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Sample records for rural adolescents future

  1. Issues in rural adolescent mental health in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Candice P; Aisbett, Damon L; Francis, Kristy; Kelly, Melinda; Newnham, Krystal; Newnham, Karyn

    2006-01-01

    The mental health of adolescents living in rural Australia has received little research attention. In this article, the extant literature on rural adolescent mental health in Australia is reviewed. Given the lack of literature on this topic, the review is centered on a vignette presented at the beginning of the article. The case represented by the vignette is that of a young Australian growing up in a rural area. The issues raised--including the nature of mental health issues for rural adolescents and barriers to seeking professional help--are then discussed in terms of the available literature. The article concludes with a future focus for research efforts in the area of rural adolescent mental health.

  2. Rural adolescents' access to adolescent friendly health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly A; Randall, Brandy A; Brennan, Alison L; Anderson, Melinda K; Gross, Dean A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess rural North Dakota adolescents' experiences in accessing adolescent-friendly health services and to examine the relationship between rural adolescents' communication with health care providers and risk behaviors. Data are from the Rural Adolescent Health Survey (RAHS), an anonymous survey of 14- to 19-year-olds (n = 322) attending secondary schools in four frontier counties of North Dakota. Descriptive statistics were used to assess participants' access to adolescent-friendly health services characterized as accessible, acceptable, and appropriate. Logistic regressions were used to examine whether participant-reported risk behaviors predicted communication with health care providers about individual health risk behaviors. Rural adolescents reported high access to acceptable primary health care services but low levels of effective health care services. Participant report of engaging in high-risk behaviors was associated with having received information from health care providers about the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. These findings reveal missed opportunities for primary care providers in rural settings to provide fundamental health promotion to adolescents. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Future Time Perspective, Hope, and Ethnic Identity among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelabu, Detris Honora

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of academic achievement to future time perspective (FTP), hope, and ethnic identity among low-income, rural and urban African American adolescents ( N = 661). Findings indicate that adolescents who are oriented toward the future, determined to reach their goals (hope), and interested in and have a strong sense…

  4. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  5. Heterosexual female adolescents' decision-making about sexual intercourse and pregnancy in rural Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Paulina; Leipert, Bev; Evans, Marilyn; Regan, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    emerged from the analysis was a complex and non-linear process that involved prioritizing four influences within the rural context. The influences that participants of this study described as being part of their sexual decision-making process were personal values and circumstances, family values and expectations, friends' influences, and community influences. When influences coincided, they strengthened participants' sexual decisions, whereas when influences opposed each other, participants felt conflicted and prioritized the influence that had the most effect on their personal lives and future goals. Although these influences may be common to all adolescents, they impact the rural female adolescent sexual decision-making process by influencing and being influenced by geographical and sociocultural factors that make up the rural context. This study reveals important new and preliminary information about rural female adolescents' sexual decision-making process and factors that affect it. Findings improve understanding of how rural female adolescents make choices regarding sexual intercourse and pregnancy and can be used to guide future research projects that could facilitate effective development of sexual health promotion initiatives, inform rural health policy and practices, and enhance existing sexual education programs in rural communities.

  6. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  7. Future Orientation and School Bullying Among Adolescents in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Ling Gao; Ko Ling Chan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations among future orientation, school bonding, and school bullying perpetration behaviors. Data were collected from 677 seventh- to ninth-grade adolescents in an area in Southwest China. Specifically, students completed the Future-Orientation Questionnaire, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, and the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire to assess their future orientatio...

  8. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  9. Adolescent health: a rural community's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groft, Jean N; Hagen, Brad; Miller, Nancy K; Cooper, Natalie; Brown, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Significant health problems encountered in adulthood often have their roots in health behaviours initiated during adolescence. In order to reverse this trend, school and health personnel, as well as parents and other community members working with high school students, need to be aware of the health-related beliefs and choices that guide the behaviours of teenagers. Although a wide variety of research has been conducted on this topic among urban adolescents, less is known about the health beliefs and behaviors of adolescents residing in rural areas, particularly in Canada. In general, rural Canadians are less healthy than their urban counterparts. Building on the knowledge and understanding of their own community, key stakeholders were invited to engage in the design and implementation of a participatory action research project aimed at understanding and improving the health of rural adolescents. A group of parents, teachers, students, school administrators and public health nurses engaged in a participatory action research project to better understand determinants of the health of rural adolescents at a high school in Western Canada. Group members developed and administered a health survey to 288 students from a small rural high school, in an effort to identify areas of concern and interest regarding health practices and beliefs of rural adolescents, and to take action on these identified concerns. Results indicated some interesting but potentially worrying trends in this population. For example, while frequent involvement in a physical activity was noted by 75.9% of participants, close to half of the females (48%) described their body image as 'a little overweight' or 'definitely overweight', and approximately 25.8% of respondents noted that they skipped meals most of the time. Differences between the genders were apparent in several categories. For example, more girls smoked (16.2%) than boys (12.3%), and more males (55.0%) than females (41%) had tried illegal

  10. Examining Rural/Urban Differences in Prescription Opioid Misuse Among US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M; Rigg, Khary K

    2016-01-01

    This study examines differences in prescription opioid misuse (POM) among adolescents in rural, small urban, and large urban areas of the United States and identifies several individual, social, and community risk factors contributing to those differences. We used nationally representative data from the 2011 and 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health and estimated binary logistic regression and formal mediation models to assess past-year POM among 32,036 adolescents aged 12-17. Among adolescents, 6.8% of rural, 6.0% of small urban, and 5.3% of large urban engaged in past-year POM. Net of multiple risk and protective factors, rural adolescents have 35% greater odds and small urban adolescents have 21% greater odds of past-year POM compared to large urban adolescents. The difference between rural and small urban adolescents was not significant. Criminal activity, lower perceived substance use risk, and greater use of emergency medical treatment partially contribute to higher odds among rural adolescents, but they are also partially buffered by less peer substance use, less illicit drug access, and stronger religious beliefs. Researchers, policy makers, and treatment providers must consider the complex array of individual, social, and community risk and protective factors to understand rural/urban differences in adolescent POM. Potential points of intervention to prevent POM in general and reduce rural disparities include early education about addiction risks, use of family drug courts to link criminal offenders to treatment, and access to nonemergency medical services to reduce rural residents' reliance on emergency departments where opioid prescribing is more likely. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  11. Rural and Urban Differences in Sexual Behaviors Among Adolescents in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Mahony, Helen; Noble, Charlotte; Wang, Wei; Ziemba, Robert; Malmi, Markku; Maness, Sarah B; Walsh-Buhi, Eric R; Daley, Ellen M

    2018-04-01

    The national teen birth rate is higher in rural compared to urban areas. While national data suggest rural areas may present higher risk for adverse sexual health outcomes among adolescents, it is unknown whether there are differences within the state of Florida. Overall, Florida has poorer sexual health indicators for adolescents compared to national rates. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in sexual behaviors among Florida adolescents by rural-urban community location. This study includes baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Florida high schools. Of the 6316 participants, 74% were urban and 26% were rural. Participants responded to questions on sexual behaviors, sexual behavior intentions, and demographics. We estimated the effect of rural-urban status on risk outcomes after controlling for demographic variables using generalized linear mixed models. More teens from rural areas reported ever having sex (24.0%) compared to urban teens (19.7%). No significant differences were observed for most of sexual behaviors assessed. Nonetheless, urban participants were less likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to rural participants (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). Overall, there were no major differences in sexual behaviors between rural and urban adolescents in Florida. However, sexual intentions differed between rural and urban adolescents; specifically, rural adolescents were more likely to intend to have sex without a condom in the next year compared to urban adolescents. Understanding the specific disparities can inform contraception and sexual health interventions among rural youth.

  12. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M; McDonell, James R

    2016-04-22

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents' reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  14. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

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    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  15. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M.; McDonell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents’ reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. PMID:27106255

  16. Body image dissatisfaction among rural and urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Glaner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescents living in rural and urban areas, and to analyze the influence of demographic and anthropometric variables on body image dissatisfaction. A total of 629 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years from urban and rural areas participated in the study. Demographic variables (gender, age, area of residence, anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, skinfold thickness and body image data were collected. BMI (underweight: 25 kg/m² and the sum of two skinfold thicknesses, Σ2SF (girls: low: 36 mm; boys: low: 25 mm were then calculated. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was similar (p≥0,05 among rural (64,2% and urban adolescents (62,8%. Boys wished to increase the size of their body silhouette (41,3%, whereas girls wished to reduce it (50,5% (p<0,001. Adolescents with low and excess weight based on BMI and with high Σ2SF presented a 3,14, 8,45 and 2,08 times higher chance of body image dissatisfaction, respectively. A high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among adolescents from rural and urban areas. An unhealthy nutritional status and body adiposity increase the chances of body image dissatisfaction. These findings emphasize the social pressure on girls to remain slim and on boys to attain an athletic body.

  17. Adolescent Experience of Menstruation in Rural Kenya.

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    Secor-Turner, Molly; Schmitz, Kaitlin; Benson, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Although menstruation is a universal experience, girls in resource-poor areas face unique challenges related to menstruation management. In Kenya, girls miss nearly 3.5 million learning days per month because of limited access to sanitary products and lack of adequate sanitation. Global priorities to address gender inequality-especially related to education-often do not consider the impact of poverty on gendered experiences, such as menstruation. The aim of the study was to describe the experiences of menstruation from the perspective of adolescent girls living in rural Kenya. Data for this qualitative study were collected through 29 individual interviews with adolescent girls and separate field observations. Descriptive content analysis was used to identify themes reflective of the data from the individual interviews and field notes. Four themes were developed to summarize the data: (a) receiving information about menstruation, (b) experiences of menstruation, (c) menstrual hygiene practices, and (d) social norms and the meaning of menstruation. Findings from this study describe the impact of menstruation on the lives of adolescent girls in rural Kenya. Menstrual hygiene management and its associated challenges may impact girls' academic continuity. Experiences of menstruation also reinforce gender inequality and further marginalize girls in low-income, rural areas of Kenya. Consideration of menstruation is critical to promote health and academic continuity for girls in rural Kenya.

  18. Community-Level Exposure to the Rural Mining Industry: The Potential Influence on Early Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use.

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    Gay, Christopher; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Packham, John; Ackerman, Gerald; Lensch, Taylor; Yang, Wei

    2018-01-31

    Rural youth have higher rates of alcohol and tobacco use compared to their urban counterparts. However, the economic dependence of rural communities may differentially influence risk behaviors. While research has shown that adults working in mining have elevated rates of alcohol and tobacco use, the influence of living in a mining community on early adolescent substance use is unknown. Using data from a representative sample of 4,535 middle school students in a state with heavy reliance on mining, we conducted weighted logistic regression to investigate whether community-level mining economic dependence influences rural-urban differences in adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. All models adjusted for sociodemographics, military family involvement, parental monitoring, and length of residence. Over one quarter of the sampled students lived in rural counties and approximately half of these counties met the USDA mining economic typology. After stratifying rural counties by mining and nonmining economic dependence, students in rural mining counties had significantly higher odds of all measures of alcohol use (AORs ranged from 1.83 to 3.99) and tobacco use (AORs ranged from 1.61 to 5.05) compared to students in urban counties. Only use of smokeless tobacco was higher among students in rural nonmining counties. Our findings demonstrate rural-urban disparities in adolescent substance use that are particularly pronounced among youth living in counties with economic dependence on mining. Future research on this subject should include a wider range of community-level factors that may have specific relevance in rural settings to inform the development of population-level interventions. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Factors Associated with Physical Activity Behaviors Among Rural Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Urruty, Kenli A.

    2009-01-01

    The "obesity epidemic" in the United States is a current health concern that has sparked research interest in physical activity as a means of weight management. However, little research has examined the physical activity behaviors of rural adolescents. The goal of the current study was to use a biopsychosocial framework to examine the physical activity behaviors of a sample of rural adolescents, and explore factors associated with physical activity participation. A sample of 162 ninth- an...

  20. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-06-01

    Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security status. Baseline analysis using data from a randomized trial to increase school breakfast participation (SBP) in rural Minnesota high schools. Students completed a survey regarding food security, characteristics, and home and school environments. Schools provided academic data and staff measured height and weight. Food security was dichotomized as FS vs FIS. Bivariate analysis, multivariate linear/logistic regression, and testing for interaction of food security and sex were performed. Food-insecure adolescents reported poorer health, less exercise, had lower grades, and higher SBP (p breakfast (p = .05). All associations except reported benefits remained significant after adjustment. Interactions were identified with girls' grade point average and with boys' caloric and added sugar intake. Negative associations among food insecurity and positive youth development are identified in our sample. Policy and environmental strategies should address the complexities of these associations, including exploration of the role of school meals. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  1. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  2. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

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    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  3. Assessing the psychometric and ecometric properties of neighborhood scales using adolescent survey data from urban and rural Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gina; Inchley, Joanna; Humphris, Gerry; Currie, Candace

    2017-03-28

    Despite the well-established need for specific measurement instruments to examine the relationship between neighborhood conditions and adolescent well-being outcomes, few studies have developed scales to measure features of the neighborhoods in which adolescents reside. Moreover, measures of neighborhood features may be operationalised differently by adolescents living in different levels of urban/rurality. This has not been addressed in previous studies. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish instruments to measure adolescent neighborhood features at both the individual and neighborhood level, 2) assess their psychometric and ecometric properties, 3) test for invariance by urban/rurality, and 4) generate neighborhood level scores for use in further analysis. Data were from the Scottish 2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey, which included an over-sample of rural adolescents. The survey responses of interest came from questions designed to capture different facets of the local area in which each respondent resided. Intermediate data zones were used as proxies for neighborhoods. Internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. Invariance was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Multilevel models were used to estimate ecometric properties and generate neighborhood scores. Two constructs labeled neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood disorder were identified. Adjustment was made to the originally specified model to improve model fit and measures of invariance. At the individual level, reliability was .760 for social cohesion and .765 for disorder, and between .524 and .571 for both constructs at the neighborhood level. Individuals in rural areas experienced greater neighborhood social cohesion and lower levels of neighborhood disorder compared with those in urban areas. The scales are appropriate for measuring neighborhood characteristics experienced by adolescents across urban and rural Scotland, and can be used in

  4. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls from Rural Communities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Addressing the nutritional needs of adolescents could be an important step towards breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. Objective: Assess nutritional status of rural adolescent girls. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometric and socio-demographic information from 211 ...

  5. Rural Asthma: Current Understanding of Prevalence, Patterns, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Robin Dawson; Ownby, Dennis R

    2017-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of children and adolescents in the USA. While asthma has been understood to disproportionately affect urban dwellers, recent investigations have revealed rural pediatric asthma prevalence to be very similar to urban and to be more closely correlated with socioeconomic and environmental factors than geographic location or population density. Rural children experience factors unique to location that impact asthma development and outcomes, including housing quality, cigarette smoke exposure, and small/large-scale farming. Additionally, there are challenging barriers to appropriate asthma care that frequently are more severe for those living in rural areas, including insurance status, lack of primary care providers and pulmonary specialists, knowledge deficits (both patient and provider), and a lack of culturally tailored asthma interventions. Interventions designed to address rural pediatric asthma disparities are more likely to be successful when targeted to specific challenges, such as the use of school-based services or telemedicine to mitigate asthma care access issues. Continued research on understanding the complex interaction of specific rural environmental factors with host factors can inform future interventions designed to mitigate asthma disparities.

  6. African American Adolescents' Future Education Orientation: Associations with Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Parental Support

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    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Eryigit, Suna; Stephens, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7-12 attending a rural, southern county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with "future education orientation." Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with…

  7. Study Of Diet And Nutritional Status Of School Going Rural Adolescent Boys In Allahabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Bali

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of malnutrition among school going rural adolescent boys?Objective: To assess the diet and nutritional status of school going rural adolescent boys.Study design: Cross sectional study.Setting: Rural Intermediate Colleges.Participants: 660 study subjects (adolescents boys. 10-19 years, of classes 6th to 12th from 8 rural intermediate colleges in two blocks of Allahabad.Study period: One year (From April 2002 to May 2003.Statistical Analysis: Chi square lestResults: Overall mean height. BM1 and Haemoglobin level of adolescents were 1 56.97+9.84cm. 18.59+2.20 kg/m2 and 12.12+1.31 gm/dl respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition in terms of Stunting (24.1 % Thinness (10.5% and Overweight (1.4% was observ ed. Maximum calorie deficit was seen in thirteen-year-old boys, it was 42.5% below the RDA and minimum deficit (25.7% was observed among nineteen-year-old boys. Overall mean caloric deficit among 10 to 19 years’ adolescents was 839.57 Kcal/day. Prevalence of anaemia was observed in 371(56.3% adolescent boys. Prevalence of Vit. A deficiency. Vitamin B - complex and Vitamin C deficiency were found to be 3.5%. 25.3% and 6.8% respectively.Conclusion: Nutritional status of school going adolescent boys in rural areas of Allahabad is not satisfactory and there is a strong need for a programme especially for adolescent boys to fulfill their nutritional needs.

  8. Psychiatric treatment of children and adolescents in rural communities. Myths and realities.

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    Cook, A D; Copans, S A; Schetky, D H

    1998-07-01

    Rural child and adolescent psychiatry offers many challenges, a varied and interesting practice, and the satisfaction of performing needed and important work in an environment in which one's presence is valued. The successful psychiatrist can expect to be an integrated and appreciated member of the community. The fit is not a good one for every practitioner, however. Not only are incomes lower, although the cost of living is low as well, but practitioners may find they have only exchanged urban stresses for rural pressures. The characteristics important for the child and adolescent psychiatrist are the same for rural and urban settings: flexibility, creativity and innovation, competence, self confidence, a good sense of boundaries, a good balance between personal and private life, supportive personal relationships, and a sense of humor. One must be a child advocate, have a willingness to give of one's self and one's time, and be down to earth, comfortable with oneself, and capable of self entertainment. Training programs with access to rural populations can introduce residents to rural child and adolescent psychiatry while supporting those who are already in practice. The authors hope that this article will promote a dialogue with psychiatrists considering relocation to a rural area and encourage training programs to prepare residents for rural practice.

  9. Childhood Predictors of Adolescent Competence and Self-Worth in Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Grady, Matthew W.; Spoden, Micajah

    2012-01-01

    Problem Urban children who become competent adults despite circumstances that place their development and mental health at risk are considered to be resilient. Less is known about the risk and protective factors that characterize resilience among Hispanic/Latinos living in rural areas. Methods Data for regression analyses were collected when children (N = 603; 54% Hispanic/Latino) enrolled in the study in fifth grade, (M=10.4 years of age) and again five years later when they were in high school (M=15 years of age). Findings Statistically significant predictors of competence and self-worth in high schoolers included gender, ethnicity, and mother’s education, as well as stress, temperament (task persistence), and competences measured in grade school. Conclusions Parents’ perceptions of child’s temperament is a significant predictor of future competence and self-worth among rural adolescents. PMID:23121139

  10. Childhood predictors of adolescent competence and self-worth in rural youth.

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    Rew, Lynn; Grady, Matthew W; Spoden, Micajah

    2012-11-01

    Urban children who become competent adults despite circumstances that place their development and mental health at risk are considered to be resilient. Less is known about the risk and protective factors that characterize resilience among Hispanic/Latinos living in rural areas. Data for regression analyses were collected when children (n = 603; 54% Hispanic/Latino) enrolled in the study in fifth grade (M = 10.4 years of age), and again 5 years later when they were in high school (M = 15 years of age). Statistically significant predictors of competence and self-worth in high schoolers included gender, ethnicity, and mother's education, as well as stress, temperament (task persistence), and competences measured in grade school. Parents' perception of child's temperament is a significant predictor of future competence and self-worth among rural adolescents. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  12. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  13. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

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    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  14. Perceptions of oral health, preventive care, and care-seeking behaviors among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-12-01

    An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being "free" or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  15. Psychosocial factors influencing the frequency of fast-food consumption among urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Aragón, M Catalina; Herrera-Raven, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that influence fast-food consumption in urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents. A self-administered questionnaire designed for the study asked about sociodemographic information, frequency of fast-food consumption, meaning of "fast food," location of purchase, and psychosocial correlates. Five psychosocial factors were extracted by using principal components analysis with Varimax rotation method and eigenvalues. Descriptive statistics and a hierarchical linear regression model were used to predict the frequency of fast-food consumption. Responses from 400 adolescents (ages 12-17 y) reveal that daily consumption of fast food was 1.8 times more frequently mentioned by rural adolescents compared with urban youth. Urban and rural differences were found in the way adolescents classified fast foods (rural adolescents included more traditional foods like chips, sandwiches, and Casado-a dish consisting of rice, black beans, plantains, salad, and a meat), and in purchasing locations (rural adolescents identified neighborhood convenience stores as fast-food restaurants). Living in rural areas, convenience and availability of foods, and the presence of external loci of control were predictors of a higher frequency of fast-food consumption, whereas health awareness predicted a lower frequency. The development of interventions to reduce fast-food consumption in Costa Rican adolescents should consider not only convenience, but also the availability of these foods where adolescents are more exposed, particularly in rural areas. Interventions such as improving the convenience of healthy fast foods available in school canteens and neighborhood stores, policies to increase the price of unhealthy fast food, and activities to provide adolescents with the skills to increase self-efficacy and reduce the effect of external loci of control are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of difference in physical activities in urban and rural adolescents of Mangalore

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    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of adolescents who are overweight is one of the most pressing public health problems in India. Aims & Objectives: To find the difference in Physical Activities(PA among urban adolescents to that of rural in Mangalore. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study among high school students using a standard questionnaire (PAQ-A to elicit total hours of PA during the past seven days. Results: Average age of the adolescents was 13.9. We could find 56% boys and 44% girls studying in urban schools and 53.3% boys and 46.6 % girls in rural. Seventy seven percent of the total students do running/jogging as their major PA and 66.6% students do cycling. Only 32.8% students had PA while coming to school every day and it was most common among boys in rural schools (55%. Total PA Score for rural areas was 453.5 with a mean of 3.06(out of 5. For Urban areas, total score was 376.3 with a mean of 2.5 and the difference in proportion was statistically significant. Conclusion: We found that the adolescents studying in the schools of rural areas had better physical activities compared to their urban school counterparts.

  17. Assessment of difference in physical activities in urban and rural adolescents of Mangalore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kundapur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of adolescents who are overweight is one of the most pressing public health problems in India. Aims & Objectives: To find the difference in Physical Activities(PA among urban adolescents to that of rural in Mangalore. Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study among high school students using a standard questionnaire (PAQ-A to elicit total hours of PA during the past seven days. Results: Average age of the adolescents was 13.9. We could find 56% boys and 44% girls studying in urban schools and 53.3% boys and 46.6 % girls in rural. Seventy seven percent of the total students do running/jogging as their major PA and 66.6% students do cycling. Only 32.8% students had PA while coming to school every day and it was most common among boys in rural schools (55%. Total PA Score for rural areas was 453.5 with a mean of 3.06(out of 5. For Urban areas, total score was 376.3 with a mean of 2.5 and the difference in proportion was statistically significant. Conclusion: We found that the adolescents studying in the schools of rural areas had better physical activities compared to their urban school counterparts.

  18. Paediatric case mix in a rural clinical school is relevant to future practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Helen M; Maley, Moira A L; Playford, Denese E; Nicol, Pam; Evans, Sharon F

    2017-11-29

    Exposure to a representative case mix is essential for clinical learning, with logbooks established as a way of demonstrating patient contacts. Few studies have reported the paediatric case mix available to geographically distributed students within the same medical school. Given international interest in expanding medical teaching locations to rural contexts, equitable case exposure in rural relative to urban settings is topical. The Rural Clinical School of Western Australia locates students up to 3500 km from the urban university for an academic year. There is particular need to examine paediatric case mix as a study reported Australian graduates felt unprepared for paediatric rotations. We asked: Does a rural clinical school provide a paediatric case mix relevant to future practice? How does the paediatric case mix as logged by rural students compare with that by urban students? The 3745 logs of 76 urban and 76 rural consenting medical students were categorised by presenting symptoms and compared to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) database Major Diagnostic Categories (MDCs). Rural and urban students logged core paediatric cases, in similar order, despite the striking difference in geographic locations. The pattern of overall presenting problems closely corresponded to Australian paediatric hospital admissions. Rural students logged 91% of cases in secondary healthcare settings; urban students logged 90% of cases in tertiary settings. The top four presenting problems were ENT/respiratory, gastrointestinal/urogenital, neurodevelopmental and musculoskeletal; these made up 60% of all cases. Rural and urban students logged similar proportions of infants, children and adolescents, with a variety of case morbidity. Rural clinical school students logged a mix of core paediatric cases relevant to illnesses of Australian children admitted to public hospitals, with similar order and pattern by age group to urban students, despite major differences

  19. Anticipating Their Future: Adolescent Values for the Future Predict Adult Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Andrea K.; Wray-Lake, Laura; Warren, Michael; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent future values--beliefs about what will matter to them in the future--may shape their adult behavior. Utilizing a national longitudinal British sample, this study examined whether adolescent future values in six domains (i.e., family responsibility, full-time job, personal responsibility, autonomy, civic responsibility, and hedonistic…

  20. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls from Rural Communities of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Stroecker, B.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Zenebe, A.; Mekonen, Y.; Girmay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Addressing the nutritional needs of adolescents could be an important step towards breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. Objective: Assess nutritional status of rural adolescent girls. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometric and socio-demographic

  1. Retrospective chart review for obesity and associated interventions among rural Mexican-American adolescents accessing healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    To report a retrospective analysis of data routinely collected in the course of healthcare services at a rural health clinic and to assess obesity incidence and associated interventions among rural Mexican-American adolescents. Two hundred and twelve charts reviewed; 98 (46.2%) males and 114 (53.8%) females. Data extracted included Medicaid exams conducted at the clinic within 5 years. Equal overweight or obese (n = 105, 49.5%), versus normal BMI categorizations (n = 107, 50.5%) documented overall and by gender. Female obesity higher (25.4%) than national norms (17.4%); male rates (25.5%) were within national norm. Interventions provided by nurse practitioners (94%) for 34.8%-80% of overweight/obese had limited follow-up (4%). Obesity incidence markedly increased between 13 and 18 years of age without associated interventions; 51.4%-75.6% without interventions. Obesity is a healthcare problem among rural Mexican-American adolescents accessing care at the rural health clinic. Obesity intervention and follow-up was suboptimal within this setting. Rural and ethnic minority adolescents experience health disparities concerning obesity prevalence and remote healthcare access. Obesity prevention and treatment during adolescence is a national health priority given physiologic and psychological tolls on health and potential for obesity into adulthood. Obesity assessment and translation of evidence-based interventions for rural Mexican-American adolescents at rural health clinics is implicated. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  2. Determinants of maternity care services utilization among married adolescents in rural India.

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    Prashant Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Coupled with the largest number of maternal deaths, adolescent pregnancy in India has received paramount importance due to early age at marriage and low contraceptive use. The factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescents in rural India are poorly discussed.Using the data from third wave of National Family Health Survey (2005-06, available in public domain for the use by researchers, this paper examines the factors associated with the utilization of maternal healthcare services among married adolescent women (aged 15-19 years in rural India. Three components of maternal healthcare service utilization were measured: full antenatal care, safe delivery, and postnatal care within 42 days of delivery for the women who gave births in the last five years preceding the survey. Considering the framework on causes of maternal mortality proposed by Thaddeus and Maine (1994, selected socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors influencing outcome events were included as the predictor variables. Bi-variate analyses including chi-square test to determine the difference in proportion, and logistic regression to understand the net effect of predictor variables on selected outcomes were applied. Findings indicate the significant differences in the use of selected maternal healthcare utilization by educational attainment, economic status and region of residence. Muslim women, and women belonged to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes are less likely to avail safe delivery services. Additionally, adolescent women from the southern region utilizing the highest maternal healthcare services than the other regions.The present study documents several socioeconomic and cultural factors affecting the utilization of maternal healthcare services among rural adolescent women in India. The ongoing healthcare programs should start targeting household with married adolescent women belonging to

  3. Effects of overweight and leisure-time activities on aerobic fitness in urban and rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Jaju, Deepali; Hassan, Mohammed O

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effects of overweight and leisure-time activities on maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) in urban and rural Omani adolescents. A total of 529 (245 males, 284 females) adolescents, aged 15-16 years were randomly selected from segregated urban and rural schools. Maximal aerobic capacity was estimated using the multistage 20-meter shuttle-run test. The body mass index (BMI) of urban boys and girls was significantly higher than that of rural boys and girls. Urban boys and girls spent significantly less weekly hours on sports activities and significantly more weekly hours on TV/computer games than their rural counterpart. Urban boys and girls achieved significantly less VO(2)max than rural boys and girls (44.2 and 33.0 vs. 48.3 and 38.6 mL/kg/min, respectively). Maximal aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with BMI in urban boys. Overweight and inactivity had significant negative effects on cardiorespiratory fitness in urban boys and girls as compared to their rural counterparts. Weight gain in adolescence requires early intervention.

  4. Urban-rural differences in adolescent eating behaviour: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15-year-olds in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Kate A

    2014-08-01

    Improving the diet of the Scottish population has been a government focus in recent years. Population health is known to vary between geographies; therefore alongside trends and socio-economic inequalities in eating behaviour, geographic differences should also be monitored. Eating behaviour data from the 2010 Scotland Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey were modelled using multilevel linear and logistic modelling. Data were collected in schools across urban and rural Scotland. Schoolchildren aged 15 years. Adolescents living in remote rural Scotland had the highest consumption frequency of vegetables (on average consumed on 6·68 d/week) and the lowest consumption frequency of sweets and crisps (on 4·27 and 3·02 d/week, respectively). However, it was not in the major four cities of Scotland (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen) but in the geography described by the classification 'other urban' areas (large towns of between 10 000 and 125 000 residents) that adolescents had the poorest diet. Deprivation and rurality were independently associated with food consumption for all but fruit consumption. Sharing a family meal, dieting behaviour, food poverty and breakfast consumption did not differ by rurality. Variance at the school level was significant for fruit and vegetable consumption frequencies and for irregular breakfast consumption, regardless of rurality. Young people from rural areas have a healthier diet than those living in urban areas. The eating behaviours examined did not explain these differences. Future research should investigate why urban-rural differences exist for consumption frequencies of 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' foods.

  5. Eating habits and factors affecting food choice of adolescents living in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiota, Alexandra; Pelekanou, Maria; Tsitouras, Andreas; Koukoulis, Georgios N

    2013-01-01

    To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED questionnaire. Information was collected regarding self-perceived body size, dieting, dietary knowledge, parental control, meal and snack frequency, eating out of home, eating takeaways and precooked meals, eating from the school canteen. Body image concerns, dieting, education about food, parental control, maternal education level and eating with family and peers are factors that were found to affect food choices in this group of Greek adolescents. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low (KIDMED index was 4.5±2.7). Regular family meals at home were frequent in this group and 99% of the adolescents ate lunch daily at home. Eating out with peers and eating from the school canteen was related with higher consumption of 'junk type of food'. Girls and younger adolescents and those whose mothers had a higher education level seem to make healthier choices. Factors such as personal issues, family and peer pressure significantly affect food choices among adolescents living in a Greek rural area and highlight the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescents.

  6. School Absenteeism during Menstruation among Rural Adolescent Girls in Pune

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Bodat, Mrunalini M Ghate, Jyoti R Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Menstrual related problems and inadequate school sanitation facilities have an adverse effect on adolescent girl?s academic performance and school attendance especially in rural setting. The following study was undertaken to determine school absenteeism during menstruation period. Objective: To assess the impact of menstruation on school attendance and factors affecting menstruation management. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in rural field practice area o...

  7. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  8. Barriers, Benefits, and Behaviors Related to Breakfast Consumption Among Rural Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Shanafelt, Amy; Wang, Qi; Leduc, Robert; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-03-01

    We sought to determine if perceived barriers, benefits, and modifiable behaviors support or interfere with breakfast consumption in a racially and economically diverse rural high school population. The participants were 832 Minnesota adolescents from 16 rural high schools. We used baseline data from a group randomized trial aimed at increasing school breakfast participation through policy and environmental-level school changes. Students completed an online survey asking about demographics, breakfast eating behaviors, and the barriers and benefits of eating as it relates to school performance. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, accounting for clustering by school, was performed using SAS. Each scale was modeled independently. Participants were 9th and 10th grade students, 36% free/reduced-price lunch (FRL), 30% non-White, and 55% female. Breakfast skippers compared to nonbreakfast skippers reported fewer school related benefits and beliefs and more barriers to eating breakfast (p breakfast. Future intervention research should focus on alleviating barriers and enhancing education around the school related benefits of eating breakfast. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  9. Retrospective chart review of obesity and episodic and chronic illness among rural Mexican-American adolescents accessing rural health clinic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Pierce, Sherrie; Collins, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    Obesity impacts the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents, and is a risk factor for development of episodic and chronic illness. Rural Mexican-American adolescents are at risk for obesity and associated chronic illnesses.The study used a retrospective chart review of data collected routinely in a rural health clinic setting from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010 to assess incidence of overweight/obesity status and episodic or chronic illness among Mexican-American adolescents aged 12-18 years. Analyses included body mass index, age, gender, and episodic or chronic illness diagnoses. Two hundred twelve charts were audited; women (n = 114, 53.8%), men (n = 98 46.2%); normal (n = 105, 49.5%), overweight/obese (n = 107, 50.5%). There were more female normal (n = 61, 53.5%) vs. overweight/obese (n = 53, 46.5%). More male overweight/obese (n = 54, 55.1%) than normal weight (n = 44, 44.9%). Age at first documented overweight/obesity status occurred in early adolescence (median = 13 years, mode = 12 years). Chronic illness incidence was higher among men than women, and overweight/obese vs. normal weight adolescents and in sub-categorizations by weight and specific illness. Incidence of episodic illness was higher among women than men, with variation by weight and specific illness. Disproportionately high incidence of episodic or chronic illness and overweight/obesity identified among rural Mexican-American adolescents compels intervention modification to improve effectiveness. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Built environment predictors of active travel to school among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Gibson, Lucinda; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Swain, Karin; Xie, Haiyi; Owens, Peter M

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of active travel to school (ATS) have been conducted in urban or suburban areas and focused on young children. Little is known about ATS among rural adolescents. To describe adolescent ATS in two predominantly rural states and determine if school neighborhood built environment characteristics (BECs) predict ATS after adjusting for school and individual characteristics. Sixteen BECs were assessed through census data and onsite observations of 45 school neighborhoods in 2007. ATS and individual characteristics were assessed through telephone surveys with 1552 adolescents and their parents between 2007 and 2008. Active travelers were defined as those who walked/cycled to/from school ≥1 day/week. Hierarchic linear modeling was used for analysis, conducted in 2009. Slightly less than half (n=735) of the sample lived within 3 miles of school, of whom 388 (52.8%) were active travelers. ATS frequency varied by season, ranging from a mean of 1.7 (SD=2.0) days/week in the winter to 3.7 (SD=1.6) in the spring. Adolescents who attended schools in highly dense residential neighborhoods with sidewalks were most likely to be active travelers. ATS frequency was greater in school neighborhoods with high residential and intersection densities, on-street parking, food outlets, and taller and continuous buildings with small setbacks. The BECs that support safe travel may be necessary to allow for ATS, whereas ATS frequency among adolescents may be influenced by a wider variety of design characteristics. Additional strategies to promote ATS and physical activity are needed in rural areas because of long commuting distances for many students. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  12. Nutrient intake of adolescents in rural area of Himachal Pradesh

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    Ritika Khandelwal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutrient requirements during adolescence are higher than at any other stage of life. Inadequate nutrient intake leads to poor growth, delayed sexual maturation, slow linear growth, anaemia and osteomalacia. Aim &Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of adolescents in 13-15 years belonging to rural area of Shimla district, Himachal Pradesh. Material & Methods: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted during 2014 - 2015 in rural area of Shimla district. Thirty clusters were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method.  A total of 170 adolescents in the age group of 13-15 years studying in government schools were enrolled. Dietary assessment was done using 24h dietary recall method. Results: The percentage deficit in boys for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake was found 37.9%, 53.7%, 35.5% and 22.4% respectively as compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA. The girls had percentage deficit for calorie, iron, zinc and calcium intake as 47.7%, 61.5%, 53.6%, and 43.6 % respectively as compared to RDA. Conclusion: The findings of present study indicate that the nutrient intake of adolescents aged 13-15 years was inadequate.

  13. Future time perspective in institutionalized adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Carcelén Velarde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the future goals and concerns of institutionalized adolescents, and also identifies their attitudes towards the past, the present and the future, comparing them with a group of non-institutionalized adolescents with similar characteristics. It is a descriptive study with a transversal design, of 34 institutionalized and 41 non-institutionalized adolescents between 15 to 17 years old. The instruments were the Motivational Induction Method (MIM and the Time Attitude Scale (TAS (Nuttin, 1985. Goals are related to interpersonal contacts, the self-realization and the self. Institutionalized adolescents show more goals related to the development of aptitudes and a major necessity of interpersonal contacts associated with the fear of the damage caused by settling these relationships.

  14. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Children and Adolescents in Shandong, China: Urban-Rural Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The pattern of urban-rural disparity in childhood obesity varies across countries. The present study examined the change trend of urban-rural disparity in childhood overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from four cross-sectional surveys of school children carried out in 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2014 in Shandong Province, China. In this study, 39 943 students aged 7-18 years were included (14 458 in 1985, 7198 in 1995, 8568 in 2005 and 9719 in 2014). Height and weight of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) was calculated from their height and weight. The BMI cutoff points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was increasing continuously both in urban and rural areas over the past 29 years (1985-2014). The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity was significantly higher in urban than in rural children and adolescents in 1985, 1995 and 2005 (p overweight and obesity was observed in rural areas after 2005; as a result, the urban-rural disparity was getting narrower, and no significant urban-rural disparity was observed in 2014 (p > 0.05). The change trend of urban-rural disparity should be concerned in the future; policies and interventions focused on childhood overweight and obesity should pay attention to rural areas. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Application of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) in a rural, Zulu speaking, adolescent population in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Christopher P; Allwood, Clifford W

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken as part of an exploration of the potential risk for future eating disorders in the black female population of South Africa. Previous research has documented eating attitudes suggesting that such a risk exists in urban populations. A translated version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied in a Zulu speaking, rural population (n=361). A prevalence of 3% for abnormal eating attitudes was established. In keeping with the hypothesis, the findings suggest that the risk for developing an eating disorder in a rural population is somewhat lower. In this regard, there does appear to be an urban-rural divide, which may have implications for the prevention of the emergence of eating disorders in black, South African adolescents. However, the validity of the EAT-26 in this population is a consideration in interpreting the data. PMID:16633489

  16. Using a socioecological approach to examine participation in sport and physical activity among rural adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Meghan M; Eime, Rochelle M; Payne, Warren R; Harvey, Jack T

    2009-07-01

    Adolescence is a critical time for developing lifelong healthy behaviors, including active lifestyles. Participation in sport and physical activity, however, declines during adolescence, and few studies have comprehensively identified why, particularly among rural girls. This article identifies a range of independent and interacting factors that influence sport and physical activity participation of rural adolescent girls. The socioecological model of health was used to guide four focus group discussions with Grade 7 girls (n = 34). The results showed that adolescent girls were positively influenced when sports or physical activities were fun, when they involved being with friends, and when they were supported by families and teachers through role modeling and positive feedback. A range of intrapersonal and organizational factors affected perceived self-competence, particularly the coeducational nature of school physical education classes and peer teasing, which supported social comparisons of skill level. In promoting sport and physical activity to rural adolescent girls, focus must be directed on developmentally appropriate activities that are fun, offering opportunities for single-sex classes, and generating cultural changes that encourage noncompetitive and self-referencing activities.

  17. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation.

  18. Induced abortions among adolescent women in rural Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, Bela; Hirve, Siddhi

    2002-05-01

    In a study in rural Maharashtra, India, adolescents constituted 13.1% of the 1717 married women who had an induced abortion during an 18-month period in 1996-1998. The 197 adolescents who were subsequently interviewed had a lesser role in the decision-making process on abortion than women older than them. Most abortions were obtained in the private sector. Though spacing was the main reason for adolescents seeking abortion, prior contraceptive use among them was low. Additionally, they were less likely to receive post-abortion contraceptive counselling or to adopt contraception. Sex selection accounted for more than a fifth of abortions among adolescents. Additional qualitative data from 43 never-married and separated adolescents seeking abortion showed that non-consensual sex made many pregnancies unwanted, and cost, limited mobility, lack of family and partner support and the need for privacy to prevent stigma led many to go to traditional providers, even though safer options existed. Family planning programmes need to address the contraceptive needs of newly married adolescent women as well as unmarried adolescents. Informing adolescents of their legal rights, sensitising providers to adopt an empathetic attitude, and exploring innovative ways of increasing access to safe services for unmarried adolescents are all recommended.

  19. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibo Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.

  20. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Urban Versus Rural Areas of the United States: The Influence of Tobacco Control Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Robarts, Adam M T

    2017-07-01

    Adults and adolescents who reside in rural areas of the United States are traditionally more likely to be tobacco users. This urban-rural disparity remains largely unexplained and, more recently, it is unclear what impact the emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has had on adolescent tobacco use in urban and rural areas. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of sociodemographics and tobacco control policy environments on adolescent tobacco use in urban versus rural areas, as well as to identify the effect of e-cigarettes on traditional patterns of urban-rural tobacco use. This study analyzes repeated cross-sectional data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey for the years 2011-2014. We estimate the associations between rural residence, cigarette taxes, tobacco advertisement exposure, and ease of access to tobacco with six tobacco use outcomes: current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, multiple tobacco products, and any tobacco. E-cigarette use among urban youths aged 11-17 years in the United States increased from .82% in 2011 to 8.62% in 2014 (p e-cigarettes. Our predictors account for approximately 40% of the difference in urban-rural cigarette use. Sociodemographics, cigarette taxes, and tobacco advertisement exposure are significant predictors of adolescent tobacco use in the United States but do not entirely explain urban-rural disparities. In addition, e-cigarettes appear to be rapidly changing traditional patterns of tobacco use, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Disparities in young adolescent inhalant use by rurality, gender, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ruth W; Stanley, Linda; Plested, Barbara Ann; Marquart, Beverly S; Chen, Julie; Thurman, Pamela Jumper

    2007-01-01

    Inhalant use is of increasing concern as rates appear to be rising among young adolescents and gender differences narrowing. Data from 20,684 Mexican American and White non-Hispanic seventh- and eighth-grade males and females from the Western United States and 15,659 African American and White non-Hispanic seventh- and eighth-grade males and females from states in the southeastern United States collected via in-school surveys from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed using a variety of statistical techniques including multilevel modeling. Questions addressed in the study included: Does inhalant use vary by level of rurality? What effect does the ethnic composition of the community have on inhalant use and does this effect differ by an individual's ethnicity? Do males use more inhalants than females and does the level of use by males and females differ by individual ethnicity, ethnicity of the community, or level of rurality? Do males and females of different ethnicities initiate inhalant use at different ages? Limitations of the study and implications of findings for prevention are discussed and areas of future research are suggested. This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

  2. Correlates of Shyness and Unsociability during Early Adolescence in Urban and Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the differentiation and correlates of shyness and unsociability during early adolescence in urban and rural China. Participants were 93 urban and 229 rural Chinese sixth- to eighth-graders. Students rated their shyness, unsociability, fear of negative evaluation, self-efficacy for peer interactions, and…

  3. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a urban-rural differences and b differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants (12.2%, independent smaller cities ("urban districts" (19.0% and rural areas ("rural districts" (68.8%. Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7% and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than

  4. Sexual behavior and associated factors in rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Bárbara Cabral de; Santos, Rebeca Silva Dos; Santana, Katiuscy Carneiro; Souzas, Raquel; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de

    2018-01-01

    To describe the sexual behavior and to identify associated factors in adolescents from rural communities in Bahia, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based, and household-based study, carried out in 2015 with adolescents aged 10 to 19 years. We described the variables of sexual intercourse in life and in the last 12 months, age at first intercourse, condom use and number of partners, guidance on pregnancy, AIDS, or other sexually transmitted infections, and guidance on how to get condoms. The analysis was performed for the total sample and for the quilombola and nonquilombola strata. We used Poisson regression, with robust variance, to estimate the prevalence ratios for sexual intercourse in relation to the explanatory variables. A total of 390 adolescents were interviewed, of them 42.8% were quilombolas, 51.3% females, and the median age was 14.8 years. Of these adolescents, 26.4% reported sexual intercourse (28.1% quilombolas and 25.1% non-quilombolas), and the median age of the first relation was 15 years; 77.7% of them mentioned condom use in the last intercourse and more than half received guidance on pregnancy, AIDS, or other sexually transmitted infections and received no guidance on how to get free condoms. Age (PR = 1.42) and alcohol use experimentation (PR = 2.41) were positively associated with sexual intercourse after adjustment. In the quilombola stratum, age (RP = 1.37), having three or more close friends (PR = 1.37), and experimentation with alcohol (PR = 2.60) were associated. In the non-quilombola stratum, age (PR = 1.43), black persons (PR = 2.06), and alcohol use experimentation (PR = 2.68) were associated. Lack of information and exposure to behaviors such as alcohol use experimentation are conditions that need to be addressed in health promotion strategies and in strategies for the prevention of sexual health problems in rural adolescents. Intersectoral partnerships between education and health also need to be strengthened to promote

  5. Sexual behavior and associated factors in rural adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Bárbara Cabral; dos Santos, Rebeca Silva; Santana, Katiuscy Carneiro; Souzas, Raquel; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; de Medeiros, Danielle Souto

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe the sexual behavior and to identify associated factors in adolescents from rural communities in Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based, and household-based study, carried out in 2015 with adolescents aged 10 to 19 years. We described the variables of sexual intercourse in life and in the last 12 months, age at first intercourse, condom use and number of partners, guidance on pregnancy, AIDS, or other sexually transmitted infections, and guidance on how to get condoms. The analysis was performed for the total sample and for the quilombola and nonquilombola strata. We used Poisson regression, with robust variance, to estimate the prevalence ratios for sexual intercourse in relation to the explanatory variables. RESULTS: A total of 390 adolescents were interviewed, of them 42.8% were quilombolas, 51.3% females, and the median age was 14.8 years. Of these adolescents, 26.4% reported sexual intercourse (28.1% quilombolas and 25.1% non-quilombolas), and the median age of the first relation was 15 years; 77.7% of them mentioned condom use in the last intercourse and more than half received guidance on pregnancy, AIDS, or other sexually transmitted infections and received no guidance on how to get free condoms. Age (PR = 1.42) and alcohol use experimentation (PR = 2.41) were positively associated with sexual intercourse after adjustment. In the quilombola stratum, age (RP = 1.37), having three or more close friends (PR = 1.37), and experimentation with alcohol (PR = 2.60) were associated. In the non-quilombola stratum, age (PR = 1.43), black persons (PR = 2.06), and alcohol use experimentation (PR = 2.68) were associated. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of information and exposure to behaviors such as alcohol use experimentation are conditions that need to be addressed in health promotion strategies and in strategies for the prevention of sexual health problems in rural adolescents. Intersectoral partnerships between education

  6. Sexual behavior and associated factors in rural adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Cabral de Sousa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe the sexual behavior and to identify associated factors in adolescents from rural communities in Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based, and household-based study, carried out in 2015 with adolescents aged 10 to 19 years. We described the variables of sexual intercourse in life and in the last 12 months, age at first intercourse, condom use and number of partners, guidance on pregnancy, AIDS, or other sexually transmitted infections, and guidance on how to get condoms. The analysis was performed for the total sample and for the quilombola and nonquilombola strata. We used Poisson regression, with robust variance, to estimate the prevalence ratios for sexual intercourse in relation to the explanatory variables. RESULTS: A total of 390 adolescents were interviewed, of them 42.8% were quilombolas, 51.3% females, and the median age was 14.8 years. Of these adolescents, 26.4% reported sexual intercourse (28.1% quilombolas and 25.1% non-quilombolas, and the median age of the first relation was 15 years; 77.7% of them mentioned condom use in the last intercourse and more than half received guidance on pregnancy, AIDS, or other sexually transmitted infections and received no guidance on how to get free condoms. Age (PR = 1.42 and alcohol use experimentation (PR = 2.41 were positively associated with sexual intercourse after adjustment. In the quilombola stratum, age (RP = 1.37, having three or more close friends (PR = 1.37, and experimentation with alcohol (PR = 2.60 were associated. In the non-quilombola stratum, age (PR = 1.43, black persons (PR = 2.06, and alcohol use experimentation (PR = 2.68 were associated. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of information and exposure to behaviors such as alcohol use experimentation are conditions that need to be addressed in health promotion strategies and in strategies for the prevention of sexual health problems in rural adolescents. Intersectoral partnerships

  7. Future thinking instructions improve prospective memory performance in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Kretschmer, Anett; Schnitzspahn, Katharina Marlene

    2017-07-01

    Studies on prospective memory (PM) development in adolescents point to age-related increases through to adulthood. The goal of the present study was to examine whether instructing adolescents to engage in an episodic prospection of themselves executing future actions (i.e., future thinking) when forming an intention would improve their PM performance and reduce age-related differences. Further, we set out to explore whether future thinking instructions result in stronger memory traces and/or stronger cue-context associations by evaluating retrospective memory for the PM cues after task completion and monitoring costs during PM task processing. Adolescents and young adults were allocated to either the future thinking, repeated-encoding or standard condition. As expected, adolescents had fewer correct PM responses than young adults. Across age groups, PM performance in the standard condition was lower than in the other encoding conditions. Importantly, the results indicate a significant interaction of age by encoding condition. While adolescents benefited most from future thinking instructions, young adults performed best in the repeated-encoding condition. The results also indicate that the beneficial effects of future thinking may result from deeper intention-encoding through the simulation of future task performance.

  8. Adolescent alcohol use in rural South African high schools | Onya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine psychosocial correlates of lifetime alcohol use among adolescents in rural South African high schools. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 1600 students from 20 randomly selected high schools in the Mankweng district within Limpopo province. Self-report data on alcohol use, demographic, ...

  9. Risky sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Malaysia: a limited role of protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-03-23

    This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation, content validation, and reliability of the Nigerian Composite Lifestyle CVD Risk Factors Questionnaire for adolescents among Yoruba rural adolescents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunaiya, Nse A; Louw, Quinette A; Grimmer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of lifestyle risk factors must be culturally- and contextually relevant and available in local languages. This paper reports on a study which aimed to cross culturally adapt a composite lifestyle cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors questionnaire into an African language (Yoruba) and testing some of its psychometric properties such as content validity and test retest reliability in comparison to the original English version. This study utilized a cross sectional design. Translation of the English version of the questionnaire into Yoruba was undertaken using the guideline by Beaton et al. The translated instrument was presented to 21 rural adolescents to assess comprehensibility and clarity using a sample of convenience. A test retest reliability was conducted among 150 rural adolescents using a purposive sampling. Data was analyzed using intraclass correlation (ICC ) model 3, Cohen kappa statistics and prevalence rates. ICC ranged between 0.4-0.8. The Yoruba version was completed 15-20 minutes and was reported to be culturally appropriate and acceptable for rural Nigerian adolescents. The Yoruba translation of the Nigerian composite lifestyle risk factors questionnaire performs at least as well as the original English version in terms of content validity and reliability. It took a shorter time to complete therefore may be more relevant to rural adolescents.

  11. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  12. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  13. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosome, Connie; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris

    2011-11-17

    Violence is a public health problem and often an issue of criminal justice.Violence in schools is a worldwide phenomenon and exposes adolescents to premature death. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents' views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was 'What are the adolescents' views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?' Data were analysed by means of open coding. The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.

  14. Physical fitness and anthropometric characteristics among adolescents living in urban or rural areas of Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishukaj, Faton; Shalaj, Ismet; Gjaka, Masar; Ademi, Besim; Ahmetxhekaj, Rrustem; Bachl, Norbert; Tschan, Harald; Wessner, Barbara

    2017-09-16

    High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population) and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population) were selected. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were determined from a total of 354 adolescents (216 urban: 14.5 ± 0.4 years, 138 rural: age 14.5 ± 0.4 years) who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study performed in 2013/14. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% in girls and 28.2% in males and excess body fat was detected in 18.2% of the girls and 15.9% of the boys with no differences between rural and urban adolescents. Rural adolescents performed slightly better in relative handgrip strength (+4.7%, p = 0.032) and running speed (10 m: +2.2%, p = 0.012; 20 m: +1.9%, p = 0.035), but no other differences were detected in standing long jump, counter movement jump, cardiorespiratory fitness and sit and reach test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that being a female was associated with a lower relative risk for overweight (RR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03-0.34, p fitness were associated with a higher relative risk for overweight and excess body fat. In contrast, lower handgrip strength increased the risk for experiencing thinness (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.96, p < 0.001). It could be shown that there is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, especially in 14 to 15 year old boys in Kosovo which does not differ between rural and urban areas. Worse physical performance is associated with a higher risk

  15. Which Psychosocial Factors Are Related to Drinking among Rural Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Spoth, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors with alcohol use for adolescents residing in rural Iowa. This association was also tested separately for boys and girls. Seventh graders (N = 1673) self-reported alcohol use, peer drinking norms, adult drinking norms, drug refusal assertiveness, drug refusal techniques, life skills,…

  16. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  17. Urban-rural differences in adolescent self-esteem, leisure boredom, and sensation-seeking as predictors of leisure-time usage and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W R; Caltabiano, M L

    1996-01-01

    Australia's "sporting nation" image has been challenged by adolescents' decreasing involvement in active leisure pursuits. A significant number of adolescents experience leisure boredom and dissatisfaction, which have been implicated in drug use and delinquency. Researchers have largely ignored the multivariate nature of adolescent leisure experiences. This North Queensland, Australian adolescent leisure study explored the extent to which adolescent leisure experiences were mediated by individual and situational variables. Seventy-five Cairns and 65 Atherton high school students (66 males and 74 females) were surveyed from grades 8, 10, and 12 (ages 12 to 19), during normal class periods. The Self-Rating Scale (SPS) measure of self-esteem, Sensation-Seeking Scale Form II (SSS), Leisure Boredom Scale (LBS), and a time-use inventory yielded quantitative data. Urban adolescents reported less leisure satisfaction. Participation was highest for passive leisure and lowest for active leisure. Urban adolescents reported higher social leisure, while rural adolescents engaged in more passive leisure. For both Cairns and Atherton, the heaviest substance users were those who scored low on self-esteem and high on sensation-seeking. Atherton adolescents who scored low on self-esteem but high on sensation-seeking, reported the most crime involvement. Methodological issues and implications are discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  18. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females With Substance Abusing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Norozi Khalili, Mina; Shakeri Chenarani, Maryam; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Rezaei Ardani, Amir

    2015-06-12

    Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls.

  19. Factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in outdoor, noncompetitive physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G; McCarty, Frances A; Green, Gary T

    2014-12-01

    Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to rural young adolescents' participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity to inform intervention design. Young adolescents aged 10 to 14 years old (N = 1,032) from 1 rural county completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing constructs from self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) related to noncompetitive outdoor physical activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an integrated conceptual model of hypothesized relationships among constructs. The hypothesized conceptual model provided a good fit to the data with greater perceptions of autonomy support and self-determined motivation having statistically significant positive indirect effects on participation in noncompetitive outdoor physical activity mediated by the constructs of the TPB. All direct paths in the model were statistically significant; however, the direct effect of attitudes on intention was weak (.08) and self-determined motivation had no indirect effect on intention through attitudes (.03). Constructs of SDT and TPB should be accounted for by interventions targeting noncompetitive outdoor physical activity among young adolescents. More research is needed to determine young adolescents' preferences for noncompetitive and competitive physical activity and the potential influence that noncompetitive outdoor physical activity may have on total daily physical activity.

  20. Impact of menstrual awareness and knowledge among adolescents in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Langer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-cultural factors have a bearing on women's attitude towards menstruation. Health care providers should be aware of how women react to menstruation while providing health care. Aims & Objectives: To elicit menstrual awareness and knowledge of the rural adolescent girls and assess how this awareness, knowledge and demographics influence their menstrual attitude. Methodology: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 245 adolescent school going girls in a rural area. Adolescent Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (AMAQ was used as a data collection device. Data were compared by using SPSS (ver. 20.0 at the level of 0.05. Results: At menarche, 59.9% adolescents were aware of menstruation and in 3/4th of them, mothers were the source of information. There was a statistically significant effect of menstrual awareness (yes or no and menstrual knowledge (nil, partial and complete on the combined dependent variables (F(6,238=9.0, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.81, partial eta square=0.29 and F(6,237=8.01, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.69, partial eta square=0.20  respectively. Older adolescents had favorable attitude towards menstruation in three significant dimensions i.e. living with menarche, openness and acceptance. Significant effect of mother’s educational level was observed on five dimensions of menstrual attitude. Conclusion: Menstrual attitude is significantly affected by menstrual awareness and knowledge.  Demographics too contributed in bringing positive attitude. There is a need to plan menstrual health education programme for adolescent girls and their mothers.

  1. Impact of menstrual awareness and knowledge among adolescents in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Langer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-cultural factors have a bearing on women's attitude towards menstruation. Health care providers should be aware of how women react to menstruation while providing health care. Aims & Objectives: To elicit menstrual awareness and knowledge of the rural adolescent girls and assess how this awareness, knowledge and demographics influence their menstrual attitude. Methodology: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken among 245 adolescent school going girls in a rural area. Adolescent Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (AMAQ was used as a data collection device. Data were compared by using SPSS (ver. 20.0 at the level of 0.05. Results: At menarche, 59.9% adolescents were aware of menstruation and in 3/4th of them, mothers were the source of information. There was a statistically significant effect of menstrual awareness (yes or no and menstrual knowledge (nil, partial and complete on the combined dependent variables (F(6,238=9.0, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.81, partial eta square=0.29 and F(6,237=8.01, p= 0.000, Wilk’s Lambda=0.69, partial eta square=0.20  respectively. Older adolescents had favorable attitude towards menstruation in three significant dimensions i.e. living with menarche, openness and acceptance. Significant effect of mother’s educational level was observed on five dimensions of menstrual attitude. Conclusion: Menstrual attitude is significantly affected by menstrual awareness and knowledge.  Demographics too contributed in bringing positive attitude. There is a need to plan menstrual health education programme for adolescent girls and their mothers.

  2. Oiling a neglected wheel: an investigation of adolescent internalising problems in rural South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandrea, Kate; Winefield, Helen; Livingstone, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Despite a paucity of research, adolescents living in rural areas appear to have a heightened risk for developing a mental health problem compared with their urban counterparts. The main objectives of this study were to contribute to building an evidence base of prevalence rates and determinants of internalising problems of adolescents in rural South Australia. A multidimensional Process Model was used as theoretical framework to enable an investigation of the various determinants from individual, family and community domains; specifically, the contribution of self-esteem, parental acceptance and elements of social capital at an individual level (ie participation in the local community and proactivity in a social context represented structural social capital, and feelings of trust and safety, and neighbourhood connections represented cognitive social capital). In this cross-sectional prospective study, a total of 388 Year 9 (2nd year of secondary school) students (208 females, 180 males) aged 13-15 years (mean age = 14.2 years) participated from 11 high schools within the Country Health South Australian area. These adolescents completed a battery of self-reported measures online at school. The results demonstrated that the adolescents experienced a 'normal' level of self-esteem and a 'moderate' level of perceived parental acceptance. The level of social capital was considered 'low' and the adolescents experienced a 'moderate' level of internalising symptoms. Based on the mean score of the Revised Child Anxiety & Depression Scales (RCADS), 25% of the adolescents experienced internalising symptoms ranging in severity from mild to severe, with no significant differences between males and females. Approximately 13% were considered above the clinical threshold, with 4% reporting experiencing severe symptoms. Relationships between all measures were investigated using Pearson product-moment correlations coefficients and associations between self-esteem, parental acceptance

  3. Food Insecurity and Its Association With School Absenteeism Among Rural School Adolescents in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Melaku, Yabsira; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-03-01

    Studies showed that poor health and nutrition among school adolescents are major barriers to educational access and achievements in low-income countries. This school-based study was aimed to assess the association of school absenteeism and food insecurity among rural school adolescents from grades 5 to 8 in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between dependent and independent variables using odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictor of school absenteeism. Validated tools are used to collect household food insecurity data. Results showed that school absenteeism is significantly high among adolescents from food insecure households when compared to adolescents from food secure households ( P absenteeism was negatively associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = -0.91, 95% CI -1.85 to -0.03), household food security (adjusted odds ratio = -1.85, 95% CI -3.11 to -0.59), being an elder sibling (AOR = -0.37, 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.12), and mother involvement in decision making (AOR = -0.68, 95% CI, -1.33 to -0.03) while male-headed household was positively associated (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI, 1.37 to 4.56). Generally, this study showed that household food insecurity has significant contribution to school absenteeism among rural adolescents. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve household income earning capacity to reduce the prevalence of school absenteeism among rural school adolescents.

  4. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  5. Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliye C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of rural adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried in four adopted villages of the Department of Community Medicine, M.G.I.M.S., Sewagram. A household survey was carried out in the villages. A list of all the adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years was prepared by enumeration through house-to-house visit. All adolescent girls were included in the study. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and anthropometric variables. A 24 h recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. Data generated was entered and analyzed using epi_info 2000. Nutrient intake was compared with ICMR Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI for age. Results: The mean height of the adolescent girls was 142.9 cm. Overall, 57% of the adolescents were thin (BMI for age <5 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference and 43% of the adolescents were normal (BMI for age between 5 th - 85 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference. The average energy intake, which was 1239.6±176.4 kcal/day, was deficient of RDA by 39%. The average protein intake was 39.5±7 gm/day. It was deficient by 36% and the average iron intake, which was 13.2±2.5 mg/day, was deficient by 48%. Conclusion: The findings reiterate the dietary deficiency among adolescent girls which adversely affects the nutritional status. If the poor nutritional status is not corrected promptly before they become pregnant, it adversely affects the reproductive outcome. If we have to meet out the goals of Reproductive and Child Health Program, intervention strategies to improve the dietary intake of adolescent girls are needed so that their requirements of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.

  6. Prevalence of Internet addiction and risk of developing addiction as exemplified by a group of Polish adolescents from urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2015-02-01

    The Internet addiction criteria were fulfilled by 0.45% of adolescents living in urban areas and 2.9% of those living in rural areas, whereas 35.55% of urban dwelling students and 30.18% of students living in rural areas showed a risk of developing this addiction. More adolescents living in urban areas, compared to those living in rural areas, use Internet pornography, play computer games, disclose their personal data to unknown individuals encountered on the Internet, use Instant Messaging (IM services, electronic mail and Facebook social networking service. Compared to their peers from urban areas, significantly more adolescents from rural areas use ‘Nasza Klasa’ (Our Classmates online social networking service.

  7. Physical fitness and anthropometric characteristics among adolescents living in urban or rural areas of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faton Tishukaj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High physical fitness levels in childhood and adolescence are associated with positive health-related outcomes later in life. Albeit many researchers investigated rural-urban differences in physical fitness, the outcomes of these studies are inconsistent and data on Kosovo are widely missing. Thus, this study aims to examine anthropometric and physical fitness parameters in 14 to 15 year old Kosovan adolescents living in rural and urban areas. Methods Two schools from Pristina (mostly urban population and two schools in the surrounding villages of the district of Deçan (mostly rural population were selected. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were determined from a total of 354 adolescents (216 urban: 14.5 ± 0.4 years, 138 rural: age 14.5 ± 0.4 years who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study performed in 2013/14. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% in girls and 28.2% in males and excess body fat was detected in 18.2% of the girls and 15.9% of the boys with no differences between rural and urban adolescents. Rural adolescents performed slightly better in relative handgrip strength (+4.7%, p = 0.032 and running speed (10 m: +2.2%, p = 0.012; 20 m: +1.9%, p = 0.035, but no other differences were detected in standing long jump, counter movement jump, cardiorespiratory fitness and sit and reach test. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that being a female was associated with a lower relative risk for overweight (RR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.34, p < 0.001 and high body fat content (RR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05–0.56, p < 0.001. In addition, higher handgrip strength, longer sprinting time and lower aerobic fitness were associated with a higher relative risk for overweight and excess body fat. In contrast, lower handgrip strength increased the risk for experiencing thinness (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89–0.96, p < 0.001. Conclusions It could be

  8. Sexual and reproductive health information sources preferred by out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and

  9. Parenting and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Future Time Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu-Gherasim, Loredana R; Bucci, Colleen M; Giuseppone, Kathryn R; Brumariu, Laura E

    2017-10-03

    This study investigated the relations between maternal and paternal rearing practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, and whether time perspective in adolescence explains these links. The sample included 306 students (158 girls), aged between 10.83 and 14.42 years. Adolescents completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of maternal and paternal acceptance and psychological control, and of their future time perspective and depressive symptoms. Adolescents who rated their mothers as more accepting and those who rated their fathers as less psychologically controlling also reported lower levels of depressive symptoms and greater future time perspective. Further, adolescents who had greater future time perspective reported lower levels of depressive symptoms. Finally, time perspective partially mediated the relations of maternal and paternal acceptance, and paternal control with depressive symptoms in adolescence. The findings highlight the unique relations of maternal acceptance and paternal psychological control with adolescents' depressive symptoms, and that future time perspective is one mechanism that might explain why parenting strategies are linked with depressive symptoms in adolescence.

  10. Nutritional status and dietary habits of urban and rural Polish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the basic food ingredient level and some nutritional status indices between the two groups of adolescents: the first one from the urban environment and the other one from the rural environment. A series of tests were conducted on a 400-teenager-group (200 girls and 200 boys), which was divided into two age groups: 10.5-year-olds and 13.5-year-olds. Nutritional status was estimated on the basis of the following anthropometric measurements: body height, body mass index, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness. Food intake was assessed by means of a 24-h dietary recall. The analysis of the results of the investigation showed: rare overweight and obesity occur in rural children aged 10.5 years and a higher risk of undernutrition among rural children, especially boys; more frequent overweight and obesity in rural girls and urban boys aged 13.5 years; a lower protein consumption, especially animal protein, and a lower percentage of the accomplishment of the norm for many mineral components and vitamins in rural girls and boys.

  11. A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation.

  12. Prevalence of Internet addiction and risk of developing addiction as exemplified by a group of Polish adolescents from urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pawłowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective. [/b]The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and the risk of developing this addiction in Polish adolescents attending junior high schools and high school in Lublin Province, to indicate the differences regarding the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms, and the types of online activity of adolescents residing in urban and rural areas. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. The examined group comprised 1,860 participants (1,320 girls and 540 boys with an average age of 17 years. 760 students lived in urban areas and 1,100 lived in rural areas. The following were used in the study: the Socio-demographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire designed by Potembska, the Internet Addiction Test by Young and the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Internetu – KBUI designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. [b]Results[/b]. The adolescents living in urban areas showed a significantly greater intensity of Internet and computer addiction symptoms measured by the KBUI Questionnaire, compared to those living in rural areas. [b]Conclusions.[/b] The Internet addiction criteria were fulfilled by 0.45% of adolescents living in urban areas and 2.9% of those living in rural areas, whereas 35.55% of urban dwelling students and 30.18% of students living in rural areas showed a risk of developing this addiction. More adolescents living in urban areas, compared to those living in rural areas, use Internet pornography, play computer games, disclose their personal data to unknown individuals encountered on the Internet, use Instant Messaging (IM services, electronic mail and Facebook social networking service. Compared to their peers from urban areas, significantly more adolescents from rural areas use ‘Nasza Klasa’ (Our Classmates online social networking service.

  13. Prevalence of Internet addiction and risk of developing addiction as exemplified by a group of Polish adolescents from urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; Kędzierski, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and the risk of developing this addiction in Polish adolescents attending junior high schools and high school in Lublin Province, to indicate the differences regarding the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms, and the types of online activity of adolescents residing in urban and rural areas. The examined group comprised 1,860 participants (1,320 girls and 540 boys) with an average age of 17 years. 760 students lived in urban areas and 1,100 lived in rural areas. The following were used in the study: the Socio-demographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire designed by Potembska, the Internet Addiction Test by Young and the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz do Badania Uzależnienia od Internetu - KBUI) designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. The adolescents living in urban areas showed a significantly greater intensity of Internet and computer addiction symptoms measured by the KBUI Questionnaire, compared to those living in rural areas. The Internet addiction criteria were fulfilled by 0.45% of adolescents living in urban areas and 2.9% of those living in rural areas, whereas 35.55% of urban dwelling students and 30.18% of students living in rural areas showed a risk of developing this addiction. More adolescents living in urban areas, compared to those living in rural areas, use Internet pornography, play computer games, disclose their personal data to unknown individuals encountered on the Internet, use Instant Messaging (IM) services, electronic mail and Facebook social networking service. Compared to their peers from urban areas, significantly more adolescents from rural areas use 'Nasza Klasa' (Our Classmates) online social networking service.

  14. Nutritional status, dietary intake, and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir

    2010-02-01

    This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age 95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and status of adolescents.

  15. [Nutritional evaluation, micronutrient deficiencies and anemia among female adolescents in an urban and a rural zone from Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Pablo; Leal, Jorymar; Amaya, Daysi; Chávez, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Female adolescents in reproductive age are a susceptible group to anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to know the nutritional, anthropometric and dietetic status, the prevalence of anemia, depletion of iron deposits (FeD) and Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in female adolescents. Seventy-eight not pregnant female adolescents (15.9 +/- 1.1 years old), from an urban and a periurban zone of Maracaibo, and a rural zone near this city, without infectious and inflammatory processes, were analyzed. Anemia in adolescents was considered when Hb zone showed significant lower values of weight (p = 0.0024), height (p = 0.0027), body mass index BMI (p = 0.0487), fatty area (p = 0.0183), MCV (p = 0.0241), MCH (p = 0.0488), MHCC (p = 0.0228), and the highest prevalence of anemia (66.67%), anemia+FeD (33.33%), and anemia+FeD+RVAD (5.56%), with respect to adolescents from the urban zone. Although, anemic adolescents from the rural zone showed a non significant decrease of the iron percentage adjustment. Iron requirements are increased during adolescence, reaching a maximum at the peak of growth and remaining almost as high in girls after menarche, to replace menstrual losses. The low iron status among adolescents from the rural zone determine that this is a high risk group to anemia and FeD and they require prevention, control and suplementation strategies.

  16. The coexistence of other micronutrient deficiencies in anaemic adolescent schoolgirls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F; Khan, M R; Banu, C P; Qazi, M R; Akhtaruzzaman, M

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of selected micronutrient deficiencies amongst anaemic adolescent schoolgirls in rural Bangladesh and to examine their relationship with haemoglobin (Hb) levels. A cross-sectional study. Girls' high schools in rural areas of Dhaka District in Bangladesh. Three hundred and ten anaemic adolescent girls aged 14-18 years from eight schools participated in the study. Information on personal characteristics and food habits were collected by interview. Parents were asked about their socio-economic conditions. Anthropometric data and blood samples were collected following the interview. Twenty-eight per cent of the girls had depleted iron stores (serum ferritin or =1.4) and 7% had vitamin B(12) deficiencies (serum vitamin B(12) Bangladesh, although they do not suffer from energy deficiency. Of all micronutrients, only iron and vitamin B(2) concentrations were found to be related to the Hb concentration.

  17. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  18. The effect of community-based health education intervention on management of menstrual hygiene among rural Indian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, A R; Deshmukh, P R; Garg, B S

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of a community-based health education intervention on awareness and behaviour change of rural adolescent girls regarding their management of menstrual hygiene. A participatory-action study was undertaken in Primary Health Centres in 23 villages in Anji, in the Wardha district of Maharashtra state. Study subjects were unmarried rural adolescent girls (12-19 years). We conducted a needs assessment for health messages with this target audience, using a triangulated research design of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus group discussions) methods. Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) guidelines were used to develop a pre-tested, handmade flip book containing needs-based key messages about the management of menstrual hygiene. The messages were delivered at monthly meetings of village-based groups of adolescent girls, called Kishori Panchayat. After 3 years, the effect of the messages was assessed using a combination of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (trend analysis) methods. After 3 years, significantly more adolescent girls (55%) were aware of menstruation before its initiation compared with baseline (35%). The practice of using ready-made pads increased significantly from 5% to 25% and reuse of cloth declined from 85% to 57%. The trend analysis showed that adolescent girls perceived a positive change in their behaviour and level of awareness. The present community health education intervention strategy could bring significant changes in the awareness and behaviour of rural adolescent girls regarding management of their menstrual hygiene.

  19. Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in rural Malawi: evidence from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I; Norr, Kathleen F

    2006-07-01

    Little is known about rural Malawian adolescents' perceptions of their sexual behavior and what would constitute an effective HIV risk-reduction program. This study explored the perceptions of Malawain adolescents using qualitative description research with focus groups. A purposive sample of 144 adolescents, ranging from 10 to 19 years of age was obtained. Subjects were then placed in focus groups separated by gender Qualitative content analysis revealed that adolescents were at risk for HIV based on the select behaviors These included early sexual debut, multiple partners, non-use of condoms and among girls older partners These adolescents acknowledged peer pressure and lack of parental supervision as factors that perpetuated these behaviors and identified two components of HIV prevention programs. For example, parental involvement and support for sexual abstinence were among the issues discussed. It is essential that HIV risk-reduction programs create ways of involving parents and of enhancing adolescents' HIV risk-reduction skills by helping them to change peer norms and to develop negotiation and assertiveness skills to in order to resist peer pressure.

  20. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  1. Self-esteem matters: racial & gender differences among rural southern adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C S; Tavakoli, A; Hendricks, D L; Harter, N R; Campbell, K P; L'Ecuyer, R I; Geddings, A A; Hackett, D; Byrd, L; Mathis, D

    2001-12-01

    Self-esteem does matter! It matters so much that Oprah dedicated an entire issue of "O" magazine to address the subject. "It's a woman's most treasured possession" (Winfrey, 2000a). Self-esteem has a profound influence on adolescent health promotion behaviors. This study contributes to understanding the role self-esteem plays in the behavior of adolescents. Utilizing a secondary data analysis, race and gender self-esteem differences among adolescents were investigated. The sample of 1,237 students (46% African-American and 52% White) from rural southern areas consisted of 744 females and 493 males. Self-esteem was assessed using the Miller Self-esteem Questionnaire (SEQ). The Hendricks Perceptual Health Promoting Determinants Model (HPHD) provided the theoretical framework for the study. The results of the study revealed a statistically significant difference in various aspects of self-esteem according to race and gender. African-Americans and males had a higher self-esteem which is consistent with many prior studies.

  2. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe; Pedro T. Pisa; Alison B. Feeley; Titilola M. Pedro; Kathleen Kahn; Shane A. Norris

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to ...

  3. How Adolescents Construct Their Future: The Effect of Loneliness on Future Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, Rachel; Lilach, Efrat

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of loneliness, gender, and two dimensions of prospective life domains on adolescent future orientation. Future orientation was studied in four prospective domains: social relations, marriage and family, higher education and work and career. These domains are described in terms of two dimensions: theme (relational vs.…

  4. Strategic foresight, leadership, and the future of rural healthcare staffing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers-Hild, Connie

    2018-05-01

    This article uses a strategic foresight tool, megatrends, to examine forces influencing long-term healthcare staffing in the rural United States. Two megatrends-exponential advances in science and technology and the continued evolution of the decentralized global marketplace-will influence and ultimately help shape the future of rural healthcare. Successful health ecosystems of the future will need to be customer-driven, more affordable, and tech-savvy. Successful evolution in an era of continuous change will require a blend of intentional engagement with stakeholders, strategic foresight, and future-focused leadership. More research is needed to fully understand not only the challenges of rural healthcare but also the emerging opportunities.

  5. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Mosome

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a public health problem and often an issue of criminal justice.Violence in schools is a worldwide phenomenon and exposes adolescents to premature death.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng.Research design and method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was ‘What are the adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?’ Data were analysed by means of open coding.Results: The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.

  6. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, a...

  7. Future Money-Related Worries among Adolescents after Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Korn, Marcella; Dennison, Renee Peltz; Witthoft, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The present research examined adolescents' views of their future with respect to money and financial well-being via an open-ended question and inductive content analysis. The participants were adolescents (N = 255) whose parents were divorced between 5 and 24 months at the time of data collection. The most common worries pertained to (a) being…

  8. Factors Associated with Toothache among African American Adolescents Living in Rural South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Ryan E.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Salinas, Carlos F.; London, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore behavioral factors associated with toothache among African American adolescents living in rural South Carolina. Methods Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected on toothache experience in the past 12 months, oral hygiene behavior, dental care utilization, and cariogenic snack and non-diet soft drink consumption in a convenience sample of 156 African American adolescents aged 10-18 years old living in rural South Carolina. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between reported toothache experience and socio-demographic variables, oral health behavior, and snack consumption. Results Thirty-four percent of adolescents reported having toothache in the past 12 months. In univariable modeling, age, dental visit in the last two years, quantity and frequency of cariogenic snack consumption, and quantity of non-diet soft drink consumption were each significantly associated with experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values cariogenic snacks, and number of cans of non-diet soft drink consumed during the weekend significantly increased the odds of experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Findings indicate age, frequent consumption of cariogenic snacks and number of cans of non-diet soft drinks are related to toothache in this group. Public policy implications related to selling cariogenic snacks and soft drink that targeting children and adolescents especially those from low income families are discussed. PMID:22085328

  9. Views of adolescents on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng, North West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Mosome

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng. Research design and method: A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. Purposive sampling was used to select adolescents from semi-rural secondary schools in Mafikeng who fell between the ages of 13 and 20 years and who were involved in community youth groups or associations. In-depth focus group discussion using audiotape, reflexive notes and naïve sketches were used for data collection. The central question which was asked was ‘What are the adolescents’ views on addressing violence in semi-rural secondary schools?’ Data were analysed by means of open coding. Results: The results showed that adolescents understood the complexities associated with violence in this country, and they suggested multiple approaches and interventions. The adolescents were of the opinion that responsible communication patterns in the school environment could build healthy relationships between learners and educators and lead to a decrease in violence in the school setting. They also felt that enforcement of a secure teaching environment through encouragement of behavioural and attitudinal change guided by school codes of conduct and provision of firm security will help reduce violence in schools.

  10. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents.

  11. Our voice counts: adolescents' view on their future in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings indicate that a new, non-racial generation is emerging, but also highlight a formidable ethical dilemma: not societal factors, but ironically the ailing education system, is blocking the future ideals of thousands of South African adolescents. Keywords: adolescents; future expectations; societal problems; youth ...

  12. Social relationships and health: the meaning of social "connectedness" and how it relates to health concerns for rural Scottish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, L B; Reid, M

    2000-12-01

    Adolescence has been posited as an important period for the onset of mental health problems and for the need to adapt successfully to many psychosocial changes. The assumption has been made that social belonging is both a health-related goal and an antidote for other sorts of emotional crises, but there is little research on how normal adolescents themselves view connections between social relationships and their physical and mental health. This qualitative study examines how social connectedness represents both a content and process variable in northern Scottish young people's discussion of their health concerns, that is, it was both a source of distress and implicated as a helpful or harmful factor in relation to other health concerns. Analyses revealed both the potency of all of these concerns and participants' belief that skills acquired now could affect their future life goals and health. Suggestions are given for building new approaches for conceptualizing rural young people's health problems and helping them cope with the social contexts involved within and around them. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  13. Future Orientation in Times of Threat and Challenge: How Resilient Adolescents Construct Their Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the importance of future orientation for adolescent development this analysis presents a model describing how future orientation is affected by high challenge (or resilience) in the face of political violence. The analysis consists of three parts. The first two present future orientation conceptualization and the psychological processes…

  14. The Development of Future Orientation is Associated with Faster Decline in Hopelessness during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giollabhui, Naoise; Nielsen, Johanna; Seidman, Sam; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2018-01-05

    Hopelessness is implicated in multiple psychological disorders. Little is known, however, about the trajectory of hopelessness during adolescence or how emergent future orientation may influence its trajectory. Parallel process latent growth curve modelling tested whether (i) trajectories of future orientation and hopelessness and (ii) within-individual change in future orientation and hopelessness were related. The study was comprised of 472 adolescents [52% female, 47% Caucasian, 47% received free lunch] recruited at ages 12-13 who completed measures of future orientation and hopelessness at five annual assessments. The results indicate that a general decline in hopelessness across adolescence occurs quicker for those experiencing faster development of future orientation, when controlling for age, sex, low socio-economic status in addition to stressful life events in childhood and adolescence. Stressful childhood life events were associated with worse future orientation at baseline and negative life events experienced during adolescence were associated with both an increase in the trajectory of hopelessness as well as a decrease in the trajectory of future orientation. This study provides compelling evidence that the development of future orientation during adolescence is associated with a faster decline in hopelessness.

  15. A study on health risk behavior of mid-adolescent school students in a rural and an urban area of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: High-risk behaviors can have adverse effects on health of adolescents. It is essential to identify risks so that modification can be initiated before any damage. The present study was conducted among adolescents to study their risk behaviors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study based on the concept of Global School-based Student Health Survey was conducted by interviewing adolescents of one urban and one rural randomly selected school. For quick overall assessment of their risk behaviors, a predesigned three-point scoring system was followed. Data were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1. Results: The study of six domains of important risk behaviors among 788 school-going adolescents (rural: 436 [55.3%], urban: 352 [44.7%], (male: 406 [51.5%], female: 382 [48.5%] revealed that occurrence of dietary high-risk behavior was more in urban students (11.4% than rural students (1.8%. Regarding violence, occurrence of high-risk behavior was also higher among urban students (18.8% vs. 6%. The number of mentally disturbed girls is more than boys. Conclusion: The mean risk scores in all domains, except personal hygiene, are either in ′Moderate′ or ′high′ risk grade. It is of great concern that rural and urban, male and female adolescents are at risk though their vulnerability varies.

  16. Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. STUDY OF DEPRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENT STUDENTS OF RURAL MAHARASHTRA AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class. 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale, BG Prasad’s modified socioeconomic scale and demographic data were collected from volunteers. Results: 6.66% of students were screened positive for depression by the scale. No statistical difference was found in number of students with depression with respect to sex, class and socioeconomic status. However the residence and type of family showed significant difference in number students of depression. Conclusion: the KADS is a good screening tool for depression and should be implemented for adolescents studying in rural areas for prevention and early treatment of depression.

  18. The Protective Role of Religious Coping in Adolescents' Responses to Poverty and Sexual Decision-Making in Rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S.; Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual…

  19. Moderation of Genetic Influences on Alcohol Involvement by Rural Residency among Adolescents: Results from the 1962 National Merit Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christal N; Natta, Shanaliz S; Slutske, Wendy S

    2017-11-01

    Adolescents in rural and urban areas may experience different levels of environmental restrictions on alcohol use, with those in rural areas experiencing greater monitoring and less access to alcohol. Such restrictions may limit expression of genetic vulnerability for alcohol use, resulting in a gene-environment interaction (G × E). This phenomenon has previously been reported in Finnish and Minnesota adolescents. The current study used data from 839 same-sex twin pairs from the 1962 National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test to determine whether the G × E interaction would be evident in this earlier time period. We also assessed whether the G × E interaction would be moderated by sex, and whether family socioeconomic status (SES; income and parental education) may mediate the G × E interaction. Findings showed the expected interaction among females, with a weaker contribution of genes (2 vs. 44%) and greater contribution of shared environment (62 vs. 29%) to variation in alcohol involvement among rural as compared to urban residents. The G × E interaction was not observed among males, and operated independently from differences in family SES among rural and urban adolescents. This study represents a partial replication in a novel setting of the moderation of the genetic contribution to alcohol use by rural/urban residency, and suggests that SES differences may not explain this effect.

  20. ST product characteristics and relationships with perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Elizabeth T; Darius, Ellen F; Walsh, Margaret M; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2017-12-01

    Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of product characteristics in shaping ST-related perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at three California rural high schools. ST users were asked about their experiences and perceptions related to product characteristics. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a general inductive approach. Participants associated flavored ST with appealing non-tobacco products, such as chewing gum and alcohol. Availability of different varieties and flavors stimulated interest and curiosity in sampling or switching between ST products. Time-limited promotional flavors and packaging also enhanced product appeal. Adolescent ST users preferred certain brands based on perceived brand features and perceived nicotine content, associating higher-strength brands as better suited for experienced ST users. Brand preferences frequently reflected perceived ST brand popularity within peer groups. Based on these observations, potential ST regulation and health education campaigns to address misconceptions about ST characteristics could influence adolescents' ST-related perceptions and reduce ST use among this vulnerable population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The effects of ageing and urbanisation on China's future rural and urban populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates China's future population and labour force by developing a novel forecasting model for population. It combines information about age-specific parameters on fertility and mortality for both rural and urban areas using information about rural-urban migration and the transformation

  2. "On solid ground": family and school connectedness promotes adolescents' future orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Carla; Jose, Paul E; Kielpikowski, Magdalena; Pryor, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the role of connectedness to the family and school contexts on future orientation of New Zealand adolescents. Participants were 1774 young people (51.9% female) aged between 9 and 16 years at time 1 of the study, who reported their connectedness to family and school and their perceptions of future orientation at three times of measurement one year apart. Structural equation modelling was used to test the combined role of family and school connectedness on future orientation over time. Findings supported a multiple mediation model in that adolescents' connectedness to family and school predicted more positive perceptions of future orientation both directly and indirectly via the effect of the context variables on each other. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Future Extreme Event Vulnerability in the Rural Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J.; Bowen, F. L.; Partridge, T.; Chipman, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change impacts on humans will be determined by the convergence of evolving physical climate and socioeconomic systems. Of particular concern is the intersection of extreme events and vulnerable populations. Rural areas of the Northeastern United States have experienced increased temperature and precipitation extremes, especially over the past three decades, and face unique challenges due to their physical isolation, natural resources dependent economies, and high poverty rates. To explore the impacts of future extreme events on vulnerable, rural populations in the Northeast, we project extreme events and vulnerability indicators to identify where changes in extreme events and vulnerable populations coincide. Specifically, we analyze future (2046-2075) maximum annual daily temperature, minimum annual daily temperature, maximum annual daily precipitation, and maximum consecutive dry day length for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 using four global climate models (GCM) and a gridded observational dataset. We then overlay those projections with estimates of county-level population and relative income for 2060 to calculate changes in person-events from historical (1976-2005), with a focus on Northeast counties that have less than 250,000 people and are in the bottom income quartile. We find that across the rural Northeast for RCP4.5, heat person-events per year increase tenfold, far exceeding decreases in cold person-events and relatively small changes in precipitation and drought person-events. Counties in the bottom income quartile have historically (1976-2005) experienced a disproportionate number of heat events, and counties in the bottom two income quartiles are projected to experience a greater heat event increase by 2046-2075 than counties in the top two income quartiles. We further explore the relative contributions of event frequency, population, and income changes to the total and geographic distribution of climate change

  4. Influence of extracurricular physical training on motor preparedness of adolescents living in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Chyzhyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the problem of motor readiness of younger students. Material : in the formative pedagogical experiment involved 32 rural students thirteen years, control group consisted of 223 rural schoolchildren. Results : the trend of deterioration of physical fitness of students in rural schools indicates a problem and the lack of software development and methodological support of physical education of younger students. Developed and put into practice the procedure elective physical training for adolescents in rural schools to improve their physical condition. In the experimental group increased significantly in children dynamic and static strength endurance and speed of movement of the upper limbs. Girls involved in elective classes in physical education, were shrewd they also tend to improve explosive power and flexibility. Conclusions : it was established that the introduction of electives in the process of physical education is one of the most effective means of improving their motor readiness.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions on infant and young child nutrition and feeding among adolescent girls and young mothers in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Kristy M; Mukta, Umme S; Jalal, Chowdhury S B; Sellen, Daniel W

    2015-04-01

    Improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices have the potential to improve child health and development outcomes in poorly resourced communities. In Bangladesh, approximately 60% of rural girls become mothers before the age of 18, but most interventions to improve IYCF practices target older mothers. We investigated the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding IYCF among adolescent girls and young women aged 15-23 years old in two rural regions in north-west Bangladesh and identified the main points of concordance with, or mismatch to, key international IYCF recommendations. We compared qualitative data collected during interviews and focus groups with participants who were unmarried, married without a child and married with at least one child, and stratified by region. Qualitative indicators of concordance with international recommendations suggest that IYCF knowledge of participants was limited, irrespective of marriage or maternity. Young mothers in our study were no more knowledgeable about feeding practices than their nulliparous peers. Some participants were well aware of an IYCF recommendation (e.g. to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months), but their interpretation of the recommendation deviated from the intended public health message. Notions of insufficient or 'spoiled' breast milk, gender-based biases in feeding intentions and understandings of infant needs, and generational shifts in feeding practices were commonly reported. Conclusions are that female adolescence is a window of opportunity for improving health outcomes among future children, and increased investment in early education of adolescent girls regarding safe IYCF may be an effective strategy to promote and support improved infant feeding practices. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria.We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day, sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers, sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner, and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined.More than half (53.5% of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001 and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04. Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02, and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007. More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005. More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04 and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001 areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04 and

  7. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Adebajo, Sylvia; Adeyemi, Adedayo; Ogungbemi, Kayode Micheal

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria. We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04) and urban

  8. Recruiting a young adolescent rural cohort: Costs and lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krestina L. Amon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent recruitment into longitudinal health studies is challenging. The aim of this paper is to report the detailed process and costs of recruiting young adolescents and their families into an intensive longitudinal study of the effects of puberty hormones on health, behaviour and wellbeing in early adolescence, based in regional/rural Australia. Methods: Participants were recruited using a saturation strategy of targeted methods (including school visits and community events and non-targeted recruitment approaches (including print and electronic media advertising, and social media. Direct (face-to-face contact with the public and indirect (behind-the-scenes preparatory activities researcher hours were calculated for each of the recruitment strategies. Results: The study recruited 342 adolescent participants and a parent/guardian over two years. School and community-based recruitment required 6.2 and 6.0 researcher hours per activity, respectively. Direct researcher hours were primarily spent on delivering presentations and connecting with community members at community events. The majority of indirect hours were spent preparing and assembling information packs for distribution to students and parents during school visits. Non-targeted recruitment strategies using media advertising were the most frequently used methods. Researchers were estimated to have spent less than one hour for each media activity. In 27 months, an estimated $250,000 was spent on recruitment activities and resources. A combination of methods was used to recruit young adolescents and their families into a longitudinal health study. Conclusions: The financial costs and researcher time committed to this study highlight the labour-intensive nature of recruitment. The data presented are useful for researchers planning longitudinal studies in adolescents.

  9. Differential impacts of social support on mental health: A comparison study of Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and their urban counterparts in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2017-02-01

    The number of internal migrant children in China has reached 35.8 million by the end of 2010. Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings regarding the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, as well as the impact of peer, teacher and parental support on the mental health of Chinese adolescent migrants. Using a comparative approach, this study attempted to compare the mental health status between migrant and urban-born adolescents and to clarify the specific roles of different sources of social support in the mental health of migrant and urban adolescents. A cross-sectional survey using a cluster convenience sampling strategy was performed in Beijing, China. A structured questionnaire was filled out by 368 rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and 325 urban-born adolescents. A significant difference was found only for positive affect (PA) but not for negative affect (NA) between the two groups, favouring the urban-born adolescents. Social support from all the three sources were all predictive of PA among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, while only peer support contributed to PA among urban-born adolescents. Unexpectedly, teachers' support contributed to an increase in NA among urban-born adolescents. The findings contribute to understanding of the mental health status of migrant adolescents in China and the differential impact of the various sources of social support on migrant and urban-born adolescents. Also the findings may inform the development of mental health services and programmes that can potentially benefit a large number of internal migrant adolescents in China.

  10. "Sticking Together": The Adolescent Experience of the Cohesion Process in Rural School Counseling Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tara M.; Rubel, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory of how adolescents experience the cohesion process in rural school counseling groups. A total of 20 individual interviews with 7 participants were conducted. Data analysis generated the central category of the cohesion process as "sticking together," which describes a "tight…

  11. Comparisons of Contraceptive Use between Rural and Urban Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Savannah; Quevillon, Randal; Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Hansen, Keith

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if barriers in rural areas might decrease an adolescent's likelihood of obtaining effective contraception. Previous studies have reported mixed results in comparisons of rural and urban contraception use. Electronic survey. Midwestern Public University. Undergraduate and graduate women. Questionnaire. Participants retrospectively recalled their contraceptive use and barriers to contraceptive use between the 9th and 12th grades. A Barriers to Contraception Use Scale was created using exploratory factor analysis and yielded 31 questions with 1 underlying factor: barriers. Participants were identified as rural or urban using the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) definition and the participant's self-identification. Overall, rural participants endorsed more barriers to accessing contraceptives than urban participants using the OMB definition (χ(2) (2; n = 388) = 2.04; P .05. The Barriers to Contraception Use Scale total score predicted whether an individual would have a prescription for contraceptives 70.5% of the time compared to the base rate of 54.1%. Although no rural-urban differences in actual contraception use were found, rural participants reported more barriers to accessing contraception, and those who endorsed more barriers were less likely to obtain contraceptives while in high school. Pregnancy prevention programs should thus take these barriers into account when developing future interventions. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Peer effects in adolescent bodyweight: evidence from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Chung-Ping A; Li, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Peer effect is a potential determinant of individual weight gain that has drawn considerable attention recently. The presence of peer effect implies that policies targeted at changing bodyweight can have enhanced effectiveness through a multiplier effect. This study aims to measure the peer effects on adolescent bodyweight in China. Using the small community nature of the rural sample of the wave 2000 of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, we define plausible peer groups and assess the effect of the average BMI of his/her peer group on the BMI of an adolescent. An instrumental variable (IV) approach is applied to control for potential endogeneity of the peer group's BMI. We find evidence supporting peer effect on BMI in general. The peer effect is around 0.3 with slight variation between two alternative peer definitions. Split sample analysis shows that the peer effect is significant for females (0.32-0.37), and insignificant for male adolescents. Furthermore, we find strong influence of same-gender peers (0.34-0.42) for female adolescents. Conditional quantile regressions show that the peer effect in weight gain is mainly present at or below the median in the conditional BMI distribution for girls, and at the higher end of the BMI distribution for boys. Multiple tests show strong identification, and strong instruments in our IV estimation. Placebo tests suggest that our results are reasonably robust to the correlated effect, due to unobserved community- and province-level factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rural versus Urban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøning, Signe Wedel

    and take position within larger social structures of unequal power structures through such employment. The adolescents did not explicitly discuss power relations between urban and rural Denmark in their everyday social encounters, but when they employ Stylised vestjysk and Stylised københavnsk......This ethnographic project discerns how rural adolescents living in West Jutland, Denmark, carry out their daily lives under globalised conditions. The project shows how the young speakers (re)activate, align with and discard ideological perceptions of rural and urban Denmark. By investigating......, they continuously ascribe low social status to the former and high social status to the latter. Thus, the overall picture is one reproducing urban Denmark as a powerful and prestigious centre, whereas rural Denmark is disempowered....

  14. Recognizing Internet Addiction: Prevalence and Relationship to Academic Achievement in Adolescents Enrolled in Urban and Rural Greek High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Alexandraki, Kiriaki; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2013-01-01

    This study aims: a) to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents of urban and rural areas in Greece, b) to examine whether the Internet Addiction Test cut-off point is applicable to them and c) to investigate the phenomenon's association with academic achievement. Participants were 2090 adolescents (mean age 16, 1036 males,…

  15. Convergent and discriminant validity of time attitude scores on the adolescent time perspective inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Worrel, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2009-01-01

    "In this study, we report on the validity of time attitude scores on the Adolescent Time Perspective Inventory-Time Attitudes (ATPI-TA; Mello/ Worrell 2007) Scales. The ATPI-TA has six subscales: Past Positive, Past Negative, Present Positive, Present Negative, Future Positive, and Future Negative. Participants consisted of 300 adolescents from rural, urban, and suburban schools and a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. All time attitude subscales were interrelated, with correlations in the a...

  16. Future orientation: a construct with implications for adolescent health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah R Lindstrom; Blum, Robert W; Cheng, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Multidisciplinary research has supported a relationship between adolescent future orientation (the ability to set future goals and plans) and positive adolescent health and development outcomes. Many preventive strategies - for example, contracepting, exercising - are based on taking actions in the present to avoid unwanted or negative future consequences. However, research has been hampered by unclear and often divergent conceptualizations of the future orientation construct. The present paper aims to integrate previous conceptual and operational definitions into a conceptual framework that can inform programs and services for youth and efforts to evaluate future orientation as a target for intervention. Recommendations focus on furthering the study of the construct through measurement synthesis as well as studies of the normative development of future orientation. Also suggested is the need to pair environmental intervention strategies with individual level efforts to improve future orientation in order to maximize benefits.

  17. Trends in overweight and obesity among rural children and adolescents from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades, both in developing and developed countries. The present study examined the prevalent trends in overweight and obesity among rural children and adolescents over the past 29 years (1985-2014) in Shandong, China. Data for this study were obtained from six cross-sectional surveys (1985, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014) of schoolchildren in Shandong Province, China. A total of 27,840 rural students aged 7-18 years were included in this study. Body mass index cut-off points recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC), the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing continually in rural areas over the past 29 years (1985-2014). Using WGOC criteria, for boys, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 0.74% and 0.03% in 1985 to 16.35% and 17.20% in 2014, and for girls it increased from 1.45% and 0.12% in 1985 to 13.91% and 9.11% in 2014, respectively. A similar increasing trend was observed by IOTF and WHO criteria. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Shangdong rural areas increased rapidly between 1985 and 2014. Rural areas should not be neglected in obesity intervention, policy-makers and experts should pay more attention to the new tendency. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  18. Psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation in rural South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Bos, Arjan E R; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a prevalent problem among young people in Southern Africa, but prevention programs are largely absent. This survey aimed to identify the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Limpopo. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to establish a representative sample of 591 adolescents. Bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Findings show that suicidal ideation is prevalent among adolescents. The psychosocial factors perceived social support and negative feelings about the family and the behavioral factors forced sexual intercourse and physical violence by the partner were found to increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Depression mediated the relationship between these psychosocial and behavioral risk factors and suicidal ideation. This study increased our understanding of the psychosocial and behavioral predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation. The findings provide target points for future intervention programs and call for supportive structures to assist adolescents with suicidal ideation.

  19. Adolescents' expectations for the future predict health behaviors in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Hoyt, Lindsay T; Doane, Leah D; Adam, Emma K

    2011-08-01

    Health-related behaviors in adolescence establish trajectories of risk for obesity and chronic degenerative diseases, and they represent an important pathway through which socio-economic environments shape patterns of morbidity and mortality. Most behaviors that promote health involve making choices that may not pay off until the future, but the factors that predict an individual's investment in future health are not known. In this paper we consider whether expectations for the future in two domains relevant to adolescents in the U.S.-perceived chances of living to middle age and perceived chances of attending college-are associated with an individual's engagement in behaviors that protect health in the long run. We focus on adolescence as an important life stage during which habits formed may shape trajectories of disease risk later in life. We use data from a large, nationally representative sample of American youth (the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) to predict levels of physical activity, fast food consumption, and cigarette smoking in young adulthood in relation to perceived life chances in adolescence, controlling for baseline health behaviors and a wide range of potentially confounding factors. We found that adolescents who rated their chances of attending college more highly exercised more frequently and smoked fewer cigarettes in young adulthood. Adolescents with higher expectations of living to age 35 smoked fewer cigarettes as young adults. Parental education was a significant predictor of perceived life chances, as well as health behaviors, but for each outcome the effects of perceived life chances were independent of, and often stronger than, parental education. Perceived life chances in adolescence may therefore play an important role in establishing individual trajectories of health, and in contributing to social gradients in population health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rural and Urban Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  1. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

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    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  2. Rural exposure during medical education and student preference for future practice location - a case of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arscott-Mills, Tonya; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Tawana, Gothusang; Mbuka, Deogratias O; Makgabana-Dintwa, Orabile; Sebina, Kagiso; Kebaetse, Masego; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2016-06-10

    Botswana's medical school graduated its first class in 2014. Given the importance of attracting doctors to rural areas the school incorporated rural exposure throughout its curriculum. This study explored the impact of rural training on students' attitudes towards rural practice. The University of Botswana family medicine rural training sites, Maun and Mahalapye. The study used a mixed-methods design. After rural family medicine rotations, third- and fifth-year students were invited to complete a questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The thirty-six participants' age averaged 23 years and 48.6% were male. Thirtythree desired urban practice in a public institution or university. Rural training did not influence preferred future practice location. Most desired specialty training outside Botswana but planned to practice in Botswana. Professional stagnation, isolation, poorly functioning health facilities, dysfunctional referral systems, and perceived lack of learning opportunities were barriers to rural practice. Lack of recreation and poor infrastructure were personal barriers. Many appreciated the diversity of practice and supportive staff seen in rural practice. Several considered monetary compensation as an enticement for rural practice. Only those with a rural background perceived proximity to family as an incentive to rural practice. The majority of those interviewed plan to practice in urban Botswana, however, they did identify factors that, if addressed, may increase rural practice in the future. Establishing systems to facilitate professional development, strengthening specialists support, and deploying doctors near their home towns are strategies that may improve retention of doctors in rural areas.Keyords: rural health, student perceptions.

  3. Knowledge and causal attributions for mental disorders in HIV-positive children and adolescents: results from rural and urban Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalukenge, W; Martin, F; Seeley, J; Kinyanda, E

    2018-05-02

    Increasing availability of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has led HIV to be considered a chronic disease, shifting attention to focus on quality of life including mental wellbeing. We investigated knowledge and causal attributions for mental disorders in HIV-positive children and adolescents in rural and urban Uganda. This qualitative study was nested in an epidemiological mental health study among HIV-positive children and adolescents aged 5-17 years in rural and urban Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers of HIV-positive children (5-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) in HIV care. Interviews were audio recorded with permission from participants and written consent and assent sought before study procedures. Thirty eight participants (19 caregivers, 19 children/adolescents) were interviewed. Age range of caregivers was 28-69 years; majority were female (17). Caregivers had little knowledge on mental disorders ;only 3 related the vignette to a mental problem  and attributed it to: improper upbringing, violence, poverty and bereavement. Five adolescents identified vignettes as portraying mental disorders caused by: ill-health of parents, bereavement, child abuse, discrimination, HIV and poverty. Caregivers are not knowledgeable about behavioural and emotional challenges in HIV-positive children/adolescents. Mental health literacy programmes at HIV care clinics are essential to enhance treatment-seeking for mental health.

  4. Dietary behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents in a remote rural area of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekul, Wirote; Viravathana, Nantaporn; Aimpun, Pote; Watthanakijthavongkul, Khanin; Khruacharooen, Jakkapong; Awaiwanont, Abhinant; Khumtuikhrua, Chaowanan; Silsrikul, Pichayen; Nilrat, Pawarid; Saksoong, Saksit; Watthanatham, Jirawat; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Sirimaneethum, Pornsirin; Meeprom, Natee; Somboonruangsri, Wuttiwong; Pongmanee, Koonphol; Rangsin, Ram

    2005-11-01

    Nutritional status among adolescents is an important health indicator. The up-to-date information about nutritional status and food consumption pattern in the remote rural area is required for the effective public health intervention in the rural area of the country. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of malnutrition, eating behavior and nutritional knowledge among secondary school students in a remote rural area in Thailand. Body weight and height data were collected from 298 secondary school students for nutritional status calculation using the Institute of Nutrition Research, Mahidol University, INMU-Thaigrowth program. Eating behavior and nutritional knowledge were observed by self-administrated questionnaires. The prevalence low height-for-age (instant noodles (64.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition was low among this population. The studied population had a fair knowledge about nutrition. The authoes found that regular consumption of highly commercialized snack products especially salted chips and instant noodles were at a high level in this remote rural area of Thailand. The pattern of nutritional problems in Thailand may have changed in which a public health program for children in rural areas of the country should recognize this transition.

  5. A study on knowledge and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among rural and urban adolescent girls in Udupi Taluk, Manipal, India

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    Kamath R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescent girls often lack knowledge regarding reproductive health including menstruation hygiene which can be due to socio-cultural barriers in which they grow up. Objectives: To explore the knowledge, practices and sources of information regarding menstruation and hygiene among adolescent girls in Udupi taluk, India. Methods: An epidemiologic study was undertaken using cross-sectional study method among 550 school-going adolescent girls aged13-16 years. A total of 270 were from urban and 280 from the rural area. Stratified cluster sampling was adopted to select the schools and simple random sampling technique to select the participants. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 15.Results Around 34% participants were aware about menstruation prior to menarche, and mothers were the main source of information among both groups. Overall, 70.4% of adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 25.6% were using both cloth and sanitary napkins. Almost half of the rural participants dried the absorbent inside their homes. Conclusions: There is a need to equip the adolescent girls with knowledge regarding safe, hygienic practices to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life.

  6. Use of prescription drugs and future delinquency among adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena; Borre, Alicia; Kliewer, Wendy L

    2015-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) by adolescents is a significant public health concern. The present study investigated the profile of NMUPD in 1349 adolescent offenders from the Pathways to Desistance project, and whether NMUPD predicted future delinquency using longitudinal data. Results indicated that increased frequency and recency of NMUPD in adolescent offenders are related to some demographic factors, as well as increased risk for violence exposure, mental health diagnoses, other drug use, and previous delinquency, suggesting that severity of NMUPD is important to consider. However, ANCOVA analyses found that NMUPD was not a significant predictor of drug-related, non-aggressive, or aggressive delinquency 12 months later beyond other known correlates of delinquency. Age, sex, exposure to violence, lower socioeconomic status, more alcohol use, and having delinquency histories were more important than NMUPD in predicting future delinquency. These findings suggest that although NMUPD is an important risk factor relating to many correlates of delinquency, it does not predict future delinquency beyond other known risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-Esteem and Future Orientation Predict Adolescents' Risk Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Danielle M.; MacPhee, David

    2017-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the relations among future orientation, self-esteem, and later adolescent risk behaviors, and to compare two mediational models involving self-esteem versus future orientation as mediators. An ethnically diverse sample of 12- to 14-year-olds (N = 862, 54% female, 53% ethnic minority) was assessed longitudinally.…

  8. Adolescents' Religiousness and Substance Use Are Linked via Afterlife Beliefs and Future Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher J; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2017-10-01

    Although religiousness has been identified as a protective factor against adolescent substance use, processes through which these effects may operate are unclear. The current longitudinal study examined sequential mediation of afterlife beliefs and future orientation in the relation between adolescent religiousness and cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use. Participants included 131 adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 12 years) at three time points with approximately two year time intervals. Structural equation modeling indicated that higher religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher afterlife beliefs at Time 2. Higher afterlife beliefs at Time 2 were associated with higher future orientation at Time 2, which in turn was associated with lower use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana at Time 3. Our findings highlight the roles of afterlife beliefs and future orientation in explaining the beneficial effects of religiousness against adolescent substance use.

  9. Dysmenorrhoea in different settings: Are the rural and urban adolescent girls perceiving and managing the dysmenorrhoea problem differently?

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    Avasarala Atchuta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It is well-known that every health problem, not only presents itself with different epidemiological profiles in different population settings, but is also perceived and managed differently. Having knowledge of these variations in its presentations and perceptions in different population settings, for example, in urban and rural settings, will be useful for its successful management. Aim: To study differences in epidemiological profiles, perceptions, socio economic losses, and quality-of-life losses and management of dysmenorrhoea in different settings for effective management. Design and Setting: A comparative cross-sectional study among adolescent school girls (101 girls in urban areas and 79 girls in rural areas in the district of Karimnagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a pretested questionnaire was conducted among 180 adolescent girls in urban and rural settings. Statistical Analyses Used: Proportions and X 2 test. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea is 54% (53% in girls in urban areas and 56% in girls in rural areas (X 2 df = 0.1, P = 0.05. Sickness absenteeism (28-48%, socio economic losses, and perceived quality of life losses are more prevalent among girls in urban areas than in girls in rural areas. Girls in rural areas resort to physical labor and other natural methods to obtain relief while the girls in urban areas are mainly depending on medications. Conclusions: Dysmenorrhoea can also be managed effectively by natural methods without resorting to medicines, provided one is psychologically prepared to face it without anxiety.

  10. Sexually Harassing Behavior against Adolescent Girls in Rural Bangladesh: Implications for Achieving Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…

  11. Urban Rural Comparisons of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Burden among Adolescent Girls in a Hospital Setting in India

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    Swetha Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a multifaceted disorder characterized by varying clinical presentations. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine urban and rural differences in the burden of polycystic ovarian syndrome among Indian adolescent females aged 12 to 19 years. Methods. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of one month (August-September 2013 at Balaji Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. The final sample included 126 study participants located in various urban (50%, n=63 and rural (50%, n=63 settings. Information was gathered on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical history, occurrence of acne and hirsutism, serum testosterone levels, obstetric history, family history of chronic diseases, menstrual history, physical activity, and dietary intake. Results. Eighteen percent of the participants were confirmed of having PCOS by recent guidelines of Rotterdam Consensus for adolescent diagnosis of PCOS (presence of all three elements. Majority of the individuals with PCOS had an average age of 16 (SD = 2 (P=.02 years with an average age of menarche 12 years (SD = 1. Conclusion. The proportion of participants diagnosed with PCOS was higher among urban participants in comparison to rural participants.

  12. Social determinants of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents in a rural Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobe, Madhumita; Mandal, Ram Narayan; Jha, Ayan

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected villages to assess prevalence of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents, and describe the social determinants. The prevalence of adolescent GHP was 32.1% (95% CI = 27.1, 37.1). Logistic regression established 5 significant positive predictors-maternal GHP, presence of sanitary latrine, availability of soap at hand-washing locations, in-house water supply, and higher per capita income. Our research provides a scope for better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of GHP in a rural Indian setting, and may find implications in the Total Sanitation Campaign launched by Government of India.

  13. AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE OF RURAL ADOLESCENT GIRLS REGARDING REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ISSUES IN NORTHERN INDIA

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    Monika Agarwal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since adolescent girls comprise a major reproductive age group, their role is critical in determining the India's future population goal. This apart, evidence ofchange in sexual behavior and growing spread of HIV infection, has generatedfresh reproductive health concerns, which need to be accountedfor by policy makers to develop appropriate family life educational strategies.Objectives:To assess the level of knowledge ofoubertal changes, reproductive tract infections and HIV/AIDS among adolescents.To assess the attitude of adolescent girls regarding age at marriage, age at first birth, small family concept.To identify the preferred source of information by adolescents on reproductive health.Study design: cross- sectional studySampling Technique: thirty cluster methodology Study setting: Rural areas of Luc knowParticipants: 455 unmarried adolescent girls of (10-19 years age                                                                                           .Statistical A nalysis: Chi square test and Fischer exact testResult: Three fourth of the girls were aware of at least one pubertal change. In spite of being aware that RTI is a curable disease, only 8.5% of the girls having RTI sought treatmentfor it. About 80% ofadolescent girls had heard of HIV/AIDS. 47.7% ofadolescents were unaware that it is incurable. Heterosexual relation was cited by most (73.2% ofthe girls as mode oftransmission of HIV. Sex with partner only and use ofcondom as a preventive measure was identified by 52.6% and 39.2% girls respectively. Early marriage and early child bearing (<2I years was preferred by 10.7% and 33.6% of girls respectively. Family size oftwo or less was preferred by 69.2%> Irrespective ofany age group, majority of the girls preferred afamily member to get information on reproductive health problems

  14. Urban versus rural lifestyle in adolescents: associations between environment, physical activity levels and sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Manuela Ferreira; Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório de; Santos, Ana Raquel Mendes Dos; Leonidio, Ameliane da Conceição Reubens; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Freitas, Clara Maria Silvestre Monteiro de

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents living in urban and rural areas. An epidemiological, cross-section study with quantitative design, carried out at the regional level. The sample comprised 6,234 students aged 14 to 19 years, selected using random cluster sampling. The χ2 test and binary logistic regression were used in the analysis. A total of 74.5% of adolescents lived in urban areas. After adjustment, rural residents spent less time watching television (odds ratio - OR: 0.45; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 0.39-0.52), using a computer and/or playing video games (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.22-0.42), or sitting down (OR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.54-0.80); chose passive leisure less often (OR: 0.83; 95%IC: 0.72-0.95) and were less likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 0.88; 95%IC: 0.78-0.99) when compared to urban residents, regardless of sex or age. The fact that adolescents living in rural areas who did not work were more likely to be classified as insufficiently active (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 2.07-3.24) emphasized the significant role of occupation in physical activity levels in this group. Adolescents living in rural areas were less exposed to the sedentary behaviors, chose more active leisure, and had higher levels of physical activity. Place of residence and occupation may play a major role in youth lifestyle. Analisar os níveis de atividade física e o comportamento sedentário em adolescentes das áreas urbanas e rurais. Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa e abrangência estadual, cuja amostra foi constituída por 6.234 estudantes (14 a 19 anos), selecionados por meio de uma estratégia de amostragem aleatória de conglomerados. As análises foram realizadas por meio do teste χ2 e da regressão logística binária. Na amostra, 74,5% dos adolescentes eram residentes em área urbana. Após o ajuste, constatou-se que os adolescentes oriundos da área rural usavam menos televisão (odds

  15. Reproductive health awareness of school-going, unmarried, rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeru; Mathur, A K; Singh, M P; Saxena, N C

    2004-09-01

    In 1996, India included Adolescent Health in Reproductive and Child Heatlh Programme. This Task-Force Study was planned to test the awareness level of adolescents regarding various reproductive health issues and to identify lacunae in knowledge, particularly in legal minimum age of marriage, number of children, male preference, contraceptive practices, about STIs /AIDS etc. It was a multicentre study, done in rural co-education/higher secondary schools of 22 districts located in 14 states through Human Reproductive Research Centre (HRRC's) of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). A sample of 8453 school going adolescents (aged 10-19 years) was surveyed by means of open ended, self-administered questionnaires maintaining confidentiality. Mean age of adolescents was 14.3 +/- 3.4 years. Awareness of legal minimum age of marriage was present in more than half of adolescents. Attitude towards marriage beyond 21 years in boys and 18 years in girls was favorable. Mean number of children desired was 2.2 +/- 1.4. However, number of children desired by boys (2.2+/-1.6) was significantly more (p< 0.000) than those desired by girls (2.0+/-1.1). More boys (23.7%) than girls (9.4%) wanted three or more children with male preference. Only 19.8% of adolescents were aware of at least one method of contraception. Only two-fifth (39.5%) were aware of AIDS and less than one-fifth (18%) were aware of STDs and most of them thought it is same as AIDS. Awareness of at least one method of immunization was present in three-fifth (60.1%) of students. It was least for DPT (13.5%) and most (55%) were aware of polio only. Awareness of all Reproductive Health matters was more in boys than girls and more in late teens (15-19) than earlier teens (10-14). The study showed tremendous lacunae in awareness of all Reproductive Health (RH) matters. There is a need for evolving information, education, and communication strategies to focus on raising awareness on RH and gender related issues. A

  16. Adolescents' Thoughts about Parents' Jobs and Their Importance for Adolescents' Future Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neblett, Nicole Gardner; Cortina, Kai Schnabel

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between adolescents' perceptions of their parents' jobs and their future orientation, and tested the role of parental support. Four hundred and fifteen ninth through twelfth graders were surveyed about their parents' job rewards, self-direction, and stressors, as well as their expectations for employment and…

  17. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  18. Eating breakfast together as a family: mealtime experiences and associations with dietary intake among adolescents in rural Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Wang, Qi; Berge, Jerica M; Shanafelt, Amy; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-06-01

    Although existing evidence links breakfast frequency to better dietary quality, little is known specifically in regard to the benefits associated with eating breakfast together with one's family. The present study describes the prevalence and experience of having family meals at breakfast among rural families and examines associations between meal frequency and adolescent diet quality. Data were drawn from Project BreakFAST, a group-randomized trial aimed at increasing school breakfast participation in rural Minnesota high schools, USA. Linear mixed models were used to examine associations between student reports of family breakfast frequency and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores while accounting for clustering within schools, demographics and household food security. Adolescent students from sixteen schools completed online surveys, height and weight measurements, and dietary recalls at baseline in 2012-2014. The sample included 827 adolescents (55·1 % girls) in grades 9-10 who reported eating breakfast on at most three days per school week. On average, adolescents reported eating breakfast with their family 1·3 (sd 1·9) times in the past week. Family breakfast meals occurred most frequently in the homes of adolescents who reported a race other than white (P=0·002) or Hispanic ethnicity (P=0·02). Family breakfast frequency was directly associated with adolescent involvement in preparing breakfast meals (Pfood patterns at breakfast. Additional research is needed to better inform and evaluate strategies.

  19. Examining Rural-Urban Obesity Trends among Youth in the U.S.: Testing the Socioeconomic Gradient Hypothesis

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    Jeremy Reed Porter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent obesity has increased three-fold in the U.S. during the last three decades. While this trend is well-known, relatively little is known about differences in obesity across the rural-urban continuum. This research addresses that gap by testing for such a relationship across time while accounting for variations in familial socioeconomic status.  Using 1986-2004 Monitoring the Future (MTF survey data, we estimate recent trends in rural-urban body weight, also testing for potential differences among the rural, small town, and urban high school seniors along socioeconomic gradients. Statistically significant differences disfavoring rural high school seniors in their BMI, their risk for the onset of obesity, and obesity itself over the past decade are identified, with significant interactions between demographics and parental education levels driving the largest disparities. These findings are rich and speak directly to the allocation of public health resources aimed at addressing issues associated with the adolescent obesity epidemic.

  20. The End of Rural Society and the Future of Rural Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, William H.

    Rural sociology confronts a continuing crisis of identity because of its failure to develop a sociology of agriculture. Historically, despite an initial focus on agriculture, rural sociology became deflected to the analysis of rurality. Recent emphasis of rural sociologists on the turnaround phenomenon is symptomatic, but fails to deal with the…

  1. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A

    2014-08-26

    Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured "duo-interviews" were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of "convenient and less healthy foods". Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important facilitator of healthy eating, and breakfast

  2. It gets better: future orientation buffers the development of hopelessness and depressive symptoms following emotional victimization during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Connolly, Samantha L; Liu, Richard T; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-04-01

    Research consistently has linked hopelessness to a range of negative outcomes, including depression, during adolescence. Although interpersonal stressors such as familial and peer emotional victimization have been found to contribute to hopelessness, less research has examined whether adolescents with a greater tendency to think about and plan for the future (i.e., future orientation) are protected against the development of hopelessness, particularly in the context of negative events. Thus, the current study evaluated whether peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with a weaker future orientation than those with a stronger orientation towards the future, and whether hopelessness in turn predicted increases in depression. In a diverse sample of 259 early adolescents (54% female; 51% African American; Mage = 12.86 years), both peer and familial emotional victimization predicted increases in hopelessness more strongly among adolescents with weaker future orientations than among those with stronger future orientations. Further, moderated mediation analyses revealed that hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between emotional victimization and increases in depressive symptoms more strongly among adolescents with weaker orientations towards the future compared to those with stronger future orientations. These findings indicate that adolescents' tendency to think about the future may impact whether emotional victimization induces hopelessness and ultimately depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Results have important implications regarding intervention and prevention of depression during the critical developmental period of adolescence.

  3. [Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in rural and urban adolescents of southern Spain, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and physical and sedentary activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Nuviala, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana-María; Moral-García, José-Enrique; Martínez-López, Emilio-José

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is one of the healthier diet models. Mediterranean food patterns are suffering a deterioration that can especially affect children and adolescents. Determine adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescents of southern Spain and its relationship with the residence area, sex, age, life satisfaction, anthropometry, and habits of physical activity and sedentary activities. A total of 1973 adolescents (11-18 years) of southern Spain participated in this descriptive cross-sectional study. Cut-off value between rural and urban locations was 10000 inhabitants. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was calculated from the KIDMED questionnaire. Life satisfaction, physical activity, and sedentary activities also were measured through valid and reliable questionnaires. Body mass index and % body fat were measured using the TANITA BC-420-S body analyzer. 30.9% of the adolescents reported an optimal quality diet, percent higher in rural locations (P sedentary in front of a screen (P diet had a healthier lifestyle and they showed greater life satisfaction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Neck Circumference and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban and Rural Population in North Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Balaji, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Since a few studies exist on the association of neck circumference (NC) and obesity with blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in India, we found it highly relevant to measure the NC and body mass index (BMI) using them as indicators of upper body subcutaneous fat and obesity and relate them to BP in a rural and urban adolescent population in North Tamil Nadu. This is a community-based cross-sectional study of descriptive design where 500 students from urban and rural areas were selected, and their BMI, NC, and BP were measured using standardized instruments. Among urban and rural population high and normal NC positively correlated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), indicating that the data clearly reflects increase in BMI, SBP, and DBP values with increase in NC or vice versa. The correlation was statistically significant ( P < 0.001) significantly higher BMI ( P < 0.01), SBP ( P < 0.05), and NC ( P < 0.001) was observed in urban population than rural. DBP was not significantly different in rural and urban population. 95 th percentile values are significantly higher than rest in both urban and rural population. Only the 95 th percentile values correlate and reflect similar changes in BMI, SBP, and DBP. Our studies indicate a strong association of elevation in BP with high NC and increase in BMI. Overweight and obesity were positively correlated with increase in SBP and DBP.

  5. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents’ delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13–18 (48.7% females).

  6. Adolescent Reproductive Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs and Future Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F; Duncan, Greg; Peters, Sarah; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, Patricia Lindsay

    2016-05-01

    With a growing focus on the importance of men's reproductive health, including preconception health, the ways in which young men's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) predict their reproductive paths are understudied. To determine if reproductive KAB predicts fatherhood status, timing and residency (living with child or not). Reproductive KAB and fatherhood outcomes were analyzed from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a 20-year, nationally representative study of individuals from adolescence into adulthood. Four measures of reproductive KAB were assessed during adolescence in waves I and II. A generalized linear latent and mixed model predicted future fatherhood status (nonfather, resident/nonresident father, adolescent father) and timing while controlling for other socio-demographic variables. Of the 10,253 men, 3,425 were fathers (686 nonresident/2,739 resident) by wave IV. Higher risky sexual behavior scores significantly increased the odds of becoming nonresident father (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; p fatherhood and residency status. Strategies that address adolescent males' reproductive KAB are needed in the prevention of unintended reproductive consequences such as early and nonresident fatherhood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  8. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie; McDonald, Jordan; Ford, Hannah; Connelly, Paige; Gillespie, Rachel; Liu, Emily; Bush, Heather; Brancato, Candace; Babatande, Toyin; Mullins, Janet

    2017-10-21

    Background : Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods : A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina). Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica) and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results : Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores) [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval) 0.99, 3.82)]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44)] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [-0.001 (95% CI -0.001, 0.0001)] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions : There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results informed the

  9. Perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviour among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents: Mediating effects of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia

    2017-08-01

    Using cross-sectional data from rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in urban areas of Beijing, China, we examined the mediating effects of social support (i.e. teacher support and classmate support) in the relationship between perceived discrimination (PD) and antisocial behaviour (ASB) among Chinese migrant adolescents. Participants were 897 adolescents (459 boys and 438 girls, mean age = 13.34 years) from four migrant schools (68.8%) and four public schools (31.2%). Participants completed self-report questionnaires concerning PD, ASB, teacher support and classmate support. Results indicated that Chinese migrant adolescents who perceived more discrimination were more likely to engage in ASB. Teacher support partially mediated the relationship between PD and ASB. Gender moderated this mediational relationship, such that teacher support exerted a mediating role among girls, but not boys. The findings suggest that reductions in teacher support may partially account for the effect of PD on ASB among Chinese migrant adolescents girls. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. The association between self-reported diet quality and health-related quality of life in rural and urban Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Kristy A; Jacka, Felice; Allender, Steven; Kremer, Peter; Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; de Silva, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between diet quality and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in rural and urban Australian adolescents, and gender differences. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools. 722 rural and 422 urban students from 19 secondary schools. Self-report dietary-related behaviours, demographic information, HRQoL (AQoL-6D) were collected. Healthy and unhealthy diet quality scores were calculated; multiple linear regression investigated associations between diet quality and HRQoL. Compared to urban students, rural students had higher HRQoL, higher healthy diet score, lower unhealthy diet score, consumed less soft drink and less frequently, less takeaway and a higher proportion consumed breakfast (P health problems. Such interventions should consider gender and locality. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  11. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  12. Future Orientation among Caucasian and Arab-American Adolescents: The Role of Realism About Child-Rearing and Perceptions of Others' Acceptance of Adolescent Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Saima A.; Somers, Cheryl L.

    2004-01-01

    Future orientation in adolescents is an important concept to study because of its relations with academic performance and success levels. This study examined adolescents' realism about childrearing and their perceptions of others' approval of teen pregnancy to examine their association with future orientation. Participants were 476 high…

  13. Adolescents' Orientation Toward the Future: Sex Role Differentiation in a Sociocultural Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seginer, Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Tested the future orientation of 228 Jewish and Arab adolescents. Results supported the hypothesized instrumental-expressive division between Jewish males and females and the primacy of higher education for Arab females; these gender differences are sustained by the developmental settings of Jewish and Arab adolescents. (Author/BJV)

  14. Future Time Perspective as a Predictor of Adolescents' Adaptive Behavior in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renato Gil Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) has been associated with positive outcomes in adolescents' development across different contexts. However, the extent to which FTP influences adaptation needs additional understanding. In this study, we analysed the relationship between FTP and adolescents' behavior in school, as expressed in several indicators of…

  15. Trends in metabolic syndrome risk factors among adolescents in rural Crete between 1989 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvalaki, Charis; Vardavas, Constantine; Papandreou, Christopher; Christaki, Georgia; Vergetaki, Anna; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Hatzis, Christos; Kafatos, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    To investigate all the important factors contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as to explore the changes of these factors, over time, by comparing adolescent populations of rural areas of Heraklion, Crete, for the years 2011 and 1989. This study was carried out within two rural areas of the Heraklion region in Crete, Greece. The 1989 study was conducted in the village of Agia Varvara and the respective 2011 study within the municipality of Minoa Pediados. The study population consisted of 150 high school students (97 girls and 69 boys) in 1989 and 66 (30 girls and 36 boys) elementary (6th grade) and high school students in 2011, aged from 12 to 14 years old. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical information was obtained. Of the MetS risk factors studied, only obesity incidence was found higher in 2011 compared to 1989 (obese adolescents 1.3% in 1989 versus 21.2% in 2011, prise in obesity levels as well as to the decrease in hypertension, total cholesterol and LDL- cholesterol, as observed from the comparison of the years 1989 and 2011.

  16. The psychological world of adolescence: A comparative evaluation between rural and urban girls

    OpenAIRE

    Dhoundiyal Manju; Venkatesh Renuka

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to get an insight into the psychological world of adolescence and to study the influence of locality and school-going activity on it. The study group comprised of 240 girls in the age group 12–18 years equally representing urban and rural areas. Using two psychological tests, namely Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire and Health-Related Quality of Life Inventory, the results revealed that two-third of them were in the problematic and borderline categor...

  17. Promoting Informal and Professional Help-Seeking for Adolescent Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Jasmine M; Hudson-Flege, Matthew D; McDonell, James R

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined factors that differentiate adolescents with varied intentions of informal and professional help-seeking for dating violence. Help-seeking intentions among 518 ethnically diverse adolescents from a rural, southern county who participated in a longitudinal study of teen dating violence were categorized into three groups: adolescents unlikely to seek any help, adolescents likely to seek only informal help, and adolescents likely to seek informal and professional help. Multinomial logistic regression found that gender, family functioning, problem-solving competency, dating status, having an adult to talk to about a dating relationship, and acceptability of family violence significantly predicted membership in the help-seeking groups. Implications for promoting informal and professional help-seeking and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  18. Promoting Informal and Professional Help-Seeking for Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Jasmine M.; Hudson-Flege, Matthew D.; McDonell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined factors that differentiate adolescents with varied intentions of informal and professional help-seeking for dating violence. Help-seeking intentions among 518 ethnically diverse adolescents from a rural, southern county who participated in a longitudinal study of teen dating violence were categorized into three groups: adolescents unlikely to seek any help, adolescents likely to seek only informal help, and adolescents likely to seek informal and professional help. Multinomial logistic regression found that gender, family functioning, problem-solving competency, dating status, having an adult to talk to about a dating relationship, and acceptability of family violence significantly predicted membership in the help-seeking groups. Implications for promoting informal and professional help-seeking and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:28584387

  19. A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY RELATED DISORDERS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN RURAL KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Davis Manuel; Mini John; Rekha N. S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric problem in school going children worldwide. OBJECTIVE This study was done to find the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescents in rural Kerala. METHODS A school based survey was done among children of 10 to 13 years using SCARED anxiety scale. Specific items in the SCARED scale were used to assess panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety dis...

  20. The psychological world of adolescence: a comparative evaluation between rural and urban girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoundiyal, Manju; Venkatesh, Renuka

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to get an insight into the psychological world of adolescence and to study the influence of locality and school-going activity on it. The study group comprised of 240 girls in the age group 12-18 years equally representing urban and rural areas. Using two psychological tests, namely Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire and Health-Related Quality of Life Inventory, the results revealed that two-third of them were in the problematic and borderline category as per SDQ and one-third as per PedsQL. Further, there was a definite linear relationship between the total problem score of both scales. This was irrespective of the locale and school-going activity. The results indicate the need for building psychological infrastructure into the social system to help adolescents girls grow to their potential.

  1. Do Savings Mediate Changes in Adolescents' Future Orientation and Health-Related Outcomes? Findings From Randomized Experiment in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimli, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred M

    2015-10-01

    This present study tests the proposition that an economic strengthening intervention for families caring for AIDS-orphaned adolescents would positively affect adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes through increased asset accumulation (in this case, by increasing family savings). Using longitudinal data from the cluster-randomized experiment, we ran generalized estimating equation models with robust standard errors clustering on individual observations. To examine whether family savings mediate the effect of the intervention on adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes, analyses were conducted in three steps: (1) testing the effect of intervention on mediator; (2) testing the effect of mediator on outcomes, controlling for the intervention; and (3) testing the significance of mediating effect using Sobel-Goodman method. Asymmetric confidence intervals for mediated effect were obtained through bootstrapping-to address the assumption of normal distribution. Results indicate that participation in a matched Child Savings Account (CSA) program improved adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes by reducing hopelessness, enhancing self-concept, and improving adolescents' confidence about their educational plans. However, the positive intervention effect on adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes was not transmitted through saving. In other words, participation in the matched CSA program improved adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes regardless of its impact on reported savings. Further research is necessary to understand exactly how participation in economic strengthening interventions, for example, those that employ matched CSAs, shape adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes: what, if not savings, transmits the treatment effect and how? Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development and validation of an instrument to assess future orientation and resilience in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maggio, Ilaria; Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    The study is aimed at providing the development and initial validation of the Design My Future (DMF), which may be administered in career counseling and research activities to assess adolescents' future orientation and resilience. Two studies with two independent samples of Italian adolescents were conducted to examine psychometric requisites of DMF. Specifically, in the first study, after developing items and examined the content validity, the factorial structure, reliability and discriminant validity of the DMF were tested. In the second study, the measurement invariance across gender, conducing a sequence of nested CFA models, was evaluated. Results showed good psychometric support for the instrument with Italian adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct Effects of the Home, School, and Consumer Food Environments on the Association between Food Purchasing Patterns and Dietary Intake among Rural Adolescents in Kentucky and North Carolina, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Gustafson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity rates are higher among rural versus urban adolescents. To examine possible mechanisms for the rural-urban adolescent obesity disparity, we examined the direct and indirect effects of food purchasing patterns, and the home, school, and consumer food environments on dietary intake among rural adolescents. Methods: A baseline survey was conducted among adolescents in eight rural high schools (four in Eastern Kentucky, and four in Eastern North Carolina. Participants answered questions about food purchasing patterns, dietary intake, home food availability, and demographics. The school and consumer food environments were assessed using validated measures from the School Meals Cost Study (United States Department of Agriculture-Mathematica and the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey for Stores, Restaurants, and Corner Stores. Results: Of 432 adolescents, 55% were normal weight, 24% were overweight, and 21% were obese. There was a direct association between unhealthy food purchasing patterns (shopping frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores and consuming more added sugars, when compared to those with a healthy shopping pattern (shopping less frequently at gas stations, fast food, and dollar stores [Odds Ratio = 2.41 (95% CI (confidence interval 0.99, 3.82]. Those who reported always having fruits and vegetables in the home consumed more servings of fruits and vegetables [OR = 0.31 cups (95% CI 0.22, 0.44] compared to those who reported never having fruits and vegetables in the home. Adolescents attending a school with a low healthy food availability score consumed fewer servings of fruits and vegetables [−0.001 (95% CI −0.001, 0.0001] compared to those attending a school with a high healthy food availability score. Conclusions: There are direct associations between food purchasing patterns, the home and school food environments, and dietary intake among rural adolescents. These cross-sectional results

  4. Factors related to severe untreated tooth decay in rural adolescents: a case-control study for public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaret, E; Weinstein, P; Milgrom, P; Kaakko, T; Getz, T

    2004-01-01

    In this case-control study of rural adolescents we identified factors to discriminate those who have high levels of tooth decay and receive treatment from those with similar levels who receive no treatment. The sample was drawn from all 12-20-year-olds (n = 439) in a rural high school in Washington State, U.S. The criterion for being included was 5 or more decayed, missing or filled teeth. The questionnaire included structure, history, cognition and expectation variables based on a model by Grembowski, Andersen and Chen. No structural variable was related to the dependent variable. Two of 10 history variables were related: perceived poor own dental health and perceived poor mother's dental health. Four of eight cognition variables were also predictive: negative beliefs about the dentist, not planning to go to a dentist even if having severe problems, not being in any club or playing on a sports team and not having a best friend. No relationship was found for the expectation variable 'usual source of care'. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that untreated tooth decay is associated with avoidance of care and point to the importance of history and cognition variables in planning efforts to improve oral health of rural adolescents.

  5. Rural-Urban Differences in Perceptions of Child Overweight Among Children and Adolescents, Their Guardians and Health Care Professionals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Chen, Chen; Smalley, K Bryant; Warren, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents residing in rural environments with higher prevalence of an overweight population may develop inaccurate perceptions of a healthy weight. This study examines rural-urban differences in perceptions of child overweight among overweight (85 ≤ BMI percentile children (BMI percentile ≥ 95), their guardians and health care providers (HCPs), and children's concomitant weight control. The cross-sectional study was based on the 2005-2010 NHANES data (1,844 overweight and obese children and adolescents, aged 8-15 years). Rurality was defined using the 2003 RUCC. The weight status was based on the standardized measures of children's height and weight. Children reported whether they considered themselves overweight and whether they were trying to lose weight. Proxy respondents (ie, guardians) reported whether they considered their child to be overweight and whether an HCP had ever told them their child was overweight. Weighted percentages and predicted probabilities from multivariable logistic regressions were calculated, accounting for the complex, multistage, probability sampling design and nonresponse. Rural residents comprised 18.8% of the study population; 41.8% of them were overweight and 58.2% were obese compared to 46.7% and 53.3% of urban peers, respectively. Misperceptions of children's weight status were 11.3 and 6.0 percentage points higher in rural children and their guardians, respectively. Recall of an HCP identification of child overweight was 6.3 percentage points lower among rural versus urban guardians. Obesity prevention efforts may be fostered by improving accuracy of child overweight perceptions. This may be particularly impactful in rural settings, where weight misperceptions are high. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  6. Involvement of stakeholders in determining health priorities of adolescents in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Scholtz, Alexandra; Norris, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    When developing intervention research, it is important to explore issues from the community perspective. Interventions that promote adolescent health in South Africa are urgently needed, and Project Ntshembo ('hope') aims to improve the health of young women and their offspring in the Agincourt sub-district of rural northeast South Africa, actively using stakeholder involvement throughout the research process. This study aimed to determine adolescent health priorities according to key stakeholders, to align stakeholder and researcher priorities, and to form a stakeholder forum, which would be active throughout the intervention. Thirty-two stakeholders were purposefully identified as community members interested in the health of adolescents. An adapted Delphi incorporating face-to-face discussions, as well as participatory visualisation, was used in a series of three workshops. Consensus was determined through non-parametric analysis. Stakeholders and researchers agreed that peer pressure and lack of information, or having information but not acting on it, were the root causes of adolescent health problems. Pregnancy, HIV, school dropout, alcohol and drug abuse, not accessing health services, and unhealthy lifestyle (leading to obesity) were identified as priority adolescent health issues. A diagram was developed showing how these eight priorities relate to one another, which was useful in the development of the intervention. A stakeholder forum was founded, comprising 12 of the stakeholders involved in the stakeholder involvement process. The process brought researchers and stakeholders to consensus on the most important health issues facing adolescents, and a stakeholder forum was developed within which to address the issues. Stakeholder involvement as part of a research engagement strategy can be of mutual benefit to the researchers and the community in which the research is taking place.

  7. Under-nutrition among adolescents: a survey in five secondary schools in rural Goa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sohini; Dias, Amit; Shinkre, Rajal; Patel, Vikram

    2011-01-01

    This study was done in 2008-09 to assess the nutritional status among adolescents (10-19 years of age, Classes V-XII) in 5 schools in rural Goa to inform the content of a health promotion intervention in these schools. Three methods were used. First, nutritional status was measured by assessing body mass index among 1015 students during a health camp in each school. Second, a diet analysis was done to measure energy and protein Intake of 76 randomly selected underweight students. Third, a self-report questionnaire survey measured the prevalence of hunger among 684 students. One-third of students (338; 37.8% boys and 27.5% girls) who attended the health camps were underweight and 59.2% of the 684 students who completed the survey reported experiencing hunger due to inadequate food consumption. More boys were underweight than girls (pissue and ways to address it. There is an immediate need to address the high burden of hunger and under-nutrition in adolescents of both sexes in schools by instituting routine annual monitoring of nutritional status, extending the mid-day meal programme to all school-going adolescents, providing nutritional counselling for underweight adolescents and expanding research on the causes and impact of under-nutrition and evaluation of the impact of the enhanced mid-day meal programme.

  8. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Modiehi Heather; Pisa, Pedro T; Feeley, Alison B; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural ( n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban ( n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114-2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106-2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007-1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For "Year 15" adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099-2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299-0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218-0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324-0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  9. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02, eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01, and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05 were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01, was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  10. AGE AT MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY PATTERN OF ADOLESCENT MARRIED WOMEN IN RURAL BANGLADESH

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    Shaila Ahmed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in two purposively selected rural areas of Faridpur district - Alfadanga and Boalmari. The objectives were to find out the age at marriage and fertility pattern amongst the adolescent married women residing in the study areas. A total of 426 women were selected purposively and interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Most (97.2% were in the age group of 15-19 years, being married by 15.5 ± 1.5 years. Although 57.5% had a secondary level education, almost all (97% were found to be housewives. Monthly income was between Taka 2001-4000 in 41.3% of the households. Regarding fertility pattern, 19% of the adolescent women were found to be pregnant at the time of survey. The total fertility rate (TFR among this age group was estimated to be 2.6 per woman. To help improve the situation, awareness on the negative consequences of early marriage and consequent childbearing needs to be created not only among the young adolescent girls but should be targeted towards their parents too. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2007; 1(2: 9-12

  11. The Impact of Teen Court on Rural Adolescents: Improved Social Relationships, Psychological Functioning, and School Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Rose, Roderick A; Evans, Caroline B R; Barbee, James; Cotter, Katie L; Bower, Meredith

    2017-08-01

    Teen Court is a prevention program aimed at diverting first time juvenile offenders from the traditional juvenile justice system and reintegrating them into the community. Few studies have examined if Teen Court impacts adolescent functioning. We examined how Teen Court participation impacted psychosocial functioning, social relationships, and school experiences in a sample of 392 rural Teen Court participants relative to two comparison samples, one from the same county as Teen Court (n = 4276) and one from a neighboring county (n = 3584). We found that Teen Court has the potential to decrease internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, violent behavior, parent-adolescent conflict, and delinquent friends, and increase self-esteem and school satisfaction.

  12. What Do You Use Mobile Phones For? A Creative Method of Thematic Drawing with Adolescents in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiachun

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to explore Chinese adolescents' subjectivities toward the use of mobile phones, and reveal the dynamic relationship among students, parents, and school concerning mobile phone usage in rural China. Twenty-one high school students were recruited, and asked to draw a painting that expresses their perceptions of mobile phones in…

  13. Professional Help-Seeking for Adolescent Dating Violence in the Rural South: The Role of Social Support and Informal Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, Jasmine M.; Sianko, Natallia; McDonell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Structural equation modeling with three waves of data was used to assess a mediation model investigating the relationship between perceived social support, informal help-seeking intentions, and professional help-seeking intentions in the context of adolescent dating violence. The sample included 589 adolescents from a rural, southern county who participated in a longitudinal study of teen dating violence victimization and perpetration. Results suggest that informal help-seeking intentions are an important link between perceived social support and professional help-seeking intentions. Findings highlight the importance of informal help-seeking and informal help-giving in fostering professional help-seeking for adolescent victims and perpetrators of dating violence. PMID:27580981

  14. Eating habits of children and adolescents from rural regions depending on gender, education, and economic status of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Witold; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Kołłątaj, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The proper lifestyle of a child, including proper eating habits, should be monitored to ensure proper physical and psychological development. This applies particularly to rural areas which are economically, socially and educationally backward. The study included 1,341 rural schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9-13 years (734 females, 607 males). The representative survey research was conducted in 2008, making use of an original survey questionnaire. The results showed that the majority of respondents eat improperly. 83.2% of them have regular breakfast, and 62.6% have regular light lunch. Most respondents do not eat more than 4 meals a day (usually 3-4). It is worrying that the consumption of sweets is high (34.9% of the surveyed group eat them regularly), whereas fruit and vegetable consumption is low. In this study, relationships between types of diet and such descriptive variables as gender, parents' educational status, and economic situation of the households are described. In families where the parents have a higher education and the household situation is good, the eating habits are much better. The list of poor dietary habits of pupils from rural schools includes skipping breakfast and/or light lunch, high consumption of sweets and low consumption of fruit and vegetables. There are correlations between improper dietary habits and gender of the children and adolescents, educational status of parents, economic situation of households, and housing conditions.

  15. Relationships between depressive symptoms and perceived social support, self-esteem, & optimism in a sample of rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott; Puskar, Kathryn Rose; Ren, Dianxu

    2010-09-01

    Stress, developmental changes and social adjustment problems can be significant in rural teens. Screening for psychosocial problems by teachers and other school personnel is infrequent but can be a useful health promotion strategy. We used a cross-sectional survey descriptive design to examine the inter-relationships between depressive symptoms and perceived social support, self-esteem, and optimism in a sample of rural school-based adolescents. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with peer social support, family social support, self-esteem, and optimism. Findings underscore the importance for teachers and other school staff to provide health education. Results can be used as the basis for education to improve optimism, self-esteem, social supports and, thus, depression symptoms of teens.

  16. Adolescents' Religiousness and Substance Use Are Linked via Afterlife Beliefs and Future Orientation

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    Holmes, Christopher; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2017-01-01

    Although religiousness has been identified as a protective factor against adolescent substance use, processes through which these effects may operate are unclear. The current longitudinal study examined sequential mediation of afterlife beliefs and future orientation in the relation between adolescent religiousness and cigarette, alcohol, and…

  17. Perceptions and experiences of adolescents, parents and school administrators regarding adolescent-parent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues in urban and rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Katahoire, Anne Ruhweza; Banura, Cecily; Mugooda, Herbert; Kwesiga, Doris; Bastien, Sheri; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2015-11-30

    Evidence suggests that in spite of some adolescents being sexually active, many parents do not discuss sex-related issues with them due to lack of age-appropriate respectful vocabulary and skills. The likelihood of parent-adolescent communication improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes appears plausible. The desire to understand parent-adolescent communication and how to improve it for promotion of healthy sexual behaviours inspired this research. The paper is meant to describe perceptions of adolescents, parents and school administrators about parent-adolescent communication on sexual issues; describe the content of such communication and identify factors that influence this communication. The study was done among two urban and two rural secondary school students in their second year of education. Data were collected from 11 focus group discussions and 10 key Informants Interviews. Data management, analysis and interpretation followed thematic analysis principles. Illuminating verbatim quotations are used to illustrate findings. Parental warmth and acceptability of children was perceived by parents to be foundational for a healthy adolescent- parent communication. Perceptions of adolescents tended to point to more open and frequent communication with mothers than fathers and to cordial relationships with mothers. Fathers were perceived by adolescents to be strict, intimidating, unapproachable and unavailable. While adolescents tended to generally discuss sexual issues with mothers, male adolescents communicated less with anyone on sex, relationships and condoms. Much of the parent-adolescent communication was perceived to focus on sexually transmitted infections and body changes. Discussions of sex and dating with adolescents were perceived to be rare. Common triggers of sexuality discussions with female adolescents were; onset of menstruation and perceived abortion in the neighbourhood. Discussion with male adolescents, if it occurred was perceived to

  18. Rural Landscape, Production and Human Consumption: Past, Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Ulf; Miliander, Sofia

    2006-01-01

    Production and consumption of food and in a rural area over the last 400 years were reconstructed for a parish in south east Sweden. This was based on a number of different data sources, including historical maps and official demographic and agricultural statistics. Changes in population (and thus consumption) and the production from arable land and livestock were calculated and used to provide an estimate of the area's supply and demand over time, and of the historical sustainability of the area. Overall food productivity was remarkably constant over time, at approximately 0.04 kgC/m 2 /y, despite recent changes in population size and the area of cultivated land. The empirical results from the past and the present, together with the future land changes due to shoreline displacement were used to predict the situation in the future. These final estimates can be used in the assessment of risk for exposure to contaminated food for the future population in the area

  19. Understanding How Mindful Parenting May Be Linked to Mother-Adolescent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Duncan, Larissa G; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Nix, Robert L; Greenberg, Mark T

    2015-09-01

    Researchers have sought to understand the processes that may promote effective parent-adolescent communication because of the strong links to adolescent adjustment. Mindfulness, a relatively new construct in Western psychology that derives from ancient Eastern traditions, has been shown to facilitate communication and to be beneficial when applied in the parenting context. In this article, we tested if and how mindful parenting was linked to routine adolescent disclosure and parental solicitation within a longitudinal sample of rural and suburban, early adolescents and their mothers (n = 432; mean adolescent age = 12.14, 46 % male, 72 % Caucasian). We found that three factors-negative parental reactions to disclosure, adolescent feelings of parental over-control, and the affective quality of the parent-adolescent relationship-mediated the association between mindful parenting and adolescent disclosure and parental solicitation. Results suggest that mindful parenting may improve mother-adolescent communication by reducing parental negative reactions to information, adolescent perceptions of over-control, and by improving the affective quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. The discussion highlights intervention implications and future directions for research.

  20. Does future-oriented thinking predict adolescent decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskritt, Michelle; Doucette, Jesslyn; Robitaille, Lori

    2014-01-01

    A number of theorists, as well as plain common sense, suggest that future-oriented thinking (FOT) should be involved in decision making; therefore, the development of FOT should be related to better quality decision making. FOT and quality of the decision making were measured in adolescents as well as adults in 2 different experiments. Though the results of the first experiment revealed an increase in quality of decision making across adolescence into adulthood, there was no relationship between FOT and decision making. In the second experiment, FOT predicted performance on a more deliberative decision-making task independent of age, but not performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Performance on the IGT was instead related to emotion regulation. The study's findings suggest that FOT can be related to reflective decision making but not necessarily decision making that is more intuitive.

  1. Nutritional Behaviours Of Adolescents Living In Rural Areas. Part 1. Characteristics Of Health Behaviours Regarding Regular Consumption Of Meals And Level Of Acceptance Of Own Body Weight

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    Elżbieta Cipora

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions. Despite the fact that more than a half of the respondents living in rural areas observe the principles of rational nutrition, this percentage is too low to state that their eating behaviours are correct. Rural children and adolescents require an early permanent health education in the area of nutrition and physical activity.

  2. Habilidades sociales en contextos urbanos y rurales. Un estudio comparativo con adolescentes

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    Evangelina Norma Contini de González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this research paper is to compare the social skills of adolescents from Tucumán (Argentina in a rural/urban context using their socio-economical levels (NES. The study was comparative and transversal with a non probabilistic sample. The battery of socialization (BAS-3 and a survey to 11 and 12 year-old urban and rural adolescents (NES is applied. The results show that the urban adolescents with high socio-economical level have more consideration for others than urban and rural adolescents with low socio-economical levels. The rural adolescents have more leadership qualities than the urban adolescents. Women show more social anxiety when compared with urban and rural women and men. The results supply important local information in order to supply information to address programs that require assertive social skills. Resumen El objetivo del trabajo que dio como resultado este artículo de investigación consistió en comparar las habilidades sociales de adolescentes escolarizados de Tucumán (Argentina, según su contexto (urbano-rural y su nivel socioeconómico (NES. El estudio fue de tipo comparativo, transversal con muestreo no probabilístico intencional. Se aplicó la batería de socialización (BAS-3 y una encuesta sociodemográfica a 372 adolescentes de 11 y 12 años. Los adolescentes urbanos de NES alto refirieron más consideración hacia los demás que los adolescentes urbanos y rurales de NES bajo. Además, los adolescentes rurales se percibieron con más liderazgo que sus pares urbanos, en tanto que las mujeres presentaron mayor ansiedad social respecto a sus pares mujeres y varones rurales y urbanos. En definitiva, los resultados proveen información valiosa a nivel local para encarar programas de promoción de habilidades sociales asertivas.

  3. The ROOTS study: a 10-year review of findings on adolescent depression, and recommendations for future longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Jones, Peter B; Goodyer, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review longitudinal findings on adolescent mental health from the 'ROOTS study', and provide directions and recommendations for future longitudinal research. To do this, we discuss relevant findings from the ROOTS study, and review its strengths and limitations. We examined all publications from the ROOTS study up to July 2015, selected those examining adolescent mental health, and classified them as investigating (a) childhood risk factors for adolescent depression, (b) genetic and cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence, (c) genetic markers, childhood adversities, and neuroendophenotypes, (d) morning cortisol and depression, (e) physical activity and depression symptoms, and (f) the underlying structure of mental health in adolescence. We reviewed the strengths and limitations of the ROOTS study, and how they feed into recommendations for future longitudinal research. There was evidence supporting a putative hormonal biomarker for the emergence of depression in boys. Environmental pathways from child adversity to adolescent depression were confirmed in girls, partly accounted for by negative life events in early adolescence. The preceding role of automatic cognitive biases assessed using behavioural tasks was substantiated, with evidence for genetic susceptibility. Novel latent statistical models of child adversity, depression, anxiety, and psychotic experiences were produced, with concurrent and prospective validity. Our experiences conducting the ROOTS study resulted in a set of strengths, limitations, and recommendations for future longitudinal studies. The ROOTS study has advanced knowledge on the aetiology of adolescent depression by investigating environmental, genetic, hormonal, and neural risk factors. Findings provide a foundation for future research integrating cognitive neuroscience with epidemiology.

  4. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

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    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  5. Association of socio‐demographic factors with overweight and obesity among rural school going adolescents in Rohtak district, Haryana

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    BM Vashisht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low‐income and middle‐income countries. Childhood obesity is associated with higher chances of premature deaths and disabilities in adulthood. It is also evident that nearly 75% of the obese adolescents remain obese as adults thus increasing the risk of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs. Aim and Objectives To study the prevalence and associated socio‐demographic factors of overweight and obesity among rural school going adolescents. Material and Methods The present study was conducted in Lakhanmajra block of Rohtak district over a period of one year from July 2016 to June 2017. 750 students from six co‐ educational government senior secondary schools were included in the study. Data were collected using pre‐designed, pre‐tested, semi structured interview schedule. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.7% and 1.1% respectively. Maximum prevalence of obesity/overweight was found in the age group 13‐14 years (11.2%. Obesity/overweight was more prevalent in males (9.4% in comparison to females (3.4%. 14.3% of the study subjects belonging to three generation family, 11.7% belonging to joint and 4.5% belonging to the nuclear families were found to obese/ overweight. 11% and 5.1% of the study subjects with 6‐10 family members and 5 and less than five family members were obese/ overweight. Conclusion Childhood obesity continues in adult life and thus gives rise to diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thus it is the need of the hour to address this problem and to devise programs and strategies to prevent overweight/obesity among children and adolescents because today’s children are future of the nation.

  6. [Self-esteem Level in Scholarized Adolescents of the Rural Area of Pereira, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Iris Tatiana Montes; Ramírez, Viviana Escudero; Martínez, José William

    2012-09-01

    To assess the level of self-esteem of adolescents in a rural school of a district of Pereira. Students were called upon to participate, 292 agreed to undergo the test, while 20 abstained. After a previous reliability test analysis, we found that 47.9% of students had low and very low self esteem. A multivariate model reported that self-esteem was reduced as age increased. The academic community and the family must work together in order to improve self-esteem among teenagers in general. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Socializing influences and the value of sex: the experience of adolescent school girls in rural Masaka, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, J; Nyanzi, S; Pool, R

    2000-01-01

    To explore the socializing influences which have shaped rural adolescent schoolgirls' views and values about sex in a high HIV prevalence area of Uganda, detailed qualitative data were obtained over a 1-year period from 15 schoolgirls aged 14-17 years. The girls were chosen for their willingness to participate actively in a series of role plays, focus group discussions, and one-to-one interviews. Results indicated that the girls have been subjected to a wide range of influences, including parents, social functions, other young children, nature, their paternal aunt, peers, school, and various media, such as pornography. Moreover, there was disagreement about the relative values of sex and virginity. Some were determined to retain their virginity but the majority felt that sex benefits them socially and personally. Notably, peer pressure was a major factor influencing the opinions of many girls, while traditional influences are in decline. Given the small sample size of the study, care should be taken in generalizing from the results. However, the data suggest that sex has a high value for at least a substantial minority of adolescent girls in rural Misaka, Uganda. Policy makers and health educators should therefore consider how best to devise safe messages about sex that are relevant and applicable to this vulnerable segment of the population.

  9. Excessive TV Viewing Time and Associated Factors in Brazilian Adolescents from a Rural Area

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    Fronza Fernanda Cerveira Abuana Osório

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Sedentary behavior has been identified as a risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. This study identified the prevalence of excessive TV viewing time during the week and weekend and associated factors in adolescents living in a small urban and rural area. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 283 students (aged 10-19 years from Brazil was conducted in 2010. Data on TV viewing time and sociodemographic information were collected by questionnaires, cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the 20-m shuttle run test, and anthropometric characteristics were obtained by measuring waist circumference and skinfold thickness. Statistical analysis involved binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of excessive TV viewing time ( 2 h was 76.7% during on weekdays and 78.4% on the weekend. Adolescents aged 10-12 years (OR = 6.20; 95% CI = 2.91, 13.19; p < 0.001 and 13-15 years (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.28, 5.18; p = 0.008 were more exposed to excessive TV viewing time during the week. No associations were found for excessive TV viewing time on the weekend. Conclusions. Approximately 8 in 10 adolescents presented excessive TV viewing time; excessive TV viewing time during the week was associated with age.

  10. Examining how presumed media influence affects social norms and adolescents' attitudes and drinking behavior intentions in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Neo, Rachel L; Detenber, Benjamin H

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the influence of presumed media influence model as the theoretical framework to examine how perceived social norms (i.e., descriptive, subjective, and injunctive norms) will mediate the influence of pro- and antidrinking media messages on adolescents' intention to consume alcohol in rural Thailand. Data collected from 1,028 high school students indicate that different mechanisms underlie drinking intentions between nondrinkers and those who have consumed alcohol or currently drink. Among nondrinkers, perceived peer attention to prodrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to consume alcohol through all three types of perceived social norms. Among drinkers, perceived peer attention to pro- and antidrinking messages indirectly influenced adolescents' prodrinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol through perceived subjective norm. The findings provide support for the extended influence of presumed media influence model and have practical implications for how antidrinking campaigns targeted at teenagers in Thailand might be designed.

  11. Rural origin plus a rural clinical school placement is a significant predictor of medical students' intentions to practice rurally: a multi-university study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith H; Dewitt, Dawn E; Pallant, Julie F; Cunningham, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Health workforce shortages are a major problem in rural areas. Australian medical schools have implemented a number of rural education and training interventions aimed at increasing medical graduates' willingness to work in rural areas. These initiatives include recruiting students from rural backgrounds, delivering training in rural areas, and providing all students with some rural exposure during their medical training. However there is little evidence regarding the impact of rural exposure versus rural origin on workforce outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify and assess factors affecting preference for future rural practice among medical students participating in the Australian Rural Clinical Schools (RCS) Program. Questionnaires were distributed to 166 medical students who had completed their RCS term in 2006; 125 (75%) responded. Medical students were asked about their preferred location and specialty for future practice, their beliefs about rural work and life, and the impact of the RCS experience on their future rural training and practice preferences. Almost half the students (47%; n=58) self-reported a 'rural background'. Significantly, students from rural backgrounds were 10 times more likely to prefer to work in rural areas when compared with other students (ppreferring general practice, 80% (n=24) wished to do so rurally. Eighty-five per cent (n=105) of students agreed that their RCS experience increased their interest in rural training and practice with 62% (n=75) of students indicating a preference for rural internship/basic training after their RCS experience. A substantial percentage (86%; n=108) agreed they would consider rural practice after their RCS experience. This baseline study provides significant evidence to support rural medical recruitment and retention through education and training, with important insights into the factors affecting preference for future rural practice. By far the most significant predictor of rural practice

  12. Orbitofrontal cortex activity and connectivity predict future depression symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwen; Narayanan, Ananth; Perlman, Greg; Luking, Katherine; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability worldwide; however, little is known about pathological mechanisms involved in its development. Research in adolescent depression has focused on reward sensitivity and striatal mechanisms implementing it. The contribution of loss sensitivity to future depression, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) mechanisms critical for processing losses and rewards, remain unexplored. Furthermore, it is unclear whether OFC functioning interacts with familial history in predicting future depression. In this longitudinal study we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while 229 adolescent females with or without parental history of depression completed a monetary gambling task. We examined if OFC blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response and functional connectivity during loss and win feedback was associated with depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively (9 months later), and whether this relationship was moderated by parental history of depression. Reduced OFC response during loss was associated with higher depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively, even after controlling for concurrent depression, specifically in adolescents with parental history of depression. Similarly, increased OFC-posterior insula connectivity during loss was associated with future depression symptoms but this relationship was not moderated by parental history of depression. This study provides the first evidence for loss-related alterations in OFC functioning and its interaction with familial history of depression as possible mechanisms in the development of depression. While the current fMRI literature has mainly focused on reward, the present findings underscore the need to include prefrontal loss processing in existing developmental models of depression.

  13. Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial

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    Villanueva Elmer V

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mental health services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT. The study described in the current paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to investigate the impact on clinical care of implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents for the treatment of adolescent depression within a rural mental health service compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU. The second objective is to record the process and challenges (i.e. feasibility, acceptability, sustainability associated with implementing and evaluating an evidence-based intervention within a community service. This paper outlines the study rationale and design for this community based research trial. Methods/design The study involves a cluster randomisation trial to be conducted within a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in rural Australia. All clinicians in the service will be invited to participate. Participating clinicians will be randomised via block design at each of four sites to (a training and delivery of IPT, or (b TAU. The primary measure of impact on care will be a clinically significant change in depressive symptomatology, with secondary outcomes involving treatment satisfaction and changes in other symptomatology. Participating adolescents with significant depressive symptomatology, aged 12 to 18 years, will complete assessment measures at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 of treatment. They will also complete a depression inventory once a month during that period. This study aims to recruit 60 adolescent participants and their parent/guardian/s. A power analysis is not indicated as an intra

  14. Psychology and Rural America: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. Dennis; Keller, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    Rural people constitute about one-fourth of the U.S. population; their special mental health needs have largely been neglected. Psychologists are needed to practice in rural areas, to develop rural service models, and to support the development of state and federal policies that address rural needs. (DM)

  15. Rural Aspirations, Rural Futures: From "Problem" to Possibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieken, Mara Casey; San Antonio, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Young people aspire, make choices, and develop within a particular place and historical context. Recently, federal and state governments, policy and research institutes, and advocacy organizations have shown a growing interest in the aspirations and transitions of rural youth--and, in particular, the role that schools play in shaping and…

  16. Placing Antismoking Graphic Warning Posters at Retail Point-of-Sale Locations Increases Some Adolescents' Susceptibility to Future Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude; Dunbar, Michael; Kusuke, Daniela; Lanna, Serafina; Meyer, Amanda

    2017-12-13

    This experiment tested whether introducing graphic antitobacco posters at point-of-sale (POS) had any effect on adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking and whether these effects were moderated by adolescents' baseline risk of cigarette smoking. The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab, a life-sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail POS environments influence tobacco use risk and behavior during simulated shopping experiences. In this study, 441 adolescents were randomized to one of the four conditions in a 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the tobacco power wall: no, yes) × 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the cash register: no, yes) experimental design. The outcome of interest was susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. The addition of antismoking posters at POS led to a significant increase in future smoking susceptibility among those adolescents who already were at high risk for smoking in the future (p posters had no impact on committed never smokers, regardless of poster location; never smokers' susceptibility to future smoking was uniformly low across experimental conditions. Introducing graphic antismoking posters at POS may have the unintended effect of further increasing cigarette smoking susceptibility among adolescents already at risk. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. PRACTICES OF MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A DISTRICT OF UTTARAKHAND

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    Ruchi Juyal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence in girls signifies the transition from girlhood to womanhood. Good menstrual hygiene is crucial for the health, education, and dignity of girls and women. This is an important sanitation issue which has long been in the closet and still there is a long standing need to openly discuss it. Aims: 1. To elicit the knowledge and source of information regarding menstruation among the adolescent girl students. 2. To find out the practices of menstrual hygiene among them. Settings and Design: Cross-Sectional study conducted in two randomly selected Inter colleges (one rural and one urban of district Dehradun of Uttarakhand state. Methods and Material: 453 girls studying in 9th to 12th grades were interviewed by using a prestructured and pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis used: percentages and Chi-square test Results: 64.5 % girls (71.1% Rural and 57% Urban were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Awareness among rural girls was significantly more as compared to urban girls. Friends were the first informant in about 31.8 % girls. But the correct reason and source of bleeding during menstruation was not known to most of the respondents. Overall 38.4 % adolescent girls (48.1% Rural and 27.6% Urban were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 30 % were using a new cloth/rag every time. Conclusions: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  18. PRACTICES OF MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A DISTRICT OF UTTARAKHAND

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    Ruchi Juyal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence in girls signifies the transition from girlhood to womanhood. Good menstrual hygiene is crucial for the health, education, and dignity of girls and women. This is an important sanitation issue which has long been in the closet and still there is a long standing need to openly discuss it. Aims: 1. To elicit the knowledge and source of information regarding menstruation among the adolescent girl students. 2. To find out the practices of menstrual hygiene among them. Settings and Design: Cross-Sectional study conducted in two randomly selected Inter colleges (one rural and one urban of district Dehradun of Uttarakhand state. Methods and Material: 453 girls studying in 9th to 12th grades were interviewed by using a prestructured and pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis used: percentages and Chi-square test Results: 64.5 % girls (71.1% Rural and 57% Urban were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Awareness among rural girls was significantly more as compared to urban girls. Friends were the first informant in about 31.8 % girls. But the correct reason and source of bleeding during menstruation was not known to most of the respondents. Overall 38.4 % adolescent girls (48.1% Rural and 27.6% Urban were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 30 % were using a new cloth/rag every time. Conclusions: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  19. Community-led initiative for control of anemia among children 6 to 35 months of age and unmarried adolescent girls in rural Wardha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Amol R; Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Garg, Bishan S

    2011-12-01

    Studies in India have reported a high prevalence of nutritional anemia among children and adolescent girls. Nutritional anemia is associated with impaired mental, physical, and cognitive performance in children and is a significant risk factor for maternal mortality. To evaluate the effect of a community-led initiative for control of nutritional anemia among children 6 to 35 months of age and unmarried rural adolescent girls 12 to 19 years of age. This Participatory Action Research was done in 23 villages of the Primary Health Centre, Anji, in Wardha District of Maharashtra. In February and March 2008, needs assessment was undertaken by interviewing the mothers of 261 children and 260 adolescent girls. Hemoglobin levels of adolescent girls and children were measured with the use of the hemoglobin color scale. The girls were given weekly iron-folic acid tablets, and the children were given daily liquid iron prophylaxis for 100 days in a year through community participation. The adolescent girls and the mothers of the children and adolescent girls were also given nutritional education on the benefits and side effects of iron supplementation. In June and July 2008, follow-up assessment was performed by survey and force field analysis. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence of nutritional anemia from 73.8% to 54.6% among the adolescent girls and from 78.2% to 64.2% among the children. There was improvement in awareness of iron-rich food items among the adolescent girls and the mothers of the children. The benefits to girls, such as increase in appetite and reduction in scanty menses, tiredness, and weakness, acted as positive factors leading to better compliance with weekly iron supplementation. The benefits to children perceived by the mothers, such as increase in appetite, weight gain, reduction in irritability, and reduction in mud-eating behavior, acted as a dominant positive force and generated demand for iron syrup. The community-led initiative for

  20. Associação entre comportamentos de risco à saúde de pais e adolescentes em escolares de zona rural de um município do Sul do Brasil Association between health risk behaviors in parents and adolescents in a rural area in southern Brazil

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    Chirle de Oliveira Raphaelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a associação entre comportamentos de risco à saúde dos pais e adolescentes escolares de zona rural. Participaram 377 escolares entre 10 e 18 anos e 338 pais. Foram analisados: nível de atividade física no lazer e deslocamento, hábitos de alimentação inadequados, excesso de peso, uso de cigarros e consumo de bebidas alcoólicas. A prevalência de relato de uso de cigarro e álcool nos últimos 30 dias entre os jovens foi de 6,7% e 27%, respectivamente. Quarenta e cinco por cento dos adolescentes não atingiram o escore de atividade física. A adesão aos passos para uma alimentação saudável foi baixa. A atividade física dos adolescentes esteve relacionada de forma positiva com a dos pais, e o consumo de álcool da mãe se associou de forma positiva com o consumo do adolescente. Para os outros comportamentos, não houve associação significativa. Na análise estratificada por sexo, o nível de atividade física do pai se associou ao nível de atividade física das meninas. O comportamento de risco à saúde dos pais associa-se ao mesmo comportamento dos adolescentes de zona rural.This article aimed to assess the association between health risk behaviors in parents and adolescents in a rural area. The sample included 377 schoolchildren 10 to 18 years of age and 338 parents. The following variables were analyzed: level of leisure-time and commuting physical activity, inadequate eating habits, overweight/obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Prevalence rates for smoking and alcohol consumption by adolescents in the previous 30 days were 6.7% and 27%, respectively. Forty-five percent of adolescents failed to reach the target physical activity score. Adherence to steps to healthy eating was low. Physical activity in adolescents was positively associated with that of parents, and adolescent drinking was associated with maternal alcohol consumption. There was no significant association for other behaviors. In the

  1. An analysis of the current educational status and future training needs of China's rural doctors in 2011.

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    Li, Xingming; Liu, Juyuan; Huang, Jianshi; Qian, Yunliang; Che, Lu

    2013-04-01

    To analyse the educational status and future training needs of China's rural doctors and provide a basis to improve their future training. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was used for the analysis, and 17 954 rural doctors chosen randomly from the eastern, central and western regions of China in 2009-2010 were surveyed to ascertain their average training time and the methods used for and content of their training. In general, 8671/17 778 (48.77%) of respondents received less than 12 days of training in a year. Conference sessions seemed to be the major route of training, with 10 150/17 925 respondents (56.62%). Clinical skills, with a response rate of 14 441/17 926 (80.56%), seemed to be the most popular training content. With regard to the general needs for training time received, 6547/18 255 (35.86%) of respondents hoped the average training time received a year would be less than 12 days; on-site guidance from a senior doctor was the most popular training method with response rate of 10 109/17 976 (56.24%), and clinical skills was what rural doctors wished to study the most, with a positive response of 16 744/17 962 (93.22%). Statistically significant differences existed in the current status and training time, training method and training content needs of China's rural doctors. Our results suggest that the training status and needs of China's rural doctors are still disjointed; measures including the introduction of remote education and clinical further education, extended training time and more clinical skills training should be adopted.

  2. Adolescents' future orientation and nonmedical use of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Rena M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Pierce, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    How adolescents think about their future (i.e., future orientation) impacts their risk-taking behavior. The purpose of the present analysis was to explore whether future orientation (future planning, perceived risk to future goals, and positive future expectations) was associated with nonmedical use of stimulants and analgesics in a sample of high school students. Information on future orientation and nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) were collected using a paper-and-pencil survey from a sample of 9th-12th grade students in a Midwestern school. Higher perceived risk to future goals and positive future expectations were associated with a lower likelihood of self-reported nonmedical use of stimulants (n=250; OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.83; OR=0.15, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.47, respectively). Only higher perceived risk to future goals was associated with a lower likelihood of self-reported nonmedical use of analgesics (n=250; OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.68). In a follow-up analysis limited to students who endorsed alcohol or marijuana use, perceived risk to future goals remained associated with a lower likelihood of nonmedical use of stimulants and analgesics. Results suggest that risk perception might be a salient protective factor against both nonmedical use of stimulants and analgesics. Overall, the differential impact of conceptualizations of future orientation might depend on the class of prescription drug used, demonstrating a need to consider prescription drugs individually in the development of future studies and interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Suicide Risk Among Rural Youth: Implications for the Use of HEADSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Virginia Sue; Sekula, L. Kathleen; Zoucha, Rick; Puskar, Kathryn R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Nurse practitioners have the power to detect suicide risk and prevent suicide, a problem plaguing rural areas of the United States. Suicide risk assessment can be completed using the HEADSS (Home, Education, Activities, Drug use and abuse, Sexual behavior, and Suicidality and depression) interview instrument. The purpose of this study was to determine if HEADSS is appropriate for guiding suicide risk assessment of rural adolescents. Method High school students in Southwestern Pennsylvania completed qualitative questions from the Child Behavior Checklist and Coping Response Inventory as part of the Intervention to Promote Mental Health in Rural Youth. Qualitative content analysis was performed. Results Prominent themes identified by participants included academic performance, relationships, dislikes about school, friends, death, mental health, and the future. Several minor themes concerned safety. Most known risk factors for suicide were concerns of participants. Discussion The expansion of HEADSS to include death and safety should be considered. The modified version—HEADDSSS— can be used to guide suicide risk assessment of youth in rural Pennsylvania, ensuring both thoroughness of assessment and safety. PMID:20417887

  4. The influence of perceived behaviour control, attitude and empowerment on reported condom use and intention to use condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalolo, Albino; Kibusi, Stephen Matthew

    2015-11-13

    Despite the declining trends of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), unsafe sexual behaviours among adolescents still represent a public health challenge. It is important to understand factors acting at different levels to influence sexual behaviour among adolescents. This study examined the influence of perceived behaviour control, subjective norms, attitudes and empowerment on intention to use condoms and reported use of condoms among adolescents in rural Tanzania. We used a questionnaire to collect data from 403 adolescents aged 14 through 19 years from nine randomly selected secondary schools in the Newala district located in the Southern part of Tanzania. The self-administered questionnaire collected information on sexual practices and factors such as attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control and empowerment. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with intention to use and reported use of condoms. Sexually active adolescents constituted 40.6 % of the sample, among them 49.7 % did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse and 49.8 % had multiple sex partners. Many (85 %) of sexually active respondents had their sexual debut between the ages of 14 to 17 years. Girls became sexually active earlier than boys. Perceived behaviour control predicted intentions to use condoms (AOR = 3.059, 95 % CI 1.324-7.065), thus demonstrating its importance in the decision to use a condom. Empowerment (odds ratio = 3.694, 95 % CI 1.295-10.535) and a positive attitude (AOR = 3.484, 95 % CI 1.132-10.72) predicted reported condom use, thus turning the decision to actions. Subjective norms had only indirect effects on intention and reported use of condoms. The findings suggest that unsafe sex practices are prevalent among school adolescents in rural areas of Tanzania. Perceived behaviour control and positive attitudes predict intensions to use condoms whereas empowerment

  5. Psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q and norms for rural and urban adolescent males and females in Mexico.

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    Eva Penelo

    Full Text Available AIMS: To contribute new evidence to the controversy about the factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q and to provide, for the first time, norms based on a large adolescent Mexican community sample, regarding sex and area of residence (urban/rural. METHODS: A total of 2928 schoolchildren (1544 females and 1384 males aged 11-18 were assessed with the EDE-Q and other disordered eating questionnaire measures. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis of the attitudinal items of the EDE-Q did not support the four theorized subscales, and a two-factor solution, Restraint and Eating-Shape-Weight concern, showed better fit than the other models examined (RMSEA = .054; measurement invariance for this two-factor model across sex and area of residence was found. Satisfactory internal consistency (ω ≥ .80 and two-week test-retest reliability (ICCa ≥ .84; κ ≥ .56, and evidence for convergent validity with external measures was obtained. The highest attitudinal EDE-Q scores were found for urban females and the lowest scores were found for rural males, whereas the occurrence of key eating disorder behavioural features and compensatory behaviours was similar in both areas of residence. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals satisfactory psychometric properties and provides population norms of the EDE-Q, which may help clinicians and researchers to interpret the EDE-Q scores of adolescents from urban and rural areas in Mexico.

  6. Our Voice Counts: Adolescents' View on Their Future in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Miemsie; Badenhorst, Jo; Kamper, Geritt

    2010-01-01

    We focus on the impact of societal change and related societal problems on the youth of post-apartheid South Africa. Within the parameters of an eco-systemic model, it is argued that adolescents' perspectives on their future in this country could be negatively influenced by the extent of societal problems that are currently experienced in South…

  7. DOES RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRATION PLACE ADOLESCENTS AT RISK OF DELETERIOUS SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OUTCOMES? EVIDENCE FROM HAITI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the links between migration and sexual and reproductive health among rural-to-urban migrant youth in Haiti. It evaluates behavioural, knowledge and attitudinal components from the perspective of three competing explanations for migrants' behaviours: adaptation, disruption and selection. Discrete-time event history analysis is employed to compare these hypotheses using Haiti Demographic and Health Survey data (N=1215 adolescent girls, N=829 adolescent boys). Multi-level models are used to compare changes in knowledge and attitudes in individuals using data from the Haiti Youth Transitions Study (N=223). The findings reveal that disruption is the most plausible explanation for the timing of migration and first sex among girls. However, contrary to the assumption that migrant youth risk experiencing first sex earlier, girls are less likely to experience first sex near the time they migrate, and rural-to-urban migrant boys may experience first sex at later ages. The high aspirations of migrant youth provide a likely explanation for these findings. Furthermore, male migrants accumulate less protective knowledge, which is consistent with the disruption hypothesis, and migrants endorse premarital sex similarly to non-migrants. Sexual and reproductive health curricula should be adapted to the unique needs of migrant youth, and youth should be targeted before they migrate.

  8. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.

  9. Is Sexual Activity During Adolescence Good for Future Romantic Relationships?

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    Shulman, Shmuel; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Walsh, Sophie D

    2017-09-01

    Past research has consistently shown that romantic experiences during adolescence affect the nature and quality of romantic relationships during emerging adulthood. However, less is known about the role of adolescent sexual experiences in future sexual and romantic relationships. The current study examined the impact of different forms of sexual activity at age 16 (within a romantic relationship or casual encounters) on the nature and quality of sexual experiences in romantic relationships at age 23. One hundred and forty four (59.7% females) 16 year olds reported on their sexual activity within a romantic relationship or sexual encounters. In addition they reported on the quality of relationships they were involved in and their tendency to suppress emotions (included as an aspect of personality). At age 23 they reported on their romantic and sexual experiences during the past 2 years (number of short lived relationships, numbers of friends with benefits, casual sex encounters) and the quality of their romantic relationships (the duration of their longest relationship, partner support and feelings of certainty in the relationships). Findings showed that the tendency to suppress emotions was associated with lower likelihood to engage in casual sex at age 23. However, greater sexual experience in casual encounters during adolescence was consistently longitudinally associated with different forms of casual sexual encounters and short romantic involvements above and beyond the contribution of personality. In contrast, sexual activity within a romantic relationship predicted only a few indices of the quality of romantic involvement at age 23. The distinctive role of casual sexual activity and sexual activity within a romantic relationship for future sexual and romantic activities is discussed.

  10. An exploratory study on risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among adolescents in Malaysia: overview of the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (The MyHeART study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreen, Majid Abdul; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Dahlui, Maznah; Chinna, Karuthan; Ismail, Maslinor; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie; Al Sadat, Nabilla

    2014-01-01

    their urban counterpart. Tailor made public health interventions are highly recommended for adolescents as this may minimise the dreadful NCD burden in adulthood and health disparity between the rural and urban in the near future.

  11. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  12. Identity and Future Concerns among Adolescents from Italy, Turkey and Germany: Intra- and Between-Cultural Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Marja-Lena; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Molinar, Roberta; Ciairano, Silvia; Guney Karaman, Neslihan; Cok, Figen

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated stress perception and coping styles in 3259 Turkish, Italian, and German adolescents with a mean age of 14.97 years (SD = 1.74). The adolescents filled in self-report measures assessing stress perception and coping styles in two problem domains: future and identity. In order to allow for analyses of intra-country and…

  13. Coping Skills Help Explain How Future-Oriented Adolescents Accrue Greater Well-Being Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Li Wen; Milfont, Taciano L; Jose, Paul E

    2015-11-01

    Adolescents who endorse greater levels of future orientation report greater well-being over time, but we do not know the mechanism by which this happens. The present longitudinal study examined whether both adaptive as well as maladaptive coping strategies might explain how future orientation leads to ill-being and well-being over time in young New Zealanders. A sample of 1,774 preadolescents and early adolescents (51.9 % female) aged 10-15 years at Time 1 completed a self-report survey three times with 1 year intervals in between. Longitudinal mediation path models were constructed to determine whether and how maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies at Time 2 functioned as mediators between future orientation at Time 1 and ill-being and well-being at Time 3. Results showed that future orientation predicted lower maladaptive coping, which in turn predicted lower substance use and self-harming behavior. All three well-being outcomes (i.e., happiness with weight, vitality, and sleep) were consistently predicted by future orientation, and all three pathways were mediated by both lower maladaptive and higher adaptive coping strategies (with the exception of happiness with weight, which was mediated only by lower maladaptive coping). The results suggest that several pathways by which future orientation leads to greater well-being occurs through an increased use of adaptive coping, a decreased use of maladaptive coping, or both.

  14. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies: Existing Findings and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A

    2016-10-01

    As summarized in this commentary, the first generation of cross-informant agreement research focused on perceptions of child and adolescent mental health. Contributions of this research include demonstrating that modest cross-informant agreement is a very robust phenomenon, utilizing numerous statistical approaches to measure degree of agreement, and identifying many factors that moderate agreement. An important focus of this work has been using multi-society international comparisons to examine cross-cultural similarities and differences in cross-informant agreement. The articles in this Special Issue represent a significant paradigm shift in which cross-informant agreement is examined as an independent variable predicting a wide variety of outcomes. Furthermore, moving beyond perceptions of adolescent mental health, these articles compare parent and adolescent perceptions of diverse aspects of family functioning (e.g., family conflict, parent-adolescent communication, family relationships, parental authority). Additionally, the research presented in this Special Issue employs innovative and sophisticated statistical techniques. Although the Special Issue represents some first steps toward considering cross-cultural aspects of perceptions of family functioning, much work still needs to be done in this area. Some suggestions for future research strategies to accomplish this goal conclude this commentary.

  15. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and

  16. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kinsman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design: The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results: Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1 poverty, 2 body image ideals, 3 gender, 4 parents and home life, 5 demographic factors, 6 perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7 human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions: Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for

  17. Factors of physical activity among Chinese children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congchao; Stolk, Ronald P; Sauer, Pieter J J; Sijtsma, Anna; Wiersma, Rikstje; Huang, Guowei; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2017-03-21

    Lack of physical activity is a growing problem in China, due to the fast economic development and changing living environment over the past two decades. The aim of this review is to summarize the factors related to physical activity in Chinese children and adolescents during this distinct period of development. A systematic search was finished on Jan 10 th , 2017, and identified 2200 hits through PubMed and Web of Science. English-language published studies were included if they reported statistical associations between factors and physical activity. Adapted criteria from the Strengthening The Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement and evaluation of the quality of prognosis studies in systematic reviews (QUIPS) were used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. Related factors that were reported in at least three studies were summarized separately for children and adolescents using a semi-quantitative method. Forty two papers (published 2002-2016) were included. Most designs were cross-sectional (79%), and most studies used questionnaires to assess physical activity. Sample size was above 1000 in 18 papers (43%). Thirty seven studies (88%) showed acceptable quality by methodological quality assessment. Most studies reported a low level of physical activity. Boys were consistently more active than girls, the parental physical activity was positively associated with children and adolescents' physical activity, children in suburban/rural regions showed less activity than in urban regions, and, specifically in adolescents, self-efficacy was positively associated with physical activity. Family socioeconomic status and parental education were not associated with physical activity in children and adolescents. The studies included in this review were large but mostly of low quality in terms of study design (cross-sectional) and methods (questionnaires). Parental physical activity and self-efficacy are promising targets for future

  18. Visions about Future: A New Scale Assessing Optimism, Pessimism, and Hope in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Sgaramella, Teresa Maria; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura; Santilli, Sara; Soresi, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the development and psychometric properties of visions about future (VAF), an instrument assessing hope, optimism, and pessimism. Three different studies involving Italian adolescents were conducted. With the first study 22 items were developed and the factor structure was verified. The second study, involving a second sample…

  19. Adolescent Obesity and Future College Degree Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G.; Ngo, Long H.; Phillips, Russell S.; Wee, Christina C.

    2009-01-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14–18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also a...

  20. Reproductive Health of Women in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan – Iran, before and after Implementation of rural Family Physician Program: an Ecologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mahasti; Jabbari Birami, Hossein; Moradi, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of rural family physician program in Iran in 2005 has been evaluated and shown that this program has been led to some improvements in health indicators. In this study, some reproductive health (RH) indicators were compared before and after implementation of this program in rural areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: In this ecologic- time trend study, the data of 191075 births of rural women of East Azerbaijan from 2001 to 2010 was extracted from vital horoscope (ZIJ) and used for calculation of 20 important RH indicators. The paired t-test and correlation analysis wear used for data analysis. Results: Some indicators such as adolescent marriage rate, adolescent birth and over 35 year olds birth rate were increased after rural family physician program implementation in 2005. Also stillbirth rate and unsafe delivery were decreased during this period. There was a significant correlation between increasing adolescent birth rate and increasing low birth weight deliveries (r= 0.911, P= 0.031) and also between increasing over 35 year olds birth rate and increasing neonatal mortality rate in term of prematurity and congenital malformations (r= 0.912, P= 0.031) after program implementation. Conclusion: Perinatal care and safe delivery even for pregnancies outside the typical child-bearing ages are promoting after implementation of rural family physician program in East Azerbaijan. Also decreasing unsafe delivery and stillbirth rate can be considered as achievements of running this program in this province. PMID:26744731

  1. Reproductive Health of Women in Rural Areas of East Azerbaijan – Iran, before and after Implementation of rural Family Physician Program: an Ecologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasti Alizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implementation of rural family physician program in Iran in 2005 has been evaluated and shown that this program has been led to some improvements in health indicators. In this study, some reproductive health (RH indicators were compared before and after implementation of this program in rural areas of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: In this ecologic- time trend study, the data of 191075 births of rural women of East Azerbaijan from 2001 to 2010 was extracted from vital horoscope (ZIJ and used for calculation of 20 important RH indicators. The paired t-test and correlation analysis wear used for data analysis. Results: Some indicators such as adolescent marriage rate, adolescent birth and over 35 year olds birth rate were increased after rural family physician program implementation in 2005. Also stillbirth rate and unsafe delivery were decreased during this period. There was a significant correlation between increasing adolescent birth rate and increasing low birth weight deliveries (r= 0.911, P= 0.031 and also between increasing over 35 year olds birth rate and increasing neonatal mortality rate in term of prematurity and congenital malformations (r= 0.912, P= 0.031 after program implementation. Conclusion: Perinatal care and safe delivery even for pregnancies outside the typical child-bearing ages are promoting after implementation of rural family physician program in East Azerbaijan. Also decreasing unsafe delivery and stillbirth rate can be considered as achievements of running this program in this province.

  2. Evaluation of a reproductive health program to support married adolescent girls in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erulkar, Annabel; Tamrat, Tigest

    2014-06-01

    Few reproductive health programs are targeted to married adolescent girls. This study measures changes associated with a program for married adolescent girls and a parallel husbands' program, in rural Ethiopia. The married girls' program provided information on communication, self-esteem, reproductive health and gender through girls' groups. The husbands' program focused on non-violence, support to families, and reproductive health. Population-based surveys were undertaken among married girls, at midterm and end line. Outcomes of interest were husbands' assistance with domestic work, accompaniment to the clinic, family planning use, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), and domestic violence. Overall, 1,010 married girls were interviewed. Participation in the girls' groups was associated with improvements in help with domestic work, accompaniment to the clinic, family planning and VCT. Further improvements were recorded when both partners participated. For example, participating girls were nearly 8 times more likely to receive VCT (OR 7.7) than nonparticipants, and more than 18 times more likely if both partners participated (OR 18.3). While these results are promising, there were indications of selectivity bias that could have contributed to the positive results. Programs engaging both wives and husbands can result in incremental improvements to the health and well-being of girls married early.

  3. What factors influence the choice of urban or rural location for future practice of Nepalese medical students? A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Bhim Prasad; Amatya, Archana

    2015-11-10

    Nepal is experiencing a public health issue similar to the rest of the world, i.e., the geographical maldistribution of physicians. Although there is some documentation about the reasons physicians elect to leave Nepal to work abroad, very little is known about the salient factors that influence the choice of an urban versus rural practice setting for those physicians who do not migrate. In recent years, around 1000 medical students became doctors within Nepal, but their distribution in rural locations is not adequate. The purpose of this study was to explore what factors influence the choice of urban or rural location for the future clinical practice of Nepalese medical students in the final year of their program A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used for this study involving Nepalese medical students in their final year of study and currently doing an internship in a medical college. The sample consisted of 393 medical students from four medical colleges in Nepal that were selected randomly. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. To determine the association with rural location choice for their future practice setting, a comparison was done that involved demographic, socio-economic, and educational factors. Data were entered in EpiData and analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Among the 393 respondents, two thirds were male (66.9%) and more than half were below 25 years of age. Almost all (93%) respondents were single and about two thirds (63.4%) were of Brahmin and Chhetri ethnic origin. About two thirds (64.1%) of the respondents were born in a rural setting, and 58.8% and 53.3% had a place of rearing and permanent address in a rural location, respectively. The predictors of future rural location choice for their clinical practice (based on the bivariate analysis) included: (a) Rural (versus urban) place of birth, place of rearing, and permanent address (b) Source of family income (service, business, and agriculture

  4. The Synergy of Family and Neighborhood on Rural Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Chang, Ling-Yin; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Rural adolescents are at high risk for dating violence victimization (DVV), which has serious negative consequences. Understanding more about the conditions that increase DVV risk for rural adolescents is needed to inform prevention efforts. In response to calls for examining the influence of upper levels of the social ecology on adolescent dating violence, this study examined whether associations between the family context and physical DVV were conditioned by the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which the family resided. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study of 3,236 rural adolescents nested in 65 block groups, which defined neighborhoods. Data were collected between 2003 and 2005. Multilevel growth curve modeling was conducted in 2014 to test hypothesized synergistic effects of the family and neighborhood on trajectories of physical DVV from grade 8 to 12. Low parental closeness was a DVV risk in residentially stable (pFamily aggression was a DVV risk, regardless of neighborhood characteristics (p=0.001). Low parental monitoring and rule setting were not DVV risks and their effects were not moderated by neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly (pviolence were not associated with DVV. None of the effects varied by sex of the adolescent, across time (grade), or by the combination of sex and time. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering the family and neighborhood, and particularly their synergistic effects in efforts to prevent adolescent DVV. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Smoking behaviors and intentions among adolescents in rural China: the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the role of social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xuefen; Li, Liping; Griffiths, Sian M; Gao, Yang; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix K H

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the associations between the variables of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), influence of significant others, and smoking intentions and behaviors among adolescents living in rural southern China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2609 students in two junior high schools in rural Shantou, Guangdong province, using a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate univariate and adjusted odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate analyses showed that having favorable attitudes towards smoking on psychological and social aspects, perceived behavioral control, and having most friends who were current smokers were significantly associated with smoking intentions in the next six months and in the next five years. Having most family members who were current smokers was also significantly related to smoking intention in the next five years. Having favorable attitudes towards smoking on psychological aspect and negative attitudes on physical aspect, perceived support from friends on smoking, and having most friends and senior relatives being current smokers were significantly associated with increased likelihood of ever smoking. Perceived behavioral control and having most friends being current smokers were also significantly associated with regular smoking and smoking in the past 30days. Our results suggest that the key constructs of the TPB model and friends' smoking behaviors play important roles in accounting for smoking intentions and behaviors among a sample of rural Chinese adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

  7. Cigarette Brand Preferences among Adolescents. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    This report discusses findings from the Monitoring the Future study in relation to adolescent cigarette preferences. Results show that in 1998, 19.1% of the eighth graders, 27.6% of the tenth graders, and 35.1% of the twelfth graders reported smoking within 30 days prior to the survey. By the time they finish high school, 65.2% of American young…

  8. Violence Exposure and Victimization among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykota, David B.; Laye, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Violence exposure is a serious public health concern for adolescents in schools today. Violence exposure can be quite severe and frequent with multiple acts of indirect and direct victimization having lasting effects on the physical, emotional, and intellectual well-being of adolescents. The purpose of the present study is to examine the rates of…

  9. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  10. The relationship between new media exposure and fast food consumption among Chinese children and adolescents in school: a rural-urban comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansstein, Francesca Valeria; Hong, Yu; Di, Chen

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, China has experienced an exponential growth in the number of internet users, especially among the youngest population, as well as a rapid proliferation of Western-type fast food restaurants. The health consequences of internet availability and fast food consumption among youth have been largely studied in Western countries, but few studies have focused on China. This paper has two goals. The first is to evaluate the differences in new media exposure and preferences for fast foods between rural and urban areas. The second goal is to test the association between new media exposure and fast food consumption. The targets of this analysis are Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-18 attending school at the time of the interview. Research hypotheses were tested using mean-groups comparisons for differences between rural urban sub-samples, and logistic regressions with odds ratios to estimate the relationship between media exposure and preferences towards fast foods. Cross-sectional data from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey were employed. Watching online videos and playing computer games are behaviors associated with higher probabilities of eating at fast food restaurants in both rural and urban young residents, with higher odds in rural areas. Surfing the internet is associated with higher odds of being overweight in both rural and urban settings. Results also show that children living in rural areas spend significantly more time playing computer games, watching TV and videotapes, but less time doing homework than their urban peers. This paper suggests that monitoring the nutritional effects of new media exposure in China is of key importance in order to develop adequate health promotion policies, in both rural and urban areas.

  11. Community Interactive Processes and Rural Adolescents’ Educational Achievement: Investigating the Mediating Effects of Delinquency and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola A. Adedokun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this paper examines the effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement. Specifically, the paper explored the direct effects of community interactive processes on rural adolescents’ educational achievement and the indirect effects via self-esteem and delinquency. The method of structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a nationally representative panel study of rural adolescent boys and girls in 10th grade through 12th grade. The results make a compelling case that communities are conduits for boosting self-esteem, facilitating normative behaviors and academic performance in rural adolescents.

  12. Menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The World Health Organization (WHO has defined adolescence as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents in India comprise 19.3% of the total Indian population. Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child becomes an adult. It is characterized by rapid growth and development; physiologically, psychologically and socially. This period is marked by the onset of menarche. Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by all adolescent girls and women in reproductive age. Objectives To study the menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana. Methods There were 18 government high and senior secondary schools in block Lakhanmajra. Out of these 5 were exclusively girls’ schools, 10 were co-ed schools and 3 were exclusively boys’ schools. All the 5 schools meant exclusively for girls were included in the study. All girls studying in 6th to 12th classes from these schools, after applying the exclusion criteria were included in the study. Results The mean age at menarche was 12.83±1.326 years. The inter-menstrual interval was 21 to 35 days in majority (80.1% of the adolescent girls and the duration of menstruation was more than 7 days in 9.4% of the girls. Majority of the girls (52.1% reported the duration of menstruation to be 2-3 days.

  13. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the provision of comprehensive family life

  14. Risks and benefits of multiple sexual partnerships: beliefs of rural Nigerian adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izugbara, Chimaraoke Otutubikey; Nwabuawele Modo, Felicia

    2007-09-01

    Drawing on interview data from rural Nigeria, the article explores male youth perceptions of the risks and benefits of multiple sexual partnerships. Participants associated having multiple sexual partners with several harmful health and nonhealth outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections, and frequently confirmed that the practice also bolsters their sense of maleness and boosts their acceptance and ranking among peers. Young males' involvement in multiple sexual partnerships should not be seen as always consequent on their ignorance of and/or indifference to the risks inherent in the behavior. It could also result from the integrality of the behavior to the social processes through which male youths validate their masculinity, mark their transition from boyhood to malehood, and configure their identities to gain acceptance into a local male peer community. Sexuality education curricula that ignore adolescents' understandings of the benefits of their sexual practices may not deliver expected objectives.

  15. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  16. Rural Entrepreneurship: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Imedashvili, Sopiko; Kekua, Ani; Ivchenko, Polina

    2013-01-01

    According to World Bank Report published in 2012, the rural population in Sweden is 15.3 %. Rural population is calculated as difference between total populations minus urban population. 15.3 % clearly shows how important rural areas are for Sweden’s future development. Entrepreneurship plays the integral role in rural area development. However, earlier research has shown only economic perspective of rural development. On the other hand, the new ways to discover the challenges and opportuniti...

  17. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilola M Pedro

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS. Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal ( 2. Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5% of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter. The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001. There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be "unhappy" and "weak" and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the "best". These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents.

  18. Time Perspectives and Gambling in Adolescent Boys: Differential Effects of Present- and Future-Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Sottili, Elena; Morsanyi, Kinga; Primi, Caterina

    2018-06-04

    Adolescent boys are characterised by increased risk-taking behavior, including a relatively high propensity to develop problem gambling habits. The association between gambling and sensitivity to immediately available rewards is well-established, suggesting that gamblers are less influenced by potential future consequences than non-gamblers. Nevertheless, existing studies have considered present- and future-orientation as two ends of the same continuum, and have not investigated the possibility that present and future perspectives might make independent contributions to gambling behavior. In the current study, we adopted Zimbardo's multidimensional approach, which discriminates between not only present and future perspectives, but also between a hedonistic and fatalistic present-orientation (in addition to positive and negative orientations towards the past). The participants were 223 male adolescents (mean age = 16.7 years). We investigated the effects of time perspectives on gambling frequency and gambling problem severity, after taking into account the effects of age, sensation seeking, and gambling-related cognitive distortions. Gambling frequency was significantly predicted by the present fatalistic perspective, and problem gambling was significantly (negatively) related to the future perspective. The present hedonistic and past negative perspectives were also significantly related to both gambling frequency and gambling problems, although they did not explain additional variance in gambling behavior when the effects of the other factors were controlled. Overall, these results offer a fresh perspective on the role of time perspectives in gambling behavior, with potential implications for understanding the origins of gambling problems and the development of novel interventions.

  19. Farm and rural adolescents′ perspective on hearing conservation: Reports from a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne S Rosemberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths′ recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents.

  20. DIETARY DIVERSITY AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS AMONG ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS IN RURAL INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, D J; Bhavani, R V

    2018-05-01

    SummaryDietary diversity is associated with household or individual food availability and intake of nutrients from different food groups and is an important component of nutritional outcome. This study examined the Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) of three dietary diversity indices and their relationship with the nutritional status of adolescents and adults in rural regions of two states in India, Wardha district in Maharashtra and Koraput district in Odisha, in 2014. Individual dietary diversity was calculated using 24-hour diet recall (FS24hr) data and household dietary diversity was measured with food frequency data using Berry's index (DDI) and food scores (FSFFQ). The nutritional status of individuals was assessed using anthropometric indices. The diets in both locations were cereal dominated. It was observed that 51% of adolescent boys and 27% of adolescent girls had 'thinness' and stunting. The prevalence of undernutrition was higher among adult women (48%) than adult men (36%). The mean diversity indices were FS24hr of 8, DDI of 89-90 and FSFFQ of 64-66 in the two locations. The FS24hr was found to be positively correlated with the NAR of all nutrients while DDI and FSFFQ were correlated with seven and six nutrients, respectively. The DDI and FS24hr showed an association with MAR if the two locations were combined together. Sensitivity and specificity analysis showed that FS24hr gave more true positives than false positives and the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was 0.68, implying that this measure truly differentiates individuals having low dietary diversity with low MAR from those with low dietary diversity and a high MAR. All three measures of dietary diversity showed a linear association with the nutritional outcomes of adults, while in the adolescent group only DDI showed a relationship. It is concluded that 24-hour diet recall is a good measure for studying the relationship between dietary

  1. To what extent and why adolescents do or do not support future tobacco control measures: a multimethod study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuders, Michael; Lagerweij, Naomi A.; van den Putte, Bas; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the adoption of new tobacco control measures is needed to further reduce rates of adolescent smoking. Adolescents' support for future measures could increase the likelihood of adoption as this provides political leverage for tobacco control advocates. There is, however, scant

  2. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Complex Decision-Making Processes of Rural Emerging Adults: Counseling beyond Dualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Rural adolescents approach the transition out of high school with individual concerns about making an emotionally or financially expensive "mistake," family concerns about young people leaving home, and national and local concerns about declining rural economies and out-migration. The literature concerning this topic considers factors…

  4. Future perspectives and their relation to wellbeing and resilience in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research (Omar, 2005; Omar, Uribe Delgado & Maltaneres, 2005, had showed a clear relationship between subjective well-being and resilience. In those opportunities, however, resilience was considered as a global construct. This study aims at exploring the possible relationships among resilience components, subjective well-being, and future perspectives. Method: Sample integrated by 198 (105 girls & 93 boys Argentinean high school students, 14- to 19-yr.-old. All sample participants answered a booklet that included Wagnild and Young’s Resilience Scale (1993; Nagpal and Sell’s Subjective Well-being Scale (1992, and three items specially developed to explore academic, labor, and family future perspectives. Development: correlation analysis indicated positive significant associations between resilience’s components (Personal realization; Self- determination, and Adaptation, and specific well-being dimensions. Likewise, resilience’s components and subjective well being dimensions showed significant correlations with positive future perspectives. No gender-specific differences were observed in any of the variables under analysis. Results: findings showed that adolescent resilience would be associated to familiar emotional support and positive social interchanges. Future orientations could be considered a new resilience protective factor. Social, familiar, and educational implications of these finding are discussed. A research agenda designed to further our understanding of resilience, well-being, and future perspectives linkages is proposed. 

  5. A study on psychological assessment of adolescent girls in rural schools of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Manna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the adolescent population constitutes one-sixth of the total global population, their physical and mental health have become a serious concern. Depression is becoming the most common mental health problem. According to the WHO, depression is projected to become the second leading cause of disability after heart disease. Anxiety and its manifestations are influenced by cultural beliefs, practices and associated with substantial negative effects on children’s social, emotional and academic success. Specific effects include poor social and coping skills, loneliness, low self-esteem, and difficulty forming friendships. The objectives of the present study were to assess the psychological health profile of students using DASS21 Scale. This cross-sectional study was done among 435 rural school students selected by random sampling. Statistically significant association of depression with absence of sibling, self-reported scholastic performance, and relationship with parents and peers were found.

  6. A study on psychological assessment of adolescent girls in rural schools of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Manna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the adolescent population constitutes oneHsixth of the total global population, their physical and mental health have become a serious concern. Depression is becoming the most common mental health problem. According to the WHO, depression is projected to become the second leading cause of disability after heart disease. Anxiety and its manifestations are influenced by cultural beliefs, practices and associated with substantial negative effects on children’s social, emotional and academic success. Specific effects include poor social and coping skills, loneliness, low selfHesteem, and difficulty forming friendships. The objectives of the present study were to assess the psychological health profile of students using DASS21 Scale. This cross sectional study was done among 435 rural school students selected by random sampling. Statistically significant association of depression with absence of sibling, self Hreported scholastic performance, relationship with parents and peers were found.

  7. Adolescent Future Expectations of Work, Education, Family, and Community: Development of a New Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2008-01-01

    The development and validation of a measure of adolescent future expectations associated with work, education, family, health, and church/community participation is presented. The 25-item measure was administered to a sample of 389 7th- to 12th-grade urban poor and working-class Chilean students. Results of an exploratory principal axis factor…

  8. impact of life style on body Weight in adolescents on the basis of questionnaire findings in selected group of youth from rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ścibor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and primary obesity in children and adolescents is a crucial problem in public health. Obese children and adolescents are especially susceptible to obesity in adulthood and consequently exposed to many obesity related diseases. Objective: Evaluation of overweight and primary obesity in urban and rural youth populations and comparison of life style concerning: physical activity, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits among overweight and obese adolescents and their peers with proper Body Mass Index value. Materials and methods: The study was performed in the group of 136 students from junior high school. The students with BMI value over 85th percentile of sex-specific growth charts were classified as overweight. Research tool was a questionnaire. Results: 15,9% of adolescents were overweight, out of which 4,5% were obese. There was not a significant relation between Body Mass Index and the place of residence. Overweight and obese adolescents revealed lower physical activity and tendency to spend much more time playing computer games. Adolescents with overweight or obesity did not regularly have breakfast at weekends, more often had sweets and sweet drinks and also high energy and very salty snacks instead. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is a serious problem among students from junior high school population which calls for taking immediate preventive measures to promote healthy lifestyle among children and adolescents.

  9. Epidemiology of dental caries among adolescents in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasamy, Arthi; Kirk, Ray; Gage, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Economic and dietary changes in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu have led to compromised oral health status of the adolescent population. Adequate epidemiological data are not available to address the prevention or treatment needs in this region of India. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents of Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India. The study sample included 974 adolescent school students (12-15 years of age) from both rural and urban areas of Tamil Nadu, India. The decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index of these students was measured using the World Health Organization oral health survey method, in a quantitative cross-sectional study. The oral health survey indicated that the prevalence of dental caries among adolescents in rural and urban areas of Tamil Nadu was 61.4%, with an average DMFT score of 2.03. Multiple regression analyses indicated factors such as gender, mother's education, type of school and caste as significant predictors of dental caries. Female gender, Scheduled Caste and Tribes attending public schools in rural areas were identified as the more vulnerable populations to be affected by dental caries. Oral health policies should be targeted to these adolescent populations in the Tamil Nadu region. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. Ruralization of students' horizons: insights into Australian health professional students' rural and remote placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tony; Cross, Merylin; Waller, Susan; Chambers, Helen; Farthing, Annie; Barraclough, Frances; Pit, Sabrina W; Sutton, Keith; Muyambi, Kuda; King, Stephanie; Anderson, Jessie

    2018-01-01

    Health workforce shortages have driven the Australian and other Western governments to invest in engaging more health professional students in rural and remote placements. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an understanding of the lived experiences of students undertaking placements in various nonmetropolitan locations across Australia. In addition to providing their suggestions to improve rural placements, the study provides insight into factors contributing to positive and negative experiences that influence students' future rural practice intentions. Responses to open-ended survey questions from 3,204 students from multiple health professions and universities were analyzed using two independent methods applied concurrently: manual thematic analysis and computerized content analysis using Leximancer software. The core concept identified from the thematic analysis was "ruralization of students' horizons," a construct representing the importance of preparing health professional students for practice in nonmetropolitan locations. Ruralization embodies three interrelated themes, "preparation and support," "rural or remote health experience," and "rural lifestyle and socialization," each of which includes multiple subthemes. From the content analysis, factors that promoted students' rural practice intentions were having a "positive" practice experience, interactions with "supportive staff," and interactions with the "community" in general. It was apparent that "difficulties," eg, with "accommodation," "Internet" access, "transport," and "financial" support, negatively impacted students' placement experience and rural practice intentions. The study findings have policy and practice implications for continuing to support students undertaking regional, rural, and remote placements and preparing them for future practice in nonmetropolitan locations. This study may, therefore, further inform ongoing strategies for improving rural placement experiences and

  11. Alienation of Tibetan Adolescents in Rural Boarding Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gazang

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent alienation is a symptom of problems in relations among the individual, school, community, and family. Based on a research conducted with a sample of 897 Tibetan adolescent students in Grades 7 to 12, this study reveals that over one third of subjects experience high levels of alienation. Questionnaire data and field work show possible…

  12. Misremembering Past Affect Predicts Adolescents' Future Affective Experience During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaze, Melissa M; Levine, Linda J; Schneider, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Increasing physical activity among adolescents is a public health priority. Because people are motivated to engage in activities that make them feel good, this study examined predictors of adolescents' feelings during exercise. During the 1st semester of the school year, we assessed 6th-grade students' (N = 136) cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise. Participants also reported their affect during a cardiovascular fitness test and recalled their affect during the fitness test later that semester. During the 2nd semester, the same participants rated their affect during a moderate-intensity exercise task. Affect reported during the moderate-intensity exercise task was predicted by cognitive appraisals of the importance of exercise and by misremembering affect during the fitness test as more positive than it actually was. This memory bias mediated the association between appraising exercise as important and experiencing a positive change in affect during the moderate-intensity exercise task. These findings highlight the roles of both cognitive appraisals and memory as factors that may influence affect during exercise. Future work should explore whether affect during exercise can be modified by targeting appraisals and memories related to exercise experiences.

  13. Child and Adolescent Mental Health Care in Iran: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Vandad; Mojtabai, Ramin; Shahrivar, Zahra; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Zarafshan, Hadi; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-11-01

    The need for mental health care among children and adolescents in Iran, as in other low and middle income countries (LAMIC) remains mostly unmet. In this paper, we sought to provide an overview of the extent of unmet need and mental health services in Iran. We also aimed to propose approaches to address this gap. We reviewed the published epidemiologic studies of child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems in Iran. We also examined the current status of child mental health services and the gaps between current needs and available services based on published literature that included papers published in scientific journals, as well as governmental and other administrative reports. The contextual issues relevant to child mental health care were also explored, as well as the possibilities to introduce new or scale up promising services. Child and adolescent mental and behavioral health problems are highly prevalent in Iran. Different studies have estimated that 16.7% to 36.4% of children and adolescents suffer from one or more mental health problems. However, there is a serious scarcity of resources to meet this need. Available services are delivered by independent public organizations (e.g., Ministry of Health, Welfare Organization, and Ministry of Education) or private sector with inefficient communication and collaboration among them and no mandatory national mental health policy. Available specialized child and adolescent services are mostly confined to small inpatient units and university outpatient facilities in larger cities, and there is a scarce evidence for  the effectiveness of the available services. Expansion of primary care's role in timely detection and management of child and adolescent mental health problems, implementation of task-shifting and -sharing initiatives, as well as improved collaboration among responsible governmental and non-governmental sectors are some of the most promising future venues to improve mental health care for

  14. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ramli, Liyana; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality.

  15. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazreen Abdul Majid

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor and Northern (Perak Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001 higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d; adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001 compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively. Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d (p-value <0.001.The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality.

  16. Perceived ease of access to alcohol, tobacco and other substances in rural and urban US students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in the US state of Georgia in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513 909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a four-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using χ2 analysis. In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. The present study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban students' perceived ease of access

  17. Energy futures, state planning policies and coal mine contests in rural New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Linda H.

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations 2015 Climate Change Conference established a framework for keeping global temperature increase “well below” two degrees Celsius through commitments by the parties to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement has implications for the energy policies of all countries, not least major coal exporters like Australia. By contrast, the government's 2015 Energy White Paper lays out the vision for the country's future as a “global energy superpower” dominated by the export of fossil fuels for decades to come. Legislative frameworks around planning, land use, mining, heritage and environment have moved in synchrony with this agenda. Rural landowners in the big coal rich geological basins of Australia are directly impacted by current government policies on energy exports and on domestic supply. This article follows the coal value chain to rural communities in New South Wales where new mines are being built, and analyses the politics of land use, natural resources and energy from the vantage point of landowner engagement with government and corporations in the policy, legislative and regulatory domains. The need for more equitable, democratic and precautionary approaches to energy policy, heritage and environmental planning and agricultural land use is highlighted. - Highlights: • Australian energy policies prioritise coal and gas exports to emerging economies. • Rural landholders are marginalised in mining law, environmental protection legislation and planning regulations. • Disputes with companies centre on control of natural resources necessary for agriculture.

  18. Rural Math Talent, Now and Then

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Craig B.; Showalter, Daniel; Klein, Robert; Sturgill, Derek J.; Smith, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This article interprets inequality evident at the intersection of three realms: (a) mathematical talent (as a cultural phenomenon); (b) rural place and rural life; and (c) future economic, political, and ecological developments. The discussion explains this outlook on inequality, contextualizes interest in rural mathematics education, presents the…

  19. Motivation to Read among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belken, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    This study used quantitative methods to investigate motivation to read among high school students in a tenth-grade English course at a rural high school in the Midwestern USA. Data were collected and analyzed to replicate previous studies. In this study, when compared to large-scale surveys, respondents showed more positive attitudes toward…

  20. Menstrual hygiene practices in context of schooling: A community study among rural adolescent girls in Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kansal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, that is, 2, 3 4,5, and5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling . Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative. It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78% had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4% were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55% played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6% as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%. Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05 was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for

  1. Geography Influences Dietary Intake, Physical Activity and Weight Status of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M.; Fraser, Shawn N.; Storey, Kate E.; Forbes, Laura E.; Spence, John C.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Raine, Kim D.; Hanning, Rhona M.; McCargar, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in the dietary intakes, physical activity levels and weight status of a large sample of Canadian youth in both 2005 and 2008. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study of rural and urban adolescents (n = 10, 023) in Alberta was conducted in both 2005 and 2008 using a web-based survey. Results. There was an overall positive change in nutrient intakes between 2005 and 2008; however, rural residents generally had a poorer nutrient profile than urban residents (P < .001). They consumed less fibre and a greater percent energy from saturated fat. The mean physical activity scores increased among rural youth between 2005 and 2008 (P < .001), while remaining unchanged among urban youth. Residence was significantly related to weight status in 2005 (P = .017), but not in 2008. Conclusion. Although there were small improvements in nutrient intakes from 2005 to 2008, several differences in the lifestyle behaviours of adolescents living in rural and urban areas were found. The results of this study emphasize the importance of making policy and program recommendations to support healthy lifestyle behaviours within the context of the environments in which adolescents live. PMID:22685637

  2. Geography Influences Dietary Intake, Physical Activity and Weight Status of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna M. Downs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in the dietary intakes, physical activity levels and weight status of a large sample of Canadian youth in both 2005 and 2008. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study of rural and urban adolescents (n=10,023 in Alberta was conducted in both 2005 and 2008 using a web-based survey. Results. There was an overall positive change in nutrient intakes between 2005 and 2008; however, rural residents generally had a poorer nutrient profile than urban residents (P<.001. They consumed less fibre and a greater percent energy from saturated fat. The mean physical activity scores increased among rural youth between 2005 and 2008 (P<.001, while remaining unchanged among urban youth. Residence was significantly related to weight status in 2005 (P=.017, but not in 2008. Conclusion. Although there were small improvements in nutrient intakes from 2005 to 2008, several differences in the lifestyle behaviours of adolescents living in rural and urban areas were found. The results of this study emphasize the importance of making policy and program recommendations to support healthy lifestyle behaviours within the context of the environments in which adolescents live.

  3. Transformations for Resilient Rural Futures: The Case of Kaikōura, Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Cradock-Henry

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available On 14 November 2016, a magnitude (Mw 7.8 earthquake struck the small coastal settlement of Kaikōura, Aotearoa-New Zealand. With an economy based on tourism, agriculture, and fishing, Kaikōura was immediately faced with significant logistical, economic, and social challenges caused by damage to critical infrastructure and lifelines, essential to its main industries. Massive landslips cut off road and rail access, stranding hundreds of tourists, and halting the collection, processing and distribution of agricultural products. At the coast, the seabed rose two metres, limiting harbour-access to high tide, with implications for whale watching tours and commercial fisheries. Throughout the region there was significant damage to homes, businesses, and farmland, leaving owners and residents facing an uncertain future. This paper uses qualitative case study analysis to explore post-quake transformations in a rural context. The aim is to gain insight into the distinctive dynamics of disaster response mechanisms, focusing on two initiatives that have emerged in direct response to the disaster. The first examines the ways in which agriculture, food harvesting, production and distribution are being reimagined with the potential to enhance regional food security. The second examines the rescaling of power in decision-making processes following the disaster, specifically examining the ways in which rural actors are leveraging networks to meet their needs and the consequences of that repositioning on rural (and national governance arrangements. In these and other ways, the local economy is being revitalised, and regional resilience enhanced through diversification, capitalising not on the disaster but the region’s natural, social, and cultural capital. Drawing on insights and experience of local stakeholders, policy- and decision-makers, and community representatives we highlight the diverse ways in which these endeavours are an attempt to create something

  4. Perceived Peer Delinquency and Externalizing Behavior Among Rural Youth: The Role of Descriptive Norms and Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Katie L; Smokowski, Paul R

    2016-03-01

    Little research has examined the way in which perceptions of peer behavior (i.e., descriptive norms) influence externalizing behavior among rural adolescents. Using a social norms framework, the current study examined gender differences in the relationship between perceived delinquency among friends and externalizing behavior in a sample of rural adolescents. Based on previous research, the authors proposed that adolescents experience negative emotional responses when they believe that their peers are engaging in delinquency, which subsequently influences externalizing behavior. Consequently, internalizing symptoms were explored as a mediator of the relationship between perceived friend delinquency and externalizing behavior. Data came from the NC-ACE Rural Adaptation Project, a longitudinal panel study of adolescents in two rural, economically disadvantaged counties with exceptional racial/ethnic diversity (29 % White, 25 % African American, 25 % American Indian, 12 % Mixed Race/Other, 9 % Hispanic/Latino). Using multiple group structural equation modeling (N = 3489; 51 % female), results indicated that perceived friend delinquency was significantly related to externalizing behavior and this relationship did not vary by gender. Internalizing symptoms fully mediated the relationship between perceived friend delinquency and externalizing behavior and the path between perceived friend delinquency and internalizing symptoms was stronger for males. Implications of these relationships for prevention and intervention programming for externalizing behavior were highlighted.

  5. Left behind or moving forward? Effects of possible selves and strategies to attain them among rural Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chongzeng; Oyserman, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Are possible selves and strategies to attain them universally helpful even among children with few resources? We test this question in rural China. Rural Chinese children are commonly "left behind" (LB) by parents seizing economic opportunities by migrating, hoping the family will "move forward" and their children will attain their predestined better future. Media, teachers, and peers negatively represent LB children as unruly and undisciplined, with negative fates, making LB a negative stereotype that includes the idea of destiny or fate. Indeed, making the idea of LB salient increases children's fatalism (Study 1 n = 144, Study 2 n = 124). However, having strategies to attain possible future selves predicts better in-class behavior, fewer depressive symptoms, and better exam performance even a year later and controlling for prior performance (Study 3 n = 176, Study 4 n = 145). Possible selves have mixed effects, not always predicting better grades and undermining LB children's self-control. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ruralization of students’ horizons: insights into Australian health professional students’ rural and remote placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Merylin; Waller, Susan; Chambers, Helen; Farthing, Annie; Barraclough, Frances; Pit, Sabrina W; Sutton, Keith; Muyambi, Kuda; King, Stephanie; Anderson, Jessie

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Health workforce shortages have driven the Australian and other Western governments to invest in engaging more health professional students in rural and remote placements. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an understanding of the lived experiences of students undertaking placements in various nonmetropolitan locations across Australia. In addition to providing their suggestions to improve rural placements, the study provides insight into factors contributing to positive and negative experiences that influence students’ future rural practice intentions. Methods Responses to open-ended survey questions from 3,204 students from multiple health professions and universities were analyzed using two independent methods applied concurrently: manual thematic analysis and computerized content analysis using Leximancer software. Results The core concept identified from the thematic analysis was “ruralization of students’ horizons,” a construct representing the importance of preparing health professional students for practice in nonmetropolitan locations. Ruralization embodies three interrelated themes, “preparation and support,” “rural or remote health experience,” and “rural lifestyle and socialization,” each of which includes multiple subthemes. From the content analysis, factors that promoted students’ rural practice intentions were having a “positive” practice experience, interactions with “supportive staff,” and interactions with the “community” in general. It was apparent that “difficulties,” eg, with “accommodation,” “Internet” access, “transport,” and “financial” support, negatively impacted students’ placement experience and rural practice intentions. Conclusions The study findings have policy and practice implications for continuing to support students undertaking regional, rural, and remote placements and preparing them for future practice in nonmetropolitan locations. This study

  7. Role of environmental exposure to spider mites in the sensitization and the clinical manifestation of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-K; Chang, Y-S; Lee, M-H; Hong, S-C; Bae, J-M; Jee, Y-K; Chun, B-R; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Kim, Y-Y

    2002-09-01

    Spider mites such as the citrus red mite and the two-spotted spider mite have been demonstrated to be important allergens for fruit cultivating farmers. To evaluate the role of environmental exposure to spider mites in the sensitization and the clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in urban and rural areas. A total of 16,624 subjects (aged 7 to 18 years) living in urban (metropolitan and non-metropolitan) and rural areas (apple orchards and citrus orchards) in Korea were evaluated by questionnaire and skin prick test for 11 common aeroallergens, including citrus red mite (CRM) and two-spotted spider mite (TSM). The positive skin response rates to TSM were 4.2% of 1,563 metropolitan subjects, 3.8% of 5,568 non-metropolitan subjects and 6.5% of 1,464 subjects living nearby apple farms, and that to CRM 15.6% of 8,029 living nearby citrus farms. The prevalence of current wheeze and rhinitis as reported on a questionnaire was higher among those with a history of visiting fruit farms once or more per year than among those without it (10% vs. 7.1%, 32.8% vs. 26.7%, for wheezing and rhinitis, respectively). Among those with wheezing or rhinitis, the positive skin responses to TSM or CRM were also higher among those with a history of visiting fruit farms than among those without one (11.2% vs. 6.6%, 13.0% vs. 6.6%, respectively), although the positive skin responses to house dust mites were similar in the both groups. Spider mites are common sensitizing allergens in children and adolescents exposed to them, and environmental exposure to these mites may represent an important risk factor in the sensitization and the clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

  8. A STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY RELATED DISORDERS AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN RURAL KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric problem in school going children worldwide. OBJECTIVE This study was done to find the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety disorders in adolescents in rural Kerala. METHODS A school based survey was done among children of 10 to 13 years using SCARED anxiety scale. Specific items in the SCARED scale were used to assess panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and school avoidance, detailed assessments of various sociodemographic variables were also done. RESULTS A total of 250 children were studied – 147 girls and 103 boys. Anxiety disorders were found to be highly prevalent in the study population (45.6% affected and girls were disproportionately more affected (53.4% vs. 40.1%, p = 0.0389. It was present among all socio-economic strata. CONCLUSION These findings call for urgent remedial measures involving the students, parents, teachers, school management, policy makers and the media.

  9. Future Expectations, Attitude Toward Violence, and Bullying Perpetration During Early Adolescence: A Mediation Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Varela, Jorge J; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Hopeful future expectations have been linked to positive developmental outcomes in adolescence; however, the association between future expectations and bullying perpetration has received less attention. We examined the relationship between future expectations and physical and relational bullying perpetration and tested a mediation model that linked future expectations with bullying through attitude toward violence. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between future expectations and bullying perpetration (relational and physical) and to test whether these relationships were mediated by attitude toward violence in a sample of U.S. seventh-grade students (Mage = 12.86 years, N = 196, 60% female, 46% African American). Attitude toward violence fully mediated the relationship between future expectations and physical bullying (indirect effects = -0.08, 95% CI [-0.15, -0.01], R = .17). The relationship between future expectations and relational bullying was partially mediated by attitudes toward violence (indirect effects = -0.07, 95% CI [-0.14, -0.002], R = .20). Our findings suggest that future expectations can play a role in reducing attitude toward violence and physical and relational bullying perpetration among youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in bullying prevention efforts.

  10. Psychological health among Chinese college students: a rural/urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... higher scores than their rural counterparts on self-esteem and social support. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Potential use of birthweight indicators in rural Tanzania for monitoring malaria control in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddenfeldt Wort, Ulrika; Warsame, Marian; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Birthweight outcomes in rural Tanzania were determined in relation to place of delivery (hospital, dispensary or home), parity and maternal age (adolescent or non-adolescent) in order to evaluate the usefulness of birthweight data for monitoring malaria control in pregnancy. Study design:

  12. The Psychology of Adolescents: Symposium IV A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Chiam Heng; Park, Joon Hee

    These two symposium papers provide: (1) a profile of rural adolescents in Malaysia, by Chiam Heng Keng; and (2) report the findings of a study of the psychology and life of Korean children and adolescents, by Joon Hee Park. In the former report, 521 boys and 550 girls completed a checklist consisting of 195 problems and indicated problems which…

  13. Assessment of self-awareness among rural adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bilas Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is a period of biological, cognitive and social transition of such magnitude and rapidity that it is no surprise to find that it is associated with the onset or exacerbation of a number of health-related problems. It is the level of self-awareness among adolescents, which enables them to see where their thoughts and emotions take them. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the extent of awareness regarding adolescent changes/problems among school going adolescents. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Block Beri, District, Jhajjar (Haryana. Materials and Methods: A sample of 320 adolescent students of 9 th -12 th classes (80 from each school were selected from four randomly chosen large Government senior secondary schools with strength of more than 250 students (two girls and two boys/co-ed senior secondary schools. Data were collected on predesigned, pre-tested and semi-structured schedules by conducting in-depth interviews of selected study adolescents by the investigator. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages, proportions, Chi-square test, Chi-square test with Yate′s correction and t-test. Results: Out of 320, 212 (66.3% study adolescents were aware of at least one adolescent change(s whereas, when probed and further asked to enumerate the changes taking place in them, 272/320 (85% adolescents could narrate at least one such change. Out of those 272, 24 (8.82% (95% CI 6.0-12.79 adolescents either did not consider these changes as normal or they did not know whether the changes were normal or abnormal. Conclusions: Adolescents greatly lack correct information related to their bodies′ physiological, psychological and sexual changes. There is an urgent need for regular adolescent friendly information, education and communication activities covering different aspects of adolescent knowledge needs/problems.

  14. Light in Rural Schools, polyclinics and police detachment : inventory of 210 rural units, energetic and socio economics review; Luz para Escuelas, policlinicas y destacamentos policiales rurales: relevamiento de 210 unidades rurales, evaluacion energetica y socioeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago Silva, T [Red fotovoltaica Latino-Europea patrocinada por CC.EE. (Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    With the aim to the future solar installations system in the rural area it has been done a report about 210 rural units placed in: Rivera, Tacuarembo, Salto, Paysandu, Florida, Flores, Lavalleja, Durazno, Cerro largo y Rio Negro departments.

  15. The impact of the built environment on young people's physical activity patterns: a suburban-rural comparison using GPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Lyons, Mark

    2012-08-24

    The built environment in which young people live has a significant influence on their physical activity (PA). However, little is known regarding how youth from suburban and rural settings utilise their surrounding environments to participate in free-living PA. 50 adolescents aged 13-14 years old (22 rural; 28 suburban) wore an integrated GPS and heart rate device during non-school hours and completed a daily PA diary over 7 days. Descriptive statistics and analyses of variance were used to explore differences in the amount and location of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between genders and youth from different geographical settings. Suburban youth participated in significantly (p = 0.004) more daily PA (52.14 minutes MVPA) and were more extensive in their utilisation of their surroundings, compared to rural youth (26.61 minutes MVPA). Suburban youth visited more public recreational facilities and spent significantly more time outdoors and on local streets (109.71 minutes and 44.62 minutes, respectively) compared to rural youth (55.98 minutes and 17.15 minutes, respectively) during weekdays. Rural youth on average spent significantly more time within the home (350.69 minutes) during weekends compared to suburban youth (214.82 minutes). Rural females were the least active group of adolescents, participating in the least amount of daily PA (20.14 minutes MVPA) and spending the least amount of time outdoors (31.37 minutes) during weekdays. Time spent outdoors was positively associated with PA. The findings highlight the disparity in PA levels and the utilisation of the surrounding built environment between youth from two different geographical settings and possible environmental causes are discussed. The study supports the use of GPS (combined with other methods) in investigating geographical differences in young people's PA and movement patterns. This method provides a wealth of information that may assist future policies and interventions in identifying

  16. The effects of violence exposure on the development of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood: Time-specific and generalized effects in a sample of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C; King, Kevin M; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Chassin, Laurie

    2015-11-01

    Impulse control and future orientation increase across adolescence, but little is known about how contextual factors shape the development of these capacities. The present study investigates how stress exposure, operationalized as exposure to violence, alters the developmental pattern of impulse control and future orientation across adolescence and early adulthood. In a sample of 1,354 serious juvenile offenders, higher exposure to violence was associated with lower levels of future orientation at age 15 and suppressed development of future orientation from ages 15 to 25. Increases in witnessing violence or victimization were linked to declines in impulse control 1 year later, but only during adolescence. Thus, beyond previous experiences of exposure to violence, witnessing violence and victimization during adolescence conveys unique risk for suppressed development of self-regulation.

  17. Metabolic syndrome parameters in adolescents may be determinants for the future periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Lee, Sang Gyu; Kim, Eun-Kyong; Jin, Hye-Jung; Im, Sang-Uk; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Merchant, Anwar T; Song, Keun-Bae; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases even in adolescents. The evidence that MetS is associated with the periodontal diseases in adolescents has been understudied. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association between MetS parameters and gingivitis in adolescents. A total of 941 participants (590 boys, 351 girls), aged 12-18 years was selected from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey, which had had information on waist circumference, blood pressure, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and the fasting blood sugar and community periodontal Index (CPI). The number of positive parameters of MetS showed significant positive correlation with gingivitis; adjusted and crude ORs with one positive parameters of MetS were 1.92 (95% CI: 1.21-3.04) and 1.88(95% CI: 1.28-2.76), respectively. And adjusted OR with three or more positive parameters of MetS was 3.29 (95% CI: 1.24-8.71). Among five parameters of MetS, Low HDL-cholesterol showed significant association with gingivitis (crude OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.20-3.73; adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.24-3.12). Having more positive parameters of MetS and low HDL-cholesterol parameter had an independent relationship with the prevalence of gingivitis, which may be determinants for the future periodontal diseases even in adolescents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effectiveness of a girls' empowerment programme on early childbearing, marriage and school dropout among adolescent girls in rural Zambia: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Mudenda, Mweetwa; Zulu, Joseph; Munsaka, Ecloss; Blystad, Astrid; Makasa, Mpundu C; Mæstad, Ottar; Tungodden, Bertil; Jacobs, Choolwe; Kampata, Linda; Fylkesnes, Knut; Svanemyr, Joar; Moland, Karen Marie; Banda, Richard; Musonda, Patrick

    2016-12-09

    Adolescent pregnancies pose a risk to the young mothers and their babies. In Zambia, 35% of young girls in rural areas have given birth by the age of 18 years. Pregnancy rates are particularly high among out-of-school girls. Poverty, low enrolment in secondary school, myths and community norms all contribute to early childbearing. This protocol describes a trial aiming to measure the effect on early childbearing rates in a rural Zambian context of (1) economic support to girls and their families, and (2) combining economic support with a community intervention to enhance knowledge about sexual and reproductive health and supportive community norms. This cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT) will have three arms. The clusters are rural schools with surrounding communities. Approximately 4900 girls in grade 7 in 2016 will be recruited from 157 schools in 12 districts. In one intervention arm, participating girls and their guardians will be offered cash transfers and payment of school fees. In the second intervention arm, there will be both economic support and a community intervention. The interventions will be implemented for approximately 2 years. The final survey will be 4.5 years after recruitment. The primary outcomes will be "incidence of births within 8 months of the end of the intervention period", "incidence of births before girls' 18th birthday" and "proportion of girls who sit for the grade 9 exam". Final survey interviewers will be unaware of the intervention status of respondents. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat and adjusted for cluster design and confounders. Qualitative process evaluation will be conducted. This is the first CRCT to measure the effect of combining economic support with a community intervention to prevent adolescent childbearing in a low- or middle-income country. We have designed a programme that will be sustainable and feasible to scale up. The findings will be relevant for programmes for adolescent reproductive health in

  19. Some Enlightenments of "Beautiful Rural Construction" on Rural Energy Policy in Beijing—Applying Informatization Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wang; Kongan, Wu

    2018-06-01

    "Beautiful rural construction" is a systematic project, rural energy is one of the important contents of its construction. In accordance with the concept of eco-friendly construction, Beijing carried out a thorough "structural adjustment of rural energy optimization," "Earthquake energy-saving projects of rural housing" and other measures. By conventional heating technology research in Beijing 13 counties and 142 villages, we predict the future of rural energy will further the implementation of solar heating, electric heating and other new green energy technologies. It is suggested to establish the "Beijing Rural Information Service Platform" and "Beautiful Rural Information Resource Bank" through the means of informatization, which will greatly strengthen the regulation and control of rural people-land relationship and realize the systematic optimization, making the cities and villages have. Space for human survival and sustainable development.

  20. Predictors of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Gaetano; Abdul-Rahman, Lutuf; De Coninck, Zaake; Johansson, Annika

    2014-03-01

    Adolescent girls in Ghana still face a number of challenges accessing reproductive/sexual health services despite efforts to improve their accessibility. This paper explores the key socio-demographic factors associated with contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Data from the 2008 GDHS was analyzed. Socio-demographic variables were selected to assess their interaction with contraceptive use. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed. Place of residence and marital status were the most important predictors of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents. Rural residents were less likely to use contraceptives compared to urban residents (OR 0.32, CI 0.12-0.84, p = 0.021) as well as married respondents compared to their unmarried peers (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67, p = 0.005). The accessibility of reproductive/sexual health services needs to be improved and promoted in rural areas and among married adolescent women.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Rural Communities: Current Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jon; Lui, Chi-Wai; Adams, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Contexts: The consumption of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in rural areas is a significant contemporary health care issue. An understanding of CAM use in rural health can provide a new perspective on health beliefs and practice as well as on some of the core service delivery issues facing rural health care generally. Purpose: This…

  2. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  3. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Leprosy Admitted Over 16 Years at a Rural Hospital in Ethiopia: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, José M; Ortiz-Martínez, Sonia; Lemma, Deriba; Petros, Matheus M; Ortiz-Martínez, Carmen; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco; Belinchón, Isabel

    2018-06-01

    To analyse differences in children and adolescents aged ≤18 years admitted to the leprosy ward in a rural Ethiopian hospital >16 years. We retrospectively collected data from leprosy admission registry books on patients with leprosy who were admitted to a referral hospital from September 2000 to September 2016. There were 2129 admissions for leprosy during the study period: 180 (8.4%) patients were s ≤ 18 years old. Of these, 98 (54.4%) were male and 82 (45.6%) were female. The proportion of new diagnoses in children and adolescents was 31.7%, significantly higher than in adults (11.7%; p < 0.001). There were also significant differences in the prevalence of lepromatous ulcers (46.9 vs. 61.7%), leprosy reaction (29.4 vs. 13.0%) and neuritis (16.9 vs.5.3%) between these age groups. There were more new diagnoses, leprosy reactions and neuritis, and fewer lepromatous ulcers, in children and adolescents compared with adults, with younger patients being referred more frequently to reference centres.

  4. Age of onset, nutritional determinants, and seasonal variations in menarche in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2009-12-01

    Menarche is an important milestone in the development of female adolescents. The study assessed the age at menarche using recall, its seasonality, and association with marital and nutritional status (using mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC]) among 3,923 female adolescents aged 12-19 years in a rural area of Bangladesh. At the time of assessment, most (88%) adolescents had attained menarche at the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 12.8 (1.4) years. Age of onset of menarche among married adolescents (13%) occurred earlier than in those who were unmarried (12.6 +/- 1.3 years vs 12.9 +/- 1.4 years, p < 0.01). Age at menarche was negatively associated with MUAC after adjusting for age and marital status (beta = -0.10, p < 0.01). More than 50% of the adolescents had an onset of menarche during winter (chi2 = 634.97; p < 0.001), with peaks in December and January. In this rural population, the current age at menarche was found to be slightly lower than the previous estimates of 13.0 years in Bangladesh. An early onset of menarche was associated with season and better nutritional status of the female adolescents and may be associated with early marriage.

  5. Future Orientation, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among Left-behind Children in Rural China: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhu, Maoling

    2017-01-01

    Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor) and social support (contextual protective factor) are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness) of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children) in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects) and subsequent (lagged effects) status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children ( M age = 14.09, SD = 1.40) who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1) left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2) After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of

  6. Future Orientation, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among Left-behind Children in Rural China: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobing Su

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing research has found that parental migration may negatively impact the psychological adjustment of left-behind children. However, limited longitudinal research has examined if and how future orientation (individual protective factor and social support (contextual protective factor are associated with the indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction, school satisfaction, happiness, and loneliness of left-behind children. In the current longitudinal study, we examined the differences in psychological adjustment between left-behind children and non-left behind children (comparison children in rural areas, and explored the protective roles of future orientation and social support on the immediate (cross-sectional effects and subsequent (lagged effects status of psychological adjustment for both groups of children, respectively. The sample included 897 rural children (Mage = 14.09, SD = 1.40 who participated in two waves of surveys across six months. Among the participants, 227 were left-behind children with two parents migrating, 176 were with one parent migrating, and 485 were comparison children. Results showed that, (1 left-behind children reported lower levels of life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as a higher level of loneliness in both waves; (2 After controlling for several demographics and characteristics of parental migration among left-behind children, future orientation significantly predicted life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness in both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models, as well as loneliness in the longitudinal regression analysis. Social support predicted immediate life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and happiness, as well as subsequent school satisfaction. Similar to left-behind children, comparison children who reported higher scores in future orientation, especially future expectation, were likely to have higher scores in most indicators of

  7. Indonesian rural youth transitions: employment, mobility and the future of agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.N.F. White (Benjamin)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter reflects on the dynamics of Indonesian rural youth transitions.1 As in other countries, Indonesian rural youth’s transition to adulthood is being prolonged as they remain longer enrolled in education, their average age at first marriage rises, and their

  8. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescent Normative Beliefs and Substance Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Trudeau, Linda; Spoth, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Pstudy investigated the effects of baseline levels of academic achievement and longitudinal trends in normative beliefs on adolescent substance initiation across a 42-month time period. Participants were 272 rural adolescents who were an average of 12.3 years old at the baseline assessment. Academic achievement positively predicted the intercept…

  9. Proximity to Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Care among Adolescents with Congenital Heart Defects in 11 New York Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerhalter, Kristin M; Insaf, Tabassum Z; Akkaya-Hocagil, Tugba; McGarry, Claire E; Farr, Sherry L; Downing, Karrie F; Lui, George K; Zaidi, Ali N; Van Zutphen, Alissa R

    2017-11-01

    Many individuals with congenital heart defects (CHDs) discontinue cardiac care in adolescence, putting them at risk of adverse health outcomes. Because geographic barriers may contribute to cessation of care, we sought to characterize geographic access to comprehensive cardiac care among adolescents with CHDs. Using a population-based, 11-county surveillance system of CHDs in New York, we characterized proximity to the nearest pediatric cardiac surgical care center among adolescents aged 11 to 19 years with CHDs. Residential addresses were extracted from surveillance records documenting 2008 to 2010 healthcare encounters. Addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS and the New York State Street and Address Maintenance Program, a statewide address point database. One-way drive and public transit time from residence to nearest center were calculated using R packages gmapsdistance and rgeos with the Google Maps Distance Matrix application programming interface. A marginal model was constructed to identify predictors associated with one-way travel time. We identified 2522 adolescents with 3058 corresponding residential addresses and 12 pediatric cardiac surgical care centers. The median drive time from residence to nearest center was 18.3 min, and drive time was 30 min or less for 2475 (80.9%) addresses. Predicted drive time was longest for rural western addresses in high poverty census tracts (68.7 min). Public transit was available for most residences in urban areas but for few in rural areas. We identified areas with geographic barriers to surgical care. Future research is needed to determine how these barriers influence continuity of care among adolescents with CHDs. Birth Defects Research 109:1494-1503, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Differences in development among children and adolescents in eastern and western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2010-01-01

    There are wide-ranging differences in human growth, not only between ethnic groups but also between regions. China covers a vast area and has a very large population. However, no studies on the differences in development among children and adolescents in eastern and western China have been reported. This study assessed the differences in stature and body weight in children and adolescents in eastern and western China. Using data derived from two national surveys on students' constitution and health carried out by the Chinese government in 1985 and 2005, the average stature and body weight for children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in eastern and western China were calculated. The differences of mean values between eastern and western China were compared. Boys and girls in eastern China were taller and heavier than their counterparts in western China in all age groups (7-18 years) in 2005, the average differences being 3.56 cm, 4.56 kg (urban boys), 3.05 cm, 2.92 kg (urban girls), 4.04 cm, 4.19 kg (rural boys) and 3.48 cm, 2.96 kg (rural girls). In 18-year-old groups, the differences in the stature and body weight between eastern and western China were 2.82 cm, 5.17 kg for urban boys, 1.86 cm, 2.11 kg for urban girls, 2.26 cm, 3.38 kg for rural boys and 1.96 cm, 1.38 kg for rural girls, respectively. From 1985 to 2005, differences in stature and body weight of children and adolescents between eastern and western China have continuously expanded. There have been obvious regional variations in development in children and adolescents in China, the variations in development in children and adolescents between eastern and western China being related to regional economic status and living standards of residents.

  11. Back to the future; new functions for rural areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van J.; Klundert, van de A.F.; Dietvorst, A.G.J.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the project Rural Areas and Europe of the Netherlands Spatial Planning Department a study was carried out in which integrated rural development was one of the answers to the economic and environmental problems of agriculture. The study focused on four possible new functions: water

  12. Premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea: urban-rural and multiethnic differences in perception, impacts, and treatment seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-10-01

    Attitudes toward menarche and menstruation are largely influenced by sociological, cultural, and family environmental factors. Recognizing the influential effects that these factors might have on shaping adolescents' attitudes is crucial in designing a more effective means of transmitting health information. This study aimed to gather an in-depth understanding of perceptions, impacts, and treatment seeking on menstruation-related issues from an ethnically mixed group of rural and urban girls. In total, 27 focus group discussions (172 participants) were conducted between November 2008 and April 2009. Participants were adolescent girls aged 13-19 years, recruited from 7 public secondary schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and 4 public secondary schools from the rural districts of Kelantan, in Malaysia. Many participants revealed that they were not given or had not received detailed information about the mechanism or physiology of menstruation prior to its onset. Thus, many described the onset of menarche as shocking, an event for which they were unprepared, and which has had a tremendous impact on their emotions. More positive acceptance of menarche was reported in the urban than with the rural groups. Despite the high prevalence of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea, participants across urban-rural and ethnic groups perceived the problems as completely normal, hence they relied on self-care methods and did not want to seek professional treatment. More rural girls compared to urban girls were embarrassed to talk to their mothers or consult their physicians regarding menstruation-related problems. Menstruation-related education would have a positive impact in improving adolescent girls' knowledge and in nurturing a positive attitude toward menstruation-related matters at home, at school, and in the community. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of decentralized generation and storage technologies in future energy systems planning for a rural agglomeration in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdanie, Mashael; Densing, Martin; Wokaun, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a framework to quantitatively evaluate decentralized generation and storage technology (DGST) performance and policy impacts in a rural setting. The role of DGSTs in the future energy systems planning of a rural agglomeration in Switzerland is examined using a cost optimization modeling approach. Heat and electricity demand for major sectors are considered. Scenarios introduce DGSTs in a stepwise manner to measure incremental impacts on future capacity planning compared to a baseline scenario. Sub-scenarios also examine the impacts of carbon mitigation policies, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out for key energy carriers and conversion technologies. DGSTs enable a significant reduction in electricity grid usage for the community considered. Small hydro with a storage reservoir and photovoltaics enable the community to become largely self-sufficient with over 80% reductions in grid imports by 2050 compared to the baseline scenario. Storage enables maximum usage of the available hydro potential which also leads to network upgrade deferrals and a significant increase in photovoltaic installations. Investment decisions in small hydro are robust against cost variations, while heating technology investment decisions are sensitive to oil and grid electricity prices. Carbon pricing policies are found to be effective in mitigating local fossil fuel emissions. - Highlights: •Rural case study on decentralized generation and storage technology (DGST) benefits. •Cost optimization model and scenarios developed to assess DGSTs until 2050. •Small hydro and photovoltaics (PV) increase self-sufficiency of community. •Storage enables full hydro potential usage and increased PV penetration. •Carbon price policies effective in mitigating local fossil fuel emissions.

  14. The coming vitality of rural places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B. HOWLEY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn many parts of the world, whether “developing” or “developed,” the concept of a rural sort of education is largely ignored by national ministries. The United States is just one notable example of silence at the bureaucratic center, despite scholarly interest in provincial universities. The future may change the “terms of engagement,” however, and this essay considers the leadership of rural schools and communities from the vantage of the daunting, but clearly visible, challenges of the future. The challenges described in the essay relate to a variety of visible, perhaps even familiar, economic, environmental, political, and cultural threats confronting life in the coming century. Though increasingly important and relevant to education, these threats are not a common part of discussions in education policy. The essay explains why, and why the threats are important to rural villages and districts. Discussion concludes with five rurally appropriate shifts of thinking that might help rural citizens and subjects around the world engage the challenges and counter the threats.

  15. Transformation of Adolescent Peer Relations in the Social Media Context: Part 2-Application to Peer Group Processes and Future Directions for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2018-04-07

    As social media use becomes increasingly widespread among adolescents, research in this area has accumulated rapidly. Researchers have shown a growing interest in the impact of social media on adolescents' peer experiences, including the ways that the social media context shapes a variety of peer relations constructs. This paper represents Part 2 of a two-part theoretical review. In this review, we offer a new model for understanding the transformative role of social media in adolescents' peer experiences, with the goal of stimulating future empirical work that is grounded in theory. The transformation framework suggests that the features of the social media context transform adolescents' peer experiences by changing their frequency or immediacy, amplifying demands, altering their qualitative nature, and/or offering new opportunities for compensatory or novel behaviors. In the current paper, we consider the ways that social media may transform peer relations constructs that often occur at the group level. Our review focuses on three key constructs: peer victimization, peer status, and peer influence. We selectively review and highlight existing evidence for the transformation of these domains through social media. In addition, we discuss methodological considerations and key conceptual principles for future work. The current framework offers a new theoretical perspective through which peer relations researchers may consider adolescent social media use.

  16. Are schools a good setting for adolescent sexual health promotion in rural Africa? A qualitative assessment from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Mary L; Wight, D; Wamoyi, J; Nyalali, K; Ingall, T; Mshana, G; Shigongo, Z S; Obasi, A I N; Ross, D A

    2007-08-01

    African adolescents are at high risk of poor sexual health. School-based interventions could reach many adolescents in a sustainable and replicable way, if enrolment, funding and infrastructure are adequate. This study examined pupils', recent school leavers', parents' and teachers' views and experiences of rural Tanzanian primary schools, focusing on the implications for potential sexual health programmes. From 1999 to 2002, participant observation was conducted in nine villages for 158 person-weeks. Half of Year 7 pupils were 15-17 years old, and few went on to secondary school, suggesting that primary schools may be a good venue for such programmes. However, serious challenges include low enrolment and attendance rates, limited teacher training, little access to teaching resources and official and unofficial practices that may alienate pupils and their parents, e.g. corporal punishment, pupils being made to do unpaid work, forced pregnancy examinations, and some teachers' alcohol or sexual abuse. At a national level, improved teacher training and supervision are critical, as well as policies that better prevent, identify and correct undesired practices. At a programme level, intervention developers need to simplify the subject matter, introduce alternative teaching methods, help improve teacher-pupil and teacher-community relationships, and closely supervise and appropriately respond to undesired practices.

  17. Rural Latinos' mental wellbeing: a mixed-methods pilot study of family, environment and social isolation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Smith, Rebekah; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Wiens, Brenda; Cottler, Linda B

    2015-05-01

    Upon immigration to the rural areas in the US, Latino families may experience cultural, geographic, linguistic and social isolation, which can detrimentally affect their wellbeing by acting as chronic stressors. Using a community engagement approach, this is a pilot mixed-method study with an embedded design using concurrent qualitative and quantitative data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate family and social environments in terms of protective factors and modifiable risks associated with mental well-being in Latino immigrants living in rural areas of Florida. Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads were interviewed by using in-depth ethnographic semistructured interviews and subsequent quantitative assessments, including a demographic questionnaire and three structured instruments: the Family Environment Scale Real Form, the SF-12v2™ Health Survey and the short version (eight items) of PROMIS Health Organization Social Isolation. This mixed-method pilot study highlighted how family, rural, and social environments can protect or impair wellbeing in rural Latino immigrant mother and adolescent dyads.

  18. Light in Rural Schools, polyclinics and police detachment : inventory of 210 rural units, energetic and socio economics review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago Silva, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the aim to the future solar installations system in the rural area it has been done a report about 210 rural units placed in: Rivera, Tacuarembo, Salto, Paysandu, Florida, Flores, Lavalleja, Durazno, Cerro largo y Rio Negro departments

  19. Perceptions of rural addictions and related HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, C G; Godlaski, T

    1997-01-01

    Rural addictions and related HIV behaviors, including drug use and sexual behaviors, have received limited attention in United States rural areas when compared with urban areas. However, prevalence rates are similar for alcohol and tobacco in rural and urban United States areas. The perception of policymakers and others is generally that drug use and HIV are urban problems, and resources are more likely to be directed to urban areas than rural areas. A major trend for the future is the continued expectation of limited resources for rural areas.

  20. Factors influencing interest in recreational sports participation and its rural-urban disparity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiehfeng Chen

    Full Text Available Recreational sports are important leisure activities. However, most studies investigating barrier factors and motivation for participation in recreational sports have been limited to specific areas (e.g., a city or school or demographic groups (e.g., adolescents. Therefore, this study set out to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the behavioral and socioeconomic factors influencing interest in recreational sports participation in Taiwan, as well as to evaluate the effect of any urban-rural divide.This study analyzed data collected by the "Taiwan Social Change Survey" (program five, wave 3 "Leisure Life" questionnaire. We used hierarchical linear modeling to assess respondent interest in recreational sports participation and evaluated the influence of behavioral factors, socioeconomic factors, and residence location (urban/rural.Of the 2,146 participants in this study, 50.3% were male, and the average age was 43.9 years. Location of residence (urban/rural accounted for 35.3% of the variation in interest in recreational sports participation, while the remaining 64.7% came from the individual level. Participants who lived in rural settings were less interested in recreational sports than their urban counterparts. Gender, educational attainment, participation frequency, health-motivated interest, and appearance-motivated interest were also associated with interest in recreational sports participation.Different communication strategies may be needed to effectively reach different demographic groups. We suggest that future public health campaigns aiming to increase recreational sports participation include tailored interventions and messages to effectively encourage leisure physical activities among all, regardless of demographic boundaries.

  1. Attitudes toward menstruation, menstrual-related symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls: a rural school-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-06-21

    Folk culture surrounding menstrual-related matters has considerable implications for symptom expression and treatment-seeking behavior. A cross-sectional survey of 1,295 rural adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 years was conducted between February 4 and April 16, 2009 to examine these associations. With a higher score indicating a more positive attitude toward menstruation, the mean attitude score was 3.84 (SD ± 1.62) out of a maximum of six. No significant association was observed between the severity of menstrual symptoms and attitudes. Most (63.1%) of the participants identified themselves as having premenstrual symptoms, and 61.1% viewed premenstrual symptoms as a normal part of menstrual cycle. Participants with a higher severity of symptoms in the premenstrual (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and menstrual phase (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), were more likely to consult a physician for premenstrual symptoms, and having a divorced/separated parents was associated with a reduced odds of consulting a physician compared to those having parents that were married (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). The findings imply the need for education to help adolescent girls manage menstrual symptoms and increase awareness of the benefit of treating them. Given that menstrual-related information was widely available from mothers, family, and social culture are potentially important in shaping good menstrual attitudes.

  2. Pediatric Obesity Management in Rural Clinics in California and the Role of Telehealth in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Romano, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine health care provider needs related to pediatric obesity management in rural California and to explore strategies to improve care through telehealth. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of health care providers who treated children and adolescents at 41 rural clinics with existing telehealth connectivity. Results: Most of the…

  3. Gender and the effects of an economic empowerment program on attitudes toward sexual risk-taking among AIDS-orphaned adolescent youth in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssewamala, Fred M; Ismayilova, Leyla; McKay, Mary; Sperber, Elizabeth; Bannon, William; Alicea, Stacey

    2010-04-01

    This article examines gender differences in attitudes toward sexual risk-taking behaviors of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda. Adolescents (average age 13.7 years) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS from 15 comparable schools were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=135) or a control condition (n=142). Adolescents in the experimental condition, in addition to usual care, also received support and incentives to save money toward secondary education. Findings indicate that although adolescent boys and girls within the experimental condition saved comparable amounts, the intervention appears to have benefited girls, in regard to the attitudes toward sexual risk-taking behavior, in a different way and to a lesser extent than boys. Future research should investigate the possibility that adolescent girls might be able to develop equally large improvements in protective attitudes toward sexual risk taking through additional components that address gendered social norms. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rural poverty unperceived: problems and remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, R

    1981-01-01

    There are major obstacles to perceiving the nature and the extent of rural poverty in developing countries. These obstacles originate not only in the nature of rural poverty itself, but also in the condition of those, not themselves of the rural poor, who do or, more significantly, do not perceive that poverty. The argument has implications for all rural development programs and projects, and for the training of staff. The conclusion is that reversals of current positions and practices are required if the obstacles are to be surmounted, if the nature and the extent of rural poverty are to be truly appreciated, and if future actions are to be tailored to the actual needs of the rural poor. 49 references.

  5. Overweight and obesity among adolescents in Poland: gender and regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacinska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela

    2010-10-01

    To examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Polish adolescents in 2005 using both the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs and a national reference; to compare this to data collected in 1995; and to assess whether there were differences in overweight or obesity by gender and place of residence in 1995-2005. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight, collected in a cross-sectional study in five regions of Poland in 2005. Adolescents were categorised as normal, overweight or obese based on IOTF cut-off values, and by national weight for stature tables, where the 90th and 97th percentiles were used as cut-off values for overweight and obesity. Population-based study set in Poland. A two-stage sampling method was used to recruit 8065 pupils (3980 boys and 4085 girls) aged 13-15 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12·5 % and 1·9 %, respectively. No significant gender differences were found, either in overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in 2005 had increased 2 % compared to 1995. Overweight and obesity among adolescents were not related to urban-rural residence, but there were significant regional differences. Monitoring trends in overweight and obesity among adolescents in all regions of Poland using the same reference criteria is important. Since regional differences in overweight and obesity rates among adolescents were observed both in 1995 and 2005, future research should investigate the potential causes of these differences.

  6. Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature and Promising Future Directions for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kit Delgado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16–19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially. Nearly half of U.S. high school students admit to texting while driving in the last month, but the frequency of use according to vehicle speed and high-risk situations remains unknown. Several risk factors are associated with cell phone use while driving including: parental cellphone use while driving, social norms for quick responses to text messages, and higher levels of temporal discounting. Given the limited effectiveness of current mitigation strategies such as educational campaigns and legal bans, a multi-pronged behavioral and technological approach addressing the above risk factors will be necessary to reduce this dangerous behavior in adolescents.

  7. Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature and Promising Future Directions for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M. Kit; Wanner, Kathryn J.; McDonald, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16–19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially. Nearly half of U.S. high school students admit to texting while driving in the last month, but the frequency of use according to vehicle speed and high-risk situations remains unknown. Several risk factors are associated with cell phone use while driving including: parental cellphone use while driving, social norms for quick responses to text messages, and higher levels of temporal discounting. Given the limited effectiveness of current mitigation strategies such as educational campaigns and legal bans, a multi-pronged behavioral and technological approach addressing the above risk factors will be necessary to reduce this dangerous behavior in adolescents. PMID:27695663

  8. The Role of Adolescent Victimization in Energy Drink Consumption: Monitoring the Future, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Leal, Wanda E; Posick, Chad; Vaughn, Michael G; Olivan, Myrah

    2018-05-21

    Energy drinks have been linked to a number of deleterious health outcomes among youth. Even so, the underlying risk factors for energy drink consumption among youth are less frequently examined. The present study examines the link between adolescent victimization experiences (i.e., property and violent victimization) and energy drink consumption among a nationally representative sample of adolescents. We employed the seven most recent cohorts (2010-2016) from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to acquire the U.S. Youths reported the extent to which they consumed energy drinks. Additionally, three indicators of property victimization and four indicators of violent victimization were available in the data. The findings reveal a significant dose-response relationship between energy drink consumption and victimization. This relationship was especially pronounced among females. For instance, more than 52% of females with the highest count of various violent victimization experiences consumed energy drinks, which was three times the rate of females who had no previous violent victimization experiences. Practitioners who interact with adolescent victims may probe for energy drink usage in addition to other addictive substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and drugs. Additional scrutiny may also be in order in regulating the amount of caffeine and sugar allowed in these beverages.

  9. Sustaining and growing the rural nursing and midwifery workforce: understanding the issues and isolating directions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen L; Mills, Jane E

    2011-01-01

    Nurses and midwives represent the largest group of health professionals in the Australian health care system. In rural environments nurses and midwives make up a greater proportion of the health workforce than in urban settings, which makes their role in service provision even more significant. The role and scope of these nurses and midwives' practice is by necessity more generalist than specialist, which results in disciplinary strengths and weaknesses. As generalist health professionals they work in diverse settings such as public hospitals, multi-purpose services, community health, aged care and in non-government and private for profit and no-profit organisations including general practices. Their scope of practice covers prevention, intervention and rehabilitation and is lifespan inclusive. Rural nurses and midwives are older than their metropolitan based counterparts, work part-time and traditionally have limited access to professional development often due to ineffective locum relief programs. Workplace inflexibility, access to acceptable housing and partner employment are factors cited as inhibitors to growing this workforces. The future of the rural nursing and midwifery workforce will only be secured if Government invests to a greater degree in both education and training and the development of a nationally agreed remuneration scale that allows for part-time work.

  10. Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight Status and Physical Inactivity among US Children Aged 10-17 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J.; Harun, Nusrat; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of…

  11. Rural residents' perspectives on the rural 'good death': a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, Suzanne; MacLeod, Roderick D; Glasgow, Nicholas J; Wilson, Donna M; Phillips, Christine B; Wiles, Robert B

    2018-05-01

    The 'good death' is one objective of palliative care, with many 'good death' viewpoints and research findings reflecting the urban voice. Rural areas are distinct and need special consideration. This scoping review identified and charted current research knowledge on the 'good' rural death through the perspectives of rural residents, including rural patients with a life-limiting illness, to identify evidence and gaps in the literature for future studies. A comprehensive literature search of English language articles (no date filter applied) was conducted in 2016 (2 January to 14 February) using five library databases. Reference lists of included articles, recent issues of eight relevant journals and three grey literature databases were also hand-searched. Twenty articles (for 17 studies and one systematic review) were identified after a two-phase screening process by two reviewers, using pre-determined inclusion criteria. Data from each study were extracted and charted, analysed using a thematic analysis of the included articles' content, and with a quantitative analysis of the scoping review. These papers revealed data collected from rural patients with a life-limiting illness and family caregivers, rural healthcare providers, the wider rural community, rural community leaders and rural health administrators and policy makers. Rural locations were heterogeneous. Residents from developed and developing countries believe a 'good death' is one that is peaceful, free of pain and without suffering; however, this is subjective and priorities are based on personal, cultural, social and religious perspectives. Currently, there is insufficient data to generalise rural residents' perspectives and what it means for them to die well. Given the extreme importance of a 'good death', there is a need for further studies to elicit rural patient and family caregiver perspectives. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Rural Youth Education Project: First Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania contracted with Pennsylvania State University to begin a longitudinal study of rural Pennsylvania school students to understand their future aspirations, the factors influencing these aspirations, whether their plans change as they age, and if they attain their goals and plans. The main research questions…

  13. Stress among School-Going Adolescents in Relation to Psychological Hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the stress among school-going adolescents in relation to psychological hardiness and also to study the gender and locale-wise differences in various dimensions and components of stress. The study was conducted over a sample of 200 (100 rural and 100 urban) adolescents studying in 10+1 and 10+2 classes…

  14. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  15. Marriage characteristics and reproductive health of adolescents in Turkey: findings from Demographic and Health Surveys 1998 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Sabahat; Adali, Tuğba

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent marriage is an important issue given its social and medical consequences. This study focuses on the recent trends in adolescent marriage and reproductive health in Turkey to provide insights for action. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1998 and 2008 were used. Adolescent marriage and reproductive health indicators were assessed for urban-rural residences, demographic regions and educational levels. Logistic regression was used to predict marriage and birth in adolescence. Despite the decrease in the proportion of married adolescents from 1998 to 2008, the findings suggest no improvement in some marriage characteristics. In both surveys, over 60% of ever-married adolescents had been pregnant at least once. There is an increase in contraceptive use and antenatal care. Our findings showed that in Turkey, women living in rural areas, from poor households, with more traditional parental families, with less education, and who are not working are more likely to get married in their adolescent ages.

  16. General practice registrars' intentions for future practice: implications for rural medical workforce planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Catherine; Seal, Alexa; McGirr, Joe; Caton, Tim

    2016-11-01

    The models of practice that general practice registrars (GPRs) envisage undertaking will affect workforce supply. The aim of this research was to determine practice intentions of current GPRs in a regional general practice training program (Coast City Country General Practice Training). Questionnaires were circulated to 220 GPRs undertaking general practice placements to determine characteristics of ideal practice models and intentions for future practice. Responses were received for 99 participants (45%). Current GPRs intend to work an average of less than eight half-day sessions/week, with male participants intending to work more hours (t(91)=3.528, P=0.001). More than one-third of this regional cohort intends to practice in metropolitan centres. Proximity to family and friends was the most important factor influencing the choice of practice location. Men ranked remuneration for work as more important (t (88)=-4.280, Pmedical graduates intend to own their own practice compared with 52% of international medical graduates (χ 2 (1)=8.498, P=0.004). Future general practitioners (GPs) intend to work fewer hours than current GPs. Assumptions about lifestyle factors, practice models and possible professional roles should be carefully evaluated when developing strategies to recruit GPs and GPRs into rural practice.

  17. My Future, My Family, My Freedom: Meanings of Schooling for Poor, Rural Chinese Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    In this article, Xin Xiang investigates what dushu, or "schooling," means for rural senior secondary school students in a high-poverty county in southwestern China. With the persistence of China's rural-urban education inequality and alarming reports about secondary school dropout rates, rural students' and their families' attitudes…

  18. Adult and adolescent livestock productive asset transfer programmes to improve mental health, economic stability and family and community relationships in rural South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy A; Remy, Mitima Mpanano; Alfred, Mirindi Bacikenge; Arsene, Kajabika Binkurhorhwa; Nadine, Mwinja Bufole; Heri, Banyewesize Jean; Clovis, Mitima Murhula; Glass, Nancy

    2017-03-14

    People living in poverty have limited access to traditional financial institutions. Microfinance programmes are designed to meet this gap and show promise in improving income, economic productivity and health. Our Congolese-US community academic research partnership developed two livestock productive asset transfer programmes, Pigs for Peace (PFP) and Rabbits for Resilience (RFR), to address the interlinked health, social and economic well-being of individuals, their families and communities. The community-based randomised controlled trials examine the effectiveness of PFP and RFR to improve health, economic stability, and family and community relationships among male and female adults and adolescents living in 10 rural, postconflict villages of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. PFP participants include adult permanent residents of rural villages; adolescent participants in RFR include male and female adolescents 10-15 years old living in the selected rural villages. Participants were randomised to intervention or delayed control group. Participants in PFP completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postintervention. In RFR, participants completed baseline interview prior to intervention and follow-up interview at 6, 12 and 18 months postbaseline. The primary outcome of both trials, the change in baseline mental health distress at 18 months in the intervention group (adults, adolescents) compared to control group, is used to calculate sample size. The Johns Hopkins Medical Institute Internal Review Board approved this protocol. A committee of respected Congolese educators and community members (due to lack of local ethics review board) approved the study. The findings will provide important information on the potential for community-led sustainable development initiatives to build on traditional livelihood (livestock raising, agriculture) to have a sustained health, economic and social impact on the

  19. The associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyema, M; Norris, S A; Said-Mohamed, R; Tollman, S T; Twine, R; Kahn, K; Richter, L M

    2018-03-23

    Approximately 25% of the world's population consists of young people. The experience of violence peaks during adolescence and the early adult years. A link between personal experience of violence and mental health among young people has been demonstrated but rural-urban differences in these associations are less well known in low to middle income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural and urban young women. Data on experiences of violence and psychological distress were collected from a total of 926 non-pregnant young women aged between 18 and 22 years of age in rural and urban sites in South Africa. The General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to assess psychological distress as an indicator of mental health. Generalised structural equation models were employed to assess potential pathways of association between interpersonal violence and psychological distress. Thirty-four percent of the urban young women (n = 161) reported psychological distress compared to 18% of rural young women (n = 81). In unadjusted analysis, exposure to interpersonal violence doubled the odds of psychological distress in the urban adolescents and increased the odds 1.6 times in the rural adolescents. In adjusted models, the relationship remained significant in the urban area only (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.00). Rural residence seemed protective against psychological distress (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Structural equation modelling did not reveal any direct association between exposure to interpersonal violence and psychological distress among rural young women. Stressful household events were indirectly associated with psychological distress, mediated by violence among young women in the urban area. The relationship between violence and psychological distress differs between urban and rural-residing young women in South Africa, and is influenced by individual, household and community

  20. Meeting The Information Needs Of The Rural Dwellers Through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meeting The Information Needs Of The Rural Dwellers Through Public Library Services. ... majority of the population who are rural dwellers. And suggested that, the public library should repackage its services in order to reach this group of users in the future. Key words: information need, rural dwellers, public library services ...

  1. Future economic outlook of Nebraska rural community pharmacies based on break-even analysis of community operational costs and county population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Shellie L; Jacobs, Elgene; Harrison, Donald; Farmer, Kevin; Thompson, David

    2010-09-01

    There is growing concern over increasingly limited access to local health care, including pharmacies, for rural citizens of the United States. Although geographically distant from most competitors, rural pharmacies may still struggle to generate an acceptable profit to remain economically viable. Therefore, a method for calculating the economic viability for a community pharmacy to recruit a potential new owner to assume the entrepreneurial risk is an important issue to consider when evaluating rural pharmacy access. The primary objective of this study was to use a modified break-even analysis to predict the future financial potential of the current pharmacy business to attract a new owner. The secondary objective was to forecast a risk level for a Nebraska county to sustain the number of pharmacies in the country beyond current ownership. This research used data provided by pharmacies that responded to a Nebraska Medicaid cost of dispensing (COD) survey in addition to data from the US Census Bureau, US Office of Management and Budget, and the Nebraska State Board of Pharmacy. Break-even analysis was used to determine the point where the prescription volume of the pharmacy not only covered the variable and fixed costs but also maintained a reasonable profit to attract new ownership. Counties were classified into 3 risk levels based on the projected available prescription volume and the number of pharmacies in each county. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the risk levels to determine the impact of variance in projected available prescription volume on the projected future outlook for the pharmacies in each county. Regression analysis of responses to the COD survey indicated that the annual break-even prescription volume ranged from 44,790 to 49,246 prescriptions per pharmacy per annum. The number of rural Nebraska pharmacies was projected to decline from 126 to 78. The number of counties in Nebraska without a single pharmacy was projected to increase from 19 to

  2. Future-oriented or present-focused? The role of social support and identity styles on ‘futuring’ in Italian late adolescents and emerging adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sica, Luigia Simona; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Ragozini, Giancarlo; Aleni Sestito, Laura; Serafini, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Late adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods in the life cycle when individuals are involved in anticipating and planning for the future (futuring). However, in the last five or six years, as the effects of the recession have made themselves felt in Southern Europe, the situation that young

  3. Rural parents, teenagers and alcohol: what are parents thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L; Ward, Bernadette; Munro, Geoffrey; Snow, Pamela; Ellis, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental role of alcohol in the lives of young Australians is mirrored in the level of drinking by adolescents. In 2001, more than one in four Australian adolescents aged 14-19 years consumed alcohol weekly. Teenagers in rural areas are more likely to consume alcohol than their metropolitan counterparts. Parents are key 'gatekeepers' of adolescent behaviour and as such are a salient group to consider in relation to adolescent alcohol use. The aim of this study was to explore parents' attitudes, beliefs, concerns and receptiveness to harm minimisation strategies with respect to teenage use of alcohol. A convenience sample of parents with adolescent children attended a series of focus groups across the north and north-western area of the State of Victoria, Australia. Schools were approached to advertise the project and invite parents to participate. Snowball sampling was used to enhance recruitment. Parents described patterns of alcohol use such as 'drinking to get drunk' and the influence of both parents and peers on the consumption of alcohol by adolescents. Few parents were concerned about the long-term risks of alcohol use by teenagers; rather they were more concerned about the short-term harms, for example, road trauma and other accidents and risky behaviours such as binge drinking. Parents indicated that they perceived alcohol to be less harmful than other drugs and many indicated that alcohol was often not perceived to be a drug. A number of strategies were adopted by parents to negotiate teenagers' drinking and to minimise the risks associated with alcohol use. These included transporting teenagers to parties, providing teenagers with a mobile phone, setting clear guidelines about alcohol use and/or providing teenagers with a small amount of alcohol. These were seen by parents as strategies for reducing the risks associated with alcohol consumption. Many parents reported that they do not feel well informed about alcohol use and how and when to use harm

  4. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  5. Youth alcohol and drug use in rural Ireland--parents' views.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire A

    2009-08-27

    INTRODUCTION: Drug availability is increasing throughout Ireland due to a convergence of rural and urban cultures during the last decade of economic growth and prosperity. Rural Irish youth may now have a heightened risk for problematic alcohol and drug use due to increased exposure to drugs, urban contact with peer drug users, unstructured recreation time and poor parental monitoring. Rural parents may perceive their children to be less at risk, and often struggle more than their urban counterparts to identify and respond to their children\\'s alcohol and drug use. The aim of this research was to provide an exploratory account of rural parents\\' perspectives on alcohol and illicit drug use among youth in Ireland. METHODS: A convenience sample of parents with adolescent children was selected at a parent-teacher evening at 3 rural schools, with the facilitation of school completion officers (34 mothers and 21 fathers, n = 55). Semi-structured interviews were conducted which included questions relating to the parents\\' perceptions of youth drug and alcohol use, both in terms of recreational and problematic use in their communities, levels of drug availability, risk perceptions, settings of adolescent substance use, service provision and drug information; and not necessarily with regard to their own children. Following transcription of the interviews, a content and thematic analysis was conducted in order to identify areas of similar and contrasting opinions, and various formulations were compared and contrasted in order to ground the information firmly in the data garnered. RESULTS: The results suggested parental concern with regard to increased rural drug exposure for youth in local rural communities. The majority of parents were aware of youth alcohol use but were concerned about all drugs, not aware of specific differences in drug-related risk, and had difficulty comprehending harm-reduction principles. Most parents recognised the need for greater parental

  6. Rural/Nonrural Differences in College Attendance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J; Meece, Judith L

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance patterns among rural students differed from those among their non-rural counterparts and which factors explained these rural/nonrural differences. Results showed that rural youth were less likely than their nonrural counterparts to attend a selective institution. In addition, rural youth were more likely to delay entry to postsecondary education, compared to their urban counterparts. Finally, rural students were less likely than their urban counterparts to be continuously enrolled in college. Much of these rural/nonrural disparities in college attendance patterns were explained by rural/nonrural differences in socioeconomic status and high school preparation. Policy implications, limitations of the study, and future research directions are also discussed.

  7. Effects of living environment on the postoperative Scoliosis Research Society-24 results in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Panek, Sławomir; Ignyś-O'Byrne, Anna; Głowacki, Jakub; Ignyś, Iwona; Krauss, Hanna; Piątek, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    There are many factors influencing postoperative health-related quality of life of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, including the degree of the deformity, culture, differences in geography, rural versus urban living environments, and social factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the significance of geographic factors and their differences influencing the postoperative quality of life in females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis residing in urban and rural environments, by use of the Polish version of the SRS-24 questionnaire. Forty urban and 20 rural postoperative patients with adolescent scoliosis with a minimum 2-year follow-up period after surgery were included in the study. The process of cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the IQOLA Project. General results of the Polish SRS-24 equalled 4.1 (SD 0.5) and 4.0 (SD.0.5) in the rural and urban groups of patients, respectively. The 2 groups do not differ in incidence of floor and ceiling effects. The Cronbach's alpha values are excellent for the general result of SRS-24 in urban and rural groups (0.85 and 0.85, respectively). The sub-groups differed significantly in the self-image after surgery domain (p=0.048). Patients from the rural group scored higher in the self-image after surgery domain but reported higher pain levels when compared to urban patients. The associations between SRS-24 results and radiographic parameters in the rural group of patients were strong, compared with moderate relations reported in the urban group.

  8. Leadership development for rural health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Size, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Leadership is the capacity to help transform a vision of the future into reality. Individuals who can and will exercise leadership are like a river's current--a part past where we now stand, a part yet to come. We have an ongoing need to remember and to look toward the next "generation." A key responsibility of those here now, is to mentor and to create structures for mentoring, in order to maximize the flow and effectiveness of tomorrow's leaders. When recruiting organizational leaders, the recruitment and interview process must seek individuals who in addition to technical competence, also have demonstrated leadership in their prior work and activities. To exercise effective leadership, we must work to know who we are, how we relate to others, and the environment around us. "Servant leadership" is a perspective held by many throughout the rural health community and offers a key set attributes of leadership useful to rural health. To implement the Institute of Medicine's recommendations in Through Collaboration: the Future of Rural Health, we must develop leaders skilled in collaboration, both internal to their organization and across organizations. The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services had it right when they said to the Secretary and to the rest of us, "the best way to honor Jim is to consciously work to help develop the next generation of rural health leaders." There are, of course, a multitude of leadership institutes, programs, and courses throughout America; this is not a call for yet another separate entity. But it is a call to each of us in rural health to assure that we are deliberate in how we identify "emerging leaders from and for rural communities and provide them with the training and resources to play a lead role in ensuring access to quality healthcare in their states and communities." Let's get started.

  9. The Pennsylvania Academy for the Profession of Teaching; Rural Fellowship Program: A Science Curriculum Development Partnership. Project "Prepare Them for the Future."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, Raymond W.

    This report describes development of the "Prepare Them for the Future" project, a K-3 activity-oriented science curriculum. The program, funded through two grants, was driven by the need to boost the distressed labor-based economy in rural western Pennsylvania. Data showed a drop of 1,100 coal-mining jobs between 1980 and 1986 in Indiana…

  10. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  11. [Sexual behavior and emergency contraception among adolescents from public schools in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Maria Suely Peixoto de; Costa, Laura Olinda Bregieiro Fernandes

    2009-03-01

    This study focused on knowledge and use of emergency contraception among 4,210 adolescents (14-19 years) enrolled in public schools in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Information was collected using the Global School-Based Student Health Survey, previously validated. Knowledge, frequency, and form of use of emergency contraception were investigated. Independent variables were classified as socio-demographic and those related to sexual behavior. Most adolescents reported knowing and having received information about the method, but among those who had already used it, only 22.1% had done so correctly. Adjusted regression analysis showed greater likelihood of knowledge about the method among girls (OR = 5.03; 95%CI: 1.72-14.69) and the sexually initiated (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.34-1.75), while rural residents were 68% less knowledgeable. Rural residents showed 1.68 times higher odds (CI95%: 1.09-2.25) of incorrect use, while girls showed 71% lower likelihood of incorrect use. Sexual and reproductive education is necessary, especially among male and rural adolescents.

  12. [Prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Guangdong province, 2002-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, G Y; Dun, Z J; Jiang, Q; Wen, J; Wang, P; Huang, R; Chen, Z H; Li, Z H; Ma, W J; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years between 2002 and 2012 in Guangdong province. Methods: A total of 7 075 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected in Guangdong for nutritional survey in 2002 and a total of 2 319 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected in nine counties/districts of Guangdong for nutritional survey during 2009-2012 through multi-stage random cluster sampling. The body height and weight of all the children and adolescents were measured. Results: The result of 2009-2012 survey indicated the average prevalence of overweight and obesity in the children and adolescents surveyed were 7.3% and 4.5 %, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher in boys (8.9% and 6.5%) than in girls (5.3% and 2.2%), in rural area (9.3% and 5.6%) than in urban area (4.7% and 3.2%). Children and adolescents aged 9-11 years had a higher overweight and obesity rates compared with other age groups. Compared with 2002, except for obesity rate in urban girls, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents obviously increased. The increase rate was higher in rural area than urban area and in boys than in girls. Conclusions: Compared with 2002, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Guangdong obviously increased. The prevalence was much higher in boys, those living in rural area and those aged 9-11 years, thus more attention should be paid to them.

  13. Academic Success of Adolescents in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar-Lever, Joaquina; Victorio-Estrada, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    This study identified significant predictors of important academic results such as academic performance and school desertion by adolescent students living in poverty in both urban and rural settings. The results indicate the relative importance of individual, family, educational and social variables reported by the young people, and the…

  14. The relationship between individualistic, collectivistic, and transitional cultural value orientations and adolescents' autonomy and identity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Beckert, Troy E; Goodrich, Thane R

    2010-08-01

    In an effort to validate the use of a Western model of adolescent development with Asian youth, 781 urban and rural Taiwanese high school students (56% female) completed questionnaires about their development. Adolescents were first divided into cultural value orientations (i.e. collectivistic, individualistic, or transitional) and compared geographically. There were statistically significant differences in cultural value orientations only for rural youth. Identity statuses and levels of cognitive autonomy were then compared according to cultural value orientations and gender. Adolescents who self-identified as collectivistic were significantly more likely to self-identify as achieved rather than diffused compared to transitional adolescents. Gender, more than cultural value identifications, significantly differentiated these youth in regard to issues of cognitive autonomy measured in this study (i.e. evaluative thinking, voicing opinions, making decisions, self-assessing, and comparative validation). Taken in whole, these findings support the use of a Western model of adolescent development for Taiwanese youth.

  15. 2014 Rural Clinical School Training and Support Program Snapshot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Kumara; Greenhill, Jennene; Walker, Judi; Bailey, Jannine; Croft, Amanda; Doyle, Zelda; McCrossin, Timothy; Stevens, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The Rural Clinical Training and Support (RCTS) program is an Australian Government initiative to address the shortage of medical practitioners within rural and remote Australia. There is a large amount of published information about the RCTS program and rural medical student cohorts who have undertaken short- and long-term rotations. However, very little is known about the academic and professional staff involved in the program, a knowledge gap that may impact workforce and succession planning. To address this, the Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) initiated the pilot 2014 RCTS Snapshot survey to obtain data on the current RCTS workforce. All professional, academic and clinical academic staff (fixed-term and continuing, regardless of fraction) employed through the RCTS program were invited to complete a short, web-based survey. The survey was conducted from March to June 2014. The quantitative variables in the survey included demographics (age and gender), rural background and exposure, employment history in rural/regional areas and at rural clinical schools (RCS), experience and expertise, reasons for working at RCS, and future employment intentions. The last three questions also were of a qualitative open-ended format to allow respondents to provide additional details regarding their reasons for working at RCSs and their future intentions. The estimated total RCTS workforce was 970. A total of 413 responses were received and 316 (40.9%) complete responses analysed. The majority of respondents were female (71%), the 40-60-year age group was predominant (28%), and professional staff constituted the majority (62%). The below 40-year age group had more professionals than academics (21% vs 12%) and more than 62% of academics were aged above 50 years. Notably, there were no academics aged less than 30 years. The percentage of professional staff with a rural background was higher (62%) than that of academics with a rural background (42%). However

  16. Political Socialization and Reactions to Immigration-Related Diversity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, James G.; Lay, J. Celeste

    2008-01-01

    We explore the roots of tolerance for immigration-related diversity from a political socialization perspective. Among rural adolescent respondents, we find that attitudes toward immigrants are surprisingly variable along a number of important dimensions: anticipated socioeconomic status, family longevity in the community, and employment in…

  17. Landowners' perspectives on the rural future and the role of forests across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Praestholm, S.

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary changes in rural Europe have been characterised by the contrasting terms of rural modernisation and productivism versus restructuring and post-productivism. This study investigates how different categories of owners of farm and/or forestland in 16 case study areas in eight European

  18. Parental Self-Efficacy to Support Teens During a Suicidal Crisis and Future Adolescent Emergency Department Visits and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; Yeguez, Carlos E; Ewell Foster, Cynthia J; King, Cheryl A

    2017-07-17

    This study of adolescents seeking emergency department (ED) services and their parents examined parents' self-efficacy beliefs to engage in suicide prevention activities, whether these beliefs varied based on teens' characteristics, and the extent to which they were associated with adolescents' suicide-related outcomes. Participants included 162 adolescents (57% female, 81.5% Caucasian), ages 13-17, and their parents. At index visit, parents rated their self-efficacy to engage in suicide prevention activities and their expectations regarding their teen's future suicide risk. Adolescents' ED visits for suicide-related concerns and suicide attempts were assessed 4 months later. Parents endorsed high self-efficacy to engage in most suicide prevention activities. At the same time, they endorsed considerable doubt in being able to keep their child safe if the teen has thoughts of suicide and in their child not attempting suicide in the future. Parents whose teens experienced follow-up suicide-related outcomes endorsed, at clinically meaningful effect sizes, lower self-efficacy for recognizing suicide warning signs, for obtaining the teen's commitment to refrain from suicide, and for encouraging their teen to cope, as well as lower confidence that their teen will not attempt suicide; self-efficacy to recognize warning signs was at trend level. Despite endorsing high self-efficacy for the majority of suicide prevention activities, parents of high-risk teens expressed less confidence in their capacity to influence their teen's suicidal behavior, which could undermine parents' effort to implement these strategies. The relationship between parental self-efficacy and youth suicide-related outcomes points to its potential value in guiding clinical decision making and interventions.

  19. Taiwanese adolescent cognitive autonomy and identity development: the relationship of situational and agential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Beckert, Troy E

    2012-01-01

    Taiwanese professionals have adopted information about adolescent psychosocial development from Western societies. However, scholars know little about whether they have properly applied the models to both rural and urban youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the development of cognitive autonomy and ego identity in Taiwanese adolescents from Taipei City and surrounding rural counties. We controlled for gender and examined both situational (residential location, family income, and school type) and agential factors (culture value affiliation, attachment, and resiliency) to determine the extent to which each predicted psychosocial developmental outcomes. Among all the factors in this study, resiliency had the most distinctive relationship with adolescent psychosocial development. Each factor successfully predicted specific aspects of psychosocial development for these youth. We conclude with a discussion of the utility of using Western models of development.

  20. Rural Marketing Strategies for Selling Products & Services: Issues & Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Dr. Ashfaque

    2013-01-01

    Rural markets offer a great scope for a concentrated marketing effort because of the recent increase in the rural incomes and the likelihood that such incomes will increase faster because of better production and higher prices for agricultural commodities. Rural Marketing is a developing concept, and as a part of any economy has untapped potential; marketers have realized the opportunity recently. Improvement in infrastructure and reach promise a bright future for those intending to go rural....

  1. Attitudes toward Tobacco, Alcohol, and Non-Alcoholic Beverage Advertisement Themes among Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Katherine L; Roberts, Megan E; Keller-Hamilton, Brittney; Yates, Katherine A; Paskett, Electra D; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2018-02-13

    Previous studies have examined what adolescents find appealing in tobacco and alcohol advertisements and how different themes in advertisements are used to manipulate consumer behaviors. Yet, we know little about the relationship between the themes portrayed in advertisements and youth attitudes towards those themes. This study compared attitudes towards advertisements for different consumer products in a sample of urban and rural adolescent boys in order to examine how key marketing themes impact adolescent attitudes towards those advertisements. Participants were 11- to 16-year-old boys (N = 1220) residing in either urban or rural Ohio Appalachian counties. Each participant viewed five print advertisements (one each for cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), smokeless tobacco (SLT), non-alcoholic beverages, and alcohol), presented in a random order, for eight seconds each. All advertisements had appeared in magazines that adolescent males commonly read. Attitudes towards each of the five advertisements were assessed. The advertisements were then coded for the presence of various themes, including social acceptance and masculinity. Analyses were conducted to determine associations between advertisement type and the attitude measure, and between the presence of a theme and the attitude measure. Overall, participants preferred non-tobacco advertisements to tobacco advertisements, rural participants had less positive attitudes and participants who had peers who used tobacco had more positive attitudes. Social acceptance and entertainment themes increased the appeal of SLT advertisements, and sex appeal increased the appeal of e-cigarette advertisements. Conclusions/Importance: Findings suggest that advertisements that promote the social nature of use in SLT advertisements may be of particular concern for their influence on adolescent boys.

  2. A meta-analysis and model of the relationship between sleep and depression in adolescents: recommendations for future research and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to quantify the strength of evidence for a directional relationship between sleep disturbance and depression in adolescents. A literature search was conducted to identify research investigating the relationship between sleep disturbance and depression in adolescent samples (12-20 y). Twenty-three studies were identified; 13 explored associations between depression and sleep disturbance; seven examined the prospective role of sleep disturbance in the development of depression; and three investigated the role of adolescent depression in the development of subsequent sleep disturbance. Average weighted mean differences in sleep/depression-related outcome variables were calculated between adolescents with depression, and non-clinical adolescents, or those in remission. Adolescents with depression experienced significantly more wakefulness in bed (sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, number of awakenings and sleep efficiency), lighter sleep (more stage 1), and reported more subjective sleep disturbance. Overall effect sizes from longitudinal and treatment studies suggest sleep disturbance acts as a precursor to the development of depression. At follow-up, depressed adolescents had significantly longer sleep onset, more wake after sleep onset, and lower sleep efficiency compared to adolescents who were non-clinical, or had undergone remission. Little support was found for a predictive role of depressive symptoms in the development of sleep disturbance. Based on these findings we propose a model to understand the development of depression from initial sleep disturbance, provide recommendations for clinicians and recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paternal Absence and International Migration: Stressors and Compensators Associated with the Mental Health of Mexican Teenagers of Rural Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Guzman, Rosa Maria; de Snyder, V. Nelly Salgado; Romero, Martha; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2004-01-01

    Mexico-U.S. migration creates situations that may cause psychological distress. The purpose of this research project was to study the impact of father's physical absence due to international migration (FPAIM) on adolescent offspring of rural immigrants from Zacatecas, Mexico. Stressors and compensators were studied from the adolescent's…

  4. MP3 Players and Hearing Loss: Adolescents' Perceptions of Loud Music and Hearing Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Hosli, E.J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' behaviors and opinions about exposure to loud music from MP3 players. Study design: We conducted a qualitative analysis of focus-group discussions with adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from 2 large secondary schools (1 urban and 1 rural) for pre-vocational and

  5. Rural health service managers' perspectives on preparing rural health services for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rachael; McGirr, Joe

    2018-02-01

    To determine health service managers' (HSMs) recommendations on strengthening the health service response to climate change. Self-administered survey in paper or electronic format. Rural south-west of New South Wales. Health service managers working in rural remote metropolitan areas 3-7. Proportion of respondents identifying preferred strategies for preparation of rural health services for climate change. There were 43 participants (53% response rate). Most respondents agreed that there is scepticism regarding climate change among health professionals (70%, n = 30) and community members (72%, n = 31). Over 90% thought that climate change would impact the health of rural populations in the future with regard to heat-related illnesses, mental health, skin cancer and water security. Health professionals and government were identified as having key leadership roles on climate change and health in rural communities. Over 90% of the respondents believed that staff and community in local health districts (LHDs) should be educated about the health impacts of climate change. Public health education facilitated by State or Federal Government was the preferred method of educating community members, and education facilitated by the LHD was the preferred method for educating health professionals. Health service managers hold important health leadership roles within rural communities and their health services. The study highlights the scepticism towards climate change among health professionals and community members in rural Australia. It identifies the important role of rural health services in education and advocacy on the health impacts of climate change and identifies recommended methods of public health education for community members and health professionals. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  6. Is News Media Related to Civic Engagement? The Effects of Interest in and Discussions about the News Media on Current and Future Civic Engagement of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erentaite, Rasa; Zukauskiene, Rita; Beyers, Wim; Pilkauskaite-Valickiene, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether discussions about the media, when positively linked to interest in the news media, were related to adolescents' current and future civic engagement. A sample of 2638 adolescents (age M = 17, SD = 1.2), who participated in a school-based study on positive socialization, completed self-report measures on interest in the…

  7. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  8. Being an 'adolescent': The consequences of gendered risks for young people in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernays, Sarah; Bukenya, Dominic; Thompson, Claire; Ssembajja, Fatuma; Seeley, Janet

    2018-02-01

    The behaviour of adolescents is recognised increasingly as having substantial and long-term consequences for their health. We examined the meaning of 'adolescence' in southern Uganda with HIV-positive young people aged 11-24 years. Adolescent girls and boys are described differently in the local language (Luganda). Adolescence is described as a behavioural rather than a life course category and an inherently dangerous one. The practices, risks and consequences of 'adolescent' behaviour are highly gendered. Local understandings of adolescence are likely to have a significant impact on the efficacy of interventions designed to minimise their 'risky behaviour'.

  9. Adolescent health in rural Ghana: A cross-sectional study on the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicke, Marie; Boakye-Appiah, Justice K.; Abdul-Jalil, Inusah; Henze, Andrea; van der Giet, Markus; Schulze, Matthias B.; Schweigert, Florian J.; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Bedu-Addo, George

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed. We measured ferritin, C-reactive protein, retinol, fasting glucose and blood pressure. Socio-demographic data were documented. We analyzed the proportions (95% confidence interval, CI) and the co-occurrence of infectious diseases (malaria, other common diseases), malnutrition (underweight, stunting, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency [VAD]), and CRFs (overweight, obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension). In logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs were calculated for the associations with socio-demographic factors. In this Ghanaian population (age range, 14.4–15.5 years; males, 50%), the proportions were for infectious diseases 45% (95% CI: 38–52%), for malnutrition 50% (43–57%) and for CRFs 16% (11–21%). Infectious diseases and malnutrition frequently co-existed (28%; 21–34%). Specifically, VAD increased the odds of non-malarial infectious diseases 3-fold (95% CI: 1.03, 10.19). Overlap of CRFs with infectious diseases (6%; 2–9%) or with malnutrition (7%; 3–11%) was also present. Male gender and low socio-economic status increased the odds of infectious diseases and malnutrition, respectively. Malarial infection, chronic malnutrition and VAD remain the predominant health problems among these Ghanaian adolescents. Investigating the relationships with evolving CRFs is warranted. PMID:28727775

  10. Rural-Urban Differences in Late-Stage Breast Cancer: Do Associations Differ by Rural-Urban Classification System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Sandi L; Eberth, Jan M; Morris, E Scott; Grinsfelder, David B; Cuate, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rural residence is associated with later stage of breast cancer diagnosis in some but not all prior studies. The lack of a standardized definition of rural residence may contribute to these mixed findings. We characterize and compare multiple definitions of rural vs. non-rural residence to provide guidance regarding choice of measures and to further elucidate rural disparities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods We used Texas Cancer Registry data of 120,738 female breast cancer patients ≥50 years old diagnosed between 1995–2009. We defined rural vs. non-rural residence using 7 different measures and examined their agreement using Kappa statistics. Measures were defined at various geographic levels: county, ZIP code, census tract, and census block group. Late-stage was defined as regional or distant disease. For each measure, we tested the association of rural residence and late-stage cancer with unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression. Covariates included: age; patient race/ethnicity; diagnosis year; census block group-level mammography capacity; and census tract-level percent poverty, percent Hispanic, and percent Black. Results We found moderate to high levels of agreement between measures of rural vs. non-rural residence. For 72.9% of all patients, all 7 definitions agreed as to rural vs. non-rural residence. Overall, 6 of 7 definitions demonstrated an adverse association between rural residence and late-stage disease in unadjusted and adjusted models (Adjusted OR Range = 1.09–1.14). Discussion Our results document a clear rural disadvantage in late-stage breast cancer. We contribute to the heterogeneous literature by comparing varied measures of rural residence. We recommend use of the census tract-level Rural Urban Commuting Area Codes in future cancer outcomes research where small area data are available. PMID:27158685

  11. Problem-solving skills, parent-adolescent communication, dyadic functioning, and distress among adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Adrienne; Taggi-Pinto, Alison; Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Alderfer, Melissa A; Devine, Katie A

    2018-05-01

    Some adolescents with cancer report distress and unmet needs. Guided by the disability-stress-coping model, we evaluated associations among problem-solving skills, parent-adolescent cancer-related communication, parent-adolescent dyadic functioning, and distress in adolescents with cancer. Thirty-nine adolescent-parent dyads completed measures of these constructs. Adolescents were 14-20 years old on treatment or within 1 year of completing treatment. Better problem-solving skills were correlated with lower adolescent distress (r = -0.70, P communication problems and dyadic functioning were not significantly related to adolescent distress (rs < 0.18). Future work should examine use of problem-solving interventions to decrease distress for adolescents with cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Exclusive Breast Feeding-Knowledge In Different Groups Of Women In Rural And Urban Areas Of Lucknow District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Naim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on S6 females was conducted in the rural and urban areas of Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh to assess the knowledge of females about exclusive breast-feeding. Knowledge from adolescent girls, married and lactating women was assessed by a pre­tested questionnaire for biosocial correlates (such as marital status,educational status, medium of education, working status, socio-economics status and family size, sources of information, time of initation of breast-feeding and the best method of feeding a baby <4 months of age. Only 9.8% in urban and 13.3% in rural areas had complete knowledge of Exclusive breast-feeding. Educated females had more knowledge in both urban and rural areas of initiating breast-feeding within 1 hr of delivery as compared to un-educated females. The study highlights the needs for continuing medical education and for including knowledge about Exclusive breast-feeding in school curriculum of adolescent girls.

  13. Rural Origin and Exposure Drives Ghanaian Midwives Reported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the relationship between Ghanaian student midwife place of origin and rural training on their willingness to choose a future rural practice location. A cross-sectional computer-based survey was completed by 238 final year Ghanaian midwifery students from two public midwifery ...

  14. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  15. Living Arrangements and Health-Related Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescents Who Migrate from Rural to Urban Schools: Mediating Effect of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Wu, Shan; Wu, Haibo; Xia, Qiming; Li, Ningxiu

    2017-10-19

    Changes in living arrangements (from living with, or not living with family) may affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study aimed to investigate the impact of living arrangement on HRQoL among adolescents migrating from rural to urban schools, and whether social support, in addition to living with a family, had an impact. A cross-sectional survey of 459 school adolescents was carried out in two public schools in Guyuan County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China in 2015. The survey contained the following questionnaires: a self-designed questionnaire, the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). Of the 459 adolescents sampled (aged 15.41 ± 1.07 years with range of 13 to 18), 61.7% were living with family, and 38.3% were not living with family. Those students not living with families had lower Mental Component Scale (MCS) scores as well as less social support overall. Those students, who were not living with families, also reported more chronic health problems and more alcohol consumption compared to those students living with families. Social support was a statistically significant mediating factor on the effect of living arrangements on MCS. Our findings demonstrated that those students, who were not living with families, tended to have more health-related quality of life issues, but social support partially mediated the relationship between living arrangements and health.

  16. Living Arrangements and Health-Related Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescents Who Migrate from Rural to Urban Schools: Mediating Effect of Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in living arrangements (from living with, or not living with family may affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL. This study aimed to investigate the impact of living arrangement on HRQoL among adolescents migrating from rural to urban schools, and whether social support, in addition to living with a family, had an impact. A cross-sectional survey of 459 school adolescents was carried out in two public schools in Guyuan County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China in 2015. The survey contained the following questionnaires: a self-designed questionnaire, the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12, and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS. Of the 459 adolescents sampled (aged 15.41 ± 1.07 years with range of 13 to 18, 61.7% were living with family, and 38.3% were not living with family. Those students not living with families had lower Mental Component Scale (MCS scores as well as less social support overall. Those students, who were not living with families, also reported more chronic health problems and more alcohol consumption compared to those students living with families. Social support was a statistically significant mediating factor on the effect of living arrangements on MCS. Our findings demonstrated that those students, who were not living with families, tended to have more health-related quality of life issues, but social support partially mediated the relationship between living arrangements and health.

  17. Condom Use Self-Efficacy Among Younger Rural Adolescents: The Influence of Parent-Teen Communication, and Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Condoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly; Peasant, Courtney; Albritton, Tashuna; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of condom use knowledge and attitudes, and parent-teen communication about sex and relationship quality on reports of condom use self-efficacy among rural, African American youth. Participants were 465 North Carolinian youth (10–14 years). Results indicated that greater condom use self-efficacy was predicted by greater knowledge of condom use (β = .206; p parent-teen communication about sex (β = .13; p parent-teen communication about sex and dating (β = .14; p parents and youth on measures related to parent-teen communication about sex. Findings call for interventions targeting improvement of condom use knowledge among early adolescents, as well as parent-teen communication about sex. In addition, given the low parent-teen agreement regarding sexual communication, parent-teen sexual communication is an important point of intervention. PMID:28461714

  18. Parenting Behavior, Adolescent Depression, Alcohol Use, Tobacco Use, and Academic Performance: A Path Model

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Mary Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of role parenting behaviors and adolescent depression in adolescent outcomes. Parenting behaviors considered were authoritative parenting, parental monitoring, and parental care. Adolescent outcomes considered were depression, alcohol use, tobacco use, and grades. A path model was employed to examine these variables together. A sample of (n=3,174) of 9th -12th grade high school students from seven contiguous counties in rural Virginia were examined on ...

  19. Way of life as emphasizing factors in the progression of idiophatic scoliosis in adolescence era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muminagic, Sahib; Bisanovic, Senaida; Mehic, Sanra; Sivic, Suad

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a significant health problem which occurs in 2%-4% school kids in adolescent age. Reasons of occurrence are not quite clear, there are many theories, but probably it is multifactor disease. Among the theories that are mentioned some of them included environmental and behavioral factors. Research the impact of some environmental and behavioral factor on development and progression of idiopathic scoliosis in school kids. Research was conducted on 421 pupil in adolescent age, where 120 pupils was from urban schools and 301 pupil from rural schools. Environmental factors and habits like the bigger osteomuscular structure mobility at kids from rural schools, longer outdoor time spending, different nutrition, alcoholism and smoking, different obligations, etc. factors which can be cause of scoliosis development. In this research we assumed that different environmental and behavioral factors of school kids, which exist in rural and urban areas, can develop to different expression of scoliosis in these areas. In our research we proved that the scoliosis occurrence is more often in urban areas than in rural (Fisher's exact test P<0.001). It is necessary to research all factors of lifestyle individually, which are different between the urban and rural kids.

  20. Welfare service in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.Assessment......Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.......Assessment of development potential for individual localities using a place-based approach is in line with EU policies for rural development thereby setting a competitive framework for local development. This paper addresses place bound approaches in relation to service adjustment and discusses how local resources...... and place bound potentials are identified and how they are addressed in plans for future development. The paper draws on a study on service adjustments in rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are decided, how they are managed by rural communities...

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents aged 10-18 years in Jammu, J and K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adolescents attending school in the Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between November 2009 and December 2010, among a total of 1160 school-going adolescents of both sexes aged 10-18 years. Relevant metabolic and anthropometric variables were analyzed and criteria suggested by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Third (NCEP-ATP III modified for age was used to define metabolic syndrome. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6%. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in males (3.84% than in females (1.6% and slightly higher in urban area (2.80% than in rural area (2.52%, whereas prevalence of metabolic syndrome among centrally obese subjects was as high as 33.33%. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most common and high blood pressure was the least common constituent of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in 16-18 years age group (4.79%. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that metabolic syndrome phenotype exists in substantial number (up to 3% of adolescent population in the Jammu region, India, and particularly 33% of obese adolescents are at risk to develop metabolic syndrome. These findings pose a serious threat to the current and future health of these young people.

  2. Educational Activities for Rural and Urban Students to Prevent Skin Cancer in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasques, Kelle; Michels, Luana Roberta; Colome, Leticia Marques; Haas, Sandra Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to the sun during childhood is strongly associated with the development of skin cancer in the future. The only way to prevent the development of skin cancer is to protect against ultraviolet radiation, which can be achieved through strategic awareness during childhood and adolescence. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of educational activities for rural and urban students to promote the use of sunscreens and prevent skin cancer. This study was carried out with students (9-12 years) of rural (n=70) and urban (n=70) schools in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The educational interventions were lectures and games. The impact of this strategy was evaluated through the application of a questionnaire before and after the interventions. Before the intervention, it was found around 50% of rural and urban students were not aware of the damage caused by sun exposure, often exposing themselves to UV radiation without use sunscreen ( ~ 25 %) and at the most critical times of the day/year. After the lectures we observed an improvement in the behavior of the students with regard to sun exposure and knowledge about skin cancer. The results of this study emphasize the importance of prevention strategies for skin cancer and promoting the use of sunscreens based educational strategies. The interventions were of great value in relation to disseminating knowledge on the subject.

  3. "You still need to give her a token of appreciation": the meaning of the exchange of money in the sexual relationships of out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This article challenges the pervasive assumption that exchanging gifts and money in adolescent sexual relationships is transactional. Data were derived from a multi-method, qualitative sexual health needs assessment of 31 out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda. Grounded theory analysis allows contextual meanings of exchange to emerge. Adolescents have developed gendered courting and exchange models that parallel marital relationships in this cultural context. Whereas exchange is considered transactional and immoral in some types of relationships, in adolescent relationships, it is not. Young women are not ashamed of, or stigmatized by, the exchange; they are proud of it. The exchange signifies several things: self-respect and a partner's willingness to wait for the relationships to become sexual and, therefore, that they are valued and respected by their partners. This demonstrates commitment from a partner, whose role is as a provider. To expect no gift or to have sex for pleasure are the hallmarks of the worst kind of woman-a malaya. "Need" is the only acceptable rationale for extramartial sex for any woman in this sexual value system. Interventions promoting longer courting and sustained support for one partner would encourage a delay in debut for young women and encourage greater monogamy in young men.

  4. Parent-adolescent relationships and its association to adolescents' self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Mohd Jamil Bin

    2006-01-01

    Psychoanalysts believed that early mother-child relationships form the prototype of all future relationships and the outcome of adolescents development depends on their ego-strength. Object relations theory believed that intrapsychic process mediates interpersonal interaction to develop a sense of secure self and adolescents must relinquish the internalized other in order to develop a more mature sense of self. Social-relation theory believed that mothers and fathers provide different socialization experiences. Self-esteem depends on the functioning of the whole family in which adolescent is intimately related to the dyadic relationship in a family. There is an association between interparental conflict and adolescent's self-esteem and problem behaviour.

  5. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  6. The influence of rural clinical school experiences on medical students' levels of interest in rural careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Vivian; Watts, Lisa; Forster, Lesley; McLachlan, Craig S

    2014-08-28

    Australian Rural Clinical School (RCS) programmes have been designed to create experiences that positively influence graduates to choose rural medical careers. Rural career intent is a categorical evaluation measure and has been used to assess the Australian RCS model. Predictors for rural medical career intent have been associated with extrinsic values such as students with a rural background. Intrinsic values such as personal interest have not been assessed with respect to rural career intent. In psychology, a predictor of the motivation or emotion for a specific career or career location is the level of interest. Our primary aims are to model over one year of Australian RCS training, change in self-reported interest for future rural career intent. Secondary aims are to model student factors associated with rural career intent while attending an RCS. The study participants were medical students enrolled in a RCS in the year 2013 at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) and who completed the newly developed self-administered UNSW Undergraduate Destinations Study (UDS) questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline and after one year of RCS training on preferred location for internship, work and intended specialty. Interest for graduate practice location (career intent) was assessed on a five-variable Likert scale at both baseline and at follow-up. A total of 165 students completed the UDS at baseline and 150 students after 1 year of follow-up. Factors associated with intent to practise in a rural location were rural background (χ2 = 28.4, P influence practice intent (toward rural practice) and interest levels (toward greater interest in rural practice).

  7. The Relationship between Individualistic, Collectivistic, and Transitional Cultural Value Orientations and Adolescents' Autonomy and Identity Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Beckert, Troy E.; Goodrich, Thane R.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to validate the use of a Western model of adolescent development with Asian youth, 781 urban and rural Taiwanese high school students (56% female) completed questionnaires about their development. Adolescents were first divided into cultural value orientations (i.e. collectivistic, individualistic, or transitional) and compared…

  8. Paths to Work in Rural Places: Key Findings and Lessons from the Impact Evaluation of the Future Steps Rural Welfare-to-Work Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckstroth, Alicia; Burwick, Andrew; Ponza, Michael; Marsh, Shawn; Novak, Tim; Phillips, Shannon; Diaz-Tena, Nuria; Ng, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Helping low-income families in rural areas find gainful employment and achieve economic self-sufficiency is an ongoing policy concern. The Rural Welfare-to-Work Strategies demonstration is using rigorous experimental designs to build knowledge about how to help low-income families in rural areas strive toward sustained employment and…

  9. Urban-rural inequities in the parental attitudes and beliefs towards Human papillomavirus infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine in Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, Abraham; Krupp, Karl; Fennie, Kristopher; Li, Tan; Stephens, Dionne P; Marlow, Laura A V; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2018-03-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the parental attitudes and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine between urban and rural areas, India. Cross sectional SETTING: Mysore, India PARTICIPANTS: Parents of school going adolescent girls INTERVENTION: Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: : Attitudes and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine RESULTS: A total of 1609 parents from urban (n=778) and rural (n=831) areas participated in this study. Majority of the parents had never heard about HPV (73.6%), did not know that their daughters could get an HPV infection (62.7%) or cervical cancer (64.1%) in the future, and believed that HPV vaccine was not effective (67.1%). Parents living in the urban area were more likely to believe that HPV infection (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 2.69; 95%CI:1.43, 5.06) and cervical cancer (aOR 2.68; 95%CI:1.83, 3.91) could cause serious health problems than those living in the rural area. The odds of agreeing that HPV vaccination will make girls sexually active was lower among urban than rural parents (aOR 0.55; 95%CI:0.33, 0.94). There was no significant difference among parents in the urban and rural areas in their beliefs about susceptibility of their daughter to HPV infection or cervical cancer, and beliefs about the safety and ability of HPV vaccine to protect cervical cancer. Rural parents might be reluctant to recommend behaviors that can help prevent HPV infection and cervical cancer such as HPV vaccination for their daughters. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Geographic and socioeconomic variations in adolescent toothbrushing: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, K A; Nicholls, N; Macdonald, S; Dundas, R; Douglas, G V A

    2015-03-01

    This study examined urban-rural and socioeconomic differences in adolescent toothbrushing. The data were modelled using logistic multilevel modelling and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method of estimation. Twice-a-day toothbrushing was regressed upon age, family affluence, family structure, school type, area-level deprivation and rurality, for boys and girls separately. Boys' toothbrushing was associated with area-level deprivation but not rurality. Variance at the school level remained significant in the final model for boys' toothbrushing. The association between toothbrushing and area-level deprivation was particularly strong for girls, after adjustment for individuals' family affluence and type of school attended. Rurality too was independently significant with lower odds of brushing teeth in accessible rural areas. The findings are at odds with the results of a previous study which showed lower caries prevalence among children living in rural Scotland. A further study concluded that adolescents have a better diet in rural Scotland. In total, these studies highlight the need for an examination into the relative importance of diet and oral health on caries, as increases are observed in population obesity and consumption of sugars. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Prevalence of Ocular Morbidity Among School Adolescents of Gandhinagar District, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prajapati,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of ocular morbidity (abnormal condition and various factors affecting it among school attending adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to study abnormal ocular conditions like refractive errors, vitamin A deficiency, conjunctivitis, trachoma, ocular trauma, blephritis, stye, color blindness and pterygium among school adolescents of 10-19 years age in rural and urban areas of Gandhinagar district from January to July, 2009. Systematic sampling was done to select 20 schools having 6th to 12th standard education including 12 schools from rural and 8 from urban areas. Six adolescents from each age year (10-19 were selected randomly to achieve sample size of 60 from each school. In total, 1206 adolescents including 691 boys and 515 girls were selected. Information was collected from selected adolescents by using proforma. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen’s chart and all participants underwent an ophthalmic examination carried out by a trained doctor. Results: Prevalence of ocular morbidity among school adolescents was reported 13% (7.8% in boys, 5.6% in girls; with 5.2% have moderate visual impairment. Refractive error was most common ocular morbidity (40% both among boys and girls. Almost 30% of boys and girls reported vitamin A deficiency in various forms of xerophthalmia. Prevalence of night blindness was 0.91% and of Bitot`s spot 1.74%. Various factors like, illiterate or lower parents’ education, lower socio-economic class and malnutrition were significantly associated with ocular morbidity. Conclusion: Ocular morbidity in adolescents is mainly due to refractive error, moderate visual impairment and xerophthalmia.

  12. Adolescents' Perceptions of Marriage and Premarital Couples Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Benjamin; Schumm, Walter R.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents in rural and small city high schools in the western United States (N = 159) reported their perceptions of marriage and marriage education. They considered preparation for marriage important, but expressed lower familiarity with and lower intentions to attend programs than college students assessed previously. Youth valued parents,…

  13. Clinical Perspective Qualitative adolescent health research — focus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces nine steps that are recommended in conducting focus group discussions in rural communities and gives an example of how they can appropriately and fruitfully be employed in adolescent health behavioural research. The paper also reviewed issues related to methods of data collection, data analysis, ...

  14. Health and School Performance among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    adult educational achievement. Data are taken from a birth cohort study of all adolescents born in 1989 (n=3,058) living in a rural county in Denmark. Information was obtained from questionnaires (sent to the adolescents and their parents) and from different national registers (e.g. hospitalization......This study examines the impact of a wide range of health measures on school performance at the end of compulsory school (9 years of school). The key questions raised are whether different health problems lowers school performance contributing to a health selection process that could lead to lower...... health and school performance....

  15. A study of emotional intelligence and perceived parenting styles among adolescents in a rural area in Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Neethu; Shanbhag, Deepthi N; George, Meera; Shaju, Ann Christy; Johnson, Reuben C; Mathew, P Thomas; Golapalli, Chaitanya Prasad; Goud, Ramakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the time which is crucial for the overall development of a person both mentally and physically. In this period, along with academic intelligence, emotional intelligence (EI) also plays an equal or strong role in student life. This study was to assess EI, parental bonding, and their association among adolescents in high schools under Sarjapur PHC area. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among high school students under Sarjapur PHC area. The EI was assessed using EI scale which measured self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The parental bonding instrument was utilized to determine the parental styles of both the parents and was interpreted in terms of care and protection as neglectful parenting, affectionless control, optimal parenting, and affectionate control. A total of 300 adolescents were interviewed. It was seen that most of them had low EI in self-awareness, i.e., 92 (30.7%), motivation 99 (33%), and social skills 101 (33.7%). It was also observed that most of them had high EI in self-regulation, i.e., 98 (32.7%) and moderately high EI in empathy 117 (39%). The study group perceived that 147 (49%) of the fathers and 109 (36.3%) of the mothers had affectionless control. Along with poor parenting, most of the respondents also have low EI in self-awareness, motivation, and social skills which has to be addressed for the future of the country.

  16. A study of emotional intelligence and perceived parenting styles among adolescents in a rural area in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence is the time which is crucial for the overall development of a person both mentally and physically. In this period, along with academic intelligence, emotional intelligence (EI also plays an equal or strong role in student life. Aims: This study was to assess EI, parental bonding, and their association among adolescents in high schools under Sarjapur PHC area. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among high school students under Sarjapur PHC area. The EI was assessed using EI scale which measured self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. The parental bonding instrument was utilized to determine the parental styles of both the parents and was interpreted in terms of care and protection as neglectful parenting, affectionless control, optimal parenting, and affectionate control. Results: A total of 300 adolescents were interviewed. It was seen that most of them had low EI in self-awareness, i.e., 92 (30.7%, motivation 99 (33%, and social skills 101 (33.7%. It was also observed that most of them had high EI in self-regulation, i.e., 98 (32.7% and moderately high EI in empathy 117 (39%. The study group perceived that 147 (49% of the fathers and 109 (36.3% of the mothers had affectionless control. Conclusion: Along with poor parenting, most of the respondents also have low EI in self-awareness, motivation, and social skills which has to be addressed for the future of the country.

  17. TOURIST MOTIVATION FOR RURAL DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZATU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available City daily overexertion impels tourists wish to travel. Rural tourism behavior is determined by a set of motivational factors that makes him appreciate favorable tourist destinations. In order to analyze and assess the opinions and attitudes of tourists in rural areas we realized a market survey, the results being presented in the article below. Future trends, the growth rate of market depend largely on the wishes and intentions of goods or services consumers. This study involves the engagement of a number of 658 respondents, which were interviewed to determine the basic motivations in choosing countryside. The working methods used were analysis, synthesis and questionnaire survey as a research method. Results refer to the following: about 59 percent, spend up to 10% of annual income for vacations and travel, for rural tourism this amount is much lower; the association of the term „rural tourism” in the local tourist mind, oscillates among „a villa” in rural areas or „active vacation” (biking, hiking, riding, swimming or hunting; customer loyalty is one of the goals of marketing activities undertaken in hostels or other travel service providers. In conclusion, we mention that the variety of motivational factors in choosing tourist destinations in rural areas drive this type of tourism.

  18. A study on consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceived body image is an important potential predictor of nutritional status. Body image misconception during adolescence is unexplored field in Indian girls. Objectives: To study the consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image. Materials and Methods: This multistage observational study was conducted on 586 adolescent girls of age 10-19 years in Lucknow district (151 from rural, 150 from slum, and 286 from urban area of Uttar Pradesh, India. Information on desired and actual body size was collected with the help of predesigned questionnaire. Results: 20.5% of studied girls show aspiration to become thin, who already perceived their body image as too thin. 73.4% adolescent girls were satisfied with their body image, while 26.6% were dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction was higher among girls of urban (30.2% and slum (40.0% areas in comparison to rural (22.5% area. Percentage of satisfied girls was less in the 13-15 years (69.9% age groups in comparison to 10-12 years (76.5% and 16-19 years (76.4%. Among girls satisfied with their body image, 32.8% girls were found underweight, and 38.4% were stunted. Underweight girls (42.1% and stunted girls (64.9% were higher in number within satisfied girls of slum area. Among all of these adolescent girls, 32.8% of girls had overestimated their weight, while only 4.9% of girls had underestimated their weight. Conclusions: This study concludes that desire to become thin is higher in adolescent girls, even in those who already perceived their body image as too thin.

  19. Indonesian medical students' preferences associated with the intention toward rural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahmar, Ikrar; Putera, Ikhwanuliman; Istatik, Yun; Furqon, Muhammad A; Findyartini, Ardi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the preference of Indonesian medical students to work in rural areas, to enroll in the (PTT; which means 'temporary employment') program, and to identify factors that influence their choice of a preferred future practice area. Under the PTT program, doctors are obliged to work as temporary staff on a contract basis for a certain period in a rural area of Indonesia. The study design was cross-sectional and a total sampling method was used. The subjects were year 4 and 5 medical students from the Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Indonesia and had already been exposed to clinical practice rotations within their education program. Students rated the importance of 21 factors influencing their future workplace preference using a questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale. A total of 310 students (83.3%) responded to the questionnaire. The authors found that 27 out of 310 (8.71%) subjects wanted to work in rural areas, while 128 out of 264 (48.5%) students who chose other than rural areas wanted to enroll in the PTT program. A previous experience of living in rural areas seemed to be the only factor favouring students' choice to have future practice in rural areas (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-8.08, =0.01). Factors that influenced respondents to say they didn't intend to practice rurally were the influence of spouse (adjusted OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.16-0.89, =0.03), and the opportunities for career advancement (adjusted OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.11-0.73, =0.009). The choice of enrollment in the PTT program was positively associated with opportunity for an academic career (adjusted OR 2.39, 95%CI 1.27-4.50, =0.007) and negatively associated with proximity to family/friends (adjusted OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.22-0.65, 0.001). Only 8.7% of the students were interested in rural areas for their future practice location. Multiple factors were associated with students' interest to choose a career in rural areas later, after

  20. Nursing competence in adolescent health: anticipating the future needs of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearinger, L H; Wildey, L; Gephart, J; Blum, R W

    1992-01-01

    The health problems of youth have dramatically shifted in the last 30 years from biological to social causes of morbidity and mortality. To assess the adequacy of nurses' knowledge and skills in adolescent health, a national survey of 445 nurses, including members of the American Public Health Association, the American School Health Association, and the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, was undertaken in 1985. Results indicated that even among nurses who work with young people the most, areas of greatest knowledge and skill deficiencies included common social morbidities of adolescents. In addition to self-assessed inadequacies in knowledge and skills, nurses identified excessive time demands as a primary obstacle to the provision of health services to adolescents. To assure adequate preparation of nurses, it is recommended that accreditation criteria for baccalaureate and graduate programs specify essential adolescent health content for curricula compared to current accreditation criteria that generalizes "across the life span." Focusing on the enhancement of educational opportunities in adolescent health, nurses identified strategies for further education that would bridge the gap between the health needs of youth and nurse's self-perceived competencies in providing these services.

  1. Longitudinal spillover effects of conflict resolution styles between adolescent-parent relationships and adolescent friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Vandervalk, Inge E; De Goede, Irene H A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-02-01

    This study longitudinally investigated spillover effects of conflict resolution styles in adolescent-parent relationships and adolescent friendships. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles with parents and best friends were completed by adolescents from two age cohorts: 559 early adolescents (mean age 13.4) and 327 middle adolescents (mean age 17.7). Path analyses on two waves, with a three-year interval, indicated that in the early-to-middle adolescent group positive problem solving and conflict engagement spilled over from adolescent-parent relationships to adolescent friendships and not from adolescent friendships to adolescent-parent relationships. In the middle-to-late adolescent group, we found bidirectional spillover effects for these two conflict resolution styles. For withdrawal, we found bidirectional spillover effects in both cohorts. This study showed that both parents and friends set the stage for exercising and learning conflict resolution styles and thereby shape adolescents' future conflict behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. TOURISM RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT: OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The European territory is characterized by a strong presence of rural areas. Approximately 52% of the European territory is classified as predominantly rural. In this context, Rural Tourism is one of the key opportunities in terms of potential growth for rural areas, in the wider context of the Sustainable Management and Promotion of Territory activities (Fagioli et al, 2014. In the last two decades, in many European Union member countries, rural tourism is considered as a strategy for the future, which can contribute to economic and social development of local communities, of less favored regions alike, in order to create jobs and reduce migration. At the same time, rural tourism has the advantage that it acts for the purpose of opening new investment prospects. Thus, it must be regarded as an economic activity that contributes to regional development and, consequently, to the overall economic growth

  3. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoyang; Li, Shuting; Hu, Mingming; Dong, Dan; Tao, Sha

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred), psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development), and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14-20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive) and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  4. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyang Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred, psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development, and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14–20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  5. Utilization of maternal health services among adolescent women in Bangladesh: A scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, A S M; Delvaux, Thérèse; Abouchadi, Saloua; Sarker, Malabika; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    To understand the health-seeking behaviour of adolescent women in Bangladesh with respect to the use of maternal health services. Literature review of seven electronic databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, POPLINE and Global Health. Studies published in English between 1990 and 2013 which describe Bangladeshi adolescent women's healthcare-seeking behaviour during pregnancy, delivery and post-partum were included. Twelve studies were included in this review. 11 used quantitative methods and one used a mixed-methods approach. All studies included married adolescent women only. Women with lower educational levels are less likely to seek skilled maternal health services than those with higher levels of education. Use of maternal health services is also less common among rural married adolescent women than women in urban areas. Being part of the richest bands of wealth, having had previous experiences of childbirth and higher women's autonomy positively influence the use of skilled maternal health services among married adolescent women in Bangladesh. Antenatal care is a key predictor of the use of skilled birth attendants for delivery and post-natal care. Maternal health-related programmes should be designed targeting rural and uneducated married adolescent women in Bangladesh. More qualitative investigations are required to broaden our understanding on maternal health-seeking behaviour of both married and unmarried adolescent women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The nonfarm sector and rural development: review of issues and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nurul

    1997-01-01

    In most developing countries, the rural labor force is growing rapidly, but rural employment opportunities are dwindling. This paper brings together empirical evidence on the nonfarm sector and analyzes policies for its future development. It examines the linkages between the farm and nonfarm sectors and between the nonfarm sector and urban enterprises, and considers ways the government can promote rural employment.

  7. Positive future orientation as a mediator between traumatic events and mental health among children affected by HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Liying

    2009-12-01

    The current study was designed to explore the effect of future orientation in mediating the relationship between traumatic events and mental health in children affected by HIV/AIDS in rural China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1221 children affected by HIV/AIDS (755 AIDS orphans and 466 vulnerable children). Future orientation among children was measured using three indicators (future expectation, hopefulness toward the future, and perceived control over the future). Measures of mental health consisted of depression, loneliness, and self-esteem. Children's experience of any traumatic events was measured using a modified version of the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events-Student Form. Mediation analysis was conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM) methods. Among the children surveyed, most of the traumatic indicators were negatively associated with future expectation, hopefulness, perceived control, and self-esteem, and positively associated with depression and loneliness. The SEM of mediation analysis demonstrated an adequate fit. Future orientation fully mediated the relationship between traumatic events and mental health and accounted for 67.9% of the total effect of traumatic events on mental health. Results of this study support the positive effect of future expectation in mediating the relationship between traumatic events and mental health among children affected by HIV/AIDS in China. Future mental health promotion and intervention efforts targeting children affected by HIV/AIDS should include components that can mitigate the negative impact of traumatic events on their lives. These components may aim to develop children's positive future expectations, increase their hopefulness toward the future, and improve their perceived control over the future.

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile-Revised 2 for Middle Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoloveno, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this methodological study were to factor analyze the Adolescent Lifestyle Profile-Revised 2 (ALP-R2) and to assess construct validity of the instrument with a sample of middle adolescents. A sample of 311 urban middle adolescents responded to the ALP-R2, to the Adolescent General Well-Being Questionnaire, and to the Anticipation of a Personal Future subscale on the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Data obtained on the ALP-R2 were subjected to principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation. A 5-factor solution was accepted. Construct validity was provided by statistically significant positive correlations between the ALP-R2 and two theoretically relevant variables. Based on the results of this study, the ALP-R2 is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing health-promoting lifestyle in adolescents.

  9. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  10. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Maly

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  11. Current Use of E-Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes Among US High School Students in Urban and Rural Locations: 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T; Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Rayens, Emily A; Howard, Tiffany; Hahn, Ellen J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use is higher in rural than in urban areas. While e-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among this age group, differences in prevalence between rural versus urban populations for this relatively novel product have not been explored. The purpose is to investigate whether location of school (rural-urban) is associated with e-cigarette use and dual use (defined as the use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes) among high school students. Cross-sectional survey obtained using a stratified, 3-stage cluster sample design. United States. A nationally representative sample of US high school students (N = 11 053) who completed the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS); slightly more than half were urban (54%). The NYTS measures tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and use behavior and demographics of students in the United States. Weighted logistic regression assessed the relationships of urban-rural location with current e-cigarette use and dual use, adjusting for demographic factors, perceived risk, and social norms. There were clear differences in patterns of adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette use in rural versus urban areas. Social norms and perceptions may play a role in understanding these differences. Urban youth current cigarette smokers were nearly twice as likely as rural cigarette smokers to also use e-cigarettes. Reasons for urban-rural differences need to be taken into account when designing prevention programs and policy changes.

  12. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  13. Harsh Parenting, Deviant Peers, Adolescent Risky Behavior: Understanding the Meditational Effect of Attitudes and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Dhalewadikar, Jui; Lohman, Brenda J

    2016-09-01

    Although research supports the influence of parents and peers on adolescent risky behavior, less is known about mechanisms proposed to explain this relation. This study examined the influence of adolescent attitudes and intentions about such behaviors. Prospective, longitudinal data came from rural youth who participated throughout adolescence (n= 451). Observed harsh parenting and relationship with deviant peers was assessed in early adolescence, attitudes and intentions were measured during middle adolescence, and risky behavior was assessed in late adolescence. Results indicated that parenting and deviant peers was related to engagement in tobacco use, alcohol use, and risky sexual behaviors. Moreover, attitudes and intentions mediated this relationship even after parent use and adolescent early involvement in these behaviors were taken into account.

  14. Validity of Medical Student Questionnaire Data in Prediction of Rural Practice Choice and Its Association With Service Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, C Ken; Jackson, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    The validity of medical student projection of, and predictors for, rural practice and the association of a measure of service orientation, projected practice accessibility to the indigent, were investigated. West Virginia (WV) medical student online pre- and postrural rotation questionnaire data were collected during the time period 2001-2009. Of the 1,517 respondent students, submissions by 1,271 met the time interval criterion for inclusion in analyses. Subsequent WV licensing data were available for 461 in 2013. These 2 databases were used to assess for validity of projection of rural practice, for predictors of rural practice, and for student projected accessibility of the future practice to indigent patients. There were statistically significant associations between both pre- and postrotation projections of rural practice and subsequent rural practice. The most significant independent predictors of rural practice were student rural background, reported primary care intent, prediction of rural practice and projection of greater accessibility of the future practice to indigent patients. For scoring of practice access, there were trends for higher scoring by rural students and rural practitioners, with greater pre-post increases for those with urban hometowns. This study demonstrates the utility of medical student questionnaires for projections of numbers of future rural physicians. It suggests that students with a rural background, rural practice intent, or greater service orientation are more likely to enter rural practice. It also suggests that students, particularly those with urban hometowns, are influenced by rural rotation experiences in forecasting greater practice accessibility and in entering rural practice. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  15. Mortality trends from 2003 to 2009 among adolescents and young adults in rural Western Kenya using a health and demographic surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Phillips-Howard

    Full Text Available Targeted global efforts to improve survival of young adults need information on mortality trends; contributions from health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS are required.This study aimed to explore changing trends in deaths among adolescents (15-19 years and young adults (20-24 years, using census and verbal autopsy data in rural western Kenya using a HDSS. Mid-year population estimates were used to generate all-cause mortality rates per 100,000 population by age and gender, by communicable (CD and non-communicable disease (NCD causes. Linear trends from 2003 to 2009 were examined. In 2003, all-cause mortality rates of adolescents and young adults were 403 and 1,613 per 100,000 population, respectively, among females; and 217 and 716 per 100,000, respectively, among males. CD mortality rates among females and males 15-24 years were 500 and 191 per 100,000 (relative risk [RR] 2.6; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.7-4.0; p<0.001. NCD mortality rates in same aged females and males were similar (141 and 128 per 100,000, respectively; p = 0.76. By 2009, young adult female all-cause mortality rates fell 53% (χ(2 for linear trend 30.4; p<0.001 and 61.5% among adolescent females (χ(2 for linear trend 11.9; p<0.001. No significant CD mortality reductions occurred among males or for NCD mortality in either gender. By 2009, all-cause, CD, and NCD mortality rates were not significantly different between males and females, and among males, injuries equalled HIV as the top cause of death.This study found significant reductions in adolescent and young adult female mortality rates, evidencing the effects of targeted public health programmes, however, all-cause and CD mortality rates among females remain alarmingly high. These data underscore the need to strengthen programmes and target strategies to reach both males and females, and to promote NCD as well as CD initiatives to reduce the mortality burden amongst both gender.

  16. Prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žemaitienė, Miglė; Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida; Saldūnaitė, Kristina; Razmienė, Jaunė; Slabšinskienė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents and to disclose possible differences in the prevalence and severity of dental caries related to gender, urbanization, and different county. A total of 1063 18-year-old adolescents attending school, 427 boys and 636 girls from 10 Lithuanian counties including urban and rural areas, were included in the cross-sectional study on dental caries. The method of multistage cluster sampling was used. The dental examination was performed according to the methodology of oral status evaluation recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalence of dental caries, DMFT score, Significant Caries Index, and dental care index were determined. The overall prevalence of dental caries among 18-year-old Lithuanian adolescents was 78.3%. The study population had a mean DMFT score of 2.93 [SD, 2.81]. Considering the gender, a higher DMFT score was observed among girls than boys (3.03 [SD, 2.88] versus 2.73 [SD, 2.71]) and in rural than urban areas (3.02 [SD, 2.98] versus 2.89 [SD, 2.73]). The Significant Caries Index and the dental care index among 18-year-old adolescents were 6.14 and 62.3%, respectively. This study showed a relatively high prevalence of dental caries. The existing differences of caries experience between the urban and the rural areas as well as between the counties could be influenced by the socioeconomic differences in the country. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. History, culture, and substance use in a rural Scottish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Alan

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed discussion of substance use and misuse in a rural community in the Western Highlands of Scotland, United Kingdom. Attention is focused on the way in which patterns of substance use arise from a complex interplay of historical, cultural, social, and personal events. The discussion illustrates how large changes in patterns of intoxication in rural communities can be rendered intelligible through an understanding of the impact of economic, religious, and social changes. The analysis is based on an historical and ethnographic account, carried out between 1987 and 1990 with adolescents, of patterns of use which range from pagan ceremonies in the 16th century to contemporary "soft drug" use.

  18. Active living in rural Appalachia: Using the rural active living assessment (RALA tools to explore environmental barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hege

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People residing in rural communities are more likely to be physically inactive and subsequently have elevated risks for chronic disease. Recent evidence has shown this could stem from environmental barriers, inadequate programming and policies directed at the promotion of physical activity (PA in rural settings. The objective of this research was to assess active living features in rural towns and townships (n=16 across seven counties in northwestern North Carolina (NC. The study utilized the Town-Wide and Street Segment components of the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA as well as the 2014 American Community Survey results. The assessments were conducted in the summer of 2016 in the rural Appalachia region of NC. Using the RALA town-wide assessment scoring system (0−100, the range of scores was 18–84, with the mean being 50.06. Three towns had no sidewalks, nine towns had sidewalks on only one side of the main streets, and four had sidewalks on both sides of the main streets. One town was rated as highly walkable, seven towns as moderately walkable, five towns as moderately unwalkable, and three towns as highly unwalkable. The rural Appalachia region of NC offers unique topographic, geographic and environmental barriers to PA. However, our findings indicate many rural towns offer common PA amenities. Future research should utilize qualitative methods and a community-based participatory research approach to more fully understand the challenges with increasing PA in the rural and often isolated Appalachia communities. Keywords: Rural active living assessment (RALA, Health disparities, Physical activity, Rural Appalachia

  19. Towards Strengths-Based Planning Strategies for Rural Localities in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rönkkö Emilia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will introduce the topic of strengths-based planning strategies for rural localities in Finland. The strengths-based approach focuses on capacity building and competence enhancement with the local people, encouraging communities to valorise, identify and mobilise existing but often unrecognised assets. Setting focus only on the deficiencies and problems easily inflicts a ‘surrender mentality‘ in places outside of the urbanisation impact, creating a narrative that both decision-makers and community members start to believe. Hence, the role and potential of smaller rural localities is easily forgotten by planners, politicians and the public at large. Addressing the scale of rural localities in spatial planning, we will first reflect upon the main findings from our earlier research project “Finnish rural localities in the 2010`s” conducted by Lahti University of Applied Sciences, the University of Oulu and Aalto University in 2013-2015. Findings from the research project affirmed the unfortunate consequences of rapid urbanisation, rational blueprint planning and overoptimistic expectations of growth in the 1960s and 70s, which have resulted in the state of permanent incompleteness in rural localities today. However, these localities possess many under-utilised strengths, and we consider it essential for the future development of rural localities to make the most of this potential, and not only tackle the downwards spiral. This requires the ability to engage local stakeholders around a common vision for the future, and strategic approach based on endogenous strengths. We will discuss these possibilities via two theoretically informed case studies. The first one, Vieremä, is situated in the region of Northern Savo, and the other one, Vääksy, is the main centre in the municipality of Asikkala, situated in the region of Päijät-Häme in Southern Finland. Our study design can be characterised as qualitative research

  20. Climatization, energy and design in rural housing; Climatizacion, energia y diseno en la vivienda rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aroztegui, J [Facultad de Arquitectura, Montevideo, (Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The Work analyzes the possibilities to influence in the energy inputs of the air conditioning in the rural housing through architectonic project decisions. It presents a methodology to guide the first project decisions and to evaluate the future of the housing behavior.

  1. Father's Migration and Leaving the Parental Home in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia; Hayford, Sarah R.; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Migration is an increasingly common demographic phenomenon and has important implications for the well-being of family members left behind. Although extensive research has examined the impact of parental labor migration on school-age children, less is known about its effect on adolescents. In this study, the authors used longitudinal survey data collected in rural Mozambique (N = 515) to assess the association between father's migration and adolescent children's leaving the parental home, an important component of the transition to adulthood. The results showed that father's migration delays home-leaving for adolescent girls and that these effects are not mediated by school enrollment. The results for boys were inconclusive. The authors also found that remittances and longer durations of paternal migration were negatively associated with the transition out of the home. On the basis of the findings, they argue that father's migration delays girls’ marriage. PMID:27499554

  2. Priorities for Advancing the Concept of New Ruralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Newman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Civic expansion and land use migrations to urban peripheries can accelerate the conversion of agricultural land uses. Widespread trepidation concerning urban sprawl has led to innovative frameworks for conserving or enhancing farmland. New Ruralism is one such framework, linking farmland preservation with developmental plans to reduce farmland conversion and low density development. Although the concept is still evolving, recent support for New Ruralism has grown. One of the most important factors in creating a New Ruralism-based development is coherent policy for permanent agricultural preserves. These preserves require the simultaneous, careful planning of land preservation balanced with the location of future development. This paper discusses the current condition of farmland loss and reviews issues and challenges associated with farmland preservation with existing New Ruralism developments. The goal is to synthesize this information into recommendations for increasing farmland preservation opportunities in New Ruralism-based developments. A more comprehensive definition for New Ruralism is presented, accompanied by several priorities for maximizing the economic, environmental, and cultural viability of New Ruralism-based farmland preserves.

  3. Poor micronutrient intake and status is a public health problem among adolescent Mozambican girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkalo, Liisa; Freese, Riitta; Alfthan, Georg; Fidalgo, Lourdes; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies can damage the health of adolescent girls and their offspring. There is a lack of population-based data on the micronutrient status of adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study to examine the biochemical status, prevalence of deficiency, dietary intake, and food sources of selected micronutrients among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique. Separate groups of study participants were recruited in 2 seasons in 2010. The participants were girls between 14 and 19 years of age (n = 551) from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts. Micronutrient status indicators were analyzed from blood and urine samples. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were also carried out. The overall prevalence with 95% confidence interval (calculated using sampling weights) among nonpregnant girls was 42.4% (37.2%-47.8%; n = 466) for anemia, 27.4% (23.1%-32.2%; n = 427) for low serum ferritin, 32.7% (27.7%-38.1%; n = 423) for low serum zinc, 14.7% (11.2%-19.0%; n = 426) for low plasma retinol, and 4.1% (2.9%-5.8%; n = 448) for low serum folate. The selenium status was considered sufficient. Mild to moderate iodine deficiency was found in the rural districts, whereas the iodine status of urban girls was adequate. Significantly lower serum folate concentrations were found in the urban area compared to the rural districts. The seasonal differences in vitamin A intake were significant. The intakes of micronutrients from animal source foods were small. In summary, adolescent Mozambican girls are at risk of several micronutrient deficiencies. This raises concern especially because adolescent motherhood is common in the region. Actions need to be taken to prevent and control micronutrient deficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study on Consciousness of Adolescent Girls About Their Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Swati; Agarwal, GG; Singh, JV; Kant, Surya; Singh, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Background: Perceived body image is an important potential predictor of nutritional status. Body image misconception during adolescence is unexplored field in Indian girls. Objectives: To study the consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image. Materials and Methods: This multistage observational study was conducted on 586 adolescent girls of age 10–19 years in Lucknow district (151 from rural, 150 from slum, and 286 from urban area) of Uttar Pradesh, India. Information on desired and actual body size was collected with the help of predesigned questionnaire. Results: 20.5% of studied girls show aspiration to become thin, who already perceived their body image as too thin. 73.4% adolescent girls were satisfied with their body image, while 26.6% were dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction was higher among girls of urban (30.2%) and slum (40.0%) areas in comparison to rural (22.5%) area. Percentage of satisfied girls was less in the 13–15 years (69.9%) age groups in comparison to 10–12 years (76.5%) and 16–19 years (76.4%). Among girls satisfied with their body image, 32.8% girls were found underweight, and 38.4% were stunted. Underweight girls (42.1%) and stunted girls (64.9%) were higher in number within satisfied girls of slum area. Among all of these adolescent girls, 32.8% of girls had overestimated their weight, while only 4.9% of girls had underestimated their weight. Conclusions: This study concludes that desire to become thin is higher in adolescent girls, even in those who already perceived their body image as too thin. PMID:22090673

  5. Perceptions of healthy eating amongst Indian adolescents in India and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Natasha; Rajaraman, Divya; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Vaz, Mario; Jayachitra, K G; Lear, Scott A; Punthakee, Zubin

    2017-09-01

    Dietary patterns have contributed to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among Indian adolescents. Yet there are limited studies on their perspectives on healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to understand perceptions and attitudes of Indian-origin adolescents in India and Canada that may contribute to healthy eating behaviour. Qualitative data collection and analysis of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) was conducted among 34 boys and 39 girls (total number of participants: 73) of different weight and socioeconomic status (SES) in rural and urban India, and urban Canada aged 11-18 years. All adolescents perceived homemade foods, and foods high in vitamins, minerals and fiber as healthy. Rural Indian adolescents also identified contaminant-free food as important. Opinions differed regarding the health value of consuming meat, and amongst Canadian adolescents, the health impact of Western versus Indian diets. Identified benefits of healthy eating included improved energy for Indians, and disease prevention for Canadians and urban Indians. Identified barriers across all settings included peers; and availability, access and affordability of unhealthy foods. Urban Indians and Canadian girls also reported academic stress and lack of time as barriers. Canadian girls reported limited parental supervision during mealtimes as an additional barrier. Facilitators to healthy eating included parents, friends and personal preferences for healthy foods. This study suggests potential targets for family-based and school-based education programs and policies to improve dietary habits of Indian and Indo-Canadian adolescents which include, culturally focused nutrition education and guidelines, academic stress management strategies, parental education, food hygiene regulations and restriction on the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Hypertension in School going Adolescents in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of hypertension seems to be increasing in children and adults in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Different studies have been carried out on the prevalence of hypertension amongst adolescents living in urban areas reflecting this seeming increase in the prevalence of hypertension. However ...

  7. Predictors of chronic food insecurity among adolescents in Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belachew Tefera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the differential impacts of the global food crisis as it translates into chronic food insecurity locally is essential to design food security interventions targeting the most vulnerable population groups. There are no studies on the extent of chronic food insecurity or its predictors among adolescents in developing countries. In the context of increased food prices in Ethiopia, we hypothesized that adolescents in low income urban households are more likely to suffer from chronic food insecurity than those in the rural areas who may have direct access to agricultural products. Methods This report is based on data from the first two rounds of the Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth (JLFSY. Both adolescents and households were selected using a stratified random sampling method. A total of 1911 adolescents aged 13-17 years were interviewed on their personal experiences of food insecurity both at baseline and at year two. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to compare chronic adolescent food insecurity by household income, household food insecurity, and socio-demographic variables after one year of follow-up. Results Overall, 20.5% of adolescents were food insecure in the first round survey, while the proportion of adolescents with food insecurity increased to 48.4% one year later. During the one year follow up period, more than half (54.8% of the youth encountered transient food insecurity – that is, either during the first or the second round survey. During the follow up period, 14.0% of adolescents had chronic food insecurity (i.e. were food insecure at both rounds. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents in the urban households with low (OR = 1.69, P = 0.008 and middle (OR = 1.80, P = 0.003 income tertiles were nearly twice as likely to suffer from chronic food insecurity compared with those in high income tertile, while this was not the case in

  8. Pattern of leisure-lifestyles among Indian school adolescents: Contextual influences and implications for emerging health concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Pratap Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of a rampant increase in availability of and access to many health-compromising leisure choices and opportunities in India during the last few decades, this study examines the pattern of leisure practices in a sample of school-going adolescents from rural, urban, and metro regions of North India (n = 1,500. Data were collected through an anonymous leisure survey from consenting students. Results show a greater prevalence of the use of electronic media and telecommunication gadgets, reflecting a larger engagement in sedentary activities than in cultural, community, and physically demanding leisure activities. In particular, the students from metro and urban areas reported greater involvement in multiple sedentary activities, while rural adolescents reported greater engagement with watching television, listening to fast music and religious leisure. The results implicate an urgent need for revisiting adolescent health policy and promoting positive leisure education in schools.

  9. HIV-related chronic lung disease in adolescents: are we prepared for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert P

    2017-12-01

    Chronic lung diseases (CLD) are the most chronic disease occurring in adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). In ALHIV who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) late in childhood, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans and interstitial pneumonitis are common. In adolescents who received ART early in life the spectrum of CLD has changed with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being common. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review CLD in ALHIV. We conducted a literature review of electronic databases focusing on CLD that were common prior to the introduction of ART (1996-2004), the present situation where ART is widely available (2005 to 2016), and articles which aided us speculating on the impact of HIV-related CLD in adolescents transitioning to adult HIV-clinics. Amongst the approximately 2.1 million adolescents living with HIV, CLD commonly occurs. Awareness of the CLD amongst ALHIV needs to be raised to ensure that disease appropriate treatment is available to these vulnerable adolescents. Expert commentary: As adolescents' transition from pediatric HIV-clinics to adult HIV-clinics the evidence shows that adolescents might not receive optimal care if adult pulmonologists are not aware of the CLD that commonly occur in ALHIV.

  10. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health - Vol 19, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. ... for analysis and activism in response to HIV and AIDS stigmatisation in a rural KwaZulu-Natal school ... Home-based care for parents with AIDS: impact on children's psychological functioning.

  11. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health - Vol 12, No 2 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health. ... GENDER, URBAN/RURAL AND SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... CLINICAL PERSPECTIVES'CROSS-CULTURAL' ISSUES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT ... HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY IN BRAIN INJURED CHILDREN BOCA ...

  12. Charting the future course of rural health and remote health in Australia: Why we need theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Humphreys, John S; Wakerman, John; Taylor, Judy

    2010-04-01

    This paper argues that rural and remote health is in need of theoretical development. Based on the authors' discussions, reflections and critical analyses of literature, this paper proposes key reasons why rural and remote health warrants the development of theoretical frameworks. The paper cites five reasons why theory is needed: (i) theory provides an approach for how a topic is studied; (ii) theory articulates key assumptions in knowledge development; (iii) theory systematises knowledge, enabling it to be transferable; (iv) theory provides predictability; and (v) theory enables comprehensive understanding. This paper concludes with a call for theoretical development in both rural and remote health to expand its knowledge and be more relevant to improving health care for rural Australians.

  13. Knowledge Of AIDS Among Rural Adolescents in Kwara State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    32% and 29% favour provision of Health Education and use of disposable skin piercing instruments respectively as ways of controlling AIDS. The study therefore recommended public enlightenment and counselling for the containment of AIDS in rural areas. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol. 9, No.

  14. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…

  15. Prospective associations between problematic eating attitudes in midchildhood and the future onset of adolescent obesity and high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Kaitlin H; Kramer, Michael S; Oken, Emily; Timpson, Nicholas J; Skugarevsky, Oleg; Patel, Rita; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Davey Smith, George; Thompson, Jennifer; Martin, Richard M

    2017-02-01

    Clinically diagnosed eating disorders may have adverse cardiometabolic consequences, including overweight or obesity and high blood pressure. However, the link between problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence, which can lead to disordered eating behaviors, and future cardiometabolic health is, to our knowledge, unknown. We assessed whether variations in midchildhood eating attitudes influence the future development of overweight or obesity and high blood pressure. Of 17,046 children who participated in the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT), we included 13,557 participants (79.5% response rate) who completed the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) at age 11.5 y and in whom we measured adiposity and blood pressure at ages 6.5, 11.5, and 16 y. We assessed whether ChEAT scores ≥85th percentile (indicative of problematic eating attitudes) compared with scores high blood pressure were attenuated (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.45 and OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.39 for new-onset systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Problematic eating attitudes in midchildhood seem to be related to the development of obesity in adolescence, a relatively novel observation with potentially important public health implications for obesity control. PROBIT was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01561612 and isrctn.com as ISRCTN37687716.

  16. Physical and mental health perspectives of first year undergraduate rural university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rafat; Guppy, Michelle; Robertson, Suzanne; Temple, Elizabeth

    2013-09-15

    University students are often perceived to have a privileged position in society and considered immune to ill-health and disability. There is growing evidence that a sizeable proportion experience poor physical health, and that the prevalence of psychological disorders is higher in university students than their community peers. This study examined the physical and mental health issues for first year Australian rural university students and their perception of access to available health and support services. Cross-sectional study design using an online survey form based on the Adolescent Screening Questionnaire modeled on the internationally recognised HEADSS survey tool. The target audience was all first-year undergraduate students enrolled in an on-campus degree program. The response rate was 41% comprising 355 students (244 females, 111 males). Data was analysed using standard statistical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics; and thematic analysis of the open-ended responses. The mean age of the respondents was 20.2 years (SD 4.8). The majority of the students lived in on-campus residential college style accommodation, and a third combined part-time paid work with full-time study. Most students reported being in good physical health. However, on average two health conditions were reported over the past six months, with the most common being fatigue (56%), frequent headaches (26%) and allergies (24%). Mental health problems included anxiety (25%), coping difficulties (19.7%) and diagnosed depression (8%). Most respondents reported adequate access to medical doctors and support services for themselves (82%) and friends (78%). However the qualitative comments highlighted concerns about stigma, privacy and anonymity in seeking counselling. The present study adds to the limited literature of physical and mental health issues as well as barriers to service utilization by rural university students. It provides useful baseline data for the

  17. Characteristics of Pesticide Poisoning in Rural and Urban Settings in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bastian; Ssemugabo, Charles; Nabankema, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    , pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25.6%) where unintentional poisonings prevailed. Men were older than women...... and represented a majority of around 60% of the cases in both the urban and rural settings. Unintentional cases were almost the only ones seen below the age of 10, whereas self-harm dominated among adolescents and young persons from 10 to 29 years of age. Organophosphorus insecticides accounted for 73.......0% of the poisonings. Urban hospitals provided a more intensive treatment and had registered fever complications than rural health care settings. To minimize self-harm with pesticides, a restriction of pesticide availability as shown to be effective in other low-income countries is recommended. Training of health care...

  18. Misperception of weight status in the pacific: preliminary findings in rural and urban 11- to 16-year-olds of New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Frayon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent obesity is prevalent in Pacific region ethnic groups (European, Melanesian and Polynesian living in both urban and rural areas. Although body perception is an important factor of weight gain or loss, little is known about the body self-perceptions of Pacific region adolescents. This study therefore evaluated adolescent perceptions of body weight according to ethnicity (European, Melanesian or Polynesian, socioeconomic status (low, intermediate or high and living area (rural or urban in New Caledonia. Methods Sociodemographic and anthropomorphic data from 737 adolescents (351 boys and 386 girls with ages ranging from 11 to 16 years were collected and analysed. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF standards were used to define weight status as normal-weight, underweight or overweight/obese. Weight perception was assessed from detailed questionnaires, with adolescents rating their own weight with the following descriptors: ‘about the right weight’, ‘too heavy’, or ‘too light’. Results Results showed that only 8.5% of normal-weight adolescents (7% boys and 10% girls identifying themselves as ‘too heavy’. Normal-weight Melanesian adolescents were less likely than their European counterparts to assess themselves as too heavy (OR = 0.357. However, half the overweight/obese adolescents underestimated their weight status (53% boys and 48% girls. Weight misperception was associated with ethnicity, socioeconomic status and living area, with gender-specific differences. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that these sociodemographic factors should be taken into account when designing public health policies and health education school programmes in New Caledonia and, more broadly, the Pacific region.

  19. The Rural Inpatient Mortality Study: Does Urban-Rural County Classification Predict Hospital Mortality in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Daniel T; Kornak, John; Stephens, Caroline

    2018-03-28

    Evidence suggests an association between rurality and decreased life expectancy. To determine whether rural hospitals have higher hospital mortality, given that very sick patients may be transferred to regional hospitals. In this ecologic study, we combined Medicare hospital mortality ratings (N = 1267) with US census data, critical access hospital classification, and National Center for Health Statistics urban-rural county classifications. Ratings included mortality for coronary artery bypass grafting, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart attack, heart failure, and pneumonia across 277 California hospitals between July 2011 and June 2014. We used generalized estimating equations to evaluate the association of urban-rural county classifications on mortality ratings. Unfavorable Medicare hospital mortality rating "worse than the national rate" compared with "better" or "same." Compared with large central "metro" (metropolitan) counties, hospitals in medium-sized metro counties had 6.4 times the odds of rating "worse than the national rate" for hospital mortality (95% confidence interval = 2.8-14.8, p centers may contribute to these results, a potential factor that future research should examine.

  20. Small hydropower and rural electrification in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ying [Ministry of Water Resources, Beijing (China). Dept. of Hydropower and Rural Electrification

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the status of the using small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) and rural electrification in China. The document approaches the general profile, role of small hydroelectric power plants in rural electrification and energy supply, background and factors back-sopping the fast development of SHP, concentrating on resources, SHP combined with water conservancy projects, policies and strategies, development of appropriate technology, timely development of SHP equipment manufacturing, economic justification of SHP development, and future prospects.

  1. Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheona Shackleton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

  2. Body figure preference in South African adolescent females: A cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The current study sought to explore body figure preference in a cross cultural South African sample, given the established relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Methods: The sample comprised a community based, multi-racial adolescent population in both urban (n=1353) and rural ...

  3. Pattern recognition and functional neuroimaging help to discriminate healthy adolescents at risk for mood disorders from low risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Oliveira, Leticia; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Marquand, Andre; Brammer, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    There are no known biological measures that accurately predict future development of psychiatric disorders in individual at-risk adolescents. We investigated whether machine learning and fMRI could help to: 1. differentiate healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I psychiatric disorders from healthy adolescents at low risk of developing these disorders; 2. identify those healthy genetically at-risk adolescents who were most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. 16 healthy offspring genetically at risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I disorders by virtue of having a parent with bipolar disorder and 16 healthy, age- and gender-matched low-risk offspring of healthy parents with no history of psychiatric disorders (12-17 year-olds) performed two emotional face gender-labeling tasks (happy/neutral; fearful/neutral) during fMRI. We used Gaussian Process Classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach that assigns a predictive probability of group membership to an individual person, to differentiate groups and to identify those at-risk adolescents most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. Using GPC, activity to neutral faces presented during the happy experiment accurately and significantly differentiated groups, achieving 75% accuracy (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 75%). Furthermore, predictive probabilities were significantly higher for those at-risk adolescents who subsequently developed an Axis I disorder than for those at-risk adolescents remaining healthy at follow-up. We show that a combination of two promising techniques, machine learning and neuroimaging, not only discriminates healthy low-risk from healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for Axis I disorders, but may ultimately help to predict which at-risk adolescents subsequently develop these disorders.

  4. Human papillomavirus vaccine awareness, uptake, and parental and health care provider communication among 11- to 18-year-old adolescents in a rural Appalachian Ohio county in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Phillips, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine awareness and uptake, and communication with a parent and/or a health care provider among 11- to 18-year-old male and female adolescents in an Appalachian Ohio county. Five questions regarding the HPV vaccine were added to the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) surveys administered to middle and high school students in the county. The YRBSS surveys are school-based, anonymous, and voluntary. The questions added were about vaccine awareness and uptake, and communication with a parent or health care provider about the vaccine. Of the 1,299 participants, 51.9% were male and 90.3% were white. Overall, 49.2%, 23.5%, 19.2%, and 24.6%, respectively, reported vaccine awareness, uptake of at least 1 dose of the HPV vaccine, communication with a parent, and communication with a health care provider. Females and adolescents ≥ 15 years were significantly more likely to report awareness, uptake, and parental and provider communication than males and adolescents ≤ 14 years. Adolescents receiving any dose of the vaccine were significantly more likely to have had a parent (OR: 3.74; 95% CI: 2.30-6.06) or a health care provider (OR: 10.91; 95% CI: 6.42-18.6) discuss the vaccine than those who had not received any dose. Despite the strong link between parental and health care provider communication and HPV vaccine uptake, the levels of communication remain low in this Appalachian population. These findings suggest the need for public health education programs targeting the health care providers, the parents, and the adolescents to improve awareness, knowledge, and HPV vaccine uptake. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Exploring the Special Education versus Regular Education Decisions of Future Teachers in the Rural Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSutter, Keri L.; Lemire, Steven Dale

    2016-01-01

    Persistent shortages of special education teachers, particularly in rural areas, exist across the country. This study assessed the openness of teacher candidates enrolled in an introductory education course at two rural Midwest universities to a special education career path. Survey findings confirmed that work or volunteer experience involving…

  6. Social Health Insurance in Nigeria: Policy Implications in A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social health insurance was introduced in Nigeria in 1999 and had since been restricted to workers in the formal public sector. There are plans for scaling up to include rural populations in a foreseeable future. Information on willingness to participate and pay a premium in the programme by rural populations is dearth.

  7. Information Infrastructure and Social Adaptation in Rural Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    esteem , and political power are common indications of Aizzat within Pashtun communities. While Aizzat is important, it is clearly less important than...Action into Service, November 17, 2008, http://kipsang.wordpress.com/2008/11/17/m-pesa-how-does-it-work/. 141 Matthew Rosenberg , “Corruption...uncertainty about the future in rural communities. As described in Chapter II, rural Pashtun communities, governed by a sense of self -determination

  8. Rural influentials' perceptions of tourism and its potential for economic development: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Burr

    1995-01-01

    Rural residents' perceptions of tourism and its associated impacts are likely to be important in planning, development, marketing, and operation of existing and future tourism projects. This study examines rural influentials' perceptions of tourism as a tool for economic revitalization in Pennsylvania's rural counties, its present impact, and its...

  9. Parental influences on adolescent fruit consumption: the role of adolescent self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2012-02-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether adolescent self-efficacy mediates the associations between parental control, perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption using a theoretically derived explanatory model. Data were drawn from a community-based sample of 1606 adolescents in Years 7 and 9 of secondary school and their parents, from Victoria, Australia. Adolescents completed a web-based survey assessing their fruit consumption and self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption. Parents completed a survey delivered via mail assessing parental control, perceptions and barriers to buying fruit and vegetables. Adolescent self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption mediated the positive associations between parental control and perceptions of the importance of healthy nutrition for child health and adolescent fruit consumption. Furthermore, adolescent self-efficacy mediated the negative association between parental barriers to buying fruits and vegetables and adolescent fruit consumption. The importance of explicating the mechanisms through which parental factors influence adolescent fruit consumption not only relates to the advancement of scientific knowledge but also offers potential avenues for intervention. Future research should assess the effectiveness of methods to increase adolescent fruit consumption by focussing on both improving adolescents' dietary self-efficacy and on targeting parental control, perceptions and barriers.

  10. Impact of health education on knowledge and practices about menstruation among adolescent school girls of rural part of district Ambala, Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Arora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of health education on knowledge regarding menstruation, misconceptions related to it as the prevalence of RTI is still very high in India.  Aims: To study the existing level of status of hygiene, knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent school girls and to assess the change in their knowledge level and practices after health education. Materials A community-based pre and post interventional study was conducted among 200 adolescents’ girls of class IX and X of rural part of district Ambala. Multistage random sampling technique was used to draw the representative sample. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered and later health education regarding menstruation and healthy menstrual practices was imparted to the girls. Post-test was done after 3 months to assess the impact of health education. Pre- and post-intervention, data were compared using the paired t test, z test for proportions, chi-squared test for paired proportions. Difference between Proportions of the pre-post data and its 95% confidence interval has been calculated of the findings. SPSS for Windows software version 20 (IBM, Chicago, USA have been used for data analysis. The level of significance has been considered at p value 0.05 while in the post-test preceding health education, significant improvements were observed in their practices. Conclusion: Overall significant improvement was found in knowledge and practices regarding menstruation among adolescent school girls.

  11. Predicting hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in a future phase III HIV vaccine trial among high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocos, Georgina; Kagee, Ashraf; Swartz, Leslie

    2008-11-01

    The present study sought to determine whether the Theory of Planned Behaviour predicted stated hypothetical willingness to participate (WTP) in future Phase III HIV vaccine trials among South African adolescents. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses showed that The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) significantly predicted WTP. Of all the predictors, Subjective norms significantly predicted WTP (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.06-1.34). A stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that Subjective Norms (OR = 1.19, 95% C.I. = 1.07-1.34) and Attitude towards participation in an HIV vaccine trial (OR = 1.32, 95% C.I. = 1.00-1.74) were significant predictors of WTP. The addition of Knowledge of HIV vaccines and HIV vaccine trials, Perceived self-risk of HIV infection, Health-promoting behaviours and Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS yielded non-significant results. These findings provide support for the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and suggest that psychosocial factors may play an important role in WTP in Phase III HIV vaccine trials among adolescents.

  12. The effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Buck

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine use among adolescents is a significant social and public health concern. Despite increased awareness of methamphetamine use among younger people, relatively little research has examined the effects of adolescent methamphetamine use compared to adult use. Thus much remains to be learned about how methamphetamine alters adolescent brain function and behavior. In this article we review recent trends in adolescent methamphetamine use and data examining the effects of adolescent methamphetamine use on the dopaminergic system and behavior in humans and animal models. Future research is warranted to expand our understanding of the effects of adolescent methamphetamine exposure and how those effects differ from those seen in adults.

  13. Cultural perceptions of healthy weight in rural Appalachian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K J; Taylor, C A; Wolf, K N; Lawson, R F; Crespo, R

    2008-01-01

    Rates of overweight among US children have been rising over the past three decades. Changes in lifestyle behaviors, including dietary and physical activity habits, have been examined thoroughly to identify correlates of weight status in children. Youth in rural US Appalachia are at a disproportionately greater risk for obesity and related health complications. Inadequate physical activity and poor dietary habits are two primary causes of obesity that have been noted in West Virginia adolescents. Few existing data describes the decisional balance in performing lifestyle behaviors, nor the perceptions of these youth regarding their beliefs about weight. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of a healthy weight in rural Appalachian adolescents. Ninth grade students were recruited from classroom presentations in four high schools throughout West Virginia. Interested parent-caregiver pairs returned forms to indicate interest in participation. Separate focus group interviews were conducted concurrently with adolescent and parents or caregivers to identify the cultural perceptions of a healthy weight. Questions were developed using grounded theory to explore how a healthy weight was defined, what factors dictate body weight, the perceived severity of the obesity issue, and the social or health ramifications of the condition. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify dominant themes, and content analysis provided text segments to describe the themes. This article describes the data obtained from the adolescent focus groups. When asked what defined a healthy weight, the adolescents who participated in the focus groups placed great value on physical appearance and social acceptability. Students believed there was a particular number, either an absolute weight or body mass index value that determined a healthy weight. These numbers were usually conveyed by a physician; however, there was also a general acceptance of being 'thick' or a reliance on

  14. What Aspects of Rural Life Contribute to Rural-Urban Health Disparities in Older Adults? Evidence From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A; Cook, Sarah K; Sando, Trisha A; Sabik, Natalie J

    2017-11-29

    Rural-urban health disparities are well-documented and particularly problematic for older adults. However, determining which specific aspects of rural or urban living initiate these disparities remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between place-based characteristics of rural-urban status and health among adults age 65+. Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were geographically linked to place-based characteristics from the American Community Survey. Self-reported health (SRH), obesity, and health checkup within the last year were modeled against rural-urban status (distance to nearest metropolitan area, population size, population density, percent urban, Urban Influence Codes [UIC], Rural-Urban Continuum Codes [RUCC], and Rural-Urban Commuting Area [RUCA]) using generalized linear models, accounting for covariates and complex sampling, overall, and stratified by area-level income. In general, increasing urbanicity was associated with a reduction in negative SRH for all 7 measures of rural-urban status. For low-income counties, this association held for all measures and characteristics of rural-urban status except population density. However, for high-income counties, the association was reversed-respondents living in areas of increasing urbanicity were more likely to report negative SRH for 4 of the 7 measures (RUCC, UIC, RUCA, and percent urban). Findings were mixed for the outcome of obesity, where rural areas had higher levels, except in low-income counties, where the association between rurality and obesity was reversed (OR 1.033, 95%CI: 1.002-1.064). These results suggest that rural-urban status is both a continuum and multidimensional. Distinct elements of rural-urban status may influence health in nuanced ways that require additional exploration in future studies. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  15. Child and Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Suicidal Behavior, and Adverse Childhood Experiences in South Africa: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-07-01

    This is the first known prospective study of child suicidal behavior in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims were to determine whether (1) cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predicts later suicidality and (2) heightened risks are mediated by mental health disorder and drug/alcohol misuse. Longitudinal repeated interviews were conducted 1 year apart (97% retention) with 3,515 adolescents aged 10-18 years in South Africa (56% female; areas from urban/rural sites within two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all homes with a resident adolescent. Measures included past-month suicide attempts, planning, and ideation, mental health disorders, drug/alcohol use, and ACE, for example, parental death by AIDS or homicide, abuse, and exposure to community violence. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression and multiple mediation tests. Past-month suicidality rates were 3.2% of adolescents attempting, 5.8% planning, and 7.2% reporting ideation. After controlling for baseline suicidality and sociodemographics, a strong, graded relationship was shown between cumulative ACE and all suicide behaviors 1 year later. Baseline mental health, but not drug/alcohol misuse, mediated relationships between ACE and subsequent suicidality. Suicide attempts rose from 1.9% among adolescents with no ACE to 6.3% among adolescents with >5 ACEs (cumulative odds ratio [OR], 2.46; confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.05); for suicide planning, from 2.4% to 12.5% (cumulative OR, 4.40; CI, 2.08-9.29); and for suicide ideation, from 4.2% to 15.6% (cumulative OR, 2.99; CI, 1.68-5.53). Preventing and mitigating childhood adversities have the potential to reduce suicidality. Among adolescents already exposed to adversities, effective mental health services may buffer against future suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescent Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly E; Divasta, Amy D

    2017-06-01

    Gynecomastia, defined as the presence of glandular breast tissue in men, is a common, typically benign physical exam finding during adolescence. Although the exact pathogenesis of gynecomastia is unknown, it is likely due to a hormonal imbalance between estrogens and androgens. Most cases are idiopathic and do not require further evaluation if the history and physical examination are reassuring. Although the majority of cases will resolve spontaneously, surgical correction may be an option for adolescents with persistent and problematic gynecomastia. Gynecomastia can have significant negative impact on one's self-esteem, and it is crucial that primary care providers screen adolescents with gynecomastia for mental health concerns. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the true incidence and prevalence of gynecomastia in adolescent males, and to further investigate the short-term and long-term physical and emotional effects of gynecomastia. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  17. Remote rural women's choice of birthplace and transfer experiences in rural Otago and Southland New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jean; Foureur, Maralyn; Skinner, Joan

    2017-09-01

    specialist care. Themes included, deciding about the safest place to give birth; making the decision to transfer; experiencing transfer in labour, and reflecting on their birth experience and considering future birthplace choices. The experiences of the women show that for some, distance from a base hospital influences their place of birth decisions in remote rural areas of New Zealand and increases the distress for those needing to transfer over large distances. These experiences can result in women choosing, or needing to make different choices for subsequent births; the consequences of which impact on the future sustainability of midwifery services in remote rural areas, a challenge which resonates with maternity service provision internationally. While choices about birth place cannot be reliably predicted, creative solutions are needed to provide rural midwifery care and birth options for women and more timely and efficient transfer services when required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overweight, obesity and underweight profile among adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight, obesity and underweight profile among adolescent secondary school students ... should be of concern if a healthy and productive future generation is to be ensured. Primary care providers should constantly assess adolescents for ...

  19. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  20. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  1. Using Videoconferencing to Deliver Individual Therapy and Pediatric Psychology Interventions with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eve-Lynn; Patton, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Because of the widening access gap between need for individual and pediatric psychology services and child specialist availability, secure videoconferencing options are more needed than ever to address access challenges across underserved settings. The authors summarize real-time videoconferencing evidence to date across individual therapy with children and pediatric psychology interventions using videoconferencing. The authors summarize emerging guidelines that inform best practices for individual child therapy over videoconferencing. The authors present three case examples to illustrate best practices. The first behavioral pediatrics case summarizes evidence-based approaches in treating a rural young adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and hearing impairment. The second pediatric psychology case describes similarities and difference between on-site and videoconferencing services in treating a rural child with toileting concerns. The third adolescent case describes treatment of an urban honors student with depression. Videoconferencing is an effective approach to improving access to individual and pediatric psychology interventions for children and adolescents. Videoconferencing approaches are well accepted by families and show promise for disseminating evidence-based treatments to underserved communities.

  2. Convenience store visits by US adolescents: Rationale for healthier retail environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Parikh, Nina M; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Henriksen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Given interest in the public health impact of convenience stores, it is surprising that so little is known about the popularity of these destinations for youth. We surveyed 2772 adolescents (age 13-16) from a nationally representative web panel of US households. Nearly half (47.5%) of adolescents reported visiting convenience stores at least weekly. Significant risk factors for frequent visits were age, being African-American, living in rural areas and in areas with higher levels of neighborhood deprivation. With approximately 4.1 million US adolescents visiting convenience stores at least weekly, new policies and other interventions are needed to promote a healthier retail environment for youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A cross-sectional study of correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression in the adolescents from a rural area of Sangli district in India

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    Vivek Baliram Waghachavare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%, 193 (19.4% and 326 (32.7% participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004 and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001 were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents.

  4. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Islam, Md Kamrul; Hasan, Mohammad Sazzad; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2017-01-01

    While studies on fertility and contraceptives issues are available, until recently adolescent motherhood has not received enough attention among policy makers in understanding adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine the trends and determinants of adolescent motherhood among women aged 15-49 years. For trend analysis we used all the 7 waves of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS, 1993-2014) data but for multivariate analysis 4 waves of BDHS (2004-2014). Two separate analyses were carried out on ever married women aged 15-49: (1) teenage girls aged 15-19 and (2) adult women aged 20 and above. The prevalence of adolescent motherhood had declined to a slower pace from 1993 to2014 (from 33.0% to 30.8%). Lower spousal age gap and higher education were found to be associated with lower likelihood of adolescent motherhood both among teenage girls [OR 0.447 (0.374-0.533)] and adult women [OR 0.451 (0.420-0.484)]. Teenage girls in the poorest wealth quintile [OR 1.712 [1.350-2.173] were more likely to experience adolescent motherhood than the richest wealth quintile. Teenage girls who had no education were found to have 2.76 times higher odds of adolescent motherhood than their counterparts who had higher than secondary education. Concerning the time effect, the odds of adolescent motherhood among adult women was found to decline overtime. Despite substantial decrease in total fertility rate in Bangladesh adolescent motherhood is still highly prevalent though declining from 1993 to 2014. Social policies including those addressing poverty, ensuring greater emphasis on education for women; and adolescent mothers in rural areas are needed.

  5. I. INTRODUCTION: MOVING THROUGH ADOLESCENCE: DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN AMERICAN YOUTH.

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    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Peck, Stephen C; Malanchuk, Oksana; Sameroff, Arnold J; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2017-12-01

    In this monograph, we investigate the developmental trajectories of a predominantly middle-class, community-based sample of European American and African American adolescents growing up in urban, suburban, and rural areas in Maryland, United States. Within risk-protection and positive youth development frameworks, we selected developmental measures based on the normative tasks of adolescence and the most widely studied indicators in the three major contexts of development: families, peer groups, and schools. Using hierarchical linear growth models, we estimated adolescents' growth trajectories from ages 12 to 20 with variation accounted for by socioeconomic status (SES), gender, race/ethnicity, and the gender by race/ethnicity interaction. In general, the results indicate that: (a) periods of greatest risk and positive development depended on the time frame and outcome being examined and (b) on average, these adolescents demonstrated much stronger evidence of positive than problematic development, even at their most vulnerable times. Absolute levels of their engagement in healthy behaviors, supportive relationships with parents and friends, and positive self-perceptions and psychological well-being were much higher than their reported angry and depressive feelings, engagement in risky behaviors, and negative relationships with parents and peers. We did not find evidence to support the idea that adolescence is a time of heightened risk. Rather, on average, these adolescents experienced relatively stable and developmentally healthy trajectories for a wide range of characteristics, behaviors, and relationships, with slight increases or decreases at different points in development that varied according to domain. Developmental trajectories differed minimally by SES but in some expected ways by gender and race/ethnicity, although these latter differences were not very marked. Overall, most of the young people navigated through their adolescence and arrived at young

  6. Is Western Australia's rural surgical workforce going to sustain the future? A quantitative and qualitative analysis.

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    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia. Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel. Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery. Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the

  7. Understanding the Association Between School Climate and Future Orientation.

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    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Pas, Elise; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2016-08-01

    Promoting students' future orientation is inherently a goal of the educational system. Recently, it has received more explicit attention given the increased focus on career readiness. This study aimed to examine the association between school climate and adolescents' report of future orientation using data from youth (N = 27,698; 49.4 % female) across 58 high schools. Three-level hierarchical linear models indicated that perceptions of available emotional and service supports, rules and consequences, and parent engagement were positively related to adolescents' future orientation. Additionally, the school-level average future orientation was significantly related to individuals' future orientation, indicating a potential influence of contextual effects on this construct. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions targeting school climate may hold promise for promoting future orientation.

  8. Proximity to Sports Facilities and Sports Participation for Adolescents in Germany

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    Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689

  9. Proximity to sports facilities and sports participation for adolescents in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K Reimers

    Full Text Available To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany.A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11-17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities.The logistic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively.Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas.

  10. Characteristics in childhood and adolescence associated with future multiple sclerosis risk in men: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, M; Udumyan, R; Bahmanyar, S; Nilsagård, Y; Montgomery, S

    2015-07-01

    Associations with multiple sclerosis (MS) of living conditions in childhood and characteristics in adolescence including physical fitness, cognitive function and psychological stress resilience were investigated. A cohort of male Swedish residents born 1952-1956 who were included in the Swedish Military Conscription Register was used to create a nested case-control study comprising 628 MS cases and 6187 controls matched on birth year, county of residence and vital status at time of diagnosis. Conscription examination records were linked with other national register data. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations with MS subsequent to the conscription examination. Men with MS were less likely to be from more crowded households in childhood (>two persons per room) with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.51-0.86, P = 0.023). They had lower physical working capacity in adolescence with adjusted odds ratio of 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.89-0.99, P = 0.026). Cognitive function and stress resilience scores displayed no significant differences between cases and controls. Parental occupation in childhood and body mass index in adolescence were not associated with future MS risk. The inverse association of MS risk with higher levels of household crowding may reflect environmental factors such as the pattern of exposure to microorganisms. Lower physical fitness in men at MS risk may indicate a protective effect of exercise or could be due to prodromal disease activity, although there was no association with cognitive function. Poor psychological stress resilience (and thus risk of chronic stress arousal) was not associated with MS. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  11. El mundo rural y su problemática socioeducativa

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    Sindo FROUFE QUINTAS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El mundo rural con todas sus necesidades sociales y educativas es uno de los problemas actuales más agudos y permanentes. La cultura rural va desapareciendo en favor de la cultura industrial y cibernética. La cultura rural está definida por ámbitos sociales concretos: lengua, formas de administración familiar, sentido de la vida, etc. Analizamos los movimientos sociales en el mundo rural como agentes capaces de producir cambios y transformaciones en el medio rural. Comentamos la función educativa de los Colegios Rurales Agrupados, la potenciación del turismo rural y la necesidad de caminar hacia un Desarrollo Sostenible, que satisfaga las necesidades del presente, sin poner en peligro la vida y el desarrollo medioambiental de las generaciones futuras.ABSTRACT: One of the serious and longest-standing problems which exiss at the present time is to be found in the social and educational needs of the rural world. Rural culture is fast disappearing as it is ousted by industrial and cybernetic forms of family government, sense of values, etc. We shall analyse these social movements in the rural world as agents capable of producing changes and transformations in the rural environment. We shall comment on the role of CRAs, on support for rural tourism and on the need for moving towards a Sustained Development which can satisfy present needs without endangering the life and environmental development of future generations.

  12. Smoking practices and nicotine dependence among adolescents in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the smoking prevalence and associated factors among in-school and out-of-school adolescents and their nicotine dependence. Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2008 comprising 1014 adolescents aged 12-18 years residing in two rural districts of Sindh and Punjab. Trained interviewers collected information from the adolescents regarding age, ethnicity, religion, occupation and education of parents, smoking behaviour, smoking history of family/friend, type of family system, number of siblings and place of residence. Statistical package Epi-Info version 6 was used to enter the data and analysis was performed by using SPSS version 12. Results: Overall smoking prevalence among the 1014 adolescents was 15.2%, with significant gender stratification (7.9% among girls versus 20.2% among boys). Of these, 50% were moderately nicotine dependent. However, the prevalence among in-school adolescents (14.6%) was not significantly different from out-of-school adolescents (16.1%). The factors associated with adolescents smoking were father's illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [OR]= 8.2), friend's smoking (adjusted OR=6.8), father's smoking (adjusted OR=5.4) and nuclear family setup (adjusted OR=3.6). When explored for the first place of smoking, friend's home was mentioned by majority of adolescents boys and girls. Conclusion: Although there was a significant difference found between the prevalence of smoking among adolescent males and females, but any difference among in-school and out-of-school adolescents smoking prevalence could not be established. (author)

  13. Thinking about the future as a way to succeed in the present: a longitudinal study of future orientation and violent behaviors among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bauermeister, José A

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has linked higher levels of hopelessness about one's future to violent behavior during adolescence; however, little is known about this relationship over time for adolescents. Using growth curve modeling, we tested the association between future orientation and violent behavior across the high school years of adolescence in a sample of African American youth (n = 681). Variation based on demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, SES, previous violence) was explored. At baseline, differences in violent behavior varied by demographic characteristics. Overall, violent behavior decreased with age. Higher levels of future orientation were associated with greater decreases in violent behavior over time. Demographic characteristics were not associated with change in violent behavior overtime. Our findings suggest that future orientation can act as a promotive factor for at risk African American youth. Interventions that help support the development of future goals and aspirations could play a vital role in violence prevention efforts.

  14. Future potential country doctor: the perspectives of German GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanzon, Iris; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ose, Dominik; Joos, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of general practitioners (GPs) in many countries, especially in rural areas. There are several reasons for this shortage. Over the last decade, fewer medical students in Germany have decided to work in patient care, even fewer in general practice and fewer still in general practice in rural areas. The aim of this study was to explore the 'pros and cons' of GPs' work in rural areas and to identify from GPs' perspective possible measures for counteracting future GP shortages. Within a qualitative approach, 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. The results were categorized into three main inductively-derived categories: personal, professional and regional/structural level. A higher level of self-confidence and a higher 'feel-good' factor due to GPs originating from rural areas were positive aspects at the personal level. Regarding the professional level, a low level of competition and varied work made a GP's profession attractive in rural areas. Negative aspects were mostly apparent at the regional/structural level, such a low earnings and few leisure facilities. Measures to counter the lack of GPs in rural areas were explored on all three levels: on the personal level, more optimism and resulting satisfaction on the part of doctors in rural areas could be improved by enhancing the benefits of being a doctor in a rural area. Regarding the professional level, more group practices are required to make working as a GP in a rural area more attractive. At a regional/structural level, young physicians who originate from rural areas should be recruited to work in rural areas. Financial incentives are regarded as not sufficient to attract enough young physicians to open practices in rural areas. Future action will be required at the personal, professional and regional/structural levels. The origin of medical students (urban or rural) should be considered a relevant

  15. Self-esteem and optimism in rural youth: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Kathryn R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Haley, Tammy M; Tark, Kirsti Hetager; Switala, Joann; Siemon, Linda

    2010-01-01

    To identify and describe gender-related differences in the self-esteem and optimism levels of rural adolescents. Self-esteem and optimism have been broadly examined and are associated with health-practices, social interaction, attachment, resiliency, and personal identity. Information describing the relationship of self-esteem and optimism as it relates to gender is limited. Using a cross-sectional survey design, students (N = 193) from three high-schools in rural Pennsylvania, USA completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Optimism Scale-Life Orientation Test-Revised as part of a National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research funded study. Both instruments' mean scores were in the range of average for this population, with females scoring lower than males in both self-esteem (p self-esteem and optimism. Attention to self-esteem and optimism in female youth is recommended.

  16. Measuring the attractiveness of rural communities in accounting for differences of rural primary care workforce supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew R; Wingrove, Peter M; Petterson, Stephen M; Humphreys, John S; Russell, Deborah J; Bazemore, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    . While remote areas were strongly linked with poorer supply in Australia, geographical remoteness was not significant after accounting for other indicators of amenity such as the positive association between workforce supply and coastal location. Workforce supply in the USA was negatively associated with fringe rural area locations adjacent to larger metropolitan areas and characterised by long work commutes. The US model captured 49% of the variation of workforce supply between rural counties, while the Australian models captured 35-39% of rural supply variation. These data support the idea that the rural medical workforce is maldistributed with a skew towards locating in more affluent and educated areas, and against locating in smaller, poorer and more isolated rural towns, which struggle to attract an adequate supply of primary care services. This evidence is important in understanding the role of place characteristics and rural population dynamics in the recruitment and retention of rural doctors. Future primary care workforce policies need to place a greater focus on rural communities that, for a variety of reasons, may be less attractive to doctors looking to begin or remain working there.

  17. Methamphetamine use is associated with high levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents and young adults in Rural Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMiceli, Lauren E; Sherman, Susan G; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sirirojn, Bangorn; Celentano, David D

    2016-02-19

    High levels of depressive symptoms often occur among individuals that use or that are dependent on methamphetamine (MA). Thailand is currently experiencing an epidemic of MA use among youth. Understanding the nature of the relationship between depressive symptoms and MA use and identifying those most at risk can further understanding of prevention and treatment options for youth who use MA and present with depressive symptoms. In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional epidemiologic study that examined associations between MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents and young adults aged 14-29 living in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. A combination of cluster and systematic sampling was conducted to obtain a study sample of participants actively recruited in Chiang Mai province. Depressive symptoms were measured using a Thai translation of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D). The independent variables measured reported lifetime and recent MA use within the past 3 months. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess associations between MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms. Approximately 19% (n = 394) of the sample reported ever having consumed MA and 31% (n = 124) of lifetime users reported recent MA use within the past 3 months. Recent MA use was associated with high levels of depressive symptoms (aPOR recent use: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.20, 5.63). This is one of the first studies to examine the association between MA use and high levels of depressive symptoms in a general Thai population. The odds of having high levels of depressive symptoms was significantly greater among recent MA users compared to non-users. These findings support the need for policies, programs and interventions to prevent and treat depressive symptoms presenting among MA using Thai adolescents and young adults in rural Chiang Mai province, Thailand to aid in cessation of MA use. Furthermore, additional research is needed to

  18. Implementation of adolescent-friendly voluntary medical male circumcision using a school based recruitment program in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Carl Montague

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from South Africa demonstrate that risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in males increases dramatically after adolescence. Targeting adolescent HIV-negative males may be an efficient and cost-effective means of maximising the established HIV prevention benefits of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC in high HIV prevalence-, low circumcision practice-settings. This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting male high school students for VMMC in such a setting in rural KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Following community and key stakeholder consultations on the acceptability of VMMC recruitment through schools, information and awareness raising sessions were held in 42 high schools in Vulindlela. A three-phase VMMC demand-creation strategy was implemented in partnership with a local non-governmental organization, ZimnadiZonke, that involved: (i community consultation and engagement; (ii in-school VMMC awareness sessions and centralized HIV counselling and testing (HCT service access; and (iii peer recruitment and decentralized HCT service access. Transport was provided for volunteers to the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA clinic where the forceps-guided VMMC procedure was performed on consenting HIV-negative males. HIV infected volunteers were referred to further care either at the CAPRISA clinic or at public sector clinics. Between March 2011 and February 2013, a total of 5165 circumcisions were performed, the majority (71% in males aged between 15 and 19 years. Demand-creation strategies were associated with an over five-fold increase in VMMC uptake from an average of 58 procedures/month in initial community engagement phases, to an average of 308 procedures/month on initiation of the peer recruitment-decentralized service phase. Post-operative adverse events were rare (1.2%, mostly minor and self-resolving. CONCLUSIONS: Optimizing a high volume

  19. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

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    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  20. The relationship between parenting and the economic orientation and behavior of Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhus, Ellen K; Webley, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the economic socialization of children and adolescents and the role of parents in this process. The authors' purpose was to explore the role of parenting in the intergenerational transfer of economic orientation and economic behavior. More specifically, they studied the link between four parenting dimensions (parental warmth-responsiveness, behavioral control, psychological control, autonomy granting), three parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful) and adolescents' conscientiousness, future time perspective, and present hedonistic orientation. The authors also studied the relationships between these dispositions and the adolescents' spending preferences and ability to control spending. They used data collected from 14-16-year-olds (n = 597) and their parents (n = 469) in Norway. Results showed that adolescents who perceived their parents as psychologically controlling were less future oriented and conscientious, and were more present hedonistic oriented than others, while adolescents who perceived their parents as responsive, autonomy granting, and controlling of behavior were more future orientated and conscientious than others. Adolescents' scores for conscientiousness and future orientation were negatively associated with preferences for spending and positively with the ability to control spending, while the opposite relationships were found with respect to a present hedonistic orientation. Parental style was also found to be important for the future educational plans of adolescents, and plans for higher education were more frequent among adolescents who characterized their parents as authoritative than among those who perceived their parents as neglectful. Implications of the findings for economic socialization are discussed.