increase of their own revenues,the development of agricultural yields,and even the prosperity of rural areas.Differentiation in rural household behaviors and their consciousness in land use activities is widespread in rural China nowadays.It is important to understand the changing characteristics and laws of land use behaviors of rural households driven by their consciousness,so as to regulate their land use activities.In most empirical studies of land use change at rural household level,the land use consciousness,which acts directly on land use behaviors,is often neglected.In our research,the changes of land use behaviors of rural households are analyzed,through identifying how the land use consciousness affect the land use objectives,land management scales and land inputs of all the rural households in Bailin Village of Chongqing Municipality in the western mountainous China.Also,how the land use consciousness of different rural households comes into being under external stimuli is examined and the self-adjustment process of their consciousness according to their own conditions is also discussed.Finally,broad policy instruments are suggested to promote the rationalization of rural households' land use consciousness and the standardization of their land use behaviors.

  15. The Contribution of Social Networks to Income Inequality in Rural China : a Regression-Based Decomposition and Cross-Regional Comparison

    Lu, Ming; Zhao, Jianzhi


    This study aims to quantify the contribution of social networks, i.e., guanxi, to income inequality in rural households in China. One purpose is to understand how this influence varies across regions with different levels of marketization and economic development. Employing household survey data in rural China, we find that social networks contribute 12.1%-13.4% to income inequality among households in rural China, ranking fourth after village identifiers, nonfarm employment, and education. W...

  16. The effect of rural labor migration on poverty alleviation: a village-level study in China

    Yang Chunyue; Lu Qi; Li Juan


    The construction of the new socialist countryside is being carried out in China nowadays. Although lots of successful experience has been gotten, different problems occur in various regions yet. To analyze the relationships among rural labor migration, poverty alleviation and characteristics of migrants is important in considering the effect of rural labor migration on the construction of the new socialist countryside. Available sampling and typical case study are adopted and 236 questionnaires are collected from[bur villages in northwest GuangxL China, Daxin Lixin, Longhe and Yongchang. We analyze the rural labor migration status, characteristics of migrants, remittance situation and income, household income and the ratio of remittance income to total household income. A bout 2/3 of the households have migrants in surveyed villages. And nearly half of the migration households have only one fam- ily member as migrants in the four villages. The migrants mainly comprise male and the younger, with the education level of junior middte school and higher More than half of the migrants are employed in Guangdong Province. But the characteristics of migrants in Yongchang are more diverse. The rural labor migration in the village is extremely active and extensive. And over 60% of the household with family members as migrants have remittance income. The rate in Yongchang is extremely high (80%). And the income of households with migrants getting remittance income significantly higher than their counterparts. More than half of their income comes from remittance as far as the former kind of household is concerned And in Yongchang, the rate is nearly 80%. The conclusion is that rural labor migration is popular and extensive in lots of villages. And the migration and remittance play an important role in rural household income, especially in some poor villages. For this kind of village, the rural labor migration may be some "compulsory course" in rural development. And the rural

  17. Does Health Insurance Coverage Lead to Better Health and Educational Outcomes? Evidence from Rural China. NBER Working Paper No. 16417

    Chen, Yuyu; Jin, Ginger Zhe


    Many governments advocate nationwide health insurance coverage but the effects of such a program are less known in developing countries. We use part of the 2006 China Agricultural Census (CAC) to examine whether the recent health insurance coverage in rural China has affected children mortality, pregnancy mortality, and the school enrollment of…

  18. Multi-dimensional Intertemporal Poverty in Rural China

    Jing You; Sangui Wang; Laurence Roope


    We analyse intertemporal poverty in two important dimensions - income and nutrition - in less developed northwest China during 2000-2004. A generalised recursive selection model is proposed which enables simultaneous estimation of the causes of intertemporal poverty within and between dimensions. Improvement in agricultural production is crucial for reducing both dimensions of intertemporal poverty. We find evidence suggestive of intertemporal income-nutrition poverty traps. Higher labour pro...

  19. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Shyu, Chian-Woei


    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  20. Toward sustainable and comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China: lessons from Sichuan.

    Edmund Y W Seto


    Full Text Available Triggered by a fascinating publication in the New England Journal of Medicine detailing China's new multi-pronged strategy to control and eventually interrupt the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum, this PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Debate critically examines the generalizability and financial costs of the studies presented from the marshlands of the lake region. Edmund Seto from the University of California and colleagues emphasize that the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis varies according to the social-ecological context. They conjecture that the successful intervention packages piloted in the lake region is not fully fit for the hilly and mountainous environments in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and hence call for more flexible, setting-specific, and less expensive control strategies. In response, Xiao-Nong Zhou from the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases at the Chinese Center of Disease Control and Prevention and colleagues explain the steps from designing pilot studies to the articulation and implementation of a new national control strategy through a careful process of scaling-up and adaptations. Finally, the two opponents converge. The need for integrated, intersectoral, and setting-specific control measures is stressed, supported by rigorous surveillance and continuous research. Experiences and lessons from China are important for shaping the schistosomiasis elimination agenda.

  1. Effect of Air Pollution and Rural-Urban Difference on Mental Health of the Elderly in China

    Tian, Tao; Yuhuai CHEN; Zhu, Jing; Pengling LIU


    Background: China has become an aging society, and the mental health problem of the elderly is increasingly becom-ing prominent. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health of the elderly in China.Methods: Using the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2013), after control-ling the social demography variable via Tobit and Probit, a regression analysis of the effect of air pollution and rural-urban differ...

  2. Outpatient prescription practices in rural township health centers in Sichuan Province, China

    Jiang Qian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sichuan Province is an agricultural and economically developing province in western China. To understand practices of prescribing medications for outpatients in rural township health centers is important for the development of the rural medical and health services in this province and western China. Methods This is an observational study based on data from the 4th National Health Services Survey of China. A total of 3,059 prescriptions from 30 township health centers in Sichuan Province were collected and analyzed. Seven indicators were employed in the analyses to characterize the prescription practices. They are disease distribution, average cost per encounter, number of medications per encounter, percentage of encounters with antibiotics, percentage of encounters with glucocorticoids, percentage of encounters with combined glucocorticoids and antibiotics, and percentage of encounters with injections. Results The average medication cost per encounter was 16.30 Yuan ($2.59. About 60% of the prescriptions contained Chinese patent medicine (CPM, and almost all prescriptions (98.07% contained western medicine. 85.18% of the prescriptions contained antibiotics, of which, 24.98% contained two or more types of antibiotics; the percentage of prescriptions with glucocorticoids was 19.99%; the percentage of prescriptions with both glucocorticoids and antibiotics was 16.67%; 51.40% of the prescriptions included injections, of which, 39.90% included two or more injections. Conclusions The findings from this study demonstrated irrational medication uses of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and injections prescribed for outpatients in the rural township health centers in Sichuan Province. The reasons for irrational medication uses are not only solely due to the pursuit of maximizing benefits in the township health centers, but also more likely attributable to the lack of medical knowledge of rational medication uses among rural doctors and the

  3. Nonlinear Differential Equations and Feedback Control Design for the Urban-Rural Resident Pension Insurance in China

    Wang, Lijian


    Facing many problems of the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in China, one should firstly make sure that this system can be optimized. This paper, based on the modern control theory, sets up differential equations as models to describe the urban-rural resident pension insurance system, and discusses the globally asymptotic stability in the sense of Liapunov for the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in the new equilibrium point. This research sets the stage for our further discussion, and it is theoretically important and convenient for optimizing the urban-rural resident pension insurance system.

  4. Childhood Health Status and Adulthood Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity in Rural China: Are They Related?

    Qing Wang


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons’ early life, are expected to be effective and successful.

  5. Development and Validation of a Gender Ideology Scale for Family Planning Services in Rural China

    Yang, Xueyan; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.


    The objectives of this study are to develop a scale of gender role ideology appropriate for assessing Quality of Care in family planning services for rural China. Literature review, focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews with service providers and clients from two counties in eastern and western China, as well as experts’ assessments, were used to develop a scale for family planning services. Psychometric methodologies were applied to samples of 601 service clients and 541 service providers from a survey in a district in central China to validate its internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity with realistic and strategic dimensions. This scale is found to be reliable and valid, and has prospects for application both academically and practically in the field. PMID:23573222

  6. Effects of Rural Medical Financial Assistance in China

    Ling Zhu


    This paper presents research results from the evaluation of the Medical Financial Assistance (MFA) program, supported by the World Bank, to extremely poor rural residents. It is found that MFA can help to improve the ability of the poor to make use of medical services, and especially their ability to receive services from township clinics. The present study also shows that adoption of the MFA mechanism helps to reduce the impact of disease on the economies of poor families, and prevents the poor afflicted with serious illnesses from being marginalized. However, as the beneficiaries often suffer from serious, complicated and lasting illnesses, the financial assistance is often insignificant in relation to medical expenses.Furthermore, the MFA plays no significant role in restoring a patient's income-earning ability.

  7. Epidemiology of pterygium in aged rural population of Beijing, China

    LIANG Qing-feng; XU Liang; JIN Xiu-ying; YOU Qi-sheng; YANG Xiao-hui; CUI Tong-tong


    Background Pterygium is a common ophthalmic disease and an important public health problem. It may be affected by many factors such as age, gender, ultraviolet radiation exposure, and time spent outdoors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pterygium and evaluate the risk factors for the development of pterygium in the aged rural population of Beijing.Methods The investigation is a population-based cross-sectional study. Participants from 198 villages of 13 suburban districts, aged 55-85 years old, were invited to complete a medical record, and 37 067 individuals were taken external ocular and fundus photos at Beijing ocular disease survey in 2008-2009. The information was uploaded by Internet and diagnosed with stages and grades by ophthalmological specialists. The prevalence, stages and grades of pterygia were observed.Results Of the 37 067 individuals, 1395 (3.76%) had pterygium. There was a significantly higher prevalence in male (5.13%) than in female (3.17%, P=0.000). The prevelence rate increased obviously with ages (x2=7.939, P=0.019) in rural Beijing. The average prevalence of 5.91% in Daxing and Fangshan districts with low latitude and low precipitation was significantly higher than that in Miyun and Huairou districts with high latitude and deep precipitation (3.17%, P=0.000). The majority of the pterygia (43.5%) were in active stage and 46.5% pterygia involved pupil area corneas. Conclusions There is a statistically significant association between latitude and precipitation of habitation region and pterygium formation. Solar radiation, especially ultraviolet exposure represents a significant environment hazard to pterygium development.

  8. Study on temporal variation and spatial distribution for rural poverty in China based on GIS

    Feng, Xianfeng; Xu, Xiuli; Wang, Yingjie; Cui, Jing; Mo, Hongyuan; Liu, Ling; Yan, Hong; Zhang, Yan; Han, Jiafu


    Poverty is one of the most serious challenges all over the world, is an obstacle to hinder economics and agriculture in poverty area. Research on poverty alleviation in China is very useful and important. In this paper, we will explore the comprehensive poverty characteristics in China, analyze the current poverty status, spatial distribution and temporal variations about rural poverty in China, and to category the different poverty types and their spatial distribution. First, we achieved the gathering and processing the relevant data. These data contain investigation data, research reports, statistical yearbook, censuses, social-economic data, physical and anthrop geographical data, etc. After deeply analysis of these data, we will get the distribution of poverty areas by spatial-temporal data model according to different poverty given standard in different stages in China to see the poverty variation and the regional difference in County-level. Then, the current poverty status, spatial pattern about poverty area in villages-level will be lucubrated; the relationship among poverty, environment (including physical and anthrop geographical factors) and economic development, etc. will be expanded. We hope our research will enhance the people knowledge of poverty in China and contribute to the poverty alleviation in China.

  9. Impact evaluation of HIV/AIDS education in rural Henan province of China.

    Lv, Ben-yan; Xiang, Yuan-xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-chun; Liang, Shu-ying; Wang, Yu-ming


    Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (PHIV/AIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.

  10. Stochastic process of hepatitis A virus infection in urban and rural populations in Hebei, China

    ZHAOYu-Liang; ZHUHui-Bin; MAWei-Mint; GENGJian-Ping; LIUHong-Bin; MENGZong-Da; DENGJin-Hua


    Aim To determine the epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in urban and rural populations. Methods Study populations were randomly selected by a twostage systematic cluster sampling method. Anti-HAV lgG was defected by enzyme immunoassay. A stochastic process methodtwo-state non-homogeneous Markov chain was used to analyse the seroprevalence of anti-HAV in urban and rural areas of Hebei, China. Two indexes, age-specific Markov risk rate(MRRt) and total Markov risk rate (Total MRR), were introduced. MRRt is a measure of infection risk, and varies as the product of the proportion susceptible at a given age t with the probability of becoming infected in two age/time steps, P(2)01(t). Total MRR is the weighed sum of MRRts, which provides a reasonable estimate of the disease burden of the whole population. In this paper an ‘elaborated age-grouping method' was firstly raised. Results The total MRR in urban subjects was 109.56, much greater than that (41.16) in rural subjects. When grouping by 10 years of age, MRR1-9. MRR10-19 in urban subjects and MRR1-9 in rural subjects were greater than 20. Grouping by 5 years, the MRR, s of the first four age groups in urban subjects and the first two age groups in rural subjects were greater than 10. Grouping by 2 years, the absolute value of MRRts were big and with an alternative appearance of positive and negative values in urban samples,but the MRR, s above 10 were obviously centralized in 7-16 years of age. in rural subjects, the MRRts had an obvious tendency of decreasing following the increase of age and decreased to less than 10 in age 7-8 years' group. Conclusion The results showed that the disease burden was much heavier in urban populations than that in rural counterparts, and that HA prevention program or HA vaccination program is more eagerly needed in cities than in rural areas. The high risk population of HAV infection are these from 7 to 16 years of age in urban area and these less than 7

  11. Old age insurance participation among rural-urban migrants in China

    Qin Min


    Full Text Available Background: The Chinese government has been introducing reform policies to improve the existing social security system, including the old age insurance schemes for rural-urban migrants. However, there are still challenges in the current system that hinder migrants who move frequently from participating in old age insurance schemes. Objective: The objectives of this paper are to describe the current coverage of old age insurance amongst migrant workers and examine the associated individual, household, and geographical factors, and to predict the probability of old age insurance participation among rural-urban migrants by province and relevant migrant characteristics. Methods: Data for the analysis are drawn from the 2011 Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey in China. The sample consists of 110,005 migrant workers with rural household registration. The analysis considers multinomial logistic regression with type of old age insurance as the outcome variable. Results: Of all rural-urban migrant workers nationwide, 16.4Š have participated in the Basic Pension Insurance for urban employees, 9.8Š in the New Old Age Pension scheme for rural residents, 3.3Š are covered by both schemes, and 70.5Š have no coverage with any old age pension scheme. Migrants moving within provinces or from relatively wealthy households are more likely to participate in an old age insurance scheme than those moving across provinces or from relatively poor households. Migrants' occupational status also influences their participation in old age pension schemes. The predicted probability of participation varies across China by province.

  12. Discrimination, perceived social inequity, and mental health among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita


    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.

  13. Study on the Supply Efficiency of Rural Public Service in China Based on Three-stage DEA Model

    Zongbing; DENG; Chaoying; WU; Junliang; Zhang; Ju; WANG


    Improving the supply efficiency of rural public service is an important way to solve the severe shortage of rural public service. In this article,we use three-stage DEA model to carry out empirical research of the supply efficiency of rural public service in 31 provinces and regions of China. The results show that if without control over exogenous environment variables and random brunt,the classic DEA method will overestimate the rural public service efficiency; after controlling the impact of the external environmental factors,the mean of supply efficiency of rural public service in 31 provinces and regions of China is 0. 697; the improved rural per capita income,population density,population size and the educational level of residents,is a significantly favorable factor for enhancing the supply efficiency of rural public service,while the increase in the proportion of fiscal spending on rural public service to GDP plays no significant role in improving the rural public service efficiency; according to their efficiency type,the provinces and regions should adopt some measures,such as improving the management level or expanding the supply scale,to improve the supply efficiency.

  14. Alternative Food Networks, agro-biodiversity and landscape protection: lessons from two rural parks

    Salvatore Pinna


    Full Text Available European agricultural landscapes are important for their capacity to preserve both biodiversity and historical and traditional values in rural and peri-urban spaces. Some studies have highlighted the influence that different production methods have in shaping landscapes and the role of policy in promoting their protection at different scales. This paper underlines the potential of the integration of food production into planning tools and regulations by looking at two rural regional parks in Italy and Spain through the role played by Alternative Food Networks in generating mutual benefits for farmers and for the organizations in charge of the parks. Insights from an analysis of farms’ websites and interviews are used to show how these parks represent good practices for preserving rural landscapes. The paper shows how ecological, social and spatial values in farmers’ behaviours represent driving forces that can contribute to a more effective preservation of landscapes.



    In landscape with overpopulation, intensive management for economic production, and where even small natural-vegetation patches are scarce, ecological conservation generally must be developed in the course of econom ic development. Thus “landscape ecological construction” has evolved in China. This approach adds spatial elements and alters landscape pattern to strengthen inter-ecosystem linkages, improve functioning of damaged ecosystems, and in crease productivity and stability of the whole landscape. Five examples of managed landscapes in China are presented: dike-pond systems in a river delta; multi-pond system in a rice paddy landscape; field-grass-wood grid system on unsta ble sand dunes; shelterbelt network in a crop field area; and field-grass-wood mosaic system on highly erodible hilly farm land. These indicate that ecological conditions can be improved along with increased economic production. Altering land scape structure and ecological flows by introducing small landscape elements in distinct spatial patterns is considered a key to the results. This reshaping of the land has focused on changing patch size, regularity of arrangement, biological and hydrological corridors, and networks, the matrix and grain size. It suggests that such changes can increase negative feedbacks and increase stability. Finally, planning and design principles are pinpointed for the landscape ecological construc tion process.


    XIAO; Du-ning


    [1]FORMAN R T T, 1995. Land Mosaics. The Ecology of Landscape and Region[ M ]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,12-116.[2]FU Bo-jie et al., 1998. Impacts of land use structure on soil nutrient distribution on the Loess hill region[J] . Chinese Science Bulletin, 43 (22): 2444-2448. (in Chinese)[3]JING Gui-he, 1991a. The landscape ecological reconstruction in some degraded land in northeastern China[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica, 46(1): 8-15. (in Chinese)[4]JING Gui-he, 1991 b. Landscape Ecological Construction of Sand Land in the Middle-western Jilin Province [M] . Changchun:Northeast Normal University Press. (in Chinese)[5]LI Yu-shan, 1997. Progress of the study on soil and water conservation in the Loess Plateau[J] . Bulletin of National Natural Science Foundation of China, 11(3): 190-194. (in Chinese)[6]MA Shi-jun, WANG Ru-song, 1984. Compound ecosystem of society, economic and nature[J] . Acta Ecologica Sinica, 4(1): 1-9. (in Chinese)[7]MADS Korn M, 1996. The dike-pond concept: sustainable agriculture and nutrient recycling in China[J] . Ambio., 25(1): 6-13.[8]ODUM H T, 1982. System Ecology[M]. New York: John Wiley.[9]XIAO Du-ning, 1997. Ecological environment assessment for the“Sanbei” shelter-forest project[J] . Science & Technology Review, (8): 403-412. (in Chinese)[10]XIAO Du-ning, LI Xiu-zhen, 1997. Development and prospect of contemporary landscape ecology[J]. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 17(4): 356-374. (in Chinese)[11]XIAO Du-ning , ZHONG Lin-sheng, 1998. Ecological principles of landscape classification and assessment[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 9(2): 127-221 (in Chinese)[12]YIN Cheng-qing, 1993. A multi-pond system as a protective zone for the management of lakes in China[J]. Hydrobiologia,251:321-329.[13]YU Kong-jian 1996. Security patterns and surface model in landscape ecological planning[J] . Landscape and Urban Planning, 36: 1-17.[14]ZHONG Gong-pu, WANG Zeng-qi, CAI Guo

  17. Students Setting out to Alleviate "Poverty of Spirit" in Rural China Found Themselves Transformed: Self-Organized Volunteerism among University Students for Rural Development

    Geng, Diane


    Most university students in China have their sights firmly set on future job and study opportunities in urban cities and abroad. However, a network of student volunteers felt compelled to join the cause of rural development and villager empowerment, reminiscent of efforts promoted forty years ago by Chairman Mao who sent "educated youth"…

  18. Addressing the Shortage of Health Professionals in Rural China: Issues and Progress; Comment on “Have Health Human Resources Become More Equal between Rural and Urban Areas after the New Reform?”

    Jianlin Hou


    Full Text Available Maldistribution of health professionals between urban and rural areas has been a serious problem in China. Urban hospitals attract most of the health professionals with serious shortages in rural areas. To address this issue, a number of policies have been implemented by the government, such as free medical education in exchange for obligatory rural service.

  19. Rural domestic waste management in Zhejiang Province, China: Characteristics, current practices, and an improved strategy.

    Guan, Yidong; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Dongye; Huang, Xiaofeng; Li, Haini


    Lack of access to adequate sanitation facilities has serious health implications for rural dwellers and can degrade the ecosystems. This study offers a systemantic and quantitative overview of historical data on rural domestic waste (RDW) production and past and current management practices in a prototype region in China, where rural areas are undergoing rapid urbanization and are confronted with great environmental challenges associated with poor RDW management practices. The results indicate that RDW is characterized with a large fraction of kitchen waste (42.9%) and high water content (53.4%). The RDW generation (RDWG) per capita between 2012 and 2020 is estimated to increase from 0.68 to 1.01 kg/d-cap. The Hill 1 model is able to adequately simulate/project the population growth in a rural area from 1993 to 2020. The annual RDWG in the region is estimated to double from 6,033,000 tons/year in 2008 to 12,030,000 tons/year by 2020. By comparing three RDW management scenarios based on the life-cycle inventory approach and cost-benefit analysis, it is strongly recommended that the present Scenario 2 (sanitary landfill treatment) be upgraded to Scenario 3 (source separation followed by composting and landfill of RDW) to significantly reduce the ecological footprint and to improve the cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability. Rural domestic waste (RDW) is affecting 720 million people in China and more than 3221 million people worldwide. Consequently, handling and disposal of RDW have serious health implications to rural dwellers and the ecosystems. This study offers a systemantic and quantitative overview and analysis of historical data on RDW production and management practices in a prototype region in China, which is confronted with great environmental challenges associated with RDW. Then we predict future production of RDW and propose a sustainable RDW management strategy, which holds the promise of greatly mitigating the mounting environmental pressure

  20. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China


    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  1. Sino-American cooperation for rural electrification in China

    Wallace, W.L.; Tsuo, Y.S.; Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    This paper discusses primarily two different renewable energy programs which are in progress in China. One is in Gansu province, based on a solar home system project. This project is stressing a sustainable market development, provision of small lighting systems for residential and small schools, and water pumping and telecommunications support. It seeks involvement of 600 households as a minimum over 18 months. The second project is a very aggressive renewable energy project in Inner Mongolia, where there are excellent wind and solar resources, and where there are already 110,000 small wind turbines installed, in addition to more than 9 hybrid power systems for villages. These programs have major involvement from the Chinese government and industry, with some guidance and support from the USA.

  2. Temporal Trends in Dietary Macronutrient Intakes among Adults in Rural China from 1991 to 2011: Findings from the CHNS

    Chang Su


    Full Text Available Few studies have examined nutrition transitions among the rural population of China, even though half of the Chinese population (about 700 million is living in rural China. To fill this research gap, we examined temporal trends in dietary macronutrient intakes in members of the Chinese rural population aged 18–60 years. The analysis used data from consecutive three-day dietary recalls, collected from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS. Mixed-effect models were constructed to obtain adjusted means and to examine temporal trends after adjusting for intra-class correlation within clusters and covariates, including age, sex, geographical region, urbanicity, and income. From 1991 to 2011, a downward trend in daily energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes was seen in all categories, with a significant reduction among all rural people (p < 0.0001. In contrast, a significant increment in daily fat intake, the proportion of energy from fat, and the proportion of rural people consuming a diet with more than 30% of energy from fat, were observed in the present study (p < 0.0001. These results suggest that adults in rural China have been undergoing a rapid nutrition transition towards a high-fat diet. Therefore, more emphasis should be placed on the quality of fat and maintaining a balanced diet during the process of nutritional education.

  3. Drug policy in China: pharmaceutical distribution in rural areas.

    Dong, H; Bogg, L; Rehnberg, C; Diwan, V


    In 1978, China decided to reform its economy and since then has gradually opened up to the world. The economy has grown rapidly at an average of 9.8% per year from 1978 to 1994. Medical expenditure, especially for drugs, has grown even more rapidly. The increase in medical expenditure can be attributed to changing disease patterns, a higher proportion of older people in the population and fee-for-service incentives for hospitals. Due to the changing economic system and higher cost of health care, the Chinese government has reformed its health care system, including its health and drug policy. The drug policy reform has led to more comprehensive policy elements, including registration, production, distribution, utilization and administration. As a part of drug policy reform, the drug distribution network has also been changed, from a centrally controlled supply system (push system) to a market-oriented demand system (pull system). Hospitals can now purchase drugs directly from drug companies, factories and retailers, leading to increased price competition. Patients have easier access to drugs as more drugs are available on the market. At the same time, this has also entailed negative effects. The old drug administrative system is not suitable for the new drug distribution network. It is easy for people to get drugs on the market and this can lead to overuse and misuse. Marketing factors have influenced drug distribution so strongly that there is a risk of fake or low quality drugs being distributed. The government has taken some measures to fight these negative effects. This paper describes the drug policy reform in China, particularly the distribution of drugs to health care facilities.

  4. Association of Information Sources and Knowledge on HIV/AIDS in Rural China.

    Wen, Yufeng; Wang, Huadong; Chen, Baifeng; Chen, Yujuan; Zhang, Tiejun; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie


    To investigate the association between the number of available information sources on HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in a rural population in China. We performed a cross-sectional survey on the number and types of sources of HIV/AIDS information available to rural residents of China and assessed HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in this population. We collected information from 5,355 Chinese rural residents and then correlated the results of the scores on knowledge to the numbers of information sources, and adjusted for age, sex, education and occupation. The sources of HIV/AIDs information reported by subjects included television, radio, newspapers, periodicals, discussions with neighbors and friends. There were significant differences in sources of information based on gender, occupation, educational level and age. The average number of information sources was 3.01 ± 1.74. The average score on the AIDS related knowledge questionnaire was 8.21 ± 4.23. Subjects who reported 6 sources of HIV/AIDS information had an average score of 11.67 ± 3.0 on the HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire. Subjects who reported between 3-7 sources of HIV/AIDS information had significantly higher scores than those who had 1,2 or 8 sources of information. There is an association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and the number of available information sources. By increasing the sources, one could not always make more people curious or interested in HIV/AIDS knowledge.

  5. Investigations into Salmonella contamination in feed production chain in Karst rural areas of China.

    Yang, Shenglin; Wu, Zongfen; Lin, Wei; Xu, Longxin; Cheng, Long; Zhou, Lin


    In order to understand the status of Salmonella contamination of feed production chain in Karst rural areas, southwest of China, a total of 1077 feed samples including animal feed materials and feed products were randomly collected from different sectors of feed chain covering feed mills, farms, and feed sales in nine regions of Karst rural areas between 2009 and 2012, to conduct Salmonella test. The different positive rates with Salmonella contamination were detected, the highest was 4.7 % in 2009, the lowest was 0.66 % in 2011, while 4.3 % in 2010, 2.8 % in 2012, respectively. Twelve types of feed including concentrate, complete, self-made, and feed ingredients were inspected. Salmonella contamination mainly concentrated on animal protein material such as meat meal, meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal. No Salmonella contamination was detected in feed yeast, microbial protein, rapeseed, and soybean meal. Salmonella contamination existed in each sector of feed production chain. This investigation provided a basic reference for feed production management and quality control in feed production chain in Karst rural areas of China.

  6. Epidemiologic characteristics, knowledge and risk factors of unintentional burns in rural children in Zunyi, Southwest China

    Shi, Shangpeng; Yang, Huajun; Hui, Ya; Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Tao; Luo, Ya; Xiang, Huiyun; Shi, Xiuquan


    We investigated the knowledge level and risk factors for pediatric unintentional burns in rural Southwest China with an aim to provide basic evidence for the prevention strategies. A stratified sampling method was used to recruit 1842 rural children from 9 schools. Self-reported burns during the past 12 months and relevant risk factors were collected by questionnaires. The burn incidence of all surveyed children was 12.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 11.2–14.2%). We found that burn incidence had a trend to increase with the increasing school grade level and a trend to decrease with increasing knowledge scores on burns. The top two causes of burns were hot liquids (36.3%) and hot object (29.5%). More than 30% of children had little knowledge about preventive measures and how to give first-aid after burns. The main risk factors for burns included female gender, left-behind children by parents who were working in cities, and poor mother school education level. As the incidence of pediatric unintentional burns was high in rural southwest China, schools, families, and local public health agencies should put efforts into health education targeting burn prevention and first-aid measures after burns, particularly in “left-behind” children and those with mothers with poor education. PMID:27748426


    Wen, Ming; Li, Kelin


    This study examines the associations between parental and sibling rural-to-urban migration and blood pressure (BP) of rural left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Analysis was based on the 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2009 waves of longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, which is an ongoing prospective survey covering nine provinces with an individual-level response rate of 88%. Blood pressure levels were measured by trained examiners at three consecutive times on the same visit and the means of three measurements were used as the final BP values. An ordinal BP measure was then created using a recently validated age-sex-specified distribution for Chinese children and adolescents, distinguishing normal BP, pre-hypertension and hypertension. Random effect modelling was performed. Different migration circumstances play different roles in LBC's BP with mother-only and both-parent migration being particularly detrimental and father-only and sibling-only migration either having no association or a negative association with LBC's BP levels or odds of high BP. In conclusion, the link between family migration and left-behind children's blood pressure is complex, and depends on who is the person out-migrating.

  8. Intra-European Return Migration and Rural Development: Lessons from the Spanish Case

    Rhoades, Robert E.


    During 1976, 133 former migrants representing 96 migrating units were interviewed. Through participant observation, various social contexts (villages, towns, and cities) were studied in terms of return migration. Emphasis centered on the rural context and specifically dealth with return destinations, investment behavior, problems of social…

  9. Teacher Identity in a Multicultural Rural School: Lessons Learned at Vista Charter

    Wenger, Kerri J.; Dinsmore, Jan; Villagomez, Amanda


    In this paper, we describe a 30-month qualitative exploration of diverse teachers' identities in a high-poverty, bilingual, K-8 public charter school in rural eastern Oregon. First, we use the perspectives of saberes docentes and a situated view of teacher development to document the life histories of monolingual and bilingual teachers at Vista…

  10. Teacher Identity in a Multicultural Rural School: Lessons Learned at Vista Charter

    Wenger, Kerri J.; Dinsmore, Jan; Villagomez, Amanda


    In this paper, we describe a 30-month qualitative exploration of diverse teachers' identities in a high-poverty, bilingual, K-8 public charter school in rural eastern Oregon. First, we use the perspectives of saberes docentes and a situated view of teacher development to document the life histories of monolingual and bilingual teachers at Vista…

  11. Management by objectives in EU rural development policy : lessons from the EU cohesion and water policies

    Roza, P.; Terluin, I.J.


    In this study it is explored which ideas the EU cohesion policy and the EU water policy provide for the introduction of management by objectives in the EU rural development policy. Such an introduction may give rise to both flexibilities and inflexibilities. On the one hand management by objectives

  12. Lessons Learned from Work with International Partners to Inform Rural Practices for Early Childhood Intervention

    Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; McCormick, Katherine M.


    The United States is becoming increasingly diverse with the largest growth in Hispanic populations. Diversity also is increasing in rural America. This diversity is reflected in the participants in early care and education programs and K-12 students. Unfortunately, demographics for college and university teacher education programs do not match…

  13. Small Farmers and Social Capital in Development Projects: Lessons from Failures in Argentina's Rural Periphery

    Michelini, Juan Jose


    The importance of social capital as a resource for rural development, especially in the context of projects involving joint participation of state and civil society, is widely recognized today. This paper analyzes the obstacles confronted by local players--small farmers and government organizations--in the development of an irrigation area through…

  14. The Diffusion of Grameen Bank in Bangladesh: Lessons Learned about Alleviating Rural Poverty.

    Auwal, Mohammad A.; Singhal, Arvind


    Discusses rural poverty in Bangladesh and describes the creation of the Grameen Bank, which combines business with social engineering. The rapid diffusion of the bank both within and outside Bangladesh is described; interpersonal strategies used in communicating its programs, especially to women, are explained; and the socioeconomic impact in…

  15. Sustainable solar home systems model: Applying lessons from Bangladesh to Myanmar's rural poor

    Newcombe, Alex; Ackom, Emmanuel


    •A PPP-based microfinance model offers great potential for SHSs in rural Myanmar. •The model requires a polycentric structure, local presence and after sale service. •Smart pro-poor subsidies are advised to create a large competitive SHS market. •Assumptions made in the NEP should be revised such...

  16. Structure of Primary Health Care: Lessons from a Rural Area in ...

    It is assumed that given the proper structure, quality medical care will follow. ... In addition 44.4% lacked basic equipment and none had a maintenance plan. ... of PHC Ikosi-Ejinrin LCDA, a rural area in south-west Nigeria, is inadequate.

  17. Experiences, challenges and lessons from rolling out a rural WiFi mesh network

    Rey-Moreno, C


    Full Text Available rural communities worldwide. This paper argues that the latest wave of WiFi mesh networks offers benefits that traditional top-down WiFi and mobile networks do not. In addition, we propose ethnographic and participatory methods to aid the effective...

  18. Leveraging the Unique Features of Small, Rural Schools for Improvement. Lessons Learned. Volume 1, Issue 5

    Nelson, Steve


    Much of the Northwest Region (Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington) is rural in nature. A characteristic of the extractive economies such as timber, agriculture, mining, and fisheries is that they are generally located in small communities isolated by distances. While schools in these communities face the same challenges as those in…

  19. Small Farmers and Social Capital in Development Projects: Lessons from Failures in Argentina's Rural Periphery

    Michelini, Juan Jose


    The importance of social capital as a resource for rural development, especially in the context of projects involving joint participation of state and civil society, is widely recognized today. This paper analyzes the obstacles confronted by local players--small farmers and government organizations--in the development of an irrigation area through…

  20. Problems and Countermeasures for the Development of Rural Area in Central China


    Agricultural area in central China is a densely populated area with a lot of agricultural population,relatively developed agriculture and relatively backward non-agriculture. Its development status affects the process of rising strategy in central region,restricts the construction of a well-off society and a harmonious society in the central region and even China. Based on this,major problems in the development of agricultural area of central China are analyzed,such as large population of farmers,great development pressure on agricultural area,serious shortage of agricultural inputs,relatively low education level,backward infrastructure in agricultural area,and relatively backward non-agricultural development. In order to accelerate the rising of central area and to promote the rapid development of central agriculture,corresponding countermeasures are put forward,including increasing the financial support for the construction of agricultural areas,vigorously setting up multi-level rural education,strengthening the infrastructure construction of agricultural areas,consolidating the construction of rural organizations,reinforcing the management function of government,and increasing the research and extension of agricultural science and technology.

  1. Impacts of the "transport subsidy initiative on poor TB patients" in Rural China: a patient-cohort based longitudinal study in rural China.

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the financial burden on TB patients for transportation during treatment, and to evaluate the impacts of the "transportation subsidy initiative on poor TB patients" in rural China for improving poor patients' access to TB treatment. METHODS: A Case-cohort of 429 TB patients was investigated through questionnaire interviews in four counties of two provinces in China. Information on the financial burden for transportation during TB diagnosis and treatment was collected. Qualitative in-depth interviews with 26 TB patients were carried out to understand their perceptions of transportation subsidy initiative. RESULTS: The mean transportation cost of TB medical care was 97 CNY (70 CNY in median, varying from 0 to 700 CNY. About 51% of the patients spent more than 10 CNY per round trip to the TB dispensary. Of the 429 TB patients investigated, 139 had received transportation subsidies after getting TB diagnosis; 15/139 (10.9% showed dissatisfaction, mainly because the subsidy amount being insufficient. The income of patients receiving transportation subsidies was significantly lower than those not receiving the subsidies (p<0.05. The impression that an appropriate transportation subsidy enables patients to complete the required visits during their TB treatment was obtained after observation of over 80% of the patients. CONCLUSION: The transportation subsidy plays an important role in reducing financial burden on poor TB patients for the completion of treatment. However, the coverage was limited and the amount of subsidy was not enough under the present policy. Considering the poverty of rural TB patients, a universal coverage and a rational amount of transportation subsidy should be proposed.

  2. Differentiated childhoods: impacts of rural labor migration on left-behind children in China.

    Jingzhong, Ye; Lu, Pan


    This article draws on data from research that includes 400 children who lived separately from their migrant parents in 10 rural communities in China, to explore the deep impacts of rural parents' migration on the care-giving and nurturing of children left behind. It shows that parent migration has brought about multiple impacts, mostly negative, on the lives of children, such as increased workloads, little study tutoring and supervision, and above all the unmet needs of parental affection. Children's basic daily care and personal safety could become problematic since surrogate caregivers, mostly elderly, are usually exhausted with livelihood maintenance. With illumination on the family dysfunction in children's development due to migration-induced family separation, this article highlights the social cost to rural families of parental migration. Urbanization in developing countries is obtained at the expense of rural migrants and their families, especially children left behind. Further attention is required to improve left-behind children's well being within split family structures and interregional migration.

  3. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Rui Wang


    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  4. Village Elections, Accountability and Income Distribution in Rural China

    Yang Yao


    China has experimented with village elections for nearly 20 years. Using village and household survey data collected from 48 villages of 8 Chinese provinces for the period 1986-2002, this paper studies how the introduction of elections affects village governance and income distribution in Chinese villages. The econometric analysis finds the following outcomes. First, village elections have increased the share of public expenditure and reduced the share of administrative expenditure in the village budget, so the accountability of the elected village committee has been enhanced. Second, elections have not led to more income redistribution; instead, they have reduced the progressiveness of income redistribution.Third, elections have reduced income inequality measured by the Gini coefficient in villages.The reduction is equivalent to 5.7 percent of the sample average, or 32 percent of the growth of the Gini coefficient in the period of 1987-2002. Because village elections have not led to more income redistribution, this positive effect must have come from more public investment,which benefits the poor more than wealthier people. The general conclusion that we draw from our results is that, despite institutional constraints, village elections have improved village governance and the life of villagers.

  5. Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China

    Hang Xiong


    Full Text Available Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, “Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China” [1]. They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article.

  6. The Great Urban Leap? On the Local Political Economy of Rural Urbanisation in China

    Elena Meyer-Clement


    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into the local political economy of China’s current in situ urbanisation as compared to the 1980s and 1990s, focusing on the role played by county and township governments in shaping urbanisation in their localities. Marked differences were observed in the extent to which local cadres are able to steer the urbanisation process and adapt the relevant policies to local conditions and demands of the population. If leading county and township cadres are able to assert a relatively autonomous position vis-à-vis the superior municipality, a rural urbanisation process that considers both urban and rural interests and integrates local economic initiatives seems to become a potential alternative to the prevailing city-centred urban expansionism.

  7. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    Weingart, J.W.


    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  8. Understanding information seeking behavior of rural women:Field studies in China

    Jiqun; LIU; Hui; YAN


    Purpose:The purpose of this research is to investigate Chinese rural women’s information needs and information seeking behavior,with an emphasis on exploration of the intervening variables that influence information needs and information seeking behavior.Design/methodology/approach:The sample consisted of 27 women from 9 villages in Gansu Province,Anhui Province and Tianjin City,China.Data were collected through in-depth individual interview.Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed to analyze the data.Findings:Chinese rural women’s needs are basically tied to agricultural technologies,employment and health information.Social network,rather than the Internet,serves as the most frequently used information channel.Women’s cognitive ability,social role and their living environment are the 3 intervening variables that have an impact on their information needs and their information seeking behavior.Research limitations:This qualitative research is based on a small sample and conducted on specific socio-economic settings in China,which may restrict the generalization and application of relevant findings in other settings and countries.Practical implications:The study results will help librarians and information professionals better understand Chinese rural women’s information needs and information seeking behavior in an effort to find ways to solve problems they may encounter in their information seeking process.Originality/value:This paper introduced an analysis framework that provides an integrated perspective on understanding information needs and information seeking behavior of Chinese women in rural areas.

  9. Urban-rural disparity of breast cancer and socioeconomic risk factors in China.

    Xufeng Fei

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005-2009. The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearbooks. Student's T test was used to assess disparities of female breast cancer and socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS models were employed to analyze the relationships between socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence. It was found that the breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in urban than in rural regions. Moreover, in urban regions, breast cancer incidence remained relatively stable, whereas in rural regions it displayed an annual percentage change (APC of 8.55. Among the various socioeconomic factors considered, breast cancer incidence exhibited higher positive correlations with population density, percentage of non-agriculture population, and second industry output. On the other hand, the incidence was negatively correlated with the percentage of population employed in primary industry. Overall, it was observed that higher socioeconomic status would lead to a higher breast cancer incidence in China. When studying breast cancer etiology, special attention should be paid to environmental pollutants, especially endocrine disruptors produced during industrial activities. Lastly, the present work's findings strongly recommend giving high priority to the development of a systematic nationwide breast cancer screening program for women in China; with sufficient participation, mammography screening can considerably reduce mortality among women.

  10. A Cross-sectional Study of Health-related Behaviors in Rural Eastern China


    Objective This study examined the status of health-related behaviors among rural residents and the factors influencing the practice of such behaviors. Methods One thousand and ninety subjects aged 15 years or over in a rural community, Anhui Province, China were surveyed. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the health knowledge, attitude and behavior of the subjects. Information on health behavior included smoking, drinking, dietary habits, regular exercises, sleeping pattern and oral health behavior. Results The prevalence of smoking and drinking in the male subjects was 46.5% and 46.9%, respectively. There was a positive significant association between smoking and drinking. Only 8.3% of all subjects ate three regular meals a day regularly. Among subjects who ate two meals a day, 89.7% did not have breakfast. Only 1.7% of subjects took part in regular exercise. About 85% of subjects slept 6 to 8 h per day. Only 38.4 % of the respondents had the habit of hand washing before eating and after using the lavatory. 79.3% of the subjects brushed their teeth every day, and among them, only 10.6 percent brushed their teeth twice a day.Further analyses showed that 64.8% of subjects had 3-5 items of positive health behaviors out of 8 items and only 16.9% had six or more items. Logistical regression analyses suggested that better health behavior was affected by sex, age, years of education, income and health knowledge.Conclusion The status of health behaviors among rural residents was generally poor. It is thus urgent to reinforce health education in rural communities in China.

  11. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  12. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Yan, Weirong; Palm, Lars; Lu, Xin; Nie, Shaofa; Xu, Biao; Zhao, Qi; Tao, Tao; Cheng, Liwei; Tan, Li; Dong, Hengjin; Diwan, Vinod K


    Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS) for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP), combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1) work group and communication group; 2) data source and collection; 3) data visualization; and 4) outbreak detection and alerting. As of Jan. 31(st) 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  13. Long-term outcome of phenobarbital treatment for epilepsy in rural China: a prospective cohort study.

    Kwan, Patrick; Wang, Wenzhi; Wu, Jianzhong; Li, Shichuo; Yang, Hongchao; Ding, Ding; Hong, Zhen; Dai, Xiuying; Yang, Bing; Wang, Taiping; Yuan, Chenglin; Ma, Guangyu; de Boer, Hanneke M; Sander, Josemir W


    To evaluate the long-term outcome of phenobarbital treatment for convulsive epilepsy in rural China, and to explore factors associated with overall seizure outcomes. We carried out follow-up assessments of people who took part in an epilepsy community management program conducted in rural counties of six provinces in China. People with convulsive epilepsy who were previously untreated (or on irregular treatment) were commenced on regular treatment with phenobarbital. Information was collected using a standardized questionnaire by face-to-face interviews of the individuals (and their families where necessary). Information collected included treatment status, medication change, seizure frequency, and mortality. Among the 2,455 people who participated in the original program, outcomes were successfully ascertained during the follow-up assessment in 1986. Among them, 206 had died. Information on treatment response was obtained in 1,780 (56% male; mean age 33.9 years, range 3-84; mean duration of follow-up 6.4 years). Among them, 939 (53%) were still taking phenobarbital. The most common reasons for stopping phenobarbital were seizure freedom or substantial seizure reduction, socioeconomic reasons, and personal preference. Four hundred fifty-three individuals (25%) became seizure-free for at least 1 year while taking phenobarbital, 88% of whom did so at daily doses of 120 mg or below. Four hundred six (23%) reported adverse events, which led to withdrawal of phenobarbital in phenobarbital for convulsive epilepsy in rural China. One hundred years after the discovery of its antiepileptic effect, phenobarbital is still playing an important role in the management of epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.

    Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan


    With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178 g d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107 kg m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008 kJ kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800 m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5 hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system.

  15. The dimensions of land use change in rural landscapes: lessons learnt from the GB Countryside Surveys.

    Petit, Sandrine


    Rural landscapes are highly dynamic and their change impacts on a number of ecological processes such as the dynamics of biodiversity. Although a substantial amount of research has focused on quantifying these changes and their impact on biodiversity, most studies have focused on single dimensions of land use change. This lack of integration in land use change studies can be explained by the fact that data on the spatial, temporal, and ecological dimensions of land use are seldom available for the same geographical location. In this paper, the benefits of taking into account these three dimensions are illustrated with results derived from the Great Britain Countryside Surveys (CS), a large-scale monitoring programme designed to assess change in the extent and ecological condition of British habitats. The overview of CS results presented in this paper shows that (1) changes in land use composition will translate into a variety of spatial patterns; (2) the temporal stability of land use is often lower than can be expected; and (3) there can be large-scale shifts in the ecological condition of the land use types that form our rural landscapes. The benefits of integrated rural landscape studies are discussed in the context of other national monitoring programmes.

  16. The role of health system governance in strengthening the rural health insurance system in China.

    Yuan, Beibei; Jian, Weiyan; He, Li; Wang, Bingyu; Balabanova, Dina


    Systems of governance play a key role in the operation and performance of health systems. In the past six decades, China has made great advances in strengthening its health system, most notably in establishing a health insurance system that enables residents of rural areas to achieve access to essential services. Although there have been several studies of rural health insurance schemes, these have focused on coverage and service utilization, while much less attention has been given to the role of governance in designing and implementing these schemes. Information from publications and policy documents relevant to the development of two rural health insurance policies in China was obtained, analysed, and synthesise. 92 documents on CMS (Cooperative Medical Scheme) or NCMS (New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme) from four databases searched were included. Data extraction and synthesis of the information were guided by a framework that drew on that developed by the WHO to describe health system governance and leadership. We identified a series of governance practices that were supportive of progress, including the prioritisation by the central government of health system development and certain health policies within overall national development; strong government commitment combined with a hierarchal administrative system; clear policy goals coupled with the ability for local government to adopt policy measures that take account of local conditions; and the accumulation and use of the evidence generated from local practices. However these good practices were not seen in all governance domains. For example, poor collaboration between different government departments was shown to be a considerable challenge that undermined the operation of the insurance schemes. China's success in achieving scale up of CMS and NCMS has attracted considerable interest in many low and middle income countries (LMICs), especially with regard to the schemes' designs, coverage, and funding

  17. Elderly parent health and the migration decisions of adult children: evidence from rural China.

    Giles, John; Mu, Ren


    Recent research has shown that participation in migrant labor markets has led to substantial increases in income for families in rural China. This article addresses the question of how participation is affected by elderly parent health. We find that younger adults are less likely to work as migrants when a parent is ill. Poor health of an elderly parent has less impact on the probability of employment as a migrant when an adult child has siblings who may be available to provide care. We also highlight the potential importance of including information on nonresident family members when studying how parent illness and elder care requirements influence the labor supply decisions of adult children.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.

    Yaling Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS among adults in a rural area of Northwest China.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel (Adults Treatment Panel III, ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, and the modified ATP III definition for Asian population were used and compared. Proportions were adjusted for age and sex.The prevalence of MetS was 7.9%, 10.8% and 15.1% according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. Agreement between ATP III and IDF criteria and that between ATP III and modified ATP III criteria were moderate (Kappa = 0.52 and 0.64, respectively, whereas agreement between IDF and modified ATP III criteria was good (Kappa = 0.83. The prevalence of MetS increased with age, and was higher in women than in men (10.4% versus 5.4%, 13.6% versus 8.1% and 17.4% versus 12.8%, according to ATP III, IDF and modified ATP III criteria, respectively. The most common MetS component was high blood pressure. Having family history of hypertension, lack of physical activity, high economical level, overweight and obesity were positively associated with MetS.MetS is prevalent among rural adults in Northwest China and high blood pressure is the most common MetS component. Prevention and treatment of hypertension and MetS should be a public health priority to reduce cardiovascular diseases in rural areas of Northwest China. More attention should be given to the elderly, women, people with family history of hypertension and obese people who are at high risk of MetS.

  19. Alleviating poverty or reinforcing inequality? Interpreting micro-finance in practice, with illustrations from rural China.

    Hsu, Becky Yang


    Academic and political discussions about micro-finance have been found lacking in predictive power, because they are based on orthodox economic theory, which does not properly comprehend the social components of credit. I take a better approach, utilizing credit theory--specifically, Ingham's explication of how the nature of money as credit leads to social inequality. I also expound the perspective that morality is not separate from considerations borrowers make in micro-finance programmes on the micro level. I draw upon illustrations from my fieldwork in rural China, where a group-lending micro-finance programme was administered as part of a larger government-initiated effort across the country.

  20. Doctor Competence and the Demand for Healthcare: Evidence from Rural China.

    Fe, Eduardo; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Yip, Winnie


    The agency problem between patients and doctors has long been emphasised in the health economics literature, but the empirical evidence on whether patients can evaluate and respond to better quality care remains mixed and inconclusive. Using household data linked to an assessment of village doctors' clinical competence in rural China, we show that there is no correlation between doctor competence and patients' healthcare utilisation, with confidence intervals reasonably tight around zero. Household perceptions of quality are an important determinant of care-seeking behaviour, yet patients appear unable to recognise more competent doctors - there is no relationship between doctor competence and perceptions of quality. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Hopelessness, individualism, collectivism, and substance use among young rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Tam, Cheuk Chi


    The current study aimed to investigate the impact of individualism, collectivism, and hopelessness on substance use. Hopelessness was hypothesized as a mediator between individualism and substance use, and between collectivism and substance use. We tested the hypothesis using a survey of 641 young rural-to-urban migrants in China. Consistent with our hypotheses, individualistic orientation predicted increased hopelessness and subsequently predicted more substance use, whereas collectivistic orientation was associated with decreased hopelessness and subsequently predicted less substance use. Hopelessness fully mediated the relations between individualism and substance use and between collectivism and substance use. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  2. Transmission Pattern of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Its Implication for Tuberculosis Control in Eastern Rural China

    Yi Hu; Barun Mathema; Weili Jiang; Barry Kreiswirth; Weibing Wang; Biao Xu


    OBJECTIVE: Transmission patterns of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) may be influenced by differences in socio-demographics, local tuberculosis (TB) endemicity and efficaciousness of TB control programs. This study aimed to investigate the impact of DOTS on the transmission of drug-resistant TB in eastern rural China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of all patients diagnosed with drug-resistant TB over a one-year period in two rural Chinese counties with varying l...

  3. Matching Food with Mouths: A Statistical Explanation to the Abnormal Decline of Per Capita Food Consumption in Rural China

    Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David


    This study provides an alternative explanation for the unusual apparent decline in food consumption in rural China after 2000. We find that it is mainly attributable to significant measurement errors in the Chinese Rural Household Survey and the calculation of per capita food consumption. In a household survey, total consumption for a household in a certain period is often well recorded, and per capita consumption is obtained by dividing total consumption by household size. Such a calculation...

  4. Community-Driven Multiple Use Water Services: Lessons Learned by the Rural Village Water Resources Management Project in Nepal

    Sanna-Leena Rautanen


    Full Text Available This article examines community-driven multiple use water services (MUS as pioneered by the Rural Village Water Resources Management Project (RVWRMP in the Far and Mid-Western development regions of Nepal. These regions are characterised by poverty, remoteness, rugged terrain, food insecurity, water scarcity, and post-conflict legacy. Water provision for domestic and productive uses provides opportunities to address poverty and livelihoods in environments with highly decentralised governance. This study explores the first-hand lessons learned in the RVWRMP in Nepal since 2006. This project is embedded within the local government. Key project entry points are decentralisation, participation and empowerment. This article reflects how the community-managed systems are used for multiple uses whether they were designed for it or not. It focuses on household- and community-level changes and related institution building and participatory planning through Water Use Master Plans and a Step-by-Step approach. Recommendations are made for scaling up multiple use services.

  5. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Yi Zhang


    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  6. A feasibility study on using smartphones to conduct short-version verbal autopsies in rural China.

    Zhang, Jing; Joshi, Rohina; Sun, Jixin; Rosenthal, Samantha R; Tong, Miao; Li, Cong; Rampatige, Rasika; Mooney, Meghan; Lopez, Alan; Yan, Lijing L


    Currently there are two main sources of mortality data with cause of death assignments in China. Both sources-the Ministry of Health-Vital Registration system and the Chinese Disease Surveillance Point system-present their own challenges. A new approach to cause of death assignment is a smartphone-based shortened version of a verbal autopsy survey. This study evaluates the feasibility and acceptability of this new method conducted by township health care providers (THP) and village doctors (VD) in rural China, where a large proportion of deaths occur in homes and cause of death data are inaccurate or lacking. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium mobile phone-based shortened verbal autopsy questionnaire was made available on an Android system-based application, and cause of death was derived using the Tariff method (Tariff 2.0); we called this set of tools "msVA." msVA was administered to relatives of the deceased by six THPs and six VDs in 24 villages located in six townships of Luquan County, Hebei Province, China. Subsequently, interviews were conducted among 12 interviewers, 12 randomly selected respondents, and five study staff to assess the feasibility and acceptability of using msVA for mortality data collection. Between July 2013 and August 2013, 268 deaths took place in the study villages. Among the 268 deaths, 227 VAs were completed (nine refusals, 31 migrations and one loss of data due to breakdown of the smartphone). The average time for a VA interview was 21.5 ± 3.4 min (20.1 ± 3.5 min for THP and 23.2 ± 4.1 min for VD). Both THPs and VDs could be successful interviewers; the latter needed more training but had more willingness to implement msVA in the future. The interviews revealed that both interviewers and relatives of the deceased found msVA to be feasible, acceptable, and more desirable than traditional methods. The cost of conducting a new VA was $8.87 per death. Conduction of msVA by VDs in their own villages was

  7. Parental Absence Accompanies Worse Academic Achievements: Evidence Based upon a Sample of Left-Behind Children in Rural China

    Fu, Mingchen; Bo, Wenjin Vikki; XUE,Yan; Yuan, Ti-Fei


    In China, with the rapid urbanization and large amount of labor force migrating from rural-to-urban areas, an enormous number of children living in rural China are in the absence of parental care. The objective of the study was to investigate the academic performance of left-behind children under various statuses of parental absence. We investigated 3,076 children (1,761 non-left-behind and 1,315 left-behind) regarding their academic achievement in different subjects. We found that children w...

  8. The Long-Term Effective Mechanism of Rural Poverty Alleviation in China from the Perspective of Ecological Management

    Liang, Jun-Si


    Based on the ecological environmental situation of poverty-stricken areas in China and the domestic and foreign research results, the long-term effective mechanism of sustainable poverty alleviation in China is established(the ideological premise is ecological culture, the material base is ecological economy and the basic guarantee is ecological system ) from the perspective of ecological management. To be specific, ecological culture, the ideological premise of rural sustainable poverty alle...

  9. Modified Ideal Cardiovascular Health Status is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Stroke in Rural Northeast China

    Liang Guo


    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the American Heart Association developed a new definition of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH based on seven cardiovascular health metrics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between modified ideal CVH metrics and the risk of stroke in the rural population of Northeast China. Methods: We included 11,417 adults from the rural population in Northeast China and collected all the information, including the baseline characteristics, history of stroke, and the seven ideal CVH metrics. Results: Our results showed that the presence of stroke was associated with high body mass index (BMI, poor diet score (salt intake, high total cholesterol (TC, high blood pressure (BP, and high fasting plasma glucose (FPG. The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of ideal CVH metrics decreased, and peaked to 13.1% among those with only one ideal CVH metric. Participants with only one ideal CVH had a 4.40-fold increased susceptibility of stroke than those with all seven ideal health metrics. Conclusion: This study revealed that people with a better CVH status had a lower prevalence of stroke and the susceptibility of stroke increased with the decreasing of the number of ideal CVH metrics.

  10. Implementation of a "County-Township-Village" Allied HIV Prevention and Control Intervention in Rural China.

    Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao


    In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.

  11. Integration of rural and urban healthcare insurance schemes in China: an empirical research.

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Ang; He, Xin; Jiang, Hanghang


    Despite the broad coverage of the healthcare insurance system in China, the imbalances in fairness, accessibility and affordability of healthcare services have hindered the universal healthcare progress. To provide better financial protection for the Chinese population, China's new medical reform was proposed to link up urban employee basic medical insurance scheme (UEBMI), urban resident basic medical insurance scheme (URBMI), new rural cooperative medical system (NRCMS) and urban and rural medical assistance programs. In this paper, we focused on people's expected healthcare insurance model and their willingness towards healthcare insurance integration, and we made a couple of relative policy suggestions. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four cities in China. A total of 1178 effective questionnaires were retrieved. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS and Excel. Chi-square test and logistic regression model were applied. The payment intention and reimbursement expectation of the three groups varied with NRCMS participants the lowest and UEBMI participants the highest. In economic developed areas, rural residents had equal or even stronger payment ability than urban residents, and the overall payment intention showed a scattered trend; while in less developed areas, urban residents had a stronger payment ability than rural residents and a more concentrated payment intention was observed. The majority of participants favored the integration, with NRCMS enrollees up to 80.5%. In the logistic regression model, we found that participants from less developed areas were more likely to oppose the integration, which we conceived was mainly due to their dissatisfaction with their local healthcare insurance schemes. Also the participants with better education background tended to oppose the integration, which might be due to their fear of benefit impairment and their concern about the challenges ahead. Even though there are many challenges for healthcare

  12. Low Impact Development Intensive Rural Construction Planning in Xu Fu Village Ningbo, China: Planning Review through Rural Resilience Perspective

    Roosmayri Lovina Hermaputi


    Full Text Available Xu Fu Village Ningbo LID Intensive Rural Construction Planning is a cooperation project between Zhejiang University and Ningbo Institute of Technology which named "12th Five-Year National Science and Technology support program-the comprehensive demonstration of the key technology of the beautiful rural construction in the rapid urbanization area of the Yangtze River Delta". This plan focuses on intensive rural construction as part of rural development and construction project that applies the principles of low impact development. Xu Fu Village located in the Yangtze River Delta Region. Currently, the rural growth brings the high impact of development, as a result of rapid urbanization growth arising several issues, such as low land use efficiency, dispersed rural residence, homestead occupies more, rural roads covering over, etc. Meanwhile, Xu Fu village wishes to develop its tourism potential. Thus, the intensive rural construction should be done to avoid the severe effect. The project result hopefully can improve the quality and level of rural residential planning, design, and construction; improve their living environment; save construction land and water use; and improve energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to review the Low Impact Development (LID Intensive Rural Construction in Xu Fu Village, Ningbo City through the rural resilience perspective. This paper will describe the project plan first, then review it through rural resilience perspective. This paper will elaborate the rural resilience theory and then review the rural resiliency through two parts; the first part is identifying rural resilience in rural infrastructure development based on the criteria created by Ayyob S. and Yoshiki Y. (2014, about urban resiliency criteria, and then the second part is reviewing Xu Fu Village resilience through Arup Resilience Qualities (2012, considering three rural resilience domain (economy, ecology, and cultural.

  13. Maternal socio-economic indices for prenatal care research in rural China.

    Nwaru, Bright I; Klemetti, Reija; Kun, Huang; Hong, Wang; Yuan, Shen; Wu, Zhuochun; Hemminki, Elina


    The conceptualization and measurement of socio-economic status (SES) is difficult in developing settings. In the absence of SES indices for women in rural China, we constructed SES indices for prenatal care research, and examined their relation to perinatal care and outcomes. This study utilized data of 4364 rural women having recently given birth, collected by a cross-sectional survey in three rural Chinese provinces in 2007. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to construct the SES indices and multilevel logistic regression was use to relate the indices to low birthweight, short exclusive breastfeeding (≤4 months), childbirth at the county or higher level health facility, caesarean section, inadequate prenatal care and no postnatal care. Three separate SES indices (wealth, occupational and educational indices) were obtained from the PCA analysis, capturing maternal, paternal and household SES characteristics. After adjusting for individual level factors, village and township wealth, higher levels of the indices were inversely associated with inadequate prenatal care. Higher occupational status was positively associated with short exclusive breastfeeding and childbirth at the county or higher level health facility, but inversely associated with no postnatal care. Higher educational status was positively associated with no postnatal care. Three SES indices (wealth, occupational and educational) were obtained from this study for prenatal care research. The indices gave mostly varying results on their associations with perinatal care and outcomes, indicating that SES measures may be outcome-specific.

  14. Prevalence of childhood atopic dermatitis: an urban and rural community-based study in Shanghai, China.

    Feng Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common inflammatory and chronically relapsing disorder with increasing prevalence. However, little is known about its prevalence in Shanghai, the top metropolitan of China. This study will estimate and compare the prevalence of AD in urban and rural areas in representative samples of 3 to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed. Pre-school children were obtained by cluster sampling from 8 communities in different districts in Shanghai. The main instrument was the core questionnaire module for AD used in the U.K. Working Party's study. All the data were statistically analyzed by EpiData 3.1 and SPSS16.0. A total of 10,436 children completed the study satisfactorily, with a response rate of 95.8%. The prevalence of AD in 3 to 6-year-old children was 8.3% (Male: 8.5%, Female: 8.2%. The prevalence in urban areas of Shanghai was gradiently and significantly higher than that in rural areas. The highest prevalence was in the core urban area (10.2% in Xuhui Tianping vs. the lowest far from the urban areas (4.6% in Chongming Baozhen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of AD was 8.3% (95%CI: 7.6%-9.1% in children aged 3 to 6 in Shanghai. The prevalence of AD decreased from the center to the rural areas in Shanghai.

  15. Analysis on Imbalance of Family Intergenerational Exchange in China Rural Area

    Liguo Liu


    Full Text Available In China rural area, intergenerational exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring is uneven. Parents pay much more than the return they’ll get when they’re old, which mainly relates to the utilities of children. In countryside, the utilities of children (especially sons manifest in following aspects: continuing the family line, emotional comfort, laborer and supporting for old age. To some extent, these factors influence the rural intergenerational injustice respectively and together. From the prospective of trend of social and economic development, the caring of the retired will be taken by social insurance system; the intergeneration exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring will no longer be a social issue, but in the vast rural areas, the influence of traditional culture family lineage is still powerful. The need of caring of the old becomes so weak that emotional effect becomes much more urgent. The weak status of the old generation bring the fathers’ generation in a weak social status, which seriously affect the living conditions of the old generations. Therefore, when focusing the caring issue in the country, besides that we should ensure the old be cared materially, what matters most is keep the balance between the exchanging two sides

  16. Establishing Priorities for Sustainable Environmental Design in the Rural Villages of Yunnan, China

    Adrian Pitts


    Full Text Available This paper addresses sustainable rural village development in China. Rural development is unlike the process of urbanization in Chinese cities and reflects different land ownership rules and different organizational structures. Even though there are an increasing number of Chinese residents in cities, there are still more than 600 million people living in the countryside. The attention lavished on city development has been, in part, now refocused to rural villages. Since 2006, the support for large-scale investment in the countryside has created much change; however, not all of this change is well organized, with potential for less than optimum impacts on the environment and sustainability. The paper identifies the key influences and drivers from historic and contemporary points of view. The sustainability of the villages will derive from long-term self-sufficiency, and this must include the understanding of environmental design principles, which enable suitable dwelling design. Two villages are taken as contrasting examples, and information derived from other sources is discussed. Technologies and techniques that can help determine environmental design priorities are evaluated and directions for future development suggested. This includes development of a design support aid with key drivers of: orientation and site location, window design and key construction features.

  17. Family life course transitions and rural household economy during China's market reform.

    Chen, Feinian; Korinek, Kim


    This article investigates the effect of family life course transitions on labor allocation strategies in rural Chinese households. We highlight three types of economic activity that involve reallocation of household labor oriented toward a more diversified, nonfarm rural economy: involvement in wage employment, household entrepreneurship, and/or multiple activities that span economic sectors. With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997, 2000, and 2004), our longitudinal analyses of rural household economic activity point to the significance of household demography, life course transitions, and local economic structures as factors facilitating household labor reallocation. First, as expected, a relatively youthful household structure is conducive to innovative economic behavior. Second, household entrances and exits are significant, but their impacts are not equal. Life events such as births, deaths, marriage, or leaving home for school or employment affect household economy in distinctive ways. Finally, the reallocations of household labor undertaken by households are shaped by local economic structures: in particular, the extent of village-level entrepreneurial activity, off-farm employment, and out-migration.

  18. Access to Social Insurance in Urban China: A Comparative Study of Rural-Urban and Urban-Urban Migrants in Beijing

    Zhiming Cheng; Ingrid Nielsen; Russell Smyth


    Since 1958 the hukou (household registration) system has assigned Chinese citizens either a rural or urban status. Some studies argue that the rural-to-urban migrants in China who do not have urban hukou are not entitled to urban social insurance schemes, due to institutional discrimination, which applies differing treatment to urban and rural hukou (chengxiang fenge). Although rural-urban migrants participate less in the social insurance system than their counterparts with urban hukou, a clo...

  19. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H.; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A.


    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  20. Spatial Analysis of Cultural Heritage Landscapes in Rural China: Land Use Change and Its Risks for Conservation.

    Yu, Huirong; Verburg, Peter H; Liu, Liming; Eitelberg, David A


    Cultural heritage landscapes are consistently perceived as landscapes of high value. However, these landscapes are very vulnerable to change. In China, rapid land use change, especially urbanization, has become one of the main challenges for the conservation of cultural heritage landscapes in rural areas. This paper focuses on the designated cultural villages in rural China by systematically analyzing the spatial distribution of the designated cultural landscape across the country and assessing the threats these traditional landscapes are facing under current and future urbanization and other land use pressures. Current designated cultural heritage landscapes in China are predominantly located in the rural and peri-urban regions of Central and South China and less frequently found in other regions. Especially in these regions risks to land use change are large. These risks are assessed based on observed recent land use change and land use model simulations for scenarios up to 2050. The risk assessment reveals that especially in Southeast China along the sea coast and near the cities along the Yangtze River, high pressures are expected on cultural heritage landscapes due to urbanization. At the same time, in Southwest China, especially in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, high pressures due to other land use changes are expected, including land abandonment. This assessment gives direction and guidance toward the selection of the most threatened cultural villages for detailed investigation and additional protection measures.

  1. Urban-Rural Comparison of HBV and HCV Infection Prevalence in Eastern China


    The present study was initiated to make and urban-rural comparison of the prevalence of cases positive to hepatitis B and C virus(HBV and HCV,respectively)infection markers in densely populated eastern half of China.For this purpose.10 survey sites were selected,i.e.,six sites in urban areas(the city group;Beijing,shangahi and four provincial capitals)and four sites in rural areas(the village group;one village each in Jilin and Shandong provinces,and two villages in Shaanxi Province),About 50 adult women per site volunteered to participate,from whom 494 valid bllod samples were collected.Positivities to HBsAg(HBsAg+),anti-HBs(anti-HBs+)and antiHBc(anti-HBc+)were examined by RIA methods.and that to anti-HCV(anti-HCV+)by either EIA or RIA.Those positive to any one of the three HBV infection markers were taken as HBV infection-positive(HBV+).The prevalence of HBsAg+,HBV+ and anti-HBc+ was 8%,70%and 2.7% in the city group,and 8%,65% and 2.0%in the village group,and no significant difference was found between the two groups.The overall prevalence was 8% for HBsAg+,68% for HBV+,and 2.4% for anti-HVC+,The results were discussed in reference to some 20 papers each on HBV+ and anti-HCV+ prevalence in China published since(1991),The reviewing of these papers of anti-HCV was low(well below 5%),and that no substantial difference was found between the rural and urban populations.

  2. Urban-Rural Comparison of HBV and HCV Infection Prevalence in Eastern China


    The present study was initiated to make an urban-rural comparison of the prevalence of cases positive to hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively) infection markers in densely populated eastern half of China. For this purpose, 10 survey sites were selected, i.e., six sites in urban areas (the city group; Beijing, Shanghai and four provincial capitals) and four sites in rural areas (the village group ; one village each in Jilin and Shandong Provinces, and two villages in Shaanxi Province). About 50 adult women per site volunteered to participate, from whom 494 valid blood samples were collected. Positivities to HBsAg (HBsAg+), anti-HBs (anti-HBs+) and anti-HBc (anti-HBc+) were examined by RIA methods, and that to anti-HCV (anti-HCV+) by either EIA or RIA. Those positive to any one of the three HBV infection markers were taken as HBV infection-positive (HBV+). The prevalence of HBsAg+, HBV+ and anti-HBc+ was 8%, 70% and 2.7% in the city group, and 8%, 65% and 2.0% in the village group, and no significant difference was found between the two groups. The overall prevalence was 8% for HBsAg+, 68% for HBV+, and 2.4% for anti-HCV+. The results were discussed in reference to some 20 papers each on HBV+ and anti-HCV+ prevalence in China published since 1991. The reviewing of these papers confirmed that the prevalence of HBV was high (i.e., in excess of 50%), whereas the prevalence of anti-HCV was low (well below 5%), and that no substantial difference was found between the rural and urban populations.

  3. Ocular Trauma in a Rural Population of North China:The Handan Eye Study

    ZHOU Jun; WANG Feng Hua; LU Hai; LIANG Yuan Bo; WANG Ning Li; the Handan Eye StudYGroup


    Objective To determine the prevalence of ocular trauma and the proportion of blindness and visual impairment due to trauma in a rural population in northern China. Methods The Handan Eye Study is a population-based cross-sectional study that surveyed 6830 Chinese people aged 30+years from 13 randomly selected villages in Yongnian County, city of Handan, Hebei Province, in July, 2006. All participants underwent a standardized interview and extensive examinations. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on ocular trauma. Results Of the 5837 participants who filled out the questionnaire, 124 subjects [2.1%;95%confidence interval (CI), 1.8%-2.5%] reported a history of ocular trauma in either eye, including 19 (0.3%) persons reporting trauma in both eyes. Men were more likely to have an eye injury than women [odds ratio (OR), 3.3;2.2-4.9]. In multiple logistic regression models, ocular trauma was significantly more frequent among normotensive participants when compared with hypertensive participants (hypertensive vs. normotensive:OR, 0.6;0.4-0.9) and among participants who had a history of falls (OR, 2.4;1.2-4.8). The proportion of unilateral visual impairment and unilateral blindness due to trauma were 10.5% (13 subjects) and 21.0%(26 subjects), respectively. Conclusion Our study reports the prevalence of severe ocular trauma among adults in rural China, revealing a high proportion of blindness and visual impairment due to trauma. These findings suggest the need for educational strategies to increase eye health awareness in this rural population with focus on providing at least appropriate first aid care to reduce blindness due to trauma.

  4. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China.The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids.Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are

  5. The Relationship of Financial Development, Urbanization and Urban-Rural Income Gap: An Empirical Research Based on Provincial Panel Data in China

    Shaowei Chen


    Full Text Available Financial development and the urbanization are important influence factors of the urban-rural income gap, and financial development can be measured by three main indexes which are financial scale, financial activities and financial efficiency. The financial development scale of China has obviously widened the urban-rural income gap. But rural financial activities have obvious effect on increasing farmers’ income, and the improvement of financial efficiency is helpful for narrowing the urban-rural income gap. The Kuznets effect between economic development and the urban-rural income gap has regional diversity. Besides that, the improvement of urbanization is also helpful for shorting the urban-rural income gap.

  6. The influence of the rural health security schemes on health utilization and household impoverishment in rural China: data from a household survey of western and central China

    Zhang Hong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS, voluntary health insurance and the Medical Financial Assistance (MFA, financial relief program were established in 2003 for rural China. The aim of this study was to document their coverage, assess their effectiveness on access to in-patient care and protection against financial catastrophe and household impoverishment due to health spending, and identify the factors predicting impoverishment with and without these schemes. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. Information on personal demographic characteristics, chronic illness status, health care use, household expenditure, and household health spending were collected by interview. Results NRCMS covered 90.8% of the studied individuals and among the designated poor, 7.6% had their premiums paid by MFA. Of those referred for hospitalization in the year prior to the interview, 34.3% failed to comply, mostly (80.2% owing to financial constraints. There was no significant difference in the unmet need for admission between the insured with NRCMS and the uninsured. Before reimbursement, the incidence of catastrophic health payment (household health spending more than 40% of household's capacity to pay and medical impoverishment (household per capita income falling below the poverty line due to medical expense was 14.3% and 8.2%, respectively. NRCMS prevented 9.9% of the households from financial catastrophe and 7.7% from impoverishment, whereas MFA kept just one household from impoverishment and had no effect on financial catastrophe. Household per capita expenditure and household chronic disease proportion (proportion of members of a household with chronic illness were the most important determinants of the unmet need for admission, risk of being impoverished and the chance of not being saved

  7. Financing reforms of public health services in China: lessons for other nations.

    Liu, Xingzhu; Mills, Anne


    Financing reforms of China's public health services are characterised by a reduction in government budgetary support and the introduction of charges. These reforms have changed the financing structure of public health institutions. Before the financing reforms, in 1980, government budgetary support covered the full costs of public health institutions, while after the reforms by the middle of the 1990s, the government's contribution to the institutions' revenue had fallen to 30-50%, barely covering the salaries of health workers, and the share of revenue generated from charges had increased to 50-70%. These market-oriented financing reforms improved the productivity of public health institutions, but several unintended consequences became evident. The economic incentives that were built into the financing system led to over-provision of unnecessary services, and under-provision of socially desirable services. User fees reduced the take-up of preventive services with positive externalities. The lack of government funds resulted in under-provision of services with public goods' characteristics. The Chinese experience has generated important lessons for other nations. Firstly, a decline in the role of government in financing public health services is likely to result in decreased overall efficiency of the health sector. Secondly, levying charges for public health services can reduce demand for these services and increase the risk of disease transmission. Thirdly, market-oriented financing reforms of public health services should not be considered as a policy option. Once this step is made, the unintended consequences may outweigh the intended ones. Chinese experience strongly suggests that the government should take a very active role in financing public health services.

  8. Rural E-commerce and New Model of Rural Development in China:A Comparative Study of "Taobao Village" in Jiangsu Province

    Changyu LIU; Jiale LI; Jing LIU


    With the development of electronic commerce,there is a special phenomenon in rural areas of China that a lot of farmers in these areas depend on opening shops on Taobao online for a living. The products are made from the village workshop,and farmers become fullyfledged network businessmen. Electronic business platform mode of " Taobao Village" is the result of integrated development of primary,secondary and tertiary industries. In this study,we take two kinds of typical Taobao villages( Dongfeng Village and Yanxia Village) as sample areas,and conduct comparative analysis of this new rural business model based on field survey data,case studies and theoretical research. We also probe into the problems in the development of Taobao villages,and set forth the recommendations for the new rural business model.

  9. Improving reproductive health knowledge in rural China--a web-based strategy.

    Tang, Songyuan; Tian, Lichuan; Cao, Wei Wei; Zhang, Kaining; Detels, Roger; Li, Virginia C


    In China, one of the major problems in upgrading rural health services is the difficulty of communicating between the rural and urban areas. Enabling local agencies to access the Internet in resource-poor areas can provide an efficient means of diffusing current training and information and will have far-reaching policy implications. To test the feasibility of using the Internet to deliver needed health information to the countryside, the UCLA School of Public Health and the Institute of Health Studies of Kunming Medical College (IHS-KMC) collaborated in an experimental website project to improve the quality of reproductive health services to promote women's health in three rural counties of Yunnan. The project involved the county government and the Bureau of Public Health, the Bureau of Family Planning; the Bureau of Education, Women's Federation, and the Maternal and Child Health Station targeting village health workers and teachers; women's cadres. Three counties, matched on socioeconomic status, participated in the study and were randomized to receive three programs. Nanhua County received computer skill training and logistic support including a planning workshop for information diffusion. Mouding County received computers only. Dayao, the control county, did not receive the full program until the conclusion of the project. The study demonstrated that the use of a website to disseminate health information in remote rural areas is not only feasible but that it also will be enthusiastically adopted by local health workers and interested parties. Moreover, the knowledge was diffused from the primary population of village doctors, family planning workers, women's cadres, and teachers to the secondary population of villagers and students.

  10. Rural-urban differences in the long-term care of the disabled elderly in China.

    Mei Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In China, the rapid rate of population aging and changes in the prevalence of disability among elderly people could have significant effects on the demand for long-term care. This study aims to describe the urban-rural differences in use and cost of long-term care of the disabled elderly and to explore potential influencing factors. METHODS: This study uses data from a cross-sectional survey and a qualitative investigation conducted in Zhejiang province in 2012. The participants were 826 individuals over 60 years of age, who had been bedridden or suffered from dementia for more than 6 months. A generalized linear model and two-part regression model were applied to estimate costs, with adjustment of covariates. RESULTS: Pensions provide the main source of income for urban elderly, while the principal income source for rural elderly is their family. Urban residents spend more on all services than do rural residents. Those who are married spend less on daily supplies and formal care than the unmarried do. Age, incapacitation time, comorbidity number, level of income, and bedridden status influence spending on medical care (β=-0.0316, -0.0206, 0.1882, 0.3444, and -0.4281, respectively, but the cost does not increase as the elderly grow older. Urban residents, the married, and those with a higher income level tend to spend more on medical equipment. Urban residence and living status are the two significant factors that affect spending on personal hygiene products. CONCLUSIONS: The use of long-term care services varies by living area. Long-term care of the disabled elderly imposes a substantial burden on families. Our study revealed that informal care involves huge opportunity costs to the caregivers. Chinese policy makers need to promote community care and long-term care insurance to relieve the burden of families of disabled elderly, and particular attention should be given to the rural elderly.

  11. Rural health prepayment schemes in China: towards a more active role for government.

    Bloom, G; Shenglan, T


    A large majority of China's rural population were members of health prepayment schemes in the 1970's. Most of these schemes collapsed during the transition to a market economy. Some localities subsequently reestablished schemes. In early 1997 a new government policy identified health prepayment as a major potential source of rural health finance. This paper draws on the experience of existing schemes to explore how government can support implementation of this policy. The decision to support the establishment of health prepayment schemes is part of the government's effort to establish new sources of finance for social services. It believes that individuals are more likely to accept voluntary contributions to a prepayment scheme than tax increases. The voluntary nature of the contributions limits the possibilities for risk-sharing and redistribution between rich and poor. This underlines the need for the government to fund a substantial share of health expenditure out of general revenues, particularly in poor localities. The paper notes that many successful prepayment schemes depend on close supervision by local political leaders. It argues that the national programme will have to translate these measures into a regulatory system which defines the responsibilities of scheme management bodies and local governments. A number of prepayment schemes have collapsed because members did not feel they got value for money. Local health bureaux will have to cooperate with prepayment schemes to ensure that health facilities provide good quality services at a reasonable cost. Users' representatives can also monitor performance. The paper concludes that government needs to clarify the relationship between health prepayment schemes and other actors in rural localities in order to increase the chance that schemes will become a major source rural health finance.

  12. Spatial Strategy for Quality Labor in Rural Development——A Case Study of Jiangsu Province, China

    SUN Yifei; WANG Hongyang


    This study examines the issue of high-quality labor in rural enterprises of China. It develops a spatial strategy which consists of two dimensions: geographical space and administrative space. Different combinations of these two dimensions form a variety of approaches such as local internalization, local externalization, regional/national internalization, and regional/national externalization. In the local internalization approach, rural enterprises hire such high-quality labor and ask them to work on site, while in the local externalization approach, rural enterprises seek help from employees working in other local enterprises. In the regional/national internalization approach, rural enterprises set up research and development centers in big cities to take advantages of the high-quality labor pool there. Finally in the regional/national externalization approach, rural enterprises hire people from big cities on temporary contracts. Three approaches, hiring retired technical workers, shuttling between the rural site and country seats, and setting up R&D centers in big cities are demonstrated through cases in Zhangjiagang, a leading county-level city in the southern Jiangsu Province. It is argued that rural enterprises need to broaden their perspectives of administrative space and geographical space and think creatively to deal with the shortage of quality labor in rural settings.

  13. Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Rural Drinking Water Safety Project——A Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Du, Xiaorong


    Water is the basic condition for human survival and development. As China is the most populous country, rural drinking water safety problems are most conspicuous. Therefore, the Chinese government keeps increasing investment and has built a large number of rural drinking water safety projects. Scientific evaluation of project performance is of great significance to promote the sustainable operation of the project and the sustainable development of rural economy. Previous studies mainly focus on the economic benefits of the project, while ignoring the fact that the rural drinking water safety project is quasi-public goods, which has economic, social and ecological benefits. This paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation model for rural drinking water safety performance, which adapts the rules of "5E" (economy, efficiency, effectiveness, equity and environment) as the value orientation, and selects a rural drinking water safety project as object in case study at K District, which is in the north of Jiangsu Province, China. The results shows: 1) the comprehensive performance of K project is in good condition; 2) The performance of every part shows that the scores of criteria "efficiency", "environment" and "effect" are higher than the mean performance, while the "economy" is slightly lower than the mean and the "equity" is the lowest. 3) The performance of indicator layer shows that: the planned completion rate of project, the reduction rate of project cost and the penetration rate of water-use population are significantly lower than other indicators. Based on the achievements of previous studies and the characteristics of rural drinking water safety project, this study integrates the evaluation dimensions of equity and environment, which can contribute to a more comprehensive and systematic assessment of project performance and provide empirical data for performance evaluation and management of rural drinking water safety project. Key Words: Rural drinking water

  14. Social Exclusion and Education Inequality: Towards an Integrated Analytical Framework for the Urban-Rural Divide in China

    Wang, Li


    The aim of this paper is to build a capability-based framework, drawing upon the strengths of other approaches, which is applicable to the complexity of the urban-rural divide in education in China. It starts with a brief introduction to the capability approach. This is followed by a discussion of how the rights-based approach and resource-based…

  15. The New Curriculum and the Urban-Rural Literacy Gap: The Case of One County in Western China

    Wang, Dan


    This article aims to explore the impact of the new curriculum reform launched in 2001 urban-rural achievement disparities. It documents a pilot study on teachers' experiences in teaching literacy to children in primary one in a poverty-stricken county in western China. Interviews with teachers in various types of schools indicate that the…

  16. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  17. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    Xin; LI; Haijing; HU


    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics,the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed,and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality,rather than take"household register"measures to solve the problem simply.

  18. Rural Junior Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environments and Their Attitude and Achievement in Mathematics in West China

    Yang, Xinrong


    This paper reports findings from a survey of how rural junior secondary school students in the western part of China perceive their mathematics classroom learning environments and associations of learning environment with their attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. Using adaptations of the widely-used What Is Happening In this…

  19. A comparative study of patients' attitudes toward clinical research in the United States and urban and rural China.

    Wu, Elizabeth; Wang, Tianyi; Lin, Tammy; Chen, Xisui; Guan, Zhe; Cao, Claudia; Rao, Huiying; Yang, Ming; Feng, Bo; Pui, Sandra; Chan, Melvin; Fu, Sherry; Lin, Andy; Wei, Lai; Lok, Anna S


    As the number of clinical trials conducted in China increases, understanding Chinese attitudes toward clinical research is critical for designing effective and ethical studies. Two survey studies were conducted in 2012 and 2013 to compare patient attitudes toward clinical research and factors affecting research participation in the United States and urban and rural China. We surveyed 525 patients in 2012 (186 US, 186 urban, 153 rural China) and 690 patients in 2013 (412 US, 206 urban, 72 rural China). US patients were more likely to have no concerns regarding research participation than Chinese patients. Most common concerns of US patients were safety, privacy and confidentiality, and time required. Safety was a top concern for many Chinese. Chinese patients, particularly rural Chinese, were more concerned about the likelihood of self-benefit, and receiving free medical care and financial incentive had greater influence on their participation. Being informed of the freedom to choose whether to participate or to leave a study was less important to Chinese patients. Our study provides important insights into Chinese patients' attitudes toward clinical research and the need to educate them about their rights. These findings help in designing cross-cultural clinical studies that maximize enrollment while upholding Western ethical standards.

  20. Cross-efficiency DEA model-based evaluation of allocative efficiency of rural information resources in Jiangsu Province, China

    Jiannong; ZHOU; Aidong; PENG; Jing; CUI; Shuiqing; HUANG


    Purpose:This paper aims to compare and rank the allocative efficiency of information resources in rural areas by taking 13 rural areas in Jiangsu Province,China as the research sample.Design/methodology/approach:We designed input and output indicators for allocation of rural information resources and conducted the quantitative evaluation of allocative efficiency of rural information resources based on cross-efficiency model in combination with the classical CCR model in data envelopment analysis(DEA).Findings:Cross-efficiency DEA model can be used for our research with the objective to evaluate quantitatively and objectively whether the allocation of information resources in various rural areas is reasonable and whether the output is commensurate with the input.Research limitations:We have to give up using some indicators because of limited data availability.There is a need to further improve the cross-efficiency DEA model because it cannot identify the specific factors influencing the efficiency of decision-making units(DMUs).Practical implications:The evaluation results will help us understand the present allocative efficiency levels of information resources in various rural areas so as to provide a decisionmaking basis for formulation of the policies aimed at promoting the circulation of information resources in rural areas.Originality/value:Little or no research has been published about the allocative efficiency of rural information resources.The value of this research lies in its focus on studying rural informatization from the perspective of allocative efficiency of rural information resources and in the application of cross-efficiency DEA model to evaluate allocative efficiency of rural information resources as well.

  1. Paths to Work in Rural Places: Key Findings and Lessons from the Impact Evaluation of the Future Steps Rural Welfare-to-Work Program. Final Report

    Meckstroth, Alicia; Burwick, Andrew; Ponza, Michael; Marsh, Shawn; Novak, Tim; Phillips, Shannon; Diaz-Tena, Nuria; Ng, Judy


    Helping low-income families in rural areas find gainful employment and achieve economic self-sufficiency is an ongoing policy concern. The Rural Welfare-to-Work Strategies demonstration is using rigorous experimental designs to build knowledge about how to help low-income families in rural areas strive toward sustained employment and…

  2. Determinants on Rural-Urban Labor Migration in China: Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Rural Cooperate Medical Insurance based on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data%Determinants on Rural-Urban Labor Migration in China: Empirical Analysis on the Effect of Rural Cooperate Medical Insurance based on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    Jiang Yong; Hart Xiangyang; Wang Shumei; Jiang Huayun; Wang Shanshan


    This paper studies factors influencing rural-urban la- bor migration in China, particularly the implementation of rural cooperative medical insurance (RCMI) in the year 2003. With the support of data analysis from the year 2000, 2004 and 2006, clear linear correlations are found between gender, income, health con- dition and rural-urban labor flow, whereas the impact of education and employment status are more complicated. More importantly, results from regression show that the establishment of RCMI in countryside of China not only inhibits rural residents from seeking employment outside the village, but also pulls back rural people who have already worked in cities. When regional dimension is concerned, the pure composite effect of RCMI on rural labor flow is less significant in coastal areas with better economic perfor- mance and medical service.

  3. New estimates of elasticity of demand for healthcare in rural China.

    Zhou, Zhongliang; Su, Yanfang; Gao, Jianmin; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Yaoguang


    Only limited empirical studies reported own-price elasticity of demand for health care in rural China. Neither research on income elasticity of demand for health care nor cross-price elasticity of demand for inpatient versus outpatient services in rural China has been reported. However, elasticity of demand is informative to evaluate current policy and to guide further policy making. Our study contributes to the literature by estimating three elasticities (i.e., own-price elasticity, cross-price elasticity, and income elasticity of demand for health care based on nationwide-representative data. We aim to answer three empirical questions with regard to health expenditure in rural China: (1) Which service is more sensitive to price change, outpatient or inpatient service? (2) Is outpatient service a substitute or complement to inpatient service? and (3) Does demand for inpatient services grow faster than demand for outpatient services with income growth? Based on data from a National Health Services Survey, a Probit regression model with probability of outpatient visit and probability of inpatient visit as dependent variables and a zero-truncated negative binomial regression model with outpatient visits as dependent variable were constructed to isolate the effects of price and income on demand for health care. Both pooled and separated regressions for 2003 and 2008 were conducted with tests of robustness. Own-price elasticities of demand for first outpatient visit, outpatient visits among users and first inpatient visit are -0.519 [95% confidence interval (-0.703, -0.336)], -0.547 [95% confidence interval (-0.747, -0.347)] and -0.372 [95% confidence interval (-0.517, -0.226)], respectively. Cross-price elasticities of demand for first outpatient visit, outpatient visits among users and first inpatient visit are 0.073 [95% confidence interval (-0.176, 0.322)], 0.308 [95% confidence interval (0.087, 0.528)], and 0.059 [95% confidence interval (-0.085, 0

  4. Enhancing the routine health information system in rural southern Tanzania: successes, challenges and lessons learned.

    Maokola, W; Willey, B A; Shirima, K; Chemba, M; Armstrong Schellenberg, J R M; Mshinda, H; Alonso, P; Tanner, M; Schellenberg, D


    To describe and evaluate the use of handheld computers for the management of Health Management Information System data. Electronic data capture took place in 11 sentinel health centres in rural southern Tanzania. Information from children attending the outpatient department (OPD) and the Expanded Program on Immunization vaccination clinic was captured by trained local school-leavers, supported by monthly supervision visits. Clinical data included malaria blood slides and haemoglobin colour scale results. Quality of captured data was assessed using double data entry. Malaria blood slide results from health centre laboratories were compared to those from the study's quality control laboratory. The system took 5 months to implement, and few staffings or logistical problems were encountered. Over the following 12 months (April 2006-March 2007), 7056 attendances were recorded in 9880 infants aged 2-11 months, 50% with clinical malaria. Monthly supervision visits highlighted incomplete recording of information between OPD and laboratory records, where on average 40% of laboratory visits were missing the record of their corresponding OPD visit. Quality of microscopy from health facility laboratories was lower overall than that from the quality assurance laboratory. Electronic capture of HMIS data was rapidly and successfully implemented in this resource-poor setting. Electronic capture alone did not resolve issues of data completeness, accuracy and reliability, which are essential for management, monitoring and evaluation; suggestions to monitor and improve data quality are made. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Groundwater Assessment Using Remote Sensing And GIS In A Rural Groundwater Project In Ghana: Lessons Learned

    Sander, Per; Chesley, Matthew M.; Minor, Timothy B.


    A rural groundwater project within the Voltaian Sedimentary Basin in central Ghana was the focus of a study to develop better well-siting strategies, based on interpretations of remote-sensing data and Geographic Information System (GIS) analyses. The drilling success rate of the project had been low due to low primary porosity and the restriction of groundwater to secondary structural features. Remote-sensing data that were incorporated in the study include Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), SPOT, and infrared aerial photography. These data were interpreted for linear vegetation, drainage, and bedrock features that would indicate underlying transmissive fracture zones. Lineaments were examined in the field and integrated with information from several hundred GPS-positioned boreholes. GIS analyses focused on the identification of phenomena that contributed to successful wells, in order to develop optimal strategies for future well siting. Remote-sensing data allowed effective mapping of features that are conducive to groundwater development. Lineaments identified on Landsat TM imagery had the greatest correspondence to well success. The integration of data in a GIS was valuable for effective analyses but also exposed the necessity of accounting for spatial reference and accuracy of data from different sources. GPS technology proved very useful to increase the spatial accuracy of the various data integrated in the GIS.

  6. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    Tian Li-Guang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  7. A historical study of rural-to-urban migration in China: 1949-1985.

    Zhao, Y; Liu, Q


    This paper reviews the literature on labor migration in China since the 1950s and examines the trends in rural-to-urban migration during the period of 1949 to the mid-1980s. Data were obtained from the 1986 sample survey on migration in 74 urban areas in China among 23,895 family households and 1643 collective households in 43 cities and 31 townships of 16 provinces. Non-farmers from rural areas were subtracted from total rural migrants. Non-farmers included recent urban high school graduates and party and government officials who were sent to rural areas during the Cultural Revolution and returned to cities. The sample included 53.3% men. The average age was 23.1 years. About 50% were married at the time of migration. The average educational attainment among persons aged over 15 years was 5.98 years. Reasons for migration included family reunion (49.7%), worker recruitment (28.5%), military recruitment (8.8%), and college attendance (3.0%). The volume of migration fluctuated greatly during 1949-85. During 1949-55, about 200 people in the 200,000 sample size migrated each year. During 1955-58, migrants numbered 459, 307, and 616, respectively. During the famine of 1959-61, migration dropped to 312, 292, and 124, respectively. 1961 was the lowest point of migration; 1958 was the highest point of migration before 1984. During the 1962-64 recovery period, migration remained low at under 200. During 1962-64, migrants totaled 200-300 persons. During the Cultural Revolution of 1967-68, migrants declined to under 200. During 1970-71, migrants increased to over 400 until 1979, when the number reached 576. The largest migration occurred during 1984-85 and peaked at 832 in 1985. The later years reflect a loosening of government policy. Migration followed political events closely. Migrants in later years were unlikely to attain urban resident status and benefits without fundamental policy changes.

  8. Measuring financial protection for health in families with chronic conditions in Rural China

    Jiang Chunhong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the world’s largest developing country, China has entered into the epidemiological phase characterized by high life expectancy and high morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and malignant tumors have become the leading causes of death since the 1990s. Constant payments for maintaining the health status of a family member who has chronic diseases could exhaust household resources, undermining fiscal support for other necessities and eventually resulting in poverty. The purpose of this study is to probe to what degree health expenditure for chronic diseases can impoverish rural families and whether the New Cooperative Medical Scheme can effectively protect families with chronic patients against catastrophic health expenditures. Methods We used data from the 4th National Health Services Survey conducted in July 2008 in China. The rural sample we included in the analysis comprised 39,054 households. We used both households suffering from medical impoverishment and households with catastrophic health expenditures to compare the financial protection for families having a chronic patient with different insurance coverage statuses. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the impact of different benefit packages on health financial protection for families having a chronic patient. Results An additional 10.53% of the families with a chronic patient were impoverished because of healthcare expenditure, which is more than twice the proportion in families without a chronic patient. There is a higher catastrophic health expenditure incidence in the families with a chronic patient. The results of logistic regression show that simply adding extra benefits did not reduce the financial risks. Conclusions There is a lack of effective financial protection for healthcare expenditures for families with a chronic patient in rural China, even though there is a high

  9. Urban-Rural Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study of Schoolchildren in Wuhan, China.

    Kayne McCarthy

    Full Text Available China's rapid population growth and urban migration has developed healthcare inequity across the urban-rural divide. Past studies comparing cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor prevalence amongst urban-rural Chinese children are sparse and conflicting. We examined the association between urban-rural residence and risk of offspring CVD in Chinese children.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China, during May and June 2010. CVD risk factors include; waist circumference (WC, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, fasting blood glucose (FBG, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, body mass index (BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and metabolic risk score (MRS. Analysis of covariance and multivariable logistic regression were used to estimate associations between urban-rural residence and offspring CVD risks.A total of 579 Chinese children (338 boys and 241 girls aged 9.6 (0.7 years participated in this study. Rural boys had significantly lower CRF and higher FBG, TG, and MRS, while urban boys had significantly higher LDL and DBP. Rural girls had significantly higher BMI, FBG, and TG, as well as lower CRF. Rural children were at increased risks for decreased CRF, elevated MRS, and TG, (OR:2.04, 95%CI:1.29-3.25, (OR:2.33, 95%CI:1.50-3.62, and (OR:2.40, 95%CI:1.62-3.57, respectively. Rural girls and mothers were at increased risks for overweight(OR:7.19, 95%CI:1.64-31.6/obesity (OR:1.683, 95%CI:1.01-2.82. However, rural boys and fathers were less likely to have overweight(OR:0.62, 95%CI:0.34-1.12/obesity (OR:0.68, 95%CI:0.48-0.97.Rural residence was significantly associated with increased CVD risks amongst Chinese children. It is important to provide interventions aiming at China's urban-rural healthcare inequity and community-based approaches that reduce familial CVD risk.

  10. Science Teacher Training Programme in Rural Schools: An ODL Lesson from Zimbabwe

    Misheck Mhishi


    Full Text Available This case study looked at 76 randomly selected preservice science teachers from Mbire and Guruve districts who were learning at the Mushumbi Centre in Zimbabwe and assessed their motivations for enrolling under the Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE’s Virtual and Open Distance Learning (VODL programme. It also looked at the challenges they faced, their views on how instruction under the programme can be improved, and their deployment preferences after graduation. The districts are located in the remote Zambezi Valley, which is characterized by poor infrastructure, pests and diseases, frequent attacks by wild animals on people, domestic animals, and crops, harsh climatic conditions, and seasonal floods, which make it very difficult to attract and retain qualified teachers. Through targeted recruitment, BUSE’s VODL programme sought to train relief teachers already serving in the area in the hope that personal history and family connections would entice them to continue teaching in these areas after attaining their teacher certification. Data was collected using a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions. Results obtained indicate that despite a lack of funding, a shortage of reading materials, and the nonavailability of e-learning facilities, the students were motivated to join the programme for personal and professional motives and that the students, the majority of whom had taught for two or more years in the districts, would prefer deployments in the area after graduation. The study therefore recommends that deliberate efforts be directed toward the targeted recruitment of school leavers and relief teachers from disadvantaged rural areas who possess the requisite minimum entry qualifications to train as science teachers in order to improve teacher retention in remote areas. Further research into the intrinsic problems in BUSE’s VODL programme and a close scrutiny of its course development techniques are also

  11. Pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and risk factors in rural areas of China: a cohort study.

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Wen; Wang, Min; Hou, Yongchun; Xia, Yinyin; Xu, Weiguo; Bai, Liqiong; Nie, Shaofa; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Yihua


    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors in China remains unclear. This study examined TB incidence and relative risk factors in rural areas of China. Participants (n = 177,529) were recruited in Xiangtan County (in the central area of China) and in Danyang County (in the eastern area of China) in 2009 and a followed-up study was conducted for one year. The incidence density of pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB were 91.6 (95% CI: 78.7, 106.0) per 100,000 person-year and 36.7 (95% CI: 33.1, 52.4) per 100,000 person-year respectively in Xiangtan, and 47.3 (95% CI: 38.2, 57.5) per 100,000 person-year and 22.7 (95% CI: 16.5, 30.8) per 100,000 person-year in Danyang. The medical history of TB was associated with TB, with the relative risk (RR) of 7.00 (95% CI: 2.76, 17.18) in Xiangtan and that of 31.08 (95% CI: 13.22, 73.10) in Danyang. The association between TB and per capita living space over median was found in Xiangtan, with the RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.01). No association was found between TB and the insurance status, the contact history with TB, the history of diabetes, smoking, or per capita annual income. The host genetic susceptibility, and social factors such as education and income could be considered in future studies.

  12. Significant Factors Influencing Rural Residents’ Well-Being with Regard to Electricity Consumption: An Empirical Analysis in China

    Sen Guo


    Full Text Available The electric universal service policy, which has been implemented for many years in China, aims to meet the basic electricity demands of rural residents. Electricity consumption can facilitate the daily life of rural residents, such as lighting and cooking, which are necessary to their well-being. In practice, the well-being of rural residents due to electricity consumption is influenced by many factors. Therefore, to improve the well-being of rural residents, it is quite necessary to identify and optimize the significant factors that make the electric universal service policy play its prescribed role as well as possible. In this paper, the significant factors influencing rural residents’ well-being obtained from electricity consumption were identified and discussed by employing the Ordered Probit model. The results indicate that: (1 there are six significant factors, of which ‘educational level’, ‘health condition’, ‘each person income of a family per month’, and ‘service time of household appliances’ play positive roles in rural residents’ well-being, while ‘average power interruption times’ and ‘monthly electric charges’ have negative impacts; (2 for significant factors with positive roles, ‘educational level’ and ‘health condition’ show larger marginal effects on rural residents’ well-being; and (3 for significant factors with negative impacts, ‘average power interruption times’ has the greatest marginal effect. Finally, policy implications are proposed for improving rural residents’ well-being, which can also contribute to the effective implementation of the electric universal service policy in China.

  13. Talking about China's Current Rural Basic Education%当前中国农村基础教育浅析



    农村基础教育直接关系到我国农业、农村、农民的发展,影响着国民经济和社会发展的全局。自改革开放以来,中国的农村基础教育事业有了很大发展,基本普及了九年义务教育。但由于农村教育的先天基础不足及城乡二元机构的长期存在,农村的基础教育状况并没有得到根本性的改观,许多突出问题依然存在。本文旨在对当前中国农村基础教育存在的问题进行分析的基础上,提出农村基础教育改革的发展策略。%Basic education in rural areas is directly related to the development of our agriculture,rural areas and farmers,and impact on global economic and social development.Since the reform and opening up,China's rural basic education has made significant progress,basically popularizing nine-year compulsory education.However,due to the innate basis of insufficient of rural education and urban and rural institutions exist for a long,the status of basic education in rural areas and not been fundamentally changed,many outstanding problems still exist.This article on the basis of analyzing the problems of China's current rural basic education,refers to the development strategy of basic education reform in rural areas.

  14. Family sources of educational gender inequality in rural china: A critical assessment

    Hannum, Emily; Kong, Peggy; Zhang, Yuping


    In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of 9-12-year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected 7 years later. We complement our main analysis with two illustrative case studies of rural families drawn from 11 months of fieldwork conducted in rural Gansu between 2003 and 2005 by the second author. In 2000, most mothers expressed egalitarian views about girls' and boys' rights and abilities, in the abstract. However, the vast majority of mothers still expected to rely on sons for old-age support, and nearly one in five mothers interviewed agreed with the traditional saying, “Sending girls to school is useless since they will get married and leave home.” Compared to boys, girls faced somewhat lower (though still very high) maternal educational expectations and a greater likelihood of being called on for household chores than boys. However, there was little evidence of a gender gap in economic investments in education. Girls rivaled or outperformed boys in academic performance and engagement. Seven years later, boys had attained just about a third of a year more schooling than girls-a quite modest advantage that could not be fully explained by early parental attitudes and investments, or student performance or engagement. Fieldwork confirmed that parents of sons and daughters tended to have high aspirations for their children. Parents sometimes viewed boys as having greater aptitude, but tended to view girls as having

  15. The community-based rural welfare system in the People's Republic of China: 1949-1979.

    Dixon, J


    The development of China's rural welfare system is traced from its beginning in the early 1950s to 1979. Traditionally, peasants relied on families for welfare support. After the Communist Party's (CCP) assumption of power in 1949, an estimated 3-5% of the rural population was old, infirm, orphaned, invalid, or without means of support. The concept of mutual aid was encouraged in which neighbors assisted each other in times of need. With the redistribution of land and the collectivization movement came the creation of the rural welfare system. Public welfare funds were secured from a percentage of the annual incomes of the agricultural producers' cooperatives and ranged from 1-5%. By March 1957, 97.3% of the peasant households had been organized into advanced cooperatives and the 5 guarantees system was introduced. Although varying considerably between cooperatives, the 5 guarantees included food, clothing, burial expenses, and either fuel and children's education or medical care and housing. The welfare system was based on 1/2 free supply and 1/2 cash relief. With the development of the rural communes in 1958, 2 significant changes occurred: welfare responsibility shifted to the commune, away from the family; and support shifted from a categorical approach to a universal approach. Communal services included: public mess halls, homes for the aged, nurseries and kindergartens, sewing, shoemaking and laundry teams. Income support was available at the discretion of the commune CCP committee. The failure of the Great Leap Forward brought another series of adjustments to the welfare system. The family was reemphasized, categorical assistance reemerged, communal services and facilities disappeared and welfare administration was decentralized and became the responsibility of production teams. 5 categories of families were assisted: those of servicemen, "Revolutionary Martyrs," cadres, model workers, and households with difficulties. Rural welfare reform in the wake of the

  16. Study on the Flow of Rural Labor Force and the Contribution of Terrain Factor in Shaanxi, China

    Liu Yanxu; Li Chunyue; Ren Zhiyuan


    The flow of rural labor to urban is a significant phe- nomenon in China during the last 20 years. In spite of many researches focus on the driving force of economy, terrain is an important index in the rural development. There is a question that whether the flow of rural labor has some relationships with terrain. The study used the relief degree of land surface (RDLS) as terrain index, and the cost distance model and the center of gravity model to analyze the relationship between terrain and labor flows. The results indicated: (1) In the last 20 years, the rural labor force was not simply flowing to the low terrain region in Shaanxi province. And the RDLS was constantly strengthening the influence on the movement. (2) The RDLS was low in Guanzhong region, and the translation of rural labors relatively was not significant. Since North Shaanxi act as the energy industry base, the number of rural labors there increased faster than in South Shaanxi. (3) The move- ments of economical centers took an important role in the change of rural labor centers, and terrain factors also showed a high cor- relation with them. It is found that the lower of the terrain index, the higher of the land intensive degree, the more intensive of non- agriculturalization process.

  17. Why small and medium chemical companies continue to pose severe environmental risks in rural China.

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Lu, Yonglong


    In China, rural chemical SMEs are often believed to still largely operate below the sustainability radar. This paper investigates to what extent and how chemical SMEs are already experiencing pressure to improve their environmental performance, using an in-depth case study in Jasmine County, Hebei province. The results show that local residents had rather low trust in the environmental improvement promises made by the enterprises and the local government, and disagreed with the proposed improvement plans. Although the power of local residents to influence decision making remained limited, the chemical SMEs started to feel increasing pressures to clean up their business, from governments, local communities and civil society, and international value chain stakeholders. Notwithstanding these mounting pressures chemical SME's environmental behavior and performance has not changed radically for the better. The strong economic ties between local county governments and chemical SMEs continue to be a major barrier for stringent environmental regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on the factors associated with postpartum visits in rural China.

    Hua You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postpartum visits (PPVs have been advocated as a way to improve health outcomes for mothers and their infants, but the rate of PPVs is still low in rural China. This study aims to investigate the utilization of PPVs and to explore the factors associated with PPVs in rural China. Parity is the most concerned factor in this study. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was performed in two counties of Zhejiang province. Questions include socio-economic, health services and women's delivery data. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with PPVs. RESULTS: 223 women who had a delivery history in the recent five years were enrolled in analyses. 173 (78% of them were primiparous. Among the primiparous women, 43 (25% had not received any PPVs. The majority, 27 (55% of the 49 multiparous women, had not received any PPVs. Multiparous women were less likely to receive PPVs than primiparous women. Among 223 puerperal women, 47 (21% had been compensated for delivery fee expenses. Women who received compensation were found to be more likely to receive standard (at least 3 PPVs. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that women with "second babies" were less likely to use PPVs. This could be an unintended consequence of the "one-child policy", due to fear that contact with public health facilities could result in sanctions. This phenomenon should be taken seriously by government in order to improve the health of babies and their mothers. Financial compensation for delivery fee charges can improve the use of PPVs, thus free-of-charge delivery should be promoted.

  19. Characterization of dustfall in rural and urban sites during three dust storms in northern China, 2010

    Lyu, Yanli; Qu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lianyou; Guo, Lanlan; Yang, Yanyan; Hu, Xia; Xiong, Yiying; Zhang, Guoming; Zhao, Mengdi; Liang, Bo; Dai, Jiadong; Zuo, Xiyang; Jia, Qingpan; Zheng, Hao; Han, Xujiao; Zhao, Shoudong; Liu, Qi


    Dust transport and deposition processes are important for understanding the environmental risk of dust storms. This study investigated characteristics of dustfall at two rural sites and four urban sites from dust sources to downwind regions during three dust storms (DS1: March 19-22, DS2: April 24-26, DS3: May 7-10, 2010). Analysis of near-surface instantaneous maximum wind speed and prevailing wind direction revealed the dust storms bursted out from northwestern arid and semiarid regions to eastern China. Microaggregates, angular, subangular, columnar, subrounded, and spherical particles were identified by scanning electron microscope. Dust deposition flux (DDF) during the dust storms was significantly high at sites near sand deserts and sandy land. During DS2, DDF was 25.1, 9.9, 2.3, and 1.5 g m-2 in Jingbian, Shapotou, Lanzhou, and Beijing, respectively. The three dust storms contributed 7.3% of Beijing's annual dustfall in 2010, which suggests anthropogenic dust might contribute the majority of annual dustfall in urban areas. The mass medium diameter of dustfall during DS2 in Shapotou, Jingbian, Lanzhou, and Beijing was 26.1, 9.0, 16.4, and 15.5 μm, respectively. Urban dustfall contained more heavy metals, sulfur and arsenic than rural dustfall. Cadmium contamination was identified in all urban dust particles. Anthropogenic pollutants in combination with mineral dust might lead to complex environmental risk on local, regional, and global scales. China's environmental pollution control should integrate reductions in land desertification and multisource anthropogenic emissions within the context of climate change mitigation.

  20. Evaluation of a community-based randomized controlled prenatal care trial in rural China.

    Wu, Zhuochun; Viisainen, Kirsi; Wang, Ying; Hemminki, Elina


    A community-based randomized control prenatal care trial was performed in a rural county of China during 2000-2003. The purpose of this paper is to describe the trial implementation and the impact of the trial on the utilization of prenatal care and perinatal outcomes. In the study county, 10 townships (from a total of 55) were each paired with a control (20 study townships in total), with the criteria for pairing being the township's socioeconomic development, perinatal health, and maternal care utilization and provision. One of each township pair was randomly allocated to the intervention or control groups. The trial interventions were: 1) training township hospital midwives and instructing them in how to provide systematic maternal care, 2) informing women in the community of the importance of prenatal care, 3) if needed, providing basic medical instruments to the hospitals. A variety of data sources were used to describe the trial implementation (observations, group discussions, field notes, survey to women). The data on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes were from the original hand-written work-records in the village family planning centers of the study townships. Implementation of the intervention was deficient. The factors hindering the trial implementation included poor coordination between midwives and family planning officers, broader policy changes implemented by the provincial government during the trial, the decentralization of county governance, and the lack of government funding for maternal care. There was only little difference in the use of maternal care, in women's opinions related to maternal care or content of prenatal care, and no difference in the perinatal outcomes between the intervention and control townships. A community based randomized controlled trial could not be fully carried out in rural China as planned due to the changing political landscape, the complexity of the socio-economic situation and a lengthy planning stage. The study

  1. Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China

    ZHOU Zhen-feng; LIU Kang; WANG Xiao-rong; HUANG Shi-hong


    To understand pollution level and possible sources ofatmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high,reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southem Jiangsu Province.

  2. Barriers to increasing hospital birth rates in rural Shanxi Province, China.

    Gao, Yu; Barclay, Lesley; Kildea, Sue; Hao, Min; Belton, Suzanne


    This study investigated the reasons for continued high rates of home births in rural Shanxi Province, northern China, despite a national programme designed to encourage hospital deliveries. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 home-birthing women in five rural counties and drew on hospital audit data, observations and interviews with local health workers from a larger study. Multiple barriers were identified, including economic and geographic factors and poor quality of maternity care. Women's main reasons for not having institutional births were financial difficulties (n=26); poor quality of antenatal care (n=13); transport problems (n=11); dissatisfaction with hospital care expressed as fear of being in hospital (n=10); convenience of being at home and continuity of care provided by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) (n=10); and belief that the birth would be normal (n=6). These barriers must all be overcome to improve access to and acceptability of hospital birth. To ensure that the national policy of improving the hospital birth rate is implemented effectively, the government needs to improve the quality of antenatal and delivery care, increase financial subsidies to reduce out-of-pocket payments, remove transport barriers, and where hospital birth is not available in remote areas, consider allowing skilled attendance at home on an outreach basis and integrate TBAs into the health system.

  3. Perceived discrimination and smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.

    Shin, Sanghyuk S; Wan, Xia; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E


    Smoking may be a coping mechanism for psychosocial stress caused by discrimination. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers (RHWs) and those working as sex workers (FSWs) in 10 Chinese cities to investigate whether perceived discrimination is associated with smoking. We interviewed RHWs at medical examination clinics and FSWs at entertainment venues. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Of the 1,696 RHWs and 532 FSWs enrolled, 155 (9.1%) and 63 (11.8%) reported perceived discrimination, respectively. Perceived discrimination was independently associated with ever tried smoking (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.23) and current smoking (PR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.32-4.79) among RHWs and ever tried smoking (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.61) and current smoking (PR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28-2.06) among FSWs. Perceived discrimination is associated with higher prevalence of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.

  4. "Remnants of feudalism"? Women's health and their utilization of health services in rural China.

    Anson, O; Haanappel, F W


    Almost five decades ago, the Chinese Communist Party wished to abolish all "remnants of feudalism," including the patriarchal social order. Just one year after the revolution, the Marriage Law endorsed women's rights within the family, but no operative measures were taken to enforce it. Some of the economic reforms since independence even strengthened patrilocality and, possibly, patriarchal values. The purpose of this study was to explore the degree to which patrilocality served to maintain the traditional patriarchal stratification among women in the household by exploring women's health patterns and utilization of health services. Data were collected from 3859 women residing in rural Hebei, and variation in health and help seeking of six categories of relation to household head--mothers, wives, daughters, daughters-in-law, family heads, and other relatives--were explored. Utilization of health services is not dependent on women's position in the household, but primarily on per-capita income. Health patterns seem to indicate that mothers of the head of the household still have a considerable power to define their roles and share of household work. Women head of family, most of whom are married, appear to be under strain, which could be a result of their culturally "deviant" position. We conclude that old patriarchal values are intertwined with values of equality in current rural China.

  5. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital

    Qiwei Chen


    Full Text Available Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results. About 75% (28/39 of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39 mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39 showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion. Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor’s relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.

  6. Rocky Land Desertification and its Driving Forces in the Karst Areas of Rural Guangxi, Southwest China


    With a subtropical climate, Guangxi Zhuaug Autonomous Region has a typical karst landscape. Rocky desertification has become a serious environmental issue due to its high vulnerability caused by the joint effect of natural settings and human activities, because of which its eco- environment has been deteriorated in recent years, and farmland has been disappearing sharply at the same time. This, in turn, has exacerbated the poverty level in the rural areas of the region. In this study, we monitored the spatial distribution of rocky land desertification and its temporal evolution using Landsat TM/ETM images of 1985, 1995, 2000 and 2005. We also analyzed the driving forces of the desertification and its expansion. Through constructing regression models by using all the relevant variables and considering the lagged effects as well as fixed effects, we quantified the exact role of different factors causing rocky land desertification in the study area with some new findings. The newfindings in this study are greatly helpful for preserving, restoring and reconstructing the degraded mountain environment in Guangxi and other karst areas in Southwest China, and also for alleviating poverty in the rural areas in the future.

  7. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue


    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP relating to avian influenza in urban and rural areas of China

    Cheng Xiaowen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs associated with avian influenza (AI. To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized, structured questionnaires distributed in both an urban area (Shenzhen, Guangdong Province; n = 1,826 and a rural area (Xiuning, Anhui Province; n = 2,572 using the probability proportional to size (PPS sampling technique. Results Approximately three-quarters of participants in both groups requested more information about AI. The preferred source of information for both groups was television. Almost three-quarters of all participants were aware of AI as an infectious disease; the urban group was more aware that it could be transmitted through poultry, that it could be prevented, and was more familiar with the relationship between AI and human infection. The villagers in Xiuning were more concerned than Shenzhen residents about human AI viral infection. Regarding preventative measures, a higher percentage of the urban group used soap for hand washing whereas the rural group preferred water only. Almost half of the participants in both groups had continued to eat poultry after being informed about the disease. Conclusions Our study shows a high degree of awareness of human AI in both urban and rural populations, and could provide scientific support to assist the Chinese government in developing strategies and health-education campaigns to prevent AI infection among the general population.

  9. Health insurance benefit design and healthcare utilization in northern rural China.

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poverty due to illness has become a substantial social problem in rural China since the collapse of the rural Cooperative Medical System in the early 1980s. Although the Chinese government introduced the New Rural Cooperative Medical Schemes (NRCMS in 2003, the associations between different health insurance benefit package designs and healthcare utilization remain largely unknown. Accordingly, we sought to examine the impact of health insurance benefit design on health care utilization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a household survey of 15,698 members of 4,209 randomly-selected households in 7 provinces, which were representative of the provinces along the north side of the Yellow River. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and in Mandarin. Our analytic sample included 9,762 respondents from 2,642 households. In each household, respondents indicated the type of health insurance benefit that the household had (coverage for inpatient care only or coverage for both inpatient and outpatient care and the number of outpatient visits in the 30 days preceding the interview and the number of hospitalizations in the 365 days preceding the household interview. People who had both outpatient and inpatient coverage compared with inpatient coverage only had significantly more village-level outpatient visits, township-level outpatient visits, and total outpatient visits. Furthermore, the increased utilization of township and village-level outpatient care was experienced disproportionately by people who were poorer, whereas the increased inpatient utilization overall and at the county level was experienced disproportionately by people who were richer. CONCLUSION: The evidence from this study indicates that the design of health insurance benefits is an important policy tool that can affect the health services utilization and socioeconomic equity in service use at different levels. Without careful

  10. Zoning of rural water conservation in China: A case study at Ashihe River Basin

    Xiaoying Liu


    Full Text Available With the effective control of point source (PS pollution accomplished, water pollution problems caused by non-point source (NPS pollution have increased in recent years. The worsening agricultural NPS pollution has drawn the attention of the Chinese Government and researcher scientists and has resulted in the often mentioned “three red lines” on water resources management. One of the red lines is to control water pollution within a rational range. The Agricultural NPS pollution, which includes pollution from housing, and from livestock and crop production, is the main source. Based on the NPS pollution statutes, an index system for integrated evaluation of water quality, and a zoning scheme for rural water conservation were established. Using the method of one-dimensional Euclidean distance, this country is divided into 9 sub-zones at the provincial level, which are the first level zones. The zoning themes include natural resources, socio-economic development, water use efficiency, and pollutants emission intensity. According to pollution types of livestock, agriculture, or both, the first level zones are divided into 25 second level zones. The third class zoning is divided also based on pollution intensity of total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. On the basis of the second level zoning, there were formed 70 rural water conservation third level zones. This case study in the Ashihe river watershed indicated that the main pollution sources are consistent with the zoning research result, and this zoning has shown a good way to guide the agricultural NPS pollution control in not only the wide rural area of China but also other parts of the world.

  11. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China.

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jiaming; Ma, Jiaolong; Guo, Heng; Yan, Yizhong; He, Jia; Wang, Kui; Li, Shugang; Ma, Rulin; Murat, Bek; Guo, Shuxia


    The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old), and was conducted during 2009-2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4) and (80.9 ± 13.4) mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.765) was negatively correlated with hypertension. Prevalence of hypertension among adults in remote rural areas of Xinjiang was higher than the national average. Prevalence of hypertension was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghurs than Han nationals, thus indicating significant differences between regions and nationalities. Gender, age, nation, occupation, education, overweight or obesity, abdominal obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C were positively correlated with hypertension, low HDL-C was negatively correlated with hypertension.

  12. Sexual and reproductive health among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai China: a comparative analysis.

    Wang, Ying; Yao, Wen; Shang, Meili; Cai, Yong; Shi, Rong; Ma, Jin; Wang, Jin; Song, Huijiang


    We compared sexual and reproductive health (SRH)-related knowledge, attitude and behavior among unmarried rural-urban female migrants in Shanghai coming from different regions of China. A total of 944 unmarried rural-urban female migrants were recruited from three districts of Shanghai. We used an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire to collect information from each participant and a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between premarital sex and risk factors. We found the rates of premarital sex, pregnancy and abortion among unmarried rural-urban female migrants were 28.2%, 5.2% and 5.0%, respectively. Participants from the east of China were more likely to engage in premarital sex than those from the mid-west (p rural-urban female migrants lack SRH related knowledge and the data suggests high levels of occurrence of premarital sex. The results indicate that programs to promote safe sex, especially to those migrants coming from eastern China, should be a priority.

  13. A Multi-Site Study on Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practice of Child-Dog Interactions in Rural China

    David C. Schwebel


    Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6 in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children’s risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children’s self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children’s dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.

  14. Geographical Mobility, Income, Life Satisfaction and Family Size Preferences: An Empirical Study on Rural Households in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces in China.

    Chen, Jiangsheng; Yang, Hong

    Employing data from the China rural-urban mobility survey conducted in 2010, this study investigates the influence of family demographic characteristics on the income, life satisfaction, and potential for rural-urban mobility at the rural household level of two provinces of China: Shaanxi and Henan. A larger labor force in a rural household was found to reduce a family's ability or inclination to move to a city. The findings reveal that family size negatively affects the average income per family member and reduces the marginal income of the labor force and that minor children can improve the life satisfaction of family members. We conclude that a larger family size does not translate to more benefits for a rural household. Family size preference is found to be a reflection of parents' concerns about elderly care and is deemed to be unfavorable for urbanization in P. R. China.

  15. Risks,Financing Constraints,and High Savings Ratio in the Rural Economy of China:A Model Incorporating Precautionary Savings and Uquidity Constraints

    MA Junlu; TIAN Gang


    This paper makes an in-depth investigation on the phenomenon of high savings rate in the rural economy of China between 1978 and 2003.On the basis of precautionary savings theory,we construct a model incorporating the risks,liquidity constrains,and aging population to explain the existence of high savings rate in the rural economy of China.We measure risks with Gini coefficient and marginal propensity to save.We find that these risk indices are positively associated with the higher savings rate and the higher degree of prudence of rural households.Our findings pose an urgency of the reform of rural financial system and the improvement in social security system in the rural economy of China.

  16. A cross-sectional study of the effect of health literacy on diabetes prevention and control among elderly individuals with prediabetes in rural China

    Qin, Lulu; Xu, Huilan


    This study was designed to examine the effect of health literacy on diabetes prevention and control and risk factors for low diabetes health literacy among elderly individuals with prediabetes in rural areas in China...

  17. Discrimination Against Floating Migrants in China:Take Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Beijing As An Example

    黄煜茜; 蔡行健; 厉惠萱


    This essay firstly examines the destiny of rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing, the capital of China. Relying on data collected from representative survey, the essay then provides the demographic profile of rural migrants. Then the essay specifically conducts a series of statistical analysis. The final results demon-strate that although contributing enormous growth to the Beijing economy, the floating population is still discriminated and segre-gated. By providing the severe consequences that may arise from the existing discrimination issues, this essay calls on the instant measurements to protect the social equality and justice.

  18. Poverty and Proximate Barriers to Learning: Vision Deficiencies, Vision Correction and Educational Outcomes in Rural Northwest China.

    Hannum, Emily; Zhang, Yuping


    Uncorrected vision may present a significant barrier to educational mobility in poor communities in low and middle income countries. Focusing on the case of rural Northwest China, we analyze the Gansu Survey of Children and Families (2,000 children; 100 rural villages) and the Gansu Vision Intervention Project (a randomized trial; 19,185 students, 165 schools, two counties). Four main findings emerge: significant unmet need for vision correction; socioeconomic gradients in vision correction; somewhat greater vulnerability to vision problems among higher socioeconomic status and more academically engaged children; and significant favorable effects of vision correction on math and literacy performance and class failure.

  19. Changes of rural area in the outer urban fringe of beijing city, china : a case study of zhangge village

    Wang, Pengfei


    In this paper, the author tried to analyze the process of rural area changes in the outer urban fringe of Beijing City and made clear conditions of changes after the policy of economic reform and opening to outside world in China since 1978. Based on field survey analysis of changes of Zhangge Village, the author shows that changes of rural area in Beijing City were divided into three periods after reform and opening: the period of people's communes (before 1984), the period of reform and ope...

  20. Effect of Air Pollution and Rural-Urban Difference on Mental Health of the Elderly in China

    Tao TIAN


    Full Text Available Background: China has become an aging society, and the mental health problem of the elderly is increasingly becom-ing prominent. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health of the elderly in China.Methods: Using the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2013, after control-ling the social demography variable via Tobit and Probit, a regression analysis of the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health and psychological disorder was conducted on 6,630 old people (≧60 yr old of Chi-na from February to April 2015. Mental health and psychological disorder of the elderly were measured by the CES-D score of respondents. Air pollution degree of counties and cities (n=123 were measured by SO2 emission.Results: 27.8% of old people had psychological disorders. Air pollution significantly influenced the mental health of the elderly, showing a positive “U-shaped” curve (P<0.001. In China, the urban elderly had better psychological sta-tus than the rural elderly had. The female elderly had more serious mental health problems. Marriage, education, and social activities had positive effects on the mental health of the elderly.Conclusion: China’s local governments should consider the influence of air pollution on the mental health of the elderly during economic development. This paper recommends paying attention to the difference in mental health between the urban and rural elderly when making public health policies. Governments could improve the mental health of the elderly by enriching social activities and increasing employment opportunities of the elderly.

  1. Infant care practices in rural China and their relation to prenatal care utilisation.

    Nwaru, B I; Wu, Z; Hemminki, E


    Studies describing postpartum childcare practices and the influence of prenatal care on infant care outcomes in rural China are scarce. This study looked at data for 1479 women who had given birth during the preceding 2 years (median age of the child was 8 months). Data were available from a Knowledge, Attitude and Perception cross-sectional survey collected from 2001 to 2003, after a prenatal care intervention in Anhui County, China, with a response rate of 97%. Prenatal care utilisation was categorised using the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index. Logistic regression was used to study the association between prenatal care utilisation and infant care practices. Mothers' uptake of breastfeeding, introduction of milk formula, cereal/porridge, meat and uptake of any immunisation were found to be in accordance with national recommendations. Intermediate prenatal care uptake was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of cereal/porridge. Inadequate care was positively associated with never breastfeeding, early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge, and early start of work after delivery. Initiation to prenatal care after the third month was positively associated with early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge. Having no prenatal care was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of milk formula. Mothers' uptake of infant care practices in this population was largely in accordance with national recommendations. Women with less than adequate utilisation of prenatal care and those who had initiated prenatal care late were less likely to follow recommendations on infant care.

  2. Transforming rural health care through information technology: an interventional study in China.

    Liu, Gordon Guoen; Chen, Yiqun; Qin, Xuezheng


    This article estimates the impacts of health information technology (HIT) on health-care delivery in the Wenchuan County of China, where the devastation of the 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake and the subsequent large-scale HIT implementation (the Healthy Wenchuan Program) offers a 'natural experiment' opportunity, enabling us to conduct a difference-in-difference evaluation of the potential benefits of HIT on accessibility, affordability and appropriateness of health-care services in the underdeveloped rural area. Based on data collected from two field surveys in township hospitals, we find that for both the inpatient and outpatient samples, the HIT system promotes access to medical care by increasing doctor referrals and encouraging within-county medical utilization, reduces patient financial burden in certain expenditure categories, and contributes to higher patient satisfaction on medical care quality. On the other hand, we also find that HIT leads to increased patient waiting time for hospital registration, reflecting the unique challenges in implementing HIT in the underdeveloped areas. Our study contributes to the growing body of literature on evaluating the impacts of HIT application in the developing regions, and provides implications on the potential role of HIT in China's national health system reforms.

  3. Understanding health constraints among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Li, Yan


    The main purpose of this article is to examine the understanding and experience of health and health care among rural-to-urban migrants in China, and to explain the impact of the internal factors of migrants themselves and the external factors of their social environment. Understanding the perceptions and consciousness of health issues among migrants is crucial to prevention, intervention, and other health-related measures for the migrant population in China, but this has rarely been explored in studies. On the basis of a case study of a migrant community in Beijing, I explore the migrants' understandings of health and health care and analyze factors in the social environment, including exclusion from the social system and the possibility of health participation, exclusion from social relation networks, obstructed channels of health maintenance, and exclusion of crowd psychology, which impact heavily on their health understanding and health behavior. I argue that the internal and the external factors are linked together closely and interact as reciprocal causation. However, the migrants should not be seen as primarily responsible, because their poor understanding of health mainly results from the socioeconomic environment in which they live and work.

  4. Public vs private administration of rural health insurance schemes: a comparative study in Zhejiang of China.

    Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Zhengzhong; Rechel, Bernd; Liu, Chaojie; Jiang, Jialin; Zhang, Yinying


    Since 2003, China has experimented in some of the country's counties with the private administration of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a publicly subsidized health insurance scheme for rural populations. Our study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of private vs public administration in four counties in one of China's most affluent provinces in the initial stage of the NCMS's implementation. The study was undertaken in Ningbo city of Zhejiang province. Out of 10 counties in Ningbo, two counties with private administration for the NCMS (Beilun and Ninghai) were compared with two others counties with public administration (Zhenhai and Fenghua), using the following indicators: (1) proportion of enrollees who were compensated for inpatient care; (2) average reimbursement-expense ratio per episode of inpatient care; (3) overall administration cost; (4) enrollee satisfaction. Data from 2004 to 2006 were collected from the local health authorities, hospitals and the contracted insurance companies, supplemented by a randomized household questionnaire survey covering 176 households and 479 household members. In our sample counties, private administration of the NCMS neither reduced transaction costs, nor improved the benefits of enrollees. Enrollees covered by the publicly administered NCMS were more likely to be satisfied with the insurance scheme than those covered by the privately administered NCMS. Experience in the selected counties suggests that private administration of the NCMS did not deliver the hoped-for results. We conclude that caution needs to be exercised in extending private administration of the NCMS.

  5. Consanguineous marriage in PR China: a study in rural Man (Manchu) communities.

    Wang, W; Qian, Cong; Bittles, A H


    Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in China, information on its prevalence is very limited. The Man (Qing) dynasty ruled China for over 250 years, but no consanguinity studies have been reported on this important population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the present-day level of consanguineous marriage in the Man community, and to compare the data with existing consanguinity information on other Chinese populations. The study was conducted in a group of 11 rural Man communities in the north-eastern Chinese province of Liaoning. Household-based interviews were conducted by local staff on 513 couples, 418 of whom were Man with another 95 Man-Han inter-ethnic marriages. Basic pedigrees were constructed to determine the biological relationship between each set of spouses. Thirty of the 418 couples were in a consanguineous union, with a mean coefficient of inbreeding alpha = 0.0012. The small population sizes of the study may have contributed to the spatial variation in the patterns of inbreeding. Across generations there was a reduction in consanguineous marriages and an increase in inter-ethnic unions, which paralleled changes in civil marriage regulations.

  6. The role of off-farm employment in the rural energy consumption transition — A village-level analysis in Jiangxi Province, China

    Shi, X.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.


    Energy consumption in rural areas in China is characterized by high consumption of fuelwood, straw and other biomass. Off-farm employment can play an important role in the transition towards more sustainable sources of energy by increasing rural household incomes and reducing the amount of labor ava

  7. Parental Absence Accompanies Worse Academic Achievements: Evidence Based upon a Sample of Left-Behind Children in Rural China

    Mingchen Fu


    Full Text Available In China, with the rapid urbanization and large amount of labor force migrating from rural-to-urban areas, an enormous number of children living in rural China are in the absence of parental care. The objective of the study was to investigate the academic performance of left-behind children under various statuses of parental absence. We investigated 3,076 children (1,761 non-left-behind and 1,315 left-behind regarding their academic achievement in different subjects. We found that children with different status of parental absence would perform differently on Chinese, mathematics, and English learning. In addition, left-behind children would be significantly more likely to get low scores in academic examinations as compared with non-left-behind children. Strengths and limitations of the study are discussed.

  8. Household Decision Making and the Influence of Spouses' Income, Education, and Communist Party Membership: A Field Experiment in Rural China

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Martinsson, Peter; Qin, Ping; Sutter, Matthias


    We study household decision making in a high-stakes experiment with a random sample of households in rural China. Spouses have to choose between risky lotteries, first separately and then jointly. We find that spouses' individual risk preferences are more similar the richer the household and the higher the wife's relative income contribution. A couple's joint decision is typically determined by the husband, but women who contribute relatively more to the household income, women in high-income...

  9. Are the Children of Uneducated Farmers Doubly Doomed? Farm, Nonfarm and Intergenerational Educational Mobility in Rural China

    Emran, M. Shahe; Sun, Yan


    This paper relaxes the single factor model of intergenerational educational mobility standard in the literature, and develops a research design to study the effects of parents' education and occupation on children's schooling. We use survey data from rural China that cover three generations and are not subject to coresidency bias. The evidence from recently developed matching and propensity score weighted estimators shows that the mean effects of parents education from the standard model miss...

  10. Intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating among carers of left-behind children in rural China: A qualitative study.

    Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani; Callery, Peter


    China's internal migration has left 61 million rural children living apart from parents and usually being cared for by grandparents. This study aims to explore caregivers' beliefs about healthy eating for left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Twenty-six children aged 6-12 (21 LBC and 5 non-LBC) and 32 caregivers (21 grandparents, 9 mothers, and 2 uncles/aunts) were recruited in one township in rural China. Children were encouraged to keep food diaries followed by in-depth interviews with caregivers. Distinct intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating emerged: the grandparent generation was concerned about not having enough food and tended to emphasise the importance of starchy foods for children's growth, due to their past experiences during the Great Famine. On the other hand, the parent generation was concerned about food safety and paid more attention to protein-source foods including meat, eggs and milk. Parents appeared to offer children high-energy food, which was viewed as a sign of economic status, rather than as part of a balanced diet. Lack of remittances from migrant parents may compromise LBC's food choices. These findings suggest the potential for LBC left in the care of grandparents, especially with experience of the Great Famine, may be at greater risk of malnutrition than children cared for by parents. By gaining an in-depth understanding of intergenerational differences in healthy eating beliefs for children, our findings could inform for the development of nutrition-related policies and interventions for LBC in rural China.

  11. A Comparison of Household Carbon Emission Patterns of Urban and Rural China over the 17 Year Period (1995–2011

    Jiansheng Qu


    Full Text Available The household sector consumes a large amount of goods and services and is therefore a major source of global carbon emissions. This study aims to analyze per person household carbon emission (HCEs patterns of urban and rural China over the period from 1995 to 2011. Annual macroeconomic data for the study were obtained from authentic Chinese government sources. Direct HCE estimates for each fossil fuel were obtained using the IPCC’s reference approach, and indirect HCEs were calculated by input-output analysis. In 1995, per person HCEs from direct sources for urban and rural China were 0.50 tCO2 and 0.22 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 0.60 tCO2 and 0.61 tCO2, an increase of 20% and 177.27%, respectively. Similarly, in 1995, per person HCEs from indirect sources for urban and rural China were 0.43 tCO2 and 0.16 tCO2, respectively; by 2011, these values had increased to 1.77 tCO2 and 0.53 tCO2, respectively, an increase of 306% and 235%. The reasons for these differences and the sets of policies required to rectify increasing emissions are discussed. If current trends and practices continue, with a RMB1000 increase in per capita income from 2011 levels, per person HCEs in urban and rural China will increase by 0.119 tCO2 and 0.197 tCO2, respectively. This result indicates that the sector of society which is most vulnerable will contribute most to China’s increasing HCEs. Therefore, while developing energy consumption and emissions reduction policies and programs, principles of fairness and equity need to be followed.

  12. Multidrug resistance found in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from rural water reservoirs in Guantao, China

    Hongna eZhang


    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from humans and animals across the world. However, data on prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from rural water reservoirs is limited. This study aimed to isolate and characterize ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural water reservoirs in Guantao, China. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 (16.7% of 30 sampled rural water reservoirs. 66 individual isolates expressing an ESBL phenotype were obtained in the present study. Species identification showed that 42 representatives of Escherichia coli, 17 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 4 Raoultella planticola, and 3 Enterobacter cloacae. 20 isolates contained a single bla gene, including CTX-M (17 strains, TEM (2 strains, and SHV (1 strain. 46 isolates contained more than one type of beta-lactamase genes. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in this study were all multidrug resistant. These findings indicated that the seroius contamination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural water resevoirs existed in Guantao, China.

  13. Nutritional Deficiencies, the Absence of Information and Caregiver Shortcomings: A Qualitative Analysis of Infant Feeding Practices in Rural China.

    Yue, Ai; Marsh, Lauren; Zhou, Huan; Medina, Alexis; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Kenny, Kaleigh; Rozelle, Scott


    Development during the first two years of life is critical and has a lasting impact on a child's health. Poor infant and child nutrition can lead to deficiencies in essential micronutrients, which may cause a weakened immune system and lasting effects on children's growth and development. Recent studies in rural Shaanxi Province found an anemia prevalence of 54.3% among rural children aged six to twelve months. While new large-scale, quantitative research has begun to catalogue the extent of child malnutrition and anemia, no effort has yet been made to look more closely at the potential reasons for rural children's nutritional deficiencies through qualitative analysis. This study aims to elucidate some of the fundamental causes of poor complementary feeding practices that may lead to anemia among children in rural Shaanxi Province, China. We interviewed sixty caregivers participating in a large survey on child health and nutrition. We conducted three waves of interviews with children's primary caregivers in seventeen rural villages within four nationally-designated poverty counties in the southern part of Shaanxi Province. The qualitative analysis reveals that poor complementary feeding practices are common across our sample. Information gathered from our interviews suggests that complementary feeding practices are impeded by two constraints: absence of understanding topics related to infant health and nutrition under caregivers, as well as inadequate sources of information on these topics. Poverty does not appear to constrain child feeding practices. Our results uncover lack of proper knowledge on infant and child nutrition among rural caregivers in China. This situation causes them to fail incorporating micronutrient rich foods in their children's diet. Age-appropriate complementary feeding can stimulate children's physical and cognitive development, but in its absence it leads to iron-deficiency anemia. We suggest that steps be taken to educate caregivers to

  14. Atherogenic Index of Plasma Predicts Hyperuricemia in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China

    Ye Chang


    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the association of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP with hyperuricemia (HUA in the rural population of northeast China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1104 participants (9.7% suffered from HUA. Spearman rank test showed that AIP was positively correlated with uric acid in both sexes (r = 0.310 for men and r = 0.347 for women, both p < 0.001. AIP was classified into three groups: the low (<0.11, the intermediate (0.11–0.21 and the increased (>0.21 risk. The prevalence of HUA increased with AIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the low AIP group, participants in increased AIP group had a 2.536-fold risk for HUA (2.164-fold in male and 2.960-fold in female after adjustment for covariates. Results of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (95% confidence intervals was 0.686 (0.665–0.707 for male and 0.730 (0.706–0.755 for female. We indicated that increased AIP was associated with higher serum uric acid levels and could be identified as an independent risk factor of HUA in the rural population of northeast China.

  15. Parental status and late-life well-being in rural China: the benefits of having multiple children.

    Guo, Man


    This study examined potential differences among childless elders, elders with one child, and elders with multiple children in rural China in their levels of depression and life satisfaction, and investigated the mechanism behind the potential differences. The sample consisted of 1224 older adults in rural Anhui province, China. ANOVA tests were carried out to compare the three groups in depression and life satisfaction, respectively. Multiple regressions were carried out to predict depression and life satisfaction, with (1) parental status, (2) individual attributes (i.e., sociodemographic variables and functional health), and (3) variables representing family relations (i.e., living arrangement, intergenerational contact, and family support) entered sequentially in each regression. Overall, childless elders in rural China had significantly higher level of depression and lower level of life satisfaction than did older parents. The primary reason for such group differences was lack of monetary support from adult children, the effect of which was conditioned upon the income level of older adults. With a high level of income, the benefit of monetary support from children was negligible. However, the mere presence of multiple children was associated with a higher life satisfaction, independent of personal attributes and potential monetary support from children. This study contributed to the 'missing link' in the explanation by identifying the pathways through which parental status affect individual well-being. The findings indicate that local contexts such as affluence, social norms, and available formal support all play a role in shaping the consequences of childlessness in later life.

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of induced abortion among rural married women: a cross-sectional survey in Anhui, China.

    Gao, Guo-Peng; Zhang, Ren-Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Jun; Jia, Xiao-Min; Li, Xiu-De; Li, Xiang; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Tong, Fei; Sun, Ye-Huan


    This study aims to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with induced abortion among married women in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. A multistage probability sampling method was used to identify a representative sample of 53,652 married women aged 18-49 years in rural areas of Anhui Province, China. All women were interviewed in the form of a standardized questionnaire. We found that 32.0% (16,800) of these women had had at least one induced abortion: 21.1% (11,090) of women had had one; 7.6% (3976) of women had had two; and 4.1% (1734) of women had had at least three. The number of induced abortions per 100 pregnancies was found to be 22.0. Multivariate analysis showed that education, the age of a woman at her first marriage, number of total births, number of total pregnancies, and contraceptive methods were significant predictors for induced abortion after controlling for women's current age, employment and family yearly income. The study shows that the prevalence of induced abortion is still very high among married women in rural China, and highly effective methods of contraception (sterilization, intrauterine device) decrease women's recourse to induced abortion. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Teaching Bitter Lessons: China’s Use of Force in Territorial Disputes 1962-1988


    there to India . By doing this, China believed it was 17 Robinson, “The Sino-Soviet Border Conflicts of...On The Conflict With China , 1962 (History Division, Ministry of Defense, Government of India , 1992), 20. 29 Sinha, Dr P.B. and Athale, Col A.A...of the Himalaya Mountains, the True Record of the China - India War), trans. Garver, John W. (Taiyuan: Bei Yue wenyi chubanshe, 1991), 96. 35 Graham T

  18. Applying Western Organization Development in China: Lessons from a Case of Success

    Wang, Jia


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore a successful case of a Chinese state-owned enterprise (SOE) as it applied western organization development (OD) approaches. Specifically, this study seeks to answer two questions: How has western organization development and change (OD/C) been applied in one Chinese SOE? and What lessons can be…

  19. Selecting Targeted Symptoms/Syndromes for Syndromic Surveillance in Rural China

    Tan, Li; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Liwei; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K.; Long, Lu; Nie, Shaofa


    Objective To select the potential targeted symptoms/syndromes as early warning indicators for epidemics or outbreaks detection in rural China. Introduction Patients’ chief complaints (CCs) as a common data source, has been widely used in syndromic surveillance due to its timeliness, accuracy and availability (1). For automated syndromic surveillance, CCs always classified into predefined syndromic categories to facilitate subsequent data aggregation and analysis. However, in rural China, most outpatient doctors recorded the information of patients (e.g. CCs) into clinic logs manually rather than computers. Thus, more convenient surveillance method is needed in the syndromic surveillance project (ISSC). And the first and important thing is to select the targeted symptoms/syndromes. Methods Epidemiological analysis was conducted on data from case report system in Jingmen City (one study site in ISSC) from 2004 to 2009. Initial symptoms/syndromes were selected by literature reviews. And finally expert consultation meetings, workshops and field investigation were held to confirm the targeted symptoms/syndromes. Results 10 kinds of infectious diseases, 6 categories of emergencies, and 4 bioterrorism events (i.e. plague, anthrax, botulism and hemorrhagic fever) were chose as specific diseases/events for monitoring (Table 1). Two surveillance schemes were developed by reviewing on 565 literatures about clinical conditions of specific diseases/events and 14 literatures about CCs based syndromic surveillance. The former one was to monitor symptoms (19 initial symptoms), and then aggregation or analysis on single or combined symptom(s); and the other one was to monitor syndromes (9 initial syndromes) directly (Table 2). The consultation meeting and field investigation identified three issues which should be considered: 1) the abilities of doctors especially village doctors to understand the definitions of symptoms/syndromes; 2) the workload of data collection; 3) the

  20. Probing the SES-Achievement Connection in the Fast-Changing Society of China: A Comparison of Urban, Rural, and Migrant Students

    Luo, Fang; Zhang, Yunyun


    This study examined the effects of family SES on children's mathematics achievement for urban, rural, and migrant families in China. The data comprised 6050 children (44% female, 56% male) in grades 4 and 5 from a national database in China. The results showed that parental education level and family income were directly related to children's…

  1. 农村中学语文“同课异构”的困境与突围%Dilemma and Breakthrough of "Same Lesson but Different Structures" for Chinese Lesson in Rural Middle School

    李光; 种即飞


    Since the project "Study of the Efficiency of 'Same Lesson but Different Structures" for Chinese Lesson in Middle School" was approved by the leading group of Anhui scientific education planning,we have been feeling under pressure,but it is also a motivation.We should be optimistic about education project research in rural middle school even though there exist some obstacles.%自从申报的"基于‘同课异构’中学语文课堂教学有效性的比较研究"课题得到安徽省教育科学规划领导小组办公室的批准立项后,我们感到了既有压力也有动力;因为在农村中学搞课题教研,虽然存在着来自各方面的重重困难,但也存在着生机和希望。

  2. Epidemiologic characterization of human papillomavirus infection in rural Chaozhou, eastern Guangdong Province of China.

    Qiang Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV infection was the main cause of cervical cancer. There were only a few reports and detailed data about epidemiological research of HPV infection in rural population of China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cervical cells of rural Chaozhou women were collected, and multiplex real time PCR was firstly performed to detect high-risk HPV (HR-HPV infection, which could detect 13 types of HR-HPV (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68. Then, HPV-positive samples were typed by HPV GenoArray test. RESULTS: HR-HPV DNA was detected by multiplex real time-PCR in 3830 of 48559 cases (7.89%. There was a peak incidence in age of 55-60 years group, and a lower incidence in who lived in plain group compared with suburban, mountain and seashore group. 3380 cases of HPV positive sample were genotyped, 11.01% (372/3380 cases could not be classified, among the typed 3008 cases, 101 cases were identified without HR-HPV type infection, 2907 cases were infected with one HR-HPV type at least, the 6 most common HR-HPV types in descending order of infection, were type 52 (33.4%, 16 (20.95%, 58 (15.93%, 33 (9.94%, 68 (9.22% and 18 (8.36%. The combined prevalence of HPV types 16 and 18 accounted for 28.52% of total infection. However, type 52 plus 58 presented 48.23% of total infection. 2209/2907 cases were infected with a single HPV type and 698/2907 cases were infected with multiple types, and multiple infection constituent ratio increased with age, with a peak incidence in age 55-60 years group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed low prevalence of HPV vaccine types (16 and 18 and relatively high prevalence of HPV-52 and -58, support the hypothesis that the second-generation HPV vaccines including HPV-52 and -58 may offer higher protection for women in rural Guangdong Province.

  3. Implication of World Health Organization growth standards on estimation of malnutrition in young Chinese children: Two examples from rural western China and the Tibet region.

    Dang, Shaonong; Yan, Hong; Wang, Duolao


    The aim of this study was to determine how malnutrition rates change in young Chinese children when 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards are used instead of 1978 WHO/National Center for Health Statistics reference. Cross-sectional survey data were used from rural western China and the Tibet region. The heights and weights of children of Tibet). The prevalence of underweight was lower in rural western China (7.7% vs. 11.7%) than rural Tibet (13.1% vs. 15.3%). For all ages, the prevalence of stunting increased and the greatest relative increase appeared in the first six months (102.9% in rural western China vs. 134.9% in rural Tibet). With respect to underweight, the relative increase occurred only during the first six months (314.3% in rural western China vs. 48.1% in rural Tibet); however, the reduction was observed in other age groups. For young Chinese Han and Tibetan children, the difference in estimation of malnutrition between two references differed in magnitude. The scale of change in the prevalence rates of stunting and underweight is much greater when 2006 reference was introduced.

  4. Community-based health insurance in poor rural China: the distribution of net benefits.

    Wang, Hong; Yip, Winnie; Zhang, Licheng; Wang, Lusheng; Hsiao, William


    The collapse of China's Cooperative Medical System (CMS) in 1978 resulted in the lack of an organized financing scheme for health care, adversely affecting rural farmers' access to health care, especially among the poor. The Chinese government recently announced a policy to re-establish some forms of community-based insurance (CBI). Many existing schemes involve low premiums but high co-payments. We hypothesized that such benefit design leads to unequal distribution of the "net benefits" (NB)--benefits net of payment--because even though low premiums are more affordable to poor farmers, high co-payments may have a significant deterrent effect on the poor in the use of services in CBI. To test this hypothesis empirically, we estimated the probability of farmers joining a re-established CBI using logistic regression, and the utilization of health care services for those who joined the scheme using the two-part model. Based on the estimations, we predicted the distribution of NB among those who joined the CBI and for the entire population in the community. Our data came from a household survey of 4160 members of 1173 households conducted in six villages in Fengshan Township, Guizhou Province, China. Three principal findings emerged from this study. First, income is an important factor influencing farmers' decision to join a CBI despite the premium representing a very small fraction of household income. Secondly, both income and health status influence enrollees' utilization of health services: richer/sicker participants obtain greater NB from the CBI than poorer/healthier members, meaning that the poorer/healthier participants subsidize the rich/sick. Thirdly, wealthy farmers benefit the most from the CBI with low premium and high co-payment features at every level of health status. In conclusion, policy recommendations related to the improvement of the benefit distribution of CBI schemes are made based on the results from this study.

  5. Mineralogical Studies Related to Endemic Diseases in Rural P. R. China

    Belkin, H. E.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R. B.


    Domestic combustion of coal for heating and cooking is mostly confined to the world's developing countries and probably involves about 1 billion persons in China, India, Indonesia, and Africa. Various endemic diseases affecting millions of people involving arsenic, selenium, and fluorine poisoning have been associated with domestic coal combustion in rural China. We have investigated the relationship between mineralized coals (and stone coals) and disease occurrences in Guizhou and Hubei Provinces. The mineralogy of the coals has been studied by a wide variety of techniques, including optical petrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, ion probe, Synchrotron XANES-EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy. Arsenic enrichment (up to 3 weight percent) in Upper Permian Longtan Formation coals, southwestern Guizhou Province, occurs in both 3+ and 5+ valence states. Arsenic occurs in arsenopyrite, pyrite, Al-phosphate, scorodite, Fe-oxides, and as an organically-bound species. Fluorine poisoning, much more widespread than arsenic-poisoning, is related to burning F-rich coals and F-rich clays as admixtures. Mineralogical and chemical analysis suggests that the clays contain the fluorine probably substituting for the hydroxyl group. Localized selenium poisoning in Hubei Province is related to Se-rich stone coals. The selenium occurs as a native element and in rare mandarinoite. In these three cases, knowledge of the paragenesis and mineralogy of the element enrichment in coal was vital to help understand and mitigate the endemic diseases. For the situation concerning arsenic and selenium poisoning, suspect coals have been identified and mining from these deposits has been curtailed. Fluorine has been a much more difficult problem for the local public health officials as both the coal and clay in the burning admixture can contain high fluorine. Regional geochemical and mineralogical studies will help to define coal and clay with low fluorine, suitable for

  6. Characterization of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in rural regions of Zhejiang, China.

    Zhang, Lei; Ye, Ling; Ojcius, David M; Lou, Xiuyu; Wang, Chengwei; feng, Cen; Sun, Yi; Wang, Zhongfa; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Yanjun


    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infections have recently been found in rural regions of Zhejiang. A severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) surveillance and sero-epidemiological investigation was conducted in the districts with outbreaks. During the study period of 2011-2014, a total of 51 SFTSV infection cases were identified and the case fatality rate was 12% (6/51). Ninety two percent of the patients (47/51) were over 50 years of age, and 63% (32/51) of laboratory confirmed cases occurred from May to July. Nine percent (11/120) of the serum samples from local healthy people without symptoms were found to be positive for antibodies to the SFTS virus. SFTSV strains were isolated by culture using Vero, and the whole genomic sequences of two SFTSV strains (01 and Zhao) were sequenced and submitted to the GenBank. Homology analysis showed that the similarity of the target nucleocapsid gene from the SFTSV strains from different geographic areas was 94.2-100%. From the constructed phylogenetic tree, it was found that all the SFTSV strains diverged into two main clusters. Only the SFTSV strains from the Zhejiang (Daishan) region of China and the Yamaguchi, Miyazakj regions of Japan, were clustered into lineage II, consistent with both of these regions being isolated areas with similar geographic features. Two out of eight predicted linear B cell epitopes from the nucleocapsid protein showed mutations between the SFTSV strains of different clusters, but did not contribute to the binding ability of the specific SFTSV antibodies. This study confirmed that SFTSV has been circulating naturally and can cause a seasonal prevalence in Daishan, China. The results also suggest that the molecular characteristics of SFTSV are associated with the geographic region and all SFTSV strains can be divided into two genotypes.

  7. Reshaping Rural Schools in the Northwest Region: Lessons from Federal School Improvement Grant Implementation. REL 2016-107

    Scott, Caitlin; Ostler, Nora


    The five states in the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Northwest Region have many rural schools that have been designated as in need of improvement. And all five states had rural schools in the first cohort of federal School Improvement Grant (SIG) recipients. To address school improvement, the majority of those schools implemented the…

  8. Place, Purpose, and Role in Rural Community Development Outreach: Lessons from the West Virginia Community Design Team

    Plein, Christopher


    This essay examines how the social construction of community may influence faculty perceptions, roles, and actions in rural community development outreach. Special attention is given to the social construction of rural communities and how disciplinary perspective and popular culture influence these perceptions of community. The essay considers how…

  9. 民国时期的农村职业教育及其当代启示%On Rural Vocational Education in the Period of the Republic of China and Its Contemporary Enlightenments



    Rural vocational education is an important part of vocational education. The education object refers to farmers, education contents are agricultural education mainly, and it has great significance for vocational education and social development in rural areas. Rural vocational education births and develops in complex social environment in the period of the Republic of China, and it has important and relatively independent position in the history of China. It has great progress in the system, policy and practice of vocational education level, and has strong westernization color, high degree of attention, practice-oriented nature. We should learn from the lessons of the Republic of China’s rural vocational education, changing the concept of development, strengthening vocational education legal construction, pay attitiong to pragmatic, protect rural vocational education, encourage diversity in school to promote the current development of rural vocational education.%农村职业教育是职业教育的重要组成部分,其教育对象专指农民,教育内容以农业教育为主,对职业教育及农村社会发展具有重要意义。民国时期的农村职业教育产生并发展于复杂社会环境,在我国农村职业教育史上占有重要位置且相对独立,并在职业教育的制度、政策建设及实践层面有较大进步,具有西化色彩浓、重视程度高、注重实践教育等特点。应吸取和借鉴民国时期农村教育的经验教训,转变发展观念,加强职业教育法制建设,注重实效,保障农村职业教育投入,促进多元办学,以推动当前的农村职业教育发展。

  10. Comparison between New-Onset and Old-Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes with Ketosis in Rural Regions of China.

    Du, Shichun; Yang, Xia; Shi, Degang; Su, Qing


    Objectives. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with ketosis was common because of late diagnosis and lacking adequate treatment in rural regions of China. This study aimed to provide the data of T2D with ketosis among inpatients in a south-west border city of China. Methods. Data of 371 patients of T2D with ketosis who were hospitalized between January 2011 and July 2015 in Baoshan People's Hospital, Yunnan, China, were analyzed. New-onset and old-diagnosed T2D patients presenting with ketosis were compared according to clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and chronic diabetic complications. Results. Overall, the blood glucose control was poor in our study subjects. Male predominated in both groups (male prevalence was 68% in new-onset and 64% in old-diagnosed groups). Overweight and obesity accounted for 50% in new-onset and 46% in old-diagnosed cases. Inducements of ketosis were 13.8% in new-onset and 38.7% in old-diagnosed patients. Infections were the first inducements in both groups. The prevalence of chronic complications of diabetes was common in both groups. Conclusions. More medical supports were needed for the early detection and adequate treatment of diabetes in rural areas of China.

  11. Renewables-Friendly Grid Development Strategies. Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)


    This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with "renewables-friendly"" grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  12. The Development of Educational Technology Policies (1996-2012): Lessons from China and the USA

    Alamin, Alnuaman A.; Shaoqing, Guo; Le, Zhang


    This study reviews the development of educational technology macro policies in China and USA based on the historical juxtaposition approach. It shows that, despite the fact that two countries have major differences, with China officially being a socialist country, while the USA is a capitalist country; the development of educational technology…

  13. Edible Mushroom Cultivation for Food Security and Rural Development in China: Bio-Innovation, Technological Dissemination and Marketing

    Yaoqi Zhang


    Full Text Available Mushrooms traditionally collected from forests and now more cultivated have recently become the products of the fifth-largest agricultural sector in China. It was estimated that more than 25 million farmers in China are currently engaged in the collection, cultivation processing and marketing of mushrooms. The total value of mushroom products amounted to 149 billion RMB Yuan (24 billion USD in 2011. The raw materials have expanded from a few hardwoods to a variety of woods and increasing more into agricultural residues and wastes. The average annual growth rate has been over 10% over the past 30 years in China. This paper describes the rapid growth of mushroom cultivation and its contribution to food security and rural sustainable development. The roles of bio-innovation, technological dissemination, and marketing are also examined. Mushrooms could potentially be very important in future food supplies and in new dimensions of sustainable agriculture and forestry.

  14. Realigning demand and supply side incentives to improve primary health care seeking in rural China.

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Yip, Winnie Chi-Man; Han, Wei


    China's recent and ambitious health care reform involves a shift from the reliance on markets to the reaffirmation of the central role of the state in the financing and provision of services. In collaboration with the Government of the Ningxia province, we examined the impact of two key features of the reform on health care utilisation using panel household data. The first policy change was a redesign of the rural insurance benefit package, with an emphasis on reorientating incentives away from inpatient towards outpatient care. The second policy change involved a shift from a fee-for-service payment method to a capitation budget with pay-for-performance amongst primary care providers. We find that the insurance intervention, in isolation, led to a 47% increase in the use of outpatient care at village clinics and greater intensity of treatment (e.g. injections). By contrast, the two interventions in combination showed no effect on health care use over and above that generated by the redesign of the insurance benefit package. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Determinants of the use of prenatal care in rural China: the role of care content.

    Nwaru, Bright I; Wu, Zhuochun; Hemminki, Elina


    Several maternal demographic factors have been identified to influence the timing of starting prenatal care and its adequate use. However, how the content of prenatal care modifies these factors has not been studied previously. Using a representative sample collected for other purposes in rural China, we examined the factors predicting the uptake of prenatal care by taking into account the content of care (advice: on nutrition during pregnancy, diseases and pregnancy-related problems, and on child care after birth; and routine tests: blood pressure, blood tests, and ultrasound). We studied 1,479 women who answered a house-hold KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practice) survey (97% response rate) collected after a prenatal care intervention from 2001 to 2003 in 20 townships located in a county in Anhui Province. A multinomial logistic regression was used for the analysis. The most prominent factors that predicted late start of prenatal care and inadequate care were younger age, low maternal income, and having more than one child. When we adjusted for the content of care, the influence of these factors on the use of prenatal care attenuated to varying degrees: in some cases there was up to 20% reduction in the values of the risk estimates, while in other cases the statistical significance of the estimates were lost. It is important to take into account the content of prenatal care when assessing the factors predicting women's use of prenatal care.

  16. Clinical indications and determinants of the rise of cesarean section in three hospitals in rural China.

    Qin, Cheng; Zhou, Min; Callaghan, William M; Posner, Samuel F; Zhang, Jun; Berg, Cynthia J; Zhao, Gengli


    This study investigated changes in cesarean delivery rate and cesarean indications in 3 county-level hospitals in rural China. Hospital delivery records in 1997 and 2003 were used to examine the reasons behind the changes. In Chengde County Hospital, the cesarean delivery rate increased from 28% in 1997 to 54% in 2003. The rate increased from 43% in 1997 to 65% in 2003 in Anxian County Hospital and Anxian Maternal and Child Health Hospital. The dramatic increase in cesarean delivery in the study hospitals was associated with a shift from more severe to mild or no clinical indications. The ratio of mild to moderate to severe hypertension increased substantially. More than half of the cephalopelvic disproportion cases were diagnosed prior to labor. The majority of nuchal cord cases were diagnosed without fetal distress. Maternal/family request was the number one cesarean indication in Anxian County Hospital and Anxian MCH Hospital in 2003. Ultrasound evidence of nuchal cord moved from the ninth ranked indication in 1997 to the second in 2003 in Chengde County Hospital.

  17. Poverty and biodiversity in rural areas based on two investigations in Pujiang County, China.

    Fang, Bin


    This study presents an integrated framework for the analysis of options of agricultural development and natural resource management at the ecosystem level. Pujiang County in Zhejiang Province, China, is used as a case-study area. The IMGLP model is applied to maximize regional agricultural economic surplus and labor market conditions in Pujiang. The consequences of four poverty reduction strategies (intensification of production, diversification toward livestock production, land expansion, and exit from agriculture) are determined for a set of regional poverty and biodiversity indicators. Diversification seems to be the most promising poverty reduction strategy, but requires an efficient use of animal manure in cropping systems to avoid environmental problems. Improved nutrient management in cropping systems is effective in reducing the regional nitrogen surplus, but less effective in increasing per capita income. The exit strategy is beneficial for reducing poverty and achieving biodiversity, but may have important social consequences that are not addressed in this study. Further reduction of rural poverty is hampered by labor constraints during the harvesting period for high-value crops such as vegetables and fruits. These constraints can be overcome by intensive research and development in the field of agricultural mechanization.

  18. Essential drugs policy in three rural counties in China: what does a complexity lens add?

    Xiao, Yue; Zhao, Kun; Bishai, David M; Peters, David H


    In 2009 the government of China identified an essential drugs policy as one of five priority areas for health system reform. Since then, a national essential drugs policy has been defined, along with plans to implement it. As a large scale social intervention, the policy will have a significant impact on various local health actors. This paper uses the lens of complex adaptive systems to examine how the policy has been implemented in three rural Chinese counties. Using material gathered from interviews with key actors in county health bureaus and township health centers, we illustrate how a single policy can lead to multiple unanticipated outcomes. The complexity lens applied to the material gathered in interviews helps to identify relevant actors, their different relationships and policy responses and a new framework to better understand heterogeneous pathways and outcomes. Decision-makers and policy implementers are advised to embrace the complex and dynamic realities of policy implementation. This involves developing mechanisms to monitor different behaviors of key actors as well as the intended outcomes and unintended consequences of the policy.

  19. Communities of Complicity:Notes on State Formation and Local Sociality in Rural China

    HANS Steinm ller; LIAO Peipei; TAN Tongxue


    This article deals with the delicate relationship between vernacular practices and offi-cial discourse in rural China .In regards to geo-mancy (fengshui), rituals, gifting, and corruption discourse , for instance , official representations are often inconsistent with local practice .While it is very common to invite ritual masters for family celebrations and to give money gifts at such occa-sions , these practices are often described in public discourse as backwards and corrupt .Hence it is not appropriate to be too forthright and blunt about such things towards outsiders .When I first arrived in the villages of Bashan in Enshi , and asked a-bout fengshui, people often told me that they would not invite geomancers when building houses— yet in reality, I found out later , almost everyone did precisely this .The reason is that these practices are slightly sensitive , because they are seen as core features of peasant backwardness and feudal superstition .Peasants are keenly aware of such outside representations , and therefore share a sense of complicity , which makes itself visible in gestures of outright denial , but more commonly in embarrassment, irony, and cynicism.

  20. N400 and the activation of prejudice against rural migrant workers in China.

    Wang, Lei; Ma, Qingguo; Song, Zhaofeng; Shi, Yisi; Wang, Yi; Pfotenhauer, Lydia


    Rural migrant workers (RMWs) are a special social group under the household registration system in China. Although RMWs work in the city, they are not issued a permanent city resident card, and are hardly integrated into the city life. City residents harbour strong negative stereotypes about RMWs. Facing a word-pair comprising a status noun (RMWs vs. Unban workers) followed by an adjective, 16 young participants were required to classify the adjective as being either negative or positive, while the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. An ERP component identified as the N400 was found, and was studied with the question whether its amplitude reflected the effects of prejudice against RMWs. The reaction times to identify the positive adjectives preceded by the nouns pertaining to RMWs were significantly longer than to those preceded by nouns denoting Urban workers. The amplitude of the N400 evoked in RMW-Positive adjective condition was significantly larger than in Urban worker-Positive adjective condition, possibly reflecting the higher conflict when participants identified the adjectives as positive primed by RMWs. These findings revealed that negative stereotypes about RMWs still exist today, although Chinese mainstream media has disseminated positive messages about the RMWs for decades.

  1. Capitation combined with pay-for-performance improves antibiotic prescribing practices in rural China.

    Yip, Winnie; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Chen, Wen; Hu, Min; Fe, Eduardo; Hu, Mu; Jian, Weiyan; Lu, Ming; Han, Wei; Hsiao, William C


    Pay-for-performance in health care holds promise as a policy lever to improve the quality and efficiency of care. Although the approach has become increasingly popular in developing countries in recent years, most policy designs do not permit the rigorous evaluation of its impact. Thus, evidence of its effect is limited. In collaboration with the government of Ningxia Province, a predominantly rural area in northwest China, we conducted a matched-pair cluster-randomized experiment between 2009 and 2012 to evaluate the effects of capitation with pay-for-performance on primary care providers' antibiotic prescribing practices, health spending, outpatient visit volume, and patient satisfaction. We found that the intervention led to a reduction of approximately 15 percent in antibiotic prescriptions and a small reduction in total spending per visit to village posts-essentially, community health clinics. We found no effect on other outcomes. Our results suggest that capitation with pay-for-performance can improve drug prescribing practices by reducing overprescribing and inappropriate prescribing. Our study also shows that rigorous evaluations of health system interventions are feasible when conducted in close collaboration with the government.

  2. Impacts of urbanisation on urban-rural water cycle: a China case study

    Wang, Mingna; Singh, Shailesh Kumar; Zhang, Jun-e.; Khu, Soon Thiam


    Urbanization, which essentially create more impervious surface, is an inevitable part of modern societal development throughout the world. It produces several changes in the natural hydrological cycle by adding several processes. A better understanding of the impacts of urbanization, will allow policy makers to balance development and environment sustainability needs. It also helps underdeveloped countries make strategic decisions in their development process. The objective of this study is to understand and quantify the sensitivity of the urban-rural water cycle to urbanisation. A coupled hydrological model, MODCYCLE, was set up to simulate the effect of changes in landuse on daily streamflow and groundwater and applied to the Tianjin municipality, a rapidly urbanising mega-city on the east coast of China. The model uses landuse, land cover, soil, meteorological and climatic data to represent important parameters in the catchment. The fraction of impervious surface was used as a surrogate to quantify the degree of landuse change. In this work, we analysed the water cycle process under current urbanization situation in Tianjin. A number of different future development scenarios on based on increasing urbanisation intensity is explored. The results show that the expansion of urban areas had a great influence on generation of flow process and on ET, and the surface runoff was most sensitive to urbanisation. The results of these scenarios-based study about future urbanisation on hydrological system will help planners and managers in taking proper decisions regarding sustainable development.

  3. HIV disclosure in rural China: predictors and relationship to access to care.

    Ding, Yingying; Li, Li; Ji, Guoping


    This study examined the main reasons and predictors of HIV disclosure and its relationship to access to care among people living with HIV (PLH) in a rural area of China. A sample of 88 PLH from three counties was interviewed in 2009. In our sample, the rates of disclosure were higher within and outside family. Trust (31%), needing help (28%), and close relationships (26%) were the three main reasons of selecting the person to disclose by a PLH. Using a multivariate analysis, level of HIV disclosure to partners and members within the community was only significantly associated with use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) (β = 2.76; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.77, 4.74). After adjusting for demographics, time since HIV diagnosis and ART, we found HIV disclosure (β = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) was a significant predictor for access to care. In order to improve PLHs' access to health services and care, future intervention programs should consider both the potential benefits and risks associated with HIV disclosure (intentional and unintentional), and assist PLHs to prepare for HIV disclosure and reduce potential negative impacts that come with it.

  4. Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China

    Yosuke Inoue


    Full Text Available Background: Toxic element exposure and essential trace element consumption may have changed after the Chinese economy transformed to a market-oriented system. The objectives of this study were to measure urinary concentrations of toxic (arsenic, cadmium, lead and essential trace (selenium, zinc, copper elements among rural residents in Hainan, China and to examine if variations in economic development are linked to differences in toxic and trace element exposure. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and undertook anthropometric measurements of residents aged ≥20 years (n = 599. Urinary samples were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The median (μg/g creatinine element concentrations were: arsenic, 73.2; cadmium, 1.8; lead, 3.1; selenium, 36.5; zinc, 371; and copper, 11.0. Intra-community variation in element concentrations was explained by age (arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper, sex (arsenic, cadmium and selenium: higher in females; zinc: higher in males, body mass index (cadmium and individual involvement in the market economy as indexed by agrochemical use (lead and selenium. The degree of community-level economic development, which was determined by the proportion of people living in better housing among the study communities, was positively associated with cadmium concentration. Conclusions: The degree of community-level economic development was positively associated with urinary cadmium concentration while individual involvement in the market economy was positively associated with lead and selenium.

  5. Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China

    Lin, Sihao; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Tang, Wenjuan; Miao, Jianying; Li, Jin; Wu, Siying; Lin, Xing


    Objectives. We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China. Methods. In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression. Results. Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year. Conclusions. Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby. PMID:21421950

  6. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China: A Life Cycle Assessment

    Jun Hou


    Full Text Available Rural household biogas (RHB systems are at a crossroads in China, yet there has been a lack of holistic evaluation of their energy and climate (greenhouse gas mitigation efficiency under typical operating conditions. We combined data from monitoring projects and questionnaire surveys across hundreds of households from two typical Chinese villages within a consequential life cycle assessment (LCA framework to assess net GHG (greenhouse gas mitigation by RHB systems operated in different contexts. We modelled biogas production, measured biogas losses and used survey data from biogas and non-biogas households to derive empirical RHB system substitution rates for energy and fertilizers. Our results indicate that poorly designed and operated RHB systems in northern regions of China may in fact increase farm household GHG emissions by an average of 2668 kg CO2-eq· year−1, compared with a net mitigation effect of 6336 kg CO2-eq per household and year in southern regions. Manure treatment (104 and 8513 kg CO2-eq mitigation and biogas leakage (-533 and -2489 kg CO2-eq emission are the two most important factors affecting net GHG mitigation by RHB systems in northern and southern China, respectively. In contrast, construction (−173 and −305 kg CO2-eq emission, energy substitution (−522 emission and 653 kg·CO2-eq mitigation and nutrient substitution (−1544 and −37 kg CO2-eq emission made small contributions across the studied systems. In fact, survey data indicated that biogas households had higher energy and fertilizer use, implying no net substitution effect. Low biogas yields in the cold northern climate and poor maintenance services were cited as major reasons for RHB abandonment by farmers. We conclude that the design and management of RHB systems needs to be revised and better adapted to local climate (e.g., digester insulation and household energy demand (biogas storage and micro power generators to avoid discharge of unburned biogas

  7. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    Elizabeth Hormann


    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  8. The Long-Term Effective Mechanism of Rural Poverty Alleviation in China from the Perspective of Ecological Management


    Based on the ecological environmental situation of poverty-stricken areas in China and the domestic and foreign research results,the long-term effective mechanism of sustainable poverty alleviation in China is established(the ideological premise is ecological culture,the material base is ecological economy and the basic guarantee is ecological system) from the perspective of ecological management.To be specific,ecological culture,the ideological premise of rural sustainable poverty alleviation in China,includes two aspects:the first one is upholding the Marxism,passing on the Chinese traditional ecological wisdom and fostering ecological consciousness;the second one is mirroring the thought of western modern ecological ethics,emphasizing ecological criticism and redoubling the ecological education.As for ecological economy,the material guarantee for sustainable poverty alleviation in Chinese rural poverty-stricken areas,also contents two aspects.The first one is promoting the way of "clean production" and developing ecological industry;the second one is building ecological concept of consumption and establishing the ecological lifestyle.In addition,ecological system,the basic guarantee of sustainable poverty alleviation in Chinese rural poverty-stricken areas,covers three terms.The first one is implementing the ecological policies and stipulating ecological plan;the second one is establishing perfect ecological legislation and ecological system and intensifying their implementation;the third one is enforcing ecological management in the process of sustainable poverty alleviation.Through the establishment of the above mechanism,we look forward to realizing sustainability of economic development and poverty alleviation effects in the process of poverty alleviation in Chinese rural areas,as well as ecological management of the poverty-stricken areas.

  9. Towards universal access to skilled birth attendance: the process of transforming the role of traditional birth attendants in Rural China.

    Jiang, Hong; Qian, Xu; Chen, Lili; Li, Jian; Escobar, Erin; Story, Mary; Tang, Shenglan


    Institution-based childbirth, with the ultimate goal of universal access to skilled birth attendance (SBA), has been selected as a key strategy to reduce the maternal mortality rate in many developing countries. However, the question of how to engage traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the advocacy campaign for SBA poses a number of challenges. This paper aims to demonstrate how TBAs in rural regions of China have been integrated into the health system under a policy of institutional delivery. Research was conducted through literature and document reviews and individual in-depth interviews with stakeholders of the safe motherhood program in rural Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 33 individual interviews were conducted with regional and local politicians, policy makers, health managers, health providers, civil society members, village cadres for women affairs, former TBAs, village maternal health workers, mothers and their mother-in-laws. Since 1998, TBA's traditional role of providing in-home care during childbirth has been restructured and their social role has been strengthened in rural Guangxi. TBAs were redesigned to function as the linkage between women and the health system. A new policy in 1999 shifted the role of TBAs to village maternal health workers whose responsibilities were mainly to promote perinatal care and institution-based delivery of pregnant women. This successful transformation involved engaging with government and other actors, training TBAs for their new role, and providing incentives and sanctions for human resources management. The China experience of transforming the role of TBAs in Guangxi rural area is an example of successfully engaging TBAs in promoting institution-based childbirth.

  10. Basic Education Curriculum Reform in Rural China: Achievements, Problems, and Solutions

    Wang, Jiayi; Zhao, Zhichun


    The latest wave of basic education curriculum reform, carried out over the past ten years, has achieved significant results and promoted the development of rural education. There are still some problems in the reform of basic education in rural areas, however, such as a serious shortage of funds for rural school curriculum reform, the continuing…

  11. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Its Association with Biochemical and Anthropometric Variables of Young Children in Rural Southwestern China

    Shan-Shan Geng; Jing-Qiu Ma; Shan-Shan Liu; Jie Zhang; Xiao-Yang Sheng


    Background:With recognition of the important roles of Vitamin D (VitD) in various physiological processes,increasing attention has been drawn to the status of VitD in early life.However,the VitD status of young children and the related factors in rural areas of Southwestern China remain unclear.This study aimed to explore VitD status and its seasonal variation in 18-month-old children living in rural Southwestern China.The association of VitD with biochemical and anthropometric variables was also investigated.Methods:A total of 177 18-month-old children in a rural area of Yunnan Province,Southwestem China,were enrolled.Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured through high-performance liquid chromatogram-tandem mass spectrometry.Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were measured with a chemiluminescence assay.Serum concentrations of calcium,phosphorus,and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also measured.Anthropometric data and the outdoor activity time of each participant were collected.Results:The serum 25(OH)D concentration was 26.61 ± 7.26 ng/ml;concentrations lower than 30 ng/ml accounted for 70.6% of the participants and concentrations lower than 20 ng/ml accounted for 16.4%.The level of serum 25(OH)D was not significantly different among four seasons (P > 0.05).A positive relationship was found between 25(OH)D concentration and the time of outdoor activities (r =0.168,P < 0.05).Serum PTH concentration was negatively correlated with 25(OH)D concentration (r =-0.163,P < 0.05).A positive relationship was found between the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and calcium (r =0.154,P < 0.05).No significant association was observed between 25(OH)D and ALP,phosphorus,or anthropometric variables.Conclusions:The prevalence of VitD insufficiency is high among young children in the rural Southwestern China regardless of the seasons.VitD supplementation is still essential to maintain VitD sufficiency for children living in rural area.

  12. Gender Inequality in Biology Classes in China and Its Effects on Students' Short-Term Outcomes

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit


    This study investigated gender inequality in biology lessons and analysed the effects of the observed inequality on students' short-term knowledge achievement, situational interest and students' evaluation of teaching (SET). Twenty-two biology teachers and 803 7th-grade students from rural and urban classrooms in China participated in the study.…

  13. [Evaluation of nutritional status of school-age children after implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" in rural area in Hunan, China].

    Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan


    To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".

  14. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China

    Hairong Li


    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators.

  15. Living and Dying at the Feet of the Snowy Mountains: A Contemporary Childhood in Rural Hunan, China

    Dalong Yin


    Full Text Available Children in contemporary rural China have experienced an unprecedented moment; amid radical economic and social transformations that have sent their parents to urban centers to earn cash income, children have been left behind to live with older relatives. This fundamental redefining of place, parenting, and living has rarely been written about by the children themselves in English. Set in rural Hunan in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, this novel vividly describes farm production, the shift from an agricultural way of life to a life financially supported by migrant labor earnings, local religious life, Huagu opera, education, complex and violent relationships between family members and villagers, the deaths of the protagonist's (Maomao mother and paternal grandmother, a wedding, funerals, and local festivals – from the perspective of a child. Refusing to drop out of school and become a migrant worker or a soldier, Maomao eventually achieves his dream of becoming a university student against all odds. This unvarnished and vividly written description of a contemporary rural life in China is uniquely important and appealing to a broad readership.

  16. Characteristics of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides at urban, suburban and rural sites in Ningbo, China

    Tong, Lei; Zhang, Huiling; Yu, Jie; He, Mengmeng; Xu, Nengbin; Zhang, Jingjing; Qian, Feizhong; Feng, Jiayong; Xiao, Hang


    Surface ozone (O3) is a harmful air pollutant that has attracted growing concern in China. In this study, the mixing ratios of O3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at three different sites (urban, suburban and rural) of Ningbo were continuously measured to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of O3 and its relationships with environmental variables. The diurnal O3 variations were characterized by afternoon maxima (38.7-53.1 ppb on annual average) and early morning minima (11.7-26.2 ppb) at all the three sites. Two seasonal peaks of O3 were observed in spring (April or May) and autumn (October) with minima being observed in winter (December). NOx levels showed generally opposite variations to that of O3 with diurnal and seasonal maxima occurring in morning/evening rush-hours and in winter, respectively. As to the inter-annual variations of air pollutants, generally decreasing and increasing trends were observed in NO and O3 levels, respectively, from 2012 to 2015 at both urban and suburban sites. O3 levels were positively correlated with temperature but negatively correlated with relative humidity and NOx levels. Significant differences in O3 levels were observed for different wind speeds and wind directions (p urban site exhibited lower O3 but higher NOx levels due to the influence of traffic emissions. Larger amplitudes of diurnal and monthly O3 variations were observed at the suburban site than those at the urban and rural sites. In general, the O3 levels at the non-urban sites were more affected by the background transport, while both the local and regional contributions played roles in urban O3 variations. The annual average O3 mixing ratios (22.7-37.7 ppb) in Ningbo were generally similar to those of other regions around the world. However, the recommended air quality standards for O3 were often exceeded during warm seasons, which could be a potential threat to both local population and plant growth.

  17. Economic impact of maternal death on households in rural china: a prospective cohort study.

    Haijun Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of maternal death on rural Chinese households during the year after maternal death. METHODS: A prospective cohort study matched 183 households who had suffered a maternal death to 346 households that experienced childbirth without maternal death in rural areas of three provinces in China. Surveys were conducted at baseline (1-3 months after maternal death or childbirth and one year after baseline using the quantitative questionnaire. We investigated household income, expenditure, accumulated debts, and self-reported household economic status. Difference-in-Difference (DID, linear regression, and logistic regression analyses were used to compare the economic status between households with and without maternal death. FINDINGS: The households with maternal death had a higher risk of self-reported "household economy became worse" during the follow-up period (adjusted OR = 6.04, p<0.001. During the follow-up period, at the household level, DID estimator of income and expenditure showed that households with maternal death had a significant relative reduction of US$ 869 and US$ 650, compared to those households that experienced childbirth with no adverse event (p<0.001. Converted to proportions of change, an average of 32.0% reduction of annual income and 24.9% reduction of annual expenditure were observed in households with a maternal death. The mean increase of accumulated debts in households with a maternal death was 3.2 times as high as that in households without maternal death (p = 0.024. Expenditure pattern of households with maternal death changed, with lower consumption on food (p = 0.037, clothes and commodity (p = 0.003, traffic and communication (p = 0.022 and higher consumption on cigarette or alcohol (p = 0.014. CONCLUSION: Compared with childbirth, maternal death had adverse impact on household economy, including higher risk of self-reported "household economy became worse

  18. The association of ideal cardiovascular health and left ventricle hypertrophy in rural population of northeast China

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Guo, Xiaofan; Li, Tan; Chen, Yintao; Dai, Dongxue; Sun, Yingxian


    Abstract In 2010, the American Heart Association (AHA) published a new concept “ideal cardiovascular health” (CVH), which consisted of 4 behaviors (smoking, body mass index [BMI], physical activity, and diet score) and 3 health factors (total cholesterol [TC], blood pressure [BP], and fasting plasma glucose [FPG]). This study was aimed to investigate the association between CVH with left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH) in a rural general population. From January 2012 to August 2013, we conducted this cross-sectional study using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. A representative sample of individuals who were at 35 years or older was selected. All the 7 CVH metrics were estimated for ideal, intermediate, and poor levels. LVH was accessed by echocardiography and classified into concentric remodeling, concentric LVH, and eccentric LVH. The association between CVH and LVH was determined. The final data were obtained from 10,684 adults (5497 men and 5187 women) in the rural areas of northeast China. Overall, the prevalence rates of concentric remodeling, concentric LVH, and eccentric LVH were 5.1%, 4.9%, and 12.8%, respectively. The prevalence of concentric/eccentric LVH was inversely related to the numbers of ideal CVH metrics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that only poor BP was associated with concentric remodeling among the 7 CVH metrics; poor BP was highly associated with concentric LVH (OR: 8.49; 95% CI: 4.59–15.7); poor BMI was highly associated with eccentric LVH (OR: 5.87; 95% CI: 4.83–7.14). Compared to subjects with 5 to 7 ideal CVH metrics, subjects with 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0 ideal CVH metrics had an increased risk for both concentric and eccentric LVH in a number-dependent manner. The subjects with poor CVH status had a 5.90-fold higher risk of developing concentric LVH and a 3.24-fold higher risk of developing eccentric LVH, compared to subjects with ideal-intermediate CVH. Our study found that an inversely gradient relationship

  19. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China.

    Ward, Patrick S


    China's economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households.

  20. Facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyle in rural China: a qualitative analysis through social capital perspectives.

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Defu; Cui, Renzhe; Haregot Hilawe, Esayas; Chiang, Chifa; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Peiyu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Aoyama, Atsuko


    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major public health concerns in China. However, little has been known yet about the background social factors that influence lifestyles as possible NCD risk factors. This qualitative study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers of adopting healthy lifestyles among residents in a rural community of China. Three age-stratified focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Fangshan district of Beijing in 2013. A FGD guide was designed to elicit the participants' perception and experience regarding their lifestyles. The audio-records were transcribed, and data were qualitatively analyzed through thematic approach. Through social capital framework with bonding, bridging, and linking classifications, we identified the following facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles. (1) Facilitators: mutual support from family/friends and motivation to participate in regular exercises (bonding); cooperative relationships with community health workers (bridging); and nationwide high level of healthy lifestyle awareness (linking). (2) Barriers: negative influence from family/friends, insufficient support from family/friends, peer pressure and tolerance towards unhealthy lifestyles (bonding); insufficient support from health professionals (bridging); and inequity in allocation of public resources (linking). This study revealed that bonding, bridging and linking social capital would work as facilitators and barriers to adopt healthy lifestyles among rural residents in China.

  1. Association of Body Mass Index with the Tuberculosis Infection: a Population-based Study among 17796 Adults in Rural China

    Zhang, Haoran; Li, Xiangwei; Xin, Henan; Li, Hengjing; Li, Mufei; Lu, Wei; Bai, Liqiong; Wang, Xinhua; Liu, Jianmin; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei


    Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be associated with host susceptibility to several infections. However, the link between BMI and the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection has been sparsely studied in China and in worldwide. Based on the baseline survey of a population-based, prospective study in rural China, the association between BMI and TB infection among adults was estimated by means of cross-sectional analysis. TB infection status was tested using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT), a commercial of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). Totally, 17796 eligible participants aged ≥18 years from 4 study sites, were included in the analysis. 21.76% (3873/17796) were observed to be QFT positive. Age and gender standardized prevalence ranged from 16.49% to 23.81% across the study sites. 42.19% study participants were obese/overweight with BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m2. BMI ≥ 28.0 kg/m2 was observed to be independently associated with QFT positivity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.33). The strength of the association was found to be geographically diversity, which might be explained, at least partly, by the varied local TB epidemic status. Our results suggest that individuals with obesity might be one important target population for TB infection control in rural China. PMID:28176883

  2. Initiation of breastfeeding and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in urban, suburban and rural areas of Zhejiang China

    Binns Colin W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in China are relatively low and below national targets. The aim of this study was to document the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding initiation in Zhejiang, PR China. Methods A cohort study of infant feeding practices was undertaken in Zhejiang Province, an eastern coastal region of China. A total of 1520 mothers who delivered in four hospitals located in city, suburb and rural areas during late 2004 to 2005 were enrolled in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors related to exclusive breastfeeding initiation. Results On discharge from hospital, 50.3% of the mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their infants out of 96.9% of the mothers who had earlier initiated breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding was positively related to vaginal birth, baby's first feed being breast milk, mother living in the suburbs or rural areas, younger age of mother, lower maternal education level and family income. Conclusion The exclusive breastfeeding rate in Zhejiang is only 50.3% on discharge and does not reach Chinese or international targets. A number of behaviours have been identified in the study that could be potentially incorporated into health promotion activities.

  3. 浅析中国农村现代化进程--以《乡土中国》为视角%China's rural modernization--The perspective of "rural China"



    The traditional rural China there is a "gemeinschaft", "face to face of illiteracy society", etc., seriously affected the process of the modernization of rural areas in our country, from the rural surplus labor problem of poor liquidity, rural science and technology, the difficulty of promotion, the law enforcement law problems in the "pattern of difference sequence", to the rural problems such as the administrative, judicial system, these are derived from the characteristics of the traditional rural Chinese society reproduction. To solve the problem of rural modernization requires correct understanding the cause and effect of these problems, they can better solve the problem of rural social development.%传统的中国乡村存在着“礼俗社会”、“面对面的文盲社会”、“差序格局”、“礼治秩序”和“无为政治”这些传统特点,但是这些传统特点在现代化的进程中所带来的新的表现却严重的影响了我国农村现代化的进程,从农村的剩余劳动力流动性差的问题,农村科学技术推广难的问题,到“差序格局”中执法犯法的问题,再到农村行政、司法制度问题等,这些都是从传统乡村中国社会的特点中繁衍出来的。要解决农村现代化进程中的问题就需要正确认识这些问题的来龙去脉,才能更好地解决农村社会发展中的问题。

  4. Changes in soil carbon sequestration in Pinus massoniana forests along an urban-to-rural gradient of southern China

    H. Chen


    Full Text Available Urbanization is accelerating globally, causing a variety of environmental changes such as increases in air temperature, precipitation, atmospheric CO2, and nitrogen (N deposition. However, the effects of these changes on forest soil carbon (C sequestration remain largely unclear. Here, we used urban-to-rural environmental gradients in Guangdong Province, southern China, to address the potential effects of these environmental changes on soil C sequestration in Pinus massoniana forests. In contrast to our expectations and earlier observations, soil C content in urban sites was significantly lower than that in suburban and rural sites. Lower soil C pools in urban sites were correlated with a significant decrease in fine root biomass and a potential increase in soil organic C decomposition. Variation of soil C pools was also a function of change in soil C fractions. Heavy fraction C content in urban sites was significantly lower than that in suburban and rural sites. By contrast, light fraction C content did not vary significantly along the urban-to-rural gradient. Our results suggest that urbanization-induced environmental changes may have a negative effect on forest soil C in the studied region.

  5. A Response to the Commentary Entitled: “Addressing the Shortage of Health Professionals in Rural China: Issues and Progress”

    Qian Yang


    Full Text Available The principal problems of healthcare services in China are “difficulty in seeing a doctor”and “high expense of getting medical service” (commonly known in Chinese as “kan bing nan, kan bing gui”. The central Chinese government has already launched the bottom-up cascading medical system and two-way referral system recently in order to solve these problems (1. Only when patients go to medical institutions in an orderly fashion, can we see the hope of breaking the kan bing nan, kan bing gui (2. However, we face a number of obstacles when implementing the referral policies. The biggest obstacle is the lack of Human Resource (HR for primary care both in capacity and volume (3. The central Chinese government has launched a series of policies to deal with the shortage of HRs in rural areas. Profound measurements involve postgraduate training for General Practitioner (GP (a three-year plan beginning in 2010 for producing health professionals for rural areas and improving rural retention, “3+2” medical education model (3-year diploma education and 2-year postgraduate GP training, and in-service training for physicians in rural areas (4. It is not the time to assess their effectiveness, however, these measurements are certain to improve the capacity of Community Health Service (CHS institutions.

  6. Going Rural


    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  7. Rural Household Preferences for Active Participation in “Payment for Ecosystem Service” Programs: A Case in the Miyun Reservoir Catchment, China

    Jiang, Xuemei; Zhang, Kebin; Yang, Xiaohui


    Many payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs, such as the Slope Land Conversion Program (SLCP), are passive and require full participation by impacted households. In contrast, this study considers the alternative of “active and incomplete” participation in PES programs, in which participants are not obliged to contract their own land, and have the right to select into the program or not. This type of program has been popular over the last decade in China; however, there have been few studies on the characteristics of willingness to participate and implementation. As such, this paper uses the Choice Experiment (CE) method to explore ways for inducing effective program participation, by analyzing the effects of different regime attributes. The case study used to analyze participation utility was the Jing-Ji Afforestation Program for Ecological and Water Protection (JAPEWP), a typical active-participation forestry PES program, and a key source of water near Beijing in the Miyun Reservoir Catchment (MRC). Analyzing rural household survey data indicated that the program faces a variety of challenges, including long-term maintenance, implementation performance, cost-effectiveness, and monitoring approaches. There are also challenges with one-size-fits-all payment strategies, due to ineffective program participation or imperfect implementation regimes. In response, this study proposes several policies, including providing secure and complete land tenure to the participants, creating more local off-farm employment opportunities, designing performance-based monitoring systems that are integrated with financial incentives, applying differentiated payment strategies, providing capacity building to support forestation activities, and establishing a comprehensive implementation regime that would address these challenges. These policy conclusions provide valuable lessons for other active-participation PES programs as well. PMID:28046106

  8. [Energy expenditure on different physical activities of rural adults in North China].

    Gao, Zhimin; Wang, Xiaolu; Zhuo, Qin; Wang, Jing; Hu, Feng; Piao, Jianhua; Liu, Fenghai; Cao, Haiyi


    To test the energy metabolism of healthy adults in rural north China and to obtain the data of energy expenditure on different physical activities, in order to provide the basis for the Dietary Reference Intakes for Chinese people and the prevention and treatment of diseases related to energy and nutrition imbalance. The energy expenditures on different physical activities of 30 healthy adult men and women were investigated under strictly controlled experimental conditions by using portable cardiopulmonary function determinator k4b2 to examine the oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) during basal metabolic conditions and seven kinds of physical activities (walking, brisk walking, jogging, cycling, stair climbing, and watching TV). The content of 24-hour urine nitrogen was measured by micro Kjeldahl method. Combining with the change of body weight, the energy expenditures on different physical activities of normal adult men and women in north China were obtained. The average energy expenditure on physical activities (kJ x h(-1) x kg(-1)) were: walking 12.60 +/- 5.54 (11.46 +/- 2.19 for male and 15.47 +/- 6.97 for female), brisk walking 20.79 +/- 10.46 (15.95 +/- 3.59 for male and 25.33 +/- 12.70 for female), jogging 34.78 +/- 16.00 (30.45 +/- 5.07 for male and 38.84 +/- 21.58 for female) cycling 16.47 +/- 3.95 (14.77 +/- 2.57 for male and 18.74 +/- 4.85 for female), going up stairs 23.55 +/- 5.05 (23.61 +/- 3.43 for male and 23.49 +/- 6.41 for female) going down stairs 12.46 +/- 6.30 (10.43 +/- 1.27 for male and 14.49 +/- 8.48 for female) and watching TV 3.85 +/- 1.97 (3.56 +/- 0.86 for male and 4.16 +/- 2.79 for female). The average energy expenditure on physical activities of males was lower than that of females (P stairs, which was roughly equal in males and females. The average energy expenditure on various physical activities was different. Walking, watching TV and going downstairs are low-intensity physical activities; brisk walking

  9. Migration within China and from China to the USA: the effects of migration networks, selectivity, and the rural political economy in Fujian Province.

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David


    This paper tests a new strategy for simultaneously studying internal migration within, and international migration from, China. Our theoretical discussion draws on ideas from migration-networks theory and studies of the transition to a market-oriented economy. Data collection is modelled on the Mexican Migration Project. We find that education is more important in initiating internal migration than international migration. Second, although the role of migration networks at a community level seems similar to that for Mexico-USA migration, the networks at a family level show a different pattern. Third, there is evidence that internal and international migration are competing options. Finally, we find that individuals with cadres (public officials) in the family are less likely to undertake internal migration, but more likely to participate in international migration, a finding that highlights the continuing significance of the cadres in coastal rural China.

  10. Rural-urban difference in the use of annual physical examination among seniors in Shandong, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Ge, Dandan; Chu, Jie; Zhou, Chengchao; Qian, Yangyang; Zhang, Li; Sun, Long


    Regular physical examination contributes to early detection and timely treatment, which is helpful in promoting healthy behaviors and preventing diseases. The objective of this study is to compare the annual physical examination (APE) use between rural and urban elderly in China. A total of 3,922 participants (60+) were randomly selected from three urban districts and three rural counties in Shandong Province, China, and were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. We performed unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models to examine the difference in the utilization of APE between rural and urban elderly. Two adjusted logistic regression models were employed to identify the factors associated with APE use in rural and urban seniors respectively. The utilization rates of APE in rural and urban elderly are 37.4% and 76.2% respectively. Factors including education level, exercise, watching TV, and number of non-communicable chronic conditions, are associated with APE use both in rural and urban elderly. Hospitalization, self-reported economic status, and health insurance are found to be significant (p Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) (p urban areas. There is a big difference in APE utilization between rural and urban elderly. Interventions targeting identified at-risk subgroups, especially for those rural elderly, are essential to reduce such a gap. To improve health literacy might be helpful to increase the utilization rate of APE among the elderly.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation of the CHO-KLAT for boys with hemophilia in rural and urban china

    Wu Runhui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL is increasingly recognized as an important outcome measure in clinical trials. The Canadian Hemophilia Outcomes-Kids Life Assessment Tool (CHO-KLAT shows promise for use in China. Objective To adapt the CHO-KLAT version 2.0 for use in clinical trials in China. Methods Forward and back translations of the CHO-KLAT2.0 were completed in 2008. Between October 2009 and June 2010, a series of 3 focus groups were held with 20 boys and 31 parents in rural and urban China to elicit additional concepts, important to their QoL, for the Chinese CHO-KLAT2.0. All of the items identified by boys and parents were reviewed by a group of experts, resulting in a Chinese version of the CHO-KLAT2.0. This version underwent a detailed cognitive debriefing process between October 2010 and June 2011. Thirteen patient-parent pairs participated in this cognitive debriefing process until a stable and clearly understood Chinese version of the CHO-KLAT2.0 was obtained. Results The initial back translation of the Chinese CHO-KLAT2.0 was slightly discrepant from the original English version on 12 items. These were all successfully adjudicated. The focus groups identified 9 new items that formed an add-on Socio-Economic Context (SEC module for China. Linguistic improvements were made after the 2nd, 5th, 7th and 13th cognitive debriefings pairs and affected a total of 18 items. The result was a 35 item CHO-KLAT2.0 and a SEC module in Simplified Chinese, both of which have good content validity. Conclusion This detailed process proved to be extremely valuable in ensuring the items were accurately interpreted by Chinese boys with hemophilia ages ≤18 years. The need for the additional SEC module highlighted the different context that currently exists in China with regard to hemophilia care as compared to many Western countries, and will be important in tracking progress within both rural and urban China over time. Changes based on the

  12. Coping with Pressures of Modernization by Traditional Farmers: a Strategy for Sustainable Rural Development in Yunnan, China

    SHIRO Chikamatsu; Jose Ireneu Furtad; SHEN Lixin; YAN Mei


    Traditional farming practices conform to sustainable rural livelihoods, while agricultural modernisation tends to undermine these practices through various perturbations. A case study in Tengchong County (western Yunnan, China) shows that transformation of traditional alder (Alnus nepalensis) and dry rice (upland rice) rotational farming to introduced Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.)plantations leads to loealised water scarcity and soil fertility decline. While farmers are aware of ecological sustainability of traditional farming, they prefer Chinese fir forestry because it is less labour-intensive, has a high market value, and releases time for profitable off-farm work. Farmers adapt to economic liberalization by planting high value crops and trees. However,alternatives to make local agricultural production more profitable through competitive business strategies, cooperative approaches, innovations in intefor sustainable rural livelihoods have been overlooked largely due to poor information availability and lack of organisational framework.

  13. 中国乡村旅游品牌解析%Study on the Rural Tourism Brand in China

    蔡蓉蓉; 潘鸿雷


    The definition of the rural tourism brand was given at first, and then the problems of the brand in China were analyzed. At last, some new ideas of the rural tourism brand development were brought out, including brand awareness, brand positioning, brand supervision and brand communication.%就乡村旅游品牌的相关概念进行了界定,分析了中国乡村旅游品牌中存在的一些问题,梳理出中国乡村旅游品牌发展的一些思路,包括诸如品牌意识、品牌定位、品牌监督管理以及品牌传播中可以尝试的新路径.

  14. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China

    Yulin Wang


    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. Methods: The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old, and was conducted during 2009–2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4 and (80.9 ± 13.4 mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05, while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9 and (83.0 ± 14.6 mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3 and (77.4 ± 12.7 mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5 and (82.6 ± 11.9 mmHg, p < 0.05. Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324, age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646, nationality (OR = 1.541, occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576, education (OR = 1.260, BMI (OR = 1.842, WC (OR = 1.585, WHR (OR = 1.188, WHR (OR = 1.188, diabetes (OR = 1.879, hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361, hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131 and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (OR = 1.956 were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (OR = 0.765 was negatively correlated with hypertension. Conclusions: Prevalence of

  15. Does migration benefit the schooling of children left behind?: Evidence from rural northwest China

    Feng Hu


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND While many studies have found that migration can benefit home communities and family members left behind by increasing household income, thus easing liquidity constraints on investment; less is known about how "internal" migration and remittances affect the educational performance of the children who are left behind in the source communities. OBJECTIVE My aim in this paper is to examine the effects of migration on the educational attainment of left-behind rural children in northwest China. To gain a better understanding of whether the educational performance of these children improves or suffers when adult family members migrate, I attempt to disentangle the effects of remittances from the effects of migration. METHODS The data used in this study come from the 2004 wave of the Gansu Survey of Children and Families. To account for the possible endogeneity of migration-related variables, I use the migration network variables to instrument for different migration strategies. RESULTS The results show that the absence of adult household members, including parents, has a negative effect on the educational performance of the children left behind, but that remittances can partially compensate for this loss. Boys' educational performance does not seem to be greatly affected by the migration of adult household members. By contrast, the absence of adult household members is shown to have a large negative effect on girls' educational performance, and the positive effect of remittances is also found to be significant for girls. CONCLUSIONS The findings may be of interest to other developing countries with large internal migration flows and to the relevant policy makers, as the results suggest that remittances sent home by out-migrants may serve as a channel for investing in human capital in the migrants' regions of origin, and especially for investing in the human capital of girls.

  16. Urban-Rural Comparison of Nutrient Intake by Adult Women in Shaanxi Province, China



    Triplet surveys were conducted in the city of Xi' an and two villages (one in the vicinity and the other at a distance) in Shaanxi Province in China in October-November (when agricultural activitis were low), 1997, to elucidate nutrient intakes with a focus on possible urban-rural differences. Total food duplicate samples were collected from non-smoking and non-habitually drinking adult healthy women (about 50 subjects per site and 149 in total). The nutrient intakes were estimated from the weight of food items in reference to national food composition tables. On average, the women took 1873 kcal energy, 54 g protein and 37 g lipid per day, with a lipid energy ratio of18.4%. Both excess and insufficient energy intake was observed as a result of food intake analysis and body mass index determination. With regard to minor nutrient intakes, insufficiency was serious in the case of calcium, vitamin A and vitamin B2, but not with iron. Whereas dependency on plant foods for sources of energy and protein was common to the three regions, Xi' an people consumed more animal foods than those in the villages. Intake of fish and shellfish was quite low throughout the three regions. Among the four types of cereals, wheat was consumed most substantially in the three regions and in three meals (except for the village where people essentially did not take lunch in reflection of low agricultural activities), whereas rice was consumed more in Xi' an than in the two villages. Maize consumption was higher in the two villages (especially for breakfast) than in the city.In contrast, foxtail millet (although in small amounts) was taken primarily in Xi'an and only at the time of breakfast.

  17. Impact of Maternal Death on Household Economy in Rural China: A Prospective Path Analysis.

    Fang Ye

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the inter-relationships among maternal death, household economic status after the event, and potential influencing factors.We conducted a prospective cohort study of households that had experienced maternal death (n = 195 and those that experienced childbirth without maternal death (n = 384 in rural China. All the households were interviewed after the event occurred and were followed up 12 months later. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship model, utilizing income and expenditure per capita in the following year after the event as the main outcome variables, maternal death as the predictor, and direct costs, the amount of money offset by positive and negative coping strategies, whether the husband remarried, and whether the newborn was alive as the mediators.In the following year after the event, the path analysis revealed a direct effect from maternal death to lower income per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.43, p = 0.041 and to lower expenditure per capita (standardized coefficient = -0.51, p<0.001. A significant indirect effect was found from maternal death to lower income and expenditure per capita mediated by the influencing factors of higher direct costs, less money from positive coping methods, more money from negative coping, and the survival of the newborn.This study analyzed the direct and indirect effects of maternal death on a household economy. The results provided evidence for better understanding the mechanism of how this event affects a household economy and provided a reference for social welfare policies to target the most vulnerable households that have suffered from maternal deaths.

  18. [Monitoring and SWOT analysis of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil of rural China].

    Zhu, Hui-hui; Zhou, Chang-hai; Zang, Wei; Zhang, Xue-qiang; Chen, Ying-dan


    To understand the status of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil at national monitoring spots of soil-transmitted nematodiasis, so as to provide the evidence for making countermeasures and evaluating the control effect. Ten households were selected from each of the 22 national monitoring spots annually according to the National Surveillance Program of Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (Trial), and the soil samples from vegetable gardens, toilet periphery, courtyards and kitchens were collected and examined by using the modified floatation test with saturated sodium nitrate. Fertilized or unfertilized eggs as well as live or dead fertilized eggs were discriminated and identified. In addition, a SWOT analysis of monitoring of Ascaris eggs pollution in the soil of rural China was carried out. A total of 1 090 households were monitored in 22 monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010. The total detection rate of Ascaris eggs in the soil was 30.73%, and the detection rates of fertilized, unfertilized and live fertilized eggs were 13.21%, 26.42% and 20.28%, respectively. The total detection rates of Ascaris eggs in the vegetable garden, toilet periphery, courtyard and kitchen were 16.51%, 13.49%, 14.22% and 10.73% respectively. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that the monitoring work had both advantages and disadvantages, and was faced with opportunities as well as threats. The pollution status of Ascaris eggs in the soil is still quite severe at some national monitoring spots, and the counter-measures such as implementing hazard-free treatment of stool, improving water supply and sanitation and reforming environment should be taken to protect people from being infected.

  19. Whether New Cooperative Mmedical Schemes reduce the economic burden of chronic disease in rural China.

    Shanshan Jing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS provides health insurance coverage for rural populations in China. This study aimed to evaluate changes in household catastrophic health expenditure (CHE due to chronic disease before and after the reimbursement policies for services of chronic disease were implemented to provide additional financial support. METHODS: The study used data from the household surveys conducted in Shandong Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in 2006 and 2008. The study sample in village-level units was divided into two groups: 36 villages which implemented the NCMS reimbursement policies for chronic diseases as the intervention group, and 72 villages which did not as the control group. Health care expenditure of more than 40% of household's non-food expenditure was defined as a household with CHE (i.e., impoverishment. The conceptual framework was established based on the Andersen socio-behavioral model of health care utilization to explore how the NCMS reimbursement policies impacted health expenditures. A difference-in-difference model was employed to compare the change in the proportion of households incurring CHE due to chronic disease between the two groups over time. RESULTS: The households that participated in the NCMS were less likely to become impoverished (P<0.05. In addition, the households with both male household head and higher income level were protective factors to prevent CHE (P<0.05. Young households with preschool children suffered less from CHE (P<0.05. The effect of the NCMS reimbursement policies for chronic disease on the CHE was negative, yet not statistically significant (p = 0.814. CONCLUSIONS: The NCMS coverage showed financial protection for households with chronic disease. However, the NCMS reimbursement policies should be strengthened in the future.

  20. Modalities of Microfinance Delivery in Asia and Latin America: Lessons for China

    Heather Montgomery; John Weiss


    Microfinance, the provision of small size loans and other financial services to low income households, is often seen as the key innovation of the last 25 years in terms of means of reaching out to the poor and vulnerable. There is extensive experience in microfinance provision in both Asia and Latin America, but as yet relatively little use of the approach in China. This paper assesses different approaches to rnicrofinance delivery using a threefold distinction, the credit union approach, the non-government organization approach and the banking approach, to generalize across recent Asian and Latin American experience and discuss the role of microfinance in poverty reduction in a theoretical framework. Considering the current state of microfinance in China and international experience, we suggest the banking approach as the way to best increase outreach of micro-financial services in China.