WorldWideScience

Sample records for rural areas includes

  1. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  2. Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network (KariaNet) - Phase II ... the existing network to include two thematic networks on food security and rural ... Woman conquering male business in Yemen : Waleya's micro-enterprise.

  3. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location

  4. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  5. ROLE OF RURAL TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Udovč

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other

  6. ON THE EMPIRICAL FINDING OF A HIGHER RISK OF POVERTY IN RURAL AREAS: IS RURAL RESIDENCE ENDOGENOUS TO POVERTY?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Monica G.

    2004-01-01

    Includes: On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?:COMMENT, by Thomas A. Hirschl; On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?: REPLY, by Monica Fisher. Research shows people are more likely to be poor in rural versus urban America. Does this phenomenon partly reflect that people who choose rural residence have unmeasured attributes related to human impoveris...

  7. The Activities and radioactive dispersion consequences for urban and rural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande Made Udiyani; Sri Kuntjoro; Jupiter Sitorus Pane

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of radioactive releases of contaminants by humans is influenced by many factors such as the amount of activity that spread contaminants and environmental conditions. Environmental conditions include meteorological conditions, the contours of the site and contaminant pathways to humans. The purpose of this research is the analysis of the consequences of radionuclide activity and long half-life time due to accidents in urban and rural areas. The specific objective is to calculate the activity of the air dispersion and surface deposition, dose rate predictions and the risks posed to urban and rural areas as a function of the location. The estimates method used is simulation of the consequences on fission products dispersion in the atmosphere due to the postulated accident Beyond Design Basis Accident, BDBA. The calculation is performed for radioactive releases from accidents in 1000 MWe PWR simulated for rural and urban areas on Bojanegara-Serang site. Results of the analysis are that the activity of air dispersion and deposition surface at rural areas higher than urban areas. The Acceptance dose is higher for rural areas compared with urban areas. The maximum effective individual dose for rural areas is 9.24 x 10"-"2 Sv and urban areas is 5.14 x 10"-"2 Sv. The total risk of cancer for people who live in urban areas is higher than rural areas. (author)

  8. School Segregation and Disparities in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Much of the literature on racial and ethnic educational inequality focuses on the contrast between Black and Hispanic students in urban areas and white suburban students. This study extends past research on school segregation and racial/ethnic disparities by highlighting the importance of rural areas and regional variation. Although schools in rural America are disproportionately white, they nevertheless are like urban schools, and disadvantaged relative to suburban schools, in terms of poverty and test performance. The group most affected by rural school disadvantage is Native Americans, who are a small share of students nationally but much more prominent and highly disadvantaged in rural areas, particularly in some parts of the country. These figures suggest a strong case for including rural schools in the continuing conversation about how to deal with unfairness in public education. PMID:29430018

  9. Youth retention in rural areas, a prerequisite for sustainable rural entrepreneurship and employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi Ardahaee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and sustainable rural employment are the main concerns of rural planners. One of the most basic requirements for this is that young people remain in the rural areas. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to identify individual and structural factors that are effective in keeping young people in rural areas. Statistical results of the bivariate and multilevel modeling (HLM shows that rural youth are not willing to stay in rural regions. One may cite the following individual factors contributing to this lack of interest in staying in rural areas: age, marital status, education, communication with relatives in the city, as well as employment status and job skills. People with higher human capital who have technical skills and building related non-agricultural skills are not interested in staying in rural areas. Moreover, the increased population in the villages and lack of social welfare facilities in village are highly effective in reducing the tendency of young people to stay in the villages.

  10. HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

  11. [Fertility in rural and urban areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Y Garma, I O

    1989-01-01

    Data from 6 fertility surveys conducted in Mexico between 1969-87 were used to compare rural and urban fertility and to determine whether a significant level of contraceptive usage could be achieved in rural areas despite their lack of socioeconomic development. Age-specific marital fertility rates were calculated for the 4 national-level and 2 rural fertility surveys. The index of fertility control developed by Coale and Trussel was calculated for rural, urban, and all areas. The marital total fertility rate in rural areas declined from 10.6 in 1970 to 7.4 in 1982, a decline of 2.5% annually. From 1982-87 the annual rate of decline in rural fertility slowed to 1.6%, reaching 6.8 children in 1987. The urban marital total fertility rate declined from 7.72 in 1976 to 5.03 in 1987, while the marital total fertility rate for Mexico as a whole declined from 9.04 in 1976 to 5.85 in 1987. The indices of fertility control showed slowly increasing use of contraception in rural areas starting from the very low level of 1969. The urban index of fertility control showed some contraceptive use for all age groups in all surveys. The increases in contraceptive usage were considerable in rural areas from 1976-82 and much less marked in urban areas. From 1982-87 the inverse was observed and the fertility decline in urban areas was more marked. The condition of natural fertility found in rural areas in 1969 subsequently disappeared. Over time, fertility decline and use of contraception have intensified. Contraception is widely practiced in urban areas and is continuing to become more prevalent. The rural fertility decline in 1976-82 suggests that at least sometimes increases in fertility control are more important in rural areas than in urban areas. The theory of modernization, which holds that fertility decline in developed countries is attributable to factors associated with the process of modernization, thus comes into question. However, it is probable that a sustained fertility

  12. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Rural areas are presently challenged by various restructuring processes; functionally and economically with changes in employment structure etc. as well as social and cultural transformations due to demographic change, population loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural...

  13. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  14. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  15. Attitude towards working in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey of rural-oriented tuition-waived medical students in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinlin; Zhang, Kun; Mao, Ying

    2018-05-02

    Attracting and recruiting health workers to work in rural areas is still a great challenge in China. The rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education (RTME) programme has been initiated and implemented in China since 2010. This study aimed to examine the attitudes of rural-oriented tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) in Shaanxi towards working in rural areas and the related influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 among 232 RTMSs in two medical universities from the first group of students enrolled in the RTME programme in Shaanxi. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used for the data analyses. Of the 230 valid responses, 92.6% expressed their intentions of breaking the contract for working in rural township hospitals for 6 years after their graduation under the RTME programme. After the contract expired, only 1.3% intended to remain in the rural areas, 66.5% had no intention of remaining, and 32.2% were unsure. The factors related to a positive attitude among the RTMSs towards working in rural areas (no intention of breaking the contract) included being female, having a mother educated at the level of primary school or below, having a good understanding of the policy, having a good cognition of the value of rural medical work, and being satisfied with the policy. The factors related to a positive attitude of the RTMSs towards remaining in rural areas included being female, having a rural origin, having no regular family monthly income, having a father whose occupation was farmer, having a mother educated at the level of postsecondary or above, having the RTMSs be the final arbiter of the policy choice, having a good understanding of the policy, having a good cognition of the value of rural medical work, and being satisfied with the educational scheme. Related policy makers and health workforce managers may benefit from the findings of this study. Appropriate strategies should be implemented to stimulate the RTMSs

  16. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  17. Predictors of happiness among retired from urban and rural areas in Brazil

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    Silvia Miranda Amorim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study compared differences in degree of happiness, social support, activities performed, and health and economic situation among retirees from urban and rural areas in Minas Gerais State in Brazil. The influences of these predictors over individuals’ level of happiness were also analyzed. We included 279 retired individuals living in Abre Campo (a municipality with a population fewer than 20,000 inhabitants, which is considered a rural area and in Belo Horizonte (a municipality with a population of almost 2.5 million inhabitants, which is considered an urban area. Participants responded to a questionnaire that included scales of happiness, social support, diversity of activities, and issues about satisfaction with health and economic situation. Retirees from the urban area had a higher happiness level than retirees from the rural area (β= 0.16. The most important predictors of happiness were health (β= 0.42, social support (β= 0.26, and economic situation (β= 0.15, but no moderation effects of urban and rural areas were found. Our findings support the implementation of actions to offer financial planning before retirement and to stimulate social support and health promotion for retirees, particularly given the importance of these factors in perception of happiness.

  18. The impact of air quality conditioned by emission of pollutants to the development of rural tourism and potentials of rural areas

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    Cvijanović Drago

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant potentials for tourism development in Serbia are related to rural areas. Rural development, on its basis, includes the agrarian, but also the non-agrarian sector in rural areas, thus encompassing every vital component of the development of rural areas. This paper is, following the relevant theoretical positions, focused on key issues in the field of air quality impacts caused by the emission of pollutants to the development of rural tourism and the potentials of rural areas. These are primarily the following issues: which are the criteria for assessing air quality, or what are the limit values of the parameters for the protection of human health, and what is the trend of air quality by zones and agglomerations and what is the percentage of the population potentially exposed to concentrations of pollutants above the reference level. The mentioned topic is analyzed for the period 2012-2015. Analysis of the results of the degree of emission of suspended particles by zones and agglomerations in Serbia is presented correlatively in conclusion with concluding reviews on the existing ecological potential for the development of the basic rural areas in Serbia - Vojvodina, which makes up 28% of the total area of Serbia, Central Serbia, which consists of 29% of the total area of Serbia and South Serbia, which accounts for 44% of the total area of Serbia.

  19. The potentials of rural tourism in developing rural areas in Albania

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    Henrietta Nagy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The inspiration that drove us to this study is that conventional tourism in Albania is focused more on promoting seaside, cultural tourism, luxury resorts, etc. which has demonstrated a good trend. At the same time, specific parts of the country have been abandoned due to their underdeveloped situation. Given their assets as constructed and indigenous habitat, they progressively appear as regions for rural tourism development. It could provide good development opportunities in remote mountainous areas that every day more are abandoned by the population because they do not have enough employment opportunities. But as for other rural areas which have a great potential for development of rural tourism, they are not preferred by the population either to live because they do not have developed agriculture. They do not provide the opportunity to earn enough money to live on at the appropriate standard. So the development of rural tourism would help the population in such areas to diversify their activities and earn some extra income, motivating inhabitants to stay in their own areas. Overall, it would contribute to the balanced development of the regions of Albania.

  20. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  1. Rural population mixing and childhood leukaemia: effects of the North Sea oil industry in Scotland, including the area near Dounreay nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinlen, L.J.; O'Brien, F.; Clarke, K.; Balkwill, A.; Matthews, F.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was associated with certain striking examples of population mixing in rural Scotland produced by the North Sea oil industry. Details were traced for over 30 000 workers (25 yrs old) involved in the construction of the large oil terminals in the Shetland and Orkney islands in northern Scotland or employed offshore. Home addresses of the 17160 Scottish residents were postcoded, integrated with census data, and then classified as urban or rural. Rural postcode sectors, ranked by proportion of oil workers, were grouped into three categories with similar numbers of children but contrasting densities of oil workers. The incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was examined in these rural (and also in urban) categories in the periods 1974-8, 1979-83 and 1984-8. A significant excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was found in 1979-83 in the group of rural home areas with the largest proportion of oil workers, following closely on large increases in the workforce. The area near the Dounreay nuclear installation, where an excess of leukaemia is already well known, was within the rural high oil category. (Author)

  2. Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on…

  3. Development Areas of Rural Tourism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of rural tourism forms has increased in recent years. From the initiatives with individual character it has been reached a real alternative leisure. The reason? Authenticity of rural areas is a quality becoming more demanding in terms of current life. Synonymous with a holiday spent with little money in nature, rural tourism forms, like and are becoming increasingly popular. Folk heritage of folk architecture, folk customs and traditions, crafts, port and popular folklore, gastronomy specific is the most popular tourist attractions in rural tourism. Therefore, tourist villages and agro-tourist offer circumscribed, in particular, to Romanian folk brand areas, which fortunately, also benefits of natural attractions of great beauty.

  4. RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc., in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its

  5. Rurality study of restricted areas

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    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  6. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Use of rural area small... and Clauses 1852.219-74 Use of rural area small businesses. As prescribed in 1819.7103, insert the following clause: Use of Rural Area Small Business (SEP 1990) (a) Definitions. Rural area means any county...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010 [74 FR 57110...

  8. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca IGNAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.

  9. Characterizing Rural Food Access in Remote Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardenhagen, Chris J; Pinard, Courtney A; Pirog, Rich; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus

    2017-10-01

    Residents of rural areas may have limited access to healthy foods, leading to higher incidence of diet related health issues. Smaller grocers in rural areas experience challenges in maintaining fresh produce and other healthy foods available for customers. This study assessed the rural food environment in northeast Lower Michigan in order to inform healthy food financing projects such as the Michigan Good Food Fund. The area's retail food businesses were categorized using secondary licensing, business, and nutrition program databases. Twenty of these stores were visited in person to verify the validity of the categories created, and to assess the availability of healthy foods in their aisles. In-depth interviews with key informants were carried out with store owners, economic development personnel, and other food system stakeholders having knowledge about food access, in order to learn more about the specific challenges that the area faces. Out-shopping, seasonality, and economic challenges were found to affect healthy food availability. Mid-sized independent stores were generally found to have a larger selection of healthy foods, but smaller rural groceries also have potential to provide fresh produce and increase food access. Potential healthy food financing projects are described and areas in need of further research are identified.

  10. Rural Tourism - Alternative to the Development of Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina PAIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism through its content and its features is a distinct component in the economy of a region, and the sustainable, efficient use of local tourism resources can be an extremely important activity by: adding added value, boosting productivity, employment and increasing the living standard of the population. Rural tourism is considered a lever to mitigate local imbalances and besides attracting touristic areas in the circuit, it also has consequences on territorial development: housing construction, road development, development of public services and the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. Consequently, rural tourism has an impact on a country's economic and social development strategy, but also on a branch level.

  11. Kees: a Practical Ict Solution for Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoye; Tabirca, Sabin; Lenihan, Eamon

    This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions. KEES is a solution to provide education services including other services of information distribution and knowledge sharing to local farmers, local institutes or local collection of farmers. The design of KEES is made to meet the needs of knowledge capacity building, experience sharing, skill upgrading, and information exchanging in agriculture for different conditions in rural areas. The system allows the online lecture/training materials to be distributed simultaneously with all multimedia resources through different file formats across different platforms. The teaching/training content can be contextless and broad, allowing for greater participation by more small holders, commercial farmers, extension workers, agriculturists, educators, and other agriculture-related experts. The relative inconsistency in content gives farmers more localised and useful knowledge. The framework of KEES has been designed to be a three-tier architecture logic workflow, which can configure the progressive approach for KEES to pass on and respond to different requests/communications between the client side and the server.

  12. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces...... ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnational Garden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should...... invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks...

  13. Utilization of Mental Health Services by Veterans Living in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Judith; Ali, Mir M; Lynch, Sean; Mutter, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    There is concern that veterans living in rural areas may not be receiving the mental health (MH) treatment they need. This study uses recent national survey data to examine the utilization of MH treatment among military veterans with a MH condition living in rural areas, providing comparisons with estimates of veterans living in urban areas. Multivariable logistic regression is utilized to examine differences in MH service use by urban/rural residence, controlling for other factors. Rates of utilization of inpatient and outpatient treatment, psychotropic medication, any MH treatment, and perceived unmet need for MH care are examined. There were significant differences in MH treatment utilization among veterans by rural/urban residence. Multivariate estimates indicate that compared to veterans with a MH condition living in urban areas, veterans in rural areas had 70% lower odds of receiving any MH treatment. Veterans with a MH condition in rural areas have approximately 52% and 64% lower odds of receiving outpatient treatment and prescription medications, respectively, compared to those living in urban areas. Differences in perceived unmet need for mental health treatment were not statistically significant. While research indicates that recent efforts to improve MH service delivery have resulted in improved access to services, this study found that veterans' rates of MH treatment are lower in rural areas, compared to urban areas. Continued efforts to support the provision of behavioral health services to rural veterans are needed. Telemedicine, using rural providers to their maximum potential, and engagement with community stakeholder groups are promising approaches. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  14. Rural settlements transition (RST) in a suburban area of metropolis: Internal structure perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqiu; Jiang, Guanghui; Wang, Deqi; Li, Wenqing; Guo, Hongquan; Zheng, Qiuyue

    2018-02-15

    Rural settlements transition (RST) is one of the most significant indices for understanding the phenomena of rural reconstruction and urban-rural transformation in China. However, a systematic overview of RST is missing, and there is a lack of evidence regarding its characteristics from the internal structure perspectives. In this paper, we systematically explore the RST regarding spatio-temporal change characteristics of internal structure, patterns and impacts on rural environment and development by using practical survey internal land-use data from 2005 to 2015. The results show that the temporal change characteristics of the internal structure of rural settlements demonstrate a tendency for housing land to decrease and other land-use types to increase. The spatial change characteristics reveal that the structure inclines to more complexity and diversity from an exurban area to an urban-rural fringe area. Based on this finding, we identify that rapid development of rural industrialization, more agglomerate and effective industrial land-use, and improved public infrastructure construction are the general RST patterns. Spatially, there exists a physical decay pattern in the exurban area, thereby resulting in the hollowing-out of rural industries and of the population. In addition, the extensive and disorderly pattern in the suburban area causes low efficiency output and serious environmental pollution. The RST pattern in the urban hinterland promoted the "men-environment" compatible development. The study concludes that regional differentiation in patterns and impacts are significant in the process of RST. Future adaptive strategies for rural settlements adjustment should be conducted according to regional characteristics, including socio-economic status, physical geography condition and economic location to improve the rural environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Do features of public open spaces vary between urban and rural areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jenny; Salmon, Jo; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Parks are an important setting for physical activity and specific park features have been shown to be associated with park visitation and physical activity. Most park-based research has been conducted in urban settings with few studies examining rural parks. This study examined differences in features of parks in urban compared with rural areas. In 2009/10 a tool was developed to audit 433 urban and 195 rural parks located in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Features assessed included: access; lighting/safety; aesthetics; amenities; paths; outdoor courts/ovals; informal play spaces; and playgrounds (number, diversity, age appropriateness and safety of play equipment). Rural parks scored higher for aesthetics compared with urban parks (5.08 vs 4.44). Urban parks scored higher for access (4.64 vs 3.89), lighting/safety (2.01 vs 1.76), and diversity of play equipment (7.37 vs 6.24), and were more likely to have paths suitable for walking/cycling (58.8% vs 40.9%) and play equipment for older children (68.2% vs 17.1%). Although the findings cannot be generalized to all urban and rural parks, the results may be used to inform advocacy for park development in rural areas to create parks that are more supportive of physical activity for children and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Ross

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim: The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting: Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods: This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results: The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1 contribution to service delivery; (2 professional development (3 the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4 the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion: Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be along-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs.

  18. Telecommunication and Access to Information in Rural Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One major reason for this has been the differential access to telecommunication infrastructure between the rural and urban areas. The realization of this has prompted many governments in developing countries to extend telecommunication infrastructure to their rural areas. However, relatively little is known about the impact ...

  19. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujičić, Maja; Jovičić-Bata, Jelena; Rađen, Slavica; Novaković, Budimka; Šipetić-Grujičić, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  20. Analysis of Home Safety of the Elderly Living in City and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Buker

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiological changes and chronic diseases arising during aging process increase risk of accident of the elderly, especially the elderly living alone at their homes. Home accidents are the most commonly health problem in the elderly. This study was carried out to describe home safety of the elderly living in a city or rural area using a home safety checklist. MEDHODS: 512 living in Turkey (330 in city; 182 in rural area were evaluated via face-to-face interview using a home safety checklist during a period between December and March in 2007. In addition to sociodemographics, a questionnaire including home characteristics and life style of participants was applied. To describe home safety level, Home Safety Checklist was used. RESULTS: 51.8% of the participants living in a city and 42.8% living in rural area were aged 65-69 years. Of the participants living in a city, 59.4% were living with their partners (61.5% of the participants living in rural area. While 63.9% of the participants living in a city reported that they had a private room in their homes, 53.8% of the participants living in rural area reported that they had a private room in their homes. 2.1% of participants living in a city had an excellent home safety score. Percentage for participants living in rural area was 0.5. CONCLUSION: The results obtained from this study show that majority of houses of the elderly living in Turkey were unsafe and hazardous. Therefore, health providers and architects should work together to prevent home accidents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 297-300

  1. Patent Medicine Vendors in Rural Areas of Lagos Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the compliance of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) in rural areas of Lagos State, Nigeria with set guidelines to regulate their practice and its implications for malaria control. Methods: A baseline cross-sectional study was conducted as part of an intervention study in two rural local government areas ...

  2. Sustainable development of rural areas: Case studies Vojvodina - Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forcan Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategic aims of Serbian economic development is supporting of the villages sustainable development through rural economy diversification where rural tourism development has an important place. In spite of this model of tourism importance recognition as a possible way of rural areas development, Serbia is in an opening phase of. Although there are several positive examples, it is significant that recent projects haven't been established according to national and European development programs, but according to private initiatives of individuals and groups. Rural tourism is an important component of integrated and sustainable development and revitalization of villages, as well an an important factor in encouraging the development of local agricultural and non-farmer activities in rural areas and villages, and also a special incentive to employment. This work highlights the importance of rural tourism in the function of the revitalization of the village, focusing on the challenges of the environment and the possible directions of development in the context of creating a recognizable tourist product and brand of rural tourism in Vojvodina.

  3. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  4. Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtmeyer, Melissa L.; Wang, Shuxiao; Axelbaum, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

  5. Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlerum, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

  6. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujičić Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. Methods. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Results. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. Conclusion. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  7. Quality-of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosević, Jadranka; Odović, Gordana; Rapaić, Dragan; Davidović, Mladen; Trgovcević, Sanja; Milovanović, Verica

    2015-11-01

    The number of elderly people in the world is growing, in Serbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influences the quality of life in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The next questionnaires were used: a socio-demographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standardized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), as a basic index for the assessment and description of the quality of life. In the structure of the respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012), the life of those with family members (p = 0.009), and health status (p = 0.000), in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040), predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within the rural population. The average value of quality of life in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720). For those living in rural areas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was observed between anxiety/depression and education. On the basis of the data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater in rural than in urban areas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older in rural areas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.

  8. Quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The number of elderly people in the world is growing, in Serbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influences the quality of life in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia. Methods. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The next questionnaires were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standardized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L, as a basic index for the assessment and description of the quality of life. Results. In the structure of the respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012, the life of those with family members (p = 0.009, and health status (p = 0.000, in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040, predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within the rural population. The average value of quality of life in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720. For those living in rural areas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was observed between anxiety/depression and education. Conclusion. On the basis of the data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater in rural than in urban areas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older in rural areas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.

  9. Factor Analysis on the Factors that Influencing Rural Environmental Pollution in the Hilly Area of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using factor analysis method and establishing analysis indicator system from four aspects including crop production,poultry farming,rural life and township enterprises,the difference,features,and types of factors influencing the rural environmental pollution in the hilly area in Sichuan Province,China.Results prove that the major factor influencing rural environmental pollution in the study area is livestock and poultry breeding,flowed by crop planting,rural life,and township enterprises.Hence future pollution prevention and control should set about from livestock and poultry breeding.Meanwhile,attention should be paid to the prevention and control of rural environmental pollution caused by rural life and township enterprise production.

  10. Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

    2013-06-01

    Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

  11. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashige, Khathutshelo P; Oduntan, Olalekan A; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-07-31

    Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05) being from urban respondents for the latter two issues only. Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remote areas of the country.

  12. Investigation and Control Mode of Domestic Pollution in Rural Areas of Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chunyi; Chen, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Due to the unbalanced economic development and scattered residence in rural areas, it was difficult to adopt a centralized approach in rural environmental governance. Based on the survey results of the present situation of rural environment in Guangxi and the analysis of the pollution characteristics in rural areas, the control mode of domestic pollution suitable for rural areas was obtained. Based on this research, a demonstration project of Guangxi’s administrative village was selected.

  13. Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Li Wei; Chen Jiwei; Wang Hongqijie; Li Tongchao; Shen Guofeng; Shen Huizhong; Huang Ye; Wang Rong; Wang Bin; Zhang Yanyan; Tang Jianhui; Liu Wenxin; Wang Xilong; Tao Shu

    2012-01-01

    High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m 3 ) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m 3 ) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Concentration of PBDEs at each site of the studied area. Highlights: ► High levels of PBDEs with BDE-209 domination were detected in air in northern China. ► PBDE concentrations in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in rural open fields. ► Proportions of BDE-209 in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ► PBDE concentrations were correlated to local population density and Gross Domestic Production. - In northern China, PBDEs in air in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in open fields.

  14. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation

  15. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  16. Frailty Among Elderly Adults in a Rural Area of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmur, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Background The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. Material/Methods This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province. A total of 168 elderly adults (≥65 years old) from 12 central villages were included in the study. The Fried Frailty Criteria was used to assess the frailty of the participants. In addition to frailty, the physical, social, and mental status of elderly adults was examined. Results The prevalence of frailty in this rural area of Turkey was 7.1%. The study group ranged in age from 65 to 96 years (mean 72.70±7.73 years), and 53.6% were female. Among the elderly adult group, 84.3% had not completed elementary school, and 43.29% had a monthly income of ≤500 Turkish liras ($200). No significant relationship was identified between gender and frailty. There was a statistically significant relationship between frailty and older age, lower education level, lower economic level, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastric disease, arthritis, generalized pain, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, auditory impairment, impaired oral care, caregiver burden, impaired cognitive function, depression, or a lack of social support (social isolation). Conclusions It is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the health status and needs of elderly adults in Turkey and the health problems of this population as well as to planning the development of public health and geriatric services based on regional needs. PMID:25925800

  17. Policies for Compulsory Education Disparity Between Urban and Rural Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Chuanyou

    2006-01-01

    An important function of public policies is to distribute public resources rationally.But for a long time.our public policies have been SO"city-oriented"that public resources are allocated unfairly and majority of high-quality education resources are concentrated in cities.This has already led to a serious unbalanced development in compdsory education and to a tremendous gap in conditions in schools--running and enrollment chances fur the school-age children between rural and urban areas.which tend to be enlarged.The unbalanced development in compulsory education has not only blocked the realization of public interest and equity of compulsory education but also restricted the harmonious social and economic development between urban and rural areas.It iS necessary to look into Public policies that have influence on the division of public resources and criticize them rationally.These policies include land institutions,tax systems,social security systems,policies for the input of compulsory education,and policies for teachers,etc.New policies should be made to distribute public resources fairly and rationally,narrowing the gap in compulsory education between urban and rural areas.

  18. Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Poultry Production in Ondo South Senatorial District Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... The need to obtain baseline information on rural poultry with respect to their population and the production potentials of the indigenous chicken under the village conditions in Ondo Area formed ...

  19. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas are shaped by the lack of business ideas and economic capital, which, in addition to financial resources, includes cultural capital in the form of knowledge and skills. The paper presents a part of a broader study on the social position of women from the rural areas of northern Kosovo and Metohija, conducted in 2013. The research was predominantly focused on entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women, and the findings suggest that private enterprise in the studied population is undeveloped as a result of two dominant reasons. The first reason is the situation which is unfavorable in terms of politics and security, and therefore, not conducive to investment security, together with the specificity in the form of complex administrative business conditions requiring compliance to parallel and mutually incompatible standards (of the Republic of Serbia and of the UNMIK administration. The second important reason for the lack of entrepreneurial initiatives is the lack of ownership of property and the means of production, since banks do not give loans without guarantees in the form of ownership of the mortgage, while other forms of financial incentives are unavailable. The respondents attended programs for acquiring new knowledge and skills only in a small number of cases, while showing the greatest susceptibility to education in traditional skills, such as training in agriculture and handicrafts, which are not the skills in line with the needs of the labor market. As the most important reasons that -prevent them from having their own business, the respondents -mentioned: the lack of ideas and the lack of financial resources. In this regard, they would find incentives in the form of grants most helpful to start their own business. The absence of funds and gender inequality form the basis for the lack of ownership of property and means of production. In addition to the shortage of financial

  20. Defining urban and rural areas: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Blanca; Roca, Josep

    2017-10-01

    The separation between the countryside and the city, from rural and urban areas, has been one of the central themes of the literature on urban and territorial studies. The seminal work of Kingsley Davis [10] in the 1950s introduced a wide and fruitful debate which, however, has not yet concluded in a rigorous definition that allows for comparative studies at the national and subnational levels of a scientific nature. In particular, the United Nations (UN) definition of urban and rural population is overly linked to political and administrative factors that make it difficult to use data adequately to understand the human settlement structure of different countries. The present paper seeks to define a more rigorous methodology for the identification of rural and urban areas. For this purpose it uses the night lights supplied by the SNPP satellite, and more specifically by the VIIRS sensor for the determination of the urbanization gradient, and by means of the same construct a more realistic indicator than the statistics provided by the UN. The arrival of electrification to nearly every corner of the planet is certainly the first and most meaningful indicator of artificialization of land. In this sense, this paper proposes a new methodology designed to identify highly impacted (urbanized) landscapes worldwide based on the analysis of satellite imagery of night-time lights. The application of this methodology on a global scale identifies the land highly impacted by light, the urbanization process, and allows an index to be drawn up of Land Impacted by Light per capita (LILpc) as an indicator of the level of urbanization. The methodology used in this paper can be summarized in the following steps: a) a logistic regression between US Urban Areas (UA), as a dependent variable, and night-time light intensity, as an explanatory variable, allows us to establish a nightlight intensity level for the determination of Areas Highly Impacted by Light (AHIL); b) the delimitation of

  1. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader Valentin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural and to identify the factors that determine these gaps. The economic differences between rural and urban areas and their impact on the peoples standard of living represent an important issue for international institutions like IFRC, UNICEF or OECD. Also, this topic represents a frequent subject in the economic literature from poor and developing countries. Studies conducted by Huong and Booth (2010, Alister, Alana and Ayele (2007, Chao, Zhidong and Mingxing (2008, Mateoc-Srb, Mateoc, Darva?i and Manescu (2008 or Sahn and Stifel (2002 are representative examples. Most of these papers focus on the living standards differences generated by the differences between income and expenditures between urban and rural areas. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the economic indicators household incomes, value and structure of household expenditures, structure of household expenditures the social indicators residential area, education level, age and occupation. The highlight of the gaps between the rural and urban areas will be the main objective during this analysis. We conclude that in Romania there are substantial differences between rural and urban areas. The income differences are determining different consumption patterns between rural and urban persons. In rural areas, the population is spending less in all goods and services aspect that reduce their standard of living. Anyway, the results obtained are the subject of at least two possible limits. The fact that the data

  2. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khathutshelo P. Mashige

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim: To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence theirdecisions. Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results: Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate. Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66% or second practices (64.6% in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2% or second (79.4% practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areaswere financial concerns (81.2%, personal safety (80.1% and poor living conditions (75.3%, with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05 being from urban respondents for the latter twoissues only. Conclusion: Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remoteareas of the country.

  3. 47 CFR 22.228 - Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular rural service area licenses subject to... Procedures § 22.228 Cellular rural service area licenses subject to competitive bidding. Mutually exclusive initial applications for Cellular Rural Service Area licenses are subject to competitive bidding. The...

  4. Emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction of tour guides in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Željko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determinate the job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion of tour guides in rural areas and to show how these two concepts are related to each other. A total of 102 tour guides, who lead tours or have experience in leading tours in rural areas took part in the questionnaire and the results were given and processed in SPSS version 17. Tour guides have a great importance in interpretation of rural areas as well as a significant role in presenting local customs and products in rural tourism. Exploring their satisfaction but also emotional exhaustion is of paramount importance for maintaining their excellence in interpretation of these areas. The results indicate that job satisfaction is still not on satisfying level, while emotional exhaustion is under acceptable limits. The results also showed that there is a negative connection between these two concepts. The obtained data should be beneficial not only to tour-operators but also to other tourism-related companies dealing with FDA (Front Desk Activities and employees in rural tourism: the data about job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion of tour guides can be used in developing management and work motivation strategies. The profound insight in job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion is important in order to achieve business excellence of tour guides in rural areas.

  5. An estimation of tourism dependence in French rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Dissart, Jean-Christophe; Aubert, Francis; Truchet, Stéphanie; European Regional Science Association; Association de Science Régionale de Langue Française

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to estimate the importance of tourism in the economy of rural areas. Considering previous analyses of rural dynamics, this paper 1) focuses on tourism activity, 2) analyzes the situation of Functional Economic Areas, and 3) takes into account socioeconomic indicators as well as landscape features. Based on secondary data, resource like regions are defined, the local share of tourism employment is estimated, stylized facts regarding tourism indicators by cluster are produced...

  6. Wind energy for water pumping in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechang, S.

    1991-01-01

    After 1980, as the supply of conventional energy has not been able to follow the tremendous increase of the production demand in rural areas of China, a renewed interest for the application of wind energy was shown in many places. Therefore, the Chinese government began to pay more attention to wind energy utilization in rural areas. During the last ten years, several R ampersand D tasks for new modern wind pumps were carried out. Among them, three projects are the developments of wind energy screw pump systems (FDG-5 wind pump, FDG-7 wind pump and TFS-5 wind pump). At present, 50 of these wind pumps are working successfully in the rural areas for farmland drainage, salt ponds water lifting and aquatic product breeding, etc. The field tests show that these wind energy screw pump systems are suitable for low lifting head (< 3 meter) and large water flow (50 m/hr to 120 m/hr) operation in the coastal areas. Because the wind energy resource in many rural areas is sufficient for attractive application of wind pumps, and the supply of electricity as well as fuels is insufficient in these areas, the wind pumps will be spread on a rather large scale in the near future. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  7. SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a

  8. Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diego; Nakata, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

  9. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M.; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM 10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM 10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m 3 , respectively. The similarities in PM 10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM 10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM 10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM 10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM 10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM 10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM 10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  10. Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Nørgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older...... couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due...... to low housing prices. This article explores which groups of people move to rural, peripheral areas and why they chose to do so....

  11. Analysis on Physical Characteristics of Rural Solid Waste in Dongjiang River Source Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dongjiang river is the source of drinking water of Guangdong Province and Hongkong, and the source area includes three counties in Ganzhou city of Jiangxi Province: Xunwu, Anyuan and Dingnan. Three typical villages were chosen in Dongjiang river source area to investigate the producing quantity and physical characteristics of rural solid waste. Results of investigation showed that the dominant ingredient in rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was kitchen waste, taking over 60%, followed by dust, reaching 12%, while other components took less than 10%. The per-capita producing quantity of solid waste of county-level village was 0.2~0.47 kg·d -1 and averaged by 0.36 kg·d -1, while that of town-level village was 0.18~0.35 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.29 kg· d -1 and that of hamlet was 0.07~0.33 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.17 kg· d -1. Water content in rural mixed solid waste of investigated area was significantly linear with percentage of kitchen waste in the mixed waste(R 2 =0.626, P=0.019. The average calorie wasaround 2 329 kJ·kg -1, which indicated that the rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was not suitable for incineration disposal directly.

  12. Key Success Factors of Renewable Energy Projects Implementation in Rural Areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati Hermawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exploratory study on renewable energy implementation in the rural areas of Indonesia. The study aim was to investigate the factors contributing to the sustainability of renewable energy projects in the rural areas. It mostly uses a qualitative approach. Primary data was mainly obtained from in-depth interviews conducted in site areas with the project owners, project managers, a key person in each local government, industry representatives, and the local community, including local leaders and users of renewable energy. Secondary data in the form of various official project reports was also used. The results indicated that the success of energy project implementation lay not only in good technology performance and long-term maintenance, but was also highly dependent on six key factors, namely: (1 project planning and development; (2 community participation; (3 active communication and beneficiaries; (4 availability of maintenance program, workshop and technician; (5 project management and institutionalization; (6 local government support and networks. The findings from this study provide useful insights to all stakeholders involved in the implementation of renewable energy technology for the rural areas in Indonesia.

  13. Measuring potential access to food stores and food-service places in rural areas in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    Geographic access to healthy food resources remains a major focus of research that examines the contribution of the built environment to healthful eating. Methods used to define and measure spatial accessibility can significantly affect the results. Considering the implications for marketing, policy, and programs, adequate measurement of the food environment is important. Little of the published work on food access has focused on rural areas, where the burden of nutrition-related disease is greater. This article seeks to expand our understanding of the challenges to measurement of potential spatial access to food resources in rural areas in the U.S. Key challenges to the accurate measurement of the food environment in rural areas include: (1) defining the rural food environment while recognizing that market factors may be changing; (2) describing characteristics that may differentiate similar types of food stores and food-service places; and (3) determining location coordinates for food stores and food-service places. In order to enhance measurements in rural areas, "ground-truthed" methodology, which includes on-site observation and collection of GPS data, should become the standard for rural areas. Measurement must also recognize the emergence of new and changing store formats. Efforts should be made to determine accessibility, in terms of both proximity to a single location and variety of multiple locations within a specified buffer, from origins other than the home, and consider multipurpose trips and trip chaining. The measurement of food access will be critical for community-based approaches to meet dietary needs. Researchers must be willing to take the steps necessary for rigorous measurement of a dynamic food environment.

  14. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  15. Analyze of Tourism Development Impacts on the Development of Rural Areas (Case Study: Kesselian County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Ebrahimi Koohbone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development in rural areas is one of the main strategies to achieve rural development. The aim of this descriptive-analytical study is to analyze the impact of rural tourism in the socio-economic development of rural areas (Kesselian County of Mazandaran province. Data collected using 190 questionnaires determined using Cochrane formula. The validity of the questionnaires were confirmed by Cronbach Alpha equal to 0.796. The results show that there is significant positive relationship between rural tourism and improve in rural household income, health, sewage and waste disposal systems as well as development of rural homes and roads. The factor analysis results show that the best important positive effects of rural tourism in rural areas are infrastructural development, economic development and development of employment; and main negative effects of rural tourism in rural areas are destruction of the business environment, increased of social abnormalities and destruction of cultural environment.

  16. Empowering village doctors and enhancing rural healthcare using cloud computing in a rural area of mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Wei; Abdul, Shabbir Syed; Clinciu, Daniel L; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jin, Xiangdong; Lu, Haifei; Chen, Steve S; Iqbal, Usman; Heineck, Maxwell J; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    China's healthcare system often struggles to meet the needs of its 900 million people living in rural areas due to major challenges in preventive medicine and management of chronic diseases. Here we address some of these challenges by equipping village doctors (ViDs) with Health Information Technology and developing an electronic health record (EHR) system which collects individual patient information electronically to aid with implementation of chronic disease management programs. An EHR system based on a cloud-computing architecture was developed and deployed in Xilingol county of Inner Mongolia using various computing resources (hardware and software) to deliver services over the health network using Internet when available. The system supports the work at all levels of the healthcare system, including the work of ViDs in rural areas. An analysis done on 291,087 EHRs created from November 2008 to June 2011 evaluated the impact the EHR system has on preventive medicine and chronic disease management programs in rural China. From 2008 to 2011 health records were created for 291,087 (26.25%) from 1,108,951 total Xilingol residents with 10,240 cases of hypertension and 1152 cases of diabetes diagnosed and registered. Furthermore, 2945 hypertensive and 305 diabetic patients enrolled in follow-up. Implementing the EHR system revealed a high rate of cholecystectomies leading to investigations and findings of drinking water contaminated with metals. Measures were taken to inform the population and clean drinking water was supplied. The cloud-based EHR approach improved the care provision for ViDs in rural China and increased the efficiency of the healthcare system to monitor the health status of the population and to manage preventive care efforts. It also helped discover contaminated water in one of the project areas revealing further benefits if the system is expanded and improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wireless multihop backhauls for rural areas: A preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Zaidi

    Full Text Available Rural areas have very low revenue potential. The major issue in providing low-cost broadband to rural areas is to provide reliable backhaul connections that spread over tens or even hundreds of miles, connecting villages to the nearest service provider. Along with aerial networks of Google and Facebook, there has been a considerable amount of research toward long-distance terrestrial WiFi links. As a comparison, WiFi routers are easier to be deployed and maintained by non-technical people from the local communities, whereas the aerial networks require professional support to operate. Moreover, they are still in the experimentation phase. However, the long distance WiFi links require high-gain directional antennas and very expensive tall towers for high data rates. On the other hand, multihop paths with stronger links may provide better data rates without the need of tall towers. In this paper, we evaluated the concept of using such multihop WiFi links for long backhaul connections. Our simulation results show that these networks can possibly be a cost-effective and practical solution for rural connectivity. These initial results can serve as a first step to understand the comprehensive feasibility of using multihop WiFi networks for backhaul connections in rural area.

  18. Wireless multihop backhauls for rural areas: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zainab; Lan, Kun-Chan

    2017-01-01

    Rural areas have very low revenue potential. The major issue in providing low-cost broadband to rural areas is to provide reliable backhaul connections that spread over tens or even hundreds of miles, connecting villages to the nearest service provider. Along with aerial networks of Google and Facebook, there has been a considerable amount of research toward long-distance terrestrial WiFi links. As a comparison, WiFi routers are easier to be deployed and maintained by non-technical people from the local communities, whereas the aerial networks require professional support to operate. Moreover, they are still in the experimentation phase. However, the long distance WiFi links require high-gain directional antennas and very expensive tall towers for high data rates. On the other hand, multihop paths with stronger links may provide better data rates without the need of tall towers. In this paper, we evaluated the concept of using such multihop WiFi links for long backhaul connections. Our simulation results show that these networks can possibly be a cost-effective and practical solution for rural connectivity. These initial results can serve as a first step to understand the comprehensive feasibility of using multihop WiFi networks for backhaul connections in rural area.

  19. Wireless multihop backhauls for rural areas: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zainab; Lan, Kun-chan

    2017-01-01

    Rural areas have very low revenue potential. The major issue in providing low-cost broadband to rural areas is to provide reliable backhaul connections that spread over tens or even hundreds of miles, connecting villages to the nearest service provider. Along with aerial networks of Google and Facebook, there has been a considerable amount of research toward long-distance terrestrial WiFi links. As a comparison, WiFi routers are easier to be deployed and maintained by non-technical people from the local communities, whereas the aerial networks require professional support to operate. Moreover, they are still in the experimentation phase. However, the long distance WiFi links require high-gain directional antennas and very expensive tall towers for high data rates. On the other hand, multihop paths with stronger links may provide better data rates without the need of tall towers. In this paper, we evaluated the concept of using such multihop WiFi links for long backhaul connections. Our simulation results show that these networks can possibly be a cost-effective and practical solution for rural connectivity. These initial results can serve as a first step to understand the comprehensive feasibility of using multihop WiFi networks for backhaul connections in rural area. PMID:28403167

  20. Neighbourhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking in South Australian Adults: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-08-26

    Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.

  1. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-04-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models.

  2. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Pérez-Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50% and DENV-1 (35%. Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models.

  3. Recreating of rurality around the totoro forest in the outer fringe of tokyo metropolitan area : the spirituality of rurality

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toshio; Obara, Norihiro

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we made a point of rural land use and its conservation as the reflection of rurality in outer fringes, and discussed about recreating of rurality with utilising its conservation activities and the spirituality. In Sayama hill region of Tokyo metropolitan area, restructuring of rural land use and recreating rurality have been practised with conservation and maintenance activities in the Totoro forest. Although rural and urban residents think about those activities and their parti...

  4. Teenagers in Rural Areas Faced With Organ Donation and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrero, B; Almela, J; Ríos, A; Ros, I; Pérez-Sánchez, B; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ruiz-Carreño, P; Ferreras, D; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    In rural areas it is common to find unfavorable attitudes toward organ donation, and therefore it is important to find out the attitude and profile of new generations for improving predisposition to organ donation in these areas. Our objective was to analyze the attitude toward organ donation and the related variables of teenagers in a rural area. Students in the final year of compulsory education (mostly 15-16 years of age) were selected from secondary schools in a rural area in southeastern Spain (n = 319; population density donating their organs, 30% (n = 90) were undecided, and 5% (n = 16) were against. Attitude toward the donation of one's own organs was related with sex (P = .015), previous experience of organ donation or transplantation (P = .046), comment on the topic of organ donation within the family (P = .003; odds ratio 2.155), knowing one's mother's opinion about the matter (P = .021), knowing the correct concept of brain death (P = .012; odds ratio 2.076), and religion (P = .014). A favorable attitude of teenagers in rural areas toward organ donation is slightly higher than in the adult population and is determined by many psychosocial variables, above all family discussion about organ donation and transplantation and correct knowledge of the brain death concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The development of rural area residence based on participatory planning case study: A rural residential area of Pucungrejo village, Magelang through "neighborhood development" program

    Science.gov (United States)

    KP, R. M. Bambang Setyohadi; Wicaksono, Dimas

    2018-03-01

    The poverty is one of the prevailing problems in Indonesia until now. Even a change of the era of governance has not succeeded in eradicating the problem of poverty. The program of poverty alleviation program has always been a focus in the budget allocation in all era of leadership in Indonesia. Those programs were strategic because it prepared the foundation of community self-reliance in the form of representative, entrenched and conducive community leadership institutions to develop of social capital of society in the future. Developing an area of the village requires an integrated planning (Grand Design) to figure out the potential and the problems existing in the rural area as well as the integration of the rural area surrounding. In addition, the grand design needs to be synchronized to the more comprehensive spatial plan with a hierarchical structure such as RTBL, RDTRK / RRTRK, RTRK, and RTRW. This rural area management plan can be oriented or refer to the pattern developed from neighborhood Development program which is part of the PNPM Mandiri program. The neighborhood development program is known as residential area development plan whose process involves of the entire community. Therefore, the regional development up to the scale of the environment requires the planning phase. Particularly, spatial planning which emphasizes the efforts to optimize sectorial development targets to be integrated into an integrated development process must be conducted, in addition to taking into consideration the opportunities, potentials and limitations of the resources, the level of interconnection with the central government within the district and between sub-districts and rural areas.

  6. Rural Areas: The Real Home of the Nigerian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Abdullateef

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current troubles facing the Nigerian economy seem insurmountable. Should we speak of the current recession or the oil crash experienced in the international market? Should the case of oil-pipe vandalization as well as that of insurgency be breached? We could as well debate on the fall of the naira as against the US dollars and other recognized currencies in the international market. This could go on and on. It is as a consequence of this that this study tried to look at the central position of rural communities in finding lasting solutions to these economic woes. The utilitarian theory was employed in examining the phenomenon. The study revealed that rural areas can go a long way to advance the Nigerian economy if properly taken care of but if the current underuse of rural resources continues, the economy could be derailed. It is therefore recommended that renewed efforts should be made to explore the resources available in rural areas in order to tremendously increase the wealth of the nation as soon as possible.

  7. Human Capital of Family and Social Mobility in Rural Areas-Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-hua; YU Mei-lian; WU Fang-wei; CHEN Wei

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the impact of family’s human capital on social mobility in China’s rural community. Empirical research is conducted based on data from surveying a typical rural community in the past 20 yr. The study indicates that social mobility in rural area is active in the past 20 yr, and the human capital of family, represented by primary labor’s education level, has played an essential role in mobility of low social class. Meanwhile, socio-economic development and the change of supply and demand in labor market dims the signaling role of degree education, but the impact of occupational training is increasingly remarkable. Therefore, the change from sole degree education to multi-leveled education including occupational education and training is a main way for China’s rural families in low class to realize social mobility.

  8. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire......, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited....

  9. The relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Putri Noer Fadilah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of dental caries among children has increased in the past decades. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology, including host (saliva and teeth, microbiology (plaque, substrate (diet, and time. The role of fermentable carbohydrates intake as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in rural and urban areas of the city of Cimahi, Indonesia. Methods: The method used was an analytical cross-sectional study with pathfinder survey based on the WHO basic methods of oral health surveys. The data were collected through intraoral examination, and nutritional status measurement was done by using food frequency questionnaire. Statistical analysis used was the chi-square test. Results: From the study towards 100 preschool children resulted the prevalence of dental caries in rural and urban area respectively was 96% and 92%. The average value of def-t index in urban area was as much as 8.46 (95% CI:7.00-9.91 and was as much as 7.98 (95% CI:6.50-9.45 in rural area. The average value of sucrose intake frequency in urban area was as much as 237.14 (95% CI:204.95-269.32, whilst in rural area was as much as 177.54 (95% CI:155.66-199.41. There was a relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake in the rural and urban area (p < 0,05. Conclusion: There was a relationship between dental caries and carbohydrates intake among preschool-aged children in the rural and urban area of the city of Cimahi, Indonesia.

  10. Factors influencing recruitment and retention of healthcare workers in rural and remote areas in developed and developing countries: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisèle Irène Claudine Mbemba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of healthcare workers in rural and remote areas remains a growing concern both in developed and developing countries. This review aims to synthesize the significant factors impacting healthcare professionals’ recruitment and retention in rural and remote areas, and to identify those relevant for developing countries. This paper included the following steps: exploring scientific literature through predetermined criteria and extracting relevant information by two independents reviewers. The AMSTAR tool was used to assess the methodological quality. Of the 224 screened publications, 15 reviews were included. Four reviews focused on recruitment factors, and another four reviews focused on retention factors. The remaining focused both on recruitment and retention factors. The most important factors influencing recruitment were rural background and rural origin, followed by career development. Opportunities for professional advancement, professional support networks and financial incentives were factors impacting retention. While the main factors influencing recruitment and retention have been largely explored in the literature, the evidence on strategies to reduce the shortage of healthcare workers in rural area, particularly in developing countries, is low. Further research in this field is needed.

  11. The sustainability and efficient use of renewable energy sources in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Kayode E.; Akinlabi, Akindeji O.; Joseph, Meera K.

    2018-04-01

    The energy system in African countries is mostly dependent on coal, gas, and oil, which in turns leads to environmental challenges and an imbalance of energy usage in some area of the countries. Given that, a mostly rural area in Africa suffers from the unsustainable energy system, thus it necessary to integrate renewable energy into the rural area for social and economic development. A sustainable energy system built on a clean energy such as renewable energy based on the availability of the natural resource is the main focus of this paper. Renewable energy is a solution for service delivery and when deployed everyone would be able to access electricity power, particularly in the remote area (which can be a suburb or rural environment) where the absence of national power grids. Renewable energy opens new opportunities for an economic development and sustainable solution to employ for energy efficiency, energy delivery, and energy management by the people and upon that a platform to promote environmental friendliness. In this paper, we explored the reasons for switching to renewable energy, saving energy and the awareness of potential and use of renewable energy in the rural area. IBM's SPSS is used for the quantitative data analysis. The results showed that sustainability of the National utility grid to the rural area is low, with over 80 percent of participants agreeing to disruption of power supply. The Positivity of the rural peoples' awareness of renewable also brought about the conclusion and recommendations from this paper.

  12. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in Łódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in Łódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in Łódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  13. Integration of PV modules in existing Romanian buildings from rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, S.; Finta, D. [IPA SA Research Development, Engineering and Manufacturing for Automation Equipment and Systems, Bucharest (Romania); Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Dabija, A.M. [Univ. of Architecture and Urbanism Ion Mincu, Bucharest (Romania); Tulcan-Paulescu, E. [West Univ. of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    Romania has launched a national research project to promote the use of distributed solar architecture and the use of BIPV systems. These systems include solar tunnels and active solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on the roofs and facades of buildings in rural areas. In contrast to other EU states, Romania does not have a photovoltaic building construction branch. The number of isolated cases are insufficient to identify a starting point regarding the PV market in the building industry. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the efficiency of integrating various PV elements in buildings from rural areas, to test them and to make them known so that they can be used on a large scale. This will be accomplished by installing new products on 2 buildings in Bucharest and in 1 building in Timisoara. The PV modules will be integrated with the architecture. One of the buildings will be a historical building while the other 2 will be new buildings with different typologies. The installed power for each building will be of about 1.000 Wp, including some technologies with PV modules.

  14. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-11

    To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural), and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES) designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas of SSA. Specific

  15. Health care in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, L M

    1994-02-01

    In India, although the health care system infrastructure is extensive, the people often regard government facilities as family planning (FP) centers instead of primary health care centers. This problem has been compounded by the separation of health care and FP at all stages, even down to the storage of the same medication in two different locations depending upon whether it is to be used for "health" or for "FP." In rural areas where the government centers are particularly desolate, the community has chosen to erect its own health care system of private practitioners of all sorts and qualifications. Even in rural areas where a comprehensive health service is provided, with each household visited regularly by health workers, and where this service has resulted in a lowering of the crude death rate from 14.6 to 7 and the maternal mortality rate from 4.7 to 0.5/1000, people depend upon practitioners of various types. Upon analysis, it was discovered that the reason for using this multiplicity of practitioners had nothing to do with the level of satisfaction with the government service or with the accessibility of the services. Rather, when ill, the people make a diagnosis and then go to the proper place for treatment. If, for instance, they believe their malady was caused by the evil eye, they consult a magico-religious practitioner. These various types of practitioners flourish in areas with the best primary health care because they fulfill a need not met by the primary health care staff. If government agencies work with the local practitioners and afford them the proper respect, their skills can be upgraded in selected areas and the whole community will benefit.

  16. Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E. A.

    The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

  17. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001). In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

  18. Demographic Ageing in Romania’s Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Violeta Nancu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe has faced for several decades and is still facing an ageing process of its population. Within it, Romania, a country, striving to successfully integrate into the European Union, is also experiencing the same process. The ageing process of the Romanian population started at the beginning of the 20th century and evolved progressively, ever since, with significant visible rates in the rural areas. Romania’s population age structure, at the beginning of the Third Millennium, was, according to international experts, not significantly aged compared to populations of the economically advanced countries of Europe. Due to falling birth-rates and the labor emigration rush, the ageing process of the Romanian population has become increasingly serious, argued by a rate of 19.4% over 60-year-old population, of which 24.5% (2008 belongs to the rural area. The main responsible reason for this demographic and social situation is the replacement of the traditional reproduction pattern, mainly characterized by high birth and death rates, with a modern one, characterized by very low rates of the same kind. Low values in natality were, on one hand, the result of a steady regression of fertility, and on the other of, a drop in general mortality, hence the lengthening of the average life-span. To be able to cope with a relatively new phenomenon such as ageing of population, Romania needs to seriously consider adequate measures and steps towards achieving balance. Visionary strategy and plans require, well-grounded medium-and-long-term development programmes especially for the Romanian rural area.

  19. Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas : The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, Rixt; Mehnen, Nora; Sijtsma, Frans; Daams, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far

  20. Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, T I

    1991-01-01

    Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the

  1. Pico hydro turbines for electricity in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Descotte, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the feedback and lessons learned, particularly from a survey carried out following the deployment program of a pico hydro power solution in a very isolated rural area in north Laos. This project is part of the strategic development for the rural electrification of Laos, in which pico hydro power facilities constitute the main avenue of progress for the electrification of isolated villages.

  2. Side Activities of Non-Farmers in Rural Areas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Markantoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural areas, not only in The Netherlands but also elsewhere in Europe, has been observed a variety of employment opportunities for rural populations, following the decline in traditional agricultural employment. This contributes to the fact that the countryside is changing and rural areas can be viewed as new spaces of work. As a result, rural economy is no longer dominated by agricultural activities, but by activities such as small scale industrial production, service provision, landscape management, and residential use. To a certain extent these activities have the form of side-activities next to primary income sources. Most attention in both scientific literature and policies is focused on side-activities by farmers, such as agro-tourism and direct marketing. However, according to empirical data from The Netherlands, most side-activities are developed by non-farmers. In this paper the focus is on this last group. The amounts and types of non-farmers’ and farmers side-activities will be deployed, together with their motives to start new entrepreneurship endeavors and the impact on the local community. It will be argued that this type of activities will stimulate rural economic development offering new job opportunities for income generation to the rural inhabitants and create new economic spaces in rural geographical contexts transforming the rural economy.

  3. Inclusive education in schools in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Callado Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Spain decided to embark on the development of inclusive schooling, studies have taken place to see if the inclusive principle is being developed satisfactorily. Inclusive schooling implies that all students, regardless of their particular characteristics, may be taught in ordinary schools, and in the majority of cases receive help in the classroom in which they have been integrated in order to cover any special educational needs. Our research aims to find out if schools situated in rural areas follow this principle and, once it has been put into practice, what strategies are being used. To this end, we designed a questionnaire addressed to Infant and Primary school teachers in the Sierra Sur area in the province of Jaén, in an agricultural context where most of the population live on olive picking and the cultivation of olive groves. Given the extension of the area, our research concentrated on schools situated in urban nuclei with a population of less than one thousand five hundred inhabitants. The results obtained demonstrate that rural areas do not take full advantage of the context they are in to favour inclusion processes and continue to develop proposals that are merely integrative.

  4. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Baiquni, Muhammad; Ritohardoyo, Su; Setiadi, Setiadi

    2016-01-01

    The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in th...

  5. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  6. Urban-rural demarcation within a metropolitan area: a methodology for using small area disaggregation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate with regard to the levels of service provision in urban and rural areas. However, progress with respect to the delivery of planned services can only be efficiently and equitably measured once benchmarks for different areas...

  7. Evaluating the Development Levels of Rural Areas in Koohrang County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saleh shahrokhi sardo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of geographical phenomena and scientific comprehending of geographical locations requires comprehensive information about these areas. In addition, the awareness of the spatial distribution and development levels are considered as prerequisites for rural development plans and programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the development levels of rural areas in Koohrang County. Statistical population was over ten households selected among rural areas (132 villages in Koohrang County. The required secondary data were collected and designed from the statistical yearbook of Koohrang County in 2011. In this study, a combination method of VIKOR-AHP was used to measure level of development in the villages. In addition, in order to determine the optimal distribution of indices, the Gini coefficient was used. Data processing was conducted using MATLAB7.10 and Expert Choice software. Results showed that the highest and lowest degrees of development (0.994 and 0.005 were related to "Castle of Ali-Abad" and "Dezak-Cheshmeh" villages, respectively. Moreover, results indicated that there was the unfavorable development in the study area (with average of 0. 217 in the range 0-1 in a way that most of the villages (21.46% with 53.39% of the population in the area were completely undeveloped. Furthermore, the results based on Gini coefficient and coefficient of variability revealed that the conventional indices of rural development weren't distributed properly. Therefore, it is necessary to have special review and reconsider to determine the main service centers based on settlements hierarchical system.

  8. Tourist Activity of Senior Citizens (60+ Residing in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelan Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of place of permanent residence (urban or rural on the tourist activity of senior citizens (60+ of different socioeconomic statuses. The study involved 380 senior citizens (305 female and 75 male aged 60 years and older who were permanent residents of the region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. In this group, 244 subjects resided in urban areas and 136 participants were rural dwellers. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic status (place of permanent residence, age, gender, educational attainment, financial status, membership in senior organizations, marital status, and professional activity and tourist activity. A significance test of two structure coefficients (α=0.05 was applied. Factors such as gender, professional activity, and marital status were not related with the travel propensity of seniors from different groups (urban and rural, but were significant when rural residents were compared with urban dwellers. Seniors residing in urban areas of Warmia and Mazury, Poland, were significantly more likely to travel for leisure than those residing in rural areas. The tourist activity of seniors decreased significantly (p<0.05 with the age (60-74 years and financial status of rural residents. The travel propensity of elderly people increased significantly (p<0.05 with educational attainment and membership in senior organizations. The study revealed considerable differences in the socioeconomic status and social characteristics of seniors residing in rural and urban areas, and those variations significantly influenced their propensity for travel: urban residents traveled more frequently than rural residents. It can be concluded that place of residence was a crucial factor determining the tourist behavior of senior citizens, and urban dwellers were more likely to travel.

  9. Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2011-07-01

    Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

  10. Bringing fiber to the home to rural areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2009-01-01

    In order to support development of rural areas, and avoid that these  areas are being depopulated, access to fast broadband networks can contribute by facilitating tele working, distance learning, ICT for industries and farming etc. In this paper we show how broadband and Fiber To The Home (FTTH......) is developing in Denmark, and that FTTH is also being deployed in rural areas. A main reason for this is that consumer-owed utility companies have decided to invest heavily in the field, to a large extent with the philosophy that, since all consumers are a part of the investment, everybody should also benefit...

  11. Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network (KariaNet) - Phase II ... poor by sharing innovations, best practices and indigenous knowledge using ... A third thematic network - on knowledge management strategies - will play an ...

  12. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  13. Smart street lighting solution for remote rural areas of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut

    2017-09-01

    Though many smart street lighting solutions is available for urban areas, comparatively fewer solutions exist for rural areas. In the recent times, village streets have been illuminated with artificial lights as a part of rural development drive undertaken by the governments of respective countries. But, vehicle and pedestrian traffic is quite low through village roads. Hence, if light remains on all night long on such roads, then there is a huge wastage of energy. This calls for solutions to reduce this energy loss in an efficient manner. There are a lot of factors which must be kept in mind while designing solutions. Many villages lack the proper infrastructure to support new technologies. Communication facilities are limited, lack of local technically skilled labor, lack of security, etc. After evaluating these opportunities and challenges, an attempt has been made to devise a smart street lighting solution tailored for remote rural areas in India. One part of the solution discusses how intensity of the LED street lights can be varied according to the ambient lighting conditions using sensors and LED switching in LED matrix. An artificial intelligence (AI) has also been modelled to identify traffic conditions using PIR sensors and object identification through image processing and independently control the lights. It also tracks the performance and status of each light. It would send this data and necessary notifications to a distant control center for human evaluation. This solution is also applicable for other rural areas throughout the world.

  14. Information society and the countryside: can internet-based systems bring income alternatives to rural areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Heilig, Gerhard K.

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews seven types of Internet-based technologies and services that may be especially suitable for rural areas. Its main focus is to analyze, which of these applications could promote rural development and prevent further economic and socio-demographic decline in peripheral rural areas. In particular, we will analyze whether these technologies have the potential to create income alternatives for the rural population. The paper also criticizes the current rural development policy of...

  15. Study on Investing and Financing Development in Rural Area:A Case Study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junyong; HUANG; Bin; YAO

    2013-01-01

    "Surplus income" of farmers has been increasing steadily with the marked improvement of rural economy. However,development of rural financing market in China is rather backward. To satisfy the financing requirement of farmers and meet the demand of the construction of new countryside as well as harmonious society,development of financing market in rural area is eager to be quickened. Taking Guangxi Autonomous Region as an example,there are problems in rural investing and financing development. Firstly,farmers are in lacking of accurate understanding of investing and financing. Secondly,investors in rural area lack professional knowledge about financing generally. Thirdly,rural area has underdeveloped information degree as well as imperfect investing and financing environment. Fourthly,there are no financial products developed for rural area. Fifthly,economic development is unbalanced and relatively underdeveloped in rural area. Lastly,rural financial market has long been neglected by financial intermediaries. In order to cope with these problems,firstly,farmers should be assisted to establish accurate financial awareness and master necessary financial knowledge. Secondly,local intermediaries like securities firms and banks should be encouraged to exert impact on rural financial market. Thirdly,financial products suitable for Guangxi rural area are to be developed. Fourthly, construction and perfection of rural financial market should be quickened. Lastly,rural economic development should be quickened to enlarge capital source of financing.

  16. ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups of people interested in their development of social-economic scale, rural women are trying to adapt, to evolve, to overcome the barriers imposed at psychologically, socially and financially. The paper highlights the results of a survey on a sample of 979 women students in the project "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. An inter-regional model for women entrepreneurial school "(AntrES acronym, which certified mediators intention to initiate their own business.The results of questionnaires have provided important information about the character, ambition, motivation, courage, and moral support and financial support to women entrepreneurs based in Romania, including those in rural areas. The information obtained inetrmediul "I shattered" 7 myths about starting a business in our country. Romanian entrepreneur spirit, women in rural areas in Romania is not only a manifestation of strong desire to improve living standards in financial terms, but rather an "effort" to improve and "beauty" of the individual, family, environment and society we belong! In developed countries, at its home, female entrepreneurship is trying to reform, to seek new solutions to rethink the principles, to exercise imagination, to learn. Here, in Romania standard behavior still predominates. Female entrepreneurs are doing what everyone else in the same category does. The future however belongs to those who will opt diversity, surprise, excitement, personalization. How could this

  17. An Intensive Cultural Experience in a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Durand; Olivares, Sergio A.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Beilke, Cheryle

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, following an intensive 2-day clinical experience for nursing students in a rural, culturally diverse region, student evaluations and papers showed evidence of cultural learning and increased knowledge of rural health care systems. Includes reflections by a teaching associate and two students. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  18. Nutritional Status in Community-Dwelling Elderly in France in Urban and Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marion J.; Dorigny, Béatrice; Kuhn, Mirjam; Berr, Claudine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors. Methods Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI) cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area) and the Three-City (3C) cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones) were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately. Results In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status. Conclusion Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:25133755

  19. Nutritional status in community-dwelling elderly in France in urban and rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion J Torres

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors.Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area and the Three-City (3C cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately.In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status.Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals.

  20. The Effects of Rent Restructuring on Social Housing in English Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…

  1. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural

  2. Smart work centres in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte

    This paper discusses the establishment of telework centres as an element in local development strategies in rural areas, with a particular view to two new telework centres in region North Denmark. The paper argues that telework centres do not represent an easy solution to problems of local...... development and environmental sustainability, and further, that technology may not even be the most important feature needed to make them function as such....

  3. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities

  4. Benefits of donkeys in rural and urban areas in northwest Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, M.R.; Steenstra, F.A.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the benefits of donkeys for rural and urban smallholder farmers in northwest Nigeria. We visited 112 smallholder donkey farmers located in rural and urban areas from four states in northwest Nigeriathrough four focus group meetings, interviews with

  5. The Effectiveness of New Solar Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitor for Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Izuan Fahmi Romli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Countries like Malaysia have more that 70% of its population living in rural areas. Majority of these rural areas lie in regions where most villages do not have grid connected electricity. Renewable energy using photovoltaic (PV panels offers an alternative and cost efficient solution that exploits the yearlong abundance of sunlight available in countries like Malaysia. The main problem with PV systems is the high maintenance costs in replacing batteries every few years which makes PV systems unattractive for rural areas. A full scale PV system, developed in Semenyih Malaysia, aims to increase battery lifetime and reduce maintenance costs by incorporating supercapacitors. The system was developed in a life-sized cabin to mimic a rural home. A programmable load is used to test the system with the load profile of a typical rural household usage. Experimental and simulation results show that the supercapacitor bank is able to reduce the stress on the battery by absorbing peak current surges. Results also show that the system is able to maintain a high battery state of charge during the entire day. Article History: Received June 17th 2016; Received in revised form August 16th 2016; Accepted Sept 10th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Fahmi, M.I., Rajkumar, R.,  Wong, Y.W., Chong, L.W., Arelhi, R., and Isa, D. (2016 The Effectiveness of New Solar Photovoltaic System with Supercapacitor for Rural Areas. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 249-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.249-257

  6. Cardiovascular Morbidity Profile Of Population Aged 60 Years And Above In Rural And Urban Areas Of Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major contributor towards old age health problems which requires specialized care and if left unattended can deteriorate the quality of life and also lead to mortality. Therefore a study was planned to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity among geriatric population living in rural and urban areas ofKanpur.Objective: To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity in geriatric population in rural and urban area of Kanpur and also to study the pattern of cardiovascular morbidity in two areas.Material and methods: a cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected rural and urban area of Kanpur. 443 geriatrics in rural and 401 in urban area were interviewed and physically examined.Results: Geriatrics constituted 8.2% and 7.7% of total population in rural and urban area respectively. Majority ofpopulation in both areas belonged to 60-70years age group i.e. 78.8% and 75.8% respectively. 12.2% of rural geriatric and 12.5% of urban geriatric were suffering from some or other kind of cardiovascular morbidity. In rural area 39.1%>of geriatric population is hypertensive while in urban area hypertension is prevalent in 41.6%> of geriatric population. 98. l%>of morbid in rural and 86.0% in urban area were not doing any kind of exercise. A majority of population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity were not smoking currently. Majority i.e. 72.2% of geriatric population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity in rural area were having BMJ between 18.5-24.99 while in urban area 57.4% of them were having BMl>-25. Hypertensives consitiuted 57.4% in rural and 66.0% in urban area towards those who are suffering from cardiovascular morbidity.

  7. Cardiovascular Morbidity Profile Of Population Aged 60 Years And Above In Rural And Urban Areas Of Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidity is a major contributor towards old age health problems which requires specialized care and if left unattended can deteriorate the quality of life and also lead to mortality. Therefore a study was planned to find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity among geriatric population living in rural and urban areas ofKanpur. Objective: To find out the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity in geriatric population in rural and urban area of Kanpur and also to study the pattern of cardiovascular morbidity in two areas. Material and methods: a cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected rural and urban area of Kanpur. 443 geriatrics in rural and 401 in urban area were interviewed and physically examined. Results: Geriatrics constituted 8.2% and 7.7% of total population in rural and urban area respectively. Majority ofpopulation in both areas belonged to 60-70years age group i.e. 78.8% and 75.8% respectively. 12.2% of rural geriatric and 12.5% of urban geriatric were suffering from some or other kind of cardiovascular morbidity. In rural area 39.1%>of geriatric population is hypertensive while in urban area hypertension is prevalent in 41.6%> of geriatric population. 98. l%>of morbid in rural and 86.0% in urban area were not doing any kind of exercise. A majority of population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity were not smoking currently. Majority i.e. 72.2% of geriatric population suffering from cardiovascular morbidity in rural area were having BMJ between 18.5-24.99 while in urban area 57.4% of them were having BMl>-25. Hypertensives consitiuted 57.4% in rural and 66.0% in urban area towards those who are suffering from cardiovascular morbidity.

  8. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598 was lower (P<0.0001 than the proportion from urban areas (41.8%, 865/2071. Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  9. Comparative prevalence of otitis media in children living in urban slums, non-slum urban and rural areas of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented. During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from

  11. The influences of Taiwan's National Health Insurance on women's choice of prenatal care facility: Investigation of differences between rural and non-rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chi-Liang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI, implemented in 1995, substantially increased the number of health care facilities that can deliver free prenatal care. Because of the increase in such facilities, it is usually assumed that women would have more choices regarding prenatal care facilities and thus experience reduction in travel cost. Nevertheless, there has been no research exploring these issues in the literature. This study compares how Taiwan's NHI program may have influenced choice of prenatal care facility and perception regarding convenience in transportation for obtaining such care for women in rural and non-rural areas in Taiwan. Methods Based on data collected by a national survey conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes (NHRI in 2000, we tried to compare how women chose prenatal care facility before and after Taiwan's National Health Insurance program was implemented. Basing our analysis on how women answered questionnaire items regarding "the type of major health care facility used and convenience of transportation to and from prenatal care facility," we investigated whether there were disparities in how women in rural and non-rural areas chose prenatal care facilities and felt about the transportation, and whether the NHI had different influences for the two groups of women. Results After NHI, women in rural areas were more likely than before to choose large hospitals for prenatal care services. For women in rural areas, the relative probability of choosing large hospitals to choosing non-hospital settings in 1998–1999 was about 6.54 times of that in 1990–1992. In contrast, no such change was found in women in non-rural areas. For a woman in a non-rural area, she was significantly more likely to perceive the transportation to and from prenatal care facilities to be very convenient between 1998 and 1999 than in the period between 1990 and 1992. No such improvement was found for women in

  12. Fuel poverty in the UK: Is there a difference between rural and urban areas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Deborah; Vera-Toscano, Esperanza; Phimister, Euan

    2015-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a significant policy issue. An argument often made is that rural households are more likely to be fuel poor due to the nature of rural housing stock and the more limited choice of energy sources in rural areas. This paper uses panel data to compare the level and dynamics of fuel poverty in rural and urban areas of the UK. In addition to descriptive analysis, discrete hazard models of fuel poverty exit and re-entry are estimated and used to assess the influence of housing and personal characteristics on the time spent in fuel poverty. The results indicate that, on average, the experience of fuel poverty in urban areas is longer with a higher probability of fuel poverty persistence. However, on average the rural fuel poor appear more vulnerable to energy price increases while living in private accommodation or a flat increases their probability of remaining fuel poor relative to their urban counterparts. These results indicate policy effectiveness may differ across rural and urban space. However, they also emphasise the limits of spatial targeting. Monitoring the dynamics of fuel poverty is important for ensuring that policy targets are effective and reaching those most in need. - Highlights: • Urban fuel poverty is more persistent on average than rural fuel poverty. • Rural fuel poor are on average more vulnerable to energy price shocks. • Fuel poverty policy measures may have different effects in rural and urban areas. • Both spatial and household targeting required for policy effectiveness. • Policy makers should to consider additional monitoring of dynamics of fuel poverty.

  13. Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge Access in Rural Inter-connected Areas Network (KariaNet) - Phase II ... and indigenous knowledge using information and communication technologies (ICTs) ... for research proposals on the aforementioned topics, action-research projects, ... Evaluating knowledge-sharing methods to improve land utilization and ...

  14. Back to the future; new functions for rural areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van J.; Klundert, van de A.F.; Dietvorst, A.G.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the project Rural Areas and Europe of the Netherlands Spatial Planning Department a study was carried out in which integrated rural development was one of the answers to the economic and environmental problems of agriculture. The study focused on four possible new functions: water

  15. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous dioxide (NO 2 ) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P  10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  16. Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixt A. Bijker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbeing. We provide empirical evidence for this urban–rural interconnection, using results from a survey in the Netherlands. In addition to their attachment to local and regional green places, survey results show that residents of the capital city of Amsterdam have a high appreciation of a wide range of natural, rural places throughout the country. We argue that these (until now invisible urban–rural ties should be made more visible because these natural areas enjoyed by urban residents can no longer be taken for granted. Financial and other support for nature conservation are therefore needed. However, to organise support for nature can often be problematic because nature is a public good and collective action is often difficult to launch. The invisible and distant ties of urban dwellers for rural areas complicate the task even more. Nevertheless, it is increasingly recognised that the Internet opens many doors for community building and may help to overcome the “illogic” of collective action. In the research project “Sympathy for the Commons”, we aim to investigate the possibilities provided by the internet by building online communities around nature areas and enquiring into the available support and funding that these communities can provide.

  17. Niche energy markets in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; McCarthy, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is the development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets. This has involved a number of steps including (i) identification of 3 niche markets for energy crops which are of common interest to the partners, (ii) application of the standard costing methodology to investigate these three niche markets and (iii) comparison of the results from this work in three workshops (one for each market). Three tightly defined niche markets were identified; these were chosen following an examination of the national energy marekts in each of the partners countries (Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Greece and Portugal). This paper gives an overview of the national energy markets which were examined. The three niche markets are introduced and the reasons for their selection given. The application of the methodology to each of the niche markets is presented along with the conclusions of the partners regarding the niche markets. (Author)

  18. Dietary behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents in a remote rural area of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekul, Wirote; Viravathana, Nantaporn; Aimpun, Pote; Watthanakijthavongkul, Khanin; Khruacharooen, Jakkapong; Awaiwanont, Abhinant; Khumtuikhrua, Chaowanan; Silsrikul, Pichayen; Nilrat, Pawarid; Saksoong, Saksit; Watthanatham, Jirawat; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Sirimaneethum, Pornsirin; Meeprom, Natee; Somboonruangsri, Wuttiwong; Pongmanee, Koonphol; Rangsin, Ram

    2005-11-01

    Nutritional status among adolescents is an important health indicator. The up-to-date information about nutritional status and food consumption pattern in the remote rural area is required for the effective public health intervention in the rural area of the country. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of malnutrition, eating behavior and nutritional knowledge among secondary school students in a remote rural area in Thailand. Body weight and height data were collected from 298 secondary school students for nutritional status calculation using the Institute of Nutrition Research, Mahidol University, INMU-Thaigrowth program. Eating behavior and nutritional knowledge were observed by self-administrated questionnaires. The prevalence low height-for-age (instant noodles (64.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition was low among this population. The studied population had a fair knowledge about nutrition. The authoes found that regular consumption of highly commercialized snack products especially salted chips and instant noodles were at a high level in this remote rural area of Thailand. The pattern of nutritional problems in Thailand may have changed in which a public health program for children in rural areas of the country should recognize this transition.

  19. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. Method This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p influencer leur décision. Méthode C’est une étude quantitative transversale utilisant un instrument de sondage contenant des questions semi-structurées fermée et ouvertes. Résultats Quatre cent trente-huit étudiants ont répondu au questionnaire (un taux de réponse de 85.4%). En général, un grand nombre de répondants ne voulaient pas ouvrir leur premier (66%) ou deuxième cabinet (64.6%) dans les zones rurales. Cependant, la plupart des répondants originaires de la campagne ont répondu qu’ils ouvriraient leur premier cabinet (77.2%) ou leur second (79.4%) dans les zones rurales. Les raisons principales citées par les répondants pour ne pas vouloir travailler dans les zones rurales étaient des préoccupations financières (81.2%), la sécurité personnelle (80.1%) et les mauvaises conditions de vie (75.3%), avec un plus grand nombre (p < 0.05) de la part des r

  20. IMPLEMENTING TQM IN RURAL MONUMENTAL BAROQUE SCULPTURE IN THE BANAT AREA

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    I. PETROMAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural patrimony preserves the memory and identity of the Banat’s rural area, defining the personality specific to each locality depending on the colonizing ethnic group after the liberation from the Turkish yoke. Steadily degrading, this baroque sculptural patrimony must be saved and integrated into a tourist circuit through the development of a managerial strategy and the implementation of a total quality management that cover the widest area possible of issues related to the intact preservation of monuments and to their conservation. The valorisation of monumental baroque sculpture in the rural area must be done together with the development of a managerial strategy of sustainable development thus contributing to the making up of an emblematic image specific to the Banat village and to the inclusion into regional, national, and international tourist circuits through such modern forms of tourism as cultural tourism, rural tourism, heritage tourism, interethnic tourism, religious tourism, and business tourism.

  1. Exclusive Breast Feeding-Knowledge In Different Groups Of Women In Rural And Urban Areas Of Lucknow District

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    Ahmed Naim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on S6 females was conducted in the rural and urban areas of Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh to assess the knowledge of females about exclusive breast-feeding. Knowledge from adolescent girls, married and lactating women was assessed by a pre­tested questionnaire for biosocial correlates (such as marital status,educational status, medium of education, working status, socio-economics status and family size, sources of information, time of initation of breast-feeding and the best method of feeding a baby <4 months of age. Only 9.8% in urban and 13.3% in rural areas had complete knowledge of Exclusive breast-feeding. Educated females had more knowledge in both urban and rural areas of initiating breast-feeding within 1 hr of delivery as compared to un-educated females. The study highlights the needs for continuing medical education and for including knowledge about Exclusive breast-feeding in school curriculum of adolescent girls.

  2. Magnitude of cardiovascular risk factors in rural and urban areas in Benin: findings from a nationwide steps survey.

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    Yessito Corine Nadège Houehanou

    Full Text Available To describe and compare the prevalences of CVRF in urban and rural populations of Benin.Subjects were drawn from participants in the Benin Steps survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 using the World Health Organisation (WHO stepwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Subjects aged above 24 and below 65 years were recruited using a five-stage random sampling process within households. Sociodemographic data, behavioral data along with medical history of high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were collected in Step 1. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured in Step 2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in Step 3. CVRF were defined according to WHO criteria. The prevalences of CVRF were assessed and the relationships between each CVRF and the area of residence (urban or rural, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models.Of the 6762 subjects included in the study, 2271 were from urban areas and 4491 were from rural areas. High blood pressure was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 29.9% (95% confidence intervals (95% CI: 27.4, 32.5 and 27.5% (95% CI: 25.6, 29.5 respectively, p = 0.001 (p-value after adjustment for age and gender. Obesity was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 16.4% (95% CI: 14.4, 18.4 and 5.9% (95% CI: 5.1, 6.7, p<0.001. Diabetes was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1, 4.5 and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.004. Conversely, daily tobacco smoking was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, 9.3% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4 and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.6, p<0.001. No differences in raised blood cholesterol were noted between the two groups.According to our data, CVRF are prevalent among adults in Benin, and variations between rural and urban populations are significant. It may be useful to take account of the heterogeneity in the prevalence of CVRF when planning and implementing preventive

  3. CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RHODES, ALVIN E.

    AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOL…

  4. Can (ReCentralization Be a Modern Governance in Rural Areas?

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    István BALÁZS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentration and recentralization can be described as a European trend in the fi eld of local governance, especially in the fi eld of the administration of rural areas. An important tool of the concentration of the local administration is the intercommunal cooperation. The Hungarian rural areas have fragmented spatial structures. Because of the fragmentation and the small number of the voluntary associations these types of local cooperation were signifi cantly supported by the central budget in the 1990s and 2000s. The economic crisis resulted in a strong concentration trend in Hungary, as well. The new Hungarian Municipal Code introduced a Janus-faced model. The administration of the rural areas was strongly concentrated by the establishment of the mandatory common municipal offi ces of the small villages (under 2000 inhabitants while the forms of the intercommunal associations were simplifi ed. This reform reduced the number of local offi ces signifi cantly. This type of intercommunal cooperation became the main form of the j oined public service management as well, because the former signifi cant state aid of the voluntary associations has been reduced.

  5. Can (ReCentralization Be a Modern Governance in Rural Areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István BALÁZS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concentration and recentralization can be described as a European trend in the fi eld of local governance, especially in the fi eld of the administration of rural areas. An important tool of the concentration of the local administration is the intercommunal cooperation. The Hungarian rural areas have fragmented spatial structures. Because of the fragmentation and the small number of the voluntary associations these types of local cooperation were signifi cantly supported by the central budget in the 1990s and 2000s. The economic crisis resulted a strong concentration trend in Hungary, as well. The new Hungarian Municipal Code introduced a Janus-faced model. The administration of the rural areas was strongly concentrated by the establishment of the mandatory common municipal offi ces of the small villages (under 2000 inhabitants while the forms of the intercommunal associations were simplifi ed. This reform reduced the number of local offi ces signifi cantly. This type of intercommunal cooperation became the main form of the j oined public service management as well, because the former signifi cant state aid of the voluntary associations have been reduced.

  6. Perceptions of rural addictions and related HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, C G; Godlaski, T

    1997-01-01

    Rural addictions and related HIV behaviors, including drug use and sexual behaviors, have received limited attention in United States rural areas when compared with urban areas. However, prevalence rates are similar for alcohol and tobacco in rural and urban United States areas. The perception of policymakers and others is generally that drug use and HIV are urban problems, and resources are more likely to be directed to urban areas than rural areas. A major trend for the future is the continued expectation of limited resources for rural areas.

  7. Factors with to intestinal constipation in the rural area elderly

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    Sara Franco Diniz Heitor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of intestinal constipation in the rural area elderly and verify the factors associated. This is a home survey performed with 850 elderly residents of the rural area of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state. A structured instrument was used; information regarding their eating habits was obtained using an adapted questionnaire for food consumption frequency, and intestinal constipation was self-reported. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression (p<0.05 were performed. The prevalence of intestinal constipation was 13.2%. The factors associated with intestinal constipation were: female gender (p<0.001, 80 years of age or older (p=0.035, living with another person (p=0.004, having no income (p=0.033, inadequate consumption of fruits (p=0.005 and vegetable (p=0.002. It is considered that client-centered nutritional education can help remove the factors associated with the outcome. Descriptors: Constipation; Aged; Gastrointestinal Motility; Rural Population; Geriatric Nursing.

  8. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T; McClure, Leslie A; Zaitchik, Ben F; Gohlke, Julia M

    2013-06-10

    Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban-rural status. Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991-2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching

  9. Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-10-17

    Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  10. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

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    Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  11. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

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    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  12. Rural origin plus a rural clinical school placement is a significant predictor of medical students' intentions to practice rurally: a multi-university study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith H; Dewitt, Dawn E; Pallant, Julie F; Cunningham, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Health workforce shortages are a major problem in rural areas. Australian medical schools have implemented a number of rural education and training interventions aimed at increasing medical graduates' willingness to work in rural areas. These initiatives include recruiting students from rural backgrounds, delivering training in rural areas, and providing all students with some rural exposure during their medical training. However there is little evidence regarding the impact of rural exposure versus rural origin on workforce outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify and assess factors affecting preference for future rural practice among medical students participating in the Australian Rural Clinical Schools (RCS) Program. Questionnaires were distributed to 166 medical students who had completed their RCS term in 2006; 125 (75%) responded. Medical students were asked about their preferred location and specialty for future practice, their beliefs about rural work and life, and the impact of the RCS experience on their future rural training and practice preferences. Almost half the students (47%; n=58) self-reported a 'rural background'. Significantly, students from rural backgrounds were 10 times more likely to prefer to work in rural areas when compared with other students (ppreferring general practice, 80% (n=24) wished to do so rurally. Eighty-five per cent (n=105) of students agreed that their RCS experience increased their interest in rural training and practice with 62% (n=75) of students indicating a preference for rural internship/basic training after their RCS experience. A substantial percentage (86%; n=108) agreed they would consider rural practice after their RCS experience. This baseline study provides significant evidence to support rural medical recruitment and retention through education and training, with important insights into the factors affecting preference for future rural practice. By far the most significant predictor of rural practice

  13. Comparison between motorcyclist’ violation behavior and accidents in urban and rural area in Indonesia: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, N.; Widyanti, A.

    2017-12-01

    Some studies stated that the main factor related to the accident was driving behavior. This study aims to explore the differences between motorcyclist” behaviour and repetitive violation behaviour in two different area, urban and rural area in Indonesia. Respondents were selected based on convenience sampling method in Bandung as a representative of urban area and Kulon Progo as a representative of rural area. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire about driving behaviour, consists of 10 dimensions or 51 questions with Likert scales ranging from 1 (very often) to 6 (never). The results of this study shows that the motorcyclists’ behavior differ significantly between rural and urban area. Motorcyclists in the urban area (Bandung) are more committed to violations than in rural area (Kulon Progo). This result is not in line with previous studies in Australia and United States which stated that motorcyclists in rural area more frequently speeding than in urban area. Implications of the result are discussed.

  14. Prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of china: a meta-analysis of published studies.

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    Xiaofang Chen

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the leading causes of disease burden across the world. In China, the latest nationwide survey of prevalence of hypertension was ten year ago, and data in rural areas is little known. More information about hypertension prevalence could help to improve overall antihypertensive health care. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China.Comprehensive electronic searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wangfang, Weipu and SinoMed databases were conducted to identify any study in each database published from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2013, reporting the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese rural areas. Prevalence estimates were stratified by age, area, sex, publication year, and sample size. All statistical calculations were made using the Stata Version 11.0 (College Station, Texas and Statsdirect Version 2.7.9.We identified 124 studies with a total population of 3,735,534 in the present meta-analysis. Among people aged 18 years old in Chinese rural areas, the summarized prevalence is 22.81% (19.41%-26.41%. Subgroup analysis shows the following results: for male 24.46% (21.19%-27.89%, for female 22.17% (18.25%-26.35%. For 2004-2006: 18.94% (14.41%-23.94%, for 2007-2009, 21.24% (15.98%-27.01% for 2010-2013: 26.68%, (20.79%-33.02%. For Northern region 25.76% (22.36%-29.32%, for Southern region 19.30%, (15.48%-24.08%.The last decade witnessed the growth in prevalence of hypertension in rural areas of China compared with the fourth national investigation, which has climbed the same level as the urban area. Guidelines for screening and treatment of hypertension in rural areas need to be given enough attention.

  15. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF RURAL AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICATION OF LEADER PROGRAM IN ROMANIA

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    Adrian TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy is an important component of the Common Agricultural Policy. LEADER is an innovative approach to rural development policy in the European Union to improve the quality of life in rural areas. LEADER is a very effective way to support "smart" and to increase "sustainable" and "inclusive" rural areas, encouraging rural territories to explore new ways to become competitive, to capitalize at maximum their assets and overcome difficulties encountered, encouraging the socio-economic factors to collaborate in order to produce quality goods and services in their local area

  16. Comparative Research on Human Settlements in Asian Rural Areas Based on Collaborative Construction Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sui; Chaoyang, Sun; Mo, Li

    2018-02-01

    Rural planning is perceived as a spatial planning centered on the human settlements and there are many activities for rural reconstruction and researches conducted from the perspective of active intervention, with fewer studies regarding the village as the main body for the establishment of self-built system. And the other-organization built by the rural areas is strongly oriented. In Asian countries like China, South Korea and Japan, there are farming traditions, in which the familial and small-scale farmland holding and agricultural production mode are deep-rooted. Traditional agriculture and rural areas are not fundamentally changed by industrialization and modernization process. And the small-scale peasant in the East is marked by the decentralized possession of farmland and management in the rural areas and a large number of farmers to be remained. But the rural population keeps decreasing. After analyzing the status quo of human settlements in China, Korea and Japan, the paper makes an analysis from the different ways of thinking and professional perspective and focuses on putting forward the solutions to the problems on macro level, with the feasibility of the practical significance and the landing researches still staying in the testing stage. In the context of increasingly missing regional and contextual features, the launching and researches of “co-constructed community” as the folk protection way to emerging rural heritage are just started, and the researches on rural construction in Northeast China from the perspective of catalyst are absent. The contact agent with the catalytic action mechanism of seeing big things through small ones fits the rural areas marked by vast territory and diversified aspect, which is applicable to the bottom-up operation mechanism autonomously built by the villagers.

  17. Social relationships and depression among people 65 years and over living in rural and urban areas of Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Préville, Michel; Dubé, Micheline

    2009-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of depression within the elderly Quebec population residing in rural areas, urban areas and metropolitan Montreal, and to assess differences in the associations between social relationships and depression across these urban and rural settings. Data originate from the first wave of the ESA (Etude de Santé des Ainés) longitudinal study on mental health of community dwelling older persons aged over 65 (n = 2670). Depression, including major and minor depression, measured using a computer questionnaire; the ESA-Q developed by the research team and based on the DSM-IV criteria. Assessments of associations between depression and geographic area, informal social networks and community participation were estimated adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and health characteristics. The prevalence of depression was higher in rural (17%) and urban areas (15.1%) than in metropolitan Montreal (10.3%). The odds ratio of rural (OR = 2.01 95% CI 1.59-2.68) and urban (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.25-2.45) areas compared to the metropolitan area increased slightly after adjustment by all social and health covariates. Our study indicated that social support and the lack of conflict in intimate relationships were associated with lower prevalence of depression in all areas. Geographic differences in depression exist within the elderly population in Quebec that may generate significant impact on their health and functional abilities. Further research should be conducted to explain these differences. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Use of emergency departments in rural and urban areas in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarría-Santamera, A; Prado-Galbarro, J; Ramallo-Farina, Y; Quintana-Díaz, M; Martínez-Virto, A; Serrano-Aguilar, P

    2015-03-01

    Describe the use of emergency departments (ED), and analyse the differences in use between residents in rural and urban areas. Using data from the National Health Survey of 2006 and 2011, the profiles of patients with ED visits by population size of place of residence were obtained. The variables associated with making one visit to the ED were also evaluated, in order to determine the effect of the population size of place of residence. A higher use of ED is observed in persons with a higher frequency of use of Primary Care and hospital admissions, and increases with worse self-perceived health and functional status, with more chronic diseases, in people from lower social classes, and younger ages. Adjusting for the other variables, residents in larger cities have a higher use of ED than residents in rural areas, who show a higher use of public and non-hospital based ED, than residents in urban areas. There is a higher use of ED by inhabitants of urban areas that cannot be justified by a worst health status of that population. This tends to indicate that the use of ED is not under-used in rural areas, but overused in urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. [Malnutrition and cognitive development if infants in rural marginalized areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Quintero, María Del Refugio; Ortiz Hernández, Luis; Roldán Amaro, José Antonio; Chávez Villasana, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between nutritional status measured by anthropometry and the mental, psychomotor and language development of infants in marginalized rural areas of Mexico. Cross-sectional study with 576 infants aged from 7 to 26 months in four rural locations. Variables consisted of measures of anthropometric and cognitive development. Infants with short stature had a lower rate of language development, while birth weight was marginally associated with psychomotor development. Although acute malnutrition (identified by underweight) is no longer a problem in rural areas of Mexico, chronic malnutrition (expressed as stunting) is still common and is associated with alterations in mental development in the child population. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Mobility and the spread of human immunodeficiency virus into rural areas of West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagarde, E.; Schim van der Loeff, M.; Enel, C.; Holmgren, B.; Dray-Spira, R.; Pison, G.; Piau, J. P.; Delaunay, V.; M'Boup, S.; Ndoye, I.; Coeuret-Pellicer, M.; Whittle, H.; Aaby, P.

    2003-01-01

    In eastern and southern Africa, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic appeared first in urban centres and then spread to rural areas. Its overall prevalence is lower in West Africa, with the highest levels still found in cities. Rural areas are also threatened, however, because of the

  1. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in the research area is still low. The results of the combined value of the characteristic size of the hilly topography of poverty are 84 per cent and 83.7 per cent flat topography caused by low levels of income, quality of houses, agricultural land ownership, livestock ownership, ownership of valuables

  2. SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL STATUS OF WOMEN IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATIONS IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sikora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a characterisation of socio-professional status and socio-political activity of women in rural areas in Poland. Traditional, stereotypical approach was compared to the contemporary perception of the social roles performed by women in the countryside, and the results of recent empirical studies concerning the problems discussed were presented. The causes of the lack of socio-professional and political activity were discussed. The opportunities for the support that helps improve social activity of women from rural areas were also presented. The analysis carried out in the study revealed that the status of women in contemporary rural areas is close to traditional stereotypes used in this social category. The need for inclusion of the analysis of socio-professional situation of women in socio-economic strategies of development of rural areas was emphasized. The basis for writing the paper was analysis of the related literature and the results obtained in a national-level empirical research.

  3. Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargeant Joan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine′s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure, educational (using ICTs to best meet learners′ educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures. Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education.

  4. Free preconceptual screening examination service in rural areas of Hubei Province, China in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-ling; Zhao, Kai; Li, Hui; Farah, Omar Ibrahim; Wang, Jiao-jiao; Sun, Rong-ze; Zhang, Hui-ping

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to collect and summarize the outcomes on free preconceptual screening examination in rural areas of Hubei Province in 2012. Moreover, this review promotes further understanding of the status of this activity to provide the Family Planning Commission valid scientific data upon which to construct effective policies. Couples, who complied with the family planning policy and were the residents in agricultural areas or lived in a local rural area for more than six months, were encouraged to participate in the free preconceptual screening examination service provided by the Hubei Provincial Population and Family Planning Commission. This service included 19 screening tests. All the data, including forms, manuals, and test results, were collected from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in rural areas in Hubei Province. A total of 497,860 individuals participated in the free preconceptual screening examination service, with a coverage rate of 97.1%. 4.0% and 4.8% of the participants exhibited with abnormal blood levels of ALT and creatinine, respectively; 0.36% of the participants tested positive for syphilis; 0.44% and 3.6% of the female participants tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, respectively; and 0.84% and 1.8% of the female participants tested positive for cytomegalovirus (IgM) and Toxoplasma gondii (IgM), respectively. After risk assessment, 59,935 participants might have high-risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In 2012, the prevalence of birth defects among the parturient who participated in the preconceptual screening examination service was 0.04%, while the prevalence was 0.08% among those who did not participate in the service. Preconceptual screening examination service may help to address the risk factors that can lead to adverse pregnancy outcome. More studies on the relationship between preconceptual screening examination service and prevalence of birth defect or other adverse pregnancy outcomes should be

  5. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saud, T.; Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P.; Pathak, H.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  6. Aging and quality of life of elderly people in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Ladeira Garbaccio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the quality of life and health of elderly in rural areas of Minas Gerais State’s center-west. Method: Cross-sectional study, in four municipalities of Minas Gerais State, by interviewing elderly people. Associations between socio-demographic and quality of life variables were tested, separated into “satisfactory”/“unsatisfactory” with values from the median of positive answers. It was used the chi-square test, Fisher’s test and regression. Results: 182 elderly answered the questions and showed a relation with the “satisfactory” quality of life - bivariate (p < 0.05: age by 69 years (61.6%, married (61.7%, living by 54 years in rural areas (68%, with no financial support (59.5%, living with someone else (61%, non-smoker (60%, presenting good health (76.7%, satisfied with life (69.6%; regression: not having financial support, living with someone else and not smoking. Conclusion: Elderly people in rural areas present good quality of life/health in the cognitive aspect, access to services, goods, habits, but awareness must be constant due to their weakness.

  7. [Healthy habits and osteoporosis prevention in perimenopausal women from rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, M Reyes; Almazán Ortega, Raquel; Martínez Portela, José M; Alves Pérez, M Teresa; Segura-Iglesias, M Carmen; Pérez-Fernández, Román

    2014-01-01

    The probability of developing osteoporosis decreases with an adequate supply of vitamin D, a balanced diet, and increased physical activity. In this study, we evaluated whether an educational intervention improves osteoporosis-related behavior in perimenopausal women from rural areas. A randomized experimental evaluation was performed of an educational intervention. The variables were physical activity, calcium intake and sun exposure in women from rural areas aged 45-54 years (n=216) at time 0 and 12 months after the educational intervention. In the control group (n=106), the information was sent by surface mail (month 0). In the intervention group (n=110), two interactive workshops were given (month 0). The topic of the workshops and the information sent by surface mail was healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. After 12 months, the intervention group, but not the control group, had increased their physical activity (p=0.006), sun exposure (p=0.029), and calcium intake (53% to 64%). A simple educational intervention in perimenopausal women from rural areas improved healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Mahroof Hossain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of education. Most of the students of the primary schools in rural areas are weak in English language due to lack of skilled and trained teachers who are familiar to the modern methods and approaches of teaching and lack of materials for teaching in the classroom. Primary level English curriculum implementation is essential in Bangladesh to achieve the set English language competency in the rural areas. Students in the rural areas are performing poorly in English compared to their urban counterparts. Statistics showed that there was a gulf of difference between the facilities enjoyed by rural schools and urban schools. The study explores the challenges of teaching English language in rural areas in context of Bangladesh. This study investigated the factors affecting student’s performance in English language in rural areas. Data were collected using interviews, classroom observation and questionnaire. Result of the study reveals that students were highly motivated to learn English for future expectations such as local and international communication, academic advancement and employment prospects. It also provide a scenario of English teaching system in rural areas of Bangladesh as well as the problems and prospects of English language in perspective of Bangladesh. Keywords: English language, rural areas, education, learning and teaching, competency

  9. Providing Cardiology Care in Rural Areas Through Visiting Consultant Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruca, Thomas S; Pyo, Tae-Hyung; Nelson, Gregory C

    2016-06-30

    Workforce experts predict a future shortage of cardiologists that is expected to impact rural areas more severely than urban areas. However, there is little research on how rural patients are currently served through clinical outreach. This study examines the impact of cardiology outreach in Iowa, a state with a large rural population, on participating cardiologists and on patient access. Outreach clinics are tracked annually in the Office of Statewide Clinical Education Programs Visiting Medical Consultant Database (University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine). Data from 2014 were analyzed. In 2014, an estimated 5460 visiting consultant clinic days were provided in 96 predominantly rural cities by 167 cardiologists from Iowa and adjoining states. Forty-five percent of Iowa cardiologists participated in rural outreach. Visiting cardiologists from Iowa and adjoining states drive an estimated 45 000 miles per month. Because of monthly outreach clinics, the average driving time to the nearest cardiologist falls from 42.2±20.0 to 14.7±11.0 minutes for rural Iowans. Cardiology outreach improves geographic access to office-based cardiology care for more than 1 million Iowans out of a total population of 3 million. Direct travel costs and opportunity costs associated with physician travel are estimated to be more than $2.1 million per year. Cardiologists in Iowa and adjoining states have expanded access to office-based cardiology care from 18 to 89 of the 99 counties in Iowa. In these 71 counties without a full-time cardiologist, visiting consultant clinics can accommodate more than 50% of office visits in the patients' home county. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. The challenge of the digital divide and elderly in Spanish rural areas. The case of Castilla y León.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia MORALES ROMO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes some reflections about the tandem between new technologies, particularly the Internet, and elderly people living in rural areas. This article combines a qualitative (personal interviews and focus groups andquantitative methodology (analysis of demographic data, aiming to deep about the relationship between relationshipbetween the digital divide and geographical gap for elderly people living in rural areas in Castilla y León. Results obtained from this research show the existence of structural elements in these rural areas but also symbolic aspects often overlooked, which must take into account when implementing intervention projects. This study confirms theneed to attend to the territory as a variable but also the characteristics of those who have greater difficulties in useand access to ICT, and progress towards equal opportunities.

  11. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly...... as regards their inadequacy for assessing energy projects in rural areas.An alternative practical and PC-based approach will be presented in which emphasis is placed on the problem formulation phase, including the socio-economic, cultural and political aspects of the problem. This approach has been prepared...

  12. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not...

  13. Recent trends in rural Geography studies. Theoretical developments and research areas in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ávila Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is made a tour through the various theoretical and methodological routes that support the Rural Geography, in its current forms. The article is part of a wider investigation into the trends and state of the art of rurality between the years 1990 and 2010, with emphasis on rural geography perspective and particularly on the contributions that establish French geography and Anglo-Saxon geography. It highlights how these influences have transcended national geographical schools in some countries of Latin America. At the beginning of the discipline in the early twentieth century, emphasizing the identification and description of landscapes, influenced by the importance of regionalist discourse. Subsequently, rural geographical studies developed under the influence of economic geography, mainly describing large areas of agricultural specialization worldwide (cereal production areas, or Mediterranean agriculture, etc.. Later, from the decade of the eighties, analyze the depth of the territorial changes that occur in rural areas, due to changes in the Fordist and post-Fordist production paradigm, and the arrangements resulting from globalization.

  14. Problemy razvitija sel'skoj mestnosti Severo-Vostochnoj Germanii [Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levchenkov Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  15. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reolon, R.

    1994-01-01

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them

  16. EARLY CHILDHOOD AND RURAL EDUCATION: A NECESSARY MEETING AIMING THE ACHIEVEMENT OF JUSTICE WITH YOUNG CHILDREN LIVING IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Silveira Barbosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years the Brazilian government has constituted a major basic education attendance programmed for Brazilian citizens. The 1988 Federal Constitution states the right to education for all Brazilians, whether living in rural or urban areas, and it set kindergarten as the first level in basic education, it constituted a space to be filled by a large contingent of children who, until then, were without an institutional educational space guaranteed for them. Although, the kindergarten coverage in large urban centers has been effective in numerical terms, especially, regarding the pre-school provision, in rural areas this is still not a reality. IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - Demographic Census, 2010 reports that Brasil has 16,044 children under 6 years old, in other words, 12% of the total population of Brazil, 3,546 are living in rural areas. According to INEP (National Institute of Educational Studies - School Census, INEP, 2010, from the universe of children aged 0-6 years living in rural areas, only 12.1% attend day care centers and 67.6% attend preschools, a value lower than the urban areas where the coverage is 26% for attendance to day cares and 83% for attendance to pre-school classes. Besides questioning the exiguity of this coverage, especially from the point of view of the mandatory provision of pre-school, it is necessary to map the points of connection and tension between the areas, so it would be possible to give an expansion linked to a qualified and contextualized offer.

  17. Incentive Mechanism Model Design for Sharing of Information Resources in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xirong; Shan, Lingling

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the issues concerning the cross-unit sharing of information resources in rural areas, we analyze the incentive problem of the sharing of information resources in rural areas using the incentive theory method; establish corresponding incentive mechanism model (It is divided into positive incentive model and negative incentive model, and only when the two models guarantee each other and are used at the same time can they be effective). Based on this, we put forward the institu...

  18. Implementing Housing First in Rural Areas: Pathways Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Benjamin F.; Melton, Hilary; Shin, Soo-Min; Lawrence-Gomez, Rebeka; Tsemberis, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of Pathways Housing First in addressing chronic homelessness for persons with severe mental illness have been well established. However, the implementation and effectiveness of such programs in rural areas has yet to be examined. We described the model’s adaptations in Vermont, including the use of hybrid assertive community treatment–intensive case management teams, which consisted of service coordinators with geographically based caseloads (staff/client ratio of 1:20) and regional multidisciplinary specialists. The program’s innovative and widespread inclusion of technology into operations facilitated efficiency and responsiveness, and a pilot telehealth initiative supplemented in-person client visits. The program achieved a housing retention rate of 85% over approximately 3 years, and consumers reported decreased time spent homeless, demonstrating that program adaptations and technological enhancements were successful. PMID:24148038

  19. Disparities in the access to primary healthcare in rural areas from the county of Iasi - Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Olga-Odetta; Roşu, Solange Tamara; Manole, M; Petrariu, F D; Constantin, Brânduşa

    2014-01-01

    To identify the factors that may conduct to various forms of social exclusion of the population from the primary healthcare and to analyze health disparities as population-specific differences in the access to primary healthcare in rural compared to urban residence areas from Iasi, the second biggest county, situated in the North--East region of Romania. This research is a type of inquiry-based opinion survey of the access to primary healthcare in rural compared to urban areas of the county of Iasi. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. There were taken into account the socioeconomic status (education level in the adult population, employment status, family income, household size) and two temporal variables (the interval of time spent to arrive at the primary healthcare office as a marker for the geographical access and the waiting time for a consultation). The study group consisted of two samples, from rural and urban area, each of 150 patients, all ages, randomly selected, who were waiting at the family doctor's practice. The study has identified disparities related to a poor economic status assessed through the employed status ("not working" 15% in urban and of 20% in rural).The income calculated per member of family and divided in terciles has recorded significant differences for "high" (36.7% urban and 14.7% rural) and "low", respectively (14.6% urban and 56.6% rural). High household size with more than five members represented 22.6% of the total subjects in rural and 15.3% in urban areas. The assessment of the education level in the adult population (> 18 years) revealed that in the rural areas more than a half (56%) of the sample is placed in the category primary and secondary incomplete, whereas the value for secondary complete and postsecondary was 37.3%. The proportion of respondents in the urban areas who have post-secondary education is five times higher than those in rural areas (15.4% vs. 2.7%). The reduced geographical access assessed as

  20. Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

    2008-08-01

    Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned.

  1. Addressing post-stroke care in rural areas with Peru as a case study. Placing emphasis on evidence-based pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J Jaime; Moscoso, Miguel G; Yan, Lijing L; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Málaga, Germán; Garcia, Hector H; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2017-04-15

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, with most of its burden now affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). People in rural areas of LMIC who have a stroke receive very little acute stroke care and local healthcare workers and family caregivers in these regions lack the necessary knowledge to assist them. Intriguingly, a recent rapid growth in cell-phone use and digital technology in rural areas has not yet been appropriately exploited for health care training and delivery purposes. What should be done in rural areas, at the community setting-level, where access to healthcare is limited remains a challenge. We review the evidence on improving post-stroke outcomes including lowering the risks of functional disability, stroke recurrence, and mortality, and propose some approaches, to target post-stroke care and rehabilitation, noting key challenges in designing suitable interventions and emphasizing the advantages mHealth and communication technologies can offer. In the article, we present the prevailing stroke care situation and technological opportunities in rural Peru as a case study. As such, by addressing major limitations in rural healthcare systems, we investigate the potential of task-shifting complemented with technology to utilize and strengthen both community-based informal caregivers and community healthcare workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilization of Electronic Learning System in Swat Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed Sangi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As developments in electronic technologies i.e. personal computers, laptops, tablets, mobiles and wearable devices, the way of learning is also changing. Therefore, utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT has great important role in schools and colleges. ICT is using by students, teachers and societies in District Swat, KP, Pakistan in the form of mobiles internet (for social contact and chat, computers internet (for knowledge exploration and entertainment and multimedia (for teaching and learning. One of the difficulties involved in rural areas’ students of District Swat is that they cannot join class rooms due to their poor livelihood condition and far away from schools and colleges. Especially most of the females of rural areas of Swat do not come to schools and colleges for their family tradition and culture. Various questions were examined in every aspect of educational technologies in this study. We surveyed 50 responded randomly at District Swat from different schools and colleges and discovered that the responded were generally positive and have great interest about e-learning in Swat. The use of proposed electronic system for the learning, the literacy rate will increase in rural areas and students will achieve their individual goals.

  3. Cancer outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians in rural and remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Whop, Lisa J; Valery, Patricia C; Moore, Suzanne P; Cunningham, Joan; Garvey, Gail; Condon, John R

    2015-02-01

    To examine the association between residential remoteness and stage of cancer at diagnosis, treatment uptake, and survival within the Australian Indigenous population. Systematic review and matched retrospective cohort study. Australia. Systematic review: published papers that included a comparison of cancer stage at diagnosis, treatment uptake, mortality and/or survival for Indigenous people across remoteness categories were identified (n = 181). Fifteen papers (13 studies) were included in the review. Original analyses: new analyses were conducted using data from the Queensland Indigenous Cancer Study (QICS) comparing cancer stage at diagnosis, treatment uptake, and survival for Indigenous cancer patients living in rural/remote areas (n = 627, 66%) and urban areas (n = 329, 34%). Systematic review: Papers were included if there were related to stage of disease at diagnosis, treatment, mortality and survival of cancer. Restrictions were not placed on the outcome measures reported (e.g. standardised mortality ratios versus crude mortality rates). Original analyses: Odds ratios (OR, 95%CI) were used to compare stage of disease and treatment uptake between the two remoteness groups. Treatment uptake (treated/not treated) was analysed using logistic regression analysis. Survival was analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression. The final multivariate models included stage of cancer at diagnosis and area-level socioeconomic status (SEIFA). Existing evidence of variation in cancer outcomes for Indigenous people in remote compared with metropolitan areas is limited. While no previous studies have reported on differences in cancer stage and treatment uptake by remoteness within the Indigenous population, the available evidence suggests Indigenous cancer patients are less likely to survive their cancer the further they live from urban centres. New analysis of QICS data indicates that Indigenous cancer patients in rural/remote Queensland were less likely to be

  4. Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Kébreau Alexandre

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1 examine the determinants of the likelihood of the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2 for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las

  5. Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana School performance of rural area students in urban school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Cortez Bacha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural, turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno, tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas.PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of

  6. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  7. Constraints to the economic activities of women in rural areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite decades of gender research and public action by civil society, policy makers continue to neglect the rich indigenous knowledge (IK) and the role of women as breadwinners in rural areas. These women have little or no access to economic assets as they are located in poverty-stricken areas lacking in basic ...

  8. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rates, Price Indices, and Expenditures for Telephone Service published by the Wireline Competition... areas served by non-rural carriers. 54.316 Section 54.316 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... High Cost Areas § 54.316 Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural...

  9. Coordinating technology introduction and entrepreneurial activities in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, J.E.; Pennink, B.J.W.; Simatupang, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    © Copyright 2017 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. The main purpose of this research is to investigate how technology introduction projects in rural areas should be coordinated in order to achieve local economic development and the role of social capital and entrepreneurial activities. Characteristics

  10. Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Lawson, Andrew B; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2013-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (≤ 6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ≤ 6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils.

  11. Welfare service in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.Assessment......Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.......Assessment of development potential for individual localities using a place-based approach is in line with EU policies for rural development thereby setting a competitive framework for local development. This paper addresses place bound approaches in relation to service adjustment and discusses how local resources...... and place bound potentials are identified and how they are addressed in plans for future development. The paper draws on a study on service adjustments in rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are decided, how they are managed by rural communities...

  12. Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Rangel-Gómez, Gudelia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural). During 1990-2000 a total of 48,761 cervical cancer (CC) deaths were reported in Mexico (1990 = 4,280 deaths/year; 2000 = 4,620 deaths/year). On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference = Mexico City) found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR] = 10.99; Nayarit, RR = 10.5). Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population). CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection. This paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  13. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Seydou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring... affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in

  14. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dormael, Monique; Dugas, Sylvie; Kone, Yacouba; Coulibaly, Seydou; Sy, Mansour; Marchal, Bruno; Desplats, Dominique

    2008-11-18

    While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. The programme consisted of four classroom modules--clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills--and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring...) affecting job satisfaction. Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed

  15. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenges for rural communities: Behavioral health and detoxification (detox) services are not as readily available in rural ... the supplemental services necessary for positive outcomes. Detoxification (detox) services, for example, provide the initial treatment for ...

  16. RURAL TOURISM AS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF INCOME FOR RURAL PLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana IATAGAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is the most important economic branch, worldwide, owning 12% of all areas of activity and revenue of approximately 530 billion dollars per year. In the past 10 years we could see an increasing demand for rural tourism and ecotourism, many of the international travel agencies offering ecotourism packages. Our country is attractive from the perspective of international travel agencies, because of unpolluted nature, the authenticity of traditions, the Danube Delta, old forests and not least, because the Romanian hospitality.Rural tourism had been practiced for a long time in Romania but for the past 15-20 years, it was casual and without any form of organization. Tourism activities in rural areas are carried out when agricultural activities takeplace and contribute to the welfare of rural communities that practice it.The development of tourism activities requires attention to the quality of the environment by preserving and developing the quality in the areas that have entered the tourist circuit, controlling the activity quality for a rational use of tourism resources.Our country benefits from EU funding through several programs including SAPARD, taking one of the measures, Measure 3.4, which is called the development and diversification of economic activities that generate multiple activities and alternative incomes.A deciding role in the development of rural tourism is held by the general infrastructure, requiring subsidies from the budget for tourism attraction areas for sustaining, by public administrations, programs to support tourism in rural areas.Rural tourism contributes to the sustainable development of the Romanian rural environment by proper use of local resources, establishing youth in rural areas, reducing the number of unemployed, women's involvement in economic and social life of rural settlements, raising living standards, growth in household rural areas, increasing the industry's contribution to the formation of gross

  17. Differences in the distribution of risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population in urban and rural areas of Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Te; Sun, Shangwen; Du, Yifeng; Guo, Shougang; Cong, Lin; Cao, Mingfeng; Sun, Qinjian; Sun, Yi; Qu, Chuanqiang

    2016-05-01

    Considering the program of screening for risk factors of stroke in Eastern China, the aim of this study was to compare the distribution differences in risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population living in urban and rural areas. A total of 231,289 residents were screened and basic information collected. Risk factors for stroke among the high-risk population were compared between the urban and rural groups. A total of 117,776 high-risk residents from urban areas and 113,513 from rural areas were included in the analysis. The prevalence of hypertension was much higher in rural areas (73.3%) than that in urban areas (64.1%). Dyslipidemia (48.9% vs. 26.9%), sport lack (46.6% vs. 31.6%), diabetes mellitus (21.3% vs. 16.5%), and atrial fibrillation (18.7% vs. 9.8%) were more prevalent in the urban group, while smoking (26.5% vs. 28.8%), previous stroke (10.1% vs. 16.9%), and transient ischemic attack (20.9% vs. 24.6%) were less prevalent. Among the population at high risk of stroke, there were significant differences in the distribution of the following risk factors between the urban and rural groups: hypertension, atrial fibrillation, dyslipidemia, lack of physical exercise, and a previous stroke.

  18. Are there any differences in medical emergency team interventions between rural and urban areas? A single-centre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rudnicka-Drozak, Ewa

    2014-10-01

    To compare interventions of medical emergency teams in urban and rural areas with particular emphasis on response time and on-site medical rescue activities. A retrospective analysis of ambulance call reports from two emergency medical service substations: one in the city and the other in a rural area. Two emergency medical service substations: one in the city and the other in a rural area. Medical emergency teams. Interventions in the city were associated with a substantially shorter response time in comparison to rural areas. In the city, the distances were generally less than 10 km. In the rural area, however, such short distances accounted for only 7.2% of events, while 33.8% were over 30 km. Medical emergency teams more often acted exclusively on-site or ceased any interventions in rural areas. Compared with the city, actions in the rural setting were associated with significantly increased use of cervical collars and decreased use of intravenous access. The presence of a physician in the team raised the probability of pharmacotherapy. The relationship between medical emergency teams activities and the location of intervention shows the real diversity of the functioning of emergency medical service within a city and rural areas. Further research should aim to improve the generalisability of these findings. © 2014 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  19. [Impact of rural or urban areas on disability after a stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Barrio, M Ángeles; Herce-Martínez, M Begoña; Valiñas-Sieiro, Florita; Mariscal-Pérez, Natividad; López-Cunquero, M Ángeles; Cubo-Delgado, Esther

    2013-01-01

    To assess the residual disability in a sample of patients after suffering a first episode of a stroke and to compare the disability of those patients who live in rural areas with those living in urban areas. An observational, longitudinal study of a cohort of 89 patients from a Neurology Unit, affected by cerebrovascular accident. The following factors were assessed: sociodemographic and environmental factors, co-morbidity, functional status, disability, depression and anxiety, and quality of life. The different clinical and demographic variables were compared after admission to the unit, at hospital discharge, and 3 months afterwards. Regression analyses were also carried out in order to study the association between the clinical and sociodemographic factors, and post-stroke disability. Compared to their previous clinical state, after suffering a stroke patients showed a higher rate of co-morbidity (P<.0001), disability (P<.0001), depression (P=.002), and a poorer quality of life (P=.013). The difference between patients coming from rural and urban areas was not statistically significant in terms of disability, quality of life, anxiety, depression, or co-morbidity. The level of disability, depression and co-morbidity that patients showed after suffering a stroke was similar to the results obtained in other studies. As a novel feature, there were no differences between patients living in rural areas after suffering a stroke and those living in urban areas, as regards disability, depression, or co-morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  1. Allergen sensitisation among chronic respiratory diseases in urban and rural areas of the south of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, H T; Godin, I; Phuong, N T; Nguyen, L H; Hiep, T T M; Michel, O

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for allergen sensitisation among patients with chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in southern Viet Nam. An environmental questionnaire and skin prick tests for airborne and food allergens were administered to patients with CRD, defined as individuals with respiratory symptoms and lung function defects. Of 610 CRD patients, 56% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 31% were asthma patients; 80% were males. The most frequent sensitisers were dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae 22%, Blomia tropicalis 19%, D. pteronyssinus 18%) and cockroach droppings (13%). Among study participants, 37% were from rural settings and 36% from urban areas, whereas 27% had migrated from rural to urban areas. Compared with people from rural areas, being born in an urban area was a risk factor for sensitisation to mites (OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11-2.20, P Viet Nam. Compared with the urban population, being native to a rural area was protective against mite sensitisation, but this effect ceased to be significant after migration from rural to urban areas.

  2. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  3. Spatial Heterogeneity of Sustainable Transportation Offer Values: A Comparative Analysis of Nantes Urban and Periurban/Rural Areas (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bulteau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovative solutions have been implemented to promote sustainable mobility in urban areas. In the Nantes area (northwestern part of France, alternatives to single-occupant car use have increased in the past few years. In the urban area, there is an efficient public transport supply, including tramways and a “busway” (Bus Rapid Transit, as well as bike-sharing services. In periurban and rural areas, there are carpool areas, regional buses and the new “tram-train” lines. In this article, we focus on the impact on house prices of these “sustainable” transportation infrastructures and policies, in order to evaluate their values. The implicit price of these sustainable transport offers was estimated through hedonic price functions describing the Nantes urban and periurban/rural housing markets. Spatial regression models (SAR, SEM, SDM and GWR were carried out to capture the effect of both spatial autocorrelation and spatial heterogeneity. The results show patterns of spatial heterogeneity of transportation offer implicit prices at two scales: (i between urban and periurban/rural areas, as well as (ii within each territory. In the urban area, the distance to such offers was significantly associated with house prices. These associations varied by type of transportation system (positive for tramway and railway stations and negative for bike-sharing stations. In periurban and rural areas, having a carpool area in a 1500-m buffer around the home was negatively associated with house prices, while having a regional bus station in a 500-m buffer was non-significant. Distance to the nearest railway station was negatively associated with house prices. These findings provide research avenues to help public policy-makers promote sustainable mobility and pave the way for more locally targeted interventions.

  4. Social conflict in response to urban sprawl in rural areas: urban reconfiguration of the Mezquital valley as influence area of the megalopolis of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Brisa; Cadena, Edel; Campos, Juan; Hinojosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The urban sprawl of metropolitan areas involves complex processes of coexistence between urban and rural dynamics, the functional redefining of central urban areas and rural areas or urban-rural surrounding transition generates land conflicts. In this paper the context of Mexico City megalopolis and its expansion process, will be discussed in the new specialization of the central city to tertiary services and increasing the value of land, it has resulted in the expulsion of the industry and s...

  5. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  6. Mental health in remote rural developing areas: concepts and cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    "In this book, we illustrate some of the social and environmental incluences that shape health and mental health care, using examples from rural villages in Alaska as well as other developing areas of the world...

  7. Demographic Ageing in Romania’s Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Violeta Nancu; Liliana Guran-Nica; Mihaela Persu

    2010-01-01

    Europe has faced for several decades and is still facing an ageing process of its population. Within it, Romania, a country, striving to successfully integrate into the European Union, is also experiencing the same process. The ageing process of the Romanian population started at the beginning of the 20th century and evolved progressively, ever since, with significant visible rates in the rural areas. Romania’s population age structure, at the beginning of the Third Millennium, was, according...

  8. Influencing factors of domestic waste characteristics in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Zhong, Min; Shi, Guozhong; Li, Qibin; Zeng, Dan; Zhang, Yu; Fei, Yongqiang; Xie, Yanhua

    2018-02-01

    Waste management in rural areas has become a major challenge for governments of developing countries. The success of waste management decisions directly lies in the accuracy and reliability of the data on which choices are based; many factors influence these data. Here, we examined the factors influencing domestic waste in rural areas of developing countries (RADIC), using both field surveys and by reviewing previous literature. The social factors included population, education and culture. There was a positive linear relationship between waste generation amount and population size (R 2  = 0.9405). Environmental education, training and demonstration projects played a positive role in improving people's awareness of the benefits of recycling and reducing waste. Traditional and national cultures, consumption and living habits contributed to variations in the generation and composition of domestic waste. Generally, practices related to conservation of and reverence for nature and green consumption encourage people to reduce, reuse and recycle waste in their daily life. Economic factors included household income and expenditure, energy and fuel structure, and types of industry that occurred in villages. A Kuznets inverted "U" curve relationship existed between domestic waste generation and people's income in rural areas of China. However, the waste generation rate had a linear relationship with the gross national income per capita in RADIC. The composition, bulk density and calorific value of domestic waste were variously affected by the energy and fuel structure and the types of industry that occurred. The natural factors included geography and climate (including rainfall, humidity, temperature and harvest seasons). The moisture content of waste was directly influenced by rainfall and humidity. Temperature affected waste characteristics by influencing residential heating modes. The waste characteristics were also influenced by the mixing of agricultural and

  9. Rural migration: what attracts new residents to non-metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, L J; Kelsey, T W; Thee, R J; Fousekis, P

    1997-01-01

    "This study uses the experience of three non-metropolitan counties in Pennsylvania to explore which community characteristics have the greatest influence on people's decisions to move to rural areas. Personal characteristics affected how in-migrants evaluated prospective rural residential locations. Higher income in-migrants placed a high priority on job opportunities, housing quality, a short commute to work, quality of schools, and low local taxes. Lower income in-migrants were more likely to value a location near family and friends. Ability to own a home, housing costs, and local taxes were also important." excerpt

  10. Mobile phone intervention to improve diabetes care in rural areas of Pakistan: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Mahar, Saeed Ahmed; Shaikh, Shiraz; Shaikh, Zuhaib-u-ddin

    2015-03-01

    To determine the effect of mobile phone intervention on HbA1c in type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients living in rural areas of Pakistan. Randomized controlled trial. Department of Endocrinology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from December 2013 to June 2014. A total of 440 patients in intervention and control groups were enrolled. All patients between 18 - 70 years of age, residing in rural areas of Pakistan, HbA1c ³ 8.0% and having personal functional mobile phone were included. The intervention group patients were called directly on mobile phone after every 15 days for a period of 4 months. They were asked about the self-monitoring blood glucose, intake of medications, physical activity, healthy eating and were physically examined after 4 months. However, the control group was examined initially and after 4 months physically in the clinic and there were no mobile phone contacts with these patients. Patients in intervention group showed improvement (p Mobile phone technology in rural areas of Pakistan was helpful in lowering HbA1c levels in intervention group through direct communication with the diabetic patients. Lowering LDL and following diabetic diet plan can reduce HbA1c in these patients and help in preventing future complications.

  11. Mobility and accessibility of hispanics in small towns and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Hispanic population has increased 43% (from 35.3 million to 50.5 million) in the 2000s in the U.S. Small towns and : rural areas in the U.S. are among the areas that have experienced rapid growth in : the : Hispanic immigrant population in the : ...

  12. The contribution of town functions to the development of rural areas: empirical analyses for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas in many developing countries often lack infrastructure and institutions. However, rural towns and towns possess some of the major services that rural and town households can use to advance their economic activities. The study of the contribution that towns and their functions make to

  13. Analysing Changes in Discursive Constructions of Rural Areas in the Context of Demographic Change. Towards Counterpoints in the Dominant Discourse on “Dying Villages”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B. Christmann

    2016-01-01

    For the conceptualisation of the empirical observations, the article is based on the assumption that it is in communications and in public discourses – in particular specific recurrent contents on rural areas and demographic change – that specific knowledge elements and reality constructions of rural areas emerge and stabilise within society. This assumption includes the idea that when the content of public discourses on rural areas change, for example through small-scale discursive counterpoints, it is possible for new knowledge elements and new constructions of reality to develop. Against this background, the approach of a (new discursive construction of spaces is selected as theoretical starting point for the analysis. By referring to the communicative-constructivism approach and by integrating the sociology of knowledge approach to discourse, it is perfectly suited for theoretically spelling out changing discursive constructions of rural areas in the context of demographic change.

  14. [Changes in prices of taxed sugar-sweetened beverages and nonessential energy dense food in rural and semi-rural areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Zavala, J Alejandro; Batis, Carolina; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    To estimate changes in prices associated with the implementation of the tax to sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and to nonessential energy dense food in 2014. Price data were collected in rural and semi-rural areas in December 2013, and April and December 2014. Fixed effects models were used to estimate changes in prices of beverages and nonessential energy dense food, stratified by region, retailer and package size. The SSB tax did not pass completely through prices: prices increased on average 0.73 pesos per liter. For nonessential energy dense food, the tax passed completely or was overshifted for cookies, cereal bars and cereal boxes. The potential effect of the taxes on consumption could be attenuated in rural areas as the pass through prices was incomplete.

  15. Survey of Solid Waste and Wastewater Separate and Combined Management Strategies in Rural Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Improper wastewater and solid waste management in rural areas could be a risk to human health and environment pollution. One percent of Iran’s rural area is connected to the wastewater collection network. Solid waste management in rural areas of Iran is mainly consisted uncontrolled dumping and open burning. The aim of this study is prioritization of wastewater and solid waste separate and combined management strategies in rural areas of Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study. In this study, firstly were determined appropriate and conventional methods for wastewater and solid waste separate and combined management by using national and case studies. Then, using specified criteria and by applying a weighting system, prioritization was conducted and implementation strategies presented for wastewater and solid waste separate and combined management. Results: The first priority for the collection and treatment, wastewater in rural areas are smalldiameter gravity systems and preliminary treatment with complementary treatment by land, respectively. In order to the rural solid waste management, organic compost complementary systems were in first priority. In the wastewater and solid waste combined management, the first priority was compost and biogas production by combining anaerobic UASB reactor and Chinese biogas. Conclusion: Considering for influence of various factors in selecting an appropriate method is very important in order to wastewater and solid waste separate and the combined management of a rural. Therefore, the accordance of presenting strategy with local conditions and facilities should be taken into consideration.

  16. Pre-School Educational Provision in Rural Areas. Interchange 69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copus, Andrew; Petrie, Scott; Shucksmith, Janet; Shucksmith, Mark; Still, Margaret; Watt, Joyce

    The Scottish Executive Education Department has pledged to achieve universal provision of preschool education for 3- and 4-year-olds, whose parents want it, by 2002. The particular factors affecting delivery of preschool education in rural areas were examined through telephone interviews with local education authorities and voluntary preschool…

  17. LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly del Carmen Suárez Restrepo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular

  18. Factors Affecting Development of Rural Areas in the Czech Republic: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Straka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural development is a topic that is frequently discussed, but there is no consensus on how to measure it. Various criteria exist such as economic, social, cultural or environmental, which can be used to assess rural development. Therefore the main question addressed in this paper is to identify what factors and indicators are suitable for scrutinizing development of rural areas under the conditions of the Czech Republic. For this purpose, articles focused on Czech rural regions were analysed. Fourteen most frequently used indicators were identified based on the comprehensive analysis of the selected Czech studies.

  19. Free preconceptual screening examination service in rural areas of Hubei Province, China in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-ling Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aims to collect and summarize the outcomes on free preconceptual screening examination in rural areas of Hubei Province in 2012. Moreover, this review promotes further understanding of the status of this activity to provide the Family Planning Commission valid scientific data upon which to construct effective policies. METHODS: Couples, who complied with the family planning policy and were the residents in agricultural areas or lived in a local rural area for more than six months, were encouraged to participate in the free preconceptual screening examination service provided by the Hubei Provincial Population and Family Planning Commission. This service included 19 screening tests. All the data, including forms, manuals, and test results, were collected from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 in rural areas in Hubei Province. RESULTS: A total of 497,860 individuals participated in the free preconceptual screening examination service, with a coverage rate of 97.1%. 4.0% and 4.8% of the participants exhibited with abnormal blood levels of ALT and creatinine, respectively; 0.36% of the participants tested positive for syphilis; 0.44% and 3.6% of the female participants tested positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, respectively; and 0.84% and 1.8% of the female participants tested positive for cytomegalovirus (IgM and Toxoplasma gondii (IgM, respectively. After risk assessment, 59,935 participants might have high-risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In 2012, the prevalence of birth defects among the parturient who participated in the preconceptual screening examination service was 0.04%, while the prevalence was 0.08% among those who did not participate in the service. CONCLUSION: Preconceptual screening examination service may help to address the risk factors that can lead to adverse pregnancy outcome. More studies on the relationship between preconceptual screening examination service and prevalence of

  20. Stated preferences of doctors for choosing a job in rural areas of Peru: a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available Doctors' scarcity in rural areas remains a serious problem in Latin America and Peru. Few studies have explored job preferences of doctors working in underserved areas. We aimed to investigate doctors' stated preferences for rural jobs.A labelled discrete choice experiment (DCE was performed in Ayacucho, an underserved department of Peru. Preferences were assessed for three locations: rural community, Ayacucho city (Ayacucho's capital and other provincial capital city. Policy simulations were run to assess the effect of job attributes on uptake of a rural post. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the relative importance of job attributes and of individual characteristics. A total of 102 doctors participated. They were five times more likely to choose a job post in Ayacucho city over a rural community (OR 4.97, 95%CI 1.2; 20.54. Salary increases and bonus points for specialization acted as incentives to choose a rural area, while increase in the number of years needed to get a permanent post acted as a disincentive. Being male and working in a hospital reduced considerably chances of choosing a rural job, while not living with a partner increased them. Policy simulations showed that a package of 75% salary increase, getting a permanent contract after two years in rural settings, and getting bonus points for further specialisation increased rural job uptake from 21% to 77%. A package of 50% salary increase plus bonus points for further specialisation would also increase the rural uptake from 21% to 52%.Doctors are five times more likely to favour a job in urban areas over rural settings. This strong preference needs to be overcome by future policies aimed at improving the scarcity of rural doctors. Some incentives, alone or combined, seem feasible and sustainable, whilst others may pose a high fiscal burden.

  1. Omah displacement and utilization from rural to urban areas, as green design lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajarwati, Ade Ariyani Sari

    2017-11-01

    Building a house in urban area is very costly and also leaving a bunch amount of construction waste. Many efforts were made to reduce the load of this waste. However, the high demand of residences in metropolitan makes the waste problem needs to be solved together. Based on this problem, author chooses Omah, - a Javanese traditional house, which is built, based on the traditional system of life of Javanese people - displacement from rural to urban area as the alternative solution, as it uses selected materials from nature by considering the sustainability and preservation for future generation. The wooden building is built based on traditional construction system that follows Javanese principles and traditional calculation, based on philosophy and cosmology in the community. This paper will covers utilization of Omah in urban area as an implementation of green design, which refers to the concepts of reuse, reduce, recycle and responsibility. Through expert interviews and field surveys in urban and rural areas, author collected data needed for this paper. Although the functionality of the building is different from rural to urban requirements, the phenomenon of Omah displacement from Javanese habitat to urban living area is well accepted and becomes an interesting trend.

  2. Management of water resources in the Cantareira Water Producer System area: a look at the rural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Eduardo Chiodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy established the principles of participation, integration and decentralization, as well as new instruments for the management of water resources in Brazil. The implementation of this policy created several challenges, such as establishing effective management within the framework of rural territorial structure. The example of the Cantareira’s System in Piracicaba river watershed is conducive to the understanding of this challenge. In this scenario, we analyzed the effective implementation of principles, and of two instruments of water resource management from the perspective of farmers’ participation: the integration of water management and rural land use, and public policies for rural areas. To accomplish this, we reviewed documents and literature, and considered conclusions drawn from meetings at the Technical Chamber of Use and Water Conservation in Rural Areas (CT-Rural. We identified a lack of participation by farmers’ representatives in the CT-Rural Chamber and little concern to increase their participation in the management practices. However, the support payments for environmental services projects (PES are stimulating farmers and calling attention to the Cantareira area, in addition to promoting the integration of water resource management and rural land use. However, even though this support acknowledges the importance of the farmers, we emphasize the low priority given by the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí Watershed Committee to the rural context of the area studied.

  3. Expanded emergency medical services for the provision of primary care in remote rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccabe, S

    2000-05-01

    It is now widely recognised that a potential recruitment crisis is looming in the provision of primary care physicians for remote rural areas of the United Kingdom. Anecdotal evidence suggests that rural registrar, associate and principal vacancies are becoming increasingly difficult to fill and for many rural GPs locums are an impossible dream. Many practitioners are no longer prepared to work in areas where out-of-hours cooperatives are not available. We are now faced with the very real possibility that in some remote areas of the Scottish Highlands and Islands the recruitment of suitable GPs may no longer be possible. So what are the alternatives? In October 1999 I visited a community in the mountains of northern New Mexico which has had to deal with this very problem.

  4. IPARD funds in the function of the development of the rural areas of The Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Zekic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By acquiring the conditions for the usage of the pre-accession funds of the European Union, concretely the instrument for rural development (Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance in Rural Development - IPARD, The Republic of Serbia (RS will have a chance to improve the position of its agricultural farms and the conditions of its rural areas. Agriculture is specifically important for the economy in RS, and the rural population makes up almost one-half of the population, which additionally enlarges an interest in these funds. In addition, the objective of the research is to identify the effects of the usage of the IPARD funds on the development of the rural areas, respectively the socio-economic progress of the rural population. A qualitative descriptive analysis on the basis of the empirical data was used. The basic conclusions are that, thus, structured funds will have a limited impact on the reduction in the development inequalities and the achievement of the parity living conditions between the rural and the urban areas. Namely, the dominant focus of the IPARD funds on the investments in agricultural farms and enterprises, and not in rural households, limits the level of their impact on the rural development in RS.

  5. Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirault, D.

    2004-03-01

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

  6. Tungiasis in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors to tungiasis amongst 1,030 randomly selected individuals in rural communities of Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. Hands, feet, elbows and other parts of the body were examined for the presence of clinical signs of ...

  7. Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John C.

    Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

  8. Obesity awareness among elders living in rural area: a household survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maycon Sousa Pegorari; Alisson Fernandes Bolina; Darlene Mara dos Santos Tavares

    2017-01-01

    The acceptance of the disease is essential to health self-care, elder’s awareness regarding obesity is suggested to influence their search for health services, and consequently, in obesity’s treatment. This study aimed to verify obesity awareness of elders living in rural areas and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey with 562 individuals, who were older than 60 years and were rural residents from a Brazil southeast city. The identi...

  9. Demographic development of ukrainian rural area: lessons of history, modern socio-economic threats

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    D.P. Melnychuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to urgent problems of demographic development of rural areas, their impact on socioeconomic processes at all levels of the national economic system. The content of demographic and economic antonyms of «demographic development» and «demographic catastrophe» has been characterized. The article analyzes the historical background of demographic change in rural areas, their socio-economic consequences. It’s reasonably concluded that the economic development of Ukraine requires urgent settlement of the negative socio-demographic trends that are characteristic for a Ukrainian village. Nowadays, these trends are of a destructive nature. They lead to a protracted crisis of agricultural production which is very difficult to overcome solely with the tools of technical and technological modernization. This will complicate the food security of the state for many years; lower the level and quality of life of the population, lead to greater territorial disparities and degradation of rural areas and the marginalization of residents of Ukrainian villages.

  10. Urban Agriculture: Search for Agricultural Practice in Urbanized Rural Areas

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    Celile Özçiçek Dölekoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in developing countries involves unplanned migration, unemployment and poverty. The steady shrinking of rural areas and the use of agricultural land for other purposes are progressively increasing the pressure on natural resources. This development on the one hand increases the risk to food security, and on the other triggers climate change. The rural population who migrate to the cities or who are absorbed into urban areas continue their agricultural activities in the urban in order to provide themselves with an income or to maintain their food security. In the big cities of the developed world, contact with nature is kept by means of hobby gardens, recreational areas and urban and suburban plant and animal farming, and creative ideas such as roof gardens can be found. This development, known as urban agriculture, is practiced by 800 million people in the world. Urban agriculture has many economic, social and environmental benefits, but it may also have risks and adverse effects. In this study, the developments in this area in Turkey and the world are presented, and all aspects of its effects and outcomes are discussed.

  11. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

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    Robert Podstawski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  12. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of

  13. Franchise Cellular Operator in Rural Areas (Operator Seluler Model Franchise Di Daerah Rural)

    OpenAIRE

    Parewe, Nurfadillah A; Hasan, Taufik; Kurniawan, Adit

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development in telecommunication motivates organizations or business person to gain some profits in telco-based business. However, very limited Indonesian villagers had access to these technologies. This problem was caused by the less attractive condition (even unfeasible) to invest in the rural areas because the cost to build a conventional telecommunication infrastructure was very high, eventhough this was a potential new market. The other is the limitations of the spectrum allo...

  14. Accessibility of public libraries by rural dwellers in rural areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, public libraries are essential to rural dwellers; therefore it is recommended that all types of information be made available to public libraries. Sensitization programmes should be encouraged. This will in turn bring about positive impact on the rural dwellers. Key words: Accessibility, Public, Library, rural, ...

  15. Quantifying the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Rural Settlements and the Associated Impacts on Land Use in an Undeveloped Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and economic growth in China have accelerated changes in rural settlements and associated land-use types that are expected to alter ecological services and the environment. Relevant studies of the dynamics of rural settlements and corresponding rural land-use changes are in short supply, however, especially in undeveloped areas in China. This study, therefore, investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of rural settlements and their impacts on other land-use types by using 30 m rural settlement status and dynamic maps from the end of the 1980s to 2010. These maps were generated by visual interpretation with strict product quality control and accuracy. Henan province was selected as a case study of undeveloped regions in China. We examined in particular how the expansion of rural settlements affected cultivated lands and the processes of rural settlement urbanization. This study looked at three periods: the end of the 1980s–2000, 2000–2010, and the end of the 1980s–2010, with two spatial scales of province and prefecture city. Major findings about the rural settlements in Henan from the end of the 1980s to 2010 include (1 the area of rural settlements grew continuously, although the increasing trend slowed; (2 the expansion of rural settlements showed a negative trend contrary to the trend of the urbanization of rural settlements; (3 rural settlement expansion occupied considerable expanse of cultivated lands, which accounted for up to 96% of the total expansion lands; (4 urbanization of rural settlements was the main mode by which rural residential lands vanished, accounting for more than 98% of the lost lands. This study can provide suggestions for the conservation and sustainability of the rural environment and inform reasonable policies on rural development.

  16. Attitudes towards disability in rural area in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reus, A.; Mostert, L.; Moonen, X.; Vermeer, A.; Magyarszeky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to gain insight into the attitudes of people living in a rural area of South Africa towards persons with a disability and the extent to which these attitudes are related to people's characteristics. A total of 105 residents of a township in the Gauteng province

  17. Assessment of pharmacists' delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists' delivery of public health services. To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists' practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking.

  18. Tourism as a factor of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava

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    Ristić Lela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at tourism as an essential component of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory. The aim of the paper is to point to the role of tourism in the integration of rural areas into the national and international economy based on the analysis of the relevant rural development model and in terms of more efficient endogenous development. The main hypothesis is that rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory have significant natural and anthropogenic resources for tourism development. However, what lacks is an integrated strategy that would contribute to sustainability and strengthening of the competitiveness of the rural economy. In accordance with the subject of the paper, its aim and the set hypotheses, qualitative, quantitative and SWOT analysis were applied during the research. A survey was conducted in order to obtain positions and feedback from the key actors involved in tourism development. The paper is organized in eight sections. The main result of the research points to the necessity of giving priority to rural tourism development as an essential component of the revitalization of villages and local communities.

  19. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

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    Gandotra V.K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t’ test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

  20. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  1. Rural electrification: benefits in different spheres; Eletrificacao rural: beneficios em diferentes esferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Cassiano N.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Eletrovento Ltda, Incubadora de Empresas de Base Tecnologica], e-mail: cassiano@eletrovento.com.br; Mourad, Anna L. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL) Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem], e-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br; Morinigo, Marcos A. [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; Sanga, Godfrey [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: godfrey@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a constant migration of rural population to urban areas looking for employment and better quality of life. During the same period, industrial sector grew significantly and became economically more important than the rural sector. Consequently, the industrial sector became government's first development priority. In addition, the energy system was focused on large power plants energy production and high potentials long distance transmissions to large energy consumers, urban centers and industries. Limited efforts were done to provide energy to small and dispersed rural consumers as it seemed to be economically less attractive. This article, therefore, shows the importance of rural electrification over human, economical and social development including its impact across the rural communities' boundaries. While regarded as an important factor for development, rural electrification is, however, a function of many input factors in a mutual dependence relationships, reinforcement and feedback loops. Besides of the evident benefits of increased comfort and satisfaction levels to the rural population, other benefits of rural electrification includes improved access to information and communication media, agricultural mechanization and consequent improvement of the agricultural productivity. Agricultural sector is an important part of the industrial production chain: each R$ 1,00 invested in rural electrification generates R$ 3,00 along the production chain and increases the consumption of durable goods, Word Bank, Gazeta Mercantil (1999). For the population and urbanization control, rural electrification creates favorable conditions to maintain people in the rural areas as such reducing government expenditures for urban infrastructure which is more expensive than the rural one. Moreover, this reduces incidences of unemployment in big cities as it generates jobs in the rural sector. Implementation of a combined rural

  2. Expanding health insurance to increase health care utilization: will it have different effects in rural vs. urban areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlyana, Erlyana; Damrongplasit, Kannika Kampanya; Melnick, Glenn

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the importance of medical fee and distance to health care provider on individual's decision to seek care in developing countries. The estimation method used a mixed logit model applied to data from the third wave of the Indonesian family life survey (2000). The key variables of interest include medical fee and distance to different types of health care provider and individual characteristic variables. Urban dweller's decision to choose health care providers are sensitive to the monetary cost of medical care as measured by medical fee but they are not sensitive to distance. For those who reside in rural area, they are sensitive to the non-medical component cost of care as measured by travel distance but they are not sensitive to medical fee. As a result of those findings, policy makers should consider different sets of policy instruments when attempting to expand health service's usage in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. To increase access in urban areas, we recommend expansion of health insurance coverage in order to lower out-of-pocket medical expenditures. As for rural areas, expansion of medical infrastructures to reduce commuting distance and costs will be needed to increase utilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The competitiveness of rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitdikova, L.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ophem, van J.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the main factors influencing the regional competitiveness of rural areas in the Tatarstan Republic. Firstly, 19 variables related to the socio-economic situation in the Tatarstan Republic were analysed, these having been taken from the Statistics Committee of the Tatarstan

  4. LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

  5. Farm Agrotourism Alternative Sources Of Income In Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrotourist movement in rural areas is influenced by several factors of economic, psychological, demographic, natural or circumstantial nature. Along with increasing of the incomes and exceeding the critical level of satisfaction only of consume requirements intensifies the agrotourist circulation and regarding tariffs practiced, they can have an inhibiting effect if they increase or will promote tourist flows if they decrease. The agrotourist motivation has a major influence, being the one that determines the tourist to move from his place of residence, this referring to the demands, impulses, desires, with personal character and intentions to spend their holidays in the country. Farm agrotourism is an activity of which raw material is represented by the environment surrounding and from the farm, their attractiveness, elements that develop a wide range of shapes, capable of responding to various reasons to spend a holiday in rural area. Through the diversification of agrotourist activities it will improuve the economic activity of the farms with specific and will increase the incomes additional obtained in farms at a time when the main activity is not so intense.

  6. Evaluation of immunization coverage in the rural area of Pune, Maharashtra, using the 30 cluster sampling technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. One of the most cost-effective and easy methods for child survival is immunization. Despite all the efforts put in by governmental and nongovernmental institutes for 100% immunization coverage, there are still pockets of low-coverage areas. In India, immunization services are offered free in public health facilities, but, despite rapid increases, the immunization rate remains low in some areas. The Millennium Development Goals (MDG indicators also give importance to immunization. Objective: To assess the immunization coverage in the rural area of Pune. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice area of the Rural Health Training Center (RHTC using the WHO′s 30 cluster sampling method for evaluation of immunization coverage. Results: A total of 1913 houses were surveyed. A total of 210 children aged 12-23 months were included in the study. It was found that 86.67% of the children were fully immunized against all the six vaccine-preventable diseases. The proportion of fully immunized children was marginally higher in males (87.61% than in females (85.57%, and the immunization card was available with 60.95% of the subjects. The most common cause for partial immunization was that the time of immunization was inconvenient (36%. Conclusion: Sustained efforts are required to achieve universal coverage of immunization in the rural area of Pune district.

  7. Managerial Strategies for the Conservation of Rurality in Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available If we admit that rurality designates small densities, open areas, small settlements below 1,000 inhabitants, and land reserved mainly to agricultural and forestry practices, and as natural area, if we admit that society tends to be traditional and that government al policies tend to conserve rather than to make rapid or radical changes, then we should admit that rural tourism should be an activity generating new incomes in the area. Rurality also means preserving a continuum in the approach of different types of areas with different characteristics, a concept that can also be of use in the identification of activities specific to rural tourism. Be they activities specific to the rural environment or activities common to the rural area, they need to aim at the conservation of rurality as a main tourism resource. Managerial strategies in rural tourism contribute effectively to rural development, provided they are sustainable and that rural tourism be not the only solution for rural development.

  8. PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY IN RURAL AREAS OF HALF SOUTH OF RS: AN ANALYSYS OF THE 2010 CENSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernanda Tonini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a result of an analysis of the 2010 Census, applied by IBGE, related to person with disability in rural areas located in 8 cities of half south of RS. The aim is to discuss the methodology of the Census and how the database is constructed, by the comprehension of the term disability. At this level, was performed a documental research to understand the definition of disability in the federal law, what enabled conclude that the number of person with disability in Brazil – in rural or urban areas – increased from previous Census, according with the definition adopted from IBGE and law. Analyzing the variant about gender, the database shows that the number of women with disability is higher than men with disability, both in rural and urban areas. But analyzing the number of person with disability in general, in rural areas the number is higher than in urban, independent of the gender. The results indicates that rural areas are more vulnerable and shows the importance in consider this elements to develop public policy directed to people with disability and towards the social development in this regions.

  9. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  10. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  11. Socio-economic differentials in child stunting are consistently larger in urban than rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Morris, Saul Sutkover

    2000-01-01

    Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 11 countries from three regions were used to test the hypothesis that intra-urban differentials in child stunting were greater than intra-rural differentials, and that the prevalence of stunting among the...

  12. Rural tobacco use across the United States: How rural and urban areas differ, broken down by census regions and divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Doogan, Nathan J; Kurti, Allison N; Redner, Ryan; Gaalema, Diann E; Stanton, Cassandra A; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    This project compared urban/rural differences in tobacco use, and examined how such differences vary across regions/divisions of the U.S. Using pooled 2012-2013 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we obtained weighted prevalence estimates for the use of cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipes. NSDUH also provides information on participants' residence: rural vs. urban, and Census region and division. Overall, use of cigarettes, chew, and snuff were higher in rural, compared to urban areas. Across all tobacco products, urban/rural differences were particularly pronounced in certain divisions (e.g., the South Atlantic). Effects did not appear to be fully explained by differences in poverty. Going beyond previous research, these findings show that urban/rural differences vary across different types of tobacco products, as well as by division of the country. Results underscore the need for regulatory efforts that will reduce health disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of pharmacists’ delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M.; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists’ delivery of public health services. Objective: To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists’ practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. Methods: This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Results: Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (PDakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking. PMID:28042356

  14. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...... up with a more deepgoing review of the relatively small number of studies, which explicitly deal with settlement preferences related to access to health care....

  15. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  16. Retaining health workforce in rural and underserved areas of India: What works and what doesn't? A critical interpretative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Angeli, Federica; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Singla, Neetu; Grover, Manoj; Maarse, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Human resource for health is critical in quality healthcare delivery. India, with a large rural population (68.8%), needs to urgently bridge the gaps in health workforce deployment between urban and rural areas. We did a critical interpretative synthesis of the existing literature by using a predefined selection criteria to assess relevant manuscripts to identify the reasons for retaining the health workforce in rural and underserved areas. We discuss different strategies for retention of health workforce in rural areas on the basis of four major retention interventions, viz. education, regulation, financial incentives, and personal and professional support recommended by WHO in 2010. This review focuses on the English-language material published during 2005-14 on human resources in health across low- and middle-income countries. Healthcare in India is delivered through a diverse set of providers. Inequity exists in health manpower distribution across states, area (urban-rural), gender and category of health personnel. India is deficient in health system development and financing where health workforce education and training occupy a low priority. Poor governance, insufficient salary and allowances, along with inability of employers to provide safe, satisfying and rewarding work conditions-are causing health worker attrition in rural India. The review suggests that the retention of health workers in rural areas can be ensured by multiplicity of interventions such as medical schools in rural areas, rural orientation of medical education, introducing compulsory rural service in lieu of incentives providing better pay packages and special allowances, and providing better living and working conditions in rural areas. A complex interplay of factors that impact on attraction and retention of health workforce necessitates bundling of interventions. In low-income countries, evidence- based strategies are needed to ensure context-specific, field- tested and cost

  17. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  18. Personalized Health Monitoring System for Managing Well-Being in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedungadi, Prema; Jayakumar, Akshay; Raman, Raghu

    2017-12-14

    Rural India lacks easy access to health practitioners and medical centers, depending instead on community health workers. In these areas, common ailments that are easy to manage with medicines, often lead to medical escalations and even fatalities due to lack of awareness and delayed diagnosis. The introduction of wearable health devices has made it easier to monitor health conditions and to connect doctors and patients in urban areas. However, existing initiatives have not succeeded in providing adequate health monitoring to rural and low-literate patients, as current methods are expensive, require consistent connectivity and expect literate users. Our design considerations address these concerns by providing low-cost medical devices connected to a low-cost health platform, along with personalized guidance based on patient physiological parameters in local languages, and alerts to medical practitioners in case of emergencies. This patient-centric integrated healthcare system is designed to manage the overall health of villagers with real-time health monitoring of patients, to offer guidance on preventive care, and to increase health awareness and self-monitoring at an affordable price. This personalized health monitoring system addresses the health-related needs in remote and rural areas by (1) empowering health workers in monitoring of basic health conditions for rural patients in order to prevent escalations, (2) personalized feedback regarding nutrition, exercise, diet, preventive Ayurveda care and yoga postures based on vital parameters and (3) reporting of patient data to the patient's health center with emergency alerts to doctor and patient. The system supports community health workers in the diagnostic procedure, management, and reporting of rural patients, and functions well even with only intermittent access to Internet.

  19. Analysis of income sources of women farmers in rural areas of Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from goat production. The paper suggests that agricultural policy and programmes should focus more on cassava and goat production in order to increase income of the women farmers in the study area. Keywords: Income Sources, Women Farmers, Rural Area Global Approaches to Extension Practice Vol. 3 (1) 2007: pp.

  20. Commuting to work: RN travel time to employment in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Marie-Claire; Corcoran, Sean P; Kovner, Christine; Brewer, Carol

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the variation in average daily travel time to work among registered nurses (RNs) living in urban, suburban, and rural areas. We examine how travel time varies across RN characteristics, job setting, and availability of local employment opportunities. Descriptive statistics and linear regression using a 5% sample from the 2000 Census and a longitudinal survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRN). Travel time for NLRN respondents was estimated using geographic information systems (GIS) software. In the NLRN, rural nurses and those living in small towns had significantly longer average commute times. Young married RNs and RNs with children also tended to have longer commute times, as did RNs employed by hospitals. The findings indicate that travel time to work varies significantly across locale types. Further research is needed to understand whether and to what extent lengthy commute times impact RN workforce needs in rural and urban areas.

  1. Comparison of healthy lifestyle behaviors among individuals with and without cardiovascular diseases from urban and rural areas in China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuangshi; Li, Wei; Yin, Lu; Bo, Jian; Peng, Yaguang; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the gap of prevalence of healthy lifestyle behaviors including smoking cessation, quitting drinking, physical activity and healthy eating between Chinese adults with and without cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study is a cross-sectional component of Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE)-China study, which recruited ~46,000 participants from 70 rural and 45 urban communities between 2005 and 2009. Participants were divided into disease (with CVDs) and control (without any diseases) groups. The adjusted rates were estimated for different strata by the generalized, linear mixed-effects model, including community as a random effect with additional adjustment for age, sex, education and income. Among 40,490 participants, healthy lifestyle behaviors (disease group versus control group: urban areas: 7.8% versus 8.1%; rural areas: 3.4% versus 3.2%). The rates of smoking cessation and quitting drinking were significantly higher in disease group for both urban and rural residents (Phealthy lifestyle behaviors except physical activity in low-income regions (Phealthy eating among rural residents from low-income regions (Phealthy lifestyle behaviors, but it still indicated a large gap between the actual and ideal adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, which called for the promotion of population-wide strategies to modify lifestyle behaviors in addition to individual health-care intervention strategies.

  2. Barriers to the use of Information and Communication Technology by occupational therapists working in a rural area of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedid, Rebecca Jean; Dew, Angela; Veitch, Craig

    2013-06-01

    This qualitative study formed part of a large-scale, multi-phase study into the delivery of therapy services to people with a disability, living in one rural area of New South Wales, Australia. The study's purpose was to identify the impact of Information and Communication Technology on the workforce practices of occupational therapists' working in a rural area of New South Wales. Individual semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 occupational therapists working in disability, health and private practice in a rural area of New South Wales. Participants were asked about access to, skills and limitations of using Information and Communication Technology. A modified grounded theory approach, based on thematic analysis and constant comparison, was used to analyse the interview transcripts. This study found widespread use of technology by rurally based occupational therapists working in the disability sector in New South Wales. However, Information and Communication Technology was primarily used for client contact, professional development and professional networking rather than therapy provision. The study identified individual, workplace and community barriers to greater uptake of Information and Communication Technology by this group. The individual barriers included: age cohort, knowledge and personal preferences. The workplace barriers included: support and training and availability of resources. The community barriers included: infrastructure and perceptions of clients' acceptance. The potential exists for Information and Communication Technology to supplement face-to-face therapy provision, enhance access to professional development and reduce professional isolation thereby addressing the rural challenges of large distances, travel times and geographic isolation. To overcome these challenges, individual, workplace and community Information and Communication Technology barriers should be addressed concurrently. © 2012 The Authors Australian

  3. Structure of Primary Health Care: Lessons from a Rural Area in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure of Primary Health Care: Lessons from a Rural Area in South-West Nigeria. ... of the facilities enjoyed community participation in planning and management. There ... None of the facilities had a functional 2-way referral system in place.

  4. Promoting energy conservation in the rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taale, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 70% of the population of Ghana live in the rural areas. Cooking and heating in these areas are mainly achieved by fuelwood and other biomass. Although wood is a renewable energy resource, this is only so if it is grown faster than it is consumed. Firewood consumption exceeds forest growth in Ghana and other developing countries. Added to this, is the fact that the World's wood resource is used for such purposes as sawn timber, clearing of land and felling trees for agricultural purposes, etc. If our forests are to be preserved it is this population that has to be targeted. One method of reducing fuelwood demand is to encourage alternative supplies such as biogas (methane). Rural populations could be mobilized to construct bio-latrines in their communities to make use of the biogas generated to cook their food and also for heating purposes. Through levies, funds could be generated to undertake such projects in each community. Before this could be possible, a lot of education will have to be undertaken by the Renewable Energy unit of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. This is because many people are apprehensive of the idea of cooking with gas derived from their own feces. Some of the benefits to be derived from such a project are the use of the effluent slurry as high quality organic manure for farming. This will surely lead to increase food production and help to keep the environment clean (au)

  5. Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors for cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice in rural and urban areas of North Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Sreejata; Mandal, Sukanta

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women worldwide. A multitude of risk factors aggravate the disease. This study was conducted to: (1) determine the prevalence and (2) make a comparative analysis of the socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors of cervical cancer and knowledge, attitude and practice between rural and urban women of North Bengal, India. Community-based cross-sectional study. A survey (first in North Bengal) was conducted among 133 women in a rural area (Kawakhali) and 88 women in an urban slum (Shaktigarh) using predesigned semi-structured questionnaires. The respondents were informed of the causes (including HPV), signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer and treatment, and the procedure of the PAP test and HPV vaccination. The prevalence of risk factors like multiparity, early age of marriage, use of cloth during menstruation, use of condom and OCP, early age of first intercourse was 37.2%, 82%, 83.3%, 5.4%, 15.8% and 65.6% respectively. Awareness about the cause, signs and symptoms, prevention of cervical cancer, PAP test and HPV vaccination was 3.6%, 6.3%, 3.6%, 9.5% and 14.5% respectively. Chi-square testing revealed that in the study population, significant differential at 5% exists between rural and urban residents with respect to number of children, use of cloth/sanitary napkins, family history of cancer and awareness regarding causes of cervical cancer. Regarding KAP, again using chi-square tests, surprisingly, level of education is found to be significant for each element of KAP in urban areas in contrast to complete absence of association between education and elements of KAP in rural areas. A large number of risk factors were present in both areas, the prevalence being higher in the rural areas. The level of awareness and role of education appears to be insignificant determinants in rural compared to urban areas. This pilot study needs to be followed up by large scale programmes to re-orient awareness campaigns, especially in

  6. Impact of village-based health education of tobacco control on the current smoking rate in Chinese rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-miao; Xiong, Wei-ning; Xie, Jun-gang; Liu, Xian-sheng; Zhao, Jian-ping; Zhang, Zhen-xiang; Xu, Yong-jian

    2016-02-01

    The number of smokers in Chinese rural areas is more than 200 million, which is twice that in cities. It is very significant to carry out tobacco control interventions in rural areas. We performed this community intervention study to evaluate the efficacy of village-based health education of tobacco control on the male current smoking rate in rural areas. The population of this study was the males above 15 years old from 6 villages in rural areas. The villages were randomly assigned to intervention group or control group (3 villages in each group). Self-designed smoking questionnaire was applied. The intervention group received the village-based health education of tobacco control for one year. The primary outcome measurement was the male current smoking rate. In the baseline investigation, completed surveys were returned by 814 male residents from the control group and 831 male residents from the intervention group. The male current smoking rate in the control group and the intervention group was 61.2% and 58.5%, respectively, before intervention. There was no significant difference between these two groups (P>0.05). After one-year intervention, the current smoking rate in the intervention group (51.2%) was significantly lower than that in the control group (62.8%) (Peducation of tobacco control was effective in lowering the male current smoking rate in rural areas, which could be a suitable and feasible way for tobacco control in the Chinese rural areas.

  7. Multicriteria method to evaluate the operation of technologies of renewable energy in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judilh

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the problem of the selection of renewable energy alternatives in rural regions in the developing world. We discuss a multicriteria method, map result, for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of the energy systems that have been installed in rural areas. The purpose is to improve the effectiveness of energization policies

  8. Multicriteria focus to evaluate the operation of technologies of renewable energy in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the problem of the selection of renewable energy alternatives in rural regions in the developing world. We discuss a multicriteria method, MAP RESURL, for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of the energy systems that have been installed in rural areas. The purpose is to improve the effectiveness of energization policies

  9. Problems of teaching organisation in combined (Split classes in rural areas of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leščešen Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to negative demographic trends that primarily took hold of rural areas in the Republic of Serbia as early as at the end of the twentieth century - a decline in birth-rate and migrations from rural to urban areas, the question of ever growing number of combined classes and their organisation is being raised. Combined classes in schools do not represent a desirable model that should be aspired to in the organising of educational work in primary education. In fact it is a necessity and practical need in certain social rural areas. Combined classes are increasingly becoming a reality. Village schools make 60 percent of the total number of schools and are attended by only 8 percent of pupils. The larger number of grades a classroom teacher works with in a classroom, the more numerous teaching organisation problems there are. The Educational Strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2011-2120 says that small village schools should be saved since their number will increase in the coming years considering demographic trends. This paper depicts main didactic problems that occur in the process of simultaneous work with students of different ages, in the same room, by one class teacher, as well as the possibility of their solution. Methods used in this paper include theoretical analysis of the existing literature as well as conversations with primary school teachers who teach combined classes.

  10. SOCIAL CAPITAL AS THE BASIS FOR THE FORMATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SECURITY IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Sukhostavets

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is the basis for the definition of the future concept of rural areas management. Therefore, one of the most important tasks is to determine the various factors of existence, development, and formation of social capital. One of these factors is the security of rural areas and the definition of how social capital affects it. The analysis of the available scientific works in various areas reveals the lack of consensus in the definition of the category “socio-economic security of rural areas”. This is due to the fact that the definition of social and economic security of rural areas is identified with such concepts as the ability to provide resistance to various internal and external environmental influences. The purpose of the study is to determine the nature of social capital, as well as to study its impact on the socio-economic security of the state. The methodology of the research is based on the monographic method, the method of dialectic cognition, the scenario methods used to find the optimal scenario implementation option; SWOT-analysis is used to assess the positive or negative impact of social capital on the socio-economic security of rural areas. Understanding the essence of socio-economic security has led to the conclusion that it consists of economic, social, environmental and other types of security. The term “social security” in the understanding of researchers usually has two interpretations: traditional (absence of threats to the society and alternative (absence of threats from the society. It is proved that the social security of the region should be focused on ensuring primarily human rights and freedoms, namely, personal, political, social, economic, cultural, environmental, and family ones. Social and economic security should also provide social standards and guarantees, as well as norms. The economic basis of the security of rural areas is manifested in the development of market relations, infrastructure

  11. Entrepreneurship in the rural areas of Romania. The impact of the 2007-2013 EU funding programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihaela-Cornelia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the research on entrepreneurship in rural areas by focusing on the absorption and investment plans developed with European Funds and implemented in Romania in 2007-2013 for rural development. Entrepreneurship in the European Union is seen as the solution for creating and increasing jobs number, developing new business models, and is related very often with creativity and innovation. Moreover, entrepreneurship is directly linked to the economic performance of regions (Audretsch, D.B., Keilbach, M., 2005, poverty reduction and contributes to the economic advancement of rural communities. The focus on rural areas is given by the fact that almost half of the Romanian population lives in villages or communes (around 45%, and the main income source comes from agriculture. In the same time, there is an important potential for entrepreneurial projects because rural areas are high underdeveloped, there is a lack of services in major fields as education, social services, entertainment etc. Also, we find a high potential in tourism, especially in ecological, adventure or agro-tourism. We develop a theoretical framework to discuss the potential impact of EU Funds on rural development, the access to public funds for rural population, their readiness for business ownership, the most accessible fields for starting a business and regional variables. Our study is based on public data and official reports on the European Funds received by Romania in the budgetary period of 2007-2013 and other market data that round the entrepreneurship frame in rural areas. We analyze the number of start-ups financed by European funds, type and size of enterprises, number of jobs and reasons for contract cancellation. We find that regions with a reach cultural heritage and closer to the Western border have registered more applications and are more interested in self-employment, but also that given the administrative barriers many entrepreneurs decided to

  12. Analysis on Imbalance of Family Intergenerational Exchange in China Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In China rural area, intergenerational exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring is uneven. Parents pay much more than the return they’ll get when they’re old, which mainly relates to the utilities of children. In countryside, the utilities of children (especially sons manifest in following aspects: continuing the family line, emotional comfort, laborer and supporting for old age. To some extent, these factors influence the rural intergenerational injustice respectively and together. From the prospective of trend of social and economic development, the caring of the retired will be taken by social insurance system; the intergeneration exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring will no longer be a social issue, but in the vast rural areas, the influence of traditional culture family lineage is still powerful. The need of caring of the old becomes so weak that emotional effect becomes much more urgent. The weak status of the old generation bring the fathers’ generation in a weak social status, which seriously affect the living conditions of the old generations. Therefore, when focusing the caring issue in the country, besides that we should ensure the old be cared materially, what matters most is keep the balance between the exchanging two sides

  13. Urban and rural fuelwood situation in the tropical rain-forest area of south-west Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, I.; Baumbach, G. [University of Stuttgart (Germany). Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology; Oluwole, A.F.; Obioh, I.B.; Ogunsola, O.J. [University of Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics

    1998-10-01

    Our study describes a 1995 survey (1120 questionnaires) in the urban and rural rainforests of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, on fuel use for cooking. We assessed the biofuel burning in Africa, in particular, and in tropical countries, in general. Included are discussions of socio-economic conditions, descriptions of the types and numbers of stoves, fuel and combustion characteristics, specific fuel consumption in both the private and commercial sectors, fuel sources and their availability, and health effects caused by cooking with firewood. We determined the weights and/or dimensions of fuel units, wood residues, fireplaces and combustion chambers. The consumptions of firewood (in kg cap{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) obtained by this method are of 515 in urban areas and 573 in rural areas. Wood usage is greater for low-income groups than for better situated householders who utilize kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity for cooking. Agricultural residues are used to start and support wood combustion; animal residues are not used as cooking fuels. (author)

  14. Improving Rural Teachers' Attitudes towards Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthouse, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Gifted students see both educational benefits and barriers as a result of living in rural communities. Benefits include increased individual attention and community engagement; barriers include limited curricular options (Lawrence, 2009). Acceleration is an option that has positive academic outcomes but is underused, especially in rural areas.…

  15. [Record of epidemiologically important Culicidae in the rural area of Manaus, Amazonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Marcião, Alexandre Herculano Ribera; Silva, Ana Paula Thomé da; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon region includes many species of arthropod vectors in different ecotopes, thus enabling occurrences of diseases like malaria, filariasis and arbovirosis. From August 2001 to July 2002, we gathered culicids from inside homes, from areas surrounding these homes and from forested areas of the São João Community, in the rural zone of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 1240 specimens were collected, belonging to the Culicinae (99%) and Anophelinae (1%) subfamilies, with 50 species. The Culicini tribe clearly predominated, with 904 specimens (72.9%), and the species Culex usquatus (22.6%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (17.7%) were prominent. Out of the total number of culicids, 1,077 (86.9%) were caught in the forests, 101 (8.1%) in the areas surrounding homes and 62 (5%) inside homes. Forests were the ecotope that presented the highest species diversity. The presence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes aegypti, Haemagogus janthinomys and other proven or potential vectors was recorded.

  16. Social Impacts of Solar Home Systems in Rural Areas: A Case Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative source of off-grid electric power, solar home systems (SHS stand out above all other options (e.g., wind, hydro, geo-thermal, tidal systems because of their wide-scale potential at latitudes less than 45° north or south of the Equator where daily solar irradiance is more constant throughout the year and where the bulk of the Third World’s population live. A questionnaire-based survey study was carried out in a rural area of Bangladesh to ascertain the impacts of SHSs on the lives of the rural population. The installation of an SHS was found to improve the comfort and living standard of rural dwellers. Easier access to TV, radio, cellphone, and the Internet helped the rural population become part of a more global culture. More attractive down-payment and installment package options will allow poor target groups to adopt this system. The standard of SHS components and after-sales service should be improved to ensure sustainably and popularity among the mass population for at least 10 years at minimal cost to the consumer. Our findings can also help policymakers adopt more SHS-friendly policies to further the interests of inhabitants of rural areas that are not connected to the grid.

  17. Traveler information services in rural tourism areas : appendix A, tourist intercept surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-30

    This document presents documentation regarding tourist intercept surveys for traveler information services in rural areas. It documents data collection functions and information dissemination functions, and provides an interpretive description of tra...

  18. HIV/AIDS-related sexual risk behaviors among rural residents in China: potential role of rural-to-urban migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between rural-to-urban migration and the spread of HIV is well described, although most studies focus on sexual risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants at the urban destination areas. Few studies have examined the sexual risk behaviors of migrants who have returned from urban areas to their rural homes (“return migrants”) in comparison with those of local rural residents who have never migrated to cities (“non-migrants”). This study examines the potential association between rural-to-urban migration and sexual risk behaviors by comparing sexual risk behaviors between 553 return migrants and 441 non-migrants from same rural communities in China. Findings reveal that, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, return migrants in rural areas had higher levels of sexual risk, including unprotected sex, than non-migrants. Among return migrants, sexual risk behaviors were associated with age, gender, marital status, and number of different jobs they had previously held in the cities. These findings underscore the importance for HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts targeting the migrant population in urban destinations as well as the return migrant population in rural areas. PMID:17967110

  19. Analysis of the special consequences of the Barij essence industrial complex of Kashan in the development of neighboring rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shaterian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the late decades, the development of industrial activities in the rural areas of Iran have caused some changes in different aspects of these areas which influence the special patterns of rural areas. This article aims to identify the changes that have been the results of industrial development and it’s reflection in the development of rural residential areas. The main intention of this study is to analyze the special consequences (economic, social and anatomical of the industrial center of Kashan in the development of neighboring rural areas. The industrial center consists of three factories that are for making essence, making equipment for gardeners and distillers and the Barij Company. All of the above companies are called the Industrial Center of Barij Essence. It has employed 1050 workers from amongst whom 120 people were identified and the questionnaires were randomly distributed among these workers. To analyze the data based on the measurement variables, descriptive and analytic methods (T were used. The results showed that economically, having rural industries has led to an increase in the people’s intake of  calories, seeing more consumption in long lasting goods and more satisfaction in the native people of the area. In addition, there is more social involvement,  improvements in not wasting the residents’ free time, decreasing of  natives immigration out of the rural areas and finally anatomically, quantity and quality improvement in the rural houses.

  20. The lived experience of parenting a child with autism in a rural area: making the invisible, visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogsteen, Lindsey; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of parents parenting a child with autism while living in a rural area. The philosophy of hermeneutic phenomenology was used to guide this inquiry, and interviews of 26 families served as primary data. Thematic statements were isolated using van Manen's (1990) selective highlighting approach. "Making the invisible, visible" emerged as the essence of the parents' experience. Parents shared that although autism was an invisible disability, they in fact made it visible in their constant battles to ensure their child received the best quality of life. The major themes of this essence included a) he's not the Rain Man, b) society's lack of knowledge and understanding, and c) doing it on our own. Findings from this study may be used to guide program development that is concerned with improving the quality of life of families of children with autism living in rural areas.

  1. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Locke

    Full Text Available Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes

  2. 8034 agriculture extension service delivery in a semi-arid rural area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dela dovie

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... RURAL AREA IN SOUTH AFRICA: THE CASE STUDY OF THORNDALE ... Social Network for Environment & Development, P. O. Box CT 3441, Cantonments,. Accra ... the Savannah biome of the Bushbuckridge region in the Limpopo Province, South ...... Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: World Neighbors: 1985.

  3. Validity and Reliability of Asbestos Knowledge and Awareness Questionnaire for Environmental Asbestos Exposure in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Metintaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is no treatment for asbestos–related diseases, but they can be prevented. One of the first interventions is to improve the knowledge level of people in order to protect people from asbestos and asbestos–related diseases. The present study was conducted to develop a questionnaire for measuring the knowledge and awareness level of asbestos and also assess its validity and reliability in a rural population that is exposed to asbestos environmentally. Methods: A questionnaire, interviewer–administered, that included 37 items was employed on a convenient sample consisting of adult persons who attended a tertiary teaching hospital in Eskişehir where asbestos exposure is widespread in its rural areas. After assessment of validity and reliability of the results, the questionnaire was refined to 19 items and one subscale. Results: A total of 760 participants were included in this study. The mean age of participants was 53.2±15.1 years and 51.6% of them were male. The discrimination and difficulty indices of the asbestos knowledge and awareness questionnaire ranged between 20.0–60.5% and 0.39–0.98, respectively. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.951 for overall items. The median (min–max and mean (SD score of the study population were 30 (19–56 and 33.9 (11.9, respectively. The score increased correspondingly with greater knowledge levels. Conclusion: This questionnaire is a practical and easy tool to apply with acceptable reliability and validity on high-risk adults in rural areas with environmental asbestos exposure.

  4. Evaluation of the Vocational Preparation and Success of Handicapped Individuals Who Reside in Rural Areas of Florida. Florida Rural Research Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Diane M.

    Phase 2 of a three-phase project examined the secondary education background and employment adjustment of handicapped youth in rural counties in Florida. (Phase 1 was a pilot study.) Subjects were former special education students in five rural project counties who had been identified as needing services in the area of educable mental retardation,…

  5. Facilitating the formation of accountable care organizations in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloh, Jure; Zhu, Xi; Vaughn, Tom; MacKinney, A Clinton; Mueller, Keith J; Ullrich, Fred; Nattinger, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    This Policy Brief presents characteristics contributing to the formation of four accountable care organizations (ACOs) that serve rural Medicare beneficiaries. Doing so provides considerations for provider organizations contemplating creating rural-based ACOs. Key Findings. (1) Previous organizational integration and risk-sharing experience facilitated ACO formation. (2) Use of an electronic health record system fostered core ACO capabilities, including care coordination and population health management. (3) Partnerships across the care continuum supported utilization of local health care resources.

  6. Strengthening training in rural practice in Germany: new approach for undergraduate medical curriculum towards sustaining rural health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens; Normann, Oliver; Herrmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    After decades of providing a dense network of quality medical care, Germany is facing an increasing shortage of medical doctors in rural areas. Current graduation rates of generalists do not counterbalance the loss due to retirement. Informed by international evidence, different strategies to ensure rural medical care are under debate, including innovative teaching approaches during undergraduate training. The University of Magdeburg in Saxony-Anhalt was the first medical school in Germany to offer a rural elective for graduate students. During the 2014 summer semester, 14 medical students attended a two-weekend program in a small village in Northern Saxony-Anhalt that allowed them to become more familiar with a rural community and rural health issues. The elective course raised a series of relevant topics for setting up rural practice and provided students with helpful insight into living and working conditions in rural practice. Preliminary evaluations indicate that the rural medicine course allowed medical students to reduce pre-existing concerns and had positive impact on their willingness to set up a rural medical office after graduation. Even short-term courses in rural practice can help reduce training-related barriers that prevent young physicians from working in rural areas. Undergraduate medical training is promising to attenuate the emerging undersupply in rural areas.

  7. Rural Diversity and heterogeneity in less-favoured areas: the quest for policy targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.; Pender, J.

    2004-01-01

    Wide diversity among farmers and fields is a prime characteristic of livelihoods and production systems in less-favoured areas. One-size-fits-all policies can therefore not provide adequate solutions to poverty and degradation problems. Sustainable rural development strategies in these areas need to

  8. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE ICT NETWORK IN ACHIEVING KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN THE RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menda Teodora - Adriana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Romania, the information sources available to farmers are limited and belong mostly to the public sector. The knowledge provided is relevant but insufficient in order to meet the needs of the Romanian farmers, especially since they are not oriented towards the market, as the main segment of interest. This paper has the intention to emphasize the need to introduce ICT as the main tool in supporting the decision making process and in resolving the specific issues faced by this sector In analyzing the current situation regarding this matter, in order to propose ways to resolve the problems encountered in achieving knowledge transfer, until now, were addressed issues such as: the evolution of the knowledge transfer concept, development milestones and actions that marked the RDI sector as the main producer of information, the main supporters of the farmers in their information actions (World Bank, IFAD, means, procedures and techniques used for transmitting knowledge (extension; consultancy. But what is most important is making all this resulted information available for the farmers, fact which can only be accomplished, in our opinion, by introducing and implementing ICT in the rural areas. The main method of research is the statistical data analysis of the data regarding the components involved in the knowledge transfer process and the current status of implementation of ICT in the rural areas. Among the expected results are included identifying the main restrictive factors in achieving knowledge transfer in rural and the main implications that implementing ICT would have on farmers' market position. Introducing ICT in the rural area is, in our opinion the best way to transform information, as a research result, into knowledge, becoming this way a real input for the farmer In practice, this will lead to lower production costs, lower prices for inputs, increased revenues by increasing the production’s prices and, not least, increased

  10. A qualitative survey of poverty in the rural areas around Giyani township

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ed. Poverty is a serious concern all over the world. This phenomenon hinders development, particularly in rural areas where the majority of families are living below the poverty line. In many rural communities the RDP programme did not reach the majority of people. The study is aimed at finding out the extent, perceived causes and consequences of poverty in Homu A and Homu C near Giyani. The families regarded as the more impoverished in the two villages were selected as participants of t...

  11. The developing rural electrification plan continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Veronica

    2001-01-01

    The article overviews the current situation of the rural electrification in Guatemala, including demand and supply of energy and the plans of the government in covering the rural areas through the promotion of renewable energy sources

  12. Waste management in Ukraine: Municipal solid waste landfills and their impact on rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Makarenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of the influence of Myronivka municipal solid waste landfill in the surrounding rural areas. It is established that environmentally hazardous situation has generated in the locations of the landfills causes dissatisfaction among the local population. It is shown that incorrect use may be the cause of the deterioration of quality of drinking water, atmospheric air, sanitary and hygienic condition of agricultural soils. It is established that the effect of the landfill extends beyond the sanitary protection zone, therefore there is a need to improve its monitoring system with obligatory consideration of impacts on adjacent rural areas. The size of the normative sanitary-protective zone was specified under the actual level of air pollution and natural factors. It is shown that such a scientific and methodical approach can provide a more objective establishment of the sanitary protection zone. In turn, this will provide an opportunity to take appropriate organizational and managerial decisions on the placement of different objects and prevent the negative impact of landfills on rural areas.

  13. Rural Neighborhood Walkability: Implications for Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Alcantara, Iris; Haardörfer, Regine; Gemma, Alexandra; Ballard, Denise; Gazmararian, Julie

    2015-06-16

    Physical activity levels, including walking, are lower in the southern U.S., particularly in rural areas. This study investigated the concept of rural neighborhood walkability to aid in developing tools for assessing walkability and to identify intervention targets in rural communities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with physically active adults (n = 29) in rural Georgia. Mean age of participants was 55.9 years; 66% were male, 76% were white, and 24% were African American. Participants drew maps of their neighborhoods and discussed the relevance of typical domains of walkability to their decisions to exercise. Comparative analyses were conducted to identify major themes. The majority felt the concept of neighborhood was applicable and viewed their neighborhood as small geographically (less than 0.5 square miles). Sidewalks were not viewed as essential for neighborhood-based physical activity and typical destinations for walking were largely absent. Destinations within walking distance included neighbors' homes and bodies of water. Views were mixed on whether shade, safety, dogs, and aesthetics affected decisions to exercise in their neighborhoods. Measures of neighborhood walkability in rural areas should acknowledge the small size of self-defined neighborhoods, that walking in rural areas is likely for leisure time exercise, and that some domains may not be relevant.

  14. Provision of oncology services in remote rural areas: a Scottish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Campbell, N C

    2004-05-01

    There is a paucity of research into rural health care services. In particular little is known about the provision of specialist cancer services for patients who live in remote rural areas of the UK. This study set out to investigate current models of medical and clinical oncology care in Scotland. A national survey with key health professionals was conducted to identify rural oncology schemes currently in operation. Detailed quantitative data about the schemes together with qualitative data on how health professionals view current models of care were collected by a computer-assisted telephone survey. Schemes that currently provide outpatient and chemotherapy oncology services for remote rural patients fell into three categories: central clinics (5); shared care outreach clinics with chemotherapy provision (11); and shared care outreach clinics without chemotherapy provision (7). All radiotherapy was conducted at central clinics (5). Widely varying practices in delivery of cancer care were found across the country. The main issues for professionals about current models of care involved expertise, travelling and accessibility (for patients), communication and expansion of the rural service. Nation-wide consistency in cancer care has still to be achieved. Travelling for treatment was seen to take its toll on all patients but particularly for the very remote, elderly and poor. Most professionals believe that an expansion of rural services would be of benefit to these patients. It is clear, however, that the proper infrastructure needs to be in place in terms of local expertise, ensured quality of care, and good communication links with cancer centres before this could happen.

  15. 78 FR 19586 - Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... history of section 307 compels VA to prioritize awarding grants in this manner. Although it may [[Page... highly rural areas could only be accessed by planes or boats, the need for these non-conventional...

  16. Edible wild mushroom tourism as a source of income and employment in rural areas. The case of Castilla y Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frutos Madrazo, P. de; Martinez Pena, F.; Esteban Laleona, S.

    2012-11-01

    Edible wild mushroom picking is becoming an important source of income in rural areas. The wide range of activities which add value to mycological production (initial sale, transformation, marketing, etc.) include those related to tourism which can attract visitors to mushroom producing areas, leading to so-called mycological tourism. To date, no research exists quantifying the importance thereof in rural areas endowed with such resources. The present research provides the first model to estimate this activity contribution to the economy of rural areas in the region of Castilla y Leon. The main finding to emerge evidences a close link between influx of visitors, who come principally to pick, and mycological productivity in the region. Based on this relation, we estimate four key variables to determine the impact which said activity has on the regional economy as a whole: the number of overnight stays and trips made by mycological tourists, as well as associated expenditure and employment created. Findings underscore the importance of this activity in the regional tourism industry and point to its significance as a major market niche, particularly during the hotel low season. The need for public administrators to implement a related management policy is also inferred. (Author) 35 refs.

  17. Students' unchanging smoking habits in urban and rural areas in the last 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Gulfer; Guner, Sukru Nail; Akca, Unal; Kilic, Mehtap; Sancak, Recep; Ozturk, Fadil

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main preventable public health problem particularly for youth worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of smoking habits among students at secondary and high schools, and to compare the findings with those of a study conducted 15 years ago in the same area. In this cross-sectional study 6212 students (51.2% female; 48.8% male) were selected randomly from rural and urban areas in Samsun. All students completed a face-to-face questionnaire. The overall prevalence of smoking was 13.0% (male students, 18.1%; female students, 8.2%). The mean starting age of smoking was 14.1 ± 1.5 years. Prevalence of smoking was 15.7% in urban areas and 8.1% in rural areas. The most important factors for starting smoking were social group and families. Compared with a study conducted 15 years previously in the same area for male students, smoking prevalence was increased in rural, but decreased in urban areas. Smoking prevalence in students in Samsun was similar to that in a study conducted 15 years previously. It is important to use anti-smoking campaigns directly targeted at teenager and they should be fully informed of the harmful effects of smoking. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kotha, S Rani; Johnson, Jennifer C; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Asabir, Kwesi; Kwansah, Janet; Nakua, Emmanuel; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Snow, Rachel C; Kruk, Margaret E

    2011-08-09

    Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  19. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission. PMID:21827698

  20. Willingness to work in rural areas and the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic professional motivations - a survey of medical students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzodzomenyo Mawuli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, ranging from personal preferences to difficult work conditions and low remuneration. This paper assesses the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on willingness to accept postings to deprived areas among medical students in Ghana. Methods A computer-based survey involving 302 fourth year medical students was conducted from May-August 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between students' willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES. Results Over 85% of students were born in urban areas and 57% came from affluent backgrounds. Nearly two-thirds of students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors did not influence willingness to practice in rural areas. High family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. Conclusions Although most Ghanaian medical students are motivated to study medicine by the desire to help others, this does not translate into willingness to work in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on intrinsic motivation during medical training and in designing rural postings, as well as favour lower PPES students for admission.

  1. Prevalence of Internet addiction and risk of developing addiction as exemplified by a group of Polish adolescents from urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2015-02-01

    The Internet addiction criteria were fulfilled by 0.45% of adolescents living in urban areas and 2.9% of those living in rural areas, whereas 35.55% of urban dwelling students and 30.18% of students living in rural areas showed a risk of developing this addiction. More adolescents living in urban areas, compared to those living in rural areas, use Internet pornography, play computer games, disclose their personal data to unknown individuals encountered on the Internet, use Instant Messaging (IM services, electronic mail and Facebook social networking service. Compared to their peers from urban areas, significantly more adolescents from rural areas use ‘Nasza Klasa’ (Our Classmates online social networking service.

  2. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liao, Yong; Liu, Jia; Fang, Wenjie; Hong, Nan; Ye, Xiaofei; Li, Jianjun; Tang, Qinglong; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs) is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598) was lower ( P knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  3. Including Migrant Worker Children in the Learning and Social Context of the Rural Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Many of the larger towns and cities within the UK have long experienced a cosmopolitan mix of cultures, resulting in ethnically and linguistically diverse schools. However, the wider expansion of the European Union in 2004 has brought about significant changes and challenges for many schools, particularly for those in more rural areas. This…

  4. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O.; Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  5. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  6. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  7. All Rural Places Are Not Created Equal: Revisiting the Rural Mortality Penalty in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I investigated mortality disparities between urban and rural areas by measuring disparities in urban US areas compared with 6 rural classifications, ranging from suburban to remote locales. Methods. Data from the Compressed Mortality File, National Center for Health Statistics, from 1968 to 2007, was used to calculate age-adjusted mortality rates for all rural and urban regions by year. Criteria measuring disparity between regions included excess deaths, annual rate of change in mortality, and proportion of excess deaths by population size. I used multivariable analysis to test for differences in determinants across regions. Results. The rural mortality penalty existed in all rural classifications, but the degree of disparity varied considerably. Rural–urban continuum code 6 was highly disadvantaged, and rural–urban continuum code 9 displayed a favorable mortality profile. Population, socioeconomic, and health care determinants of mortality varied across regions. Conclusions. A 2-decade long trend in mortality disparities existed in all rural classifications, but the penalty was not distributed evenly. This constitutes an important public health problem. Research should target the slow rates of improvement in mortality in the rural United States as an area of concern. PMID:25211763

  8. Rural attitudes, opinions, and drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Schenck, J E; Leukefeld, C G; Meyers, J; Allen, S

    1999-01-01

    There are two primary purposes of this paper. The first is to summarize the results of a survey conducted in a rural area of Kentucky on attitudes and behaviors regarding substance use. The second purpose is to examine differences in drug attitudes and behaviors for higher and lower density rural areas. Participants for this study were contacted by telephone in March 1996. The sample was generated by random digit dialing for eight county telephone exchanges. The sample included 334 respondents from the eight counties who were grouped into respondents from higher density areas (n = 132) and lower density areas (n = 202). Results indicated that respondents from both higher density and lower density areas were similar on drug use and attitudes. However, lower density areas reported their county as a worse place to live and less safe than respondents from higher density areas. Respondents from lower density areas were also more likely to report there was more alcohol/drug use and more alcohol bootlegging in the past year, and that bootlegging alcohol is a serious problem in their county. Future research could include the examination of heterogeneity of rural areas using different indices.

  9. Chronic disease patients' experiences with accessing health care in rural and remote areas: a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundisini, F; Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Vanstone, M; Winsor, S; Smith, A

    2013-01-01

    Rurality can contribute to the vulnerability of people with chronic diseases. Qualitative research can identify a wide range of health care access issues faced by patients living in a remote or rural setting. To systematically review and synthesize qualitative research on the advantages and disadvantages rural patients with chronic diseases face when accessing both rural and distant care. This report synthesizes 12 primary qualitative studies on the topic of access to health care for rural patients with chronic disease. Included studies were published between 2002 and 2012 and followed adult patients in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Qualitative meta-synthesis was used to integrate findings across primary research studies. Three major themes were identified: geography, availability of health care professionals, and rural culture. First, geographic distance from services poses access barriers, worsened by transportation problems or weather conditions. Community supports and rurally located services can help overcome these challenges. Second, the limited availability of health care professionals (coupled with low education or lack of peer support) increases the feeling of vulnerability. When care is available locally, patients appreciate long-term relationships with individual clinicians and care personalized by familiarity with the patient as a person. Finally, patients may feel culturally marginalized in the urban health care context, especially if health literacy is low. A culture of self-reliance and community belonging in rural areas may incline patients to do without distant care and may mitigate feelings of vulnerability. Qualitative research findings are not intended to generalize directly to populations, although meta-synthesis across a number of qualitative studies builds an increasingly robust understanding that is more likely to be transferable. Selected studies focused on the vulnerability experiences of rural dwellers with chronic

  10. Tracking the vector of Onchocerca lupi in a rural area of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Papadopoulos, Elias; Petrić, Dušan; Ćupina, Aleksandra Ignjatović; Bain, Odile

    2012-07-01

    During a hot Mediterranean summer, an expedition brought parasitologists from Brazil, France, Greece, Italy, and Serbia to a wooded area near Xanthi, Thrace, northeastern Greece, near the Turkish border, on the track of the vector of the little-known nematode Onchocerca lupi. The scientific purposes of the expedition blended then with stories of humans, animals, and parasites in this rural area.

  11. Access to primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas: a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John A; Wong, Geoff; Jones, Andy P; Steel, Nick

    2016-05-17

    The aim of this review is to identify and understand the contexts that effect access to high-quality primary care for socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas. A realist review. MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases and grey literature (from inception to December 2014). Broad inclusion criteria were used to allow articles which were not specific, but might be relevant to the population of interest to be considered. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed for rigour and relevance and coded for concepts relating to context, mechanism or outcome. An overarching patient pathway was generated and used as the basis to explore contexts, causal mechanisms and outcomes. 162 articles were included. Most were from the USA or the UK, cross-sectional in design and presented subgroup data by age, rurality or deprivation. From these studies, a patient pathway was generated which included 7 steps (problem identified, decision to seek help, actively seek help, obtain appointment, get to appointment, primary care interaction and outcome). Important contexts were stoicism, education status, expectations of ageing, financial resources, understanding the healthcare system, access to suitable transport, capacity within practice, the booking system and experience of healthcare. Prominent causal mechanisms were health literacy, perceived convenience, patient empowerment and responsiveness of the practice. Socioeconomically disadvantaged older people in rural areas face personal, community and healthcare barriers that limit their access to primary care. Initiatives should be targeted at local contextual factors to help individuals recognise problems, feel welcome, navigate the healthcare system, book appointments easily, access appropriate transport and have sufficient time with professional staff to improve their experience of healthcare; all of which will require dedicated primary care resources. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  12. The priorities of the energy infrastructure modernization in rural areas of the Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Viktorovna Chaika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the problems of development and modernization of energy infrastructure priorities in rural areas of the Komi Republic. For the most part of rural population the achieved level of energy supply is the necessary minimum for the needs, and it has the low parameters of the energy and economy efficiency. The main directions of the rural energy supply modernization should be: the gas supply system development, the electric grid capacity growth and the construction of the modern small energy technologies (small central heating and power plants, modular boiler plants, efficient solid fuel boilers

  13. Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckle, P; Hannaford, P; Sutton, M

    2012-02-17

    To examine the association between rurality and health in Scotland, after adjusting for differences in individual and practice characteristics. Mortality and hospital record data linked to two cross sectional health surveys. Respondents in the community-based 1995 and 1998 Scottish Health Survey who consented to record-linkage follow-up. Hypertension, all-cause premature mortality, total hospital stays and admissions due to coronary heart disease (CHD). Older age and lower social class were strongly associated with an increased risk of each of the four health outcomes measured. After adjustment for individual and practice characteristics, no consistent pattern of better or poorer health in people living in rural areas was found, compared to primary cities. However, individuals living in remote small towns had a lower risk of a hospital admission for CHD and those in very remote rural had lower mortality, both compared with those living in primary cities. This study has shown how linked data can be used to explore the possible influence of area of residence on health. We were unable to find a consistent pattern that people living in rural areas have materially different health to that of those living in primary cities. Instead, we found stronger relationships between compositional determinants (age, gender and socio-economic status) and health than contextual factors (including rurality).

  14. Training and Updating of Education Boards in Indigenous Schools of Rural Areas: Strengthening Local Education Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Torres-Victoria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Education management in the schools of indigenous rural areas faces a number of difficulties to implement and comply with the guidelines and requirements of the laws related to budgetary management of resources allocated to Education or Administrative Boards. In addition to being located in scattered rural areas, far from the municipal heads and regional offices of the Ministry of Public Education, one of the main obstacles is that all regulations, laws and guidelines are written in Spanish, and there is people, in this indigenous rural communities, who do not speak, write, read or understand this language. This puts them at an enormous disadvantage, which has a direct impact on the indigenous children’s right to education.

  15. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively.

  16. [Influencing factors of malnutrition of the children within 6 years in pour rural areas of Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Li, Juanjuan

    2012-07-01

    To analyze the status of malnutrition for the children within 6 years in pour rural areas of Yunnan during 2006 - 2009 and to study it's influencing factors. By the random cluster sampling and stratified sampling methods, 4873 children within 6 years in rural areas were selected from four poverty-stricken counties in Yunnan Province. The questionnaire survey including questionnaire, anthropometric measurement and dietary survey such as body height and weight were used respectively for the survey. Z scores were calculated to evaluate the nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was calculated by statistics software. Multiple factors analysis were finished by non condition logistic regression in software. During 2006 - 2009, of all children under the age of 6 years, the underweight rate is 15.2%, stunted growth rate is 11.5% and emaciation rate is 7.1% in impoverished rural area of Yunnan Province. Removing other variables, the result indicated: (1) The children with breastfeeding in first six months are less possible to get malnutrition than the children with formula feeding or mixed breastfeeding and formula feeding. (2) The children who are complemented grains, eggs, fruits and zinc supplement are less possible to get malnutrition than those children who are not. (3) Comparing these children who are provided with calcium supplement, the children who are not are more possible to get malnutrition. (4) Supplying supplementary such as animal liver and blood in earlier period can decrease the possibility to get malnutrition among 2-5 years old children. The main influencing factors of Children malnutrition include feeding ways in first six months, increasing supplementary food in recent one month among the children younger than 2 years old, month age when supplementary food were introduced in 2-5 years old children, and the types and frequency of introducing supplementary food among 2-5 years old children.

  17. Potential use of mobile phones in improving animal health service delivery in underserved rural areas: experience from Kilosa and Gairo districts in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimuribo, Esron D; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Massawe, Lucas B; Silayo, Richard S; Mgongo, Frederick O K; Kimbita, Elikira; Wambura, Raphael M

    2016-10-07

    Sub-optimal performance of the animal health delivery system in rural areas is common in developing countries including Tanzania. However, penetration of mobile phones and availability of good road network and public transport systems offer opportunities for improving the access of rural communities to diagnostic and advisory services from facilities and expertise located in urban areas. A questionnaire survey on possession and use of mobile phones by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Kilosa and Gairo districts was carried out between November and December 2015. A total number of 138 livestock keepers from three villages of Chakwale (54), Mvumi (41) and Parakuyo (43) participated in the study. An e-based system was designed and tested to link rural communities with urban diagnostic facilities. It was observed that the average number of phones possessed by individuals interviewed and household families was 1.1 ± 0.26 (1-2) and 3.5 ± 2.23 (1-10), respectively. It was further observed that out of 138 livestock keepers interviewed, 133 (96.4 %) had feature phones while 10 (7.2 %) of them possessed smartphones. Mobile phone is currently used to support livestock production by communicating on animal health in Parakuyo (18, 41.9 %), Mvumi (18, 43.9 %) and Chakwale (14, 25.9 %). Other contributions of mobile phones in livestock and crop agriculture observed in the study area include: exchange of livestock price information, crop price information, communicating on plant health/diseases, livestock extension and advisory services as well as crop farming extension and advisory services. We also designed and tested an e-based SUAVetDiag® system to support timely diagnosis of infectious disease conditions and prompt advice on case management in veterinary underserved areas. Availability of mobile phones in rural areas, in combination with supporting infrastructure and facilities in urban areas, has potential to stimulate local development and improving

  18. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Urban Versus Rural Areas of the United States: The Influence of Tobacco Control Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Robarts, Adam M T

    2017-07-01

    Adults and adolescents who reside in rural areas of the United States are traditionally more likely to be tobacco users. This urban-rural disparity remains largely unexplained and, more recently, it is unclear what impact the emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has had on adolescent tobacco use in urban and rural areas. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of sociodemographics and tobacco control policy environments on adolescent tobacco use in urban versus rural areas, as well as to identify the effect of e-cigarettes on traditional patterns of urban-rural tobacco use. This study analyzes repeated cross-sectional data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey for the years 2011-2014. We estimate the associations between rural residence, cigarette taxes, tobacco advertisement exposure, and ease of access to tobacco with six tobacco use outcomes: current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, multiple tobacco products, and any tobacco. E-cigarette use among urban youths aged 11-17 years in the United States increased from .82% in 2011 to 8.62% in 2014 (p e-cigarettes. Our predictors account for approximately 40% of the difference in urban-rural cigarette use. Sociodemographics, cigarette taxes, and tobacco advertisement exposure are significant predictors of adolescent tobacco use in the United States but do not entirely explain urban-rural disparities. In addition, e-cigarettes appear to be rapidly changing traditional patterns of tobacco use, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Medical and nursing students' intentions to work abroad or in rural areas: a cross-sectional survey in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, David M; Blevins, Meridith; Afzal, Arfan R; Andrews, Ben; Derbew, Miliard; Kaur, Simran; Mipando, Mwapatsa; Mkony, Charles A; Mwachaka, Philip M; Ranjit, Nirju; Vermund, Sten

    2014-10-01

    To assess medical and nursing students' intentions to migrate abroad or practice in rural areas. We surveyed 3199 first- and final-year medical and nursing students at 16 premier government institutions in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nepal, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. The survey contained questions to identify factors that could predict students' intentions to migrate. Primary outcomes were the likelihoods of migrating to work abroad or working in rural areas in the country of training within five years post-training. We assessed predictors of migration intentions using multivariable proportional odds models. Among respondents, 28% (870/3156) expected to migrate abroad, while only 18% (575/3158) anticipated a rural career. More nursing than medical students desired professions abroad (odds ratio, OR: 1.76; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.25-2.48). Career desires before matriculation correlated with current intentions for international (OR: 4.49; 95% CI: 3.21-6.29) and rural (OR: 4.84; 95% CI: 3.52-6.66) careers. Time spent in rural areas before matriculation predicted the preference for a rural career (20 versus 0 years: OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.98) and against work abroad (20 versus 0 years: OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.96). A significant proportion of students surveyed still intend to work abroad or in cities after training. These intentions could be identified even before matriculation. Admissions standards that account for years spent in rural areas could promote greater graduate retention in the country of training and in rural areas.

  20. Rural residents' perspectives on the rural 'good death': a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, Suzanne; MacLeod, Roderick D; Glasgow, Nicholas J; Wilson, Donna M; Phillips, Christine B; Wiles, Robert B

    2018-05-01

    The 'good death' is one objective of palliative care, with many 'good death' viewpoints and research findings reflecting the urban voice. Rural areas are distinct and need special consideration. This scoping review identified and charted current research knowledge on the 'good' rural death through the perspectives of rural residents, including rural patients with a life-limiting illness, to identify evidence and gaps in the literature for future studies. A comprehensive literature search of English language articles (no date filter applied) was conducted in 2016 (2 January to 14 February) using five library databases. Reference lists of included articles, recent issues of eight relevant journals and three grey literature databases were also hand-searched. Twenty articles (for 17 studies and one systematic review) were identified after a two-phase screening process by two reviewers, using pre-determined inclusion criteria. Data from each study were extracted and charted, analysed using a thematic analysis of the included articles' content, and with a quantitative analysis of the scoping review. These papers revealed data collected from rural patients with a life-limiting illness and family caregivers, rural healthcare providers, the wider rural community, rural community leaders and rural health administrators and policy makers. Rural locations were heterogeneous. Residents from developed and developing countries believe a 'good death' is one that is peaceful, free of pain and without suffering; however, this is subjective and priorities are based on personal, cultural, social and religious perspectives. Currently, there is insufficient data to generalise rural residents' perspectives and what it means for them to die well. Given the extreme importance of a 'good death', there is a need for further studies to elicit rural patient and family caregiver perspectives. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Comparative study on the situation of neglected children aged 3-6 year-olds between urban and rural areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Pan, Jian-ping; Zhang, Song-jie; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Zi-Ni; Wang, Wei-qing; Cao, Chun-hong; Wang, Fei; Yang, Xiao-mei; Niu, Qian; Shen, Hong

    2012-02-01

    To investigate and analyze the situation of urban and rural neglected children aged 3 - 6, in China, so as to provide basis for the analysis and comparison on relevant risk factors. 1163 urban children aged 3 - 6 (with 49.6% males and 4.5% with minority ethnicity) were investigated from 25 cities of 14 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in the whole country. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Again, using the same sampling method, 4096 rural children (of whom 50.6% were males with 6.2% as minorities) were chosen from 26 cities of 10 provinces or municipalities. Identification of children being neglected was based on "Child Neglect Evaluation Norms of Children Aged 3 - 6 Years in Urban/Rural China". SPSS-Windows 13.0 was employed for data analysis. Scores, frequency/degrees, age, sex and types (physical, emotional, educational, safety, medical and social) of children under negligence on every group of the regions, were calculated. χ(2) test (Chi-Square) and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were processed to determine the significance of their differences. The overall frequencies of negligence were 28.0% and 53.7% respectively among the urban and rural children aged 3 - 6, while the total degrees of negligence were 42.2 and 44.4 respectively. Significant difference was found between children from the urban and the rural areas (P children on every age group (P children, in the urban or rural areas. Significant differences were found on male or female between urban and rural groups (P children aged 3 - 6 for the six types were from 5.1% to 12.9%, with the frequency in rural areas as 13.1% - 26.6%. Significant difference was found between urban and rural group for any other type (P children aged 3 - 6 for the different type were between 39.4 and 43.4, while in the rural areas as from 36.5 to 48.2, with significant difference for every type (P children from the urban than from the rural areas. The highest frequency of child negligence was

  2. [Evaluation of nutritional status of school-age children after implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" in rural area in Hunan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".

  3. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Program offers direct loans and/or grants for essential community facilities in rural areas, which can include ...

  4. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of MODIS Retrieved Precipitable Water Vapor over Urban and Rural Areas in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, M. C. D.; Castilla, R. M.; Catenza, J. L. U.; Soronio, H.; Vallar, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitable water vapor (PWV) is a component of the atmosphere that significantly influences many atmospheric processes. It plays a dominant role in the high-energy thermodynamics of the atmosphere, notably, the genesis of storm systems. Remote sensing of the atmosphere using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers a relatively inexpensive method to estimate atmospheric water vapour in the form of columnar measurements from its 936 nm near-infrared band. Daily Level 3 data with 1 degree grid spatial resolution from MODIS was used in order to determine the temporal and spatial variability of precipitable water between urban and rural areas in the Philippines. The PWV values were rasterized and spatially interpolated to be stored in a 1 kilometer grid resolution using the nearest-neighbor algorithm. General Linear Models were established to determine the main and interaction effects on PWV values of several categorical factors e.g. time, administrative region, and geographic classification. Comparison between the urban and rural areas in the Philippines showed that there is a significant difference between the values between these demographic dimensions. The mean PWV in the urban areas was found to be 0.0473 cm greater than the mean PWV of the rural areas. Lower levels of precipitable water vapour in rural places can be attributed to the low humidity as a result of a deficit of precipitation; while higher levels in urban areas can be accounted for by vehicle exhaust, industrial emissions, and irrigation of parks and gardens. In general, PWV varies depending on the season when solar insolation affects surface temperature, thus influencing the rate of evaporation. Using the regression line algorithm, the PWV values for rural areas have increased to 0.904 cm and 0.434 cm for urban areas from the year 2005 to 2015.

  5. Gender Pay Gap Lower in Large Cities than in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Busch; Elke Holst

    2008-01-01

    For years, the difference between the gross hourly earnings of women and of men has remained constant for German white-collar employees at about 30 percent. It is obvious that regional factors play an important role in explaining this difference. In rural areas, the gender pay gap is especially pronounced (2006: 33 percent) while in metropolitan areas it is considerably lower than the average (2006: 12 percent). This more favorable ratio is mainly due to the increased employment opportunities...

  6. Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, Charles Moonga

    2006-01-01

    Some of the problems that have besieged rural electrification in most developing countries include inadequate policies, weak institutional frameworks and limited financing. In the last two decades, governments in developing countries have been making various efforts both at the policy level and in financing to facilitate increased levels of rural electrification. However, the introduction of market-based reforms in the power sector in the last decade has affected the institutional and financing arrangements for rural electrification. The reforms have also affected the rate of electrification and affordability of electricity. There is need therefore to establish the extent to which the reforms have affected access and affordability of electricity in rural areas and to develop appropriate policy and the supporting institutional structures to align rural electrification with reformed power sectors. It is cardinal to establish how privatised and commercialised power companies in a reformed power sector could contribute to rural electrification and the role of governments and government agents in facilitating expanded access to electricity in rural areas

  7. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  8. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  9. Training and Updating of Education Boards in Indigenous Schools of Rural Areas: Strengthening Local Education Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Torres-Victoria; Oscar Castro-Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Education management in the schools of indigenous rural areas faces a number of difficulties to implement and comply with the guidelines and requirements of the laws related to budgetary management of resources allocated to Education or Administrative Boards. In addition to being located in scattered rural areas, far from the municipal heads and regional offices of the Ministry of Public Education, one of the main obstacles is that all regulations, laws and guidelines are written in Spanish, ...

  10. Haemodialysis in a rural area: a demanding form of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammah, A; Young, G; Allan, A; Robertson, S; Norrie, J; Isles, C

    2001-09-01

    To determine distances travelled and time spent waiting for transport among hospital haemodialysis patients living in a rural area. Cross sectional survey comparing the subregional dialysis unit in south west Scotland with 12 of the other 13 Scottish Adult Renal Units. Forty three Dumfries and Galloway patients and 935 other Scottish patients receiving hospital haemodialysis in November 1999. At the time of the survey 8/43 (19%) Dumfries patients travelled in excess of 100 miles per dialysis day (15,000 miles per year) solely for the purpose of dialysis, compared to 20/935 (2%) elsewhere in Scotland (p Scottish Units relied on hospital car, Patient Transport Service bus or ambulance for the journey home after treatment. Dumfries patients who travelled by Patient Transport Service or hospital ambulance had to wait twice as long before they left the renal unit as patients using a dedicated hospital car or private car. Haemodialysis in a rural area has every reason to be considered a demanding form of treatment. Greater promotion of home based treatment would improve the quality of life for many of these patients, while dedicated hospital cars would reduce 'car to needle time' for those who remain on hospital haemodialysis.

  11. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and Rural areas of kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on three thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Participants : High risk age group population i.e. 45 years and above.Study variables : Age, Sex. impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index, Education, Working status. Social class, family history of diabetes.Statistical analysis : Chi-square lest, percentagesResults From a total of 676 persons of high risk age group i.e. 45 years and above, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the study areas was observed lobe 7. l%with 9.94% in urban and 3.61% in rural areas, the maximum percetage of diabetes cases (41.66% was in the age group of 56-60 years. Higher prevalence of diabetes was observed in the obese (56.25% and sedentary (87.5% persons. The family history' of diabetes mellitus was present in (35.41% of diabetes mellitus cases.

  12. Dimensions of the local health care environment and use of care by uninsured children in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Rogowski, Jeannette; Escarce, José J

    2006-03-01

    Despite concerted policy efforts, a sizeable percentage of children lack health insurance coverage. This article examines the impact of the health care safety net and health care market structure on the use of health care by uninsured children. We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey linked with data from multiple sources to analyze health care utilization among uninsured children. We ran analyses separately for children who lived in rural and urban areas and assessed the effects on utilization of the availability of safety net providers, safety net funding, supply of primary care physicians, health maintenance organization penetration, and the percentage of people who are uninsured, controlling for other factors that influence use. Fewer than half of uninsured children had office-based visits to health care providers during the year, 8% of rural and 10% of urban children visited the emergency department at least once, and just over half of children had medical expenditures or charges during the year. Among uninsured children in rural areas, living closer to a safety net provider and living in an area with a higher supply of primary care physicians were positively associated with higher use and medical expenditures. In urban areas, the supply of primary care physicians and the level of safety net funding were positively associated with uninsured children's medical expenditures, whereas the percentage of the population that was uninsured was negatively associated with use of the emergency department. Uninsured children had low levels of utilization over a range of different health care provider types and settings. The availability of safety net providers in the local area and the safety net's capacity to serve the uninsured influence access to care among children. Possible measures for ensuring access to health care among uninsured children include increasing the density of safety net providers in rural areas, enhancing funding for the safety net, and policies

  13. Traveler information services in rural tourism areas : appendix C, observations at tourist interactions with kiosks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-30

    This report presents a series of observations of tourists' experiences with kiosks providing traveler information services at rural tourism areas. The kiosks were assessed in five areas: reliability visibility, usability, usefulness, and adaptability...

  14. Traveler information services in rural tourism areas : appendix D, system/historical data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-30

    This document presents information regarding data collection and dissemination functions for traveler information services in rural areas. It documents data collection functions and information dissemination functions, and provides an interpretive de...

  15. A comparison of mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors between rural and non-rural transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Swinburne-Romine, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed.

  16. Effects of modifiable prehospital factors on survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in rural versus urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Wenche Torunn; Bjørshol, Conrad Arnfinn; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Søreide, Eldar

    2018-04-18

    The modifiable prehospital system factors, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), emergency medical services (EMS), response time, and EMS physician attendance, may affect short- and long-term survival for both rural and urban out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. We studied how such factors influenced OHCA survival in a mixed urban/rural region with a high survival rate after OHCA. We analyzed the association between modifiable prehospital factors and survival to different stages of care in 1138 medical OHCA patients from an Utstein template-based cardiac arrest registry, using Kaplan-Meier type survival curves, univariable and multivariable logistic regression and mortality hazard plots. We found a significantly higher probability for survival to hospital admission (OR: 1.84, 95% CI 1.43-2.36, p rural group. In patients receiving bystander CPR before EMS arrival, the odds of survival to hospital discharge increased more than threefold (OR: 3.05, 95% CI 2.00-4.65, p rural areas, patients with EMS physician attendance had an overall better survival to hospital discharge (survival probability 0.17 with EMS physician vs. 0.05 without EMS physician, p = 0.019). Adjusted for modifiable factors, the survival differences remained. Overall, OHCA survival was higher in urban compared to rural areas, and the effect of bystander CPR, EMS response time and EMS physician attendance on survival differ between urban and rural areas. The effect of modifiable factors on survival was highest in the prehospital stage of care. In patients surviving to hospital admission, there was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality or in 1 year mortality between OHCA in rural versus urban areas.

  17. Measuring the attractiveness of rural communities in accounting for differences of rural primary care workforce supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew R; Wingrove, Peter M; Petterson, Stephen M; Humphreys, John S; Russell, Deborah J; Bazemore, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    Many rural communities continue to experience an undersupply of primary care doctor services. While key professional factors relating to difficulties of recruitment and retention of rural primary care doctors are widely identified, less attention has been given to the role of community and place aspects on supply. Place-related attributes contribute to a community's overall amenity or attractiveness, which arguably influence both rural recruitment and retention relocation decisions of doctors. This bi-national study of Australia and the USA, two developed nations with similar geographic and rural access profiles, investigates the extent to which variations in community amenity indicators are associated with spatial variations in the supply of rural primary care doctors. Measures from two dimensions of community amenity: geographic location, specifically isolation/proximity; and economics and sociodemographics were included in this study, along with a proxy measure (jurisdiction) of a third dimension, environmental amenity. Data were chiefly collated from the American Community Survey and the Australian Census of Population and Housing, with additional calculated proximity measures. Rural primary care supply was measured using provider-to-population ratios in 1949 US rural counties and in 370 Australian rural local government areas. Additionally, the more sophisticated two-step floating catchment area method was used to measure Australian rural primary care supply in 1116 rural towns, with population sizes ranging from 500 to 50 000. Associations between supply and community amenity indicators were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients and ordinary least squares multiple linear regression models. It was found that increased population size, having a hospital in the county, increased house prices and affluence, and a more educated and older population were all significantly associated with increased workforce supply across rural areas of both countries

  18. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Gunnell, David J; van der Hoek, Wim

    2008-01-01

    measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. METHODS: Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613) of Sri Lanka in 2002.......01). CONCLUSION: Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data....... of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 - 2168 per 100,000 across GNs). Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003) and low levels of education (p

  19. The Implementation of TTG Book Service Done By Community Library in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawit Muhammad Yusup

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of poverty in rural areas cannot be separated from the following aspects: poverty, lack of education facilities, low level of entrepreneurial skills, health, lack of learning facilities, population distribution, infrastructure and facilities are inadequate, access to information, and other aspects that are still limited. The Village Library and Community Library as part of the affordable infrastructure and learning facilities are, not yet available in every village. This study tried to introduce pilot models Appropriate Technology Implementation Services Book through Rural Libraries and the community library to a number of poor people in the village. The result could contribute in improving the skills of a number of rural poor in entrepreneurship-based reading. This service models can be applied in other similar villages.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Taenia solium Porcine Cysticercosis within a Rural Area of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Rosetti, Marcos; Fleury, Agnes; Maza, Victor; Hernandez, Marisela; Villalobos, Nelly; Fragoso, Gladis; de Aluja, Aline S.; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-01-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium, a parasitic disease that affects humans and rurally bred pigs in developing countries. The cysticercus may localize in the central nervous system of the human, causing neurocysticercosis, the most severe and frequent form of the disease. There appears to be an association between the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis and domestic pigs that wander freely and have access to human feces. In order to assess whether the risk of cysticercosis infection is clustered or widely dispersed in a limited rural area, a spatial analysis of rural porcine cysticercosis was applied to 13 villages of the Sierra de Huautla in Central Mexico. Clustering of cases in specific households would indicate tapeworm carriers in the vicinity, whereas their dispersal would suggest that the ambulatory habits of both humans and pigs contribute to the spread of cysticercosis. A total of 562 pigs were included in this study (August–December 2003). A global positioning system was employed in order to plot the geographic distribution of both cysticercotic pigs and risk factors for infection within the villages. Prevalence of pig tongue cysticercosis varied significantly in sampled villages (p = 0.003), ranging from 0% to 33.3% and averaging 13.3%. Pigs were clustered in households, but no differences in the clustering of cysticercotic and healthy pigs were found. In contrast, the presence of pigs roaming freely and drinking stagnant water correlated significantly with porcine cysticercosis (p = 0.07), as did the absence of latrines (p = 0.0008). High prevalence of porcine cysticercosis proves that transmission is still quite common in rural Mexico. The lack of significant differentiation in the geographical clustering of healthy and cysticercotic pigs weakens the argument that focal factors (e.g., household location of putative tapeworm carriers) play an important role in increasing the risk of cysticercosis transmission in pigs. Instead, it

  1. What do beginning students, in a rurally focused medical course, think about rural practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Louise; Lindsay, Daniel B; Ray, Robin A

    2016-12-07

    Medical schools may select students for their attitudes towards rural medical practice, yet the rural-urban disparity in availability of medical practitioners and services has not diminished in recent times despite government initiatives and increasing numbers being trained for a career in medicine. One medical school, with a focus on rural and remote medicine, aims to select students with positive perceptions for rural medical practice. A research project collected data on the perceptions of these medical students in the first week of their medical studies. Students completed a low stakes essay on the life and work of a rural doctor. Initially, this formed part of a literacy assessment to determine any students requiring remediation. All students were asked if they would consent to their essay being reviewed for a research project. Data was obtained from those students who consented and handed their essays in for review. The 103 student essays underwent thematic analysis and sentences were coded into three main themes of rural lifestyle, doctor role and rural practice. Second level themes were further elicited and results were quantified according to whether they were positive or negative. Positive themes included rural lifestyle, doctor role, views of doctor, impact on community, broader work and skills knowledge, and better relationships with community and patients. Negative themes included doctor's health, pressure on doctor, family problems, greater workload, privacy and confidentiality issues, cultural issues, isolation, limited resources and financial impacts. Quantitisation of this data was used to transform essay sentences into a numerical form which allowed statistical analysis and comparison of perceptions using Z tests. No significant differences on the number of positive and negative responses for rural lifestyle and rural practice were found. The rural doctor role had a significantly more positive than negative views. Significant differences were

  2. Biorefineries: Relocating Biomass Refineries to the Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Papendiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field for application of biomass is rising. The demand for food and feeding stuff rises while at the same time energy, chemicals and other materials also need to be produced from biomass because of decreasing fossil resources. However, the biorefinery ideas and concepts can help to use the limited renewable raw materials more efficiently than today. With biorefineries, valuable products, such as platform chemicals, can be produced from agricultural feedstock, which can subsequently be further processed into a variety of substances by the chemical industry. Due to the role they play as producers of biomass, rural areas will grow in importance in the decades to come. Parts of the biorefinery process can be relocated to the rural areas to bring a high added value to these regions. By refining biomass at the place of production, new economic opportunities may arise for agriculturists, and the industry gets high-grade pre-products. Additionally, an on-farm refining can increase the quality of the products because of the instant processing. To reduce competition with the food production and to find new possibilities of utilisation for these habitats, the focus for new agricultural biomass should be on grasslands. But also croplands can provide more renewable raw materials without endangering a sustainable agriculture, e.g. by implementing legumes in the crop rotation. To decide if a region can provide adequate amounts of raw material for a biorefinery, new raw material assessment procedures have to be developed. In doing so, involvement of farmers is inevitable to generate a reliable study of the biomass refinery potentials.

  3. Accessibility levels to potable Water Supply in Rural Areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of 50 rural communities were sampled using table of random numbers. Community heads or their spokesmen/women in the sampled areas were target respondents and data on major sources of water supply, distance to the nearest major source of water supply and the number of water boreholes in the communities were ...

  4. Integrated model of primary and secondary eye care for underserved rural areas: The L V Prasad Eye Institute experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullapalli N Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a major global public health problem and recent estimates from World Health Organization (WHO showed that in India there were 62 million visually impaired, of whom 8 million are blind. The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS provided a comprehensive estimate for prevalence and causes of blindness for the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. It also highlighted that uptake of services was also an issue, predominantly among lower socio-economic groups, women, and rural populations. On the basis of this analysis, L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI developed a pyramidal model of eye care delivery. This article describes the LVPEI eye care delivery model. The article discusses infrastructure development, human resource development, and service delivery (including prevention and promotion in the context of primary and secondary care service delivery in rural areas. The article also alludes to opportunities for research at these levels of service delivery and the amenability of the evidence generated at these levels of the LVPEI eye health pyramid for advocacy and policy planning. In addition, management issues related to the sustainability of service delivery in rural areas are discussed. The article highlights the key factors required for the success of the LVPEI rural service delivery model and discusses challenges that need to be overcome to replicate the model. The article concludes by noting the potential to convert these challenges into opportunities by integrating certain aspects of the existing healthcare system into the model. Examples include screening of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in order to promote higher community participation. The results of such integration can serve as evidence for advocacy and policy.

  5. Energy and spectrum efficiency in rural areas based on cognitive radio technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available spectrum scarcity in the most energy efficient manner. In this paper, researchers present the proposed work to be carried out as part of a doctoral thesis to address the spectrum scarcity and transmission power in energy constrained rural areas....

  6. The role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people in rural areas of South Korea: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jin-Kyoung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the number of studies on anti-smoking interventions has increased, studies focused on identifying social contextual factors in rural areas are scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of social support and social networks in smoking behavior among middle and older aged people living in rural areas of South Korea. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design. Participants included 1,057 adults, with a mean age of 60.7 years, residing in rural areas. Information on participants' tobacco use, stress, social support, and social networks was collected using structured questionnaires. The chi-square test, the t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The overall smoking prevalence in the study was 17.4% (men, 38.8%; women, 5.1%. Overall, stress was high among women, and social support was high among men. Smokers had high levels of social support (t = -2.90, p = .0038 and social networks (t = -2.22, p = .0271, as compared to non- and former smokers. Those in the high social support group were likely to be smokers (AOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.26. Women with moderate social ties were less likely to smoke (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.61. Conclusion There was a protective role of a moderate social network level among women, and a high level of social support was associated with smoking behaviors in rural areas. Findings suggest the need for a comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of social contextual factors including social support and social networks in order to conduct more effective anti-smoking interventions in rural areas.

  7. SATISFACTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS FROM ROMANIAN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Stefanescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Organization’s human resource is often called the "most valuable asset", although it does not appear in the organization’s accounts. Organization's success depends on the way in which its members implement its objectives; therefore the satisfaction of human resources is crucial for achieving good results in the organization. In this work, we conducted an analysis of the particularities of human resource management in secondary education area and an empirical study on the satisfaction of human resources in a typical rural Romanian schools. It is imperative for Romania to adopt a strategy to improve the education system in order to include new approaches of organizational governance and human resources management so that human resources within the education system have a high degree of satisfaction from the work performed.

  8. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballara, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

  9. Prevalence of Internet addiction and risk of developing addiction as exemplified by a group of Polish adolescents from urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective. [/b]The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and the risk of developing this addiction in Polish adolescents attending junior high schools and high school in Lublin Province, to indicate the differences regarding the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms, and the types of online activity of adolescents residing in urban and rural areas. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. The examined group comprised 1,860 participants (1,320 girls and 540 boys with an average age of 17 years. 760 students lived in urban areas and 1,100 lived in rural areas. The following were used in the study: the Socio-demographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire designed by Potembska, the Internet Addiction Test by Young and the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Internetu – KBUI designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. [b]Results[/b]. The adolescents living in urban areas showed a significantly greater intensity of Internet and computer addiction symptoms measured by the KBUI Questionnaire, compared to those living in rural areas. [b]Conclusions.[/b] The Internet addiction criteria were fulfilled by 0.45% of adolescents living in urban areas and 2.9% of those living in rural areas, whereas 35.55% of urban dwelling students and 30.18% of students living in rural areas showed a risk of developing this addiction. More adolescents living in urban areas, compared to those living in rural areas, use Internet pornography, play computer games, disclose their personal data to unknown individuals encountered on the Internet, use Instant Messaging (IM services, electronic mail and Facebook social networking service. Compared to their peers from urban areas, significantly more adolescents from rural areas use ‘Nasza Klasa’ (Our Classmates online social networking service.

  10. Prevalence of Internet addiction and risk of developing addiction as exemplified by a group of Polish adolescents from urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; Kędzierski, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and the risk of developing this addiction in Polish adolescents attending junior high schools and high school in Lublin Province, to indicate the differences regarding the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms, and the types of online activity of adolescents residing in urban and rural areas. The examined group comprised 1,860 participants (1,320 girls and 540 boys) with an average age of 17 years. 760 students lived in urban areas and 1,100 lived in rural areas. The following were used in the study: the Socio-demographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire designed by Potembska, the Internet Addiction Test by Young and the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Internetu - KBUI) designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. The adolescents living in urban areas showed a significantly greater intensity of Internet and computer addiction symptoms measured by the KBUI Questionnaire, compared to those living in rural areas. The Internet addiction criteria were fulfilled by 0.45% of adolescents living in urban areas and 2.9% of those living in rural areas, whereas 35.55% of urban dwelling students and 30.18% of students living in rural areas showed a risk of developing this addiction. More adolescents living in urban areas, compared to those living in rural areas, use Internet pornography, play computer games, disclose their personal data to unknown individuals encountered on the Internet, use Instant Messaging (IM) services, electronic mail and Facebook social networking service. Compared to their peers from urban areas, significantly more adolescents from rural areas use 'Nasza Klasa' (Our Classmates) online social networking service.

  11. Supply Chains and Rural Development in the Asia Pacific Region

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid income growth and urbanization are having profound impacts on the food system, food producers and rural areas in the developing Asia Pacific economies. Meeting the challenge of rural development will depend on better integrating rural areas with fast-growing urban areas where the composition of food demand is changing and the logistics of supply are growing more complex. Possible government options include investment in transportation infrastructure—roads, railroads and waterway—and pro...

  12. The role of rural libraries in the attainment of rural development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the role that rural libraries could play in the attainment of rural development with a view to accelerate growth in all areas of human endeavors in rural areas of Nigeria. The study took cognizance of inherent problems that undermine the establishment of rural libraries such as funding, illiteracy, clientele ...

  13. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ler, Ee Chop

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the rural "cultural" problems and to determine their effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools…

  14. Scoping the context of programs and services for maintaining wellness of older people in rural areas of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, K S; McKenna, L; Francis, K

    2014-09-01

    Ageing and problems concerning the aged are an increasing and concerning reality in developing and underdeveloped countries such as Indonesia. Improving service quality is important to promote and maintain wellness of older persons, especially in rural areas. To explore programs and services offered to the elderly in a rural area of Indonesia to support them in promoting and maintaining their wellness. To describe roles and practices of health professionals and teams responsible for delivering services to older people. Action research was used with mixed method data collection (interview and survey). Results demonstrated that activities related to the elderly health programs were limited due to budget and facilities. Practices of health staff for elderly in the community focused on intervention tasks, rather than prevention. Lack of available information on the range of programs and services implemented in Indonesia for the elderly in community settings was a limitation of this study. Programs and services for older people have been implemented in Indonesia. However, these do not yet meet their needs, especially in rural areas. There is a need for greater focus on health promotion and illness prevention. Findings contribute to development of international knowledge in community health nursing, as these issues may not be only relevant to Indonesia. It is timely for governments, including in Indonesia, to evaluate health workforce needs in the community and appropriate educational qualifications for delivering optimal health services for older people. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  15. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators.

  16. Current status of epilepsy treatment and efficacy of standard phenobarbital therapy in rural areas of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinbei; Luo, Nan; Wang, Zan; Lin, Weihong

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment and the efficacy and adverse effects of phenobarbital therapy in rural areas of Northern China. A total of 2192 patients diagnosed with convulsive epilepsy were recruited from seven different rural regions in Jilin Province, China to investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment, and 1379 of them were enrolled in a standard phenobarbital therapy trial. Patients were selected according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and medical records for all patients were collected and analyzed before the standard treatment was started. Patients were followed up monthly, and efficacy in 1218 patients was analyzed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. More patients had the initial seizure in juveniles than in adults, and 40.72% of the 2192 patients were not receiving any treatment before the treatment trial. The efficacy of phenobarbital increased and adverse effects decreased within the treatment period. Among the 349 patients who were followed up for 12 months from the beginning of the phenobarbital treatment, seizures were decreased by more than 75% in 71.3% of patients using a low-to-medium dose of phenobarbital. Major adverse effects of phenobarbital included mild exhaustion, drowsiness, dizziness and headache. Standardized long-term and regular administration of phenobarbital at a low-to-medium dose can be used as an effective, economic and safe treatment against epilepsy in rural areas.

  17. Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano A Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households.

  18. Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households.

  19. Is the health of people living in rural areas different from those in cities? Evidence from routine data linked with the Scottish Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teckle P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the association between rurality and health in Scotland, after adjusting for differences in individual and practice characteristics. Methods Design: Mortality and hospital record data linked to two cross sectional health surveys. Setting: Respondents in the community-based 1995 and 1998 Scottish Health Survey who consented to record-linkage follow-up. Main outcome measures: Hypertension, all-cause premature mortality, total hospital stays and admissions due to coronary heart disease (CHD. Results Older age and lower social class were strongly associated with an increased risk of each of the four health outcomes measured. After adjustment for individual and practice characteristics, no consistent pattern of better or poorer health in people living in rural areas was found, compared to primary cities. However, individuals living in remote small towns had a lower risk of a hospital admission for CHD and those in very remote rural had lower mortality, both compared with those living in primary cities. Conclusion This study has shown how linked data can be used to explore the possible influence of area of residence on health. We were unable to find a consistent pattern that people living in rural areas have materially different health to that of those living in primary cities. Instead, we found stronger relationships between compositional determinants (age, gender and socio-economic status and health than contextual factors (including rurality.

  20. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas. New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues-Faus, Ana M.; Ortiz-Miranda, Dionisio

    2010-01-01

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks. (author)

  1. The impact of husbands' gender equity awareness on wives' reproductive health in rural areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Cui; Li, Yang; Hui, Han

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of husbands' gender equity awareness on wives' reproductive health in rural areas of China. A qualitative study of 1919 wives aged from 18 to 69 years and their husbands was conducted in rural China. Data were collected through 3838 structured interviews. We quantified "belief in gender equity" based on responses to 7 specific statements and graded the responses according to a system scoring the strength of the overall belief (a total score 19 or higher, strong; 15-18, moderate; and 14 or less, weak). Data were recorded by bi-input with EpiData 3.1 after being carefully checked. χ(2) tests and logistic regression were performed in this study. Only 20.0% of the husbands demonstrated strong convictions about gender equity. Husbands' gender equity awareness is related to wives' receiving any prenatal care, the number of prenatal visits to a healthcare provider, having a hospital delivery of a newborn, and having gynecological examination one time per year. Raising husbands' gender awareness on wives' reproductive health and reducing female illiteracy were very necessary. The whole community should participate actively in the progress of reproductive health promotion. China's Health System requires an integration of its various sectors, including family planning, maternal and child care in resource sharing, and service delivery. Obstetricians & gynecologists. After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to evaluate the impact of husbands' gender equity awareness on wives' reproductive health in rural areas of China; assess how raising husbands' gender awareness on wives' reproductive health and reducing female illiteracy will improve wives' reproductive health; and analyze how China's Health System can integrate its various sectors, including family planning, maternal, and childcare in resource sharing, and service delivery, to improve wives' reproductive health.

  2. Turismo rural y expansion urbanística en areas de interior. Análisis socioespacial de riesgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is generally recognized as a booster for sustainable development of inland areas, but two researchactions would be necessary in advance: a local diagnosis of touristic processes and a risk assessment for those processes in affected areas. This article concerns the sociological and spatial risk analysis of urban sprawl in rural areas. As a case study, 29 municipalities in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (formed as a “comarca”, North of Huelva province are considered. Urban sprawl has been identified by specific literature as a threat for sustainable development in touristic areas, in coastal zones and in rural areas too. Based on the results of previous diagnosis, and the literature on socioenvironmental risks and impacts of residential tourism, two specific risk indicators are selected and analysed, in relation to local touristic models.El turismo rural es reconocido en Europa como un factor de desarrollo sostenible para las áreas de interior, secularmente deprimidas. Su éxito como tal va a depender de un diagnóstico a tiempo de sus procesos y de la evaluación de los riesgos que afectan a las áreas en las que aquellos se manifiesten. Este trabajo se centra en el análisis sociológico y espacial de los riesgos que la expansión urbanística en áreas de interior puede suponer para su desarrollo sostenible por medio del turismo rural. Como estudio de caso, se toman 29 municipios del suroeste de la península ibérica, conformados como comarca en el borde norte de la provincia de Huelva. A partir de los resultados de diagnósticos previos, y de la literatura sobre riesgos e impactos socioambientales del turismo residencial, se seleccionan dos indicadores de riesgo y se analiza su comportamiento en los modelos turístico-rurales existentes en la zona.

  3. Attempt to assess tourist products in rural areas based on the Kano method as basis of customer experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlomiej Walas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism, which is at the same time a kind of broadly understood sustainable tourism, is a concept, although widely used, difficult to define. Many researchers such as M. Jansen-Verbeke distinguish between rural tourism, agritourism and farm tourism. Ecotourism is also often found, although each of them represents another phenomenon. Rural tourism is a very important part of active participation in the life of a farm, in the socio-cultural life of the village and is inherent in its connection to the natural environment. It is ecologically-oriented farming and the protection of natural and socio-cultural environments that are the foundation of ecotourism. The only significant differences that can be identified are some forms of rural tourism that do not fall into the category of ecotourism, such as alienated tourism, as well as a partial focus of ecotourism, out of cities areas but not in rural areas. In the countryside there is also a tourist of the stream "bleisure".

  4. Policies for the environment and rural development in the mountain area of Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Hovorka, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    38th European Regional Science Association ? Congress 1998 Topic G: Environmental Management, Sustainability and Development Policies for the Environment and Rural Development in the Mountain Area of Austria (Abstract) by Gerhard Hovorka The cultural landscape in Austria is characterised by the high proportion of mountain areas. Mountain agriculture bears the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system in the mountain areas and thereby maintaining the general living and working space as...

  5. Techno-economic evaluation of various electric energy supply for rural areas Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagdev, A.J.; Samo, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    A diagnostic study was carried out to evaluate the techno-economic viability of various electric supply sources for electrification of rural areas in Pakistan in present socio-economic conditions. The important influencing factors considered were: social needs, electric requirement and availability of energy resources. The electric requirements of model rural village were established at 20431 kw h per year. Prudent evaluations reveal that hydroelectric, photovoltaic and diesel systems are better options than an electric grid extension of more than 2 km. In order to become an economically meritorious energy source, photovoltaic system should attain cost level Rs. 100 per watt-peak of installed system. (author)

  6. Barriers to modern contraceptive use in rural areas in DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muanda, Mbadu Fidèle; Ndongo, Gahungu Parfait; Messina, Lauren J; Bertrand, Jane T

    2017-09-01

    Recent research in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has shown that over a quarter of women have an unmet need for family planning and that modern contraceptive use is three times higher among urban than rural women. This study focuses on the reasons behind the choices of married men and women to use contraception or not. What are the barriers that have led to low levels of modern contraceptive use among women and men in DRC rural areas? The research team conducted 24 focus groups among women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods and users of modern methods) and husbands (of non-users or users of traditional methods) in six health zones of three geographically dispersed provinces. The key barriers that emerged were poor spousal communication, sociocultural norms (especially the husband's role as primary decision-maker and the desire for a large family), fear of side-effects and a lack of knowledge. Despite these barriers, many women in the study indicated that they were open to adopting a modern family planning method in the future. These findings imply that programming must address mutual comprehension and decision-making among rural men and women alike in order to trigger positive changes in behaviour and perceptions relating to contraceptive use.

  7. Training Psychologists for Rural Practice: Exploring Opportunities and Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Lin, Ching-Ching Claire; Morrissey, Joseph P; Ellis, Alan R; Fraher, Erin; Richman, Erica L; Thomas, Kathleen C; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2018-04-17

    To examine trends in the psychologist workforce and training opportunities, including factors that may influence the decision of clinical psychologists to practice in rural settings. We use a mixed-methods approach to examine the psychologist workforce nationally and in North Carolina (NC), including (1) an analysis of the location of programs awarding doctoral degrees; (2) an analysis of the practice, demographic, and educational characteristics of the psychologist workforce; and (3) interviews with directors of doctoral programs in clinical psychology to understand where current graduates are getting jobs and why they may or may not be choosing to practice in rural communities. Fewer than 1% of programs and institutions awarding doctoral degrees in psychology in the United States are located in rural areas. In NC, approximately 80% of practicing psychologists have out-of-state degrees and about 80% of recent NC graduates are not currently licensed in the state. This juxtaposition undermines the utility of adding more in-state degree programs. While expansion of training programs within rural areas could help alleviate the shortages of mental health providers, adding new degree-granting programs alone will not necessarily increase supply. We discuss complementary recruitment and retention strategies, including greater incentives for rural training and practice as well as training in emerging technologies that don't require providers to be physically located in underserved areas, such as telemedicine. Increasing the supply of psychologists practicing in rural areas will require a thoughtful, multipronged approach to training this critical part of the behavioral health workforce. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Issues in rural adolescent mental health in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Candice P; Aisbett, Damon L; Francis, Kristy; Kelly, Melinda; Newnham, Krystal; Newnham, Karyn

    2006-01-01

    The mental health of adolescents living in rural Australia has received little research attention. In this article, the extant literature on rural adolescent mental health in Australia is reviewed. Given the lack of literature on this topic, the review is centered on a vignette presented at the beginning of the article. The case represented by the vignette is that of a young Australian growing up in a rural area. The issues raised--including the nature of mental health issues for rural adolescents and barriers to seeking professional help--are then discussed in terms of the available literature. The article concludes with a future focus for research efforts in the area of rural adolescent mental health.

  9. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation.

  10. Measuring the reasons that discourage medical students from working in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goel, Sonu; Angeli, F.; Singla, Neetu; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    The sharply uneven distribution of human resources for health care across urban and rural areas has been a long-standing concern globally. The present study aims to develop and validate an instrument measuring the factors deterring final year students of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

  11. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagangatharathilagar, M.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C.; Dwivedi, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  12. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Shia T; McClure, Leslie A; Zaitchik, Ben F; Gohlke, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban?rural status. Methods Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends b...

  13. Rural electrification policy and institutional linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haanyika, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the problems that have besieged rural electrification in most developing countries include inadequate policies, weak institutional frameworks and limited financing. In the last two decades, governments in developing countries have been making various efforts both at the policy level and in financing to facilitate increased levels of rural electrification. However, the introduction of market-based reforms in the power sector in the last decade has affected the institutional and financing arrangements for rural electrification. The reforms have also affected the rate of electrification and affordability of electricity. There is need therefore to establish the extent to which the reforms have affected access and affordability of electricity in rural areas and to develop appropriate policy and the supporting institutional structures to align rural electrification with reformed power sectors. It is cardinal to establish how privatised and commercialised power companies in a reformed power sector could contribute to rural electrification and the role of governments and government agents in facilitating expanded access to electricity in rural areas. (author)

  14. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md.Danesh; Foysal, Muhammad Abul; Koike, Masao; Kobayashi, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month -1 in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month -1 . This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: →The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. → Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. → Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).→ Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.→ The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  15. Domestic energy-use pattern by the households: A comparison between rural and semi-urban areas of Noakhali in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md.Danesh, E-mail: danesh@cu.ac.bd [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Foysal, Muhammad Abul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, 4331 Chittagong (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan); Kobayashi, Hajime [Laboratory of Forest Environment and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamiminowa-Mura, Kami Ina Gun, 399-4598 Nagano-ken (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    An explorative survey was carried out on rural and semi-urban households to find out the energy consumption pattern with respect to socio-demographic and geographic factors in Bangladesh by using stratified random sampling technique. The study revealed that 100% of the households used biomass, 98% kerosene, 61% electricity, 23% LPG and 5% candle in the rural areas. In the semi-urban areas, 100% of the households used electricity, candle and natural gas, 60% kerosene and 13% petrol. Households' mean expenditure for total energy was US$ 5.34 (SE, 0.43) with total income US$ 209.84 (SE, 6.69) month{sup -1} in the rural areas, while it was US$ 6.20 (SE, 1.35) in the semi-urban areas with the total income US$ 427.76 (SE, 24.19) month{sup -1}. This study may be a useful baseline information to energy policy makers in Bangladesh. - Highlights: >The study provides an empirical analysis of household energy consumption. > Rural households are dominated by biomass energy. > Semi-urban households are dominated by standard commercial energy (natural gas and electricity).> Monthly income, dwelling status and literacy of the households clearly influences energy use.> The major energy use in the rural households is for the cooking purpose.

  16. [Social determinants of infant mortality in socioeconomic deprived rural areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Gómez, María Beatriz; Núñez-Urquiza, Rosa María; Restrepo-Restrepo, José Alonso; Richardson-López-Collada, Vesta Louise

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of infant mortality in rural areas in Mexico and recommend strategies for its decrease. A study was conducted in a sample of 16 municipalities among those with the lowest index of human development. Infant deaths were identified through official data, records and through interviews with civil authorities, health workers and community leaders. Mothers of children who died were also interviewed. In most cases, deaths were related with intermediate social determinants (living conditions and health services converged). The most important critical factors were the prevention programs and delays in receiving healthcare. Deficiencies in intersectorial policies to guarantee effective access to health services were found. To decrease infant mortality in rural areas of Mexico, geographic access has to be improved as well as investment in resources and training health personnel in intercultural competence and primary health care skills. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  17. The Methods for Diagnosing the Attractiveness of Ecological Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuliak Bogdan V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at substantiating the methods for diagnosing the attractiveness of ecological entrepreneurship in rural areas. The article defines the objectives of diagnosing the attractiveness of ecological entrepreneurship in rural areas. It is determined that the methods for diagnosing the attractiveness of environmentally oriented entrepreneurial activity should take into account its effectiveness in the context of economic, ecological, and social components; current status, dynamics and tendencies of development of basic indicators of attractiveness; relationship between the actual and target values of such indicators. The system of methods which is expedient for use in the process of diagnosing, has been defined as follows: methods of correlation analysis (substantiation of the purposes of diagnostics; coefficient analysis and fuzzy logic methods (estimation of the actual levels of attractiveness indicators; regression analysis and mathematical-statistical method (estimation of tendencies, building of forecasts; cluster analysis, ranking, rationing, and integral estimation (comparative analysis of the estimation results.

  18. Red Rural, Blue Rural: The Geography of Presidential Voting in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Dante J.; Johnson, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    Political commentators routinely treat rural America as an undifferentiated bastion of strength for Republicans. In fact, rural America is a deceptively simple term describing a remarkably diverse collection of places encompassing nearly 75 percent of the U.S. land area and 50 million people. Voting trends in this vast area are far from…

  19. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome among women in Chinese rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS is prevalent in recent years but few data is reported in the rural areas in China. The aim of this study was to examine MS prevalence and its risk factors among women in rural China. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted during 2007-2008 in Nantong, China. In person interviews, blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 13,505 female participants aged 18-74 years. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the US Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and modified ATPIII for Asian population has determined three criteria of MS. These criteria for MS were used and compared in this study. The prevalence of MS was 22.0%, 16.9% and 23.3% according to IDF, ATPIII and ATPIII-modified criteria, respectively. Levels of agreement of these criteria for MS were above 0.75. We found that vigorous-intensity of occupational physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of MS with OR of 0.76 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.63-0.91. Rice wine drinkers (alcohol >12.8 g/day had about 34% low risks of developing MS with OR of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.48-0.91, compared with non-drinkers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.15-2.84 in women who smoked more than 20 pack-years, compared to non-smokers. Odds ratio of MS was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.25-1.95 in women who had familial history of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and stroke, compared to women without familial history of those diseases. CONCLUSION: MS is highly prevalent among women in rural China. Both physical activity and rice wine consumption play a protective role, while family history and smoking are risk factors in MS development. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyles and appropriate interventions in rural China.

  20. Characteristics of Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes in rural and urban areas of western and coastal Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Alberto Ndenga

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the main vector for yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Recent outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya have been reported in Kenya. Presence and abundance of this vector is associated with the risk for the occurrence and transmission of these diseases. This study aimed to characterize the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes from rural and urban sites in western and coastal regions of Kenya. Presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes were determined indoors and outdoors in two western (urban Kisumu and rural Chulaimbo and two coastal (urban Ukunda and rural Msambweni sites in Kenya. Sampling was performed using quarterly human landing catches, monthly Prokopack automated aspirators and monthly Biogents-sentinel traps. A total of 2,229 adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected: 785 (35.2% by human landing catches, 459 (20.6% by Prokopack aspiration and 985 (44.2% by Biogents-sentinel traps. About three times as many Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected in urban than rural sites (1,650 versus 579. Comparable numbers were collected in western (1,196 and coastal (1,033 sites. Over 80% were collected outdoors through human landing catches and Prokopack aspiration. The probability of collecting Ae. aegypti mosquitoes by human landing catches was significantly higher in the afternoon than morning hours (P<0.001, outdoors than indoors (P<0.001 and in urban than rural sites (P = 0.008. Significantly more Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected using Prokopack aspiration outdoors than indoors (P<0.001 and in urban than rural areas (P<0.001. Significantly more mosquitoes were collected using Biogents-sentinel traps in urban than rural areas (P = 0.008 and in western than coastal sites (P = 0.006. The probability of exposure to Ae. aegypti bites was highest in urban areas, outdoors and in the afternoon hours. These characteristics have major implications for the possible transmission of arboviral

  1. Nutrient intake of adolescents in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Khandelwal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutrient requirements during adolescence are higher than at any other stage of life. Inadequate nutrient intake leads to poor growth, delayed sexual maturation, slow linear growth, anaemia and osteomalacia. Aim &Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of adolescents in 13-15 years belonging to rural area of Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh. Material & Methods: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2014 - 2015 in rural area of Shimla district. Thirty clusters were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method.  A total of 170 adolescents in the age group of 13-15 years studying in government schools were enrolled. Dietary assessment was done using 24h dietary recall method. Results: The percentage deficit in boys for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake was found 37.9%, 53.7%, 35.5% and 22.4% respectively as compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA. The girls had percentage deficit for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake as 47.7%, 61.5%, 53.6%, and 43.6 % respectively as compared to RDA. Conclusion: The findings of present study indicate that the nutrient intake of adolescents aged 13-15 years was inadequate.

  2. Syphilis screening among 27,150 pregnant women in South Chinese rural areas using point-of-care tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Gang Yang

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China.Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA tests.Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphilis. 106 (0.39% syphilis cases were diagnosed, of which 78 (73.6% received treatment for syphilis. Multivariate analysis revealed that older pregnant women (31-35 years old, aOR 2.7, 95% CI 0.99-7.32; older than 35 years old, aOR 5.9, 95% CI 2.13-16.34 and those with a history of adverse pregnant outcomes (aOR 3.64, 95% CI 2.30-5.76 were more likely to be infected with syphilis.A high prevalence of syphilis exists among pregnant women living in rural areas of South China. Enhanced integration of syphilis screening with other routine women's health services (OB GYN, family planning may be useful for controlling China's syphilis epidemic.

  3. Determining the efficacy of national strategies aimed at addressing the challenges facing health personnel working in rural areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Grace; George, Gavin

    2017-07-31

    Shortages of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in rural areas are often driven by poor working and living conditions, inadequate salaries and benefits, lack of training and career development opportunities amongst others. The South African government has adopted a human resource strategy for the health sector in 2011 aimed at addressing these challenges. This study reviews the challenges faced by health personnel against government strategies aimed at attracting and retaining health personnel in these underserved areas. The study was conducted in six primary health care service sites in the Hlabisa sub-district of Umkhanyakude, located in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study population comprised 25 health workers including 11 professional nurses, 4 staff nurses and 10 doctors (4 medical doctors, 3 foreign medical doctors and 3 doctors undertaking community service). Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Government initiatives including the rural allowance, deployment of foreign medical doctors and the presence of health personnel undertaking their community service in rural areas are positively viewed by health personnel working in rural health facilities. However, poor living and working conditions, together with inadequate personal development opportunities, remain unresolved challenges. It is these challenges that will continue to dissuade experienced health personnel from remaining in these underserved areas. South Africa's HRH strategy for the Health Sector 2012/13-2015/16 had highlighted the key challenges raised by respondents and identified strategies aimed at addressing these challenges. Implementation of these strategies is key to improving both living and working conditions, and providing health personnel with opportunities for further development will require inter-ministerial collaboration if the HRH 2030 objectives are to be realised.

  4. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  5. The Need and Use the Rural ICT Services in Iranian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mozafar Amini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Internet access and use of information resources in all human societies are experiencing a rising trend, and different communities are used each with multiple infrastructures due to the benefits of ICT. The present study was based on applied research. In this research, a hybrid approach involving quantitative methods (survey and qualitative (observation, interviews was used. Statistical population of this study consists of two parts, the first part responsible for rural ICT offices, with a population of 125 people using Cochran Formula 80 subjects were selected as first sample, and the second part of the rural of first sample villages with a population of 84,836 people using Cochran formula and randomized-comparative method were studied as second sample. The questionnaire was subjected to reliability testing by using data collection in the pilot study with Cronbach’s Alpha value 0.73 to 0.95 for all variables. SPSS statistical software was used to analysis the data. The results of the study indicate that the overall performance of the agencies providing services to the rural was lower-middle in the offices in banking services has received first place, and the final ranking in the provision of health services. The results of study showed that rural employment, level education and family size effect on the rate of rural ICT offices.

  6. Eating habits and factors affecting food choice of adolescents living in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiota, Alexandra; Pelekanou, Maria; Tsitouras, Andreas; Koukoulis, Georgios N

    2013-01-01

    To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED questionnaire. Information was collected regarding self-perceived body size, dieting, dietary knowledge, parental control, meal and snack frequency, eating out of home, eating takeaways and precooked meals, eating from the school canteen. Body image concerns, dieting, education about food, parental control, maternal education level and eating with family and peers are factors that were found to affect food choices in this group of Greek adolescents. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low (KIDMED index was 4.5±2.7). Regular family meals at home were frequent in this group and 99% of the adolescents ate lunch daily at home. Eating out with peers and eating from the school canteen was related with higher consumption of 'junk type of food'. Girls and younger adolescents and those whose mothers had a higher education level seem to make healthier choices. Factors such as personal issues, family and peer pressure significantly affect food choices among adolescents living in a Greek rural area and highlight the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescents.

  7. Interactive Instructional Television: Education for Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagal, Judy; And Others

    The Rural Special Education Project is a federally funded partnership between Kayenta Unified School District and Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Center for Excellence in Education that aims to prepare well qualified special education teachers to work in rural and reservation schools. The participants are Native American residents working…

  8. Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osmosis processes are both processes that can be very effectively applied for water defluoridation. The activated alumina process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. Therefore, the activated alumina process was selected for water defluoridation ...

  9. NEUTRALIZING WASTEWATER FROM PUBLIC UTILITIES ON RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bugajski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at determining a potential use of domestic sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge for the disposal of wastes drained from schools in rural areas. Selected pollutant indicators, such as: BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and phosphates were the basis for determining the composition of raw sewage discharged by public utility objects and the quality of treated sewage considering the days when lessons were taking place at school and days free from classes. The analysis of the results revealed that household sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge may be used for waste disposal from public facilities, such as schools.

  10. Customer satisfaction with mobile operators’ services in Lithuanian rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pilelienė, Lina; Grigaliūnaitė, Viktorija

    2017-01-01

    In tough competitive conditions of Lithuanian mobile services market, customer satisfaction becomes one of the most important factors for customer retention and attraction. Lithuanian mobile market can be described as being in a maturity stage of its life-cycle: the prices and services of different mobile operators are quite similar. However, the network coverage and signal strength differs – main differences can be observed in rural areas of the country. Therefore, the scientific...

  11. The concept of sustainable tourism development in rural areas – A case study of Zbąszyń commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiak Marta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in rural areas has been defined as all tourist activities conducted in rural areas. The development of tourism in rural areas is dependent on external factors (e.g. landscape attractiveness, as well as internal factors (e.g. involvement of local authorities and society. Hence, it is important to increase the tourism potential for further increase of local tourism, and in turn to intensify the social-economic development according to a sustainable policy and multifunctional rural development. The main aim of the present study was to indicate possibilities to improve tourism management of the Zbąszyń urban-rural commune. For this purpose the following detailed aims were set: to evaluate local society satisfaction with tourism development in Zbąszyń commune, to evaluate the natural-landscape state of the analyzed area, to designate a new tourist trail or to revise the existing trails, and to propose modernization of existing tourism infrastructure. The obtained results revealed that in the opinion of local society there is still not sufficient tourism development despite some natural-landscape values. Hence, activities connected with tourism enrichment should be mainly connected with designation of two new cycling trails and supplementation of tourist information signs and tables. All proposed activities leading to an increase of tourism potential should bear in mind social aspects as well as natural values and would have a positive effect on economic income of the area.

  12. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  13. Domestic Water Utilization and Its Determinants in the Rural Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria Using Multivariate Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    T. O. Ogunbode; I. P. Ifabiyi

    2017-01-01

    Investigation into water utilization and its determinants in the rural areas is salient to a result-oriented management of this resource. Thus, a research was conducted to assess the pattern of domestic water uses and its determinant in the rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was applied to select 124 villages from 25 out of the 33 LGAs in Oyo State, Nigeria with 5 villages from each. Ten structured questionnaire were administered in each of the selected village...

  14. The effects of siblings on the migration of women in two rural areas of Belgium and the Netherlands, 1829-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bras, H.; Neven, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the presence and activities of siblings shaped the chances of women migrating to rural and urban areas in two rural areas of Belgium and the Netherlands during the second half of the nineteenth and first decades of the twentieth century. Shared-frailty Cox

  15. ANALYSIS FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE WAGE DISPARITY BETWEEN FEMALE WORKERS IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the factors that influence wage disparity between working women (female workers in urban and rural areas in South Sumatera in 2013 using cross-sectional data from Susenas 2013. Methods used in this study are wage equation of Mincer (1994 and wage decomposition model of Blinder-Oaxaca. The results show that average wage disparity between working women in urban and rural areas are 34.93%. This disparity is caused by endowment (independent variables, namely, education, age, working hours (jam kerja, non-agricultural sector (non-pertanian, marital status (menikah, and the presence of children under the age of five (balita, by 11.82%. The rest of 88.18% are explained by other variables outside this study. Endownment variables such as senior high school (SMA education, higher education (pendidikantinggi and working hours (jam kerja are also found to be the cause of an increase in wage disparity of working women in urban and rural areas.

  16. Differences in Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders Among Children Aged 2-8 Years in Rural and Urban Areas - United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lara R; Holbrook, Joseph R; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Hartwig, Sophie A; Kaminski, Jennifer W; Ghandour, Reem M; Peacock, Georgina; Heggs, Akilah; Boyle, Coleen A

    2017-03-17

    Mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) begin in early childhood and often affect lifelong health and well-being. Persons who live in rural areas report more health-related disparities than those in urban areas, including poorer health, more health risk behaviors, and less access to health resources. 2011-2012. The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) is a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents or guardians that collects information on noninstitutionalized children aged health and well-being, health care access, and family and community characteristics. Using data from the 2011-2012 NSCH, this report examines variations in health care, family, and community factors among children aged 2-8 years with and without MBDDs in rural and urban settings. Restricting the data to U.S. children aged 2-8 years with valid responses for child age and sex, each MBDD, and zip code resulted in an analytic sample of 34,535 children; MBDD diagnosis was determined by parent report and was not validated with health care providers or medical records. A higher percentage of all children in small rural and large rural areas compared with all children in urban areas had parents who reported experiencing financial difficulties (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as food and housing). Children in all rural areas more often lacked amenities and lived in a neighborhood in poor condition. However, a lower percentage of children in small rural and isolated areas had parents who reported living in an unsafe neighborhood, and children in isolated areas less often lived in a neighborhood lacking social support, less often lacked a medical home, and less often had a parent with fair or poor mental health. Across rural subtypes, approximately one in six young children had a parent-reported MBDD diagnosis. A higher prevalence was found among children in small rural areas (18.6%) than in urban areas (15.2%). In urban and the majority of rural

  17. Coverage And Efficacy Of Measles Immunization In Rural Areas Of Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: How effective isthemeasles immu­nization programme in rural areas? Objectives: i To determine the vaccine coverage in eligible children. ii To estimate the seropositivity in immunized children iii To assess the decline in maternal antibody levels in 0 - 9 months old children. iv To study the socio - cultural variables in the study area. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Registered villages under Rural Health Train­ing Centre (RHTC, Jawan Block, Aligarh. Participants: Children in 0 - 5 yearrs age group, from 2104 house holds by systematic random sampling. Sample size: 456 children in 0 - 5 years age group. Study Variables: Age, sex, immunization status, measles antibody, type of family, overcrowding, literacy status of parents, occupation of parents. Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: 0-5 years age group made up 13.7% of the population. Most of the families belonged to lowe socio-economic groups. Measles immunization coveage was 64.5% with sero conversion in 96.5% children while failure rate of ya&tyne was 3.5%. Maternal mealses antibody level showed linear decline with age from 100% at 0 - 3 months to 1 8.4% at 6 - 9 months

  18. Atmospheric heavy metal input to forest soils in rural areas of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Kemp, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric bulk deposition of heavy metals (HM) was measured from 1972/73 to the present time at five to ten forest sites in rural areas of Denmark. From 1979, HM in aerosols were measured at one to four forest sites. On the basis of these long-term continuous measurements, the atmospheric inputs...

  19. Relations, interactions and networks of cultural tourism stakeholders in rural areas of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary trends, which are characterized by a very strong level of competition and the maturity of the market, become more than ever essential for success of tourist destinations. Rural areas in Vojvodina, because of its authentic atmosphere and multiculturalism, have significant advantages for cultural tourism. Each participant who creates a tourism product in toda y's competitive environment aims to have a strong focus on customer satisfaction, which indicates the necessity of adopting the concept of total relationship marketing. The aim of this paper is to show how cultural institutions, souvenir craftsmen, tourism organizations, travel agencies and other stakeholders achieve cooperation and apply modern concept of total relationship marketing for the purposes of satisfying the needs of tourists. The paper will explore the fundamental postulates of relationship marketing applied by key stakeholders of cultural tourism in rural areas, and will get reference results on relations, interactions and networks.

  20. Rural male suicide in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Margaret

    2012-02-01

    The rate of suicide amongst Australia's rural men is significantly higher than rural women, urban men or urban women. There are many explanations for this phenomenon including higher levels of social isolation, lower socio-economic circumstances and ready access to firearms. Another factor is the challenge of climate transformation for farmers. In recent times rural areas of Australia have been subject to intense climate change events including a significant drought that has lingered on for over a decade. Climate variability together with lower socio-economic conditions and reduced farm production has combined to produce insidious impacts on the health of rural men. This paper draws on research conducted over several years with rural men working on farms to argue that attention to the health and well-being of rural men requires an understanding not only of these factors but also of the cultural context, inequitable gender relations and a dominant form of masculine hegemony that lauds stoicism in the face of adversity. A failure to address these factors will limit the success of health and welfare programs for rural men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A case report of Linguatula serrata infestation from rural area of Isfahan city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabibian Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguatulosis occurs accidentally in human by ingestion of raw or undercooked visceral tissues of sheep, goat, camel, and other herbivores. In this case report, 2 patients from an Afghan family infested with this parasite in rural area of Isfahan, Iran are presented. Clinical signs and symptoms including pricking sensation in throat, coughing, sneezing, yellow nasal and ears discharges, which started 2-3 hours after eating raw goat liver. Nymphs of Linguatula serrata were isolated from their tongues and later, several more parasites were discharged by coughing and sneezing. An ancient belief about nutritional benefits of eating raw liver may causes more Halzoun syndrome in future.

  2. Novel psychoactive substances: use and knowledge among adolescents and young adults in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Lupi, Matteo; Carlucci, Leonardo; Cinosi, Eduardo; Santacroce, Rita; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Chillemi, Eleonora; Bonifaci, Ludovica; Janiri, Luigi; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are new psychotropic drugs, not scheduled under the International Conventions on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a relevant public health threat. In this study, we investigated knowledge and use of NPS in a sample of Italian youth in urban and rural areas. Between December 2012 and October 2013, we administered a questionnaire to a sample of 3011 healthy subjects (44.7% men; 55.3% women), aged between 16 and 24 years and recruited in urban, intermediate and rural areas of Italy. Of the global sample, 53.3% declared to have some knowledge on NPS, with a higher knowledge in urban areas. Mephedrone (26%), desomorphine (22.6%) and methamphetamine (21.7%) were the most commonly known drugs. NPS use was reported by 4.7% of the sample, without significant differences between urban and rural areas; mephedrone (3.3%), synthetic cannabinoids (1.2%) and Salvia divinorum (0.3%) consumption has been identified. NPS use was also predictive of binge-drinking behaviours (χ(2) (4) = 929.58, p < .001). Urban areas may represent a focal point for preventive strategies, given the presence of higher levels of NPS knowledge. Moreover, the association between binge-drinking habits and NPS use was really strong. This issue should not be underestimated because of its medical, psychopathological and social consequences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Use of mobile phones for improving vaccination coverage among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Shamsuzzaman, Md; Horng, Lily; Labrique, Alain; Vasudevan, Lavanya; Zeller, Kelsey; Chowdhury, Mridul; Larson, Charles P; Bishai, David; Alam, Nurul

    2016-01-04

    In Bangladesh, full vaccination rates among children living in rural hard-to-reach areas and urban streets are low. We conducted a quasi-experimental pre-post study of a 12-month mobile phone intervention to improve vaccination among 0-11 months old children in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller areas. Software named "mTika" was employed within the existing public health system to electronically register each child's birth and remind mothers about upcoming vaccination dates with text messages. Android smart phones with mTika were provided to all health assistants/vaccinators and supervisors in intervention areas, while mothers used plain cell phones already owned by themselves or their families. Pre and post-intervention vaccination coverage was surveyed in intervention and control areas. Among children over 298 days old, full vaccination coverage actually decreased in control areas--rural baseline 65.9% to endline 55.2% and urban baseline 44.5% to endline 33.9%--while increasing in intervention areas from rural baseline 58.9% to endline 76*8%, difference +18.8% (95% CI 5.7-31.9) and urban baseline 40.7% to endline 57.1%, difference +16.5% (95% CI 3.9-29.0). Difference-in-difference (DID) estimates were +29.5% for rural intervention versus control areas and +27.1% for urban areas for full vaccination in children over 298 days old, and logistic regression adjusting for maternal education, mobile phone ownership, and sex of child showed intervention effect odds ratio (OR) of 3.8 (95% CI 1.5-9.2) in rural areas and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4-6.4) in urban areas. Among all age groups, intervention effects on age-appropriate vaccination coverage were positive: DIDs +13.1-30.5% and ORs 2.5-4.6 (pmobile phone intervention can improve vaccination coverage in rural hard-to-reach and urban street dweller communities in Bangladesh. This small-scale successful demonstration should serve as an example to other low-income countries with high mobile phone usage. Copyright © 2015

  4. Attitudes toward working in rural areas of Thai medical, dental and pharmacy new graduates in 2012: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Inequity in health workforce distribution has been a national concern of the Thai health service for decades. The government has launched various policies to increase the distribution of health workforces to rural areas. However, little is known regarding the attitudes of health workers and the factors influencing their decision to work in rural areas. This study aimed to explore the current attitudes of new medical, dental and pharmacy graduates as well as determine the linkage between their characteristics and the preference for working in rural areas. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using self-administered questionnaires, with a total of 1,225 medical, dental and pharmacy graduates. They were participants of the meeting arranged by the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) on 1–2 April 2012. Descriptive statistics using mean and percentage, and inferential statistics using logistic regression with marginal effects, were applied for data analysis. Results There were 754 doctors (44.4%), 203 dentists (42.6%) and 268 pharmacists (83.8%) enrolled in the survey. Graduates from all professions had positive views towards working in rural areas. Approximately 22% of doctors, 31% of dentists and 52% of pharmacists selected ‘close proximity to hometown’ as the most important reason for workplace selection. The multivariable analysis showed a variation in attributes associated with the tendency to work in rural areas across professions. In case of doctors, special track graduates had a 10% higher tendency to prefer rural work than those recruited through the national entrance examination. Conclusions The majority of graduates chose to work in community hospitals, and attitudes towards rural work were quite positive. In-depth analysis found that factors influencing their choice varied between professions. Special track recruitment positively influenced the selection of rural workplaces among new doctors attending the MOPH annual meeting for

  5. Physical fitness and anthropometric characteristics among adolescents living in urban or rural areas of Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishukaj, Faton; Shalaj, Ismet; Gjaka, Masar; Ademi, Besim; Ahmetxhekaj, Rrustem; Bachl, Norbert; Tschan, Harald; Wessner, Barbara

    2017-09-16

    High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population) and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population) were selected. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were determined from a total of 354 adolescents (216 urban: 14.5 ± 0.4 years, 138 rural: age 14.5 ± 0.4 years) who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study performed in 2013/14. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% in girls and 28.2% in males and excess body fat was detected in 18.2% of the girls and 15.9% of the boys with no differences between rural and urban adolescents. Rural adolescents performed slightly better in relative handgrip strength (+4.7%, p = 0.032) and running speed (10 m: +2.2%, p = 0.012; 20 m: +1.9%, p = 0.035), but no other differences were detected in standing long jump, counter movement jump, cardiorespiratory fitness and sit and reach test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that being a female was associated with a lower relative risk for overweight (RR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03-0.34, p fitness were associated with a higher relative risk for overweight and excess body fat. In contrast, lower handgrip strength increased the risk for experiencing thinness (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.96, p < 0.001). It could be shown that there is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, especially in 14 to 15 year old boys in Kosovo which does not differ between rural and urban areas. Worse physical performance is associated with a higher risk

  6. Foreign-Born Latinos Living in Rural Areas are more likely to Experience Health Care Discrimination: Results from Proyecto de Salud para Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cevallos, Daniel F; Harvey, S Marie

    2016-08-01

    Health care discrimination is increasingly considered a significant barrier to accessing health services among minority populations, including Latinos. However, little is known about the role of immigration status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between immigration status and perceived health care discrimination among Latinos living in rural areas. Interviews were conducted among 349 young-adult Latinos (ages 18 to 25) living in rural Oregon, as part of Proyecto de Salud para Latinos. Over a third of participants experienced health care discrimination (39.5 %). Discrimination was higher among foreign-born (44.9 %) rather than US-born Latinos (31.9 %). Multivariate results showed that foreign-born Latinos were significantly more likely to experience health care discrimination, even after controlling for other relevant factors (OR = 2.10, 95 % CI 1.16-3.82). This study provides evidence that health care discrimination is prevalent among young-adult Latinos living in rural areas, particularly the foreign-born. Effective approaches towards reducing discrimination in health care settings should take into consideration the need to reform our broken immigration system.

  7. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in

  8. Social Networks and the flow of people : The effects of computer-mediated communication on mobility of young people from a rural area in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Corrochano, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This research examines how social networking fosters the mobility of young people in a rural Spain. Generally, rural areas have been overlooked in the discourse on Globalization and Network Society, which is the foundation of the concept of “linked city”. Although many scholars have highlighted the direct link between the increase in the modes of communication of people and the increase of any kind of interaction, face-to-face included, it is necessary to stress that most of these studies are...

  9. Electrification of rural areas by solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1992-01-01

    More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

  10. Effects of telehealth by allied health professionals and nurses in rural and remote areas: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Speyer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe telehealth interventions delivered by allied health professionals and nurses in rural and remote areas, and to compare the effects of telehealth interventions with standard face-to-face interventions. Data sources: CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched. The content of relevant journals and published articles were also searched. Study selection: Studies examining the effectiveness of allied health and nursing telehealth interventions for rural and remote populations were included in descriptive analyses. Studies comparing telehealth intervention with standard face-to-face interventions grouped by type of intervention approach were used to examine between-groups effect sizes. Data extraction: Methodological quality of studies was rated using the QualSyst critical appraisal tool and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC Evidence Hierarchy levels. Data synthesis: After quality ratings, 43 studies were included. A majority of studies had strong methodological quality. The disciplines of psychology and nursing were represented most frequently, as were studies using a cognitive intervention approach. Meta-analysis results slightly favoured telehealth interventions compared with face-to-face interventions, but did not show significant differences. Interventions using a combined physical and cognitive approach appeared to be more effective. Conclusion: Telehealth services may be as effective as face-to-face interventions, which is encouraging given the potential benefits of telehealth in rural and remote areas with regards to healthcare access and time and cost savings.

  11. The effect of divorce on child survival in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, A; Chowdhury, M

    1997-03-01

    The data for this study come from Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, where a continuous registration of demographic events has been maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh since 1966. A total of 11,951 first marriages of Muslims that took place in the area between 1975 and 1987 were followed until the end of 1989, to examine the relationship between parental marriage breakdown and survival of first live-born children. The impact of divorce on survival of children during infancy and childhood was examined, using hazard analysis. Other independent variables included age of mother at birth, and mother's education, year of birth, sex of children, and residence at the time of childbirth. It is shown that the net odds of death among children of divorced mothers in infancy and childhood were respectively 3.2 and 1.4 times higher than those of mothers whose marriages continued. The paper also discussed the possible mechanisms which link divorce and child survival.

  12. Outreach to health professionals in a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifalo, V

    1994-01-01

    An outreach project which juxtaposed technology (Grateful Med) and a human intermediary (a circuit librarian) to serve health professionals in a rural area of Illinois is described. The five goals of the project were: promote Grateful Med as a clinical tool; introduce circuit librarianship to Illinois; heighten the awareness of health professionals to the value of timely information services; increase the visibility of the resource library; and evaluate the impact of the two components, Grateful Med and circuit librarianship. While the project was well-received and enjoyed short-term success, sustaining the same level of information activity post-project has not been achieved. Insuring utilization of health information by remote health professionals may be characterized as a Sisyphean task.

  13. Areas of rural reservation in Bolivar's South: a proposal of rural territorial reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Lopez, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The article describes by means of a methodological process and inside an analysis mark that picks up aspects tried from the perspective of agrarian economy and the human geography, the effects of the public politics of the rural reservations in Bolivar's south, as well as its advances and challenges in the territorial reorganization of the territory. In this context, the document evidences the process of the new territorial configurations, in Bolivar's south, result of a social construction exercised by its own rural communities. In a same way the document presents a brief analysis of the agrarian structure of the rural reservations, and it illustrates the new underlying classification, product of the territorial control that develop the illegal armed groups at the moment. The advances, difficulties and challenges of the rural reservations, are the central axis of the present text, since the figure is presents as an interesting project of public politics, not alone of colonization and of agrarian reformation, but of territorial rural ordination, stiller, when in the country it has not been possible to approve an organic law of territorial classification that involves in an integral way the territorial aspects with the agrarian ones, going outside of the conception of the agrarian things of the strictly agricultural thing

  14. [The comparative analysis of acute poisoning characteristics between cities and rural areas in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-fang; Liu, Qing-hua

    2012-06-01

    To compare the acute-poisoning characteristics between city and rural areas of Guangxi Province in order to provide clinical data for the formation of treatment strategies of acute poisoning in Guangxi. Data of acute poisoning patients as treated in 36 municipal and 12 county hospitals, and also 15 rural clinics in 11 cities of Guangxi during 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed according to poisoning population, poisoning site, poisoning process, and poisoning degree. By analysing 3678 and 2153 cases of acute poisoning patients in rural and urban areas, the gender [χ (2) = 5.53, P old (11.17% vs. 8.69%), farmers by occupation (74.84% vs. 2.79%), home (80.64% vs. 78.07%), sites of labor (11.83% vs. 3.07%) and other sites (4.08% vs. 2.97%), and the chief causes were professional (3.10% vs. 1.30%), taken by mistake (21.85% vs. 20.91%), homicide (0.30% vs. 0.28%), and suicide (39.07% vs. 18.77%), and by pesticide (60.94% vs. 12.13%), plant (7.08% vs. 2.88%) and animal poisons (7.73% vs. 6.56%), belonging to severe poisoning (25.86% vs. 19.04%) were higher than those in town. In the town, poisoning occurred predominantly in female (55.09% vs. 51.90%), age below 19 years old (23.78% vs. 19.44%), unemployed (33.35% vs. 13.76%), student (17.53% vs. 8.43%), industrial workers (31.95% vs. 2.69%), executives (10.84% vs. 0.22%) and other professional (3.53% vs. 0.05%); occurred in schools (8.78% vs. 0.82%), restaurants (5.48% vs. 1.55%), place of entertainment (1.63% vs. 1.09%), by accidental (52.23% vs. 31.27%), therapeutic (4.46% vs. 2.56%), and other reasons (2.04% vs. 1.85%); by chemicals (33.19% vs. 8.55%), medicines (24.31% vs. 9.12%), and other types of poison (20.92% vs. 6.59%); light and medium degree of poisoning (44.87% vs. 41.22%, 36.09% vs. 32.93%) were higher than those in rural areas. Regarding the acute poisoning in Guangxi, the composition of population, the poisoning sites and causes, the types of poisons, the poisoning degree are distinctly different

  15. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF OBESITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Obesity has become a continous increasing global health problem. Obesity can happen in adult population and also on children as well as teenagers. There are several factors that influence the occurrence of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in primary school children in urban and rural areas. A cross sectional study was conducted with a total sample of 241 pupils in several elementary schools. Anthropometric status determine using body mass index for age and obesity stated if measurement exceed ?95th percentile based on CDC 2000. Analysis data perform with the Pearson Chi-square, Fisher's Exact Test, and logistic regression. A P value of <0.05 was considered significant. This study showed the prevalence of obesity was 15%. The prevalence of obesity in urban areas was 21% and rural areas was 5%. The result showed risk of obesity multiplied by 3.8 times in urban children as they had a habit of "snacking" had risk of suffering obesity by 3.4 times (95% CI 1.2 to 9.0. Children who had habit of having fast food more than 2 times per week had the more risk of obesity by 5 times (95% CI 1.9 to 13.5. Mothers education in urban areas as a protective factor. Conclusion of this study show that the prevalence of obesity in urban areas is 21% and 5% in rural areas. “Snacking” habit and eating fast food more than 2 times per week increase the risk of obesity in urban areas, while in rural areas no risk factors consider significant for obesity. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso

  16. Wet nitrogen deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ouping; Zhang, Shirong; Deng, Liangji; Zhang, Chunlong; Fei, Jianbo

    2018-03-01

    Understanding of the spatial and temporal variation of the flux of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for assessment of its impact on ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the variability of N deposition across urban-intensive agricultural-rural transects. A continuous 2-year observational study (from January 2015 to December 2016) was conducted to determine wet N deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China. Significantly spatial and temporal variations were found in the research area. Along the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect, the TN and NH 4 + -N deposition first increased and then decreased, and the NO 3 - -N and dissolved organic N (DON) deposition decreased continuously. Wet N deposition was mainly affected by the districts of agro-facilities, roads and build up lands. Wet NH 4 + -N deposition had non-seasonal emission sources including industrial emissions and urban excretory wastes in urban districts and seasonal emission sources such as fertilizer and manure volatilization in the other districts. However, wet NO 3 - -N deposition had seasonal emission sources such as industrial emissions and fireworks in urban district and non-seasonal emission sources such as transportation in the other districts. Deposition of DON was likely to have had similar sources to NO 3 - -N deposition in rural district, and high-temperature-dependent sources in urban and intensive agricultural districts. Considering the annual wet TN deposition in the intensive agricultural district was about 11.1% of the annual N fertilizer input, N fertilizer rates of crops should be reduced in this region to avoid the excessive application, and the risk of N emissions to the environment.

  17. Rural-urban disparities in the prevalence of diabetes and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A; Wellenius, G

    2012-10-01

    To examine the rural-urban differences in the prevalence of diabetes and coronary heart disease, and the extent to which they are explained by the presence of established risk factors including poverty. Cross-sectional study of more than 214,000 respondents using data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Logistic regression models were utilized; prevalence odds ratios with corresponding confidence intervals and P-values are provided. The crude prevalence rates of diabetes and coronary heart disease were 8.6% (P = 0.001) and 38.8% (P rural areas compared with urban areas, respectively. The higher prevalence in rural areas of many of the common risk factors for these conditions, including poverty (P rural areas [prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 0.94, P = 0.032], but the prevalence of coronary heart disease was higher (POR = 1.09, P = 0.011). The higher prevalence of diabetes and coronary heart disease in rural populations in the USA presents a formidable public health challenge. It exacerbates many of the pre-existing rural health disparities, including a lack of access to financial resources and primary care providers. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Phlebotominae) and canine visceral leishmaniasis in a rural area of Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Julio Cesar Pereira; Silva, Diogo Tiago da; Martins, Kennya Rozy Real; Rodas, Lílian Aparecida Colebrusco; Alves, Maria Luana; Faria, Glaucia Amorim; Buzutti, Marcelo Costa; Silva, Hélio Ricardo; Starke-Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis and also the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in a rural area of Ilha Solteira, state of São Paulo. Blood samples were collected from 32 dogs from different rural properties (small farms) and were analyzed by ELISA and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) in order to diagnose CVL. From these serological tests, 31.25% of the dogs were positive for CVL and these were distributed in 66.7% (8/12) of the rural properties, which were positive for L. longipalpis. CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) light traps were installed in 12 properties (one per property) and insects were caught on three consecutive days per month for one year. L. longipalpis was present on 100% of the rural properties visited, at least once during the twelve-month interval, totaling 64 males and 25 females. The insects were more numerous after the peak of the rain, but the association between prevalence of peridomestic vectors and the climatic data (precipitation, relative air humidity and temperature) and the occurrences of CVL among dogs on each rural property were not statistical significant (p longipalpis indicate that more attention is necessairy for the control of this disease in the rural area studied.

  19. Destination Development for Rural Tourism Area in Wanayasa, Puwakarta, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajang Gunawijaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This purpose of this paper is to elaborate the understanding of destination development of rural tourism in Wanayasa, Purwakarta, Jawa Barat. It has a rich potential for the rural tourism prosperity. Then author incorporates destination development through Butler‘s Area Life Cycle. Research was conducted in August 2015 with qualitative approaches i.e. interview and focus group discussion to 120 respondents which comprises representation from several different group. In addition, some of data also produced from secondary sources such as government regulation and official website. Findings show that Wanayasa possessed their ability in developing aspect of internal factors, attractions and accommodation facilities. Apart from that quality, it is obvious that their rural tourism development is lack of destination management and chaotic strategy marketing formulation as a result of disorganized planning processes. With those conditions, it will be tough for them to formulate the true competitive advantage as a basic foundation of their tourism development. This paper illustrates a detailed analysis of the destination‘s strengths and weaknesses, and a more distinctive understanding of what facilitates a destination‘s competitive position.

  20. Development of Rural Communities by Diversification of Rural Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Dora Orboi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development is a process taking place at the same time with the complex and sustainable agricultural development; agriculture and the rural area being interdependent sides specific to rural communities. When analysing economic activity in the rural area we should pay a particular attention to the identification of such alternative activities that have a real chance for development and create new jobs that compensate the diminution of labour occupancy degree in agriculture. Opportunities of rural economy represent a source of having alternative income for the population from rural communities in order to escape from poverty and in order to accelerate the social progress in the rural area. Alternative activities with economic, social and cultural impact, providers of jobs and incomes are: the development of agro tourism and rural tourism, processing and promoting foodstuff, local traditional drinks, ecological foodstuff, handicraft and silviculture. Improving the conditions for business in the rural area is a main condition for the generation of economic activities generating jobs in the rural area.

  1. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply; Sector rural uruguayo: demanda de energia y sus posibles fuentes de suministro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reolon, R [Ministerio de Industria Energia y Mineria, Direccion Nacional de Energia, Montevideo(Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them.

  2. Major incidents in rural areas: managing a pandemic A/H1N1/2009 cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cameron; Garman, Elaine; McMenamin, Jim; McCormick, Duncan; Oates, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic Influenza (A/H1N1/2009) caused worldwide concern because of its potential to spread rapidly in human populations. In Scotland, Government policy had been to seek to contain the spread of the virus for as long as possible in order to allow time for service preparations, and for vaccine development and supply. The first major Scottish outbreak of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 was in the rural area of Cowal and Bute. After two initial cases were identified, contact tracing found a cluster of cases associated with a football supporters' bus. Within 3 weeks, 130 cases had been identified in the area. Rapid provision of treatment doses of anti-viral medication to cases and prophylactic treatment of asymptomatic close contacts, advice on self-isolation and, where required, interruption of transmission by temporary school closure, were successful in containing the outbreak. Pre-existing Major Incident and Pandemic Flu plans were used and adapted to the particular circumstances of the outbreak and the area. Supporting operational decision-making as close to the cases as possible allowed for speed and flexibility of response. Contact tracing and tracking of cases and results was performed by specialist public health staff who were geographically removed from the cases. This was possible because of effective use of existing telephone conferencing facilities, clarity of roles, and frequent communication among staff working on all areas of the response. Basing the work on established plans, staff experience of rural areas and rural service provision was successful.

  3. Associations of street layout with walking and sedentary behaviors in an urban and a rural area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Sugiyama, Takemi; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Liao, Yung; Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro

    2017-05-01

    We examined whether street layout -a key urban design element- is associated with walking and sedentary behaviors in the context of a non-Western country; and, whether such associations differ between an urban and a rural area. In 2011, 1076 middle-to-older aged adults living in an urban and a rural area of Japan reported their walking and sedentary (sitting) behaviors. Two objective measures of street layout (intersection density and street integration) were calculated. Participants exposed to more-connected street layouts were more likely to walk for commuting and for errands, to meet physical activity recommendations through walking for commuting, and less likely to drive. These relationships differed between the urban and the rural area. This shows that previous findings from Western countries on associations of street connectivity with travel behaviors may also be applicable to Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role and importance of diversified farming enterprises in socio-economic development of rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Askarov N.

    2018-01-01

    In this article considered the necessity of the organization and development of diversified farming enterprises, their role and importance in the practical solution of socio-economic problems of rural areas. The issues of the development of farms are important in increasing the employment and income of the rural population, as well as in addressing the social problems associated with them. For the period 2013-2016. 352,015 new jobs were created. Today one of the most effective factors...

  5. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  6. Impacts of biogas projects on agro-ecosystem in rural areas-A case study of Gongcheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin YANG; Weichao CHEN; Bin CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of agro-ecosystem has been the focus of "New Rural Construction" in China due to intensive energy consumption and environmental pollution in rural areas.As a kind of renewable energy,biogas is helpful for new energy development and plays an important role in the sustainable development of agroecosystem in China.To evaluate the effects of biogas on agro-ecosystem from a systematic angle,we discussed the status quo of household biogas and identified its main factors that may have impacts on agro-ecosystem.An indicator framework covering environmental,social and economic aspects was established to quantify the impacts exerted by biogas project on agro-ecosystem.A case study of Gongcheng was then conducted to evaluate the combined impact of biogas project using the proposed indicator framework.Results showed that there was a notable positive effect brought by the application of biogas,and the integrated benefit has been significantly improved by 60.36%,implying that biogas as a substitute energy source can promote the sustainable level of rural areas.

  7. [Medication use among community-dwelling older Icelanders. Population-based study in urban and rural areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Arnadottir, Solveig Asa; Gunnarsdottir, Elín Díanna

    2011-12-01

    To describe medication use among older community-dwelling Icelanders by collecting information on number of medicine, polypharmacy (>5 medications), and medications by ATC categories. Moreover, to explore the relationship between medication use and various influential factors emphasizing residency in urban and rural areas. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants were randomly selected from the National registry in one urban (n=118) and two rural (n=68) areas. 1) ≥ 65 years old, 2) community-dwelling, 3) able to communicate verbally. Information on medication use was obtained from each person's medication list and interviews. A questionnaire and five standardized instruments were used to assess the potential influencing factors. On average, participants used 3.9 medications and prevalence of polypharmacy was 41%. Men used 3.5 medications on average and women 4.4 (p=0.018). Compared to rural residents, urban residents had fewer medical diagnoses, better mobility, less pain, and fewer depressive symptoms. By controlling for the effects of these variables, more medications were associated with urban living (pbetter scores on health assessments.

  8. Rural-Urban Differences in Late-Stage Breast Cancer: Do Associations Differ by Rural-Urban Classification System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Sandi L; Eberth, Jan M; Morris, E Scott; Grinsfelder, David B; Cuate, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rural residence is associated with later stage of breast cancer diagnosis in some but not all prior studies. The lack of a standardized definition of rural residence may contribute to these mixed findings. We characterize and compare multiple definitions of rural vs. non-rural residence to provide guidance regarding choice of measures and to further elucidate rural disparities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods We used Texas Cancer Registry data of 120,738 female breast cancer patients ≥50 years old diagnosed between 1995–2009. We defined rural vs. non-rural residence using 7 different measures and examined their agreement using Kappa statistics. Measures were defined at various geographic levels: county, ZIP code, census tract, and census block group. Late-stage was defined as regional or distant disease. For each measure, we tested the association of rural residence and late-stage cancer with unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression. Covariates included: age; patient race/ethnicity; diagnosis year; census block group-level mammography capacity; and census tract-level percent poverty, percent Hispanic, and percent Black. Results We found moderate to high levels of agreement between measures of rural vs. non-rural residence. For 72.9% of all patients, all 7 definitions agreed as to rural vs. non-rural residence. Overall, 6 of 7 definitions demonstrated an adverse association between rural residence and late-stage disease in unadjusted and adjusted models (Adjusted OR Range = 1.09–1.14). Discussion Our results document a clear rural disadvantage in late-stage breast cancer. We contribute to the heterogeneous literature by comparing varied measures of rural residence. We recommend use of the census tract-level Rural Urban Commuting Area Codes in future cancer outcomes research where small area data are available. PMID:27158685

  9. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: Radiation exposure and remediation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P., E-mail: Jacob@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Bogdevitch, I. [Scientific Research State Enterprise ' Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry' , Minsk (Belarus); Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Grebenshikova, N. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Isamov, N. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lazarev, N. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine); Panov, A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Radioecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Ulanovsky, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Radiation Protection, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Zhuchenko, Y. [Institute of Radiology, Gomel (Belarus); Zhurba, M. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, Chabany (Ukraine)

    2009-12-15

    Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of

  10. Coroners' records of rural and non-rural cases of youth suicide in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, M; Kelk, N; Florio, T; Waters, B; Howard, J; Taylor, D

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of certain putative risk factors for youth suicide in New South Wales (especially use of alcohol, social class, unemployment, and internal migration) in metropolitan and rural settings. A review of 137 files for 10-19-year-old subjects judged by the Coroner to have committed suicide in 1988-1990 was carried out. One hundred and fifteen males and 21 females were identified (one subjects sex was unavailable). The male-female ratio was higher in rural (13.0) areas than non-rural (4.9 chi 2 = 12.14, p Australia, most migrated in a rural direction, and most to rural shires. Unemployment was somewhat more common among rural (38.5%) than non-rural (28.9%) subjects (chi 2 = 0.75, p = 0.39). Eleven of 50 non-rural parents of the deceased, but none of the 11 rural parents, were ranked as being in social classes 2 or 3. Alcohol consumption appeared more common in rural shires (44%) than metropolitan areas (32.9%), but this was not statistically significant. Medical services were less utilised prior to death in rural (15%) than non-rural (25%) areas (chi 2 = 1.69, p = 0.19), and a psychiatric diagnosis was recorded more commonly in non-rural areas. Incomplete coronial file data and relatively small numbers limit this study's conclusions. Male suicides, principally by firearms, predominated in rural areas. Youth firearm access remains highly relevant to rural communities. Possible trends among rural subjects toward rural migration, higher unemployment, lower social class and lower medical attendance may point to resource deprivation among this group; these matters require further investigation.

  11. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  12. Morbidades e qualidade de vida de idosos com diabetes mellitus residentes nas zonas rural e urbana Morbilidades y calidad de vida de ancianos con diabetes mellitus residentes en zonas rurales y urbanas Morbidity and quality of life of elderly individuals with diabetes mellitus living in urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Aparecida dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou descrever as variáveis sociodemográficas e comparar as morbidades e a qualidade de vida (QV dos idosos com diabetes mellitus (DM residentes nas zonas urbana e rural. A amostra foi composta de 271 idosos da zona urbana e 104 da rural que autorreferiram DM. Utilizou-se análise descritiva e, na comparação das localidades, realizou-se ajuste para a idade por meio de regressão logística e linear múltipla (p Se objetivó describir las variables sociodemográficas y comparar morbilidades y calidad de vida (QV de ancianos con diabetes mellitus (DM residentes en zonas urbanas y rurales. Muestra compuesta por 271 ancianos de zona urbana y 104 de zona rural que autorrefirieron padecer DM. Se utilizó análisis descriptivo y, en la comparación de localidades, se efectuó ajuste etario mediante regresión logística y lineal múltiple (pThis study aimed to describe the socio-demographic variables and to compare the morbidities and the quality of life (QoL of elderly individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM residing in urban and rural areas. The sample consisted of 271 elderly individuals from urban areas and 104 from rural areas with self-reported DM. A descriptive analysis was used, and in the location comparison, an age adjustment was employed through linear and logistic multiple regression models (p<0.05. The elderly individuals from the rural area were younger, more educated, earned a higher income and were more often married in relation to the urban residents. Furthermore, the rural residents presented a higher QoL score in the physical and social relationships domains and in the autonomy, past, present and future activities, and intimacy facets compared to the urban residents. The elderly individuals residing in the urban area displayed a larger number of verified comorbidities. The elderly DM patients residing in the rural area generally presented better health conditions than those who lived in the urban area.

  13. Prevalence of anemia and correlated factors in the reproductive age women in rural areas of tabas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sadeghian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide.A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis.The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35 and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31 were associated with higher prevalence of anemia.Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women groups.

  14. Morbidity Pattern Among Elderly Population In A Rural Area Of Dehradun In Uttaranchal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Negi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : What is the morbidity pattern among elderly people in rural area of Dehradun?Objectives :(1     To assess the morbidity pattern among elderly population.(2     To assess the psycho-social problems among elderly people.(3     To assess the relationship between addiction and hypertension among them.Study design : Cross-Sectional.Setting : Atturwala - a rural area of district Dehradun in Uttaranchal.Participants : 332 elderly people aged 60 years and above.Statistical Analysis : Proportions, Chi-Square test.Results ; It was observed that 78.3% elderly had ophthalmic problem, 69.3% elderly had psycho-social problems followed by hypertension (49.1%, Chronic bronchitis (22% and asthma (12%. A significant relation was found between hypertention and addiction i. e. smoking and / or alcohol (p<.001. Respiratory diseases were found in 47.3% elderly persons. Depression was highly dominating problem among elderly (59.6%.

  15. Social exclusion and people with intellectual disabilities: a rural-urban comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, L; Cooper, S-A

    2013-04-01

    Research suggests that social exclusion is a problem both for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and for people living in rural areas. This may give rise to a double disadvantage for people with ID living in rural areas. Conversely, aspects of rural life such as community spirit and social support may protect against social exclusion in this population. This study was designed to compare a number of measures of social exclusion in adults with ID living in rural and urban areas, with the aim of identifying whether a double disadvantage exists. Adults with ID were recruited from a rural and an urban area in Scotland. Participants participated in a face-to-face interview and their medical notes were accessed. Social exclusion was investigated using a number of measures comprising: daytime opportunities and physical access to community facilities (using part of the British Institute of Learning Disabilities questionnaire), recent contact with others and the quality of personal relationships (using a modified Interview Measure of Social Relationships questionnaire) and area deprivation by postcode (using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation). The data were analysed using a series of binary logistic regression models that adjusted for variables including age, gender, level of ID, mental illhealth and common physical co-morbidities. A representative sample of adults with ID from rural (n = 39) and urban (n = 633) areas participated. Participants from rural areas were significantly more likely to have any regular daytime opportunity [odds ratio (OR) = 10.8, 95% CI = 2.3-51.5] including employment (OR = 22.1, 95% CI = 5.7-85.5) and attending resource centres (OR = 6.7, 95% CI = 2.6-17.2) than were participants from urban areas. They were also more likely to have been on holiday (OR = 17.8, 95% CI = 4.9-60.1); however, were less likely to use community facilities on a regular basis. Participants from urban and rural areas had a similar number of contacts with

  16. Rural Hospital Wages and the Area Wage Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kathleen; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Howard, Hilda A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined data on hospital hourly wages and the prospective payment system (PPS) wage index from 1990 to 1997, to determine if incremental changes to the index have improved its precision and equity as a regional cost adjuster. The differential between average rural and urban PPS hourly wages has declined by almost one-fourth over the 8-year study period. Nearly one-half of the decrease is attributable to regulatory and reporting changes in the annual hospital wage survey. Patterns of within-market wage variation across rural-urban continuum codes identify three separate sub-markets within the State-level aggregates defining rural labor markets. Geographic reclassification decisions appear to eliminate one of the three. Remaining systematic within-market rural wage differences work to the reimbursement advantage of hospitals in the smaller and more isolated communities. PMID:12545604

  17. Has Rural Banking Developed Rural Nigeria? | Amadasu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is problem of rural development in Nigeria because of increasing poverty in the rural areas where about 70% of the people live. Reducing poverty means increasing income. Increasing income means increasing bank loans and advances for efficient application to agricultural and industrial activities in the rural Nigeria ...

  18. Relationships Between Agritourism and Certified Quality Food in Italian Rural Areas

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    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1960, farms are one of the alternatively forms of hospitality in few Italian regions located predominately in the north and in the centre of peninsula. In 1985, Italian government promulgated a law in order to regulate this non-conventional form of tourism, by delegating to the regions the direct management of administrative procedures and inspections in farms. Nowadays, Italian agritourist farms represent a good chance to give value in favour of farm by the diversification of agrarian activities and also by holistically promoting local food in a direct connection to local gastronomy, rural heritage and tradition, with positive effects on the endogenous development in rural areas. The aim of the paper was to assess the role of agritourism in raising the socio-economic development of rural space by the diffusion of certified quality food using a quantitative approach and to assess if agritourist and certified quality food were tools able to implement the living conditions in the countryside. The findings have disclosed that tourists from abroad have increased the level of farmer income giving value towards high quality food and farm holidays farms. Instead, the impact of Italian agritourists has been relatively poor because of the economic crisis.

  19. Rural Depopulation Pattern at Yogyakarta Special Province (DIY

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    M Baiquni

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on a secondary data research i.e. statistical data at rural levels in Yogyakarta, thematics maps and other documents. Statistical methodes and map pattern analysis are employed to analysis data. The result of this research are as follows: a the rural depopulation in DIY can be found in 189 rural areas of 393 rural areas (48.09%; b the spatial distribution of the rural depopulation are in Gunung Kidul District (80 rural areas, Kulon Progo District (59 rural areas Sleman District (33 rural areas, and Bantul District (17 rural areas; c the rural depopulation in Yogyakarta at least related to six factors whih have been identified as out – migration, local resources, carrying capacity, geographycal location or accessibility, rural infrastructure, and service availability.

  20. Traveler information services in rural tourism areas : appendix B, qualitative interviews and focus groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-30

    This report documents results from surveys which were conducted for qualitatively assessing the use of traveler information services in rural areas. The focus of the surveys was to identify those factors which influence travel planning and thus impro...

  1. Labour migration and rural transformation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoru, I P

    1994-06-01

    The trends in rural-urban migration in Nigeria responded to changes in political and socioeconomic developments which occurred during the 1980s. Since the 1980s, rural-urban migration trends were rapidly reversed, and migrants returned to rural areas. In 1981, government revenues from oil declined. The oil production and price declines between 1980 and 1986 resulted in a foreign exchange crisis. Import restrictions were imposed, and stabilization measures resulted in scarcities of raw materials and spare parts and declines in industrial capacity. About 50% of import substitution factories went bankrupt. Between 1981 and 1983, about one million workers were estimated to have been laid off, of which 55,000 were federal and state employees. Other estimates indicated one million laid off just in the industrial sector. The government reinforced this urban-rural movement by emphasizing increased food production. In 1992, government wages were increased in order to offset high inflation. In 1986 and 1992, State and Local Government Areas were established as political entities tied to grassroots development; local offices were situated in greater proximity to local populations. In 1986, the objective was to provide infrastructure, promote production, and organize rural areas for development. Several community banks devoted to rural areas were established. Development programs for rural women were initiated. Federal revenue allocations to rural areas increased from 10% to 15%. Inducements were given to attract private formal and informal commerce and industry. The result was less than expected. Obstacles to rural development included the absence of an effective and integrated approach, inadequate funding, and corruption. Provision of good roads and schools did meet objectives and may have induced out-migration. Delays in provision of entitlements exacerbated the ability of return migrants to establish new economic activity. The new political divisions did not conform to

  2. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

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    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  3. Costs and outcome of assertive community treatment (ACT) in a rural area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi-experime......Purpose: Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. Methods: The study was based on a quasi...... only. Results: Seventy eight percent of the patients receiving ACT were in contact with psychiatric services at the 4-year follow-up, while 69% of the patients in the control group had contact with psychiatric services (P

  4. Perceptions and Beliefs of Rural High School Coordinators in Costa Rica

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    Mario Segura Castillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rican rural settings include indigenous populations and groups in scattered areas that require considering issues such as language and culture, among others, to achieve an appropriate curriculum development. The National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC defines rurality based on the existence or lack of public services such as roads, communication, utilities, formation of the household, and participation in agricultural activities, among others. This research seeks to interpret the perceptions and beliefs of rural high school principals in Costa Rica, regarding technical and administrative conditions in compliance with the objectives for which the institutions were created. This is a longitudinal qualitative study, since data was taken from two workshops, one in 2010 with 49 rural high school coordinators and another one in 2012 with 205 participants including principals and teaching staff. Information was analyzed using an open-question questionnaire and a Venn diagram. Seventeen rural high schools were visited, and students, teachers, and parents from 45 rural high schools were interviewed during 2011 and 2012. It is concluded that there is still no real integration between the socio productive, personal and social areas with the academic area; therefore, teachers in the academic area should be trained in vocational aspects such as entrepreneurship, cooperativism, business management, as well as counsoling, physical education, arts, and music to trully meet the objectives for which rural high schools were created.

  5. The Impact Of Shopping Centers In Rural Areas And Small Towns In The Outer Metropolitan Zone (The Example Of The Silesian Voivodeship

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    Heffner Krystian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shopping centers in the Silesian Voivodeship have a significant impact on smaller settlement units located in outer areas of agglomerations. It consists mainly in changes related to social, economic, as well as functional and spatial spheres. Studies shows that shopping centers take over more and more functions of higher order (services, public culture, administration and restrict the economic activity in rural areas outer areas of agglomerations. At the stage of the irrepressible process of suburbanisation of rural areas surrounding large urban agglomerations and structural changes in towns, it is difficult to conclusively assess the consequences of the operation of shopping centers in outer metropolitan areas. The impact of shopping centers on small towns and rural areas is a very dynamic process and requires systematic research.

  6. Motives for starting up a side activity in rural areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markantoni, Marianna; Strijker, Derk; Koster, Sierdjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the side activities of non-farmers in rural areas in the Netherlands and more specifically their start up motives. A side activity is a small-scale home-based activity, which provides a supplementary income to the household. Side activities may have the potential to diversify the

  7. Comparing earnings profiles in urban areas of an LDC: rural-to-urban migrants vs. native workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijverberg, W P; Zeager, L A

    1994-12-01

    "We use Tanzanian data to test a recently proposed hypothesis that rural-to-urban migrants have an incentive to supply greater work effort than native urban workers, because of the migrants' positive probability of returning to the low-wage rural areas. We treat the choice between public- and private-sector employment as endogenous and, for theoretical and empirical reasons, distinguish migrants with access to rural land from those without access. Our results show that migrants in both sectors face lower initial wage offers than native urban workers. But, the wage gap is eliminated within a decade or less, and thereafter, migrants surpass the wage offers of native workers." excerpt

  8. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  9. The relationship between BMI and dietary intake of primary school children from a rural area of South Africa: The Ellisras longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Ende, C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Monyeki, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between dietary intake and BMI of primary school children from a rural area of South Africa cross-sectionally. Both under and over nutrition remain major health problems in South Africa. In rural areas, where especially undernutrition leads to child

  10. A technical framework for costing health workforce retention schemes in remote and rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zurn, P.; Vujicic, M.; Lemiere, C.; Juquois, M.; Stormont, L.; Campbell, J.; Rutten, M.M.; Braichet, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and rural areas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite

  11. Status, Restrictions and Suggested Approaches in Wastewater Management in Rural Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Fahiminia M, Farrokhi M, Talebi M, Memary G, Fazlzadeh Davil M. Status, restrictions and suggested approaches in wastewater management in rural areas of Iran. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:12-9. Aims of the Study: The objective of this study was to appraise wastewater management approaches in rural areas of Iran, restrictions, effects on environment and also definition of suitable management approaches in wastewater for future. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was performed in 2010 in rural areas of Iran. A questionnaire was prepared with subjects such as available management approaches on wastewater, suggested approaches on collecting wastewater and its final disposal and was sent to rural area’s wastewater companies in each province. Study results of 4588 rural areas of Iran (with above 200 families were collected. Results were analyzed using mean and percentage. Results: The current available management systems were mainly based on absorption wells. The main problem in this system was high ground water levels, and low permeability of soil. The most important current problem of the absorbing wells was considerable damaging effects on surface and ground water. Conclusions: The current wastewater management in rural areas especially in the field of wastewater collection was improper and undesirable. To overcome the current problem, it is necessary to use collecting methods relative to that of region. Considerable attention is required for the application of reused wastewater in agriculture. References: 1. Wilderer PA, Schreff D. Decentralized and centralized wastewater management: a challenge for technology developers. Wat Sci Tech 2000; 41(1:1-8. 2. Jackson HB. Global needs and developments in urban sanitation. in: Mara D, editor. Low-Cost sewerage. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 1996. p. 77-90. 3. UNEP/GPA. Strategy options for sewage management to protect the marine environment. The Netherlands: UNEP

  12. Telemedicine in rural areas. Experience with medical desktop-conferencing via satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, J; Kleinholz, L; Hosten, N; Zendel, W; Lemke, A; Wielgus, W; Vöge, K H; Fleck, E; Marciniak, R; Felix, R

    1995-01-01

    Cooperation between physicians in hospitals in rural areas can be assisted by desktop-conferencing using a satellite link. For six weeks, medical desktop-conferencing was tested during daily clinical conferences between the Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, and the Medical Academy, Wroclaw. The communications link was provided by the German Telekom satellite system MCS, which allowed temporary connections to be established on demand by manual dialling. Standard hardware and software were used for videoconferencing, as well as software for medical communication developed in the BERMED project. Digital data, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance images, were transmitted by a digital data channel in parallel to the transmission of analogue video and audio signals. For conferences involving large groups of people, hardware modifications were required. These included the installation of a video projector, adaptation of the audio system with improved echo cancellation, and installation of extra microphones. Learning to use an unfamiliar communication medium proved to be uncomplicated for the participating physicians.

  13. Physical fitness and anthropometric characteristics among adolescents living in urban or rural areas of Kosovo

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    Faton Tishukaj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. Methods Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population were selected. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were determined from a total of 354 adolescents (216 urban: 14.5 ± 0.4 years, 138 rural: age 14.5 ± 0.4 years who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study performed in 2013/14. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% in girls and 28.2% in males and excess body fat was detected in 18.2% of the girls and 15.9% of the boys with no differences between rural and urban adolescents. Rural adolescents performed slightly better in relative handgrip strength (+4.7%, p = 0.032 and running speed (10 m: +2.2%, p = 0.012; 20 m: +1.9%, p = 0.035, but no other differences were detected in standing long jump, counter movement jump, cardiorespiratory fitness and sit and reach test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that being a female was associated with a lower relative risk for overweight (RR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.34, p < 0.001 and high body fat content (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05–0.56, p < 0.001. In addition, higher handgrip strength, longer sprinting time and lower aerobic fitness were associated with a higher relative risk for overweight and excess body fat. In contrast, lower handgrip strength increased the risk for experiencing thinness (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89–0.96, p < 0.001. Conclusions It could be

  14. Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Rossen, Lauren M; Branum, Amy M

    2016-11-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Birth rates for teenagers aged 15-19 declined in urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015, with the largest declines in large urban counties and the smallest declines in rural counties. •From 2007 through 2015, the teen birth rate was lowest in large urban counties and highest in rural counties. •Declines in teen birth rates in all urban counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado, with 17 states experiencing a decline of 50% or more. •Declines in teen birth rates in all rural counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest (50% or more) in Colorado and Connecticut. •In 2015, teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females. Teen birth rates have demonstrated an unprecedented decline in the United States since 2007 (1). Declines occurred in all states and among all major racial and Hispanic-origin groups, yet disparities by both geography and demographic characteristics persist (2,3). Although teen birth rates and related declines have been described by state, patterns by urban-rural location have not yet been examined. This report describes trends in teen birth rates in urban (metropolitan) and rural (nonmetropolitan) areas in the United States overall and by state from 2007 through 2015 and by race and Hispanic origin for 2015. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  15. THE LEVEL OF BREAST AND CERVICAL CANCER AWARENESS AMONG WOMEN IN A RURAL AREA OF SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, O; Shemesh, N

    2017-06-01

    In South Africa breast and cervical cancer are the most predominant cancers amongst women, with mortality rates reaching surprising proportions. As a result of the continued rise of these conditions it is vital to determine these women's awareness of both, so as to determine the exact factors contributing to this rise. Whilst both urban and rural areas are afflicted, this study focused primarily on women in a rural area. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a shopping mall located in the rural area of Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga, South Africa. A total of 300 women of reproductive age were randomly identified and requested to fill out a study questionnaire assessing their level of breast and cervical cancer awareness. A total of 300 women participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 35.66 with a range of 13.53. Overall levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer in rural Bushbuckridge were found to be reduced with 66.89% and 74.49% of women who rated themselves with a poor understanding of breast and cervical cancer knowledge respectively. Among the participating women, those over the age of 40, with higher level of education were found to be more cognizant in terms of breast and cervical cancer awareness with a 30% (p = 0.0923) and 52% (p < 0.001) respectively. Their younger and less educated counterparts had a 21% (p = 0.078) and 32% (p = 0.034) awareness of breast and cervical cancer, respectively. The leading source of information for both breast and cervical cancer was healthcare facilities with a 67.11% and 63.5% respectively. This study highlights the lack of awareness and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer in women living in the rural area of Bushbuckridge, South Africa. There is also evidence showing that the older and more educated women have better knowledge than their younger and less educated counterparts, therefore there is a need for increased breast and cervical cancer education and awareness campaigns

  16. Prehypertension and hypertension among young Indonesian adults at a primary health care in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prehypertension and hypertension were related with many complications of nearly every organ, but often neglected by young adults in rural area. This research was done to observe the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among young adult in a primary health care of rural area at Cicurug, Sukabumi District, West Java.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Cicurug Public Health Center, Sukabumi District, West Java. The subjects were consecutively recruited from the outpatient clinic on Monday until Saturday in September 2012,18–25 years old, not pregnant nor having shock. They were interviewed about their age, gender, physical activity, sitting hours, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and family history and examined by trained health professionals (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Results: From 111 young adults, 34.2% had prehypertension and 17.1% had hypertension. Within sex groups, the prevalence of prehypertension was higher in females, whereas hypertension was occurred more in males. Neither of family history from mother nor father were associated with prehypertension and hypertension compared with normotension. Total activity was not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.6; p = 0.052 and hypertension (OR = 1.758; p = 0.498. BMI was associated with hypertension (OR = 3.354; p = 0.041 and not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.343; p = 0.099.Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were relatively high among young adult in primary health care of rural area. Intervention to prevent further complications needs to be done early with lifestyle modification because blood pressure is associated with modifiable risk factors, such as BMI and total activity. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:39-45Keywords: Hypertension, prehypertension, rural area, young adult

  17. Capacity building for the effective adoption of renewable energy technologies in rural areas. Experience of India NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myles, R. [Integrated Sustainable Energy and Ecological Development Association (INSEDA), New Delhi (India)

    2002-07-01

    The experience of NGO network in the promotions of biogas and other low cost RET gadgets, devices, equipments and machines in the rural areas of India, for over two decades, have shown that there are serveral problems yet challenging opportunities in the promotion and implementation of renewable energy technologies in villages. First of all, the field and extension organizations should recognise that these technologies are new and aliens to the rural people, therefore like any other technologies, developed outside the rural environment, RETs are first view with skepticism by the rural community. Even if 100 units of a RE technology are successfully demonstrated, failure of even one could create negative impact within a radius of 30-50 KMs, and its shortcomings are spread like a wild fire. The appropriate technology demonstration backed by systematic capacity building of different stakeholders/actors/players (i.e. Energy Producers, Energy Service Providers and the Energy End Users) is a must for the acceptance and large-scale adoption of RETs in rural areas of the developing countries. The programme funds for the promotion and implementation of RETs should have good percentage earmarked for the capacity building as well as supporting infrastructure for awareness, motivation, promotional and post installation services activities by local field level organizations and NGOs on a long term basis. (orig.)

  18. Effectiveness of Botswana's policy on rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketlogetswe, C.; Mothudi, T.H.; Mothibi, J.

    2007-01-01

    Rural areas, the world over, are characterised by low levels of connectivity to electrical energy, despite the fact that electricity has been universally acknowledged as one of the most important propellant for community and national development. Botswana is not immune to this trend. Consequently, available evidence puts the overall level of electrical connectivity in Botswana rural areas to just 12%. A plethora of factors are responsible for inhibiting high levels of access to electrical energy by rural communities. Some major impediments often cited as causing ineffective energy provision to rural-based communities include, among others, the following: (a)geographical set-ups of the concerned communities; (b)inappropriately conceived energy policies; (c)low-income status of most rural inhabitants. This paper, therefore, examines Botswana's policy on energy supply with the view to confirm or deny any correlation between the above factors and the low-levels of electrical connectivity in the country's rural communities, as well as many others that may have impacted on this state of affairs. The policy is evaluated by undertaking a comparative study of its implementation on two seemingly geographical contrasting rural communities within the country

  19. Addressing service delivery in rural areas through deployment of information and communication technology platforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Foko, Thato E

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available deployment of ICT Platforms in the rural areas. The contribution of ICT Platform adds to the important notion of access which enhances service delivery. This is seen through the Technology Acceptance Models used in this paper. The main research methodology...

  20. Rural Communatcation: legitimizing digital inclusion in rural field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Correa Bernardes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Through contemporary analysis, it was noted that the countryside of São Paulo experienced drastic transformation and demanded rural family farmers to adapt themselves to technological innovations, where the most striking is the use of the internet in search of information to the sustainable development of rural property.  The research adopted a methodological way of exploratory, through the case study, which analyzed the general objective the dissemination and usability of information and communication technologies in rural areas in the interior of forms-based applied to farmers in the family farms belonging to theAssociation of banana growers of Tupã. In seeking to achieve this goal, reflected on the use of internet in rural areas and measured-factors that enhance digital communication barriers in rural addressing the digital divide becomes a limiting factor to access. In this sense, the rural communication emerges as relational link mediating solutions and incorporating the diffusion of innovations in the pursuit of digital literacy of farmers contributing to the democratization of society in the information age.

  1. New indices for home nursing care resource disparities in rural and urban areas, based on geocoding and geographic distance barriers: a cross-sectional study.

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    Lin, Shyang-Woei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-10-08

    Aging in place is the crucial object of long-term care policy worldwide. Approximately 15.6-19.4% of people aged 15 or above live with a disability, and 15.3% of them have moderate or severe disabilities. The allocation of home nursing care services is therefore an important issue. Service providers in Taiwan vary substantially across regions, and between rural and urban areas. There are no appropriate indices for describing the capacity of providers that it is due to the distances from care recipients. This study therefore aimed to describe and compare distance barriers for home nursing care providers using indices of the "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance". This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012 and 2013 using geocoding and a geographic information system to identify the distance from the providers' locations to participants' homes in urban (Taipei City) and rural (Hualien County) areas in Taiwan. Data were collected in-person by professionals in Taiwanese hospitals using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The indices were calculated using regression curves, and the first inflection points were determined as the points on the curves where the first and second derivatives equaled 0. There were 5627 participants from urban areas and 956 from rural areas. In urban areas, the profit willing distance was 550-600 m, and we were unable to identify them in rural areas. This demonstrates that providers may need to supply services even when there is little profit. The tolerance limited distance were 1600-1650 m in urban areas and 1950-2000 m in rural areas. In rural areas, 33.3% of those living inside the tolerance limited distance and there was no provider within this distance, but this figure fell to just 13.9% in urban areas. There were strong disparities between urban and rural areas in home nursing care resource allocation. Our new "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance" are

  2. INVESTMENTS AND SERVICES ON THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

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    Popa Ana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article started with the modern connection observed between sectors in EU -primary, secondary and tertiary- on rural areas, where agriculture becomes essential. First, this connection is manifested in Romania under the impact of the main directions of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP during 2014-2020, namely: a more market-oriented production, but also related to the public, promoting food security, while considering environmental issues and, in addition, achieve cooperation and alignment to the European Economic Area, including equality in European funding. Secondly, there is a dedicated rural development policy, which is supported by a series of investments, but imposed a number of directions that will lead to the expansion of tertiary sector measures, marketing, tourism, ecology, and promoting social inclusion, poverty reduction and economic development in rural areas. Other influences are generated by foreign direct investments-FDI in rural areas. The conclusion is based on the fragility of the rural sector in Romania, compared to other European countries and highlights specific areas of interest of stakeholders for the following issues: improving policies and decisions, access to markets, infrastructure development, access to financial services, access to knowledge, services innovation and risk reduction.

  3. Rural Health Concerns

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    People in rural areas face some different health issues than people who live in towns and cities. Getting health care can ... long distances to get routine checkups and screenings. Rural areas often have fewer doctors and dentists, and ...

  4. Does Taking One Step Back Get You Two Steps Forward? Grade Retention and School Performance in Poor Areas in Rural China

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    Chen, Xinxin; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rise in grade retention in poor areas in rural China recently, little work has been done to understand the impact of grade retention on the educational performance of students in these areas in rural China. This paper seeks to redress this shortcoming and examines the effect of grade retention on educational performance on 1649…

  5. Women's maternity care needs and related service models in rural areas: A comprehensive systematic review of qualitative evidence.

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    Hoang, Ha; Le, Quynh; Ogden, Kathryn

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the needs of rural women in maternity care and service models available to them is significant for the development of effective policies and the sustainability of rural communities. Nevertheless, no systematic review of studies addressing these needs has been conducted. To synthesise the best available evidence on the experiences of women's needs in maternity care and existing service models in rural areas. Literature search of ten electronic databases, digital theses, and reference lists of relevant studies applying inclusion/exclusion criteria was conducted. Selected papers were assessed using standardised critical appraisal instruments from JBI-QARI. Data extracted from these studies were synthesised using thematic synthesis. 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. There were three main themes and several sub-themes identified. A comprehensive set of the maternity care expectations of rural women was reported in this review including safety (7), continuity of care (6) and quality of care (6), and informed choices needs (4). In addition, challenges in accessing maternity services also emerged from the literature such as access (6), risk of travelling (9) and associated cost of travel (9). Four models of maternity care examined in the literature were medically led care (5), GP-led care (4), midwifery-led care (7) and home birth (6). The systematic review demonstrates the importance of including well-conducted qualitative studies in informing the development of evidence-based policies to address women's maternity care needs and inform service models. Synthesising the findings from qualitative studies offers important insight for informing effective public health policy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

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    Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Pelican, Katherine; Cross, Paul C.; Eguren, Antonieta; Singer, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

  7. [Impact factors analysis on child neglect of children aged 3-6 year-old in rural areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pan, Jianping; Zhang, Songjie; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Weiqing; Tao, Fangbiao; Qin, Rui; Gu, Guixiong; Shi, Shuhua; Zhang, Jing; Du, Qiyun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Jiao, Feng; Wang, Huishan; Xu, Tao; Wang, Guixiang; Xi, Weiping; Pang, Songtao; Wang, Xin; Cao, Chunhong; Li, Min; Yang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the major influence factors of child neglect among rural areas children aged 3-6 years in China. According to multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, distribution characteristics and the level of economic development, we randomly sampled 10 provinces, 26 cities (8 capital cities, 16 prefecture-level cities and 2 municipalities) using lottery method. Depending on the different level of economic and cultural, we sampled one medium county from each city (municipalities sampled two counties), a total of 28 counties. All towns were divided into high, medium and low three levels in accordance with economic and cultural, each level sampled one town, each conty sampled three towns, a total of 84 towns were sampled. Each town sampled 40 children, including 20 boys and 20 girls (including each 10 children aged 3 to 6, half and half boys and girls). 4 096 rural children aged 3-6 years old were sampled and surveyed of China. Based on "the Neglect Norms for Children Aged 3 to 6 Years Old in Rural Areas of China" explored the risk factors of child neglect. SPSS 18. 0 for windows was employed for statistics analysis. Multifactorial analysis was conducted through multivariate Logistic Regression. The total neglected rate of the rural children aged 3 to 6 was 53.7% (2,047/3,810), and the total neglected degree was 44.42±7.57. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, neglected risk of the boys was higher than the girls (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.49), neglected risk of children were higher, when their mothers were migrant workers (OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.59-3.00); the lower educational level of mothers, the higher neglected risk of children, the children in families that mothers only received primary education or was uneducated were most likely to be neglected (OR=2.92, 95% CI: 1.91-4.47), the second was the families that mothers received primary education (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.29-2.69); the lower the household income, the easier to be neglected the children

  8. The role of tourism in poverty alleviation in rural areas of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeić Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty in Serbia has increased dramatically in the last decade of the twentieth century. The social middle class has disappeared, the number of poor has doubled, and the data collected by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia shows that a quarter of the population lives below the poverty line. Although the number of those who live below the absolute poverty line is increasing in cities, this increase is even more significant in rural areas. The aim of this paper is to show the possibilities of implementation of pro-poor tourism strategy in the Republic of Serbia. The paper consists of an introductory part, concluding remarks and three chapters. In the first chapter, the concepts of poverty, pro-poor, rural and sustainable tourism are covered. The second chapter gives insight into the international pro-poor experiences (Trinidad and Tobago, Bangladesh, Nepal, South Africa, Ecuador, Kenya, Tanzania and Brazil. The third chapter is dedicated to the situation in Serbia. It has been shown that new forms of tourism, which bring benefits to both tourism enterprises and local communities, can initiate the development of Serbia's rural areas.

  9. Urban vs. rural factors that affect adult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Isa, Zaleha Md; Jie, Xu; Ju, Zhang Long; Ismail, Noor Hassim

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